WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic bottles studies

  1. A Plastic Bottle in Rectosigmoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation and treatment of foreign bodies in rectum involves careful history and physical examination. The cases of forced introduction of the objects most commonly are , sexual assault , self – introduced for anal eroticism and accidental insertion.Case Report: We describe a case of a patient with rectal impaction following self administration of a plastic bottle for anal sexual gratification. A 49 years old man was admitted in the emergency department with the history of self introduced a bottle into his rectum physical examination and abdominal X-Ray diagnosed the case as impacted foreign body in rectosigmoid. An attempt was made to deliver the bottle through the rectum but because of high lying big bottle in the sigmoid laporotomy was performed and the bottle was removed though a longitudinal incision on sigmoid colon.Conclusion: Retained rectosigmoid foreign bodies have been encountered more frequently and present a dilemma for management and rarely laporotomy for extraction of foreign bodies was performed.

  2. Recycling plastic bottles in a creative way

    OpenAIRE

    Pavlin, Suzana

    2016-01-01

    Beside other plastic products, plastic bottles represent a true environmental disaster in the last few years. We assume that hardly anyone asks what happens after they drink that last drop of water out of it. Just like most municipal waste, a plastic bottle can be reused, recycled, burned or deposited into landfill. When the Environment Protection Act is not respected, plastic bottle ends up in the nature, very often in the sea, where it decomposes very slowly and has negative influence on th...

  3. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

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    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  4. Are consumers concerned about plastic water bottles environmental impact?

    OpenAIRE

    Caroline Orset; Nicolas Barret; Aurélien Lemaire

    2015-01-01

    Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost all water bottles are made from plastic. However, these damages are more or less significant according to the plastic used. This study evaluates the consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for different plastics used for water packaging. Successive messages emphasizing the characteristics of plastic are delivered to participants allowing explaining information influence on the consumers' WTP. We find that information has a significant effect ...

  5. Management of PET plastic bottles waste through recycling Khartoum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadlalla, N. B. I.

    2010-10-01

    This study been carried out to assess the general waste management in Khartoum State and effectively manage the PET plastic bottles by identifying practical means and introducing recycling as cleaner production tool to achieve sustainable development goals. The information data were gathered during the period June-July 2010 through questionnaires, interview, meeting and visits to various sites, in addition to the official information and documents collected from reliable sources, mainly Sudan Central Bank, customs authorities, Ministry of Industry, soft drink and water bottling factories. The data were presented in tables, graphs and charts by applying windows excel program and also applying e view package for the future forecast. Analysis of data shows a rising consumption in PET bottles and the forecasted PET consumption in year 2015 estimated to be 60000 Tons, twice the estimate in the year 2010. This situation will create serious environmental problems that require much more effort to be exerted by all stake holders to book for scientific and practical solutions for the disposal of plastic waste through recycling. Based on the analysis and findings recommendations have been made that ensure on recycling of PET plastic bottles by mechanical method that depends mainly on collection, segregation, cleaning and processing. Further studies and researches on other recycling methods have been recommended in the future. (Author)

  6. Endocrine disruptors in bottled mineral water: total estrogenic burden and migration from plastic bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Jörg

    2009-05-01

    Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. So far, this has been demonstrated by exposure modeling or analytical identification of single substances in foodstuff (e.g., phthalates) and human body fluids (e.g., urine and blood). Since the research in this field is focused on few chemicals (and thus missing mixture effects), the overall contamination of edibles with xenohormones is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the integrated estrogenic burden of bottled mineral water as model foodstuff and to characterize the potential sources of the estrogenic contamination. In the present study, we analyzed commercially available mineral water in an in vitro system with the human estrogen receptor alpha and detected estrogenic contamination in 60% of all samples with a maximum activity equivalent to 75.2 ng/l of the natural sex hormone 17beta-estradiol. Furthermore, breeding of the molluskan model Potamopyrgus antipodarum in water bottles made of glass and plastic [polyethylene terephthalate (PET)] resulted in an increased reproductive output of snails cultured in PET bottles. This provides first evidence that substances leaching from plastic food packaging materials act as functional estrogens in vivo. Our results demonstrate a widespread contamination of mineral water with xenoestrogens that partly originates from compounds leaching from the plastic packaging material. These substances possess potent estrogenic activity in vivo in a molluskan sentinel. Overall, the results indicate that a broader range of foodstuff may be contaminated with endocrine disruptors when packed in plastics.

  7. Innovative Design of Plastic Bottle Recycling Box Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of on-site plastic bottles recycling and the reuse of waste, the automatic recycling system was developed on the basis of ARM. As the main controller, ARM not only controls the mechanical system of the collector to recover and break plastic bottles, but also communicates with and rewards the user by the automatic reward system through the wireless network. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  8. Assessment of metal contaminations leaching out from recycling plastic bottles upon treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiaoliang; Shi, Honglan; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa

    2010-08-01

    Heavy metal contaminants in environment, especially in drinking water, are always of great concern due to their health impact. Due to the use of heavy metals as catalysts during plastic syntheses, particularly antimony, human exposure to metal release from plastic bottles has been a serious concern in recent years. The aim and scope of this study were to assess metal contaminations leaching out from a series of recycling plastic bottles upon treatments. In this study, leaching concentrations of 16 metal elements were determined in 21 different types of plastic bottles from five commercial brands, which were made of recycling materials ranging from no. 1 to no. 7. Several sets of experiments were conducted to study the factors that could potentially affect the metal elements leaching from plastic bottles, which include cooling with frozen water, heating with boiling water, microwave, incubating with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage. Heating and microwave can lead to a noticeable increase of antimony leaching relative to the controls in bottle samples A to G, and some even reached to a higher level than the maximum contamination level (MCL) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulations. Incubation with low-pH water, outdoor sunlight irradiation, and in-car storage had no significant effect on antimony leaching relative to controls in bottle samples A to G, and the levels of antimony leaching detected were below 6 ppb which is the MCL of USEPA regulations. Cooling had almost no effect on antimony leaching based on our results. For the other interested 15 metal elements (Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Mo, Ag, Cd, Ba, Tl, Pb), no significant leaching was detected or the level was far below the MCL of USEPA regulations in all bottle samples in this study. In addition, washing procedure did contribute to the antimony leaching concentration for polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. The difference of antimony leaching

  9. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort

  10. COST EVALUATION OF AUTOMATED AND MANUAL POST- CONSUMER PLASTIC BOTTLE SORTING SYSTEMS

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    This project evaluates, on the basis of performance and cost, two Automated BottleSort® sorting systems for post-consumer commingled plastic containers developed by Magnetic Separation Systems. This study compares the costs to sort mixed bales of post-consumer plastic at these t...

  11. Accessories modifying based on plastic waste of shampoo bottle as home economic product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, Erna; Sukesi, Siti

    2018-03-01

    Plastic is a waste that can not decompose by the soil and if its left without a good handling can pollute the environment. Plastic waste needs processing by the recycle bottles principle. Shampoo bottle is one of plastic waste with high density polyethylene type (HDPE). One of the innovation to recycling shampoo bottles waste into the new products whichbeneficially and aestheticallyform by engineered the buns accesories. Accessories are one of the tools used by most women, in the form of trinkets or ornaments which ajusted to the trend to beautify the look. Accessories from shampoo bottle waste can be obtained from household waste, beauty salon and the beauty program study by inculcating human beings' behavior by transforming waste into blessing while also increasing family income. Technique of making its by compiling through improvement of panelist team. The goal of this research is to engineering theaccessories based on shampoo bottle waste as home economics. The method are using experiment, observation and documentation, analysis using descriptive. The results obtained from the overall sensory test averaged at 93%, while the favored test averaged at 85.5%. The product can be ordered according to the desired design, but it takes a long time. Therefore accessories engineering from shampoo bottles waste-based can be used as home economics. The production of shampoo bottles waste-based accessories should improved its quality and quantity, to be marketed through the community, by the cooperation with accessories and bun craftsmen.

  12. Thermophysical characteristics of plastic bottles as an element of water heat accumulators in solar greenhouses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalimov, A. G.; Khairiddinov, B. Eh.; Kim, V. D.; Khalimov, G. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the thermophysical and granulometric characteristics of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic bottles filled with water. The given figures allow one to conduct calculations of thermal plastic bottles as heat storage elements for solar greenhouses. (author)

  13. Antimony leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerhoff, Paul; Prapaipong, Panjai; Shock, Everett; Hillaireau, Alice

    2008-02-01

    Antimony is a regulated contaminant that poses both acute and chronic health effects in drinking water. Previous reports suggest that polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastics used for water bottles in Europe and Canada leach antimony, but no studies on bottled water in the United States have previously been conducted. Nine commercially available bottled waters in the southwestern US (Arizona) were purchased and tested for antimony concentrations as well as for potential antimony release by the plastics that compose the bottles. The southwestern US was chosen for the study because of its high consumption of bottled water and elevated temperatures, which could increase antimony leaching from PET plastics. Antimony concentrations in the bottled waters ranged from 0.095 to 0.521 ppb, well below the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 6 ppb. The average concentration was 0.195+/-0.116 ppb at the beginning of the study and 0.226+/-0.160 ppb 3 months later, with no statistical differences; samples were stored at 22 degrees C. However, storage at higher temperatures had a significant effect on the time-dependent release of antimony. The rate of antimony (Sb) release could be fit by a power function model (Sb(t)=Sb 0 x[Time, h]k; k=8.7 x 10(-6)x[Temperature ( degrees C)](2.55); Sb 0 is the initial antimony concentration). For exposure temperatures of 60, 65, 70, 75, 80, and 85 degrees C, the exposure durations necessary to exceed the 6 ppb MCL are 176, 38, 12, 4.7, 2.3, and 1.3 days, respectively. Summertime temperatures inside of cars, garages, and enclosed storage areas can exceed 65 degrees C in Arizona, and thus could promote antimony leaching from PET bottled waters. Microwave digestion revealed that the PET plastic used by one brand contained 213+/-35 mgSb/kg plastic; leaching of all the antimony from this plastic into 0.5L of water in a bottle could result in an antimony concentration of 376 ppb. Clearly, only a small

  14. Estrogenic activity, selected plasticizers and potential health risks associated with bottled water in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aneck-Hahn, Natalie H; Van Zijl, Magdalena C; Swart, Pieter; Truebody, Barry; Genthe, Bettina; Charmier, Jessica; Jager, Christiaan De

    2018-04-01

    Potential endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are present in bottled water from various countries. In South Africa (SA), increased bottled water consumption and concomitant increases in plastic packaging create important consequences for public health. This study aimed to screen SA bottled water for estrogenic activity, selected target chemicals and assessing potential health risks. Ten bottled water brands were exposed to 20 °C and 40 °C over 10 days. Estrogenic activity was assessed using the recombinant yeast estrogen screen (YES) and the T47D-KBluc reporter gene assay. Solid phase extracts of samples were analyzed for bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA), selected phthalates, bisphenol-A (BPA), 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 17β-estradiol (E 2 ), estrone (E 1 ), and ethynylestradiol (EE 2 ) using gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry. Using a scenario-based health risk assessment, human health risks associated with bottled water consumption were evaluated. Estrogenic activity was detected at 20 °C (n = 2) and at 40 °C (n = 8). Estradiol equivalent (EEq) values ranged from 0.001 to 0.003 ng/L. BPA concentrations ranged from 0.9 ng/L to 10.06 ng/L. Although EEqs and BPA concentrations were higher in bottled water stored at 40 °C compared to 20 °C, samples posed an acceptable risk for a lifetime of exposure. Irrespective of temperature, bottled water from SA contained chemicals with acceptable health risks.

  15. Using waste plastic bottles as additive for stone mastic asphalt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmadinia, Esmaeil; Zargar, Majid; Karim, Mohamed Rehan; Abdelaziz, Mahrez; Shafigh, Payam

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The PET increased the stiffness level of the mixture improving its resistance level against permanent deformation. → The effects of waste PET on Marshall Stability, air void and bulk specific gravity of the mixture are significant. → The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. -- Abstract: Currently, polymer modified asphalt mixture is a relatively costly mixture for paving roads. One way to reduce the cost of such constructions and rendering them more convenient is by using inexpensive polymers, i.e. waste polymers. The main purpose of this research is to determine the effect of incorporating waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the engineering properties of stone mastic asphalt (SMA) mixture. The volumetric and mechanical properties of asphalt mixes that include various percentages of PET (0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10%) were calculated and assessed with laboratory tests. The appropriate amount of PET was found to be 6% by weight of bitumen. The outcomes were statistically analysed and the determination of the significance at certain confidence limits was performed with the two factor variance analysis (ANOVA). Moreover, some studies conducted on polyethylene modified asphalt mixture have also been taken into consideration in this paper. The results show that the addition of PET has a significant positive effect on the properties of SMA and it can promote the re-use of waste material in industry in an environmentally friendly and economical way.

  16. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  17. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  18. Life cycle assessment of bottled water: A case study of Green2O products.

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    Horowitz, Naomi; Frago, Jessica; Mu, Dongyan

    2018-03-01

    This study conducted a full life cycle analysis of bottled water on four types of bottles: ENSO, PLA (corn based), recycled PET, and regular (petroleum based) PET, to discern which bottle material is more beneficial to use in terms of environmental impacts. PET bottles are the conventional bottles used that are not biodegradable and accumulate in landfills. PLA corn based bottles are derived from an organic substance and are degradable under certain environmental conditions. Recycled PET bottles are purified PET bottles that were disposed of and are used in a closed loop system. An ENSO bottle contains a special additive which is designed to help the plastic bottle degrade after disposed of in a landfill. The results showed that of all fourteen impact categories examined, the recycled PET and ENSO bottles were generally better than the PLA and regular PET bottles; however, the ENSO had the highest impacts in the categories of global warming and respiratory organics, and the recycled PET had the highest impact in the eutrophication category. The life cycle stages that were found to have the highest environmental impacts were the bottle manufacturing stage and the bottled water distribution to storage stage. Analysis of the mixed bottle material based on recycled PET resin and regular PET resin was discussed as well, in which key impact categories were identified. The PLA bottle contained extremely low impacts in the carcinogens, respiratory organics and global warming categories, yet it still contained the highest impacts in seven of the fourteen categories. Overall, the results demonstrate that the usage of more sustainable bottles, such as biodegradable ENSO bottles and recycled PET bottles, appears to be a viable option for decreasing impacts of the bottled water industry on the environment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Plutonium solution storage in plastic bottles: Operational experience and safety issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conner, W.V.

    1995-01-01

    Computer spread sheet models were developed to gain a better understanding of the factors that lead to pressurization and failure of plastic bottles containing plutonium solutions. These models were developed using data obtained from the literature on gas generation rates for plutonium solutions. Leak rates from sealed plastic bottles were obtained from bottle leak tests conducted at Rocky Flats. Results from these bottle leak tests showed that narrow mouth four liter bottles will seal much better than wide mouth four liter bottles. The gas generation rate and leak rate data were used to develop models for predicting the rate of pressurization and maximum pressures expected in sealed bottles of plutonium solution containing various plutonium and acid concentrations. The computer models were used to develop proposed time limits for storing or transporting plutonium solutions in sealed plastic bottles. For plutonium solutions containing 1.5 g/l plutonium, storage in sealed bottles should not be allowed. However, transportation of higher concentration plutonium solution in sealed bottles is required, and safe transportation times of 1 shift to 6 days are proposed

  20. Plastic Bottles Waste Utilization as Modifier for Asphalt Mixture Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic Bottles was used as the polymeric waste to investigate performance of asphalt mixture Aggregates obtained from Margalla, Burhan and Karak quarries. 12 samples were prepared for conventional asphalt mixtures and 48 samples were prepared for PB modified asphalt mixture of each quarries at various proportions of PB waste. The PB used for modification according to wet process are 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% by weight of Optimum Bitumen Content (OBC. OBC of 4.2 % was concluded for conventional asphalt mixtures. The stability and flow values of the conventional and modified Asphalt Mixture were compared. The average Stability of the modified Margalla asphalt mixtures when 15% PB was used was much higher as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures. But when PB was used beyond 15%, the Marshall stability showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates, increasing trend for Karak aggregates and decreasing trend for Burhan aggregates. This decline in stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking of aggregates due to lubricating effect. The corresponding flow for the Modified asphalt mixtures first showed a decreasing trend for Margalla aggregates at 15% PB modification but beyond 15%, an increasing trend in flow as compared to conventional asphalt mixtures The decrease in flow or increase in Marshall Stability is attributed to improvement in interlocking and decline in flow or stability is attributed to a decline in interlocking offered by binder and PB coated aggregate particles in modified asphalt.

  1. Bottles to trees: Plastic beverage bottles as an alternative nursery growing container for reforestation in developing countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurram, Safiullah; Burney, Owen T.; Morrissey, Robert C.

    2017-01-01

    Reforestation is needed globally to help restore degraded sites, combat desertification, protect watersheds, and provide forest products. This involves planting forest tree seedlings grown in local nurseries, but technologies to produce quality seedlings are lacking in developing countries. Modern nursery containers used to propagate seedlings have internal-surface barriers (ribs or ridges) or side-slits to prevent root spiraling. These are cost prohibitive or unavailable in developing countries and so polybags (plastic bags) are more commonly used, despite their tendency to produce seedlings with deformed root systems that have less potential to establish on field sites. Discarded plastic bottles, which are readily available worldwide, may be a feasible alternative for seedling propagation. We conducted two experiments to assess the potential of repurposed plastic beverage bottles to grow quality trees: 1) Container Comparison–to evaluate Arizona walnut (Juglans major [Toor.] Heller) and Afghan pine (Pinus eldarica Medw.) seedling root and shoot development in two plastic bottle types compared to modern nursery containers and polybags, and 2) Bottle Modification–to examine the effects of root spiraling prevention techniques (side-slits, internal-ridges, and control) and container opacity (green, black, and clear) on Afghan pine seedling morphological attributes. Nursery growth and first-year seedling field performance were evaluated for both experiments. In experiment one, seedlings of both species had fewer spiraled roots in bottle containers compared to polybags. Arizona walnut had more fibrous root systems in polybags, while Afghan pine root system fibrosity was greatest in bottle containers. First-year field performance of both species was not affected by container type. In experiment two, less spiraled roots occurred in containers with air-slits and interior-ridges compared to the control. The effects of container opacity on seedling morphology were

  2. A complete life cycle assessment of high density polyethylene plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treenate, P.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine environmental performances of a lubricant oil bottle made from high density polyethylene and to develop potential measures for reducing its impacts. A complete life cycle assessment was carried out to understand a whole effect on the environment from acquiring, processing, using, and disposing the product. Two scenarios of disposal phase; recycle and incineration: were examined to quantify a lesser degree on environmental impact. The results illustrated that major impacts of the two scenarios were at the same categories with the highest contributor of raw material acquisition and pre-processing. However, all impacts in case of recycling provided a lower point than that in case of incineration, except mineral extraction. Finally, feasible measures for reducing the environmental impact of high density polyethylene plastic bottle were proposed in accordance with 3Rs concept.

  3. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

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    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  4. Community challenges when using large plastic bottles for Solar Energy Disinfection of Water (SODIS

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    Preeti Borde

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Communities living in developing countries as well as populations affected by natural or man-made disasters can be left at great risk from water related diseases, especially those spread through the faecal-oral route. Conventional water treatments such as boiling and chlorination can be effective but may prove costly for impoverished communities. Solar water disinfection (SODIS has been shown to be a cheap and effective way for communities to treat their water. The exposure to sunlight is typically carried out in small volume plastic beverage bottles (up to 2 l. Given the water requirements of consumption and basic personal hygiene, this may not always meet the needs of communities. Recent work has shown 19-L plastic water dispenser containers to be effective SODIS reactors, comparable in efficacy to PET bottles. In this paper we outline the need for studying SODIS in large volumes and discuss 4 main associated challenges. Discussion Apart from clean water needed for consumption, access to adequate water is essential for sanitation and hygiene. Contamination of treated water through unwashed hands or vessels contributes heavily to the spread of water borne pathogens in communities. Traditional water treatments such as boiling and chlorination can be effective but may prove financially burdensome for low income communities. SODIS in large vessels could be used as a simple method to meet water requirements in low income and disaster affected populations. However, there have been some concerns associated with the conventional SODIS method; we identify the main ones to be: (1 cold or cloudy weather; (2 the fear of leaching in plastic bottles; (3 water turbidity, and; (4 community acceptance. Summary The application of SODIS in large bottles like WDCs has the potential to be an efficient and cost effective method of disinfecting water, either for consumption until more rigorous water treatments can be put in place, or for

  5. Demonstration of Hydrostatic Paradox with Plastic Bottles and LabQuest Vernier

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    Kodejška, Cenek

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the experimental demonstration of the hydrostatic paradox using simple tools in the form of plastic bottles and plastic syringes with a thread. For the evaluation of the results obtained the data logger Lab Quest Vernier was used. The construction of the device is presented in the first part of this paper. The second part…

  6. Consumer Exposure to Bisphenol A from Plastic Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking…

  7. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Identification and quantification of the migration of chemicals from plastic baby bottles used as substitutes for polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, C; Van den Eede, L; Valzacchi, S

    2012-01-01

    The results of a study on the analytical identification and quantification of migration of chemicals from plastics baby bottles found in the European Union market made of materials that are now present as substitutes for polycarbonate (PC) are reported. A total of 449 baby bottles with a focus on first age or sets of bottles were purchased from 26 European Union countries, Canada, Switzerland and the USA. From this collection, which contained several duplicates, a total of 277 baby bottles were analysed. The materials included different types of plastic such as PC, polyamide (PA), polyethersulphone (PES), polypropylene (PP), but also silicone, and from the United States a co-polyester marketed under the trade name Tritan™. The bottles were subjected to the conventional migration test for hot fill conditions, i.e. 2 h at 70°C. The simulant used was that specified in European Union legislation (2007/19/EC) for milk, i.e. 50% ethanol. In a first phase 1, migration was conducted since the scope of this investigation was a screening rather than a true compliance testing check. Second and third migrations were performed on selected articles when migrated substances exceeded limits specified in the legislation. In order to verify some materials, a portion of the bottle was cut to run an FT-IR fingerprint to confirm the nature of the polymer. The migration solutions in general showed a low release of substances. Results showed that bottles made of PP and silicones showed a greater number of substances in the migration solutions and in greater quantity. Chemicals from PP included alkanes, which could be found in >65% of the bottles at levels up to 3500 µg kg⁻¹; and benzene derivatives in 17% of the baby bottles and found at levels up to 113 µg kg⁻¹. Some substances were found on a regular basis such as plasticisers, esters and antioxidants (e.g. tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate, known as Irgafos 168. Some substances found were not included in the

  9. PROFILE OF PLASTIC WATER BOTTLES WASTES PROCESSING BUSINESS UNIT FOR WASTE PICKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herijanto P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Used plastic water bottles waste pickers can be categorized as one of the informal sector’s component. They work for themselves by picking up used water bottles and selling them to the waste collectors. The problem to be solved in this research is How the Most Appropriate Used Plastic Water Bottles Business Model for Waste Pickers Is that enables them to be categorized as formal sector. From the result of the interview with 120 waste pickers, 96 results were qualified to be analyzed. The interview was located in several waste collectors, which were visited by waste pickers at certain hours. The data were analyzed descriptively based on six business aspects. Specifically for production facilities, Quality Function Deployment (QFD and Value Engineering (VE analysis were performed. The results of the analysis indicate that the business is practicable for waste pickers and has the potential to enable them run a formal business sector.

  10. Spark Ignition of Combustible Vapor in a Plastic Bottle as a Demonstration of Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    I report an innovation that provides a compelling demonstration of rocket propulsion, appropriate for students of physics and other physical sciences. An electrical spark is initiated from a distance to cause the deflagration of a combustible vapor mixed with air in a lightweight plastic bottle that is consequently propelled as a rocket by the…

  11. The Tensile Strenght Properties Effect Of Rice-Husk Ash As On The Composite Of Plastic Drinking Bottle Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maulida

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Rice-husk ash has a potential to be filler in composite. The study on rice-husk ash utilitation as afiller in polyethylene terephthalate PET matrix of plastic drinking bottle waste was conducted in order to find the ratio of rice-husk ask and PET matrix that would result the best tensile strength which was characterized by using scenning electron microscopy SEM. In this study the PET of plastic drinking bottle waste firstly was cut into smaller pieces and was extruded with the temperature of 265 o C. Then it was mixed with rice-husk ash on ratio of PET plastic drinking bottle waste and rice-husk ash of 955 9010 and 8515. After that it was extruded at temperature of 265 o C before it was pressed by hot press at temperature of 265 o C for five minutes. The highest tensile strength was achieved at 3462 MPa with elongation at break a round 14375 and youngs modulus of 34882 MPa for the ratio of 8515.

  12. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Ventura, Alison K.; Golen, Rebecca Pollack

    2014-01-01

    Compared to breast-fed infants, bottle-fed infants consume greater volumes and gain more weight during infancy. It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers’ sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants’ intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cu...

  13. Platelets in blood stored in untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kissmeyer-Nielsen, F.; Madsen, C. B.; Nedergaard, Jytte

    1961-01-01

    Platelet survival was determined using untreated and siliconed glass bottles and plastic bags (Fenwal) for collecting and storing blood. The platelets were tagged in vivo with P32 in six polycythaemic patients undergoing treatment with P32. The results showed that fresh ACD blood collected in untreated glass, siliconed glass, and plastic gave the same recovery of platelets in the recipients. The use of EDTA (Fenwal formula) as anticoagulant gave results inferior to those obtained with blood using ACD as anticoagulant. Even after storage up to 24 hours in untreated glass bottles (ordinary bank blood) a satisfactory recovery of platelets was observed. After storage for 72 hours the recovery was less but not negligible. PMID:14456481

  14. Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, J K; Quilty, B; Muyanja, C K; McGuigan, K G

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about photodegradation products leaching from plastic bottle material into water during solar water disinfection (SODIS) are a major psychological barrier to increased uptake of SODIS. In this study, a comparison of SODIS efficacy using glass and plastic polyethylene terephalate (PET) bottles was carried out under strong real sunlight and overcast weather conditions at Makerere University in central Uganda. Both clear and turbid natural water samples from shallow wells and open dug wells, respectively, were used. Efficacy was determined from the inactivation of a wild strain of Escherichia coli in solar-exposed contaminated water in both glass and PET bottles. The studies reveal no significant difference in SODIS inactivation between glass and PET bottles (95% CI, p > 0.05), for all water samples under the different weather conditions except for clear water under overcast conditions where there was a small but significant difference (95% CI, p = 0.047) with less viable bacterial counts in PET bottles at two intermediate time points but not at the end of the exposure. The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user.

  15. New absorbent acoustic materials from plastic bottle remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Rey, R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the building acoustics field usually fibrous materials are used as sound absorbing materials. Nowadays polyester fiber is one of the most used but the pure chip of polyester has a problem. Polyester is obtained of petroleum and its price was increasing last years. This paper, presents an alternative polyester wool which obtained by PET treatment (recycle of plastic bottle’s. Absorption coefficient values at normal incidence measured in reverberation chamber were compared (new wool obtained by PET method and materials obtained from pure chip of polyester.Furthermore, this paper propound a empiric model that describe the acoustic performance of this new wool. The results have been good. The pure fiber has been replaced by recycle fiber in its manufacture process.

    En el ámbito de acústica de la edificación es común el uso de materiales fibrosos como materiales absorbentes acústicos. Uno de estos materiales cada vez más utilizado es la lana de poliéster. Un problema que presenta el chip virgen de poliéster es que se obtiene del petróleo, cuyo precio no hace más que incrementarse en los últimos años. En este trabajo se presenta una lana de poliéster alternativa, obtenida mediante el tratamiento del PET, a través del conveniente ciclo de reciclado de botellas de plástico. Se comparan valores del coeficiente de absorción; en incidencia normal y en cámara reverberante de los materiales elaborados a partir de chip virgen y de las nuevas lanas obtenidas del PET. Además, se propone un modelo empírico de comportamiento acústico de estas nuevas lanas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido favorables, la fibra virgen ya ha sido sustituida por fibra reciclada en su proceso de fabricación.

  16. Economic Impact of Imposing Excise Tax on Plastic Bottles of Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenia Mardanugraha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This research simulates the effect of imposing excise tax on plastic container of drinks towards economic performance of beverage industry in Indonesia and governmentâ˘A ´Zs tax revenue. The results showed that by imposing excise tax on plastic cups and plastic bottles the government would lose tax revenue from value added tax (PPN and corporate income tax (PPh badan more than they gain additional revenue from excise tax. Hence, imposing excise tax on drink containers should serve a clear purpose and an undeniable reason. This paper recommends the government to develop proper excise infrastructure to extend the goods or services to be taxed. This paper also recommends the required stages for extending the excise tax.

  17. Property of filler-loaded magnetic ferrite from plastic waste bottle used to treat municipal domestic sewage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ru-Jin; Gong, Li-Ying; Zhu, Hai-Dong; Liu, Qiao; Xu, Li-Xia; Lu, Lu; Yang, Qi-Zhi

    2018-06-01

    The present work investigates the properties of self-made magnetic filler from plastic waste bottle and explores a new technology approach of waste plastic resource utilization. The magnetic filler was prepared by air plasma modification and loading magnetic ferrite on the plastic strip from waste plastic bottle. The surface properties of magnetic filler were characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), contact angle system and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR). AFM images of original and modified plastic strip showed that low-temperature plasma treatment markedly increased the surface roughness of plastic strip. The mean roughness (Ra) of plastic strip rose from 1.116 to 5.024 nm. FTIR spectra indicated that a lot of polar oxygenic groups were introduced onto the surface of plastic by plasma modification. Modification by low-temperature plasma increased the hydrophilicity of plastic strip surface. When treatment time is 40 s, water contact angle of plastic strip surface reduced from 78.2° of original plastic strip to 25.3°. When used in bioreactor, magnetic filler had very favorable microenvironment for microorganism growth. Magnetic filler was more efficient for removing chemical oxygen demand (COD) and [Formula: see text] in sewage than nonmagnetic filler. The resource utilization of plastic wastes will become reality if the magnetic filler is applied widely.

  18. Effect of waste plastic bottles on the stiffness and fatigue properties of modified asphalt mixes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modarres, Amir; Hamedi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PET reduced the mix stiffness at both temperatures of 5 and 25 °C. • PET improved the fatigue behavior at both testing temperatures. • At more than 210 microstrain, adding temperature resulted in higher fatigue life. • SBS modified mixes showed better fatigue behavior than PET modified ones. • Overall PET had comparable effects to SBS on the stiffness and fatigue behavior. - Abstract: Nowadays, the use of recycled waste materials as modifier additives in asphalt mixes could have several economic and environmental benefits. The main purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of waste plastic bottles (Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)) on the stiffness and specially fatigue properties of asphalt mixes at two different temperatures of 5 and 20 °C. Likewise, the effect of PET was compared to styrene butadiene styrene (SBS) which is a conventional polymer additive which has been vastly used to modify asphalt mixes. Different PET contents (2–10% by weight of bitumen) were added directly to mixture as the method of dry process. Then the resilient modulus and fatigue tests were performed on cylindrical specimens with indirect tensile loading procedure. Overall, the mix stiffness reduced by increasing the PET content. Although stiffness of asphalt mix initially increased by adding lower amount of PET. Based on the results of resilient modulus test, the stiffness of PET modified mix was acceptable and warranted the proper deformation characteristics of these mixes at heavy loading conditions. At both temperatures, PET improved the fatigue behavior of studied mixes. PET modified mixes revealed comparable stiffness and fatigue behavior to SBS at 20 °C. However, at 5 °C the fatigue life of SBS modified mixes was to some extent higher than that of PET modified ones especially at higher strain levels of 200 microstrain

  19. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-11-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected organophosphate pesticide intoxication. The patient's plasma acetylcholinesterase level was checked, revealing 1498.6 microU/L (normal range: 2,000-5, 000) on the first day and 1,379 microU/L on the second day. Upon questioning, the patient recalled that one of his shoe soles had been damaged and that his foot had been wet from walking all day in rain collected on the factory floor on the day that his symptoms first occurred. We conducted a study in the change of preshift and postshift acetylcholinesterase levels among six of his co-workers on a rainy day. We used the Wilcoxon signed rank test to compare the preshift and postshift plasma acetylcholinesterase levels; no significant difference was revealed (p = 0.600), leaving contamination via the damaged shoe sole suspect. We reviewed the literature on organophosphate intoxication; pesticide bottle-recycling factories were reported to be at a low risk of organophosphate toxicity in the working environment. However, because the potential risk of intoxication is still present, protective equipment such as clothing, gloves, and water-proof shoes should be worn, and employees should be educated on the potential risks.

  20. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  1. An unusual case of organophosphate intoxication of a worker in a plastic bottle recycling plant: an important reminder.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, C L; Chuang, H Y; Chang, C Y; Liu, S T; Wu, M T; Ho, C K

    2000-01-01

    A young man was sent to our emergency unit because he had suffered from vomiting and cold sweating for 2 days. At the time he was admitted, he had no acute abdominal pains or gastrointestinal symptoms, and a physical examination revealed nothing but a faster heart rate and moist, flushing skin. The patient had worked for 6 years at a plastic bottle-recycling factory, but none of his co-workers had the same symptoms. Nevertheless, because the plant also recycled pesticide bottles, we suspected...

  2. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  3. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, A. Mark

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5–6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae—all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the

  4. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Oberbeckmann

    Full Text Available Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate (PET drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina. The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact

  5. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  6. Constructing a Plastic Bottle Wind Turbine as a Practical Aid for Learning about Using Wind Energy to Generate Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple horizontal axis wind turbine can be easily constructed using a 1.5 l PET plastic bottle, a compact disc and a small dynamo. The turbine operates effectively at low wind speeds and has a rotational speed of 500 rpm at a wind speed of about 14 km h[superscript -1]. The wind turbine can be used to demonstrate the relationship between open…

  7. Stability of Hydromorphone-Ketamine Solutions in Glass Bottles, Plastic Syringes, and IV Bags for Pediatric Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Leung, Karen; Montgomery, Carolyne

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the stability of mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine in 0.9% sodium chloride (normal saline [NS]) after storage for up to 7 days at room temperature (25°C). The stability of 3 standard mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine (hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 0.2 mg/mL, hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 0.6 mg/mL, and hydromorphone 0.2 mg/mL + ketamine 1.0 mg/mL) in NS was studied. Portions of each mixture were transferred to 3 brown glass bottles (100 mL), 3 plastic syringes (50 mL), and 3 IV bags (50 mL), which were then stored at room temperature (25°C). Physical characteristics, including pH, colour, and precipitation, were evaluated daily. Three 1.5-mL samples were collected from each bottle, syringe, and IV bag at baseline, at 24, 48, and 72 hours, and on day 7. Samples were analyzed in triplicate by a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. Solutions were considered stable if they maintained 90% of the initial concentration of each drug. Samples from syringes and IV bags were subjected to standard sterility testing by incubation for 5 days in an enriched culture media. No notable changes in pH or colour were observed, and no precipitation occurred in any of the solutions. All formulations maintained more than 90% of the initial concentration of each drug on day 7. No bacterial growth was observed in any of the samples tested. Mixtures of hydromorphone and ketamine were stable for up 7 days at 25°C, and the sterility of the preparations was maintained. Because stability alone does not guarantee efficacy, it is recommended that clinical studies be conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of these formulations.

  8. Composite material making from empty fruit bunches of palm oil (EFB) and Ijuk (Arengapinnata) using plastic bottle waste as adhesives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rihayat, T.; Salim, S.; Audina, N.; Khan, N. S. P.; Zaimahwati; Sami, M.; Yunus, M.; Salisah, Z.; Alam, P. N.; Saifuddin; Yusuf, I.

    2018-03-01

    Reviewed from the current technological required a new methods to capable offering a high profit value without overriding the quality. The development of composite technology is now beginning to shift from traditional composite materials based petroleum to natural fibers composite. In the present study, aim to made specimens using natural fibers in form of EFB as a composite reinforcedment with Polyethylene Terephtalate (PET) derived from Plastic bottles waste as matrix with mixed composition parameters and time-tolerance in the mixing process to build a biocomposite material. The characterization of mechanical properties includes tensile test (ASTM D638-01) and bending test (ASTM D790-02) followed by thermal analysis using Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA), and morphological analysis using scanning electron microscope (SEM). The analysis effect of EFB, Ijuk and PET mixtures on the composite matrix is very influential with mechanical properties characterization, including tensile test and bending strength. The results demonstrated that from the sample named : 50 : 25: 25, hybrid composites showed improved properties such as tensile strength of 167 MPa while the 90:05:05 based composites exhibited tensile strength values of 30 MPa, respectively. In term the flexural test the best result of composition on the properties with 10 minutes duration time its load value 7,5 Mpa for 80:10:10.

  9. Novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Barbara Bruna A.; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Brum, Daniel M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, a new spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in different materials. Reaction among Al(III), phenylfluorone (PF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in slightly alkaline medium was explored for this purpose. The method was optimized regarding to its chemical parameters in order to establish better conditions in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The results obtained showed that the concentration of CPC presented remarkable influence on the sensitivity and acted as a sensitizer for the studied system. The possible interferences of some metallic cations were evaluated and the cations Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) presented noticed interference on the Al(III) signal. So, their interference was eliminated by using EDTA with minimum loss of sensitivity. The results obtained in the determination of total aluminum in soda drinks by the developed methodology were not statistically different from those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the optimized conditions the method presented a linear range of 5-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.81 and 2.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The methodology was successfully applied in the determination of aluminum in 10 samples of soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles.

  10. Feasibility study for bottled gas and LPG in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-04-01

    With a total population of ca. 40 million, Poland has an annual consumption of liquefied petroleum gas amounting to 180,000 tons, used by 2.5 million bottled-gas consumers. The consumer pattern is expected to change, with an increasing market for gas for industrial purposes and for heating. Distribution systems will also change to include tank installations in many sizes and transport with large tank lorries. LPG is estimated to be competitive with other forms of energy, and the market is expected to increase to up to ca. 500,000 tons per year. Restricting factors are shortage of supply and lack of approved applications, transport equipment and tank facilities. A list of existing bottle gas companies and evaluation of the technical facilities in the Polish Oil and Gas Company in Gydnia are included. Bottled gas is currently distributed under normal conditions and, market prices for LPG have remained stable in Poland. Detailed studies of the current distribution network in the Suwalki area are given. It should be possible to extend the existing distribution network. A proposal for the establishment of standard tank installations and the gas supply for the town of Augustow is presented. Considerable investments will have to be made in terminals, tank plants and transport equipment, and international oil companies are expected to play an important role in this market. The European Bank for Restructuring and Development could possibly contribute to the financing of the pipe network. (AB)

  11. Energy Globe 2004 - Plastic bottles for a human life; Plastikflaschen fuer ein Menschenleben

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This short article takes a look at how the Swiss Aquatic Research Centre EAWAG won a special prize for its simple method of providing people suffering from lack of clean drinking water in the aftermath of the tsunami catastrophe in south-east Asia. The method involves filling PET-bottles with water and placing them for a period of six hours in the sun, preferably on hot corrugated iron. In this way, contaminated water can be made potable.

  12. Study of the influence of the protective covering from contamination on the radiopharmaceutical bottle in measurement of activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuahara, L.T.; Correa, E.L.; Potiens, M.P.A

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of the use of a plastic covering on the bottle used to supply radiopharmaceuticals to analyze the feasibility of its use at the time of manufacture, in order to avoid contamination in the activity meter well chamber. For that were held several measured with liquid 137 Cs source with and without this envelope and the activity meters of the calibration laboratory. Tests showed a small variation in the percentage of measures with the plastic covering, value considerably low, which will not cause injury in providing radiopharmaceuticals for the Service Nuclear Medicine

  13. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L., E-mail: jorge.guzmanmr@uanl.edu.mx

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2{sup 3} factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  14. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2 3 factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  15. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd

  16. Evaluating localism in the management of post-consumer plastic bottles in Honolulu, Hawai'i: perspectives from industrial ecology and political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Young; Gupta, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Localism or regionalization has become a popular topic in urban design, but recent critics raise the question of whether the local or regional scale is most desirable for industrial ecosystems. As a way to explore the claim that localized metabolism is more sustainable, this study examines the costs and benefits of two differentially scaled strategies for the management of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles originating in the city of Honolulu, Hawai'i: local incineration and trans-continental recycling. We first estimate total environmental impacts of two options using life cycle assessment, and then disaggregate them into local versus non-local impacts to examine the spatial distribution of costs and benefits. We further assess the environmental justification for localized waste management in relation to the broader socio-economic motivations that underlie the way that plastics are managed in Honolulu. In doing so we assess the scale at which waste management is optimized from an environmental standpoint as well as the non-environmental considerations such as security and safety that influence the politics of scale involved in urban metabolic design. By illustrating the trade-offs between a local versus global metabolic pathway for plastic waste, the results from our Honolulu case study are globally relevant for communities interested in sustainable urban design and in particular urban waste management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. USE OF SINGLE-MINUTE EXCHANGE OF DIE – SMED – AS A STRATEGY TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY IN A PLASTIC BOTTLE LABELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teonas Bartz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the production and sale of food products stored in plastic containers, which serve different markets, caused the company researched departed in search of new concepts to increase the productivity of production equipment. With the increase of productivity, there is greater flexibility in planning and scheduling of production and exchange of tools. The implementation of the methodology of Single-Minute Exchange of Die – SMED reduces the setup time of equipment, maximizing the period of machine operation. With this the company more flexible production process and can reduce production batches, increasing operating rates, productivity and competitiveness of organizations. In this paper, we present the steps necessary for the implementation of the SMED in a labeling machine for plastic bottles. To this end, there were activities analysis, suggestions for improvements in machinery and procedures, timing of the steps before and after the improvements implemented and analyzes of the times obtained. After that, we obtained a significant reduction in setup time machine studied.

  18. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő; Czégény, Zsuzsanna; Záray, Gyula; Mihucz, Victor G.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: −1 –0.2 μg L −1 , −1 –0.8 μg L −1 , −1 –0.1 μg L −1 and −1 –1.7 μg L −1 , respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters

  19. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  20. Analysis of polyethylene terephthalate PET plastic bottle jointing system using finite element method (FEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, N. A.; Rosli, Muhamad Farizuan; Effendi, M. S. M.; Abdullah, Mohamad Hariri

    2017-09-01

    For almost all injection molding applications of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) plastic was analyzed the strength, durability and stiffness of properties by using Finite Element Method (FEM) for jointing system of wood furniture. The FEM was utilized for analyzing the PET jointing system for Oak and Pine as wood based material of furniture. The difference pattern design of PET as wood jointing furniture gives the difference value of strength furniture itself. The results show the wood specimen with grooves and eclipse pattern design PET jointing give lower global estimated error is 28.90%, compare to the rectangular and non-grooves wood specimen of global estimated error is 63.21%.

  1. Painting Cloud Nine: A Study of Magritte's Bottle Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on Rene Magritte and his work. Offers an activity in which elementary and middle school students can learn about Magritte's sky and silhouette series of painted wine bottles. Explains that the lesson should be used when students are learning about poetry in language arts classes. (CMK)

  2. Microbes on a bottle: substrate, season and geography influence community composition of microbes colonizing marine plastic debris

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Dee A.; Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A. Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B.

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial com...

  3. Energy implications of bottled water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gleick, P H; Cooley, H S

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs-for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration-are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  4. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK: CONTRIBUTION FROM PLASTICS IN BREAST PUMPS, STORAGE BOTTLES AND BAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products widely used by the general population, including polyvinyl chloride, plastic toys, and medical devices. Some phthalates act as anti-androgens, and prenatal or perinatal exposure to phthalates in laboratory animals...

  5. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    .... FDA 1993-N-0259 (Formerly Docket No. 1993N-0085)] Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard... evidence from two studies puts previous concerns to rest concerning the effects of DEHP consumption in... increase costs for consumers for beverages packaged in plastic bottles. However, this rule does not...

  6. A microbiological study of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, M; Kaur, H

    2006-01-01

    The microbiological quality of bottled mineral water marketed in Ludhiana was examined, Twenty three brands were analyzed for presumptive coliform count by multiple tube tests, and E. coli count was confirmed by Eijkman test. Bacterial and fungal loads were tested by membrane filtration test. Out of 23 only one sample (4.4%) showed the presumptive coliform count to be 460 most probable number (MPN)l 1 00ml,and 1 was found to be positive when tested by Eijkman test for Ecoli. In the membrane filtration test three samples (13%) showed more than two types of bacteria. Different types of bacteria isolated included Bacillus sp (19/23). Pseudomonas spp (13123), Ecoli, Klebsiella sp and S.albus one each Fungi was isolated from five of twenty three. (22%) samples. Only one brand of mineral water was unfit for human consumption. The rest of the samples were contaminated with non pathogenic flora.

  7. Studies of novel plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McInally, I.D.

    1979-08-01

    The general aim of this study was to synthesize fluorescent compounds which are capable of polymerisation, to prepare polymers and co-polymers from these compounds and to study the photophysical properties of these materials. In this way it is hoped to produce plastic scintillators exhibiting improved energy transfer efficiency. Materials studied included POS(2-phenyl-5-(p vinyl) phenyloxazole) vinyl naphthalene, methyl anthracene terminated poly vinyl toluene) and derivatives of BuPBD. (author)

  8. SmartStuff: A case study of a smart water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanov, Emil; Nallathimmareddygari, Vindhya R; Pryor, Jonathan E

    2016-08-01

    The rapid growth of Internet of Things (IoT) and miniature wearable biosensors have generated new opportunities for personalized eHealth and mHealth services. Smart objects equipped with physiological sensors can provide robust monitoring of activities of daily living and context for wearable physiological sensors. We present a case study of an intelligent water bottle that can precisely measure the amount of liquid in the bottle, monitor activity using inertial sensors, and physiological parameters using a touch and photoplethysmographic sensor. We evaluate two system configurations: a smart water bottle integrated into a personal body sensor network and a cloud based device. This paper presents system organization and the results from preliminary field testing of the prototype device.

  9. Preparation of the PET/PP/PE/EVA polymeric blend from PET bottles and modification studies induced by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossini, Edvaldo Luis

    2005-01-01

    The environmental pollution is one of the biggest problems nowadays. Amidst the pollutants, plastic and especially the packings type P ET bottles , which comprise of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and poly[ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate)] (EVA) are causing big damage in the environment. In this work, the polymeric blend PET/PP/PE/EVA was obtained by a process of simplified mechanical recycling from 'PET bottles' after consumption, with the objective to find solution to this environmental problem. It was also studied the different ionizing radiation doses effects (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 e 500 kGy) on the blend properties using an electron beam accelerator. The mechanical (tensile strength, impact and hardness), thermal (Vicat softening temperature, differential scanning calorimetry and termogravimetric) and microscopic (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) properties of the blend were studied. The analysis of the results showed to be a not mixing and compatible blend, with mechanical and thermal properties (which appeared to be similar to the properties of the component material used in the blend in separate) satisfactory, resulting in a resistant material and of low cost, being able to be used in the production of parts that do not demand specifications techniques. The use of the ionizing radiation improved some of the mechanical and thermal properties of the blend (these modifications had been random and irregular, depending directly on the dose of applied radiation and the type of property) making possible more specific applications for this material. (author)

  10. Investigating the Concentration of Heavy Metals in Bottled Water and Comparing with its Standard: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossien Salmani

    2017-09-01

    Results: Brand No. 1, the concentration of zinc ion was larger in Brand 2 while in Brand No. 2 had larger copper, nickel, and aluminum ions. The results indicated that the concentration of the measured metal ions were below the allowable limit of drinking water standard across all of the studied samples. Conclusion: Based on the obtained results from the investigated parameters, it can be concluded that the bottled water of both brands poses no health issue and is drinkable. Considering the changes in the concentration of ions and the increasing trend of consumption of bottled waters, their monitoring and qualitative control of pollutants are very crucial in terms of public health.

  11. Comparison of solidification of floating drop and homogenous liquid-liquid microextractions for the extraction of two plasticizers from the water kept in PET-bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamini, Yadollah; Ghambarian, Mahnaz; Khalili-Zanjani, Mohammad Reza; Faraji, Mohammad; Shariati, Shahab

    2009-09-01

    Two approaches based on solidification of floating drop microextraction (SFDME) and homogenous liquid-liquid microextraction (HLLE) were compared for the extraction and preconcentration of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) from the mineral water samples. In SFDME, a floated drop of the mixture of acetophenone/1-undecanol (1:8) was exposed on the surface of the aqueous solution and extraction was permitted to occur. In HLLE, a homogenous ternary solvent system was used by water/methanol/chloroform and the phase separation phenomenon occurred by salt addition. Under the optimal conditions, the LODs for the two target plasticizers (DEHA and DEHP), obtained by SFDME-GC-FID and HLLE-GC-FID, were ranged from 0.03 to 0.01 microg/L and 0.02 to 0.01 microg/L, respectively. HLLE provided higher preconcentration factors (472.5- and 551.2-fold) within the shorter extraction time as well as better RSDs (4.5-6.9%). While, in SFDME, high preconcentration factors in the range of 162-198 and good RSDs in the range of 5.2-9.6% were obtained. Both methods were applied for the analysis of two plasticizers in different water samples and two target plasticizers were found in the bottled mineral water after the expiring time and the boiling water was exposed to a polyethylene vial.

  12. Open-loop recycling: A LCA case study of PET bottle-to-fibre-recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, L.; Worrell, E.; Patel, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    This study assesses the environmental impact of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle-to-fibre recycling using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA). Four recycling cases, including mechanical recycling, semi-mechanical recycling, back-to-oligomer recycling and back-to-monomer recycling

  13. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jenik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake. Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1,163±479.1 g were studied at 35.4±1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  14. Development of Syringe/Bottle Hybrids for Sampling Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    A convenient and effective sample bottle system based on simple modifications of disposable plastic syringes and bottles has been devised and tested for slurry samples. Syringe/ bottle hybrids (hereafter referred to as syringe bottles) have the convenience of regular flat-bottom bottles with screw cap closures. In addition, the syringe imparts a sliding and adjustable bottom to the bottle that forces the entire contents from the bottle. The system was designed especially to collect samples for high temperature work-ups of DWPF slurry samples. The syringe bottles together with fixed-bottom sample vial inserts would provide the DWPF with convenient and reliable methods for dealing with slurry samples

  15. Educational Policy Studies: Old Wine in a New Bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisele, Chris

    1985-01-01

    As educational policy studies have multiplied, Illinois State University's (ISU) Educational Administration and Foundations Department developed a new series of policy studies grounded in historical and philosophical methodology. Content of one course is described, and benefits of the ISU model are discussed. (MT)

  16. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP, made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Santos Eloína Maria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap, produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors were evaluated. Methods During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3. Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors and front or back yard (outdoors. The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. Results During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. Conclusions AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically

  17. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP), made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Santos, Eloína Maria Mendonça; de Melo-Santos, Maria Alice Varjal; de Oliveira, Claudia Maria Fontes; Correia, Juliana Cavalcanti; de Albuquerque, Cleide Maria Ribeiro

    2012-09-07

    Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap), produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors) were evaluated. During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3). Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors) and front or back yard (outdoors). The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically infested by mosquitoes. Low requirements for skilled labor

  18. Study of leak detection using tracers in a bottling plant in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizuet Gonzalez, Jorge; Reyes Jimenez, Jose Luis; Molina, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    The Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Mexico, promoted the application of different techniques, involving the use of radioactive materials. Among them is the use of radioactive material as a medium tracer in the industry. Below is a study of locating leaks in ducts collectors of process water of a bottling plant which had several problems, one was not able to stop production, and most important, having to disassemble a large amount of machinery and equipment, in order to open the floor and locate the leak

  19. Does a time constraint modify results from rating-based conjoint analysis? Case study with orange/pomegranate juice bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Felipe; Machín, Leandro; Rosenthal, Amauri; Deliza, Rosires; Ares, Gastón

    2016-12-01

    People do not usually process all the available information on packages for making their food choices and rely on heuristics for making their decisions, particularly when having limited time. However, in most consumer studies encourage participants to invest a lot of time for making their choices. Therefore, imposing a time-constraint in consumer studies may increase their ecological validity. In this context, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of a time-constraint on consumer evaluation of pomegranate/orange juice bottles using rating-based conjoint task. A consumer study with 100 participants was carried out, in which they had to evaluate 16 pomegranate/orange fruit juice bottles, differing in bottle design, front-of-pack nutritional information, nutrition claim and processing claim, and to rate their intention to purchase. Half of the participants evaluated the bottle images without time constraint and the other half had a time-constraint of 3s for evaluating each image. Eye-movements were recorded during the evaluation. Results showed that time-constraint when evaluating intention to purchase did not largely modify the way in which consumers visually processed bottle images. Regardless of the experimental condition (with or without time constraint), they tended to evaluate the same product characteristics and to give them the same relative importance. However, a trend towards a more superficial evaluation of the bottles that skipped complex information was observed. Regarding the influence of product characteristics on consumer intention to purchase, bottle design was the variable with the largest relative importance in both conditions, overriding the influence of nutritional or processing characteristics, which stresses the importance of graphic design in shaping consumer perception. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Breastfeeding, Bottle Feeding Practices and Malocclusion in the Primary Dentition: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Hermont

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence.

  1. Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong Gi Hyeon

    1987-04-01

    This book deals with plastic, which includes introduction for plastic, chemistry of high polymers, polymerization, speciality and structure of a high molecule property of plastic, molding, thermosetting plastic, such as polyethylene, polyether, polyamide and polyvinyl acetyl, thermal plastic like phenolic resins, xylene resins, melamine resin, epoxy resin, alkyd resin and poly urethan resin, new plastic like ionomer and PPS resin, synthetic laminated tape and synthetic wood, mixed materials in plastic, reprocessing of waste plastic, polymer blend, test method for plastic materials and auxiliary materials of plastic.

  2. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-01-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P roselle-fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58–55% to 43–42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86–65% at 28°C and 75–53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66–58% at 28°C and 51–22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18–46% at 28°C and 17–35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature. PMID:24804077

  3. HPLC study of migration of terephthalic acid and isophthalic acid from PET bottles into edible oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaneghah, Amin Mousavi; Limbo, Sara; Shoeibi, Shahram; Mazinani, Somayeh

    2014-08-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers for food oil packaging were evaluated with a newly established determination method for terephthalic acid (TPA) and isophthalic acid (IPA). The analysis of monomers, TPA and IPA that migrate from PET bottles into oils was performed using high-pressure liquid chromatography with a diode array detector. Three types of commercial oils (sunflower oil, canola oil and blended oil which included sunflower oil, soy bean oil and cottonseed oil) were bottled in PET containers. These samples were incubated for 10 days at 49 °C as accelerated test condition. The means of recovery for this method varied from 70% to 72% and from 101% to 111% for TPA and IPA, respectively. The results showed that the amounts of specific migration of TPA and IPA into the samples conform to European Union legislation that identifies specific migration limits. More important, the results highlighted a different behavior of migration as a function of the fatty acid profile. Previous investigations have been performed with food simulants such as HB307 or 20% ethanol but our study used real food samples and determined trace amounts of the migrated compounds. Further investigation will be needed to better explain the influence of fatty acid conformation on migration of PET monomers. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. An Experimental Approach to Study Individual Differences in Infants' Intake and Satiation Behaviors during Bottle-Feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Mennella, Julie A

    2017-02-01

    As a group, bottle-fed infants are at higher risk for rapid weight gain compared with breast-fed infants. However, little is known about individual differences in feeding behaviors of bottle-feeding infants, as well as maternal and infant characteristics associated with bottle-feeding outcomes. We conducted a 2-day, within-subject study of 21 formula-feeding dyads; the within-subject factor was feeding condition: mother-led (ML; mothers were given the instruction to feed their infants as they typically would) vs. infant-led (IL; the experimenter ensured feeding began when infants signaled hunger and ended when they rejected the bottle on three consecutive occasions). Intake was determined by bottle weight; feedings were video-recorded and later analyzed to determine feeding duration and types of satiation behaviors displayed. Percent difference scores were calculated for each outcome as [((ML - IL)/IL) × 100] to standardize differences among dyads. Mothers completed questionnaires of feeding styles and infant temperament. On average, infants consumed ∼42% more formula during the ML- than IL-condition (p = 0.03). However, notable variation existed in difference scores for intake (range = -52.8% to 268.9%; higher scores reflect greater intake during ML than IL). Stepwise regression illustrated that greater intakes during the ML-condition were predicted by the combination of: (1) higher infant age; (2) lower levels of infant rhythmicity and adaptability; (3) higher levels of infant positive mood; and (4) lower levels of maternal restrictive and responsive feeding styles. This objective, experimental approach illustrated that variation in bottle-feeding outcomes is associated with characteristics of both members of the dyad.

  5. Flexural Toughness of Ring-Shaped Waste Bottle Fiber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles are plastic containers that are typically discarded, and thus, cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, PET bottles are recycled incorporating with concrete. A ring-shaped PET (RPET fiber are introduced in this study and designed with a special shape to mobilize fiber yielding rather than fiber pullout. Therefore, aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of RPET bottles fibre in terms of toughness strength. The width of RPET fibers is fixed at 5 and 10 mm and the loads were applied to the third points of the specimen. The experiment indicates that RPET-5 and RPET-10 FC presented an increase in the toughness index of I20 on averages of 23.1% and 39.9% respectively, compared to normal specimens. It can conclude that incorporating RPET fiber in concrete presents significant improved of concrete properties.

  6. Using an interactive water bottle to target fluid adherence in pediatric kidney transplant recipients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullgren, Kristin A; Scholl, Penny; Kidwell, Kelley M; Hmiel, S Paul

    2015-02-01

    Hydration is important post-renal transplant to maintain adequate renal perfusion and graft function. Adherence to fluid recommendations is challenging given barriers to staying hydrated. There are no studies of adherence to fluid intake recommendations following pediatric renal transplant. Through this pilot study, we sought to determine whether the use of a commercially available interactive water bottle would lead to better adherence to recommended fluid intake and improved kidney functioning post-transplant relative to standard of care. Participants included 32 youth ages 7-19 ≥1 month post-kidney transplant randomized to the intervention (HydraCoach(®) water bottle) or standard education control group. Laboratory records were reviewed for serum chemistries (Na, BUN, creatinine) at baseline and one-month follow-up, and participants recorded daily fluid intake for 28 days. Those in the intervention group were significantly more likely to meet or exceed their fluid target, but this did not translate into better kidney functioning. Participants in the intervention group largely reported satisfaction with the water bottle and were likely to continue its use. While an interactive water bottle providing real-time feedback may be a promising intervention to help pediatric kidney transplant patients meet fluid goals, it did not appear to impact kidney function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Evaluating radon loss from water during storage in standard PET, bio-based PET, and PLA bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchetti, Carlo; De Simone, Gabriele; Galli, Gianfranco; Tuccimei, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles were tested to evaluate radon loss from water during 15 days of storage. PET bottles (lower surface/volume-ratio vials) lost 0.4–7.1% of initial radon, whereas PLA bottles lost 3.7% of it. PET bottles with volume of 0.5 L, lower surface/weight ratio, and hence higher thickness display proportionally reduced radon loss. Corrections for dissolved radium are needed during analyses. Formulas for calculating degassing efficiency and water interference on electrostatic collections are developed. - Highlights: • Radon loss from water during storage in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polylactic acid (PLA) bottles was evaluated. • Surface/volume ratio and thickness of plastic materials were studied. • A correction for dissolved radium concentration was applied to estimate gas loss. • Proper corrections for degassing efficiency of aerators were developed. • The interference of H 2 O on radon daughter electrostatic collection was quantified.

  8. Impact of bottle size on in-home consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages: a feasibility and acceptability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantzari, Eleni; Hollands, Gareth J; Pechey, Rachel; Jebb, Susan; Marteau, Theresa M

    2017-04-07

    Consumption of sugars-sweetened beverages (SSB) increases energy intake and the risk of obesity. Large packages increase consumption of food, implying that smaller bottle sizes may help curb SSB consumption, but there is a lack of relevant evidence relating to these products. This study explores the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of different bottle sizes on SSB consumption at home. Households in Cambridge, England, which purchased at least 2 l of regular cola drinks per week, received a set amount of cola each week for four weeks, in bottles of one of four sizes (1500 ml, 1000 ml, 500 ml, or 250 ml) in random order. The total volume received consisted of a modest excess of households' typical weekly purchasing, but was further increased for half the study households to avoid ceiling effects. Consumption was measured by recording the number of empty bottles at the end of each week. Eligible households were invited to complete a run-in period to assess levels of active participation. Thirty-seven of 111 eligible households with an interest in the study completed the run-in period. The study procedures proved feasible. The target for recruitment (n = 16 households) was exceeded. Measuring consumption was feasible: over three quarters (n = 30/37) of households returned all bottles on the majority (n = 88/101) of the study weeks completed across households. The validity of this measure was compromised by guests from outside the household who drank the study cola (n = 18/37 households on 48/101 study weeks) and consumption of the study cola outside the home. Supplying enhanced volumes of cola to nine households was associated with higher consumption (11,592 ml vs 7869 ml). The intervention and study procedures were considered acceptable. Thirteen households correctly identified the study aims. The findings support the feasibility and acceptability of running a randomised controlled trial to

  9. Impact of bottle size on in-home consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages: a feasibility and acceptability study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Mantzari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of sugars-sweetened beverages (SSB increases energy intake and the risk of obesity. Large packages increase consumption of food, implying that smaller bottle sizes may help curb SSB consumption, but there is a lack of relevant evidence relating to these products. This study explores the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a randomised controlled trial to assess the impact of different bottle sizes on SSB consumption at home. Methods Households in Cambridge, England, which purchased at least 2 l of regular cola drinks per week, received a set amount of cola each week for four weeks, in bottles of one of four sizes (1500 ml, 1000 ml, 500 ml, or 250 ml in random order. The total volume received consisted of a modest excess of households’ typical weekly purchasing, but was further increased for half the study households to avoid ceiling effects. Consumption was measured by recording the number of empty bottles at the end of each week. Eligible households were invited to complete a run-in period to assess levels of active participation. Results Thirty-seven of 111 eligible households with an interest in the study completed the run-in period. The study procedures proved feasible. The target for recruitment (n = 16 households was exceeded. Measuring consumption was feasible: over three quarters (n = 30/37 of households returned all bottles on the majority (n = 88/101 of the study weeks completed across households. The validity of this measure was compromised by guests from outside the household who drank the study cola (n = 18/37 households on 48/101 study weeks and consumption of the study cola outside the home. Supplying enhanced volumes of cola to nine households was associated with higher consumption (11,592 ml vs 7869 ml. The intervention and study procedures were considered acceptable. Thirteen households correctly identified the study aims. Conclusion The findings support the feasibility

  10. Telemedicine and Plastic Surgery: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Souto Valente

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Telemedicine can be defined as the use of electronic media for transmission of information and medical data from one site to another. The objective of this study is to demonstrate an experience of telemedicine in plastic surgery. Methods. 32 plastic surgeons received a link with password for real-time streaming of a surgery. At the end of the procedure, the surgeons attending the procedure by the Internet answered five questions. The results were analyzed with descriptive statistics. Results. 27 plastic surgeons attended the online procedure in real-time. 96.3% considered the access to the website as good or excellent and 3.7% considered it bad. 14.8% reported that the transmission was bad and 85.2% considered the quality of transmission as good or excellent. 96.3% classified the live broadcasting as a good or excellent learning experience and 3.7% considered it a bad experience. 92.6% reported feeling able to perform this surgery after watching the demo and 7.4% did not feel able. 100% of participants said they would like to participate in other surgical demonstrations over the Internet. Conclusion. We conclude that the use of telemedicine can provide more access to education and medical research, for plastic surgeons looking for medical education from distant regions.

  11. Applicability study of deuterium excess in bottled water life cycle analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihael Brenčič

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Paper explores the possible use of d‑excess in the investigation of bottled water. Based on the data set from Brencic and Vreca’s paper (2006. Identification of sources and production processes of bottled waters by stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios, d‑excess values were statistically analysed and compared among different bottled water groups and different bottlers. The bottled water life cycle in relation to d‑excess values was also theoretically identified. Descriptive statistics and one-way ANOVA showed no significant differences among the groups. Differences were detected in the shape of empirical distributions. Groups of still and flavoured waters have similar shapes, but sparkling waters differed to the others. Two distinctive groups of bottlers could be discerned. The first group is represented by bottlers with a high range of d‑excess (from 7.7 ‰ to 18.6 ‰ with average of 12.0 ‰ exploring waters originating from the aquifers rich in highly mineralised groundwater and relatively high concentrations of CO2 gas. The second group is represented by bottlers using groundwater from relatively shallow aquifers. Their d‑excess values have characteristics similar to the local precipitation (from 7.8 ‰ to 14.3 ‰ with average of 10.3 ‰. More frequent sampling and better knowledge of production phases are needed to improve usage of isotope fingerprint for authentication of bottled waters.

  12. Effect of textured eye drop bottles on the photostability of pranoprofen 0.1% ophthalmic solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwatsuka, Kinya; Inada, Katsuhiro; Ueoka, Hiroki; Otsuka, Tadashi; Maeda, Masaki; Yamaguchi, Masazumi; Yasueda, Shin-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Ophthalmic solutions are usually filled in a plastic bottle due to its durability and disposability. In Japan, photostability is one of the concerns for the quality control because an eye drop bottle must be a transparent container. The present work studied the effect of textured eye drop bottles on its light blocking to improve the photostability of ophthalmic solutions. We investigated the photostability of Pranoprofen ophthalmic solution filled in a variety of textured eye drop bottles. Pranoprofen content was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and surface structure of textured eye drop bottles was evaluated by transmittance, calculated average roughness (Ra) and haze intensity. We observed that eye drop bottle which had greater than Ra value of 1.0 µm and haze intensity 62% clearly showed photostability improvement. This report is the first one which shows that photostability of ophthalmic solution is improved by using textured eye drop bottle. Moreover, this approach is a simple and effective method to improve the photostability. This method is available for not only various ophthalmic applications but also other liquid pharmaceuticals or food products.

  13. A Study of the Closed-Loop Supply Chain Coordination on Waste Glass Bottles Recycling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenxue Ran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The recycling of waste products can sharply save manufacturing cost and improve the economic efficiency and corporate-reputation. It also has a great effect on the environment and resources protection. In the management of the closed-loop supply chain, the recycling of waste products and decision-making on pricing often directly affect the supply and demand of products and the operation efficiency of supply chain. Therefore, first we take waste glass bottles as an example and establish a mathematical model to solve the profit of manufacturers and retailers solely. Then, we analyzed whole supply chain profit under a dual-channel recycling condition which is directly recycled by consumers or by retailers. Finally, we concluded that no matter what product’s price, quality, profit, or operational efficiency of supply chain is, the overall recycling is better than the single node recycling model. Based on the analysis, we developed a new model to coordinate the profit of manufacturers and retailers in the supply chain with revenue-sharing contract. A numerical study shows that this approach is applicable and effective.

  14. Study on heat transfer coefficients during cooling of PET bottles for food beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liga, Antonio; Montesanto, Salvatore; Mannella, Gianluca A.; La Carrubba, Vincenzo; Brucato, Valerio; Cammalleri, Marco

    2016-08-01

    The heat transfer properties of different cooling systems dealing with Poly-Ethylene-Terephthalate (PET) bottles were investigated. The heat transfer coefficient (Ug) was measured in various fluid dynamic conditions. Cooling media were either air or water. It was shown that heat transfer coefficients are strongly affected by fluid dynamics conditions, and range from 10 W/m2 K to nearly 400 W/m2 K. PET bottle thickness effect on Ug was shown to become relevant under faster fluid dynamics regimes.

  15. Effect of cup feeding and bottle feeding on breastfeeding in late preterm infants: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Gonca; Caylan, Nilgun; Karacan, Can Demir; Bodur, İlknur; Gokcay, Gulbin

    2014-05-01

    Cup feeding has been used as an alternative feeding method for preterm infants. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of bottle and cup feeding on exclusive breastfeeding rates at hospital discharge and 3 and 6 months post-discharge in late preterm infants. Included in the study were preterm infants of 32 to 35 weeks' gestation fed only by intermittent gastric tube at the time of recruitment; 522 infants were randomly assigned to 2 groups: the cup-fed group (n = 254) and bottle-fed group (n = 268). Main outcomes were prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and length of hospital stay. Infants randomized to cup versus bottle feeding were more likely to be exclusively breastfed at discharge home (relative risk [RR], 1.58; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.36-1.83), 3 months after discharge (RR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.42-1.89), and 6 months after discharge (RR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.14-1.63). There was no significant difference between groups for length of hospital stay. The mean hospital stay was 25.96 ± 2.20 days in the bottle-fed group and 25.68 ± 2.22 days in the cup-fed group. There was no significant difference between groups for time spent feeding, feeding problems, or weight gain in hospital. Cup feeding significantly increased the likelihood of late preterm infants being exclusively breastfed at discharge and 3 and 6 months after discharge, and cup feeding did not increase the length of hospital stay. Overall, we recommend cup feeding as a transitional method prior to breastfeeding for late preterm infants during hospitalization.

  16. Penerapan Diagram Kontrol D^2 Mahalanobis Pada Proses Produksi Minuman Kemasan Returnable Glass Bottle (Studi Kasus Di PT. Coca-cola Bottling Indonesia Central Java)

    OpenAIRE

    Muhyidin, Muhammad Abid; Safitri, Diah; Rahmawati, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Quality being one of the basic factors in choosing a product consumers. Therefore, an industry or a company should always maintain the quality of their products in order to get loyal customers and are able to survive in the competitive market. Coca-cola Bottling Indonesia Central Java Limited Compay is one of the manufacturing company engaged in the beverage packaging industry and always trying to improve the quality for customer satisfaction. Although it has been to improve the quality, the...

  17. Degradation studies on plasticized PVC films submited to gamma radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinhas Glória Maria

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (vinyl chloride, PVC, is a rigid polymer and for several of its applications must be compounded with plasticizing agents. The plasticizers minimize the dipolar interactions, which exist between the polymer's chains, promoting their mobility. In this work we studied the properties of PVC/plasticizer systems submitted to different doses of gamma radiation. We have used four commercial plasticizers amongt them di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate, DEHP, which is present in a great number of commercial applications. The PVC/plasticizer systems have been studied as films made by the solvent evaporation technique. Irradiated and non-irradiated films have been characterized by viscosimetric analysis, mechanical essays and infrared spectroscopy. The results have shown that the rigid, non plasticized, PVC film presented the greatest degradation index, while among the plasticized films the one which presented the larger degradation index due to chain scission was the DEHP plasticized PVC.

  18. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  19. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  20. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... difficult it can be to break the bottle habit. Longer bottle use may lead to cavities or ... Drinks for Kids Toddlers at the Table: Avoiding Power Struggles View more About Us Contact Us Partners ...

  1. Studies of elastic-plastic instabilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo

    1999-01-01

    Analyses of plastic instabilities are reviewed, with focus on results in structural mechanics as well as continuum mechanics. First the basic theories for bifurcation and post-bifurcation behavior are briefly presented. Then, localization of plastic flow is discussed, including shear band formati...

  2. Interactive baby feeding bottle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    An interactive baby bottle with an electronic unit is disclosed. The electronic unit comprises a sensor unit configured to sense the heart beat of a person bottle feeding a baby and an actuator unit configured to transmit the sensed heart beat to the baby. The disclosed interactive baby bottle can

  3. Oscillations in a half-empty bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourges, Andréane; Chardac, Amélie; Caussarieu, Aude; Plihon, Nicolas; Taberlet, Nicolas

    2018-02-01

    When a half-empty bottle of water is pushed to roll on a flat surface, the oscillations of the fluid inside the bottle induce an overall jerky motion. These velocity fluctuations of the bottle are studied through simple laboratory experiments accessible to undergraduate students and can help them to grasp fundamental concepts in mechanics and hydrodynamics. We first demonstrate through an astute experiment that the rotation of the fluid and the bottle is decoupled. The equations of motion are then derived using a mechanical approach, while the hydrodynamics of the fluid motion is explained. Finally, the theory is tested against two benchmark experiments.

  4. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  5. A Time Study of Plastic Surgery Residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Frank H; Sinha, Indranil; Jiang, Wei; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Eriksson, Elof

    2016-05-01

    Resident work hours are under scrutiny and have been subject to multiple restrictions. The studies supporting these changes have not included data on surgical residents. We studied the workday of a team of plastic surgery residents to establish prospective time-study data of plastic surgery (PRS) residents at a single tertiary-care academic medical center. Five trained research assistants observed all residents (n = 8) on a PRS service for 10 weeks and produced minute-by-minute activity logs. Data collection began when the team first met in the morning and continued until the resident being followed completed all non-call activities. We analyzed our data from 3 perspectives: 1) time spent in direct patient care (DPC), indirect patient care, and didactic activities; 2) time spent in high education-value activities (HEAs) versus low education-value activities; and 3) resident efficiency. We defined HEAs as activities that surgeons must master; other activities were LEAs. We quantified resident efficiency in terms of time fragmentation and time spent waiting. A total of 642.4 hours of data across 50 workdays were collected. Excluding call, residents worked an average of 64.2 hours per week. Approximately 50.7% of surgical resident time was allotted to DPC, with surgery accounting for the largest segment of this time (34.8%). Time spent on HEAs demonstrated trended upward with higher resident level (P = 0.086). Time in spent in surgery was significantly associated with higher resident levels (P time study of PRS residents, we found that compared with medicine trainees, surgical residents spent 3.23 times more time on DPC. High education-value activities comprised most of our residents' workdays. Surgery was the leading component of both DPC and HEAs. Our residents were highly efficient and fragmented, with the majority of all activities requiring 4 minutes or less. Residents spent a large portion of their time waiting for other services. In light of these data, we

  6. Evaluation of Using Waste of Bottles in Concrete as Sustainable Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Hasan Abdulabbas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the current study attention was focused on effects of using wastes of plastic and glass of juices and soft drink bottles in concrete, and the optimum percent's of the wastes were detected giving the best properties of concrete. Total number of concrete mixes was (12, which have different wastes additions details. These mixes included: three mixes have plastic fibers (1, 2, 3% by cement weight, three mixes have glass with ratios of (10, 15, 20% as a replacement of sand volume, three mixes have pieces of plastic bottle caps with ratios of (15, 20, 25% as a replacement of gravel volume. The mix that has the optimum properties in these three groups, was selected to merge these types of wastes in one mix. Therefore, two additional mixes were prepared; one mix contains addition of 2% plastic fibers and 15% glass; and the other mix contains 20% plastic bottle caps and 15% glass, in addition to the reference mix without any waste additions. The achieved tests comprise; compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, flexural strength, ultrasonic pulse velocity, density, absorption and fire resistance. Tests results give good indications about using these waste in concrete; when two types of wastes are added to the mixes (plastic fiber with glass C11 or pieces of bottle caps and glass C12 the compressive strength is improved noticeably, the residual compressive strength is about (75% and 83% with total ratio of wastes about 35% at age of 7 and 28 days, respectively, in mix C12, and (76 .7% and 70.5% with total ratio of wastes about 17% at age of 7 and28 days, respectively, in mix C11.

  7. Screening of hormone-like activities in bottled waters available in Southern Spain using receptor-specific bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Macarena; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Jiménez-Díaz, Inmaculada; Arrebola, Juan Pedro; Sáenz, José-María; Fernández, Mariana F; Olea, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Bottled water consumption is a putative source of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Research has been conducted on the presence of chemicals with estrogen-like activity in bottled waters and on their estrogenicity, but few data are available on the presence of hormonal activities associated with other nuclear receptors (NRs). The aim of this study was to determine the presence of endocrine activities dependent on the activation of human estrogen receptor alpha (hERa) and/or androgen receptor (hAR) in water in glass or plastic bottles sold to consumers in Southern Spain. Hormone-like activities were evaluated in 29 bottled waters using receptor-specific bioassays based on reporter gene expression in PALM cells [(anti-)androgenicity] and cell proliferation assessment in MCF-7 cells [(anti-)estrogenicity] after optimized solid phase extraction (SPE). All of the water samples analyzed showed hormonal activity. This was estrogenic in 79.3% and anti-estrogenic in 37.9% of samples and was androgenic in 27.5% and anti-androgenic in 41.3%, with mean concentrations per liter of 0.113pM 17β-estradiol (E2) equivalent units (E2Eq), 11.01pM anti-estrogen (ICI 182780) equivalent units (ICI 182780Eq), 0.33pM methyltrienolone (R1881) equivalent units (R1881Eq), and 0.18nM procymidone equivalent units (ProcEq). Bottled water consumption contributes to EDC exposure. Hormone-like activities observed in waters from both plastic and glass bottles suggest that plastic packaging is not the sole source of contamination and that the source of the water and bottling process may play a role, among other factors. Further research is warranted on the cumulative effects of long-term exposure to low doses of EDCs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Observational Study Unveils the Extensive Presence of Hazardous Elements in Beached Plastics from Lake Geneva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Filella

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Over 3,000 samples of plastic litter have been retrieved from 12 pebble beaches around the shores of Lake Geneva. The plastic stock consisted of identifiable objects of various size and color, including bottles, bottle tops, cotton buds, pens, toys, and straws, an heterogeneous assortment of fragments whose origin was either discernible or unknown, and pieces or blocks of expanded polymer (polystyrene or polyurethane foam. Analysis of 670 samples by portable x-ray fluorescence (XRF spectrometry revealed high concentrations of hazardous elements or compounds among many plastics. These included Cd, Hg, and Pb (with maximum concentrations of 6,760, 810, and 23,500 ppm, respectively as stabilizers in PVC-based materials and/or brightly-colored sulfide or chromate pigments in primary and secondary plastics, and Br (with a maximum concentration of 27,400 ppm as a proxy for brominated flame retardants (BFRs in both plastics and foams. The abundance of hazardous elements in beached plastics that have been restricted or banned reflect the age and residence time of the plastic stock in the lake, coupled with a relatively high length of shoreline to surface area of the system. The migratability of hazardous elements from the polymeric matrix is likely to determine their environmental impacts and is recommended as a future area of research.

  9. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  10. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  11. Barriers and benefits to desired behaviors for single use plastic items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolotta, Jill F; Hardy, Scott D

    2018-02-01

    Given the growing saliency of plastic marine debris, and the impact of plastics on beaches and aquatic environments in the Laurentian Great Lakes, applied research is needed to support municipal and nongovernmental campaigns to prevent debris from reaching the water's edge. This study addresses this need by examining the barriers and benefits to positive behavior for two plastic debris items in northeast Ohio's Lake Erie basin: plastic bags and plastic water bottles. An online survey is employed to gather data on the use and disposal of these plastic items and to solicit recommendations on how to positively change behavior to reduce improper disposal. Results support a ban on plastic bags and plastic water bottles, with more enthusiasm for a bag ban. Financial incentives are also seen as an effective way to influence behavior change, as are location-specific solutions focused on education and outreach. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. PLASTICITY OF SKELETAL MUSCLE STUDIED BY STEREOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Eržen

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present contribution provides an overview of stereological methods applied in the skeletal muscle research at the Institute of Anatomy of the Medical Faculty in Ljubljana. Interested in skeletal muscle plasticity we studied three different topics: (i expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms in slow and fast muscles under experimental conditions, (ii frequency of satellite cells in young and old human and rat muscles and (iii capillary supply of rat fast and slow muscles. We analysed the expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms within slow rat soleus and fast extensor digitorum longus muscles after (i homotopic and heterotopic transplantation of both muscles, (ii low frequency electrical stimulation of the fast muscle and (iii transposition of the fast nerve to the slow muscle. The models applied were able to turn the fast muscle into a completely slow muscle, but not vice versa. One of the indicators for the regenerative potential of skeletal muscles is its satellite cell pool. The estimated parameters, number of satellite cells per unit fibre length, corrected to the reference sarcomere length (Nsc/Lfib and number of satellite cells per number of nuclei (myonuclei and satellite cell nuclei (Nsc/Nnucl indicated that the frequency of M-cadherin stained satellite cells declines in healthy old human and rat muscles compared to young muscles. To access differences in capillary densities among slow and fast muscles and slow and fast muscle fibres, we have introduced Slicer and Fakir methods, and tested them on predominantly slow and fast rat muscles. Discussing three different topics that require different approach, the present paper reflects the three decades of the development of stereological methods: 2D analysis by simple point counting in the 70's, the disector in the 80's and virtual spatial probes in the 90's. In all methods the interactive computer assisted approach was utilised.

  13. Speciation of inorganic antimony in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markwo, Ali

    2015-07-01

    Antimony (Sb) is a regulated drinking water contaminant that has been found to leach from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic containers into the waters stored in them. The common inorganic species of antimony in water are Sb(III) and Sb(V), with the former being more toxic and the latter being more soluble. In order to assess the extent to which waters stored in PET bottles are contaminated with inorganic Sb and to further examine the effect of typical storage conditions on migration rates, speciation analysis of inorganic Sb using hydride generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry (HG-AAS) was undertaken on selected PET plastic bottled waters marketed in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Six brands of PET plastic bottled waters were obtained at source on the day of packaging, and analyses undertaken on samples of the waters stored in the plastic containers at intervals of four weeks for twelve weeks, under three carefully chosen storage conditions distinctive of bottled water usage. Selected physicochemical properties of samples of the waters stored in the plastic containers and total Sb of samples of the plastic containers were also determined to discover the effect of some physical properties and certain major ions, and the influence of the different quality PET plastic types on Sb migration respectively. The study revealed amounts of total Sb in the PET plastic containers of the 6 brands ranging from 123.46 mg/kg to 146.45 mg/kg. The selected physicochemical properties of the waters stored in the PET plastic containers considered were pH (6.78 – 7.43), Ca2+ (1.61 – 12.39 mg/L), Mg2+ (1.00 – 4.96 mg/L), HCO3− (6.18 – 55.41 mg/L) and TDS (8.70 – 70.40 mg/L)). PET bottled waters of 5 out of the 6 brands contained Sb (initial total Sb ranging from 1.11 – 14.65 μg/L) before storage. Total Sb concentrations of the waters stored in the plastic containers were observed to increase with storage time under all the three storage conditions for

  14. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  15. A study on the compatibility between one-bottle dentin adhesives and composite resins using micro-shear bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Minju; Shin, Yooseok; Park, Jeong-Won; Roh, Byoung-Duck

    2015-02-01

    This study was performed to determine whether the combined use of one-bottle self-etch adhesives and composite resins from same manufacturers have better bond strengths than combinations of adhesive and resins from different manufacturers. 25 experimental micro-shear bond test groups were made from combinations of five dentin adhesives and five composite resins with extracted human molars stored in saline for 24 hr. Testing was performed using the wire-loop method and a universal testing machine. Bond strength data was statistically analyzed using two way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc test. Two way ANOVA revealed significant differences for the factors of dentin adhesives and composite resins, and significant interaction effect (p composite resin (p composite resin than other manufacturer's composite resin. Not all combinations of adhesive and composite resin by same manufacturers failed to show significantly higher bond strengths than mixed manufacturer combinations.

  16. Processamento e avaliação de estabilidade de bebida isotônica em garrafa plástica Processing and stability evaluation of isotonic drink in plastic bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Petrus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Processou-se uma mistura isotônica com pH 3,4; objetivando-se a produção de uma bebida microbiologicamente estável, prescindindo de refrigeração. A bebida isotônica foi pasteurizada a 85°C/5s em trocador de calor a placas e acondicionada em garrafas de polietileno tereftalato (PET sanificadas por aspersão com solução de ácido peracético 0,3% durante 5s, a 30°C. Foram processados 1 lote com 50mg/L de sorbato de potássio, 1 lote com 100mg/L e 1 lote sem sorbato. Os 3 lotes foram mantidos a 25°C durante 26 semanas, sendo realizadas determinações de pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável, ácido ascórbico, testes de aceitação sensorial e contagens de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios totais, bolores e leveduras durante a estocagem. Verificou-se diferença significativa (pThe objective of this work was to obtain an isotonic drink by using pasteurization and packing into aseptic bottles, stable at room temperature, without the addition of chemical preservatives. For the sanitation of the plastic bottles some sanitizers were tested, based on their efficiency to destroy microorganism, maintaining minimum residual hydrogen peroxide, and keeping the drink sensory quality. The isotonic drink (pH 3,40 was thermaly processed in a plate pasteurizer at 85ºC/5s and packed into PET bottles sanitized by spraying peracetic acid at 0.3%/5s at 30ºC. The processed drink contained three different concentrations of potassium sorbate (control, 50 and 100mg/L. The stability of the products were evaluated at 25ºC for 26 weeks by measuring the pH, soluble solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, microbial count, and sensory tests. The sensory evaluation and the count of the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, moulds and yeast were measured during storage. There was no difference (p<0,05 for the pH, soluble solids and acidity of the processed drinks during the storage period except for the ascorbic acid which reduced to about 30% of the

  17. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius.

  18. A Study of Transparent Plastics for use on Aircraft. Supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axilrod, Benjamin M.; Kline, Gordon M.

    1937-01-01

    This supplement to a NACA study issued in May 1937 entitled "A Study of Transparent Plastics for Use on Aircraft", contains two tables. These tables contain data on bursting strengths of plastics, particularly at low temperatures. Table 1 contains the values reported in a table of the original memorandum, and additional values obtained at approximately 25 C, for three samples of Acrylate resin. The second table contains data obtained for the bursting strength when one surface of the plastic was cooled to approximately -35 C.

  19. Biocompatibility of Plastic Clip in Neurocranium - Experimental Study on Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delibegovic, Samir; Dizdarevic, Kemal; Cickusic, Elmir; Katica, Muhamed; Obhodjas, Muamer; Ocus, Muhamed

    2016-01-01

    A potential advantage of the use of the plastic clips in neurosurgery is their property of causing fewer artifacts than titanium clips as assessed by computed tomography and magnetic resonance scans. The biocompatibility of plastic clips was demonstrated in the peritoneal cavity, but their behavior in the neurocranium is not known. Twelve aggressive stray dogs designated for euthanasia were taken for this experimental study. The animals were divided into two groups. In all cases, after anesthesia, a craniotomy was performed, and after opening the dura, a proximal part titanium clip was placed on the isolated superficial Sylvian vein (a permanent Yasargil FT 746 T clip at a 90° angle, while a plastic Hem-o-lok clip ML was placed on another part of the vein). The first group of animals was sacrificed on the 7 th postoperative day and the second group on the 60 th postoperative day. Samples of tissue around the clips were taken for a histopathological evaluation. The plastic clip caused a more intensive tissue reaction than the titanium clip on the 7 th postoperative day, but there was no statistical difference. Even on the 60 th postoperative day there was no significant difference in tissue reaction between the titanium and plastic clips. These preliminary results confirm the possibility for the use of plastic clips in neurosurgery. Before their use in human neurosurgery, further studies are needed to investigate the long-term effects of the presence of plastic clips in the neurocranium, as well as studies of the aneurysmal model.

  20. Bottled Water Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Table of Contents Bottled water basics ....................................... pg.2 Advice for people with severely compromised immune systems (Sidebar) ............................. pg2 Know what you’re buying .............................. pg.3 Taste considerations ........................................ pg.4 Bottled water terms (Sidebar) ..................... pg.4 Begin by reading the ...

  1. The issues in the study of brain plasticity after stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Chuantao

    2004-01-01

    Nowadays, the study on the plasticity of the brain is one of the hotspots in nerve scientific research. PET and fMRI provided powerful weapon to study brain plasticity, but some metholody can conflict the brain function study. The review elucide the the metholody questions from the choice of pantiets and control, defining motor recovery, the choice of motor task, the effect of brian morphological, interpreting changes in activation and analysis methods of PET images. (authors)

  2. Leaching of plastic polymers by plastic vials used for storing homoeopathic medicines: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeraj Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Homoeopathy, plastic containers/vials are used for the storing/dispensing of ethanol-based medicines instead of glass. Various studies have suggested that plastic components that leach out in stored substances tend to cause contamination and may produce adverse effects in living systems. The present study was aimed to find out chemical composition and leaching behaviour of commonly used plastic vials (PVs if any during the storage of ethanol-based homoeopathic medicines in optimal environment. Material and Methods: The experiments were conducted on two sample sets of PVs. Chemical properties of PV were assessed by Fourier Transform Infrared Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR spectroscopy. PV were cut separately [sample-1 (S-1 and sample-2 (S-2] and immersed in Homoeopathic Grade Ethanol (HGE in conical flask and stored for 7 days at ambient temperature (25° ± 5C with constant rotary shaking. After 7 days, S-1 and S-2 of PV in Homoeopathic Grade Ethanol (HGE were decanted and filtered. Aliquots (A1 and A2 were analysed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H 1 NMR. The spectral graph obtained by FTIR-ATR spectroscopy for PV compositions and spectral graph obtained by H 1 NMR spectroscopy for PV ethanol aliquots were examined for PVs material and PV leaching effect in HGE. Results: FTIR-ATR spectra showed that PV are made up of two types of polyolefin′s compounds i.e. Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE and Linear Low Density Polyethylene (LLDPE. Aliquots of PV in HGE showed the presence benzophenone and its methyl derivative, heat and light stabiliser (2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine and amino derivative, antioxidant (4, 4′- thiobis and 2-tertbutyl-5-methylphenol and plasticizer bis 2-Diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP or Dioctyl phthalate (DOP. Results of study suggest that PVs leach out plastic polymers in HGE. Conclusion: This preliminary experiment suggests that it is not safe to use LDPE/LLDPE plastic for storing

  3. Design study of plastic film heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, E. C.; Brownell, D. L.

    1986-02-01

    This report presents the results of an effort to develop and design a unique thermoplastic film heat exchanger for use in an industrial heat pump evaporator system and other energy recovery applications. The concept for the exchanger is that of individual heat exchange elements formed by two adjoining and freely hanging plastic films. Liquid flows downward in a regulated fashion between the films due to the balance of hydrostatic and frictional forces. The fluid stream on the outside of film may be a free-falling liquid film, a condensing gas, or a noncondensing gas. The flow and structural principles are similar to those embodied in an earlier heat exchange system developed for use in waste water treatment systems (Sanderson). The design allows for high heat transfer rates while working within the thermal and structural limitations of thermoplastic materials. The potential of this new heat exchanger design lies in the relatively low cost of plastic film and the high inherent corrosion and fouling resistance. This report addresses the selection of materials, the potential heat transf er performance, the mechanical design and operation of a unit applied in a low pressure steam recovery system, and the expected selling price in comparison to conventional metallic shell and tube heat exchangers.

  4. Crystal plasticity study of single crystal tungsten by indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Weizhi

    2012-01-01

    Owing to its favorable material properties, tungsten (W) has been studied as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. Experiments on W heating in plasma sources and electron beam facilities have shown an intense micro-crack formation at the heated surface and sub-surface. The cracks go deep inside the irradiated sample, and often large distorted areas caused by local plastic deformation are present around the cracks. To interpret the crack-induced microscopic damage evolution process in W, one needs firstly to understand its plasticity on a single grain level, which is referred to as crystal plasticity. In this thesis, the crystal plasticity of single crystal tungsten (SCW) has been studied by spherical and Berkovich indentation tests and the finite element method with a crystal plasticity model. Appropriate values of the material parameters included in the crystal plasticity model are determined by fitting measured load-displacement curves and pile-up profiles with simulated counterparts for spherical indentation. The numerical simulations reveal excellent agreement with experiment. While the load-displacement curves and the deduced indentation hardness exhibit little sensitivity to the indented plane at small indentation depths, the orientation of slip directions within the crystals governs the development of deformation hillocks at the surface. It is found that several factors like friction, indentation depth, active slip systems, misoriented crystal orientation, misoriented sample surface and azimuthal orientation of the indenter can affect the indentation behavior of SCW. The Berkovich indentation test was also used to study the crystal plasticity of SCW after deuterium irradiation. The critical load (pop-in load) for triggering plastic deformation under the indenter is found to depend on the crystallographic orientation. The pop-in loads decrease dramatically after deuterium plasma irradiation for all three investigated crystallographic planes.

  5. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngadiman, Norhayati; Kaamin, Masiri; Abd. Kadir, Aslila; Sahat, Suhaila; Zaini, Aziza; Raihana Nor Zentan, Siti; Ain Ahmad, Nur; Amran, Wan Haizatul Aisyhah Wan

    2018-03-01

    The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE) and Modulus of Rupture (MOR). The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it's indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  6. Panel Board From Coconut Fibre And Pet Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngadiman Norhayati

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The rate of global deforestation and its impact on the environment has led particle board manufacture to search for alternative feedstock, especially in countries where wood is less available compared to other cellulosic natural product. Based on the properties of coconut fibre and PET bottle, these two materials can be recycle as raw material for manufacture of panel board. As for this study, the coconut fibre were used as the filler and PET bottle as outer lining of the panel board. Two types of coconut fibre were used which are grinding and un-grinding coconut fibre. At first, the coconut fibre are undergoes softening, grinding, drying and sieving process, while PET bottle was cleaning, shredding, sieving before compacted using hydraulic hot press machine. There are four types of testing that been carried out which are swelling, water absorption, Modulus of Elasticity (MOE and Modulus of Rupture (MOR. The result show the conventional board has the highest value for MOE test, so it’s indicate that the conventional board is less strength from the coconut fibre board. As for water absorption test, the average water absorption of coconut fibre based panel board is less than conventional board. Overall, the coconut fibre board is better than conventional panel board because coconut fibre board are less swelling, has low water absorption, high modulus of rupture and low modulus of elasticity. Based on the finding, this coconut fibre panel board has potential as a stronger and long-lasting panel board than the conventional board in the market. Other than that, the panel also have their own aesthetic value since the recycled plastic bottle used as outer lining is colourful and giving aesthetic value.

  7. Preconcentration and Determination of Antimony in Drinking Water Bottled by Modified Nano-Alumina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mohammad Zakizade

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 has been utilized as a catalyst in polyethylene terephtalate (PET production, and the studies conducted on the bottled water has demonstrated that antimony can be leached from PET bottles into drinking water. Methods: In this study, a simple method was applied in order to determine the trace amount of antimony in bottled drinking water based on preconcentration /solid phase extraction. The nano alumina modified with Schiff base ligand was used in regard with Sb preconcentration. The experiments were performed in a continuous system and HCI was used as eluent of Sb ion. Several chemical and flow variables were optimized for a quantitative preconcentration and determination of Sb ion. The atomic absorption spectroscopy was used to determine Sb ion concentration. In order to study the keeping conditions on the leaching of Sb ion from PET plastic, drinking water bottles were kept in different conditions(room temperature, sunny light and -18˚C. Results: The calibration graph was linear in the range of 0.5 to 15.0 ppm Sb with detection limit of 0.055 ppm. The flow rate of sample was optimized in range of 1.0-9.0 mLmin-1 and Sb ion can be quantitatively eluted at 90 Vsample: Veluent retio. Conclusion: The study results revealed that the modified nano alumina is an effective sorbent in regard with absorbing Sb ion from water and HCI 1M can be used as an appropriate eluent. Maximum leaching of Sb ion is observed when the bottled drinking water was exposed to the sun light. Keywords: Antimony; Bottled drinking water; Modified alumina; Preconcentration

  8. Optimization of instrumental neutron activation analysis for the within-bottle homogeneity study of reference materials of marine origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Daniel Pereira da

    2017-01-01

    The use of reference materials has been increasing in chemical analysis laboratories as its use is important for measurement validation in analytical chemistry. Such materials are generally imported, which require high financial investments in order to acquire them, and therefore it impacts on the difficulty to many national laboratories to use reference materials in their chemical analysis routine. Certification of reference materials is a complex process that assumes that the user is given appropriate assigned values of the properties of interests in the material. In this process, the homogeneity of the material must be checked. In this study, the within-bottle homogeneity study for the elements K, Mg, Mn, Na and V was performed for two reference materials of marine origin: the mussel reference material produced at the Neutron Activation Laboratory (LAN) of IPEN - CNEN/SP and an oyster tissue reference material produced abroad. For this purpose, the elements were determined in subsamples with masses varying between 1 and 250 mg by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and minimum sample intakes were estimated, ranging from 0.015 g for Na in the mussel reference material to 0.100 g for V in the two reference materials. (author)

  9. Proteomic study related to vascular connections in watermelon scions grafted onto bottle-gourd rootstock under different light intensities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sowbiya Muneer

    Full Text Available Although grafting is broadly used in the production of crops, no information is available about the proteins involved in vascular connections between rootstock and scion. Similarly, proteome changes under the light intensities widely used for grafted seedlings are of practical use. The objective of this study was to determine the proteome of vascular connections using watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris Schrad. 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed' as the scion and bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Stanld. 'RS Dongjanggun' as the rootstock grown under different light intensities (25, 50, 75 and 100 μmol m-2 s-1. Our proteomic analysis revealed 24 and 27 differentially expressed proteins in 'Sambok Honey' and 'Speed', respectively, under different light intensities. The identified proteins were largely involved in ion binding, amino acid metabolism, transcriptional regulation and defense response. The enhancement of ion-binding, transcriptional regulation, amino acid metabolism, and defense response proteins suggests a strengthening of the connection between the rootstock and scion under high light intensity. Indeed, the accumulation of key enzymes in the biological processes described above appears to play an important role in the vascular connections of grafted seedlings. Moreover, it appears that 100 μmol m-2 s-1 results in better protein expression responses in grafted seedlings.

  10. A new tool for long-term studies of POM-bacteria interactions: overcoming the century-old Bottle Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu, Danny; Bizic-Ionescu, Mina; Khalili, Arzhang; Malekmohammadi, Reza; Morad, Mohammad Reza; de Beer, Dirk; Grossart, Hans-Peter

    2015-01-01

    Downward fluxes of particulate organic matter (POM) are the major process for sequestering atmospheric CO2 into aquatic sediments for thousands of years. Budget calculations of the biological carbon pump are heavily based on the ratio between carbon export (sedimentation) and remineralization (release to the atmosphere). Current methodologies determine microbial dynamics on POM using closed vessels, which are strongly biased towards heterotrophy due to rapidly changing water chemistry (Bottle Effect). We developed a flow-through rolling tank for long term studies that continuously maintains POM at near in-situ conditions. There, bacterial communities resembled in-situ communities and greatly differed from those in the closed systems. The active particle-associated community in the flow-through system was stable for days, contrary to hours previously reported for closed incubations. In contrast to enhanced respiration rates, the decrease in photosynthetic rates on particles throughout the incubation was much slower in our system than in traditional ones. These results call for reevaluating experimentally-derived carbon fluxes estimated using traditional methods. PMID:26435525

  11. Study of primary energy transfer process in ultrafast plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtson, B.; Moszynski, M.

    1978-01-01

    The study of the light-pulse shape, the initial delay of light pulses and the light yield of plastics prepared by a modification of the NE111 scintillator were performed. The NE111 scintillator doped with several quench agents, the plastics prepared as a solution of butyl PBD in PVT of different concentration and PVT alone were studied. The study confirmed that the light pulse shape from fast binary plastics is well described analytically by the convolution of the clipped Gaussian and exponential functions. The investigation of the PVT-butyl PBD plastics shows that even more than three times larger concentration of butyl PBD compared to that of PBD in the NE111 solution does not improve the rise of the light pulse. Thus the rise time seems to be not controlled by the intermolecular energy transfer process. Finally, the observed rise time of the light pulse from the PVT sample was also approximated well by the Gaussian function. Altogether it brought a strong support for the earlier hypothesis that the initial slow rise of light pulses from plastic scintillators may come from the deexcitation of several higher levels of the solvent molecules excited by nuclear particles. (Auth.)

  12. Cratering Studies in Thin Plastic Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, A. J.; Bugiel, S.; Gruen, E.; Hillier, J.; Horanyi, M.; Munsat, T. L.; Srama, R.

    2013-12-01

    Thin plastic films, such as Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF), have been used as protective coatings or dust detectors on a number of missions including the Dust Counter and Mass Analyzer (DUCMA) instrument on Vega 1 and 2, the High Rate Detector (HRD) on the Cassini Mission, and the Student Dust Counter (SDC) on New Horizons. These types of detectors can be used on the lunar surface or in lunar orbit to detect dust grain size distributions and velocities. Due to their low power requirements and light weight, large surface area detectors can be built for observing low dust fluxes. The SDC dust detector is made up of a permanently polarized layer of PVDF coated on both sides with a thin layer (≈ 1000 Å) of aluminum nickel. The operation principle is that a micrometeorite impact removes a portion of the metal surface layer exposing the permanently polarized PVDF underneath. This causes a local potential near the crater changing the surface charge of the metal layer. The dimensions and shape of the crater determine the strength of the potential and thus the signal generated by the PVDF. The theoretical basis for signal interpretation uses a crater diameter scaling law which was not intended for use with PVDF. In this work, a crater size scaling law has been experimentally determined, and further simulation work is being done to enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of crater formation. LS-Dyna, a smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code from the Livermore Software Technology Corp. was chosen to simulate micrometeorite impacts. SPH is known to be well suited to the large deformities found in hypervelocity impacts. It is capable of incorporating key physics phenomena, including fracture, heat transfer, melting, etc. Furthermore, unlike Eulerian methods, SPH is gridless allowing large deformities without the inclusion of unphysical erosion algorithms. Material properties are accounted for using the Grüneisen Equation of State. The results of the SPH model can

  13. [A study on English loan words in French plastic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, E; Tegelberg, E

    2014-10-01

    The French language is less and less used as an international scientific language and many French researchers publish their work in English. Nowadays, Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthétique is the only international plastic surgical journal published completely in French. The use of English loan words in French plastic surgery has never been studied. The aim of this study was to describe the frequency and types of English loan words in French plastic surgery. A corpus consisting of all the articles in a number of Annales de Chirurgie Plastique Esthethique, chosen by default, was created. The frequency of English loan words was calculated and the types of words were analysed. The corpus contains 367 (0.8%) English loan words. Most of them are non-integrated loan words and calques. The majority of the plastic surgical loan words describe surgical techniques. The French plastic surgical language seems to be influenced by English. The usage of loan words does not always follow the recommendations and the usage is sometimes ambiguous. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Water Quality Evaluation of PET Bottled Water by Mineral Balance in the Northeast Asian Region: A Case Study of South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houri, Daisuke; Koo, Chung Mo

    2015-09-01

    The past few years have seen a demand for drinking water in contemporary society with a focus on safety and taste. Mineral water is now marketed as a popular commercial product and, partly due to health concerns, the production. For the study, a comparison was carried out of water samples from 9 types of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottled water sold in South Korea as well as from tap water in the cities of Seoul and Chuncheon. These were compared with samples of Japanese PET bottled water in order to determine shared commonalities and identify individual characteristics. To evaluate water quality objectively, we quantified the elements contained in the water samples. Samples were assessed not with the usual sensory evaluation but with the evaluation approach advocated by Hashimoto et al. which employs the Water Index of Taste and the Water Index of Health. The levels of water quality obtained were compared with the "Prerequisites for Tasty Water" and the "Standards for Tasty Water" devised for city water. The PET Bottled water varieties analyzed in this study-Seoksu, Icis, Bong Pyong, Soon Soo 100, Dong Won Saem Mul, GI JANG SOO and DIAMOND-showed the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health ≥ 5.2, which we classified as tasty/healthy water. SamDaSoo and NamiNeral can be classified as tasty water due to their values of the Water Index of Taste ≥ 2.0 and the Water Index of Health water studied here fulfills the "Water Index of Taste," "Water Index of Health," "Standard for Tasty Water" and "Prerequisites for Tasty Water" that Japanese people value for city water. We can conclude that bottled water which meets water quality requirements will be considered good-tasting by a majority of people.

  15. Tracking the origins of plastic debris across the Coral Sea: A case study from the Ouvéa Island, New Caledonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maes, Christophe; Blanke, Bruno

    2015-08-15

    Contamination of the marine environment by human-made plastic litter is a growing and global problem. Our study attempts to explain the presence of two plastic bottles beached on the Ouvéa Island, in the southwest Pacific Ocean, with trademarks from the Solomon Islands and Papua New Guinea (PNG). We simulate the oceanic drift tracks and associated transit times with a Lagrangian interpretation of the surface currents of a high-resolution ocean model. Our results show that it takes less than 2-3months for drifting objects to connect these archipelagos (New Caledonia, Solomon Islands and PNG) and highlight the role of the meridional component of the circulation rather than the dominant zonal jets. This study shows that the origin or traceability of trash represent valuable information that can be used to test and, ultimately, improve our understanding of ocean circulation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of the influence of storage conditions on the quality and migration levels of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate-bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payán, Luis; Poyatos, M Teresa; Muñoz, Lucía; La Rubia, M Dolores; Pacheco, Rafael; Ramos, Natividad

    2017-06-01

    The main objectives of this study are to determine the presence of antimony in water stored in polyethylene terephthalate bottles and the influence of temperature and time over the migration levels. For this purpose, Sb determination was carried out in water at different experimental conditions: storage for one to three weeks at 25 to 80 ℃; long-term (six months) storage at room temperature between 16 and 24 ℃ and storage in car during summer which is a common consumer's habit. In addition, water quality analysis was developed after different time-temperature storage conditions. All the samples at the end of their storage conditions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The limit of detection and quantification were 0.50 and 0.80 µg/L, respectively. The results for the bottled water stored during six months indicated that the average Sb concentration was 0.332 ± 0.015 µg/L. This value is below the European maximum permissible migration level of 5 µg/L. With regard to the newly bottled water, no Sb was detected at the initial time for all temperatures studied. However, the Sb concentration in water increased with both time and temperature. The levels of Sb started exceeding the European limits when the samples were stored at 60 ℃ for two weeks.

  17. Method for studying the plastic buckling of shells. Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alix, M.; Combescure, A.; Hoffmann, A.; Roche, R.

    1980-05-01

    In this article a description is given of the method selected for studying the elasto-plastic buckling of shells of any shape. The emphasis is mainly on three points: the difficulty in making a strict formulation with respect to plasticity, the model selected (MOTAN model) is presented; the effect of so called 'non conservative' forces; and the effect of great deformations that might precede the buckling. The method is compared to tests: basket handle buckling of bottoms, buckling of elliptical bottoms under internal pressure, of compresses thin tubes, of metal drums, spherical diaphragm, shearing rings [fr

  18. Effect of temperature on the release of intentionally and non-intentionally added substances from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles into water: chemical analysis and potential toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Severin, Isabelle; Munoz, Jean-François; Etienne, Serge; Chagnon, Marie-Christine

    2013-08-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of temperature on the release of PET-bottle constituents into water and to assess the potential health hazard using in vitro bioassays with bacteria and human cell lines. Aldehydes, trace metals and other compounds found in plastic packaging were analysed in PET-bottled water stored at different temperatures: 40, 50, and 60°C. In this study, temperature and the presence of CO2 increased the release of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony (Sb). In parallel, genotoxicity assays (Ames and micronucleus assays) and transcriptional-reporter gene assays for estrogenic and anti-androgenic activity were performed on bottled water extracts at relevant consumer exposure levels. As expected, and in accordance with the chemical formulations specified for PET bottles, neither phthalates nor UV stabilisers were present in the water extracts. However, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, a degradation compound of phenolic antioxidants, was detected. In addition, an intermediary monomer, bis(2-hydroxyethyl)terephthalate, was found but only in PET-bottled waters. None of the compounds are on the positive list of EU Regulation No. 10/2011. However, the PET-bottled water extracts did not induce any cytotoxic, genotoxic or endocrine-disruption activity in the bioassays after exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrochemical Characterisation of Bio-Bottle-Voltaic (BBV) Systems Operated with Algae and Built with Recycled Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateson, Peter; Fleet, Jack E H; Riseley, Anthony S; Janeva, Elena; Marcella, Anastasia S; Farinea, Chiara; Kuptsova, Maria; Conde Pueyo, Núria; Howe, Christopher J; Bombelli, Paolo; Parker, Brenda M

    2018-04-17

    Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana . We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV) device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days. Electrochemical characterisation was conducted by measuring the drop in potential between the anode and the cathode, and this value was used to calculate the rate of charge accumulation. The BBV systems were initially able to deliver ~500 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 , which increased throughout the experimental run to a maximum of ~2000 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 . The electrical output was consistently and significantly higher than that of the abiotic BBV system operated without algal cells (~100 mC·bottle −1 ·day −1 ). The analysis of the rate of algal biomass accumulation supported the hypothesis that harvesting a proportion of electrons from the algal cells does not significantly perturb the rate of algal growth. Our finding demonstrates that bioelectrochemical systems can be built using recycled components. Prototypes of these systems have been displayed in public events; they could serve as educational toolkits in schools and could also offer a solution for powering low-energy devices off-grid.

  20. Impact of temperature and storage time on the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers into bottled water in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Otoum, Fatima; Al-Ghouti, Mohammad A; Costa, Ozeas S; Khraisheh, Majeda

    2017-11-12

    Prosperity in Qatar and the consequent stresses on water resources resulted in a sustainable increase in the bottled drinking water market. Reports on health concerns and possible migration of chemicals from the plastic material into the water have driven the current investigation. This study aims to address the extent of antimony (Sb) leaching from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) water bottles subject to temperature variations (24-50 °C) due to Qatar's hot climate and improper storage conditions. A representative basket including 66 different imported and locally produced water bottles was considered. The concentrations of Sb in bottled water ranged from 0.168 to 2.263 μg/L at 24 °C and from 0.240 to 6.110 μg/L at 50 °C. Antimony concentrations in PET bottles at 24 °C was significantly lower than those at 50 °C (p = 0.0142), indicating that the temperature was a principal factor affecting the release of Sb from the plastic into the water. Although the detected Sb amounts were below the guidelines endorsed by WHO and Qatar (standard 5 μg/L) at 24 °C, the concentration measured at 50 °C was higher than the recommended WHO values (6.11 μg/L).

  1. Study of plasticity in metals by numerical simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clouet, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present a study of the plastic behaviour in metals based on the modelling of dislocation properties. Different simulation tools have been used and developed to study plasticity in structural materials, in particular metals used in the nuclear industry. In iron or zirconium alloys, plasticity is controlled at low temperature by the glide of screw dislocations. Atomistic simulations can be used to model dislocation core properties and thus to obtain a better knowledge of the mechanisms controlling dislocation glide. Such atomistic simulations need nevertheless some special care because of the long range elastic field induced by the dislocations. We have therefore developed a modelling approach relying both on atomistic simulations, using either empirical interatomic potentials or ab initio calculations, and on elasticity theory. Such an approach has been used to obtain dislocation intrinsic core properties. These simulations allowed us to describe, in iron, the variations of these core properties with the dislocation character. In zirconium, we could identity the origin of the high lattice friction and obtain a better understanding of the competition between the different glide systems. At high temperature, dislocations do not only glide but can also cross-slip or climb. This leads to a motion of the dislocations out of their glide plane which needs to be considered when modelling the plastic flow. We performed a study of dislocation climb at different scales, leading to the implementation of a dislocation climb model in dislocation dynamics simulations. (author) [fr

  2. Evaluation of HDPE water sample bottles and PVC sampler tubing used in herbicide dissipation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. B. Fischer; J. L. Michael; H. L. Gibbs

    2009-01-01

    The recovery of six herbicides (triclopyr, triclopyr ester, sulfometuron methyl, metsulfuron methyl, imazapyr, and hexazinone) was evaluated in two stream water samples, one from Weogufka Creek in the Alabama Piedmont and one from a stagnant stream in the Escambia Experimental Forest near Florida. Simulated field study conditions were...

  3. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özkan, Kemal, E-mail: kozkan@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Ergin, Semih, E-mail: sergin@ogu.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işık, Şahin, E-mail: sahini@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işıklı, İdil, E-mail: idil.isikli@bilecik.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Bilecik University, 11210 Bilecik (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • PET, HPDE or PP types of plastics are considered. • An automated classification of plastic bottles based on the feature extraction and classification methods is performed. • The decision mechanism consists of PCA, Kernel PCA, FLDA, SVD and Laplacian Eigenmaps methods. • SVM is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used. - Abstract: Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple

  4. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Özkan, Kemal; Ergin, Semih; Işık, Şahin; Işıklı, İdil

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • PET, HPDE or PP types of plastics are considered. • An automated classification of plastic bottles based on the feature extraction and classification methods is performed. • The decision mechanism consists of PCA, Kernel PCA, FLDA, SVD and Laplacian Eigenmaps methods. • SVM is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used. - Abstract: Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple

  5. The Utility of Outcome Studies in Plastic Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hani Sinno, MD, MEng

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Outcome studies help provide the evidence-based science rationalizing treatment end results that factor the experience of patients and the impact on society. They improve the recognition of the shortcoming in clinical practice and provide the foundation for the development of gold standard care. With such evidence, health care practitioners can develop evidence-based justification for treatments and offer patients with superior informed consent for their treatment options. Furthermore, health care and insurance agencies can recognize improved cost-benefit options in the purpose of disease prevention and alleviation of its impact on the patient and society. Health care outcomes are ultimately measured by the treatment of disease, the reduction of symptoms, the normalization of laboratory results and physical measures, saving a life, and patient satisfaction. In this review, we outline the tools available to measure outcomes in plastic surgery and subsequently allow the objective measurements of plastic surgical conditions. Six major outcome categories are discussed: (1 functional measures; (2 preference-based measures and utility outcome scores; (3 patient satisfaction; (4 health outcomes and time; (5 other tools: patient-reported outcome measurement information system, BREAST-Q, and Tracking Operations and Outcomes for Plastic Surgeons; and (6 cost-effectiveness analysis. We use breast hypertrophy requiring breast reduction as an example throughout this review as a representative plastic surgical condition with multiple treatments available.

  6. Criticality safety requirements for transporting EBR-II fuel bottles stored at INTEC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lell, R. M.; Pope, C. L.

    2000-01-01

    Two carrier/shipping cask options are being developed to transport bottles of EBR-II fuel elements stored at INTEC. Some fuel bottles are intact, but some have developed leaks. Reactivity control requirements to maintain subcriticality during the hypothetical transport accident have been examined for both transport options for intact and leaking bottles. Poison rods, poison sleeves, and dummy filler bottles were considered; several possible poison materials and several possible dummy filler materials were studied. The minimum number of poison rods or dummy filler bottles has been determined for each carrier for transport of intact and leaking bottles

  7. A suitability study of the fission product phantom and the bottle manikin absorption phantom for calibration of in vivo bioassay equipment for the DOELAP accreditation testing program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, P.C.; Lynch, T.P.

    1991-08-01

    Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) conducted an intercomparison study of the Fission Product phantom and the bottle manikin absorption (BOMAB) phantom for the US Department of Energy (DOE) to determine the consistency of calibration response of the two phantoms and their suitability for certification and use under a planned bioassay laboratory accreditation program. The study was initiated to determine calibration factors for both types of phantoms and to evaluate the suitability of their use in DOE Laboratory Accreditation Program (DOELAP) round-robin testing. The BOMAB was found to be more appropriate for the DOELAP testing program. 9 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs

  8. Scenarios study on post-consumer plastic packaging waste recycling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Bos-Brouwers, H.E.J.; Groot, J.J.; Bing Xiaoyun, Xiaoyun; Jansen, M.; Luijsterburg, B.

    2013-01-01

    We all use plastics on a daily basis. Plastics come in many shapes, sizes and compositions and are used in a wide variety of products. Almost all of the currently used plastic packaging are made from fossil resources, which are finite. The production of plastic packages causes environmental impacts,

  9. Transformation induced plasticity in maraging steel: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, K.; Kitajima, Y.; Kigami, S.; Tanaka, K.

    2000-01-01

    The deformation behavior of a maraging TRIP (transformation induced plasticity) steel (MAVAL X12) is studied experimentally under a constant load. The existence of the back stress in the axial direction is directly proved by investigating the dilatation curves. Martensite-start lines are given under tensile, compressive and shear stresses. The evolution of TRIP strain and the maximum TRIP strain are determined. The alloy response during isothermal tensile test is explained in terms of influences both by the composite and transformation. (orig.)

  10. Plastics and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avenas, P.

    1996-01-01

    Synthetic organic polymers, such as plastics, PVC, polyamides etc are considered less ecological than natural materials such as wood. Other artificial materials such as metals, glass or biodegradable plastics have also a better image than petroleum products. This short paper demonstrates that the manufacturing or the transport of every material uses energy and that the complete energy balance sheet of a plastic bottle, for instance, is more favourable than the one of a glass bottle. Plastic materials are also easily valorized and recycled and part of the energy spent during manufacturing can be recovered during incineration for district heating. During the life-cycle of such a synthetic material, the same petroleum quantity can be used twice which leads to less negative effects on the environment. Finally, the paper focusses on the problem of biodegradable materials which are not degradable when buried under several meters of wastes and which are a nuisance to recycling. (J.S.)

  11. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    has to have an inner coating barrier. The most reliable solution proposed is to coat the inner walls with silicon dioxide, which is not biodegradable but rather environmentally inert. To enhance the environmental footprint and sustainability of the bottle, and to be competitive with the existing...... technologies, the manufacturing technology for the production of the bottle has to offer the possibility of significant energy savings. Molded pulp products are made from wood fibers dispersed in water, and then they are formed, drained and dried. A relatively large quantity of resources (i.e. energy and time......) is consumed during the drying process. It is in this process stage that an innovative way of drying the products can be exploited by using the concept of impulse drying. Impulse drying is an advance drying technique in which water is removed from a wet paper pulp by the combination of mechanical pressure...

  12. Pulmonary functions in plastic factory workers: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaliq, Farah; Singh, Pawan; Chandra, Prakash; Gupta, Keshav; Vaney, Neelam

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to long term air pollution in the work environment may result in decreased lung functions and various other health problems. A significant occupational hazard to lung functions is experienced by plastic factory workers. The present study is planned to assess the pulmonary functions of workers in the plastic factory where recycling of pastic material was done. These workers were constantly exposed to fumes of various chemicals throughout the day. Thirty one workers of plastic factory were assessed for their pulmonary functions. Parameters were compared with 31 age and sex matched controls not exposed to the same environment. The pulmonary function tests were done using Sibelmed Datospir 120 B portable spirometer. A significant decrease in most of the flow rates (MEF 25%, MEF 50%, MEF 75% and FEF 25-75%) and most of the lung volumes and capacities (FVC, FEV1, VC, TV, ERV, MVV) were observed in the workers. Smoking and duration of exposure were not affecting the lung functions as the non smokers also showed a similar decrement in pulmonary functions. Similarly the workers working for less than 5 years also had decrement in pulmonary functions indicating that their lungs are being affected even if they have worked for one year. Exposure to the organic dust in the work environment should be controlled by adequate engineering measures, complemented by effective personal respiratory protection.

  13. Evaluation of microbial contamination of canine plasma eyedropper bottles following clinical use in canine patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Rachel A; Genschel, Ulrike; Allbaugh, Rachel A; Sebbag, Lionel; Ben-Shlomo, Gil

    2018-05-24

    To investigate microbial contamination of canine plasma eye drops when used clinically and to compare the effect of two different eyedropper bottles on contamination rate. Forty-six bottles containing plasma were randomly dispensed for use on 42 dogs with ulcerative keratitis. Of these, 23 were standard eyedropper bottles and 23 were Novelia ® bottles designed to prevent contamination. After use for up to 2 weeks, samples for bacterial culture were obtained from a drop of plasma, the bottle tip, the plasma inside the bottle, and the corneal surface. Fungal culture was performed from a drop of plasma. The overall microbial contamination rate was 17.4% (8/46 bottles); however, only one bottle had growth from the plasma inside the bottle. There was a lower contamination rate of Novelia ® bottles (3/23 = 13.0%) compared to standard bottles (5/23 = 21.7%), but this difference was not statistically significant (P = .57). There were also no significant differences in contamination rate of bottles used greater than 7 days compared to less than or equal to 7 days, or in bottles used greater than 4 times daily compared to 4 times daily or less. Three corneal samples (6.5%) had bacterial growth, but none matched contamination from the bottles. Novelia ® bottles may decrease contamination of plasma eye drops used clinically. However, while microbial contamination of plasma bottles was documented, no clinically relevant complications were observed. This study supports safe use of plasma eye drops for up to 2 weeks when refrigerated and dispensed from either Novelia ® or standard eyedropper bottles. © 2018 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  14. Rework and postponement: a comparison of bottling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Teunter (Ruud); S.D.P. Flapper

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents the results of a case study in a batch production facility for biological vaccines. The problem considered is that of finding the best bottling strategy for produced batches. A batch can be bottled directly after production, after positive intermediate test results,

  15. Techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to investigate the economic viability of setting up a small scale palm wine bottling factory with a view to providing investment data to guide entrepreneurs in making investment decisions. The economic evaluation was based on a factory capacity of 750,000 bottles (60cl) per annum with production ...

  16. Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to bottle caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Anderson; William C. Miller

    1973-01-01

    Wooden beverage cases cause little damage to aluminum resealable caps during distribution. A study at bottling plants and distribution warehouses showed that an average of 1 bottle out of 4,000 has cap damage. Most of the damage was attributed to handling at the warehouse and in transit. Some recommendations are given for improvement of wooden beverage cases to prevent...

  17. Valorization of post-consumer waste plastic in cementitious concrete composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marzouk, O. Yazoghli; Dheilly, R.M.; Queneudec, M.

    2007-01-01

    The sheer amount of disposable bottles being produced nowadays makes it imperative to identify alternative procedures for recycling them since they are non-biodegradable. This paper describes an innovative use of consumed plastic bottle waste as sand-substitution aggregate within composite materials for building application. Particularly, bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have been used as partial and complete substitutes for sand in concrete composites. Various volume fractions of sand varying from 2% to 100% were substituted by the same volume of granulated plastic, and various sizes of PET aggregates were used. The bulk density and mechanical characteristics of the composites produced were evaluated. To study the relationship between mechanical properties and composite microstructure, scanning electron microscopy technique was employed. The results presented show that substituting sand at a level below 50% by volume with granulated PET, whose upper granular limit equals 5 mm, affects neither the compressive strength nor the flexural strength of composites. This study demonstrates that plastic bottles shredded into small PET particles may be used successfully as sand-substitution aggregates in cementitious concrete composites. These new composites would appear to offer an attractive low-cost material with consistent properties; moreover, they would help in resolving some of the solid waste problems created by plastics production and in saving energy

  18. A parametric study of strength reduction factors for elasto-plastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A parametric study of strength reduction factors for elasto-plastic oscillators ... motion duration, earthquake magnitude, geological site conditions, and epicentral distance in case of (non-degrading) elasto-plastic oscillators. ... Sadhana | News.

  19. Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception, or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used. The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh. None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material. The participants in this control study (n = 29 were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of

  20. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  1. [Growth of breastfed and bottle-fed infants up to 2 years of age: CLACYD (Lactation, Alimentation, Growth and Development) study 1993-1995].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrelo, F; Lobo, B; Chesta, M; Berra, S; Sabulsky, J

    1999-07-01

    Studies done in various countries show important differences in the growth of breastfed and bottle-fed children. In addition, it has been found that breast-fed children grow more slowly beginning at the age of 2 or 3 months in comparison with the reference pattern of the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and the World Health Organization (WHO). These results cast doubt on whether maximum growth is the same as optimal growth. The objective of this study was to compare the growth in weight and length, from birth to 24 months, for a group of children who were breast-fed with that of a group who were bottle-fed. The study was also intended to describe the growth of the breastfed group in relation to the NCHS/WHO norms and a WHO "12-month breast-fed pooled data set." For this research, data were analyzed from the "Cordoba: lactation, feeding, growth, and development" study (or CLACYD study, for its Spanish-language acronym). That study looked at a representative cohort, stratified by social class, of children born in 1993 in the city of Cordoba, Argentina. The researchers analyzed anthropometric data on 74 children who were breast-fed during the first year of life and on 108 bottle-fed children. The data had been recorded, using standardized techniques, at birth and at 6, 12, and 24 months of age. Both groups were homogenous with respect to the age and schooling of the parents, social stratum, birth order, maternal height, and child's weight and length at birth. The living conditions (housing construction and availability of water and sewer services) were better among the group that was bottle-fed (P = 0.04). The breast-fed children had a lower weight and a shorter length at 6, 12, and 24 months than did the bottle-fed children. The breast-fed children also showed a slowing in growth with respect to the NCHS/WHO guidelines beginning in the second semester. This indicates that the NCHS/WHO norms are not totally adequate for evaluating the growth of breast

  2. The study of elastio-plastic seismic analysis for rigid-frame structures

    OpenAIRE

    陳, 珉; 青木, 徹彦

    2000-01-01

    Elastic and elastio-plastic earthquake-resistant analysis of frame construction is mainly studied in this paper. In elastic stage, response and vibrated characteristics of symmetrical and unsymmetrical structure are investigated by comparing the results of plane and space analysis. The effect of approaching angle of seismic wave to vibrated characteristics of structure under different column/beam rate are discussed. In elastio-plastic stage, four kinds of plastic mode with different plastic p...

  3. [Plastic surgery application in artistic studies of breast cosmetic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabié, A; Delay, E; Chavoin, J-P; Soulhiard, F; Seguin, P

    2006-04-01

    As, quest for beauty has always been an aim. There is a need to define the "ideal" beautifull breast with objective caracteristics, usable in plastic, reconstructive and aesthetic surgery. After, we have defined the necessary parameters usable in breast surgery. We realized an anthropomorphic study including 70 volunteer women and one molded model. Multiple pictures have been taken for each volunteer, that were evaluated and noted by five plastic surgeon, five doctors from other speciality, five women, five men. A twenty notation was used for this study. The main values for the ten women that obtained best notation (>or=14/20) were used in order to defined the ideal measures for surgery. Breast arrow and breast arrow over the trunck height were the most significant factors. According statistical studies, this fraction is about 0,387 (P=0,000969). The nice breast has a round shape and look like juvenile breast. Bra size, cup size, base, segments II and III, fraction II/III are not significant in our series of (non operated) natural breast. The ideal breast is in harmony and proportional to the trunck height, with the main fraction of breast arrow on the trunck height about 0,387 in our serie.

  4. Feeding bottles usage and the prevalence of childhood allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.2) were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children's ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  5. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Yun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children’s ages ranging from 2 to 7 years in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children’s wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.09, allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.08, and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.2 were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children’s ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  6. Study on Mechanical Properties of Concrete Using Plastic Waste as an Aggregate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaivignesh, B.; Sofi, A.

    2017-07-01

    Disposal of large quantity of plastic causes land, water and air pollution etc.., so a study is conducted to recycle the plastic in concrete. This work investigates about the replacement of natural aggregate with non-biodegradable plastic aggregate made up of mixed plastic waste in concrete. Several tests are conducted such as compressive strength of cube, split tensile strength of cylinder, flexural strength test of prism to identify the properties and behavior of concrete using plastic aggregate. Replacement of fine aggregate weight by 10%, 15%, 20% with Plastic fine (PF) aggregate and for each replacement of fine aggregate 15%, 20%, 25% of coarse aggregate replacement also conducted with Plastic Coarse(PC) aggregate. In literatures reported that the addition of plastic aggregate in concrete causes the reduction of strength in concrete due to poor bonding between concrete and plastic aggregate, so addition of 0.3% of steel fiber by weight of cement in concrete is done to improve the concrete strength. Totally 60 cubes, 60 cylinders and 40 prisms are casted to identify the compressive strength, split tensile strength and flexural strength respectively. Casted specimens are tested at 7 and 28 days. The identified results from concrete using plastic aggregate are compared with conventional concrete. Result shows that reduction in mechanical properties of plastic aggregate added concrete. This reduction in strength is mainly due to poor bond strength between cement and plastic aggregate.

  7. Transportation fuel from plastic: Two cases of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faussone, Gian Claudio

    2018-03-01

    Synthesis of liquid fuels from waste is a promising pathway for reducing the carbon footprint of transportation industry and optimizing waste management towards zero landfilling. The study of commercial plants that conduct pyrolysis of plastics from post-consumer recycled materials and directly mine from old landfills without any pre-treatment has revealed two cases that show the feasibility of manufacturing transportation fuels via these methods. Pyrolysis oil, consisting of almost 26% hydrocarbons within the gasoline range and almost 70% within the diesel range, is upgraded to transportation fuel in the existing refinery. A batch operating plant is able to deliver relatively good quality pyrolysis oil from post-consumer plastic waste, owing to the catalyst employed. Simple distillation was also evaluated as an alternative and cheaper upgrading process into transportation fuels, meeting EN590 diesel and ISO8217 marine fuel standards. Even though the two installations are outside the European Union, they represent good examples of the "circular economy" concept envisaged by the European Union via its ambitious "Circular Economy Package [1]", providing real world data for comparison with other experimental and lab results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Microgrooved plasmonic bottle microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, M. N.; Ding, M.; Murugan, G. S.; Zervas, M. N.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate an enhancement to SPW cavity through the incorporation of high-Q WGM bottle microresonator (BMR) with surface microgrooves. A standard BMR fabricated through the “soften-and-compress” technique with initial length of 280 μm, bottle diameter of 187 μm and stem diameter of 125 μm was utilized in the experiment for supporting WGMs. Thin gold film was deposited on top of the BMR for generating SPWs. 21 microgrooves was then inscribed on the metal surface of the BMR along the azimuthal direction with 10 μm length, 485 nm width, 6 μm depth and pitch of 1.5 μm. Due to surface curvature, the gold film only covered half of the BMR with a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered metal edges that facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice-versa. Lorentzian shape-line fit performed on the TM excited resonances show that plasmonic Q values in excess of 4000 could be achieved from such structure with ∼ 25% coupling efficiency.

  9. Running Mechanics and Metabolic Responses with Water Bottles and Bottle Belt Holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; Zdziarski, Laura A; Fallgatter, Kyle; Negron, Giorgio; Chen, Cong; Leavitt, Trevor; Horodyski, MaryBeth; Wasser, Joseph G; Vincent, Kevin R

    2018-01-18

    This study determined whether differential kinematics, kinetics, rates of energy use and cardiopulmonary responses occurred during running with water bottles and bottle belt holders compared to running only. Trained runners (N=42; 27.2±6.4 yr) ran on an instrumented treadmill for four conditions in a randomized order: 1) control run (CON); 2) hand-held full water bottle (FULL, 16.9 fluid oz; 454 g); 3) hand-held half-full water bottle (HALF, 8.4 fluid oz.; 227 g); and 4) waist-worn bottle belt holder (BELT; hydration belt; 676 g). Gas exchange was measured using a portable gas analyzer. Kinetic and kinematic responses were determined via standard 3D videographic techniques. Interactions of limb side (right, left) by study condition (CON, FULL, HALF, BELT) were tested for rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure, and kinematic and kinetic parameters. No significant limb side × condition interactions existed for rates of oxygen use or energy expenditure. A significant interaction occurred with sagittal elbow flexion (pwater by hand or on the waist does not significantly change kinematics of running motion, rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure or cardiopulmonary measures over short durations. Runners are likely making adjustments to joint moments and powers that preserve balance and protect the lower extremity joints while maintaining the rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure.

  10. Plasticizer contamination in edible vegetable oil in a U.S. retail market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Xiaolong; Pan, Xiaojun; Yuan, Shoujun; Wang, Qiquan

    2013-10-02

    With the wide application of plastics, the contamination of plasticizers migrating from plastic materials in the environment is becoming ubiquitous. The presence of phthalates, the major group of plasticizers, in edible items has gained increasingly more concern due to their endocrine disrupting property. In this study, 15 plasticizers in 21 edible vegetable oils purchased from a U.S. retail market were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were detected in all oil samples. Benzylbutyl phthalate (BzBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethyl phthalate (DEP) were detected at a rate of 95.2, 90.5, and 90.5%, respectively. The detection rates for all other plasticizers ranged from 0 to 57.1%. The content of total plasticizers in oil samples was determined to be 210-7558 μg/kg, which was comparable to the content range in oil marketed in Italy. Although no significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizer was observed among oil species (soybean, canola, corn, and olive), the wider range and higher average of total content of plasticizers in olive oil than other oil species indicated the inconsistence of plasticizer contamination in olive oil and a possible priority for quality monitoring. No significant difference (p = 0.05) in the total content of plasticizers was found among glass-bottle (n = 4), plastic-bottle (n = 14), and metal-can (n = 3) packaging, implying that oil packaging is not the major cause of plasticizer contamination. The daily intake amount of plasticizers contained in edible oil on this U.S. retail market constituted only a minimum percentage of reference dose established by US EPA, thus no obvious toxicological effect might be caused. However, the fact that DEHP content in two olive oils exceeded relevant special migration limits (SMLs) of Europe and China might need attention.

  11. Calcite precipitates in Slovenian bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanič, Tamara Ferjan; Miler, Miloš; Brenčič, Mihael; Gosar, Mateja

    2017-06-01

    Storage of bottled waters in varying ambient conditions affects its characteristics. Different storage conditions cause changes in the initial chemical composition of bottled water which lead to the occurrence of precipitates with various morphologies. In order to assess the relationship between water composition, storage conditions and precipitate morphology, a study of four brands of Slovenian bottled water stored in PET bottles was carried out. Chemical analyses of the main ions and measurements of the physical properties of water samples were performed before and after storage of water samples at different ambient conditions. SEM/EDS analysis of precipitates was performed after elapsed storage time. The results show that the presence of Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- , SiO 2 , Al, Mn and other impurities such as K + , Na + , Ba and Sr in the water controlled precipitate morphology by inhibiting crystal growth and leading to elongated rhombohedral calcite crystal forms which exhibit furrowed surfaces and calcite rosettes. Different storage conditions, however, affected the number of crystallization nuclei and size of calcite crystals. Hollow calcite spheres composed of cleavage rhombohedrons formed in the water with variable storage conditions by a combination of evaporation and precipitation of water droplets during high temperatures or by the bubble templating method.

  12. EPR studies of a red wine bottle deposit, and the precipitates from a 'model' wine , and a white wine, both artificially aged

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitri, M.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: A red wine waxy bottle deposit is known to be an anthocyanin-protein compound. The EPR signal shows the presence of a free radical signal, and a Cu(2+) signal with N superhyperfme structure. Subsequently, EPR study of a model wine, catechin being the only phenol, showed a Cu(2+) signal and a free radical signal. The precipitate thrown by the model wine after artificial aging for 3 months at 45C showed a Cu(2+) signal of different bonding, and a free radical signal. All the previously mentioned Cu(2+) signals showed (differing) hyperfine structures. The precipitate thrown by a similarly artificially aged Chardonnay showed a free radical signal, and a Cu(2+) signal without hyperfine structure: no Cu(2+) signal was detected in the mother liquor. The Cu(2+) bonding in each case will be discussed

  13. A study of microindentation hardness tests by mechanism-based strain gradient plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Y.; Xue, Z.; Gao, H.; Nix, W. D.; Xia, Z. C.

    2000-01-01

    We recently proposed a theory of mechanism-based strain gradient (MSG) plasticity to account for the size dependence of plastic deformation at micron- and submicron-length scales. The MSG plasticity theory connects micron-scale plasticity to dislocation theories via a multiscale, hierarchical framework linking Taylor's dislocation hardening model to strain gradient plasticity. Here we show that the theory of MSG plasticity, when used to study micro-indentation, indeed reproduces the linear dependence observed in experiments, thus providing an important self-consistent check of the theory. The effects of pileup, sink-in, and the radius of indenter tip have been taken into account in the indentation model. In accomplishing this objective, we have generalized the MSG plasticity theory to include the elastic deformation in the hierarchical framework. (c) 2000 Materials Research Society

  14. Gamma dose mapping studies at various locations from bottled up activity in RCB of PFBR following CDA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskar, S.; Rajagopal, V.; Indira, R.; Sunil Sunny, C.; Subbaiah, K.V.

    2005-01-01

    In the event of a Core Disruptive Accident (CDA), large amounts of radioactivity from the core gets released into the Reactor Containment Building (RCB) and bottled up. This acts as a huge volume source, which results in high gamma exposure to the plant personnel at various locations. The dose mapping at various locations in the nuclear island of PFBR under a CDA is essential for the following reasons: (1) To identify the high dose rate areas and locations which are to be avoided during emergency evacuation of plant personnel, (2) To provide suitable emergency exits and identify suitable assembly areas for plant personnel, (3) To provide a realistic estimate of the dose rates and cumulative doses to the essential plant personnel and (4) To provide necessary modifications in the design of the reactor at the design stage itself for minimizing exposure to the plant personnel. The RCB is made up of thick walls of concrete with large penetrations in the form of airlocks like Personnel Airlock (PAL), Material Airlock (MAL) and Emergency Airlock (EAL), to facilitate personnel and material movement, resulting in reduced shielding and higher dose rates. Computations of gamma dose rates have been performed using the point kernel code QADCG-GP at various locations around the RCB of a Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) by actual modeling of the RCB and the auxiliary buildings. The highest dose rates are seen in the vicinity of the airlocks, as expected. (author)

  15. Experimental study of plastic responses of pipe elbows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenstreet, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    Load-deflection responses were determined experimentally for sixteen 152.4-mm (6-in.) (nominal) commercial carbon steel pipe elbows and four 152.4-mm (6-in.) stainless steel elbows. Each specimen was loaded with an external force of sufficient magnitude to produce predominantly plastic response. The influences of bend radius and wall thickness were studied, as well as the effect of internal prssure on load-deflection behavior. Comparisons of results from stainless steel and from carbon steel elbows indicate differences in responses attributable to material differences. The results were interpreted in terms of limit analysis concepts, and collapse loads were determined. Trends given by the collapse loads are identified and discussed

  16. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro-Egbe CN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Henrietta NwachukwuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon.Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future.Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010 were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted.Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6% males and 91 (21.4% females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA were light perception (2 cases, counting fingers (2 cases, and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7% cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema.Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.Keywords: ocular injuries, exploding glass-bottled drink

  17. Bottle & Can Recycling in Denmark: addressing issues and optimizing the recycling rate

    OpenAIRE

    Carnevale, Alessandro; Larsen, Lucas; Tetens, Simon W.

    2015-01-01

    The research is conducted in the landscape of environmental care and consumer behaviour. This paper explores the different dynamics revolving around the recycling of plastic bottles and aluminium cans in Denmark. The aim is to shed light on the possible impediments people might encounter when attempting to hand back their deposit marked bottle to the allocated facilities as well as illuminating what the main forces involved in encouraging or inhibiting people from recycling are. The ultimate ...

  18. Compression cracking of plastic spheres: a high speed photography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majzoub, R.; Chaudhri, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    Failure of brittle spheres under compressive loading, both quasi static and dynamic, is a technologically important problem. However, so far, neither the stress state in a loaded nor the failure process in understood clearly. In fact, because the process of the failure of a loaded sphere is very rapid, it has not been possible to follow it when making static observations. We have, therefore, carried out a high-speed photographic study using framing rates of up to 200,000 frames per second to follow the sequence of events when polished 12.7 mm diameter spheres of acrylic resin are fragmented using a low-velocity impact apparatus. The latter consist of a 5.7 kg hammer, which is allowed to drop on to the test sphere from a height of 1.3 m and the entire event of impact and ensuing fracture is photographed with a rotating mirror camera (C-4). Form numerous impact experiments it has been found that as the impact load increases gradually, plastic flow and flattering of the sphere occurs at the contact region. The size of the flattened region continuous to grow with increasing impact load and when this region becomes sufficiently large, usually one or two cracks initiate at the periphery of the contact rather than in the bulk of the sphere. The surface cracks then grow into the bulk of the sphere at velocities in the range of 600-800 m s/sup -1/. It is interesting to note these crack velocities are the maximum observed velocities in this material, but these are only approx. 0.8 of the Rayleigh wave velocity, which is the theoretically predicted maximum crack velocity in brittle materials. It is argued that in order to cause the catastrophic failure of a solid sphere, it is necessary to cause plasticity in it which then leads to the generation of tensile hoop stresses at the circle of contact between the sphere and platen. (author)

  19. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Kemal; Ergin, Semih; Işık, Şahin; Işıklı, Idil

    2015-01-01

    Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple experimental setup with a camera and homogenous backlighting. Due to the giving global solution for a classification problem, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used as the decision mechanism. This technique equally weights each classification result and assigns the given plastic object to the class that the most classification

  20. Recovery of Pu from PVC vials and bottles used for sample storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, Paru; Bhide, M.K.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Kumar, Mithlesh; Adya, V.C.; Hon, N.S.; Kadam, R.M.; Nathaniel, Newton; Natarajan, V.

    2011-01-01

    Plutonium in the form of oxide is stored in plastic vials and bottles during its analysis for trace metal as say. Due to radiation damage and moisture, small amount of oxide samples were found to be adhering to surface of vials/ bottles. This required methods for safe disposal. Methods involving wet chemical and dry cleaning procedures were evaluated for effective removal of sticking α active plutonium oxide powder from these vials for their safe disposal. Dry cleaning method for removal of plutonium activity was found to be effective method for disposal of storage vial, while wet chemical method was found to be more suitable for removal of plutonium from damaged PVC bottles. (author)

  1. 27 CFR 4.26 - Estate bottled.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled. (a) Conditions for use. The term Estate bottled may be used by a bottling winery on a wine label only if the wine is labeled with a viticultural area appellation of origin and the bottling winery: (1... owned or controlled by the winery within the boundaries of the labeled viticultural area; (3) crushed...

  2. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-03-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  3. Academic plastic surgery: a study of current issues and future challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zetrenne, Eleonore; Kosins, Aaron M; Wirth, Garrett A; Bui, Albert; Evans, Gregory R D; Wells, James H

    2008-06-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to evaluate the role of a full-time academic plastic surgeon, (2) to define the indicators predictive of a successful career in academic plastic surgery, and (3) to understand the current issues that will affect future trends in the practice of academic plastic surgery. A questionnaire was developed to evaluate the role of current full-time academic plastic surgeons and to understand the current issues and future challenges facing academic plastic surgery. Each plastic surgery program director in the United States was sent the survey for distribution among all full-time academic plastic surgeons. Over a 6-week period, responses from 143 full-time academic plastic surgeons (approximately 31%) were returned. Fifty-three percent of respondents had been academic plastic surgeons for longer than 10 years. Seventy-three percent of respondents defined academic plastic surgeons as clinicians who are teachers and researchers. However, 53% of respondents believed that academic plastic surgeons were not required to teach or practice within university hospitals/academic centers. The 3 factors reported most frequently as indicative of a successful career in academic plastic surgery were peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation. Dedication and motivation were the personal characteristics rated most likely to contribute to academic success. Forty-four percent of respondents were unable to identify future academic plastic surgeons from plastic surgery residency applicants, and 27% were not sure. Most (93%) of the respondents believed that academic surgery as practiced today will change. The overall job description of a full-time academic plastic surgeon remains unchanged (teacher and researcher). Whereas peer recognition, personal satisfaction, and program reputation were most frequently cited as indicative of a successful plastic surgery career, financial success was rated the least indicative. Similarly, whereas the

  4. PERANCANGAN MEJA ADJUSTABLE DENGAN MEMPERHATIKAN POSTUR KERJA PEKERJA MANUAL MATERIAL HANDLING (Studi Kasus di PT. Coca – Cola Bottling Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singgih Saptadi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PT Coca Cola Bottling Indonesia adalah salah satu perusahaan yang bergerak dalam bidang minuman ringan baik berupa carbonated soft drink (coca-cola, fanta, sprite maupun non-carbonated soft drink (frestea, ades. Penanganan material pada pabrik ini masih dilakukan secara manual (Manual Material Handling/MMH. Pekerjaan ini dimulai dengan pengangkatan kontainer dari atas conveyor kemudian dipindahkan dan disusun di atas pallet (proses palletizing.Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA adalah salah satu metode yang digunakan untuk menilai postur kerjakaitanya dengan cedera otot akibat bekerja. Pada metode ini juga dipengaruhi oleh faktor coupling, beban eksternal serta aktivitas pekerja yang dialami oleh subjek pengamatan. Implementasi REBA dilakukan pada postur penanganan material khususnya pada pengangkatan krat dan penyusunan krat. Dari hasil penilaian menunjukkan action level didominasi pada level 3 dan level 4, untuk itu perlu dilakukan tindakan perbaikan segera/saat itu juga. Dalam melakukan rekomendasi perbaikan postur penulis melakukan perancangan fasilitas yang disesuaikan dengan data antropometri dan didasarkan pada jenis aktifitasnya serta memberikan usulan fasilitas berupa meja adjustable. Penulis memvisualisasikan hasil rancangan melalui sofware 3DS max, dimana sofware ini juga digunakan sebagai analisis postur pada fasilitas kerja usulan. Kata kunci : Manual Material Handling, REBA, perancangan fasilitas kerja, meja adjustable, 3DS max                Coca Cola Bottling Indonesia is one of the company which move on soft drink areas like carbonated soft drinks (coca-cola, fanta, sprite or non-carbonated soft drinks (frestea,ades. Material handling in this factory is still done manually. This work is started by lifting the container from conveyor  then move it and arrange it above the pallet ( proses palletizing.              Rapid Entire Body Assesment ( REBA is one of the method by which is used to score working

  5. Plastic ingestion by fish in the Southern Hemisphere: A baseline study and review of methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Seon M E; Lavers, Jennifer L; Figueiredo, Bianca

    2016-06-15

    Plastic ingestion is well documented among marine birds and sea turtles but fewer studies have investigated ingestion in fish, particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. We investigated the frequency of plastic ingestion in 21 species of fish and one species of cephalopod. The overall occurrence of plastic ingestion was 0.3%. Two micro-plastic items were recovered from the gastrointestinal tract of a single Antarctic toothfish (Dissostichus mawsoni). Ingestion rates were similar to other studies of fish conducted in both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, however comparisons across species and locations are challenging due to the lack of consistency in the identification and classification of plastic debris. In response, we propose a standardised sampling protocol based on the available literature to provide a stronger basis for comparisons among existing and future studies of plastic ingestion in fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Study of the efficacy of a Wheaton coated bottle with permethrin and deltamethrin in laboratory conditions and a WHO impregnated paper with bendiocarb in field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazaire Aïzoun

    2014-06-01

    Conclusions: The day storage and the number of times that a WHO impregnated paper and a CDC coated bottle maintained their efficacy are useful in the assessment of insecticide vectors susceptibility tests.

  7. Stress-strain response of plastic waste mixed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G L Sivakumar; Chouksey, Sandeep Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become one of the major challenges worldwide. The present study provides an approach for the use plastic waste as reinforcement material in soil. The experimental results in the form of stress-strain-pore water pressure response are presented. Based on experimental test results, it is observed that the strength of soil is improved and compressibility reduced significantly with addition of a small percentage of plastic waste to the soil. The use of the improvement in strength and compressibility response due to inclusion of plastic waste can be advantageously used in bearing capacity improvement and settlement reduction in the design of shallow foundations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Insulated Containers for Bottled Water (ICB)-Performance Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-21

    Plastic   Wrapped  Cordura  Rubberized traction pad  PE  Plastic   Liner  No  Yes  Yes  No  Safe Tie‐Down  Capability  Yes  Yes  Yes  No  Easy Access...mounted Soldiers. The ICBs are lighter, require less storage space, and have more effective tie-down characteristics than coolers often used to carry...bottled water in vehicles. The performance of the ICBs and a commonly used cooler was assessed to determine whether the easier-to-stow ICBs would be as

  9. From waste plastics to industrial raw materials: A life cycle assessment of mechanical plastic recycling practice based on a real-world case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fu; Guo, Jianfeng; Zhang, Wujie; Summers, Peter A; Hall, Philip

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical recycling of waste plastics is an environmental solution to the problem of waste plastic disposal, and has already become a common practice in industry. However, limited information can be found on either the industralised plastic recycling or the recycled materials, despite the use of recycled plastics has already extended to automobile production. This study investigates the life cycle environmental impacts of mechanical plastic recycling practice of a plastic recycling company in China. Waste plastics from various sources, such as agricultural wastes, plastic product manufacturers, collected solid plastic wastes and parts dismantled from waste electric and electronic equipments, are processed in three routes with products end up in different markets. The results of life cycle assessments show that the extrusion process has the largest environmental impacts, followed by the use of fillers and additives. Compared to production of virgin plastics and composites, the mechanical recycling is proved to be a superior alternative in most environmental aspects. Substituting virgin plastic composites with recycled plastic composites has achieved the highest environmental benefits, as virgin composite production has an impact almost 4 times higher that of the recycled composite production in each ReCiPe endpoint damage factor. Sensitivity analysis shows that the coverage of collecting network contribute affect little to overall environmental impact, and centralisation plays an important role in reducing overall environmental impacts. Among the fillers and additives, impact modifiers account for the most significant contributions to the environmental impacts of recycled composites. This study provides necessary information about the existing industrialised plastic recycling practice, and recommendations are given. Research implications are presented with the purpose to achieve higher substitution rate and lower environmental impact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B

  10. Feasibility study of injection mouldable conductive plastic for the hearing aid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merca, Timea D.den; Lindberg, Torbjörn; Islam, Aminul

    2016-01-01

    Electrically conductive polymers can combine the advantage of plastic processing with the unique electrical properties which are usually found in metals. This article presents a feasibility study of an electrically conductive plastic for hearing aid antennas. Focus will be placed to critically......) 3D measuring system in comparison with an ideal copper antenna at 2.4 GHz. An analysis of the association between the conductive plastic processing parameters in regards to its electrical performance is discussed and evaluated....

  11. Thermal comfort study of plastics manufacturing industry in converting process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugiono Sugiono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is one of ergonomics factors that can create a significant impact to workers performance. For a better thermal comfort, several environment factors (air temperature, wind speed and relative humidity should be considered in this research. The object of the study is a building for converting process of plastics manufacturing industry located in Malang, Indonesia. The maximum air temperature inside the building can reach as high as 36°C. The result of this study shows that heat stress is dominantly caused by heat source from machine and wall building. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulation is used to show the air characteristic through inside the building. By using the CFD simulation, some scenarios of solution are successfully presented. Employees thermal comfort was investigated based on predicted mean vote model (PMV and predicted percentage of dissatisfied model (PPD. Existing condition gives PMV in range from 1.83 to 2.82 and PPD in range from 68.9 to 98%. Meanwhile, modification of ventilation and replacing ceiling material from clear glass into reflective clear glass gave significant impact to reduce PMV into range from 1.63 to 2.18 and PPD into range from 58.2 to 84.2%. In sort, new design converting building process has more comfortable for workers.

  12. Study of the suitability of DUO plastic bags for the storage of dynamites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáiz, Jorge; Ferrando, José-Luis; Atoche, Juan-Carlos; García-Ruiz, Carmen

    2013-10-10

    A comparative study on the retentiveness of two plastic bags (DUO and Royal Pack) has been carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection. Two types of dynamites were packed in both plastic bags. The bags were placed into glass jars and headspace analyses were performed over 11 weeks to detect whether the volatile constituents of the dynamites were released from the bags. DUO plastic bags showed much better retentiveness than Royal Pack plastic bags. Ethylene glycol dinitrate (EGDN) was quickly detected in the headspace of the glass jars containing Royal Pack plastic bags after 1 week of storage. On the contrary, only a weak signal of EGDN, which was not detectable in the total ion chromatogram, was detected after 11 weeks of storage. Moreover, DUO plastic bags have shown less background signals than the Royal Pack bags, being the former bags much more suitable for the storage of dynamites. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Achievement report for fiscal 2000 on development of technology related to new recycled products. Research and development of simultaneous recovery of chlorine contained in waste plastics and alkali contained in waste glass bottles; 2000 nendo shinki recycle seihin nado kanren gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hai plastic gan'yu enso to hai glass bin gan'yu alkali no doji kaishu ni kakawaru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Researches have been made on a technology to have alkali contained in waste glass bottles reacted with chlorine contained in waste plastics to separate and remove salt, and reuse the residues as a resource for cement raw material. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. In the research, glass powder pulverized to 5 to 10 {mu} m, calcium carbonate, iron oxide, and alumina were used to prepare raw material for the ordinary Portland cement. Vinyl chloride pulverized to 3 mm was added into this cement raw material so that chlorine-alkali equivalent ration will be 1.0, and the material was sintered in a rotary kiln at 800 to 1,400 degrees C. As a result, it was discovered that salt is produced from the alkali in glass and the chlorine in vinyl chloride, whereas the produced salt volatilizes when heated to 1,200 degrees C or higher, and clinker containing low chlorine and alkali can be produced. The test result reveals that the control range of the chlorine and alkali ratio is from 1.0 to 1.1. The remaining problems are measures against carbon monoxide and dioxin contained in the exhaust gas, and treatment of dust containing salt. (NEDO)

  14. Parameter studies on the effect of pulse shape on the dynamic plastic deformation of a hexagon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youngdahl, C.K.

    1973-10-01

    Results of a parameter study on the dynamic plastic response of a hexagonal subassembly duct subjected to an internal pressure pulse of arbitrary shape are presented. Plastic distortion of the cross section and large-deformation geometric effects that result in redistribution of the internal forces between bending and membrane stresses in the hexagon wall are included in the analytical model. Correlation procedures are established for relating permanent plastic deformation to simple properties of the pressure pulse, for both the small- and large-deformation ranges. Characteristic response times are determined, and the dynamic load factor for large-deformation plastic response is computed

  15. Towards a sensory congruent beer bottle: Consumer associations between beer brands, flavours, and bottle designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Heiltjes, Sanne; van den Berg-Weitzel, Lianne; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sensory packaging design congruent with product and brand characteristics may be used as an innovative tool to communicate product and brand values to consumers and to enhance taste experience. This study investigated whether consumers associate sensory properties of beer bottles with certain brand

  16. Study of neural plasticity in braille reading visually challenged individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhat Yasmeen, Mohammed Muslaiuddin Khalid, Abdul Raoof Omer siddique, Madhuri Taranikanti, Sanghamitra Panda, D.Usha Rani

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neural plasticity includes a wide range of adaptive changes due to loss or absence of a particular sense. Cortical mapping or reorganization is evolutionary conserved mechanism which involves either an unmasking of previously silent connections and/or sprouting of new neural elements. Aims & Objectives -To compare the Somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs wave form in normal and visually challenged individuals. Materials & Methods: 20 visually challenged males in the age group of 21 -31 yrs were included in the study along with 20 age & sex matched individuals. Subjects were screened for general physical health to rule out any medical disorder, tactile sensibility i.e., sensation of light touch, pressure, tactile localization & discrimination to rule out any delay in the peripheral conduction disorder. Somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded on Nicolet Viking select neuro diagnostic system version 10.0.The placement of electrodes & recording of potentials were done based on methodology in chiappa. Data was subjected to various statistical analyses using SPSS version 17.0 software. N20 & P25 latencies were shorter and amplitudes were larger in visually challenged individuals compared to age & sex matched individuals. Conclusions: In visually challenged individuals, decrease in latencies indicate greatly improved of information in the nervous system & increase in amplitudes indicate the extent and synchronization of neural network involved in processing of vision.

  17. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro-Egbe, Chinyere Nnenne; Ejimadu, Chibuike Sydney; Nwachukwu, Henrietta

    2011-01-01

    Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon. To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future. Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria. The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010) were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted. A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6%) males and 91 (21.4%) females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA) were light perception (2 cases), counting fingers (2 cases), and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7%) cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema. Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.

  18. An experimental study of plastic deformation of materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Tine

    The thesis falls in three parts, focusing on different aspects of plastic deformation of metals. Part I investigates the dislocation structures induced by hot deformation and compares these with the structures after cold deformation. In particular, it is shown that the dislocation structures...... after cold deformation by calorimetry and by analysis of the dislocation structure. The stored energy measured by calorimetry is found to be larger than that determined from the dislocation structure by a factor between 1.9 and 2.7, and this factor decreases with the plastic strain. Part III aimed...

  19. A neutron diffraction study of residual stress and plastic strain in welded beryllium rings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.; Varma, R.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Holden, T.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ely, T.; Spooner, S. [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2002-07-01

    We present a study of residual stresses associated with the welding of beryllium rings. Using novel analysis techniques, information about residual stresses and plastic deformation of the base metal were obtained. In the post-welded state, the rings have a strong tensile circumferential residual stress and show evidence of significant plastic deformation. (orig.)

  20. Elastic-plastic fracture mechanics study of thermal shock cracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Nakazawa, H.

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes thermal shock experiments conducted on a nuclear pressure vessel steel (A533 Grade B Class 1), an AISI304 steel and a tool steel (JIS SKD62) using both a new thermal shock test facility and method. Analysis of their quasi-static thermal stress intensity factors is performed on the basis of linear-elastic fracture mechanics; and a thermal shock fracture toughness value, Ksub(tsc) is evaluated. Then elastic-plastic fracture toughness tests are carried out in the same high temperature range of the thermal shock experiment, and a relation between the stretched zone width, SZW, formed as a result of the fatigue precrack tip plastic blunting and the J-integral is clarified. An elastic-plastic thermal shock fracture toughness value, Jsub(tsc), is evaluated from a critical value of the stretched zone width, SZWsub(tsc), at the initiation of the thermal shock cracking by using the relation between SZW and J. The Jsub(tsc) value is compared with an elastic-plastic fracture toughness value, Jsub(Ic), and the difference between these Jsub(tsc) and Jsub(Ic) values is discussed on the basis of fractography. (author)

  1. Plastic debris retention and exportation by a mangrove forest patch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivar do Sul, Juliana A.; Costa, Monica F.; Silva-Cavalcanti, Jacqueline S.; Araújo, Maria Christina B.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Estuaries and mangrove forests are rarely studied for marine plastic debris loads. • Types of plastic items and mangrove forest habitats determine the potential of debris retention. • Mangrove habitats are temporary sinks of plastic debris from river and marine origins. • Plastics rapidly accumulate in mangrove forest, but are exported slowly. • Fauna and fishers using mangrove forest habitats are at risk of interaction with plastic debris. -- Abstract: An experiment observed the behavior of selected tagged plastic items deliberately released in different habitats of a tropical mangrove forest in NE Brazil in late rainy (September) and late dry (March) seasons. Significant differences were not reported among seasons. However, marine debris retention varied among habitats, according to characteristics such as hydrodynamic (i.e., flow rates and volume transported) and relative vegetation (Rhizophora mangle) height and density. The highest grounds retained significantly more items when compared to the borders of the river and the tidal creek. Among the used tagged items, PET bottles were more observed and margarine tubs were less observed, being easily transported to adjacent habitats. Plastic bags were the items most retained near the releasing site. The balance between items retained and items lost was positive, demonstrating that mangrove forests tend to retain plastic marine debris for long periods (months-years)

  2. Numerical studies of temperature effect on the extrusion fracture and swell of plastic micro-pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhong; Huang, Xingyuan; Xiong, Zhihua

    2018-03-01

    Temperature is a key factor that impacts extrusion forming quality of plastic micro-pipe. In this study, the effect of temperature on extrusion fracture and swell of plastic micro-pipe was investigated by numerical method. Under a certain of the melt’s flow volume, the extrusion pattern, extrusion swelling ratio of melt are obtained under different temperatures. Results show that the extrusion swelling ratio of plastic micro-pipe decreases with increasing of temperature. In order to study the reason of temperature effect, the physical distributions of plastic micro-pipe are gotten. Numerical results show that the viscosity, pressure, stress value of melt are all decreased with the increasing of temperature, which leads to decrease the extrusion swell and fracture phenomenon for the plastic micro-pipe.

  3. A study on compound contents for plastic injection molding products of metallic resin pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Whan; Kwak, Jae Seob; Lee, Gyu Sang

    2016-01-01

    Injection molding process is widely used for producing most plastic products. In order to make a metal-colored plastic product especially in modern luxury home alliances, metallic pigments which are mixed to a basic resin material for injection molding are available. However, the process control for the metal-colored plastic product is extremely difficult due to non-uniform melt flow of the metallic resin pigments. To improve the process efficiency, a rapid mold cooling method by a compressed cryogenic fluid and electricity mold are also proposed to decrease undesired compound contents within a molded plastic product. In this study, a quality of the metal-colored plastic product is evaluated with process parameters; injection speed, injection pressure, and pigment contents, and an influence of the rapid cooling and heating system is demonstrated

  4. A study on compound contents for plastic injection molding products of metallic resin pigment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Whan; Kwak, Jae Seob [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gyu Sang [Alliance Molding Engineering TeamLG Electronics Inc., Osan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Injection molding process is widely used for producing most plastic products. In order to make a metal-colored plastic product especially in modern luxury home alliances, metallic pigments which are mixed to a basic resin material for injection molding are available. However, the process control for the metal-colored plastic product is extremely difficult due to non-uniform melt flow of the metallic resin pigments. To improve the process efficiency, a rapid mold cooling method by a compressed cryogenic fluid and electricity mold are also proposed to decrease undesired compound contents within a molded plastic product. In this study, a quality of the metal-colored plastic product is evaluated with process parameters; injection speed, injection pressure, and pigment contents, and an influence of the rapid cooling and heating system is demonstrated.

  5. Experimental study of stress-induced localized transformation plastic zones in tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Q.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, W.; Qing, X.; Xu, X.; Dai, F.

    1994-01-01

    Stress-induced martensitic transformation plastic zones in ceria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystalline ceramics (Ce-TZP), under loading conditions of uniaxial tension, compression, and three-point bending, are studied by experiments. The transformed monoclinic phase volume fraction distribution and the corresponding plastic strain distribution and the surface morphology (surface uplift) are measured by means of moire interferometry, Raman microprobe spectroscopy, and the surface measurement system. The experimental results from the above three kinds of specimens and methods consistently show that the stress-induced transformation at room temperature of the above specimen is not uniform within the transformation zone and that the plastic deformation is concentrated in some narrow band; i.e., macroscopic plastic flow localization proceeds during the initial stage of plastic deformation. Flow localization phenomena are all observed in uniaxial tension, compression, and three-point bending specimens. Some implications of the flow localization to the constitutive modeling and toughening of transforming thermoelastic polycrystalline ceramics are explored

  6. Preparation of the PET/PP/PE/EVA polymeric blend from PET bottles and modification studies induced by ionizing radiation; Obtencao da blenda polimerica PET/PP/PE/EVA a partir de garrafas PET e estudo das modificacoes provocadas pela radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rossini, Edvaldo Luis

    2005-07-01

    The environmental pollution is one of the biggest problems nowadays. Amidst the pollutants, plastic and especially the packings type {sup P}ET bottles{sup ,} which comprise of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE) and poly[ethylene-co-(vinyl acetate)] (EVA) are causing big damage in the environment. In this work, the polymeric blend PET/PP/PE/EVA was obtained by a process of simplified mechanical recycling from 'PET bottles' after consumption, with the objective to find solution to this environmental problem. It was also studied the different ionizing radiation doses effects (25, 50, 75, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400 e 500 kGy) on the blend properties using an electron beam accelerator. The mechanical (tensile strength, impact and hardness), thermal (Vicat softening temperature, differential scanning calorimetry and termogravimetric) and microscopic (light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy) properties of the blend were studied. The analysis of the results showed to be a not mixing and compatible blend, with mechanical and thermal properties (which appeared to be similar to the properties of the component material used in the blend in separate) satisfactory, resulting in a resistant material and of low cost, being able to be used in the production of parts that do not demand specifications techniques. The use of the ionizing radiation improved some of the mechanical and thermal properties of the blend (these modifications had been random and irregular, depending directly on the dose of applied radiation and the type of property) making possible more specific applications for this material. (author)

  7. Study of plastic solidification process on solid radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jing Weiguan; Zhang Yinsheng; Qian Wenju

    1994-01-01

    Comparisons between the plastic solidification conditions of incinerated ash and waste cation resin by using thermosetting plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS) and polyethylene (PE), and identified physico-chemical properties and irradiation resistance of solidified products were presented. These solidified products have passed through different tests as compression strength, leachability, durability, stability, permeability and irradiation resistance (10 6 Gy) etc. The result showed that the solidified products possessed stable properties and met the storage requirement. The waste tube of radioimmunoassay, being used as solidification medium to contain incinerated ash, had good mechanical properties and satisfactory volume reduction. This process may develop a new way for disposal solid radioactive waste by means of re-using waste

  8. Study of mortars with industrial residual plastic scales

    OpenAIRE

    Magariños, O. E.; Alderete, C. E.; Arias, L. E.; Lucca, M. E.

    1998-01-01

    This work proposes the utilization of industrial residues of PET (Polyethylene Terephtalate) as a partial substitute of arids (sand) in mortar making for construction components. Therefore, the environmental impact of large volumes of plastic of urban residues could be decreased. When PET scales were added to mortars in partial replacement of sand, lower unitary weight, acceptable absorption and resistances according to international specifications were achieved. Mortars with 66% of sand...

  9. Study on the interactions PVC/plasticizers by NMR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, Maria I.B.; Monteiro, Elisabeth E.C. [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Macromoleculas; Harris, Robin [Durham Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry

    1992-12-31

    The nature of the interactions between PVC and plasticizers as di-butyl phthalate and di-2-ethyl-hexyl phthalate can be investigated using proton/carbon-13 NMR techniques. The measurements of T{sub 1} for protons and carbon-13 and T{sub 1} P for protons can provide a good source of information about the complex behaviour for those two systems which were investigated. (author) 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Green fiber bottle: Towards a sustainable package

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido; Howard, Thomas J.

    The Green Fiber Bottle is a fully biodegradable bottle made from molded paper pulp.Its development depends on the establishment of the manufacturing technology. Impulse drying, an innovative way of drying, has the potential to improve significantly the manufacturing process of the Green Fiber Bot...... Bottle, towards a sustainable packaging...

  11. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled water. 165.110 Section 165.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION BEVERAGES Requirements for Specific Standardized Beverages § 165.110 Bottled water. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Bottled water is water that is intended for human consumption and that is sealed in...

  12. Influence of Changing the Diameter of the Bubble Generator Bottle and Expiratory Limb on Bubble CPAP: An in vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Shan Wu

    2012-12-01

    Conclusion: The size and submergence depth of an expiratory limb of a CPAP circuit, the diameter of the bubble generator bottle, and the compliance of the model lung all influence the magnitude and frequency of the transmitted pressure waveform. Therefore, these factors may affect lung volume recruitment and breathing efficiency in bubble CPAP.

  13. Crystal plasticity study of monocrystalline stochastic honeycombs under in-plane compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Duancheng; Eisenlohr, Philip; Epler, Eike; Volkert, Cynthia A.; Shanthraj, Pratheek; Diehl, Martin; Roters, Franz; Raabe, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    We present a study on the plastic deformation of single crystalline stochastic honeycombs under in-plane compression using a crystal plasticity constitutive description for face-centered cubic (fcc) materials, focusing on the very early stage of plastic deformation, and identifying the interplay between the crystallographic orientation and the cellular structure during plastic deformation. We observe that despite the stochastic structure, surprisingly, the slip system activations in the honeycombs are almost identical to their corresponding bulk single crystals at the early stage of the plastic deformation. On the other hand, however, the yield stresses of the honeycombs are nearly independent of their crystallographic orientations. Similar mechanical response is found in compression testing of nanoporous gold micro-pillars aligned with various crystallographic orientations. The macroscopic stress tensors of the honeycombs show the same anisotropy as their respective bulk single crystals. Locally, however, there is an appreciable fluctuation in the local stresses, which are even larger than for polycrystals. This explains why the Taylor/Schmid factor associated with the crystallographic orientation is less useful to estimate the yield stresses of the honeycombs than the bulk single crystals and polycrystals, and why the plastic deformation occurs at smaller strains in the honeycombs than their corresponding bulk single crystals. Besides these findings, the observations of the crystallographic reorientation suggest that conventional orientation analysis tools, such as inverse pole figure and related tools, would in general fail to study the plastic deformation mechanism of monocrystalline cellular materials.

  14. From Blogs to Bottle Caps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Ted

    2012-01-01

    There is a wonderful community of art educators connecting a once-isolated profession through blogging. Art educators around the world are sharing ideas and communicating with their peers through this amazing resource. In this article, the author describes the bottle cap mural at Tulip Grove Elementary School which was inspired by this exchange of…

  15. High pressure studies of fluorenone emission in plastic media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitchell, D.J.; Schuster, G.B.; Drickamer, H.G.

    1977-01-01

    The energy and the quantum efficiency for fluorenone fluorescence in the crystalline state and in polymeric matrices was measured as a function of external pressure over the range 0--140 kbar. The application of high pressure induces changes in the quantum yield, which ranges from 0.001 at low pressure to a maximum of approx.0.1 at high pressure in hydrocarbon plastics. These results are interpreted as arising from the decrease in the energy of the lowest ππ excited singlet state relative to other relevant states as the external pressure is increased

  16. Homo plastic and aloplastic communities sociological study from the science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruano, J. D.

    2002-01-01

    This sociological reflection tries to understand the differences between the view and the handling that the so-called culture societies have about technique opposite to the view and the handling they have in the so-called science societies. The author maintains that the present developed societies are halfway between these two kinds of societies. The use of technique in one or the other type of society leads the author to name homo plastic communities to those who adapt themselves to the environment and aloplastic communities to those who adapt the environment to their needs. (Author)

  17. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fewtrell MS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. Methods Subjects 63 (36 male healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Intervention Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31, one-way air valve: Philips Avent versus Bottle B (n = 32, internal venting system: Dr Browns. 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24 to bottle A (n = 11 or B (n = 13 if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Setting Infant home. Primary outcome measure infant weight gain to 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes (i milk intake (ii infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary; (iii risk of infection; (iv continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Results Number analysed for primary outcome Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. Primary outcome There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2 SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39, mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77. Secondary outcomes Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p Breast-fed reference group There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Conclusion Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  18. Feasibility study of the separation of chlorinated films from plastic packaging wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2010-04-01

    This study describes the possible separation of chlorinated plastic films (PVC and PVDC) from other heavy plastic packaging waste (PPW) by selective twist formation and gravity separation. Twists formation was mechanically induced in chlorinated plastic films, whereas twist formation did not occur in PS and PET films. After twist formation, all the films had the apparent density of less than 1.0g/cm(3) and floated in water even though the true density was more than 1.0g/cm(3). However, the apparent density of the PS and the PET films increased with agitation to more than 1.0g/cm(3), whereas that of chlorinated plastic films was kept less than 1.0g/cm(3). The main reason would be the air being held inside the chlorinated plastic films which was difficult to be removed by agitation. Simple gravity separation after twist formation was applied for artificial film with 10wt.% of the chlorinated films and real PPW films with 9wt.% of the chlorinated films. About 76wt.% of the artificial PPW films and 75wt.% of real PPW films after the removal of PP and PE were recovered as settling fraction with 4.7wt.% and 3.0wt.% of chlorinated plastic films, respectively. These results indicate that simple gravity separation process after twist formation can be used to reduce the chlorinated plastic concentration from mixed heavy PPW films. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Feasibility study of the separation of chlorinated films from plastic packaging wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, Mallampati Srinivasa; Yamaguchi, Takefumi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Tsai, Tsung-Yueh; Nakai, Satoshi; Nishijima, Wataru; Okada, Mitsumasa

    2010-01-01

    This study describes the possible separation of chlorinated plastic films (PVC and PVDC) from other heavy plastic packaging waste (PPW) by selective twist formation and gravity separation. Twists formation was mechanically induced in chlorinated plastic films, whereas twist formation did not occur in PS and PET films. After twist formation, all the films had the apparent density of less than 1.0 g/cm 3 and floated in water even though the true density was more than 1.0 g/cm 3 . However, the apparent density of the PS and the PET films increased with agitation to more than 1.0 g/cm 3 , whereas that of chlorinated plastic films was kept less than 1.0 g/cm 3 . The main reason would be the air being held inside the chlorinated plastic films which was difficult to be removed by agitation. Simple gravity separation after twist formation was applied for artificial film with 10 wt.% of the chlorinated films and real PPW films with 9 wt.% of the chlorinated films. About 76 wt.% of the artificial PPW films and 75 wt.% of real PPW films after the removal of PP and PE were recovered as settling fraction with 4.7 wt.% and 3.0 wt.% of chlorinated plastic films, respectively. These results indicate that simple gravity separation process after twist formation can be used to reduce the chlorinated plastic concentration from mixed heavy PPW films.

  20. Legal and institutional tools to mitigate plastic pollution affecting marine species: Argentina as a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Carman, Victoria; Machain, Natalia; Campagna, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Plastic pollution in Argentina harms vulnerable marine species of turtles and mammals. • One tool to advance their conservation is policy. • The legal and institutional framework pertinent to plastic pollution is explored. • Laws and agencies are in place, yet implementation and enforcement is deficient. • Interventions to mitigate plastic pollution and protect marine species are advanced. - Abstract: Plastics are the most common form of debris found along the Argentine coastline. The Río de la Plata estuarine area is a relevant case study to describe a situation where ample policy exists against a backdrop of plastics disposed by populated coastal areas, industries, and vessels; with resultant high impacts of plastic pollution on marine turtles and mammals. Policy and institutions are in place but the impact remains due to ineffective waste management, limited public education and awareness, and weaknesses in enforcement of regulations. This context is frequently repeated all over the world. We list possible interventions to increase the effectiveness of policy that require integrating efforts among governments, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the inhabitants of coastal cities to reduce the amount of plastics reaching the Río de la Plata and protect threatened marine species. What has been identified for Argentina applies to the region and globally

  1. Indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A Edaigbini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013. The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5% males and 61 (36.5% females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%. Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%, Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%, postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%, empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%, heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6% each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8% and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%. A hundred and one (60.5% of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6% by consultants, house officers 15 (9% and senior registrars 10 (6%. The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6% and pneumothorax (3.6%. The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion : Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles.

  2. Simulation on the Effect of Bottle Wall Thickness Distribution using Blow Moulding Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suraya, S; Azman, M D; Fatchurrohman, N; Jaafar, A A; Yusoff, A R

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the deformation behavior of a polymeric material during a blow moulding process. Transient computations of two dimensional model of a PP bottle were performed using ANSYS Polyflow computer code to predict the wall thickness distribution at four different parison's diameter; 8mm, 10mm, 18mm, and 20mm. Effects on the final wall thickness diameter and time step are studied. The simulated data shows that the inflation performance degrades with increasing parison diameter. It is concluded that the blow moulding process using 10mm parison successfully meet the product processing requirements. Factors that contribute to the variation in deformation behaviour of the plastic during the manufacturing process are discussed. (paper)

  3. Experimental characterisation of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottle Eco-bricks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taaffe, Jonathan; O’Sullivan, Seán; Rahman, Muhammad Ekhlasur; Pakrashi, Vikram

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Characterisation of a novel “Eco-brick” by recycling PET bottles and plastic waste. • Eco-bricks have properties for possible uses in construction. • Consistent manufacturing of Eco-bricks demonstrated to be possible. • Weight of Eco-bricks has a nearly linear relationship with mechanical strength. • Light passage and sound reduction potential of Eco-bricks shown to be good. - Abstract: This paper addresses the issue of recycling waste plastic by considering the feasibility of use of Eco-bricks for constructional purposes. The Eco-bricks are formed by packing plastic within Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) bottles. Guidelines were provided for the construction of Eco-bricks. Experiments were carried out to characterise some of the properties of these bricks. Compression test, sound insulation assessment and light transmission were considered in this regard and compared with traditional construction materials and conditions. Possible applications of Eco-bricks were discussed. The paper presents the first attempt to characterise these bricks and the results encourage future use of them to a significantly wider extent and for various purposes

  4. Are functional fillers improving environmental behavior of plastics? A review on LCA studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civancik-Uslu, Didem; Ferrer, Laura; Puig, Rita; Fullana-I-Palmer, Pere

    2018-06-01

    The use of functional fillers can be advantageous in terms of cost reduction and improved properties in plastics. There are many types of fillers used in industry, organic and inorganic, with a wide application area. As a response to the growing concerns about environmental damage that plastics cause, recently fillers have started to be considered as a way to reduce it by decreasing the need for petrochemical resources. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is identified as a proper tool to evaluate potential environmental impacts of products or systems. Therefore, in this study, the literature regarding LCA of plastics with functional fillers was reviewed in order to see if the use of fillers in plastics could be environmentally helpful. It was interesting to find out that environmental impacts of functional fillers in plastics had not been studied too often, especially in the case of inorganic fillers. Therefore, a gap in the literature was identified for the future works. Results of the study showed that, although there were not many and some differences exist among the LCA studies, the use of fillers in plastics industry may help to reduce environmental emissions. In addition, how LCA methodology was applied to these materials was also investigated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on calibration of neutron efficiency and relative photo-yield of plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Taiping; Zhang Chuanfei; Li Rurong; Zhang Jianhua; Luo Xiaobing; Xia Yijun; Yang Zhihua

    2002-01-01

    A method used for the calibration of neutron efficiency and the relative photo yield of plastic scintillator is studied. T(p, n) and D(d, n) reactions are used as neutron resources. The neutron efficiencies and the relative photo yields of plastic scintillators 1421 (40 mm in diameter and 5 mm in thickness) and determined in the neutron energy range of 0.655-5 MeV

  6. Adaptive Transgenerational Plasticity in Plants: Case Studies, Mechanisms, and Implications for Natural Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Jacob J.; Sultan, Sonia E.

    2011-01-01

    Plants respond to environmental conditions not only by plastic changes to their own development and physiology, but also by altering the phenotypes expressed by their offspring. This transgenerational plasticity was initially considered to entail only negative effects of stressful parental environments, such as production of smaller seeds by resource- or temperature-stressed parent plants, and was therefore viewed as environmental noise. Recent evolutionary ecology studies have shown that in ...

  7. Legal and institutional tools to mitigate plastic pollution affecting marine species: Argentina as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Carman, Victoria; Machain, Natalia; Campagna, Claudio

    2015-03-15

    Plastics are the most common form of debris found along the Argentine coastline. The Río de la Plata estuarine area is a relevant case study to describe a situation where ample policy exists against a backdrop of plastics disposed by populated coastal areas, industries, and vessels; with resultant high impacts of plastic pollution on marine turtles and mammals. Policy and institutions are in place but the impact remains due to ineffective waste management, limited public education and awareness, and weaknesses in enforcement of regulations. This context is frequently repeated all over the world. We list possible interventions to increase the effectiveness of policy that require integrating efforts among governments, the private sector, non-governmental organizations and the inhabitants of coastal cities to reduce the amount of plastics reaching the Río de la Plata and protect threatened marine species. What has been identified for Argentina applies to the region and globally. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Old wine in new bottles or novel challenges? A critical analysis of empirical studies of user experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bargas-Avila, Javier A.; Hornbæk, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    in the products and use contexts that are studied, from work towards leisure, from controlled tasks towards open use situations, and from desktop computing towards consumer products and art. Context of use and anticipated use, often named key factors of UX, are rarely researched. Emotions, enjoyment...... or statistical validations. We discuss underexplored research questions and potential improvements of UX research....

  9. Social perceptions of single-use plastic consumption of the Balinese population

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez Murcia Martin, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The island of Bali has suffered from an increasing amount of single-use plastics being littered into the environment during the past few years. This research aims to determine the social perceptions of plastic bags and bottles in particular, through consumption habits, the degree of awareness of environmental impacts and the willingness to reduce their consumption. The methodology is based on a survey approach and literature review contrasting the characteristics of plastic bottles and bags, ...

  10. Effect of PVP on the characteristic of modified membranes made from waste PET bottles for humic acid removal [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Arahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using recycled polymer (waste polyethylene terephthalate [PET] bottles as a membrane material. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of a pore-forming agent and preparation conditions was also observed. Methods: Porous polymeric membranes were prepared via thermally induced phase separation by dissolving recycled PET in phenol. PET polymer was obtained from waste plastic bottles as a new source of polymeric material. For original PET membrane, the casting solution was prepared by dissolving of 20wt% PET in phenol solution. For PET modified membrane, a 5 wt% of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP was added into polymer solution. The solution was cast onto a glass plate at room temperature followed by evaporation before the solidification process. The membranes formed were characterized in terms of morphology, chemical group, and filtration performance. A humic acid solution was used to identify the permeability and the solute rejection of the membranes. Results: The results showed that the recycled PET from waste plastic bottles was applicable to use as a membrane material for a water treatment process. The maximum flux of 97.0 l/m2.hr was obtained from filtration test using PET membrane. The highest rejection of humic acid in a water sample, which reached up to 75.92%, was obtained using the PET/PVP membrane. Conclusions: The recycled PET from waste bottles was successfully used to prepare porous membrane. The membrane was modified by the addition of PVP as a membrane modifying agent. SEM analysis confirmed that the original PET membrane has a rough and large pore structure. The addition of PVP improved the pore density with a narrow pore structure. The PET/PVP membrane conditioned with evaporation was the best in humic acid rejection.

  11. Fluid dynamics following flow shut-off in bottle filling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thete, Sumeet; Appathurai, Santosh; Gao, Haijing; Basaran, Osman

    2012-11-01

    Bottle filling is ubiquitous in industry. Examples include filling of bottles with shampoos and cleaners, engine oil and pharmaceuticals. In these examples, fluid flows out of a nozzle to fill bottles in an assembly line. Once the required volume of fluid has flowed out of the nozzle, the flow is shut off. However, an evolving fluid thread or string may remain suspended from the nozzle following flow shut-off and persist. This stringing phenomenon can be detrimental to a bottle filling operation because it can adversely affect line speed and filling accuracy by causing uncertainty in fill volume, product loss and undesirable marring of the bottles' exterior surfaces. The dynamics of stringing are studied numerically primarily by using the 1D, slender-jet approximation of the flow equations. A novel feature entails development and use of a new boundary condition downstream of the nozzle exit to expedite the computations. While the emphasis is on stringing of Newtonian fluids and use of 1D approximations, results will also be presented for situations where (a) the fluids are non-Newtonian and (b) the full set of equations are solved without invoking the 1D approximation. Phase diagrams will be presented that identify conditions for which stringing can be problematic.

  12. A comparative study of the accuracy between plastic and metal impression transfer copings for implant restorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Monica A; Paez de Mendoza, Carmen Y; Platt, Jeffrey A; Levon, John A; Hovijitra, Suteera T; Nimmo, Arthur

    2013-07-01

    A precise transfer of the position and orientation of the antirotational mechanism of an implant to the working cast is particularly important to achieve optimal fit of the final restoration. This study evaluated and compared the accuracy of metal and plastic impression copings for use in a full-arch mandibular edentulous simulation with four implants. Metal and plastic impression transfer copings for two implant systems, Nobel Biocare™ Replace and Straumann SynOcta®, were assessed on a laboratory model to simulate clinical practice. The accuracy of producing stone casts using these plastic and metal impression transfer copings was measured against a standard prosthetic framework consisting of a cast gold bar. A total of 20 casts from the four combinations were obtained. The fit of the framework on the cast was tested by a noncontact surface profilometer, the Proscan 3D 2000 A, using the one-screw test. The effects of implant/system and impression/coping material on gap measurements were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. The findings of this in vitro study were as follows: plastic copings demonstrated significantly larger average gaps than metal for Straumann (p = 0.001). Plastic and metal copings were not significantly different for Nobel (p = 0.302). Nobel had significantly larger average gaps than Straumann for metal copings (p = 0.003). Nobel had marginally smaller average gaps than Straumann (p = 0.096) for plastic copings. The system-by-screw location interaction was significant as well (p impression copings were more accurate than plastic copings when using the Straumann system, and there was no difference between metal and plastic copings for the Nobel Replace system. The system-by-screw location was not conclusive, showing no correlation within each system. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. PLASTIC SURGERY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery Sefako Makgatho Health Science University, ... We report on a pilot study on the use of a circumareolar excision and the use of .... and 1 gynecomastia patient) requested reduction in NAC size.

  14. Effect of chemical preservation on the shelf-life of bottled ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six samples of bottled intermediate moisture tomato paste were stored at ambient conditions (33-38°C). Four of the samples were preserved with chemicals. One of the last two samples which was bottled with no chemical preservatives added had palm oil filled onto its headspace. Shelf-like studies conducted for forty weeks ...

  15. Study on the radiation effect of plastic syringe materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, H.C.; Yun, B.M.; Kim, K.Y.; Kong, Y.K.; Park, H.Y.

    1983-01-01

    From the viewpoint of gammasterilization, the defects of domestic polypropylene as the syringe material are to get worse the mechanical properties and discoloration by irradiation. Therefore, the domestic polystyrene (GPPS 150) were inspected to use as substitute for the polypropylene. The gel point of the polystyrene was about 100Mrad and none momentous change of the mechanical properties were appeared until the dose reached to the point. Above the point, as the crosslinking reaction proceed both strength of tensile and impact were increased with discoloration. No significant problem was also found in the water extract test and chemical resistance test. In addition to the pure polystyrene, the copolymer of butadiene (HIPS 425) and the blend material of polypropylene were also inspected for the purpose and almost same results were obtained in the radiation irradiation. From the above result, it is considered that polystyrene and the copolymer and the blend mentioned above are available for the medical plastics which would be sterilized by gamma-radiation. (Author)

  16. Plastic Indentation Analysis Used in Study of Colliding Robotic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Carmen Ciornei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In robotic system there are frequent situations when on the robotic parts percutions develop. The impact plastic imprints are unique source of data remaining after collision, but complications occur in the analysis and the work models a general impact and presents the manner of processing the experimental data. The paper presents the characteristics occurring in the analysis of the indentation remnant after the oblique impact between a free falling ball and the surface of an inclined metallic prism. A series of difficulties arise while trying to approximate the collision’s imprint profile with a parabola having oblique symmetry axis. Both these impediments and the manner of surmounting them are presented. Finally, the impasse that takes place in the actual analysis of an imprint profile is presented. A first method of surpassing this aspect uses the intrinsic characteristics of osculating circle in a point of the profile is applicable only for smooth signals. The second proposed method is applied to the real signal and provides fine results.

  17. Perceptions on the use of bottled water in restaurants in Harare's Central Business District (CBD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juba, Olivia Sakhile; Tanyanyiwa, Vincent Itai

    2018-06-01

    Bottled water use continues to expand worldwide and in the last two decades, a significant number of consumers have shifted from tap water to bottled water due to Cryptosporidium outbreaks. Bottled water consumption has increased in Harare due to erratic tap water supplies. Since 2011, forty bottled water brands have been banned because of failure to meet safety and quality standards due to contamination, unsuitable packaging, and wrong labelling. Nevertheless, the bottled water industry continues to thrive as local authorities fail to adequately purify municipal water. The study assessed the perceptions on drinking bottled water in restaurants within Harare's CBD. Demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users were established and the role and influence of stakeholders in bottling and distribution of water documented. A field survey through the administration of questionnaires to fifty restaurant users was carried out to assess the perceptions of people on the use of bottled water in terms of its safety and potential health benefits. Key informant interviews were conducted using a semi-structured interview with ten local water bottling companies as well as representatives from the Environmental Management Agency (EMA) and Standards Association of Zimbabwe (SAZ). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Standard descriptive statistics were generated, with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Consumers used bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceived that tap water was not safe. Perceptions of purity of water, bottled water convenience, and tap water unavailability seemed to determine consumption patterns among users. Females in the 18-48 age groups were more likely to think that bottled water was cleaner, safer, tasted better and was more convenient than tap water. Consumers regularly purchased bottled water for drinking and used bottled water as their primary drinking water

  18. Quality status of bottled water brands in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahlown, M. A.; Tahir, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    The (PCRWR) has carried out a study to evaluate the quality of mineral water brands available in the market owing to demand of general public and consumer associations. Twenty one brands of bottled water were collected from Islamabad and Rawalpindi. Each water sample was analyzed for 24 aesthetic, physico-chemical and bacteriological water quality parameters by adopting standard analytical methods. It was observed that only 10 out of 21 brands (47.62%) were fit for drinking purpose. The remaining eleven brands (52.38%), including one imported brand, were found unsafe for human consumption. It was also concluded that present situation of water quality of bottled water is due to lack of legislation for water quality control. Hence there is a dire need for a legal organization to monitor and regulate the quality issues of bottled water industry. (author)

  19. Brucella detection in blood: comparison of the BacT/Alert standard aerobic bottle, BacT/Alert FAN aerobic bottle and BacT/Alert enhanced FAN aerobic bottle in simulated blood culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümerkan, B; Gökahmetoglu, S; Esel, D

    2001-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the performances of the standard aerobic bottle (StAe), FAN aerobic (FANAe) and enhanced FAN aerobic (E-FANAe) (the charcoal component of the FANAe was revised recently to improve the feasibility of Gram smear interpretation) blood culture bottles for BacT/Alert system for the detection of Brucella melitensis in simulated blood culture. Triplicate strains of eight clinical isolates of B. melitensis were studied. Each bottle was inoculated with 5 mL of freshly collected human blood at three different targeted bacterial inocula (10(1), 10(2) and 10(3) CFU/bottle). All bottles were monitored for up to 21 days or until they became positive. The results of time to detection (TTD) on the eight B. melitensis samples were as follows: at 10(1) CFU/bottle, the E-FANAe had a mean TTD significantly shorter than the StAe (48 h vs. 56.2 h, P StAe (41.2 h and 40 h vs. 45.6 h, P StAe, FANAe and E-FANAe were 96, 83 and 58%, respectively. At 10(3) CFU/bottle, the reproducibilities of StAe, FANAe and E-FANAe were 95, 95 and 91%, respectively. Positive results for the presence of bacteria in Gram smears were confirmed in 68% of StAe, 54% of FANAe and 90% of E-FANAe. In case of suspected brucellosis, the combination of one StAe bottle and one E-FANAe bottle seems to provide the highest and fastest recovery of the organism.

  20. A study on the radiometric method for evaluating element migration from plastic packagings to its contents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Eufemia Paez

    2008-01-01

    Over the past few years, problems related to food contamination by substances or elements that can be a risk to human health have became a concern, not only to government authorities, but to the general population as well. Within this context, plastic packaging can constitute a source of food contamination since plastic manufacturing processes involve the use of catalysts and different types of additives that may contain toxic elements. When food comes into contact with this packaging, components of the package may migrate to the food. In order to control the material used as food packaging, the National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) in Brazil, has established boundary values of migrant substances and procedures to determine migration from plastic packagings to food. In this study the radiometric method was evaluated for element migration determination from plastic packaging to food simulating or to the food itself. This radiometric method consisted in irradiating plastic packaging samples with a thermal neutron flux from the IEA-R1 nuclear research reactor in order to produce radionuclides of elements present in the packagings. The irradiated plastic was then exposed to food simulant or food for element migration. Gamma ray spectrometry was used to measure radioactivity in the simulant or food in order to quantify the migration. The food simulating types and experimental conditions were established according to the ANVISA regulations. Element migration was studied for plastic packaging used for soft drinks, drinking water, milk, dairy products, juices and fatty foods. In the instrumental neutron activation analysis of these packagings the presence of As, Cd, Cr, Co and Sb II was verified. Results obtained from the migration experiments by the radiometric method indicated that Cd, Co, Cr and Sb present in these plastics migrated to the simulant or to the food. In some packagings, the migration of only some of these elements was observed. In these cases the

  1. Study of mortars with industrial residual plastic scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magariños, O. E.

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes the utilization of industrial residues of PET (Polyethylene Terephtalate as a partial substitute of arids (sand in mortar making for construction components. Therefore, the environmental impact of large volumes of plastic of urban residues could be decreased. When PET scales were added to mortars in partial replacement of sand, lower unitary weight, acceptable absorption and resistances according to international specifications were achieved. Mortars with 66% of sand replacement by scales and without any additive, showed optimal characteristics to be used in concret block manufacturing.

    Este trabajo de investigación se desarrolla a partir de la hipótesis de utilizar los desechos post-industriales de PET (Tereftalato de Polietileno como sustituto de áridos (arena, ingrediente de morteros, en la fabricación de componentes constructivos. En dicho trabajo se estudian las propiedades físico-químicas de distintos morteros en los que se reemplazó el contenido de árido por escamas de plástico en distintas proporciones. Se compararon y evaluaron las propiedades físico-mecánicas de los morteros en estudio con los convencionales mediante ensayos de resistencia a la flexión, compresión, absorción, durabilidad y microfotografías por barrido electrónico. Estos estudios determinaron que el agregado de PET en morteros puede ser usado como un posible sustituto de áridos, ya que se obtuvieron morteros con 66% de reemplazo de arena por escamas que presentaron menor peso unitario, absorción aceptable y resistencias acordes a las exigidas por normas.

  2. Temporal variation of microbiological and chemical quality of noncarbonated bottled drinking water sold in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B

    2012-03-01

    Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Female plastic surgery patients prefer mirror-reversed photographs of themselves: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Runz, Antoine; Boccara, David; Chaouat, Marc; Locatelli, Katia; Bertheuil, Nicolas; Claudot, Frédérique; Bekara, Farid; Mimoun, Maurice

    2016-01-01

    The use of a patient's image in plastic surgery is common today. Thus, plastic surgeons should master the use of the image and be aware of the implications of the patients' perception of themselves. The mere-exposure effect is a psychological phenomenon in which a person tends to rate things more positively merely because (s)he is familiar with them. Faces are asymmetric, so faces in photos are different from those observed in mirrors. The main objective of this study was to assess whether patients within a plastic surgery population, particularly those undergoing facial aesthetic surgery, preferred standard photographs or mirror-reversed photographs of themselves. A prospective study was conducted in a plastic surgery department, which included women who were admitted to the hospital the day before their procedures. The patients were separated into the following two groups: Group 1 was composed of patients who were undergoing facial aesthetic surgeries, and Group 2 consisted of other patients who presented to the plastic surgery department for surgery. The patients were required to rate their appreciation of their own faces and to choose between standard and mirror-reversed photos of themselves. A total of 214 patients participated. The median age was 47.9 years (interquartile range (IQR): 36.4-60.6), and the median face appreciation was 5 (IQR: 5-7). The preference for the mirror-reversed photograph was significantly different from chance (p < 0.001, binomial (214, 156, 0.5)); 73% of the patients preferred the mirror-reversed photographs. The proportions of patients who preferred the mirror-reversed photograph differed significantly (p = 0.047) between Groups 1 (84%) and 2 (70%). Plastic surgery patients have a significant preference for mirror-reversed photographs of themselves over standard photographs. This preference is even more pronounced among patients who are undergoing facial aesthetic surgery. III. Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic

  4. Performance of maleated castor oil based plasticizer on rubber: rheology and curing characteristic studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrajati, I. N.; Dewi, I. R.

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of maleated castor oil (MACO) as plasticizer on natural rubber (NR), ethylene propylene diene monomer (EPDM), and nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR). The parameter studied were involving rheological, curing and swelling properties. The MACOs were prepared by an esterification reaction between castor oil (CO) and maleic anhydride (MAH) with the help of xylene as water entrainer to improve water removal. Resulting oils then applied as a plasticizer in each of those rubbers within a fixed loading of 5 phr. Comparison has been made to evaluate the performance of MACO and conventional plasticizer (paraffinic oil for NR and EPDM, DOP for NBR) on each rubber. Rheology, curing characteristic and swelling of each rubber were studied. The results showed that rubber (NR/EPDM/NBR) plasticized with MACO had given similar flow characteristic to conventional plasticizers. MACO exhibited slow curing, confirmed by higher t90, but the scorch safety was of the same magnitude. MAH loading tended to decrease the flow properties and curing rate, while scorch time (ts2) was independent.

  5. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p < 0.0001). Moreover, bottled water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p < 0.05). There was a wide variation in the F levels in the different brands of bottled water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  6. Influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of bottled water packaging attributes on consumers' purchase decision. The research focused in Addis Ababa (Ethiopia). The study used color, graphic design, size, printed information and shape of packaging as independent variables and consumers' purchase ...

  7. The frequency of bottle feeding as the main factor of baby bottle tooth decay syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Fahlevi Rizal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains as main problem in Indonesia and its prevalence is high (90.05%. However, there is no appropriate data that can be used to analyze dental caries in toddlers, especially baby bottle tooth decay syndrome (BBTD, though the number of BBTD cases is high in some pediatric dental clinics (90% of patients visiting the clinics. Even though some factors have already been considered to be the risk factor of BBTD, the main risk factor of BBTD is still unknown, especially BBTD in Indonesia. Purpose: This research was aimed to obtain data relating with bottle-feeding habit in 3-5 year old children in Indonesia and its caries risk. Method: The study was an observational research conducted with clinical examination through caries status (deft of each child deserved by pediatric dentists and through questionnaire distributed to parents to examine the risk factor of BBTD. Observation was conducted on 62 children in the range of age 3 to 5 years old with bottle-feeding habit. Result: The results revealed that status of caries was various. The data showed that the frequency of bottle feeding more than twice could trigger BBTD 2.27 times higher than other factors such as the use of bottle feeding as a pacifier prior sleeping, the period of bottle-feeding, and the breast-feeding experience. Conclusion: though milk as subtract can possibly become a factor triggering caries, the frequency of bottle-feeding is highly considered as main factor. Since it could modulated the bacterial colonization on dental surface, which affects its virulence.Latar belakang: Karies masih menjadi masalah utama di Indonesia. Dalam praktek sehari-hari prevalensi karies masih sangat tinggi (90.05%. Belum ada data yang memadai dalam penelaahan karies yang spesifik pada anak balita selama ini khususnya kasus sindroma karies botol (SKB sementara itu kasus SKB ditemukan sangat tinggi di beberapa klinik gigi anak (90% dari jumlah pasien yang datang ke klinik

  8. Neuromodulatory neurotransmitters influence LTP-like plasticity in human cortex: a pharmaco-TMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchounov, Alexei; Ziemann, Ulf

    2011-08-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic efficacy is considered a fundamental mechanism of learning and memory. At the cellular level a large body of evidence demonstrated that the major neuromodulatory neurotransmitters dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), and acetylcholine (ACh) influence LTP magnitude. Noninvasive brain stimulation protocols provide the opportunity to study LTP-like plasticity at the systems level of human cortex. Here we applied paired associative stimulation (PAS) to induce LTP-like plasticity in the primary motor cortex of eight healthy subjects. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design, the acute effects of a single oral dose of the neuromodulatory drugs cabergoline (DA agonist), haloperidol (DA antagonist), methylphenidate (indirect NE agonist), prazosine (NE antagonist), tacrine (ACh agonist), and biperiden (ACh antagonist) on PAS-induced LTP-like plasticity were examined. The antagonists haloperidol, prazosine, and biperiden depressed significantly the PAS-induced LTP-like plasticity observed under placebo, whereas the agonists cabergoline, methylphenidate, and tacrine had no effect. Findings demonstrate that antagonists in major neuromodulatory neurotransmitter systems suppress LTP-like plasticity at the systems level of human cortex, in accord with evidence of their modulating action of LTP at the cellular level. This provides further supportive evidence for the known detrimental effects of these drugs on LTP-dependent mechanisms such as learning and memory.

  9. Study of an athermal quasi static plastic deformation in a 2D granular material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie

    2017-11-01

    In crystalline materials, the plasticity has been well understood in terms of dynamics of dislocation, i.e. flow defects in the crystals where the flow defects can be directly visualized under a microscope. In a contrast, the plasticity in amorphous materials, i.e. glass, is still poorly understood due to the disordered nature of the materials. In this talk, I will discuss the recent results we have obtained in our ongoing research of the plasticity of a 2D glass in the athermal quasi static limit where the 2D glass is made of bi-disperse granular disks with very low friction. Starting from a densely packed homogeneous and isotropic initial state, we apply pure shear deformation to the system. For a sufficiently small strain, the response of the system is linear and elastic like; when the strain is large enough, the plasticity of the system gradually develops and eventually the shear bands are fully developed. In this study, we are particularly interested in how to relate the local plastic deformation to the macroscopic response of the system and also in the development of the shear bands.

  10. Diffraction measurements for evaluating plastic strain in A533B ferritic steel-a feasibility study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, S J; Truman, C E

    2010-01-01

    It is known that the physical properties of many engineering materials may be strongly affected by previous loading, in particular prior plastic deformation. Most obviously, work hardening will alter subsequent yielding behaviour. Plastic deformation may also preferentially align the material microstructure, resulting in anisotropy of subsequent behaviour and a change in material fracture resistance. When physical characterization is undertaken by experimental testing it is, therefore, important to have some knowledge of the current state of the material. As a result, it is desirable to have methods of quantitatively evaluating the level of plastic deformation which specimen material may have experienced prior to testing. This paper presents the results of a feasibility study, using a ferritic reactor pressure vessel steel, into the use of diffractive methods for plastic strain evaluation. Using neutron diffraction, changes in diffraction peak width and anisotropy of peak response were correlated with plastic deformation in a tensile test. The relationships produced were then used to evaluate permanent deformation levels in large samples, representative of standard fracture toughness test specimens.

  11. [A norovirus-borne outbreak caused by contaminated bottled spring water in a school, Zhejiang province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ji-chuan; Lin, Jun-fen; Gao, Jie; Yao, Wen-ting; Wen, Dong; Liu, Guang-tao; Han, Jian-kang; Ma, Hui-lai; Zhang, Li-jie; Zhu, Bao-ping

    2011-08-01

    To study a local hospital reported acute gastroenteritis in a boarding school on its source of infection, mode of transmission and risk factors of the infection. A suspected case was defined as who had developed diarrhea (≥ 3 times/day) or vomiting among teachers or students of the school, during April 19 - 30, 2010. A confirmed case was from a probable case plus tested positive for norovirus in stool specimens by using RT-PCR. Stool specimens of cases and environmental specimens were collected for laboratory diagnosis. In a case-control study, we compared exposures to sources of bottled water, consumption of bottled water, and hygienic habits of 220 probable or confirmed cases from April 21 - 23 in the peak of the outbreak, together with another 220 controls, with frequency-matched by school grade. 20.3% of the 1536 students but none of the teachers developed the disease. 98.6% of the cases (n = 217) and 85.5% (n = 188) of the controls had drunk bottled water in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 12.3, 95%CI: 3.7 - 40.9). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 41.5% (n = 78) of the controls had drunk unboiled bottled water in classroom (OR(M-H) = 3.8, 95%CI: 1.5 - 9.6). 47.9% (n = 104) of the cases and 48.4% (n = 91) of the controls had drunk bottled mixed water (boiled and unboiled) in the classroom (OR(M-H) = 2.8, 95%CI: 1.1 - 7.0). Stool specimens from 3 cases and one bottle of uncovered bottled water in classroom showed positive of having norovirus genotype II. Coliforms was cultured much higher rates than standard deviations in the bottled water. The factory making the bottled water was not licensed or having strict disinfection facilities. Bottled spring water contaminated by norovirus was responsible for this outbreak.

  12. Biofouling on buoyant marine plastics: An experimental study into the effect of size on surface longevity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazey, Francesca M.C.; Ryan, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent estimates suggest that roughly 100 times more plastic litter enters the sea than is found floating at the sea surface, despite the buoyancy and durability of many plastic polymers. Biofouling by marine biota is one possible mechanism responsible for this discrepancy. Microplastics (<5 mm in diameter) are more scarce than larger size classes, which makes sense because fouling is a function of surface area whereas buoyancy is a function of volume; the smaller an object, the greater its relative surface area. We tested whether plastic items with high surface area to volume ratios sank more rapidly by submerging 15 different sizes of polyethylene samples in False Bay, South Africa, for 12 weeks to determine the time required for samples to sink. All samples became sufficiently fouled to sink within the study period, but small samples lost buoyancy much faster than larger ones. There was a direct relationship between sample volume (buoyancy) and the time to attain a 50% probability of sinking, which ranged from 17 to 66 days of exposure. Our results provide the first estimates of the longevity of different sizes of plastic debris at the ocean surface. Further research is required to determine how fouling rates differ on free floating debris in different regions and in different types of marine environments. Such estimates could be used to improve model predictions of the distribution and abundance of floating plastic debris globally. - Highlights: • We tested how fragment size affects the rate of buoyancy loss at sea due to biofouling for two low-density plastic polymers. • We found a strong direct relationship between fragment size and surface longevity. • Our longevity estimates ranged from 17 days for the thinnest microplastics to 66 days for thicker macroplastics. • Our results provide the first estimates of the longevity of different sizes of plastic debris at the ocean surface. • The results could be used to improve model predictions of the

  13. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  14. Will bottle-grade PET demand lure fiber-grade capacity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coeyman, M.

    1993-01-01

    As demand for bottle-grade polyethylene terephthalate (PET) continues strong and new capacity hastens to meet it, some industry observers wonder if conversions to bottle-grade from fiber-grade capacity will become an industry trend. Taiwan's Nan Ya Plastics was recently said to be considering such a switch, but company sources say it has no such plans. Peter Driscoll, senior partner at PCI Fibres ampersand Raw Materials (Crawley, UK), says that while it is true that demand for the bottle-grade material remains unsatisfied, he doubts that many conversions will take place. You must remember, says Driscoll, that it is not always possible to switch, and that even where it is possible there are limitations

  15. Plastic surgical management of a cobra bite – a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhbier, Jörn W.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Cobra bites are quite rare in European countries as these snakes are not native there. Toxins are devastating for tissue resulting in massive necrosis, thus plastic surgery might play a role in reconstruction of the lost tissue. A case of a male patient bitten by a thai cobra in the left index finger is presented. Antitoxin administration was delayed due to secondary patient admission. Progressive tissue necrosis made radical debridement necessary, resulting in the need for plastic surgical defect coverage with a flap. While a radical debridement to prevent toxic necrosis due to lytic enzymes in cobra venom has been favoured beforehand, large case studies led to a more restrained initial surgical intervention. However, antitoxin administration should be first line therapy in management of these cases. If severe necrosis is present as it might occur in delayed admission, a plastic surgical management of the patient might be advantageous.

  16. A comparison of bottling alternatives in the pharmaceutical industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunter, R.; Flapper, S.D.P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a case study in a batch production facility for biological vaccines with possibilities for rework. The problem considered is that of finding the best bottling alternative for produced batches when these have to undergo several lengthy quality tests related to the

  17. techno-economic packaging of palm wine preservation and bottling

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    The study was carried out to investigate the economic viability of setting up a small scale palm wine bottling factory with a view to ... F. S. Adeyemo, Federal Institute of Industrial Research Oshodi (fiiro), P.M.B 21023, Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria. C. F. Kupoluyi, Federal ... weighing scale, holding tank, refractometer and PH meter. 22.

  18. infant bottle-feeding practice, agaro town, southwest ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    total of 224 mothers who had children between the ages of 0 and 24 months were included in the study. ... extensive advertising and aggressive sale practice of .... Reasons for bottle-feeding practice. No. %. Insufficient Breast Milk. Back to work. Short duration of Maternity leave. Availability of infant formula. Adopted child.

  19. Inoculation of peritoneal dialysate fluid into blood culture bottles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine if direct inoculation of peritoneal fluid into Bactec blood culture bottles would improve the positive bacteriological yield compared with conventional techniques in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) patients with peritonitis. All patients presenting with suspected peritonitis ...

  20. Study of Selected Composites Copper Concentrate-Plastic Waste Using Thermal Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyszka, Danuta

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents thermal analysis of selected composites (copper concentrate, plastic waste) in two stages. The first stage consisted in thermogravimetric analysis and differential thermal analysis on the applied plastic waste and copper concentrate, and subsequently, a comparative study has been carried out on products obtained, constituting composites of those materials. As a result of analyses, it was found that up to ca. 400 °C composites show high thermal stability, whereas above that temperature, a thermal decomposition of the composite occurs, resulting in emissions of organic compounds, i.e. hydrocarbon compounds and organic oxygenate derivatives.

  1. Noise risk assessment in a bottling line of a modern Sicilian winery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Vallone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In wine industry, bottling is a phase of the production cycle characterized by high levels of noise mostly due to repeated collisions between the bottles. In Italy the Law Decree 81/2008 defined the requirements for assessing and managing noise risk, identifying a number of procedures to be adopted at different noise levels to limit workers exposure. This study aims at evaluating the equivalent and peak noise level inside the bottling plant area of a modern Sicilian winery. In particular, the influence of the working capacity (number of bottles produced per hour on noise levels was evaluated. We considered three test conditions: T1 with working capacity of 4,000 bottles per hour, T2 with working capacity of 5,000 bottles per hour and T3 with working capacity of 6,000 bottles per hour. Fifteen measurement points were identified inside the bottling area. The instrument used for the measurements is a precision integrating portable sound level meter, class 1, model HD2110L by Delta OHM, Italy. The tests were performed in compliance with ISO 9612 and ISO 9432 regulations. The results show that as bottling plant working capacity increases, noise level increases. The measured sound levels exceed the limits allowed by the regulations in all the test conditions; values exceeding the threshold limit of 80 dB(A were recorded coming up to a maximum value of 95 dB(A in test T3. In this case, the operator working along the bottling line is obliged to wear the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment.

  2. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    .... The decanting of wine by caterers or other retail dealers for table or room service, banquets, and... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person...

  3. Effects of Diet on Brain Plasticity in Animal and Human Studies: Mind the Gap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tytus Murphy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dietary interventions have emerged as effective environmental inducers of brain plasticity. Among these dietary interventions, we here highlight the impact of caloric restriction (CR: a consistent reduction of total daily food intake, intermittent fasting (IF, every-other-day feeding, and diet supplementation with polyphenols and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs on markers of brain plasticity in animal studies. Moreover, we also discuss epidemiological and intervention studies reporting the effects of CR, IF and dietary polyphenols and PUFAs on learning, memory, and mood. In particular, we evaluate the gap in mechanistic understanding between recent findings from animal studies and those human studies reporting that these dietary factors can benefit cognition, mood, and anxiety, aging, and Alzheimer’s disease—with focus on the enhancement of structural and functional plasticity markers in the hippocampus, such as increased expression of neurotrophic factors, synaptic function and adult neurogenesis. Lastly, we discuss some of the obstacles to harnessing the promising effects of diet on brain plasticity in animal studies into effective recommendations and interventions to promote healthy brain function in humans. Together, these data reinforce the important translational concept that diet, a modifiable lifestyle factor, holds the ability to modulate brain health and function.

  4. Study on Impact Acoustic-Visual Sensor-Based Sorting of ELV Plastic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiu; Tian, Chuyuan; Ren, Jingwei; Bian, Zhengfu

    2017-06-08

    This paper concentrates on a study of a novel multi-sensor aided method by using acoustic and visual sensors for detection, recognition and separation of End-of Life vehicles' (ELVs) plastic materials, in order to optimize the recycling rate of automotive shredder residues (ASRs). Sensor-based sorting technologies have been utilized for material recycling for the last two decades. One of the problems still remaining results from black and dark dyed plastics which are very difficult to recognize using visual sensors. In this paper a new multi-sensor technology for black plastic recognition and sorting by using impact resonant acoustic emissions (AEs) and laser triangulation scanning was introduced. A pilot sorting system which consists of a 3-dimensional visual sensor and an acoustic sensor was also established; two kinds commonly used vehicle plastics, polypropylene (PP) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) and two kinds of modified vehicle plastics, polypropylene/ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer (PP-EPDM) and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene/polycarbonate (ABS-PC) were tested. In this study the geometrical features of tested plastic scraps were measured by the visual sensor, and their corresponding impact acoustic emission (AE) signals were acquired by the acoustic sensor. The signal processing and feature extraction of visual data as well as acoustic signals were realized by virtual instruments. Impact acoustic features were recognized by using FFT based power spectral density analysis. The results shows that the characteristics of the tested PP and ABS plastics were totally different, but similar to their respective modified materials. The probability of scrap material recognition rate, i.e., the theoretical sorting efficiency between PP and PP-EPDM, could reach about 50%, and between ABS and ABS-PC it could reach about 75% with diameters ranging from 14 mm to 23 mm, and with exclusion of abnormal impacts, the actual separation rates were 39.2% for PP, 41

  5. A Study of Transparent Plastics for use on Aircraft, Special Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axilrod, Benjamin M.; Kline, Gordon M.

    1937-01-01

    Various transparent organic plastics, including both commercially available and experimental materials, have been examined to determine their suitability for use as flexible windshields on aircraft, The properties which have been studied include light transmission, haziness, distortion, resistance to weathering, scratch and indentation hardness, impact strength, dimensional stability, resistance to water and various cleaning fluids, bursting strength at normal and low temperatures, and flammability.

  6. A study of oxidative degradation of plastics by GC and GC-MS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pacakova, V.; Leclercq, P.A.; Holotik, S.; Beroun, I.

    1985-01-01

    The behaviour of plastics, namely, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polyamide and some copolymers, was studied in a combustion chamber in which the conditions of large-scale fires were simulated. Volatile combustion products were frozen-out or analyzed directly on two

  7. Experimental study of fiber-glass plastic work pieces contour milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushin, N. N.; Lisitsin, V. N.

    2018-03-01

    The article represents the results of study of cut and feed speed influence on wear of monolithic hard alloy end milling cutter during cutting of foiled fiber-glass plastic sheets, used for printed-circuit boards’ production. The peculiarities and problems of cutting layered materials are described. The most effective feed and cut speed values are determined by cutter wear analysis.

  8. Recycling of plastic wastes with poly (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymer as compatibilizer and their conversion into high-end product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajasekaran, Divya; Maji, Pradip K

    2018-04-01

    This paper deals with the utilization of plastic wastes to a useful product. The major plastic pollutants that are considered to be in maximum use i.e. PET bottle and PE bags have been taken for consideration for recycling. As these two plastic wastes are not compatible, poly (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymer has been used as compatibilizer to process these two plastic wastes. Effect of dose of poly (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymer as compatibilizer has been studied here. It has been shown that only 3 wt% of poly (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymer is sufficient to make 3:1 mass ratio of PET bottle and polyethylene bags compatible. Compatibility has been examined through mechanical testing, thermal and morphological analysis. After analysing the property of recyclates, better mechanical and thermal property has been observed. Almost 500% of tensile property has been improved by addition of 3 wt% of poly (ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) copolymer in 3:1 mass ratio blend of PET bottle and PE bags than that of pristine blend. Morphological analysis by FESEM and AFM has also confirmed the compatibility of the blend. Experimental data showed better performance than available recycling process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: case study of a medium-sized Italian town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-05-01

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO2 emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer's point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people's habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water. Copyright

  10. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: Case study of a medium-sized Italian town

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO 2 emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer’s point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people’s habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water

  11. Environmental and economic aspects of water kiosks: Case study of a medium-sized Italian town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torretta, Vincenzo, E-mail: vincenzo.torretta@uninsubria.it [Department of Science and High Technology, Insubria University of Varese, Via G.B. Vico, 46, I-21100 Varese (Italy)

    2013-05-15

    The consumption of bottled water in Italy began in the 1970s. Since then, this usage has grown considerably, also as a result of changes in habits. The environmental impact as a result of the water production chain is very significant; it would be considered, for example, the use of plastic bottles, the consumption of oil in the production of the bottles, the emission of air from the vehicles that transport the bottles, non-recycled plastic packaging, etc. In this study, considering the comparison between two situations, use of bottled water and use of water kiosk (WK), an environmental and economic impact evaluation has been done. The study considered the production of a WK in a town with 9000 inhabitants, which supplies controlled, still and sparkling water, with an organoleptic quality higher than tap water coming from the aqueduct. In particular, taking into consideration the environmental aspects, specific attention was paid both to CO{sub 2} emissions and PET bottle waste reduction. The economic impact evaluation was carried out from the consumer’s point of view. In order to provide a supply service that was economically sustainable, a calculation was done with the aim of determining a specific fee for the supplied water. Moreover, a comparison has been made between quality parameters achieved with the analysis of water from aqueducts with the limits established in the Italian legislation and the parameters of several Italian water brands. The study has the aim at considering the opportunity to follow a different people’s habits, closer to the concept of sustainability, reducing the environmental charge related to the realization, transport and consumption of plastic water bottles without significant reduction of the quality of the service and with convenient and interesting economic implications. In fact the results of the study show that the alternative of WKs is more efficient in economic and environmental terms respect to the use of bottled water.

  12. FE-Analysis of Stretch-Blow Moulded Bottles Using an Integrative Process Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopmann, C.; Michaeli, W.; Rasche, S.

    2011-05-01

    The two-stage stretch-blow moulding process has been established for the large scale production of high quality PET containers with excellent mechanical and optical properties. The total production costs of a bottle are significantly caused by the material costs. Due to this dominant share of the bottle material, the PET industry is interested in reducing the total production costs by an optimised material efficiency. However, a reduced material inventory means decreasing wall thicknesses and therewith a reduction of the bottle properties (e.g. mechanical properties, barrier properties). Therefore, there is often a trade-off between a minimal bottle weight and adequate properties of the bottle. In order to achieve the objectives Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques can assist the designer of new stretch-blow moulded containers. Hence, tools such as the process simulation and the structural analysis have become important in the blow moulding sector. The Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, has developed an integrative three-dimensional process simulation which models the complete path of a preform through a stretch-blow moulding machine. At first, the reheating of the preform is calculated by a thermal simulation. Afterwards, the inflation of the preform to a bottle is calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). The results of this step are e.g. the local wall thickness distribution and the local biaxial stretch ratios. Not only the material distribution but also the material properties that result from the deformation history of the polymer have significant influence on the bottle properties. Therefore, a correlation between the material properties and stretch ratios is considered in an integrative simulation approach developed at IKV. The results of the process simulation (wall thickness, stretch ratios) are transferred to a further simulation program and mapped on the bottles FE mesh. This approach allows a local

  13. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained.The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy.A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide.

  14. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ammar S. Abbas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production. PET plastic waste converting to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect of ethylene glycol amount, reaction time (up to 90 minutes and reaction temperature (from 70 to 170° C on the polyethylene terephthalate conversion was obtained. The kinetic study shows that the ordination of the depolymerization reaction of PET is first order irreversible reaction with 31103.5 J/mole activation energy. A 97.9 % terephthalic acid purity has been obtained by purification with N, N-dimethylformamide. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA

  15. Evaluation of Microbial Quality of Bottled Water in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmood Alimohammadi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of population growth, limited access to fresh water resources, the need to use bottled water, controlling microbial quality of  bottled water is important. Materials and Methods: Microbiological quality of 24 brands of bottled water available in the town markets of Iran was studied Random. Samples were collected in summer and autumn, 2012. In each season, we collected two samples for each brand. In order to analyze Total coliforms, E-Coli, and HPC, MPN and Plate Count Methods were used. Data analysis was processed by SPSS software. Results: Total coliforms were 2 MPN/100CC in two brands S18 and S20. Increased HPC levels were also observed in all brands. pH level of 6% from bottled waters were higher than the standard. Average of turbidity was 0.232 and 0.228 at the autumn and summer, respectively. Conclusion: the heterotrophic microorganisms were present in 100% of the samples. Total coliforms were also found in 12% of the samples. None of the samples contained E-Coli.

  16. An experimental study on joining of severe plastic deformed aluminium materials with friction welding method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahin, Mumin [Mechanical Engineering Department, Trakya University, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)], E-mail: mumins@trakya.edu.tr; Erol Akata, H.; Ozel, Kaan [Mechanical Engineering Department, Trakya University, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    2008-07-01

    In this study, 5083 aluminium alloys, which were exposed to severe plastic deformation, were joined with friction welding method and the variation in mechanical properties of the joints was experimentally investigated. Severe plastic deformation methods can be classified as equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) (in other words, equal cross section lateral extrusion - ECSLE) and cyclic extrusion-compression. Aluminium alloy as test material 5083 and square cross-sectional equal channel angular pressing die for severe plastic deformation were used in the study. Firstly 5083 alloys, as purchased, were joined with friction welding method. The optimum parameters for friction time, upset time, friction pressure and upset pressure, which are necessary for welding, were obtained. Afterwards, 5083 aluminium materials as purchased were prepared as square cross-section and then 1-pass severe plastic deformation was applied to specimen by equal channel angular pressing die. The obtained parts as square form were prepared as cylindrical form by machining and then the parts were joined by continuous drive friction welding equipment that was designed and produced in laboratory conditions before. Later, the tensile strengths of the parts, obtained at optimum conditions, were compared with those of the joined parts as purchased form. Then, hardness variations and microstructures of joints were examined. Finally, the obtained results were commented on.

  17. Study of a plastic detector as a neutron dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuauhtecatl Hernandes, V.

    1982-01-01

    Studies were carried out through nuclear reactions (n, p); (n, heavy ion), and (n,α) of the dosimetric properties of CR 39 commercial brand polymers. A system was devised for calculating the number of neutron induced nuclear reactions and geometric absolute efficiency factors. Feasibility of the utilization of CR 39 in monitoring and in personnel dosimeters is also discussed. (author)

  18. What's Wrong with the Tap? Examining Perceptions of Tap Water and Bottled Water at Purdue University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates ( n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors—especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean—but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  19. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thariya, Patsuda; Yospaiboon, Yosanan; Sinawat, Suthasinee; Sanguansak, Thuss; Bhoomibunchoo, Chavakij; Laovirojjanakul, Wipada

    2016-08-01

    To compare blood culture bottles and conventional media for the vitreous culture in patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Retrospective comparative study at KKU Eye Center, Khon Kaen University. There were 342 patients with clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis participated in the study. The vitreous specimens were inoculated in both blood culture bottles and on conventional culture media (blood agar, MacConkey agar, chocolate agar, Sabouraud dextrose agar and thioglycolate broth). The number of positive culture yields in both blood culture bottles and conventional media. Positive culture yields in both methods were found in 151 eyes (49.5%). There were 136 of 151 eyes (90.1%) with positive culture in blood culture bottles, whereas 99 of 151 eyes (65.6%) yielded positive cultures in conventional media. These findings were different with a statistical significance (P culture bottles and conventional media improved the yield. Blood culture bottles are superior to conventional media for vitreous culture in clinically suspected infectious endophthalmitis. Vitreous culture using blood culture bottles should be recommended as the primary method for microbiological diagnosis. A combination of both methods further improves the positive culture yield. © 2016 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  20. The bacteriological quality of different brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife, south-western Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igbeneghu, Oluwatoyin A; Lamikanra, Adebayo

    2014-11-28

    The upsurge in the demand for bottled water has prompted the interest of many manufacturers in the production of bottled water and very many water bottling companies are therefore involved in its production. These range from large scale multinational companies to medium scale business enterprises, institutional and government business investment companies as well as small scale entrepreneurs. There is however little information on the comparative quality of bottled water brands produced by different classes of water bottling companies in Nigeria. This study was undertaken to determine the bacteriological quality of brands of bottled water available to consumers in Ile-Ife. Forty-three samples of bottled water comprising of three batches each of thirteen bottled water brands and two batches of two brands were purchased and analyzed for total bacterial count, presence of coliform and the presence of other bacterial indicators of drinking water quality. Only 67.4% of the water samples representing the products of 10 companies or 66.7% of the brands had heterotrophic counts within the acceptable limits. Coliforms present in 100 ml of water were detected in 26.7% of the bottled water brands. Other indicator organisms detected included Staphylococci isolated from 27.9% of the samples (33.3% of the brands) and specifically Staphylococcus aureus found in four brands constituting 14% of the samples. Pseudomonas strains were consistently detected in consecutive batches of three brands of the water samples. Bottled water samples produced by the large scale multinational producers were of acceptable bacteriological quality unlike those produced by most small companies. There is need for a greater control of water bottling processes carried out by commercial bottled water producers in Nigeria.

  1. Predicting seizure by modeling synaptic plasticity based on EEG signals - a case study of inherited epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Honghui; Su, Jianzhong; Wang, Qingyun; Liu, Yueming; Good, Levi; Pascual, Juan M.

    2018-03-01

    This paper explores the internal dynamical mechanisms of epileptic seizures through quantitative modeling based on full brain electroencephalogram (EEG) signals. Our goal is to provide seizure prediction and facilitate treatment for epileptic patients. Motivated by an earlier mathematical model with incorporated synaptic plasticity, we studied the nonlinear dynamics of inherited seizures through a differential equation model. First, driven by a set of clinical inherited electroencephalogram data recorded from a patient with diagnosed Glucose Transporter Deficiency, we developed a dynamic seizure model on a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was reduced in complexity after considering and removing redundancy of each EEG channel. Then we verified that the proposed model produces qualitatively relevant behavior which matches the basic experimental observations of inherited seizure, including synchronization index and frequency. Meanwhile, the rationality of the connectivity structure hypothesis in the modeling process was verified. Further, through varying the threshold condition and excitation strength of synaptic plasticity, we elucidated the effect of synaptic plasticity to our seizure model. Results suggest that synaptic plasticity has great effect on the duration of seizure activities, which support the plausibility of therapeutic interventions for seizure control.

  2. White HDPE bottles as source of serious contamination of water samples with Ba and Zn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, Clemens; Grimstvedt, Andreas; Frengstad, Bjørn; Finne, Tor Erik

    2007-03-15

    During a recent study of surface water quality factory new white high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles were used for collecting the water samples. According to the established field protocol of the Geological Survey of Norway the bottles were twice carefully rinsed with water in the field prior to sampling. Several blank samples using milli-Q (ELGA) water (>18.2 MOmega) were also prepared. On checking the analytical results the blanks returned values of Ag, Ba, Sr, V, Zn and Zr. For Ba and Zn the values (c. 300 microg/l and 95 microg/l) were about 10 times above the concentrations that can be expected in natural waters. A laboratory test of the bottles demonstrated that the bottles contaminate the samples with significant amounts of Ba and Zn and some Sr. Simple acid washing of the bottles prior to use did not solve the contamination problem for Ba and Zn. The results suggest that there may exist "clean" and "dirty" HDPE bottles depending on manufacturer/production process. When collecting water samples it is mandatory to check bottles regularly as a possible source of contamination.

  3. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  4. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.256 Bottle aging wine. Wine bottled or packed and stored for the purpose of aging need...

  5. Plastic deformation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.

    1937-01-01

    § 1. Plastic deformation of solid matter under high confining pressures has been insufficiently studied. Jeffreys 1) devotes a few paragraphs to deformation of solid matter as a preface to his chapter on the isostasy problem. He distinguishes two properties of solid matter with regard to its

  6. Electrochemical Characterisation of Bio-Bottle-Voltaic (BBV Systems Operated with Algae and Built with Recycled Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Bateson

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Photobioelectrochemical systems are an emerging possibility for renewable energy. By exploiting photosynthesis, they transform the energy of light into electricity. This study evaluates a simple, scalable bioelectrochemical system built from recycled plastic bottles, equipped with an anode made from recycled aluminum, and operated with the green alga Chlorella sorokiniana. We tested whether such a system, referred to as a bio-bottle-voltaic (BBV device, could operate outdoors for a prolonged time period of 35 days. Electrochemical characterisation was conducted by measuring the drop in potential between the anode and the cathode, and this value was used to calculate the rate of charge accumulation. The BBV systems were initially able to deliver ~500 mC·bottle−1·day−1, which increased throughout the experimental run to a maximum of ~2000 mC·bottle−1·day−1. The electrical output was consistently and significantly higher than that of the abiotic BBV system operated without algal cells (~100 mC·bottle−1·day−1. The analysis of the rate of algal biomass accumulation supported the hypothesis that harvesting a proportion of electrons from the algal cells does not significantly perturb the rate of algal growth. Our finding demonstrates that bioelectrochemical systems can be built using recycled components. Prototypes of these systems have been displayed in public events; they could serve as educational toolkits in schools and could also offer a solution for powering low-energy devices off-grid.

  7. Pengaruh Implementasi CSR Yang Dilakukan Oleh PT. Coca-cola Bottling Indonesia Terhadap Pengembangan Masyarakat Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Zulfizar Syahputra

    2013-01-01

    Formulation of the problem in this research is: Is CSR Implementation conducted by PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia Significant Impact on Community Development. The purpose of this research is to study and analyze how CSR Implementation conducted by PT. Coca-Cola Bottling Indonesia Significant Impact on Community Development. This study is associative, ie research that connects two or more variables to see the effect of these variables. The data used in this study is primary data and secon...

  8. Neural plasticity in functional and anatomical MRI studies of children with Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichele, Heike; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2013-01-01

    Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. The typical clinical course of an attenuation of symptoms during adolescence in parallel with the emerging self-regulatory control during development suggests that plastic processes may play an important role in the development of tic symptoms. We conducted a systematic search to identify existing imaging studies (both anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) in young persons under the age of 19 years with TS. The final search resulted in 13 original studies, which were reviewed with a focus on findings suggesting adaptive processes (using fMRI) and plasticity (using anatomical MRI). Differences in brain activation compared to healthy controls during tasks that require overriding of prepotent responses help to understand compensatory pathways in children with TS. Along with alterations in regions putatively representing the origin of tics, deviations in several other regions most likely represent an activity-dependent neural plasticity that help to modulate tic severity, such as the prefrontal cortex, but also in the corpus callosum and the limbic system. Factors that potentially influence the development of adaptive changes in the brain of children with TS are age, comorbidity with other developmental disorders, medication use, IQ along with study-design or MRI techniques for acquisition, and analysis of data. The most prominent limitation of all studies is their cross-sectional design. Longitudinal studies extending to younger age groups and to children at risk for developing TS hopefully will confirm findings of neural plasticity in future investigations.

  9. An experimental study on usage of plastic oil and B20 algae biodiesel blend as substitute fuel to diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramesha, D K; Kumara, G Prema; Lalsaheb; Mohammed, Aamir V T; Mohammad, Haseeb A; Kasma, Mufteeb Ain

    2016-05-01

    Usage of plastics has been ever increasing and now poses a tremendous threat to the environment. Millions of tons of plastics are produced annually worldwide, and the waste products have become a common feature at overflowing bins and landfills. The process of converting waste plastic into value-added fuels finds a feasible solution for recycling of plastics. Thus, two universal problems such as problems of waste plastic management and problems of fuel shortage are being tackled simultaneously. Converting waste plastics into fuel holds great promise for both the environmental and economic scenarios. In order to carry out the study on plastic wastes, the pyrolysis process was used. Pyrolysis runs without oxygen and in high temperature of about 250-300 °C. The fuel obtained from plastics is blended with B20 algae oil, which is a biodiesel obtained from microalgae. For conducting the various experiments, a 10-HP single-cylinder four-stroke direct-injection water-cooled diesel engine is employed. The engine is made to run at 1500 rpm and the load is varied gradually from 0 to 100 %. The performance, emission and combustion characteristics are observed. The BTE was observed to be higher with respect to diesel for plastic-biodiesel blend and biodiesel blend by 15.7 and 12.9 %, respectively, at full load. For plastic-biodiesel blend, the emission of UBHC and CO decreases with a slight increase in NO x as compared to diesel. It reveals that fuel properties are comparable with petroleum products. Also, the process of converting plastic waste to fuel has now turned the problems into an opportunity to make wealth from waste.

  10. A core undergraduate curriculum in plastic surgery - a Delphi consensus study in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeland, Stian K; Lindford, Andrew; Berg, Jais Oliver

    2017-01-01

    .00 on a 1-4 Likert scale. Final agreement in the third round resulted in a list of 68 competences with agreement above 80% (31 skills and 37 knowledge items). CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes the first scientifically developed undergraduate core curriculum in plastic surgery. It comprises of a consensus......, there appears to be a need to define the core competences that are to be taught. The aim of this study was to establish a Scandinavian core undergraduate curriculum of competences in plastic surgery, using scientific methods. METHODS: The Delphi technique for group consensus was employed. An expert panel...... of anonymous questionnaires; a final core curriculum competency list was agreed upon based on a consensus agreement level of 80%. RESULTS: Two hundred and ninety-five competences were suggested in the first round. In the second round, 76 competences (33 skills and 43 knowledge items) received a score ≥3...

  11. Are Quantitative Measures of Academic Productivity Correlated with Academic Rank in Plastic Surgery? A National Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susarla, Srinivas M; Lopez, Joseph; Swanson, Edward W; Miller, Devin; O'Brien-Coon, Devin; Zins, James E; Serletti, Joseph M; Yaremchuk, Michael J; Manson, Paul N; Gordon, Chad R

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between quantitative measures of academic productivity and academic rank among full-time academic plastic surgeons. Bibliometric indices were computed for all full-time academic plastic surgeons in the United States. The primary study variable was academic rank. Bibliometric predictors included the Hirsch index, I-10 index, number of publications, number of citations, and highest number of citations for a single publication. Descriptive, bivariate, and correlation analyses were computed. Multiple comparisons testing was used to calculate adjusted associations for subgroups. For all analyses, a value of p productivity. Although academic promotion is the result of success in multiple different areas, bibliometric measures may be useful adjuncts for assessment of research productivity.

  12. Bottled Water Everywhere: Keeping it Safe

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that taps an aquifer—layers of porous rock, sand, and earth that contain water—which is under ... it to be labeled as “purified water.” Ensuring Quality and Safety Federal quality standards for bottled water ...

  13. GLOBEC NEP Rosette Bottle Data (2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Rosette Bottle Data from New Horizon Cruise (NH0207: 1-19 August 2002). Notes: Physical data...

  14. Bottle appeal drifts across the Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis; Ingraham, W. James, Jr.; McKinnon, Richard; Okubo, Akira; Wang, Dong-Ping; Strickland, Richard; Willing, Peter

    Pacific drift currents were used by a group of oceanographers to estimate the path of a drift bottle that was found on a beach of Barkley Sound in Vancouver Island by Richard Strickland on June 10, 1990. The Chinese rice wine bottle, which remained unopened until December 18, 1991, contained six leaflets, one appealing for the release of China's well-known dissident, Wei Jingsheng. The bottle was one of thousands set adrift as part of a propaganda effort from the islands of Quemoy and Matsu off mainland China shortly after Wei was sentenced in 1979 to 15 years in prison (see Figure 1 for locations). Wei was in poor health and still in prison when the bottle made its way across the Pacific Ocean.

  15. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Plastic Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Plastic Surgery What's in ... her forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word " ...

  16. Experimental Study on the Utilization of Fine Steel Slag on Stabilizing High Plastic Subgrade Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Hussien Aldeeky; Omar Al Hattamleh

    2017-01-01

    The three major steel manufacturing factories in Jordan dump their byproduct, steel slag, randomly in open areas, which causes many environmental hazardous problems. This study intended to explore the effectiveness of using fine steel slag aggregate (FSSA) in improving the geotechnical properties of high plastic subgrade soil. First soil and fine steel slag mechanical and engineering properties were evaluating. Then 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% dry weight of soil of fine steel slag (FSSA) w...

  17. Optical coupling study of plastic scintillation detectors: evaluation of different silicon products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, M.M.; Madi Filho, T.; Mesquita, C.H. de

    1990-01-01

    Properties of different optical oils and greases in the range of 320-560 nm were studied. Several parameters as the transmitance, index of refraction, plastic scintillator fluorescence emission and its influence in the resolution and pulse height of the detection system were described. This paper shows a design to analyse the optical quality or adequacy of the silicon oils and greases in the coupling between the detector and the photocathode of the photomultiplier. (author) [pt

  18. Pet Bottle Design, Correlation Analysis Of Pet Bottle Characteristics Subjective Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Avramović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ability to predict consumer’s reaction to particular design solution of the product is very important. Gathering andanalysis of subjective judgments of particular characteristics, based on which the aesthetic of the product is judged,is one of predicting the consumer’s reaction in the future. Knowledge gathered this manner can serve as a referencefor further studies of determining factors for aesthetic results and design quality. There are two opposed opinionsregarding prediction of aesthetic impression. One opinion is that taste of individual cannot be discussed because itis extremely variable and the possibility of meaningful analysis of aesthetic impression is rejected. Other opinionstates that there is a consistent preference of certain aesthetic characteristics despite individual and group differences.Main goal of this paper is to examine the correlation between subjective judgments of certain PET bottlecharacteristics. Analysis showed meaningful correlation between some of the PET bottle characteristics while othercharacteristics showed less correlation. It can be concluded that not all of the characteristics have the same influenceon the aesthetics and design quality of the PET bottle form. Emphasizing the characteristics relative to aesthetics ofthe product can produce better market results, taking in to account that consumer’s buy the product they consider tobe more attractive if other parameters of the product are similar.

  19. Speciation of antimony in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, R.R.; Ablett, J.; Shotyk, W.S.; Naftel, S.; Northrup, P.

    2010-01-01

    Antimony contamination has been reported in drinking water from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles. Micro-X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis has been used to identify the distribution and chemical form of residual antimony used as a catalyst in the manufacture of PET bottles. The results are consistent with clusters of Sb(III) having dimensions of the order of tens of micrometers, clearly showing the ability of synchrotron radiation analyses to both map elemental distribution and determine oxidation state.

  20. Monte Carlo study of correction factors for the use of plastic phantoms in clinical electron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Fujio

    2007-01-01

    In some recent dosimetry protocols, plastic is allowed as a phantom material for the determination of an absorbed dose to water in electron beams, especially for low energy with beam qualities R 50 2 . In electron dosimetry with plastic, a depth-scaling factor, c pl , and a chamber-dependent fluence correction factor, h pl , are needed to convert the dose measured at a water-equivalent reference depth in plastic to a dose at a reference depth in water. The purpose of this study is to calculate correction factors for the use of plastic phantoms for clinical electron dosimetry using the EGSnrc Monte Carlo code system. RMI-457 and WE-211 were investigated as phantom materials. First the c pl values for plastic materials were calculated as a function of a half-value depth of maximum ionization, I 50 , in plastic. The c pl values for RMI-457 and WE-211 varied from 0.992 to 1.002 and from 0.971 to 0.979, respectively, in a range of nominal energies from 4 MeV to 18 MeV, and varied slightly as a function of I 50 in plastic. Since h pl values depend on the wall correction factor, P wall , of the chamber used, they are evaluated using a pure electron fluence correction factor, φ pl w , and P wall w and P wall pl for a combination of water or plastic phantoms and plane-parallel ionization chambers (NACP-02, Markus and Roos). The φ pl w and P wall (P wall w and P wall pl ) values were calculated as a function of the water-equivalent depth in plastic materials and at a reference depth as a function of R 50 in water, respectively. The φ pl w values varied from 1.024 at 4 MeV to 1.013 at 18 MeV for RMI-457, and from 1.025 to 1.016 for WE-211. P wall w values for plane-parallel chambers showed values in the order of 1.5% to 2% larger than unity at 4 MeV, consistent with earlier results. The P wall pl values of RMI-457 and WE-211 were close to unity for all the energy beams. Finally, calculated h pl values of RMI-457 ranged from 1.009 to 1.005, from 1.010 to 1.003 and from 1

  1. A study on the development of engineering plastic piston used in the shock absorber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ho; Bae, Won-Byong; Lim, Dong-Ju; Suh, Yun-Soo

    1998-08-01

    A piston is an important component of the shock absorber which determines comfortable riding and handling. Conventional piston is made of metal powder that is pressed in a mold, and then sintered at high temperatures below the melting point before machining processes such as drilling, sizing and teflon banding. This study aims at cutting down cost and weight, and improving the process by replacing the traditional sintering process used for manufacturing the shock absorber with the injection molding process adopting engineering plastics as raw material. To analyze the injection molding process, we used the commercial program, MOLDFLOW, and obtained an optimal combination of the process parameters. In addition, by comparing the engineering plastic piston with the metal powder piston through the formability and the performance experiments, we confirmed the availability of this alternative process suggested.

  2. Long-term optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons to study network plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignani, Gabriele; Ferrea, Enrico; Difato, Francesco; Amarù, Jessica; Ferroni, Eleonora; Lugarà, Eleonora; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R.; Baldelli, Pietro; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity produces changes in excitability, synaptic transmission, and network architecture in response to external stimuli. Network adaptation to environmental conditions takes place in time scales ranging from few seconds to days, and modulates the entire network dynamics. To study the network response to defined long-term experimental protocols, we setup a system that combines optical and electrophysiological tools embedded in a cell incubator. Primary hippocampal neurons transduced with lentiviruses expressing channelrhodopsin-2/H134R were subjected to various photostimulation protocols in a time window in the order of days. To monitor the effects of light-induced gating of network activity, stimulated transduced neurons were simultaneously recorded using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). The developed experimental model allows discerning short-term, long-lasting, and adaptive plasticity responses of the same neuronal network to distinct stimulation frequencies applied over different temporal windows. PMID:23970852

  3. A study on depth-scaling of plastic phantom in electron beam dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kojima, T.; Saitoh, H.; Kawachi, T.; Katayose, T.; Myojyoyama, A.

    2005-01-01

    In recommendations of several standard dosimetry, water is defined as the reference medium, however, the water substitute plastic phantoms are highly discouraged. Nevertheless, in the case of accurate chamber positioning in water is not possible, or no waterproof chamber is available, their use is permitted at beam qualities R 50 2 (E 0 pl obtained from a ratio of electron average penetration depth; z av , half value depth ratio; (R 50 ) w,m from Monte Carlo dose calculation and that from measurements, are compared each other. As a result, there are slight differences in depth-scaling factor between obtained from simulation results and from measurements. These results indicate that c pl has to be studied more detail for the sake of precise electron dosimetry in plastic phantoms. (author)

  4. Neural plasticity in functional and anatomical MRI studies of children with Tourette syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eichele, Heike; Plessen, Kerstin J

    2012-01-01

    Background: Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. The typical clinical course of an attenuation of symptoms during adolescence in parallel with the emerging self-regulatory control during development suggests...... that plastic processes may play an important role in the development of tic symptoms. Methods: We conducted a systematic search to identify existing imaging studies (both anatomical and functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) in young persons under the age of 19 years with TS. Results: The final search...... compensatory pathways in children with TS. Along with alterations in regions putatively representing the origin of tics, deviations in several other regions most likely represent an activity-dependent neural plasticity that help to modulate tic severity, such as the prefrontal cortex, but also in the corpus...

  5. Elastic, plastic, fracture analysis of masonry arches: A multi-span bridge case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacidogna, Giuseppe; Accornero, Federico

    2018-01-01

    In this work a comparison is presented between elastic, plastic, and fracture analysis of the monumental arch bridge of Porta Napoli, Taranto (Italy). By means of a FEM model and applying the Mery's Method, the behavior of the curved structure under service loads is verified, while considering the Safe Theorem approach byHeyman, the ultimate carrying capacity of the structure is investigated. Moreover, by using Fracture Mechanics concepts, the damage process which takes place when the conditions assessed through linear elastic analysis are no longer valid, and before the set-in of the conditions established by means of the plastic limit analysis, is numerically analyzed. The study of these transitions returns an accurate and effective whole service life assessment of the Porta Napoli masonry arch bridge.

  6. Radiation damage studies on the optical and mechanical properties of plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizue Hamada, Margarida; Roberto Rela, Paulo; Eduardo da Costa, Fabio; Henrique de Mesquita, Carlos

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the radiation damage studies on a large volume plastic scintillator based in polystyrene doped with PPO and POPOP. The consequences on their mechanical and scintillation properties were evaluated before and after irradiation with different dose rates of 60 Co gamma radiation, in several doses. The optical results show a significant difference in the radiation susceptibility, when the plastic scintillator is irradiated at low rate (0.1 kGy/h) with that irradiated at high dose rate (85 kGy/h). The losses in the optical and mechanical properties increase as the irradiation dose is increased. The damage evaluated by the transmittance, emission intensity, pulse height and tensile strength was normalized as a damage fraction and fitted by a bi-exponential function. It was observed that the damage for irradiation is not permanent and it obeys a bi-exponential function

  7. Long-term optical stimulation of channelrhodopsin-expressing neurons to study network plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lignani, Gabriele; Ferrea, Enrico; Difato, Francesco; Amarù, Jessica; Ferroni, Eleonora; Lugarà, Eleonora; Espinoza, Stefano; Gainetdinov, Raul R; Baldelli, Pietro; Benfenati, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal plasticity produces changes in excitability, synaptic transmission, and network architecture in response to external stimuli. Network adaptation to environmental conditions takes place in time scales ranging from few seconds to days, and modulates the entire network dynamics. To study the network response to defined long-term experimental protocols, we setup a system that combines optical and electrophysiological tools embedded in a cell incubator. Primary hippocampal neurons transduced with lentiviruses expressing channelrhodopsin-2/H134R were subjected to various photostimulation protocols in a time window in the order of days. To monitor the effects of light-induced gating of network activity, stimulated transduced neurons were simultaneously recorded using multi-electrode arrays (MEAs). The developed experimental model allows discerning short-term, long-lasting, and adaptive plasticity responses of the same neuronal network to distinct stimulation frequencies applied over different temporal windows.

  8. Experimental and numerical study of plastic shear instability under high-speed loading conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sokovikov, Mikhail; Chudinov, Vasiliy; Bilalov, Dmitry; Oborin, Vladimir; Uvarov, Sergey; Plekhov, Oleg; Terekhina, Alena; Naimark, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    The behavior of specimens dynamically loaded during the split Hopkinson (Kolsky) bar tests in a regime close to simple shear conditions was studied. The lateral surface of the specimens was investigated in a real-time mode with the aid of a high-speed infra-red camera CEDIP Silver 450M. The temperature field distribution obtained at different time made it possible to trace the evolution of plastic strain localization. The process of target perforation involving plug formation and ejection was examined using a high-speed infra-red camera and a VISAR velocity measurement system. The microstructure of tested specimens was analyzed using an optical interferometer-profilometer and a scanning electron microscope. The development of plastic shear instability regions has been simulated numerically

  9. Production of recyclates – compared with virgin Plastics – a LCA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storm Birgit Kjærside

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastix A/S is a Danish cleantech company transforming discarded fishing trawls and nets into valuable green raw materials. Plastix– technology and processes solve a maritime waste problem and contribute to a more circular green economy and reduce landfilling, marine pollution, CO2 emissions and especially loss of valuable resources. Plastix– recycling technology enables recovery of discarded fishing trawls and nets via mechanical and thermal processes transforming the waste into valuable recycles which can be converted into plastic products replacing virgin raw materials. The performance has been proved through a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA study. The results from the LCA study are compared with the production of virgin materials. The results of the LCA show that especially the carbon footprint is remarkable better for Oceanix than for virgin plastics. Oceanix HDPE is 5 times better than virgin HDPE, when talking about the carbon foot print, and the results for Oceanix PP and Oceanix PA6 are 5 times and 20 times better compared with virgin PP and PA6. Also other environmental indicators are better for Oceanix compared with virgin plastics.

  10. Determination of water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of HDPE bottles for pharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yisheng; Li, Yanxia

    2008-06-24

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of experimental conditions for measuring the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottles using a steady-state sorption method. Bottles were filled with desiccant, closed with caps and heat induction sealed, and then stored in stability chambers at controlled temperature and relative humidity. Weight gain of the bottles was determined every 1 or 2 weeks until a linear weight gain profile was obtained. WVTR of the bottles was determined from the slope of the linear portion of the weight gain versus time profile. The effects of desiccants and temperature/humidity were studied. Results show that, with a sufficient amount of anhydrous calcium chloride in bottles, a negligibly low and sufficiently constant headspace humidity is maintained, and a steady-state permeation rate is achieved. For all 8 sizes of bottles used in this study, steady-state was achieved in 1 or 2 weeks after the experiment was started. This method provided reproducible WVTR data for HDPE bottles. Apparent moisture permeability of all 8 sizes of bottles was (2.3+/-0.3)x10(-7), (2.6+/-0.2)x10(-7), and (3.4+/-0.2)x10(-7)cm(2)/s at 25 degrees C, 30 degrees C, 40 degrees C, respectively. Moisture permeability determined from the current study was similar to data reported in the literature, indicating that the steady-state weight gain method can be used to obtain reliable WVTR of containers for pharmaceutical products.

  11. Conductivity and transport studies of plasticized chitosan-based proton conducting biopolymer electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukur, M F; Yusof, Y M; Zawawi, S M M; Illias, H A; Kadir, M F Z

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the conductivity and transport properties of chitosan-based solid biopolymer electrolytes containing ammonium thiocyanate (NH 4 SCN). The sample containing 40 wt% NH 4 SCN exhibited the highest conductivity value of (1.81 ± 0.50) × 10 −4  S cm −1 at room temperature. Conductivity has increased to (1.51 ± 0.12) × 10 −3  S cm −1 with the addition of 25 wt% glycerol. The temperature dependence of conductivity for both salted and plasticized systems obeyed the Arrhenius rule. The activation energy (E a ) was calculated for both systems and it is found that the sample with 40 wt% NH 4 SCN in the salted system obtained an E a value of 0.148 eV and that for the sample containing 25 wt% glycerol in the plasticized system is 0.139 eV. From the Fourier transform infrared studies, carboxamide and amine bands shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that chitosan has interacted with NH 4 SCN salt. Changes in the C–O stretching vibration band intensity are observed at 1067 cm −1 with the addition of glycerol. The Rice and Roth model was used to explain the transport properties of the salted and plasticized systems. (paper)

  12. Conductivity and transport studies of plasticized chitosan-based proton conducting biopolymer electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukur, M. F.; Yusof, Y. M.; Zawawi, S. M. M.; Illias, H. A.; Kadir, M. F. Z.

    2013-11-01

    This paper focuses on the conductivity and transport properties of chitosan-based solid biopolymer electrolytes containing ammonium thiocyanate (NH4SCN). The sample containing 40 wt% NH4SCN exhibited the highest conductivity value of (1.81 ± 0.50) × 10-4 S cm-1 at room temperature. Conductivity has increased to (1.51 ± 0.12) × 10-3 S cm-1 with the addition of 25 wt% glycerol. The temperature dependence of conductivity for both salted and plasticized systems obeyed the Arrhenius rule. The activation energy (Ea) was calculated for both systems and it is found that the sample with 40 wt% NH4SCN in the salted system obtained an Ea value of 0.148 eV and that for the sample containing 25 wt% glycerol in the plasticized system is 0.139 eV. From the Fourier transform infrared studies, carboxamide and amine bands shifted to lower wavenumbers, indicating that chitosan has interacted with NH4SCN salt. Changes in the C-O stretching vibration band intensity are observed at 1067 cm-1 with the addition of glycerol. The Rice and Roth model was used to explain the transport properties of the salted and plasticized systems.

  13. Machinability Study on Milling Kenaf Fiber Reinforced Plastic Composite Materials using Design of Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azmi, H.; Haron, C. H. C.; Ghani, J. A.; Suhaily, M.; Yuzairi, A. R.

    2018-04-01

    The surface roughness (Ra) and delamination factor (Fd) of a milled kenaf reinforced plastic composite materials are depending on the milling parameters (spindle speed, feed rate and depth of cut). Therefore, a study was carried out to investigate the relationship between the milling parameters and their effects on a kenaf reinforced plastic composite materials. The composite panels were fabricated using vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) method. A full factorial design of experiments was use as an initial step to screen the significance of the parameters on the defects using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). If the curvature of the collected data shows significant, Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is then applied for obtaining a quadratic modelling equation that has more reliable in expressing the optimization. Thus, the objective of this research is obtaining an optimum setting of milling parameters and modelling equations to minimize the surface roughness (Ra) and delamination factor (Fd) of milled kenaf reinforced plastic composite materials. The spindle speed and feed rate contributed the most in affecting the surface roughness and the delamination factor of the kenaf composite materials.

  14. Forecasting waste compositions: A case study on plastic waste of electronic display housings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Jef R; Vanegas, Paul; Kellens, Karel; Wang, Feng; Huisman, Jaco; Dewulf, Wim; Duflou, Joost R

    2015-12-01

    Because of the rapid succession of technological developments, the architecture and material composition of many products used in daily life have drastically changed over the last decades. As a result, well-adjusted recycling technologies need to be developed and installed to cope with these evolutions. This is essential to guarantee continued access to materials and to reduce the ecological impact of our material consumption. However, limited information is currently available on the material composition of arising waste streams and even less on how these waste streams will evolve. Therefore, this paper presents a methodology to forecast trends in the material composition of waste streams. To demonstrate the applicability and value of the proposed methodology, it is applied to forecast the evolution of plastic housing waste from flat panel display (FPD) TVs, FPD monitors, cathode ray tube (CRT) TVs and CRT monitors. The results of the presented forecasts indicate that a wide variety of plastic types and additives, such as flame retardants, are found in housings of similar products. The presented case study demonstrates that the proposed methodology allows the identification of trends in the evolution of the material composition of waste streams. In addition, it is demonstrated that the recycling sector will need to adapt its processes to deal with the increasing complexity of plastics of end-of-life electronic displays while respecting relevant directives. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Preliminary study to characterize plastic polymers using elemental analyser/isotope ratio mass spectrometry (EA/IRMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, Daniela; Rampazzo, Federico; Gion, Claudia; Noventa, Seta; Ronchi, Francesca; Traldi, Umberto; Giorgi, Giordano; Cicero, Anna Maria; Giovanardi, Otello

    2017-06-01

    Plastic waste is a growing global environmental problem, particularly in the marine ecosystems, in consideration of its persistence. The monitoring of the plastic waste has become a global issue, as reported by several surveillance guidelines proposed by Regional Sea Conventions (OSPAR, UNEP) and appointed by the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Policy responses to plastic waste vary at many levels, ranging from beach clean-up to bans on the commercialization of plastic bags and to Regional Plans for waste management and recycling. Moreover, in recent years, the production of plant-derived biodegradable plastic polymers has assumed increasing importance. This study reports the first preliminary characterization of carbon stable isotopes (δ 13 C) of different plastic polymers (petroleum- and plant-derived) in order to increase the dataset of isotopic values as a tool for further investigation in different fields of polymers research as well as in the marine environment surveillance. The δ 13 C values determined in different packaging for food uses reflect the plant origin of "BIO" materials, whereas the recycled plastic materials displayed a δ 13 C signatures between plant- and petroleum-derived polymers source. In a preliminary estimation, the different colours of plastic did not affect the variability of δ 13 C values, whereas the abiotic and biotic degradation processes that occurred in the plastic materials collected on beaches and in seawater, showed less negative δ 13 C values. A preliminary experimental field test confirmed these results. The advantages offered by isotope ratio mass spectrometry with respect to other analytical methods used to characterize the composition of plastic polymers are: high sensitivity, small amount of material required, rapidity of analysis, low cost and no limitation in black/dark samples compared with spectroscopic analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Determination of dimethyl selenide and dimethyl sulphide compounds causing off-flavours in bottled mineral waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadayol, Marta; Cortina, Montserrat; Guadayol, Josep M; Caixach, Josep

    2016-04-01

    Sales of bottled drinking water have shown a large growth during the last two decades due to the general belief that this kind of water is healthier, its flavour is better and its consumption risk is lower than that of tap water. Due to the previous points, consumers are more demanding with bottled mineral water, especially when dealing with its organoleptic properties, like taste and odour. This work studies the compounds that can generate obnoxious smells, and that consumers have described like swampy, rotten eggs, sulphurous, cooked vegetable or cabbage. Closed loop stripping analysis (CLSA) has been used as a pre-concentration method for the analysis of off-flavour compounds in water followed by identification and quantification by means of GC-MS. Several bottled water with the aforementioned smells showed the presence of volatile dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides, whose concentrations ranged, respectively, from 4 to 20 ng/L and from 1 to 63 ng/L. The low odour threshold concentrations (OTCs) of both organic selenide and sulphide derivatives prove that several objectionable odours in bottled waters arise from them. Microbial loads inherent to water sources, along with some critical conditions in water processing, could contribute to the formation of these compounds. There are few studies about volatile organic compounds in bottled drinking water and, at the best of our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the presence of dimethyl selenides and dimethyl sulphides causing odour problems in bottled waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nutrients and other data from bottle casts in the Prince William Sound (Gulf of Alaska) from the ACONA in support of the Exxon Valdez Restoration Study (EVOS) from 13 July 1979 to 12 December 1979 (NODC Accession 0000531)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Nutrients and other data were collected from bottle casts from the ACONA in the Prince William Sound (Gulf of Alaska) from 13 July 1979 to 12 December 1979. Data...

  18. Natural radioactivity in Brazilian bottled mineral waters and consequent doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, J. de; Paci Mazzilli, B.; Costa, P. da; Akiko Tanigava, P.

    2001-01-01

    The natural activity concentration levels of 226 Ra, 228 Ra and 210 Pb were analyzed in 17 brands of bottled mineral waters commercially available in the Southeast region of Brazil. Concentrations up to 647 mBq x l -1 and 741 mBq x l -1 were observed for 226 Ra and 228 Ra, whereas 210 Pb concentrations reached 85 mBq x l -1 . Average committed effective doses of 1.3 x 10 -2 mSv x y -1 for 226 Ra, 3.4 x 10 -2 mSv x y -1 for 228 Ra and 9.4 x 10 -3 mSv x y -1 for 210 Pb were estimated for the ingestion of these waters. A collective dose of 90 manSv was evaluated, considering the annual production of the bottled mineral waters analyzed in this study. (author)

  19. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  20. Plastic solid waste utilization technologies: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Arun Kumar; Shivashankar, Murugesh; Majumder, Suman

    2017-11-01

    Plastics are used in more number of applications in worldwide and it becomes essential part of our daily life. In Indian cities and villages people use the plastics in buying vegetable as a carry bag, drinking water bottle, use of plastic furniture in home, plastics objects uses in kitchen, plastic drums in packing and storage of the different chemicals for industrial use, use plastic utensils in home and many more uses. After usage of plastics it will become part of waste garbage and create pollution due to presence of toxic chemicals and it will be spread diseases and give birth to uncontrolled issues in social society. In current scenario consumption of plastic waste increasing day by day and it is very difficult to manage the plastic waste. There are limited methodologies available for reutilization of plastic waste again. Such examples are recycling, landfill, incineration, gasification and hydrogenation. In this paper we will review the existing methodologies of utilization of plastic waste in current scenario

  1. Interlaboratory Study (ILS) for F 548-01, The Standard Test Method for Intensity of Scratches on Aerospace Transparent Plastics

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pinkus, Alan

    2003-01-01

    ...) as outlined in ASTM E 691. This report, which conforms to the ILS reporting format required by ASTM, describes the study that was conducted for ASTM test standard F 548-01, Intensity of Scratches on Aerospace Transparent Plastics...

  2. Concentration of Nitrate in Bottled Drinking Water in Qom, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Saberi Bidgoli

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background & Aims of the Study: The global consumption of bottled water is growing with substantial growth in sales volumes on every continent. The highest growth rates are occurring in Asia and South America. Biological and chemical monitoring of these waters is necessary. The aim of current study was determination of nitrate concentration in bottled drinking water in Qom, Iran in 2012. Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study carried out in Qom, Iran. First of all, 18 most frequent brands of bottled drinking waters were purchased in June 2012 randomly. Then concentration of nitrate was measured according to the spectrophotometric method. In next step, experiment data were analyzed by Excel Software and P value was obtained by statistical calculations. Finally data were comprised with written nitrate concentration on labels and recommended permissible values . Results: The median nitrate concentration was 2.1 mg/L with the minimum 0.8 mg/L and maximum 8.1 mg/L. In 66.7 % of the samples, the measured nitrate concentrations were less than the written nitrate concentrations and in 33.3% of samples, the nitrate concentration was higher. The statistical calculation proved the significant difference between the median of written nitrate concentration on the label and investigated nitrate concentration (P value > 0.05. Conclusions: It be concluded that the measured nitrate concentration in all of the water samples is below the recommended permissible level.

  3. Quality Assurance for Iraqi Bottled Water Specifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May George Kassir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this research the specifications of Iraqi drinking bottled water brands are investigated throughout the comparison between local brands, Saudi Arabia and the World Health Organization (WHO for bottled water standard specifications. These specifications were also compared to that of Iraqi Tap Water standards. To reveal variations in the specifications for Iraqi bottled water, and above mentioned standards some quality control tools are conducted for more than 33% of different bottled water brands (of different origins such as spring, purified,..etc in Iraq by investigating the selected quality parameters registered on their marketing labels. Results employing Minitab software (ver. 16 to generate X bar, and Pareto chart. It was found from X bar charts that the quality parameters of some drinking bottled water brands are not within Iraqi standards set by the “Central Agency for Standardization and Quality Control” such as pH values, Fe, Na, and Mg concentrations. While the comparison of previously mentioned standard specifications through radar chart many important issues are detected such as the absence of lower limits the whole bottled water quality parameters such as for Na and Mg also the radar chart shows that Iraqi bottled and tap water specifications are almost equal in their quality values. Also the same chart pictured the limited range of Iraqi specifications compared to that of Saudi Arabia, and WHO and the need to introduce other water specifications such as K, Na, etc. This confirms the need to improve Iraqi bottled water specifications since it was introduced on 2000. These results also highlighted the weakness of quality assurance activities since only 33 % of the investigated companies registered the whole water quality specifications as shown in Pareto chart. Other companies do not register any quality characteristics. Also certain companies should be stopped due to non-conforming specifications, yet these companies are

  4. Characteristic of bioplastic’s physical and mechanical (Study on Tapioca Concentration and Composition Mixture of Plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Admadi Harsojuwono

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to (1 the effect of the concentration of starch and  ratio mixture of plasticizer to the physical and mechanical characteristics of bioplastics (2 determine the concentration of starch and plasticizer RATIO mixture  that results in physical and mechanical characteristics of bio plastics best. The experiment was conducted using a factorial randomized block design. The first factor is the concentration of tapioca consisting of 3 levels 4%, 5% and 6% (w / w. The second factor is the   mixture plasticizer ratio  of glycerol and sorbitol   consisting of 5 levels ie (100: 0%, (95: 5%, (90:10%, (85:15%, (80:20% b / b. Each combination of treatments classified into 2 time  processing bio plastics, so there are 30 experimental units. Variables observed water content, elongation at break, tensile strength and Young's modulus . The data obtained were analyzed of variant and  test of Duncan's. The results showed that the concentration of tapioca and  mixture plasticizer had no effect on water content but significant effect on the elongation at break, tensile strength and Young's modulus. The concentration of starch 6% with a ratio of mixture of plasticizers glycerol: sorbitol ( 100: 0 produces the best characteristics of bioplastics with water content of 3.98%, elongation at break of 18.75%, the tensile strength of 930 MPa and a Young's modulus of 50 MPa.

  5. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  6. Beer bottle whistling: a stochastic Hopf bifurcation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boujo, Edouard; Bourquard, Claire; Xiong, Yuan; Noiray, Nicolas

    2017-11-01

    Blowing in a bottle to produce sound is a popular and yet intriguing entertainment. We reproduce experimentally the common observation that the bottle ``whistles'', i.e. produces a distinct tone, for large enough blowing velocity and over a finite interval of blowing angle. For a given set of parameters, the whistling frequency stays constant over time while the acoustic pressure amplitude fluctuates. Transverse oscillations of the shear layer in the bottle's neck are clearly identified with time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV) and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD). To account for these observations, we develop an analytical model of linear acoustic oscillator (the air in the bottle) subject to nonlinear stochastic forcing (the turbulent jet impacting the bottle's neck). We derive a stochastic differential equation and, from the associated Fokker-Planck equation and the measured acoustic pressure signals, we identify the model's parameters with an adjoint optimization technique. Results are further validated experimentally, and allow us to explain (i) the occurrence of whistling in terms of linear instability, and (ii) the amplitude of the limit cycle as a competition between linear growth rate, noise intensity, and nonlinear saturation. E. B. and N. N. acknowledge support by Repower and the ETH Zurich Foundation.

  7. Energy recycling of plastic and rubber wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, R.

    2003-01-01

    Major areas for applications of plastics and rubbers are building and construction, packaging, transportation, automobiles, furniture, house wares, appliances, electrical and electronics. Approximately 20% of all the plastics produced are utilized by the building and construction industry/sup (1-3)/. Categories of polymers mostly used in the above industries include poly (vinyl chloride), polypropylene, polyethylene, polystyrene phenolics, acrylics and urethanes. Tyres and tubes are almost exclusively made up of rubbers. One third of total consumption of plastics finds applications, like films, bottles and packaging, in food-products that have a maximum life-span of two years, after which these find way to waste dumps. As the polymer industry in Pakistan is set to grow very rapidly in the near future the increase in utilization of plastic products in synchronous with the advent of computers and information technology. About 0.60 Kg per capita of waste generated daily in Lahore /(7.14)/ contains considerable quantity of plastics. (AB)

  8. Mixtures of rubber tyre and plastic wastes pyrolysis: A kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, Miguel; Cabrita, I.; Pinto, Filomena; Gulyurtlu, I.

    2013-01-01

    The study performed aimed at analysing possible routes for pyrolysis reaction mechanisms of polymeric materials namely RT (rubber tyre) and plastic wastes (PE (polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PS (polystyrene)). Consequently, and seeking sustainable transformation of waste streams into valuable chemicals and renewable liquid fuels, mixture of 30% RT, 20% PE, 30% PP and 20% PS was subjected to pyrolysis. Different kinetic models were studied using experimental data. None of the mechanisms found in literature led to a numerical adjustment and different pathways were investigated. Kinetic studies were performed aiming to evaluate direct conversions into new solid, liquid and gaseous products and if parallel reactions and/or reversible elementary steps should be included. Experiments were performed in batch system at different temperatures and reaction times. Kinetic models were evaluated and reaction pathways were proposed. Models reasonably fit experimental data, allow explaining wastes thermal degradation. Kinetic parameters were estimated for all temperatures and dependence of Ea and pre-exponential factor on temperature was evaluated. The rate constant of some reactions exhibited nonlinear temperature dependence on the logarithmic form of Arrhenius law. This fact strongly suggests that temperature has a significant effect on reaction mechanism of pyrolysis of mixtures of rubber tyre and plastic wastes. - Highlights: • Kinetic study of rubber tyre (RT) and different plastic wastes (PE, PP and PS) was performed in batch reactor. • Definition of possible pathways taken into account for the formation of final products. • Kinetic parameters were estimated. • The effect of reaction temperature and reaction time on liquid composition was performed

  9. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Montenegro, Alvaro; Smith, Bruce D; Gifford, John A; Green, Richard E; Newsom, Lee A; Shapiro, Beth

    2014-02-25

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was one of the first domesticated plants, and the only one with a global distribution during pre-Columbian times. Although native to Africa, bottle gourd was in use by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11,000 y ago (BP) and in the Americas by 10,000 BP. Despite its utilitarian importance to diverse human populations, it remains unresolved how the bottle gourd came to be so widely distributed, and in particular how and when it arrived in the New World. A previous study using ancient DNA concluded that Paleoindians transported already domesticated gourds to the Americas from Asia when colonizing the New World [Erickson et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(51):18315-18320]. However, this scenario requires the propagation of tropical-adapted bottle gourds across the Arctic. Here, we isolate 86,000 base pairs of plastid DNA from a geographically broad sample of archaeological and living bottle gourds. In contrast to the earlier results, we find that all pre-Columbian bottle gourds are most closely related to African gourds, not Asian gourds. Ocean-current drift modeling shows that wild African gourds could have simply floated across the Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene. Once they arrived in the New World, naturalized gourd populations likely became established in the Neotropics via dispersal by megafaunal mammals. These wild populations were domesticated in several distinct New World locales, most likely near established centers of food crop domestication.

  10. Transoceanic drift and the domestication of African bottle gourds in the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kistler, Logan; Montenegro, Álvaro; Smith, Bruce D.; Gifford, John A.; Green, Richard E.; Newsom, Lee A.; Shapiro, Beth

    2014-01-01

    Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) was one of the first domesticated plants, and the only one with a global distribution during pre-Columbian times. Although native to Africa, bottle gourd was in use by humans in east Asia, possibly as early as 11,000 y ago (BP) and in the Americas by 10,000 BP. Despite its utilitarian importance to diverse human populations, it remains unresolved how the bottle gourd came to be so widely distributed, and in particular how and when it arrived in the New World. A previous study using ancient DNA concluded that Paleoindians transported already domesticated gourds to the Americas from Asia when colonizing the New World [Erickson et al. (2005) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102(51):18315–18320]. However, this scenario requires the propagation of tropical-adapted bottle gourds across the Arctic. Here, we isolate 86,000 base pairs of plastid DNA from a geographically broad sample of archaeological and living bottle gourds. In contrast to the earlier results, we find that all pre-Columbian bottle gourds are most closely related to African gourds, not Asian gourds. Ocean-current drift modeling shows that wild African gourds could have simply floated across the Atlantic during the Late Pleistocene. Once they arrived in the New World, naturalized gourd populations likely became established in the Neotropics via dispersal by megafaunal mammals. These wild populations were domesticated in several distinct New World locales, most likely near established centers of food crop domestication. PMID:24516122

  11. Treatment techniques for the recycling of bottle washing water in the soft drinks industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Camperos, E; Mijaylova Nacheva, P; Diaz Tapia, E

    2004-01-01

    The soft drink production is an important sector in the manufacturing industry of Mexico. Water is the main source in the production of soft drinks. Wastewater from bottle washing is almost 50% of the total wastewater generated by this industry. In order to reduce the consumption of water, the water of the last bottle rinse can be reused in to the bottle pre-rinse and pre-washing cycles. This work presents the characterization of the final bottle washing rinse discharge and the treatability study for the most appropriate treatment system for recycling. Average characteristics of the final bottle wash rinse were as follows: Turbidity 40.46 NTU, COD 47.7 mg/L, TSS 56 mg/L, TS 693.6 mg/L, electrical conductivity 1,194 microS/cm. The results of the treatability tests showed that the final rinse water can be used in the pre-rinse and pre-washing after removing the totality of the suspended solids, 80% of the COD and 75% of the dissolved solids. This can be done using the following treatment systems: filtration-adsorption-reverse osmosis, or filtration-adsorption-ion exchange. The installation of these treatment techniques in the soft drink industry would decrease bottle washing water consumption by 50%.

  12. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001 or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01 were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001, while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001. Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001, while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001. A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  13. THE ANALYSIS OF THE THREAT OF REUSING PET BOTTLES FOR THE STORAGE OF DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuilov A. M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. According to a sociological survey of about 86% of Kharkiv (Ukraine residents reuse PET bottles for a drinking water storing. This type of reuse of PET bottles isn't safe and the results of numerous research unequivocally confirm this assertion. The largest hazard of plastic bottles reuse for drinking water storage is biological film on the internally surface of bottle. This biofilm may contain pathogenic microorganisms which can migrate from biofilm to fresh water. Human, who drinking contaminated water, may drink microorganisms in common with this water. It's very dangerous, because the numerous strains of pathogens may migration in water and infect from gastric-bowel tract to the humans. Scientists from National technical university "Kharkiv polytechnic institute" in common with experts from Mechnikov institute of microbiology and immunology explored this problem and devised the apparatus, which can destroy a biofilm on polymer or another surface. Materials & Methods. The tested apparatus was the electrical device consisting of a block with electrodes, an electronic control, a water pump and a sprinkler for spraying the disinfectant. The electrode was made of 925˚ silver (sterling silver. Water for the preparation of a disinfectant was tap water and wasn't treated additionally. The sprinkler for spraying the disinfectant was placed in the neck of the infected bottle. Disinfectant solution was sprayed inside the bottle for 4 seconds. The water pressure was about 1.5 atmospheres. After that, the sprinkler was removed and the disinfectant was drained. A smear for microbiological composition was taken from three parts of the bottle - the neck, the middle part and the bottom. Growth of microorganisms and their detections was fixed by classic microbiological methods. Results & Discussion. In the article the scheme of the most probable and widespread way of infection of PET-bottles by pathogens and the way of minimization of this

  14. A study of time over threshold (TOT) technique for plastic scintillator counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jinjie; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing; Heng Yuekun; Sun Zhijia; Wu Chong; Yang Guian; Jiang Chun Hua; Zhao Yuda

    2008-01-01

    A new charge measurement method, time over threshold (TOT), has been used in some gas detectors lately. Here TOT is studied for TOF system, made of plastic scintillator counter, which can simplify the electronics of the system. The signal characteristics are measured and analyzed with a high quality oscilloscope, including noise, pedestal, signal amplitude, total charge, rise time and the correlation between them. The TOT and charge are related and can be fitted by some empirical formula. The charge measurement resolution by TOT is given and this will help the design of TOF electronics. (authors)

  15. Emission characteristics of plastic syringes sterilized with ethylene oxide--a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Yeh-Chung; Su, Po-Chi; Lee, Lien-Hsiung; Chen, Chang-Yuh

    2009-11-01

    This study examined the emission characteristics of ethylene oxide (EO)-sterilized syringes under various environmental conditions, aiming to develop control strategies to minimize worker exposure. Experiments were performed in a facility in which temperature, relative humidity (RH), and air change rate (ACR) were controlled. Analytical results indicate that the main effects of the four test variables on kinetic parameters were statistically significant (p Plastic content, temperature, RH, and ACR affected EO emissions. ACR is an achievable means of control; however, the aeration area/system should be isolated to ensure adequate ventilation is achieved.

  16. EBIC and LBIC studies of the properties of extended defects in plastically deformed silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlov, V. I.; Feklisova, O. V.; Yakimov, E. B., E-mail: yakimov@iptm.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Microelectronic Technology and Ultra-High-Purity Materials (Russian Federation)

    2015-06-15

    The results of comparative experimental studies of one- and two-dimensional defects in plastically deformed silicon by the electron-beam-induced current (EBIC) and light-beam-induced current (LBIC) techniques are reported. It is shown that the contrast of two-dimensional defects (dislocation trails) in the LBIC method can by much more pronounced than that in the EBIC technique, which is in good agreement with the results of calculations. The higher sensitivity of the LBIC technique is mainly due to deeper penetration of the optical beam into the material in comparison to the penetration of the electron beam of a scanning electron microscope.

  17. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  18. Detection of bottled explosives by near infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itozaki, Hideo; Sato-Akaba, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Bottled liquids are not allowed through the security gate in the airport, because liquid explosives have been used by the terrorists. However, passengers have a lot of trouble if they cannot bring their own bottles. For example, a mother would like to carry her own milk in the airplane for her baby. Therefore the detection technology of liquid explosives should be developed as soon as possible. This paper shows that near infrared spectroscopy can detect bottled explosives quickly. The transmission method cannot deal with milk in the sense of liquid inspection. Here we examined the reflection method to the test of milk. The inspection method with light cannot make test for the metal can. We also use ultrasonic method to check metal can simultaneously in order to expand test targets.

  19. The Misconception of Case-Control Studies in the Plastic Surgery Literature: A Literature Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchell, Alexandra C; Farrokhyar, Forough; Choi, Matthew

    2017-06-01

    Case-control study designs are commonly used. However, many published case-control studies are not true case-controls and are in fact mislabeled. The purpose of this study was to identify all case-control studies published in the top three plastic surgery journals over the past 10 years, assess which were truly case-control studies, clarify the actual design of the articles, and address common misconceptions. MEDLINE, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched for case-control studies in the three highest-impact factor plastic surgery journals (2005 to 2015). Two independent reviewers screened the resulting titles, abstracts, and methods, if applicable, to identify articles labeled as case-control studies. These articles were appraised and classified as true case-control studies or non-case-control studies. The authors found 28 articles labeled as case-control studies. However, only six of these articles (21 percent) were truly case-control designs. Of the 22 incorrectly labeled studies, one (5 percent) was a randomized controlled trial, three (14 percent) were nonrandomized trials, two (9 percent) were prospective comparative cohort designs, 14 (64 percent) were retrospective comparative cohort designs, and two (9 percent) were cross-sectional designs. The mislabeling was worse in recent years, despite increases in evidence-based medicine awareness. The majority of published case-control studies are not in fact case-control studies. This misunderstanding is worsening with time. Most of these studies are actually comparative cohort designs. However, some studies are truly clinical trials and thus a higher level of evidence than originally proposed.

  20. Plastic pollution in freshwater ecosystems: macro-, meso-, and microplastic debris in a floodplain lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blettler, Martin C M; Ulla, Maria Alicia; Rabuffetti, Ana Pia; Garello, Nicolás

    2017-10-23

    Plastic pollution is considered an important environmental problem by the United Nations Environment Programme, and it is identified, alongside climate change, as an emerging issue that might affect biological diversity and human health. However, despite research efforts investigating plastics in oceans, relatively little studies have focused on freshwater systems. The aim of this study was to estimate the spatial distribution, types, and characteristics of macro-, meso-, and microplastic fragments in shoreline sediments of a freshwater lake. Food wrappers (mainly polypropylene and polystyrene), bags (high- and low-density polyethylene), bottles (polyethylene terephthalate), and disposable Styrofoam food containers (expanded polystyrene) were the dominant macroplastics recorded in this study. Contrary to other studies, herein macroplastic item surveys would not serve as surrogates for microplastic items. This is disadvantageous since macroplastic surveys are relatively easier to conduct. Otherwise, an average of 25 mesoplastics (mainly expanded polystyrene) and 704 microplastic particles (diverse resins) were recorded per square meter in sandy sediments. Comparisons with other studies from freshwater and marine beaches indicated similar relevance of plastic contamination, demonstrating for the first time that plastic pollution is a serious problem in the Paraná floodplain lakes. This study is also valuable from a social/educational point of view, since plastic waste has been ignored in the Paraná catchment as a pollutant problem, and therefore, the outcome of the current study is a relevant contribution for decision makers.

  1. Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological quality of bottled water sold on the Ghanaian market. ... Consumption of bottled water is increasing rapidly in developing countries especially among ... limits set by WHO guidelines and therefore safe for human consumption.

  2. Study by dislocation dynamics simulations of radiation effects on the plasticity of ferrite at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Xiangjun

    2014-01-01

    This study is a contribution to the multi-scale modeling of hardening and embrittlement of the vessel steel in Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) under irradiation conditions. Dislocation Dynamics simulations (DD) were conducted to describe the plasticity of irradiated iron at grain scale. Quantitative information about the pinning strength of radiation-induced loops was extracted and can be transferred at crystal plasticity scale. Elementary interactions between an edge dislocation and different types of loops were first analyzed. A new model of DD was identified and validated, both qualitatively in terms of interaction mechanisms and quantitatively in terms of critical stress, using Molecular Dynamics results available in the literature. The influence of the size of the loops and of the strain rate was particularly studied. Elementary simulations involving a screw dislocation and the same radiation-induced defects were conducted and carefully compared to available MD results, extending the range of validity of our model. Finally, a set of massive simulations involving an edge dislocation and a large number of loops was performed and allowed a first estimation of the obstacle strength for this type of defects (α≅0.26). This value is in a good agreement with previous experimental and numerical studies, and gives us confidence in future work based on this new DD model. (author) [fr

  3. A Study on the Reuse of Plastic Concrete Using Extended Set-Retarding Admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Colin; Guthrie, William F.; Kacker, Raghu

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of ready mixed concrete truck wash water and returned plastic concrete is a growing concern for the ready mixed concrete industry. Recently, extended set-retarding admixtures, or stabilizers, which slow or stop the hydration of portland cement have been introduced to the market. Treating truck wash-water or returned plastic concrete with stabilizing admixtures delays its setting and hardening, thereby facilitating the incorporation of these typically wasted materials in subsequent concrete batches. In a statistically designed experiment, the properties of blended concrete containing stabilized plastic concrete were evaluated. The variables in the study included (1) concrete age when stabilized, (2) stabilizer dosage, (3) holding period of the treated (stabilized) concrete prior to blending with fresh ingredients, and (4) amount of treated concrete in the blended batch. The setting time, strength, and drying shrinkage of the blended concretes were evaluated. For the conditions tested, batching 5 % treated concrete with fresh material did not have a significant effect on the setting time, strength, or drying shrinkage of the resulting blended concrete. Batching 50 % treated concrete with fresh materials had a significant effect on the setting characteristics of the blended cocnrete, which in turn affected the water demand to maintain slump. The data suggests that for a known set of conditions, the stabilizer dosage can be optimized within a relatively narrow range to produce desired setting characteristics. The strength and drying shrinkage of the blended concretes were essentially a function of the water content at different sampling ages and the relationship followed the general trend of control concrete. PMID:29151762

  4. A Study on the Reuse of Plastic Concrete Using Extended Set-Retarding Admixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Colin; Guthrie, William F; Kacker, Raghu

    1995-01-01

    The disposal of ready mixed concrete truck wash water and returned plastic concrete is a growing concern for the ready mixed concrete industry. Recently, extended set-retarding admixtures, or stabilizers, which slow or stop the hydration of portland cement have been introduced to the market. Treating truck wash-water or returned plastic concrete with stabilizing admixtures delays its setting and hardening, thereby facilitating the incorporation of these typically wasted materials in subsequent concrete batches. In a statistically designed experiment, the properties of blended concrete containing stabilized plastic concrete were evaluated. The variables in the study included (1) concrete age when stabilized, (2) stabilizer dosage, (3) holding period of the treated (stabilized) concrete prior to blending with fresh ingredients, and (4) amount of treated concrete in the blended batch. The setting time, strength, and drying shrinkage of the blended concretes were evaluated. For the conditions tested, batching 5 % treated concrete with fresh material did not have a significant effect on the setting time, strength, or drying shrinkage of the resulting blended concrete. Batching 50 % treated concrete with fresh materials had a significant effect on the setting characteristics of the blended cocnrete, which in turn affected the water demand to maintain slump. The data suggests that for a known set of conditions, the stabilizer dosage can be optimized within a relatively narrow range to produce desired setting characteristics. The strength and drying shrinkage of the blended concretes were essentially a function of the water content at different sampling ages and the relationship followed the general trend of control concrete.

  5. Co-pyrolysis of swine manure with agricultural plastic waste: laboratory-scale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoung S; Hunt, Patrick G; Jackson, Michael A; Compton, David L; Yates, Scott R; Cantrell, Keri; Chang, SeChin

    2014-08-01

    Manure-derived biochar is the solid product resulting from pyrolysis of animal manures. It has considerable potential both to improve soil quality with high levels of nutrients and to reduce contaminants in water and soil. However, the combustible gas produced from manure pyrolysis generally does not provide enough energy to sustain the pyrolysis process. Supplementing this process may be achieved with spent agricultural plastic films; these feedstocks have large amounts of available energy. Plastic films are often used in soil fumigation. They are usually disposed in landfills, which is wasteful, expensive, and environmentally unsustainable. The objective of this work was to investigate both the energetics of co-pyrolyzing swine solids with spent plastic mulch films (SPM) and the characteristics of its gas, liquid, and solid byproducts. The heating value of the product gas from co-pyrolysis was found to be much higher than that of natural gas; furthermore, the gas had no detectable toxic fumigants. Energetically, sustaining pyrolysis of the swine solids through the energy of the product gas could be achieved by co-pyrolyzing dewatered swine solids (25%m/m) with just 10% SPM. If more than 10% SPM is used, the co-pyrolysis would generate surplus energy which could be used for power generation. Biochars produced from co-pyrolyzing SPM and swine solid were similar to swine solid alone based on the surface area and the (1)H NMR spectra. The results of this study demonstrated the potential of using pyrolysis technology to manage two prominent agricultural waste streams (SPM and swine solids) while producing value-added biochar and a power source that could be used for local farm operations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Alkaline Depolymerization of Polyethylene Terephthalate Plastic Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Ammar F. Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Depolymerization reaction is considered one of the most significant ways of converting waste polyethylene terephthalate in to terephthalic acid. The water polyethylene terephthalate bottle waste was collected from different places in Baghdad. The collection step shows that there is plenty amount of polyethylene terephthalate suitable to be an important source of terephthalic acid production.PET plastic waste conversion to terephthalic acid by depolymerization process was examined. The effect ...

  7. Hippocampal neurogenesis and cortical cellular plasticity in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat: a qualitative and quantitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatome, Catherine W; Mwangi, Deter K; Lipp, Hans-Peter; Amrein, Irmgard

    2010-01-01

    Species-specific characteristics of neuronal plasticity emerging from comparative studies can address the functional relevance of hippocampal or cortical plasticity in the light of ecological adaptation and evolutionary history of a given species. Here, we present a quantitative and qualitative analysis of neurogenesis in young and adult free-living Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bats. Using the markers for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), doublecortin (DCX) and polysialic acid neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), our findings in the hippocampus, olfactory bulb and cortical regions are described and compared to reports in other mammals. Expressed as a percentage of the total number of granule cells, PCNA- and BrdU-positive cells accounted for 0.04 in young to 0.01% in adult animals; DCX-positive cells for 0.05 (young) to 0.01% (adult); PSA-NCAM-positive cells for 0.1 (young) to 0.02% (adult), and pyknotic cells for 0.007 (young) to 0.005% (adult). The numbers were comparable to other long-lived, late-maturing mammals such as primates. A significant increase in the total granule cell number from young to adult animals demonstrated the successful formation and integration of new cells. In adulthood, granule cell number appeared stable and was surprisingly low in comparison to other species. Observations in the olfactory bulb and rostral migratory stream were qualitatively similar to descriptions in other species. In the ventral horn of the lateral ventricle, we noted prominent expression of DCX and PSA-NCAM forming a temporal migratory stream targeting the piriform cortex, possibly reflecting the importance of olfaction to these species. Low, but persistent hippocampal neurogenesis in non-echolocating fruit bats contrasted the findings in echolocating microbats, in which hippocampal neurogenesis was largely absent. Together with the observed intense cortical plasticity in the olfactory system of fruit bats we suggest a

  8. Studies on internal friction in electron-irradiated iron crystals after plastic deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, J.

    1986-01-01

    For the analysis of atomic point defects in high-purity the generation of atomic point defects was, above all, carried out by electron radiation, but in addition, also by plastic deformation. The exposure to radiation was realized at different temperatures in the Dynamitron of the University of Stuttgart (80 K, 160 K) and also in the low-temperature radiation facility of the nuclear research plant (KfA) Juelich (50 K). The radiation doses ranged between 2.7.10 21 e - /m 2 and 1.0.10 23 e - /m 2 . In situ plastic deformation was achieved at about 80 K (torsion, 4%). Internal friction which was determined in an inverse torsion pendulum in the temperature range of 80 K - 700 K and at frequencies of about 1 Hz served as defect indicator. In this study simulation programs were developed which were to give information prior to the realization of measurements on the temperatures and the intensity of the damping peaks to be expected. The internal friction peaks measured in the framework of this study could be assigned to the recovery stages I-IV. The measured values were discussed for three temperature ranges with main emphasis on the investigation of the recovering, radiation-induced or deformation-induced, atomic point defect in the temperature range of the recovery stage III (200 K - 270 K). (orig./MM) [de

  9. Adaptive transgenerational plasticity in plants: case studies, mechanisms, and implications for natural populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob J. Herman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plants respond to environmental conditions not only by plastic changes to their own development and physiology, but also by altering the phenotypes expressed by their offspring. This transgenerational plasticity was initially considered to entail only negative effects of stressful parental environments, such as production of smaller seeds by resource- or temperature-stressed parent plants, and was therefore viewed as environmental noise. Recent evolutionary ecology studies have shown that in some cases, these inherited environmental effects can include specific growth adjustments that are functionally adaptive to the parental conditions that induced them, which can range from contrasting states of controlled laboratory environments to the complex habitat variation encountered by natural plant populations. Preliminary findings suggest that adaptive transgenerational effects can be transmitted by means of diverse mechanisms including changes to seed provisioning and biochemistry, and epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation that can persist across multiple generations. These non-genetically inherited adaptations can influence the ecological breadth and evolutionary dynamics of plant taxa and promote the spread of invasive plants. Interdisciplinary studies that join mechanistic and evolutionary ecology approaches will be an important source of future insights.

  10. Adaptive transgenerational plasticity in plants: case studies, mechanisms, and implications for natural populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Jacob J; Sultan, Sonia E

    2011-01-01

    Plants respond to environmental conditions not only by plastic changes to their own development and physiology, but also by altering the phenotypes expressed by their offspring. This transgenerational plasticity was initially considered to entail only negative effects of stressful parental environments, such as production of smaller seeds by resource- or temperature-stressed parent plants, and was therefore viewed as environmental noise. Recent evolutionary ecology studies have shown that in some cases, these inherited environmental effects can include specific growth adjustments that are functionally adaptive to the parental conditions that induced them, which can range from contrasting states of controlled laboratory environments to the complex habitat variation encountered by natural plant populations. Preliminary findings suggest that adaptive transgenerational effects can be transmitted by means of diverse mechanisms including changes to seed provisioning and biochemistry, and epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation that can persist across multiple generations. These non-genetically inherited adaptations can influence the ecological breadth and evolutionary dynamics of plant taxa and promote the spread of invasive plants. Interdisciplinary studies that join mechanistic and evolutionary ecology approaches will be an important source of future insights.

  11. A study of gradient strengthening based on a finite-deformation gradient crystal-plasticity model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouriayevali, Habib; Xu, Bai-Xiang

    2017-11-01

    A comprehensive study on a finite-deformation gradient crystal-plasticity model which has been derived based on Gurtin's framework (Int J Plast 24:702-725, 2008) is carried out here. This systematic investigation on the different roles of governing components of the model represents the strength of this framework in the prediction of a wide range of hardening behaviors as well as rate-dependent and scale-variation responses in a single crystal. The model is represented in the reference configuration for the purpose of numerical implementation and then implemented in the FEM software ABAQUS via a user-defined subroutine (UEL). Furthermore, a function of accumulation rates of dislocations is employed and viewed as a measure of formation of short-range interactions. Our simulation results reveal that the dissipative gradient strengthening can be identified as a source of isotropic-hardening behavior, which may represent the effect of irrecoverable work introduced by Gurtin and Ohno (J Mech Phys Solids 59:320-343, 2011). Here, the variation of size dependency at different magnitude of a rate-sensitivity parameter is also discussed. Moreover, an observation of effect of a distinctive feature in the model which explains the effect of distortion of crystal lattice in the reference configuration is reported in this study for the first time. In addition, plastic flows in predefined slip systems and expansion of accumulation of GNDs are distinctly observed in varying scales and under different loading conditions.

  12. 27 CFR 19.749 - Bottling and packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling and packaging record. 19.749 Section 19.749 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Account § 19.749 Bottling and packaging record. The bottling and packaging record shall be prepared and...

  13. Green synthesis of graphene from recycled PET bottle wastes for use in the adsorption of dyes in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Essawy, Noha A; Ali, Safa M; Farag, Hassan A; Konsowa, Abdelaziz H; Elnouby, Mohamed; Hamad, Hesham A

    2017-11-01

    Polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) is an important component of post-consumer plastic waste. This study focuses on the potential of utilizing "waste-treats-waste" by synthesis of graphene using PET bottle waste as a source material. The synthesized graphene is characterized by SEM, TEM, BET, Raman, TGA, and FT-IR. The adsorption of methylene blue (MB) and acid blue 25 (AB25) by graphene is studied and parameters such as contact time, adsorbent dosage were optimized. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is applied to investigate the effect of three variables (dye concentration, time and temperature) and their interaction on the removal efficiency. Adsorption kinetics and isotherm are followed a pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters demonstrated that adsorption of dye is spontaneous and endothermic in nature. The plastic waste can be used after transformation into valuable carbon-based nanomaterials for use in the adsorption of organic contaminants from aqueous solution. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. THE APPLICATION OF WASTE PLASTICS IN ROAD CONSTRUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    MR. YASHODHAN ARVIND JAGTAP; DIGVIJAY PRAMOD BHOSALE

    2017-01-01

    Disposal of plastic waste in the environment is considered to be a big problem because it is very low in biodegradability and its presence is large. Chocolate, chocolate, chips, handbags, cold drink bottles and other plastic packaging can cause major environmental and economic problems. They consume a lot of energy and other natural resources and exhaust the environment in various ways. In recent years, the use of industrial waste to replace a part of conventional concrete aggregate is being ...

  15. Stability Study of Sunscreens with Free and Encapsulated UV Filters Contained in Plastic Packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briasco, Benedetta; Capra, Priscilla; Mannucci, Barbara; Perugini, Paola

    2017-05-31

    Sunscreens play a fundamental role in skin cancer prevention and in protection against photo-aging. UV filters are often photo-unstable, especially in relation to their vehicles and, being lipophilic substances, they are able to interact with plastic packaging. Finally, UV filter stability can be significantly affected by the routine use of the product at high temperatures. This work aims to study the stability of sunscreen formulations in polyethylene packaging. Butyl methoxydibenzoylmethane and octocrylene, both in a free form and as encapsulated filters were chosen as UV filters. Stability evaluations were performed both in the packaging and on the formulations. Moreover, a further two non-destructive techniques, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a multiple light scattering technique, were also used to evaluate the stability of the formulation. Results demonstrated clearly that all of the pack underwent significant changes in its elastic/plastic behavior and in external color after solar irradiation. From the evaluation of the extractable profile of untreated and treated packaging material an absorption of 2-phenoxyethanol and octocrylene were shown. In conclusion, the results highlighted clearly that a reduction of the UV filter in the formulation packed in high-density polyethylene/low-density polyethylene (HDPE/LDPE) material can occur over time, reducing the protective effect of the product when applied to the skin.

  16. Experimental Study on the Utilization of Fine Steel Slag on Stabilizing High Plastic Subgrade Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussien Aldeeky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The three major steel manufacturing factories in Jordan dump their byproduct, steel slag, randomly in open areas, which causes many environmental hazardous problems. This study intended to explore the effectiveness of using fine steel slag aggregate (FSSA in improving the geotechnical properties of high plastic subgrade soil. First soil and fine steel slag mechanical and engineering properties were evaluating. Then 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% dry weight of soil of fine steel slag (FSSA were added and mixed into the prepared soil samples. The effectiveness of the FSSA was judged by the improvement in consistency limits, compaction, free swell, unconfined compression strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR. From the test results, it is observed that 20% FSSA additives will reduce plasticity index and free swell by 26.3% and 58.3%, respectively. Furthermore, 20% FSSA additives will increase the unconfined compressive strength, maximum dry density, and CBR value by 100%, 6.9%, and 154%. By conclusion FSSA had a positive effect on the geotechnical properties of the soil and it can be used as admixture in proving geotechnical characteristics of subgrade soil, not only solving the waste disposal problem.

  17. Musicians and music making as a model for the study of brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaug, Gottfried

    2015-01-01

    Playing a musical instrument is an intense, multisensory, and motor experience that usually commences at an early age and requires the acquisition and maintenance of a range of sensory and motor skills over the course of a musician's lifetime. Thus, musicians offer an excellent human model for studying behavioral-cognitive as well as brain effects of acquiring, practicing, and maintaining these specialized skills. Research has shown that repeatedly practicing the association of motor actions with specific sound and visual patterns (musical notation), while receiving continuous multisensory feedback will strengthen connections between auditory and motor regions (e.g., arcuate fasciculus) as well as multimodal integration regions. Plasticity in this network may explain some of the sensorimotor and cognitive enhancements that have been associated with music training. Furthermore, the plasticity of this system as a result of long term and intense interventions suggest the potential for music making activities (e.g., forms of singing) as an intervention for neurological and developmental disorders to learn and relearn associations between auditory and motor functions such as vocal motor functions. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Head holder using negative pressure bag packed with plastic beads in xenon CT CBF study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Yuzo; Sakai, Noboru

    2003-01-01

    Employing analysis of cerebral blood flow (CBF) confidence maps, we investigated the usefulness of a head holder using a negative pressure bag packed with plastic beads in a xenon CT CBF study. A total of 272 consecutive patients for the CBF study were enrolled and classified into 3 groups: 88 patients with a negative pressure bag (M group), 87 patients with an air pillow (A group), and 97 patients with a sponge pillow (S group). The degree of effect of head movements on the CBF measurement in each patient was expressed as a confidence value (mean of the confidence values at one CT slice). The mean of confidence value in the M group (0.461) was statistically lower than that in the A group (0.866) and that in the S group (1.043). These findings showed that the head holder described here was useful for obtaining CBF maps of high quality in a xenon CT CBF study. (author)

  19. Study to produce polymer gel for decontamination on the surface of steel, ceramic, plastic, glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham Quynh Luong; Nguyen Van Chinh; Nguyen Thu Trang; Nguyen An Thai; Nguyen Dinh Lam

    2015-01-01

    Strippable polymer coating is one of the methods for effective surface decontamination. A gel solution of a water soluble polymer, preferably polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) and chelating agent is applied to remove radioisotopes of Cs"1"3"7, Sr"8"5, I"1"3"1, P"3"2 and Tc"9"9"m on the surface of stainless steel, mild steel, ceramic, PVC plastic. After cleaning is completed, the gel solution is dried, formed a strong thin film, which is easily peeled off from a contaminated surface and can be disposed of as radioactive solid waste. Decontamination efficient of this gel polymer for radioisotopes have been studied on the surfaces and compared with Decongel 1101. The influence of decontamination agents, activity, film thickness to decontamination factor have been studied. The infrared spectrophotometer has been conducted to study mechanism of the decontamination for this radioisotope. (author)

  20. Recycling potential of post-consumer plastic packaging waste in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlbo, Helena; Poliakova, Valeria; Mylläri, Ville; Sahimaa, Olli; Anderson, Reetta

    2018-01-01

    Recycling of plastics is urged by the need for closing material loops to maintain our natural resources when striving towards circular economy, but also by the concern raced by observations of plastic scrap in oceans and lakes. Packaging industry is the sector using the largest share of plastics, hence packaging dominates in the plastic waste flow. The aim of this paper was to sum up the recycling potential of post-consumer plastic packaging waste in Finland. This potential was evaluated based on the quantity, composition and mechanical quality of the plastic packaging waste generated by consumers and collected as a source-separated fraction, within the mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) or within energy waste. Based on the assessment 86,000-117,000 tons (18 kg/person/a) of post-consumer plastic packaging waste was generated in Finland in 2014. The majority, 84% of the waste was in the mixed MSW flow in 2014. Due to the launching of new sorting facilities and separate collections for post-consumer plastic packaging in 2016, almost 40% of the post-consumer plastic packaging could become available for recycling. However, a 50% recycling rate for post-consumer plastic packaging (other than PET bottles) would be needed to increase the overall MSW recycling rate from the current 41% by around two percentage points. The share of monotype plastics in the overall MSW plastics fraction was 80%, hence by volume the recycling potential of MSW plastics is high. Polypropylene (PP) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) were the most common plastic types present in mixed MSW, followed by polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polystyrene (PS) and high density polyethylene (HDPE). If all the Finnish plastic packaging waste collected through the three collection types would be available for recycling, then 19,000-25,000 tons of recycled PP and 6000-8000 tons of recycled HDPE would be available on the local market. However, this assessment includes uncertainties due to performing the

  1. Infant bottle propping among a low-income urban population in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, R; Segura-Millán, S; Dewey, K G

    1995-06-01

    The prevalence of bottle propping (permitting an infant to drink from a bottle unattended) and the determinants of this practice at 1 week and 4 months of life were studied in a selected sample of urban women in Hermosillo, Mexico. The sample (n = 165) consisted of mothers planning to breast-feed who gave birth to healthy infants at one of two public hospitals. Data were obtained by interviewing women shortly before they were discharged from the hospital and at about 1 week and 4 months postpartum. Among those mothers giving liquid breast milk substitutes to their infants, the percentage practicing bottle propping increased from 27% at 1 week (n = 20/74) to 67% at 4 months (n = 87/130). Women who practiced bottle propping at 1 week were significantly more likely to continue this practice at 4 months. Bottle propping was significantly more common, both at 1 week and 4 months, among women who had completely weaned their infants than among those who were still combining breast and formula feeding. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that 1-week risk factors for bottle propping were low socioeconomic status, being a multiparous single mother, and being a young mother (< or = 18 years old) with a female infant, while 4-month risk factors were complete weaning, delivery in a "nursery" (versus a "rooming-in") hospital, and lack of support by the mother's partner for breast-feeding. While the possible health risks associated with early bottle propping have not been well defined, the extent of the practice observed in this study suggests that such risks deserve further investigation.

  2. Study on Plastic Coated Overburnt Brick Aggregate as an Alternative Material for Bituminous Road Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipankar Sarkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different places in India where natural stone aggregates are not available for constructional work. Plastic coated OBBA can solve the problem of shortage of stone aggregate to some extent. The engineers are always encouraged to use locally available materials. The present investigation is carried out to evaluate the plastic coated OBBA as an alternative material for bituminous road construction. Shredded waste plastics are mixed with OBBA in different percentages as 0.38, 0.42, 0.46, 0.50, 0.54, and 0.60 of the weight of brick aggregates. Marshall Method of mix design is carried out to find the optimum bitumen content of such bituminous concrete mix prepared by plastic coated OBBA. Bulk density, Marshall Stability, flow, Marshall Quotient, ITS, TSR, stripping, fatigue life, and deformations have been determined accordingly. Marshall Stability value of 0.54 percent of plastic mix is comparatively higher than the other mixes except 0.60 percent of plastic mix. Test results are within the prescribed limit for 0.54 percent of plastic mix. There is a significant reduction in rutting characteristics of the same plastic mix. The fatigue life of the mix is also significantly higher. Thus plastic coated OBBA is found suitable in construction of bituminous concrete road.

  3. Assessing bottled water nitrate concentrations to evaluate total drinking water nitrate exposure and risk of birth defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyer, Peter J; Brender, Jean D; Romitti, Paul A; Kantamneni, Jiji R; Crawford, David; Sharkey, Joseph R; Shinde, Mayura; Horel, Scott A; Vuong, Ann M; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-12-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies of maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate did not account for bottled water consumption. The objective of this National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS) (USA) analysis was to assess the impact of bottled water use on the relation between maternal exposure to drinking water nitrate and selected birth defects in infants born during 1997-2005. Prenatal residences of 1,410 mothers reporting exclusive bottled water use were geocoded and mapped; 326 bottled water samples were collected and analyzed using Environmental Protection Agency Method 300.0. Median bottled water nitrate concentrations were assigned by community; mothers' overall intake of nitrate in mg/day from drinking water was calculated. Odds ratios for neural tube defects, limb deficiencies, oral cleft defects, and heart defects were estimated using mixed-effects models for logistic regression. Odds ratios (95% CIs) for the highest exposure group in offspring of mothers reporting exclusive use of bottled water were: neural tube defects [1.42 (0.51, 3.99)], limb deficiencies [1.86 (0.51, 6.80)], oral clefts [1.43 (0.61, 3.31)], and heart defects [2.13, (0.87, 5.17)]. Bottled water nitrate had no appreciable impact on risk for birth defects in the NBDPS.

  4. The frequency of using different types of pacifier and bottle nipple among 1-24 months old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Poureslami

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Sucking of some types of a pacifier may be a risk factor for mal-development of orofacial structures and malocclusion. This study assessed the prevalence of using of different types of pacifier and bottle nipple among 1-24 months old children in Kerman, Iran. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 300 mothers interviewed at 20 specialized private pediatric offices in Kerman. The mothers had 1-24 months old children. A checklist includes items about pacifier sucking, bottle feeding habits, as well as mothers’ ability to recognize different kinds of available pacifier and bottle nipple was used. RESULTS: The rate of pacifier-sucking was 37.3%, and use of bottle feeding was 42.3%, and among of the users, 24.0 and 35.7% were used orthodontic (functional types of pacifier and bottle nipple respectively. However, only 28.7% of mothers had adequate ability to recognize orthodontic pacifier and bottle nipple. CONCLUSION: The rates of using orthodontic kind of pacifier and bottle nipple were low, and a few mothers had adequate ability to recognize their differences.

  5. Plastic Surgery Inclusion in the Undergraduate Medical Curriculum: Perception, Challenges, and Career Choice—A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farid

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The undergraduate medical curriculum has been overcrowded with core learning outcomes with no formal exposure to plastic surgery. The aim of this study was to compare medical students from two educational settings for the basic understanding, preferred learning method, and factors influencing a career choice in plastic surgery. Design and Setting. A prospective cohort study based on a web-based anonymous questionnaire sent to final year medical students at Birmingham University (United Kingdom, McGill University (Canada, and a control group (non-medical staff. The questions were about plastic surgery: (1 source of information and basic understanding; (2 undergraduate curriculum inclusion and preferred learning methods; (3 factors influencing a career choice. A similar questionnaire was sent to non-medical staff (control group. The data was analysed based on categorical outcomes (Chi-square χ2 and level of significance p≤0.05. Results. Questionnaire was analysed for 243 students (Birmingham, n=171/332, 52% (McGill n=72/132, 54%. Birmingham students (14% considered the word “plastic” synonymous with “cosmetic” more than McGill students (4%, p<0.025. Teaching was the main source of knowledge for McGill students (39%, p<0.001 while Birmingham students and control group chose the media (70%, p<0.001. McGill students (67% more than Birmingham (49%, p<0.010 considered curriculum inclusion. The preferred learning method was lectures for McGill students (61%, p<0.01 but an optional module for Birmingham (61%. A similar proportion (18% from both student groups considered a career in plastic surgery. Conclusions. Medical students recognised the need for plastic surgery inclusion in the undergraduate curriculum. There was a difference for plastic surgery source of information, operations, and preferred method of learning for students. The study highlighted the urgent need to reform plastic surgery undergraduate teaching in

  6. Shipping container for a bottle of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soldan, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    A shipping container for a bottle of radioactive material comprises a can having a cavity therein for receiving the bottle, a screw cap for the can and the cavity, and an annular bottle retainer extending downwardly in the cavity from its upper end having an outwardly extending flange at its upper end clamped between the cap and the upper end of the cavity and an inwardly extending flange at its lower end receiving the neck of the bottle. The cap carries a sponge to absorb spillage from the bottle. (U.S.)

  7. Nuclear Fragmentation Induced by Relativistic Projectiles Studied in the 4$\\pi$ Configuration of Plastic Track Detectors

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU19 \\\\ \\\\ The collisions of heavy ions at relativistic energies have been studied to explore a number of questions related with hot and dense nuclear matter in order to extend our knowledge of nuclear equation-of-state. There are other aspects of these interactions which are studied to expound the process of projectile and/or target disintegrations. The disintegrations in question could be simply binary fissions or more complex processes leading to spallation or complete fragmentation. These important aspects of nuclear reactions are prone to investigations with nuclear track detectors. \\\\ \\\\One of the comparatively new track detector materials, CR-39, is sensitive enough to record particles of Z~$\\geq$~6 with almost 100\\% efficiency up to highly relativistic energies. The wide angle acceptance and exclusive measurements possible with plastic track detectors offer an opportunity to use them in a variety of situations in which high energy charged fragments are produced. The off-line nature of measuring tra...

  8. Studies of the stability and sistematics of operation of the DELPHI plastic streamer tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Bilenky, M.S.; Bonyushkin, Yu.Ye.; Korrytov, A.V.

    1989-01-01

    The influeNce of gas pressure and temperature, slight changes in a gas mixture, self-sustaining discharge, aging, different deviations in the detector geometry on the operation of the DELPHI plastic streamer tubes is studied. The contribution of these factors to the DELPHI hadron calorimeter energy resolution is estimated. The major influence is found to be due to atmospheric pressure fluctuations (∼ ±1% streamer charge change per ±1 Torr). The question of the choice of a gas mixture is studied as well. Maximal streamer charge is shown to be independent of component concentrations in the Ar:CO 2 :i-C 4 H 10 ) or C 5 H 12 ) gas mixtures. 23 refs.; 21 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Study of Wood Plastic Composites elastic behaviour using full field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciaa A.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the mechanical properties and microstructure of HDPE/wood fibre composites are investigated. The four-point bending and tensile behaviour of Wood Plastic Composite (WPC with or without additive are studied by using full-field strain measurements by 3-D Digital Image Correlation (3-D DIC. A non-linear behaviour is shown. The modulus of elasticity (MOE is calculated as the tangent at zero strain of a Maxwell-Bingham model fitted onto experimental data. Four-point bending tests are analyzed thanks to the spatial standard deviation of the longitudinal strain field to determine the degree of heterogeneity. Cyclic tensile tests have been performed in order to analyze the damage of the material. Moreover, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM is used to characterize the morphology of the wood fibre/HDPE matrix interface for specimens with maleic anhydride modified polyethylene additive (MAPE.

  10. Study of Wood Plastic Composites elastic behaviour using full field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Mbarek, T.; Robert, L.; Hugot, F.; Orteu, J. J.; Sammouda, H.; Graciaa, A.; Charrier, B.

    2010-06-01

    In this study, the mechanical properties and microstructure of HDPE/wood fibre composites are investigated. The four-point bending and tensile behaviour of Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) with or without additive are studied by using full-field strain measurements by 3-D Digital Image Correlation (3-D DIC). A non-linear behaviour is shown. The modulus of elasticity (MOE) is calculated as the tangent at zero strain of a Maxwell-Bingham model fitted onto experimental data. Four-point bending tests are analyzed thanks to the spatial standard deviation of the longitudinal strain field to determine the degree of heterogeneity. Cyclic tensile tests have been performed in order to analyze the damage of the material. Moreover, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) is used to characterize the morphology of the wood fibre/HDPE matrix interface for specimens with maleic anhydride modified polyethylene additive (MAPE).

  11. Pyrolysis of plastic waste using alumina-pumice as catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warnijati, S.; Agra, I.B.; Wibowo, W.

    2000-01-01

    Efforts to convert plastic waste to liquid fuel have been carried out, but the yield was not so promising yet. Various catalysts have been studied to drive the product more to the liquid fuel. In this study, alumina-pumice produced from cheap local materials, was used as catalyst. Solid polyethylene plastic waste was melted in a feed compartment surrounding the tube reactor, and the vapor flowed downward through the catalyst bed which was supported by small glass marbles. Air and water coolers were used to cool and condense the product. Liquid and uncondensable gas were collected in receivers and bottle filled with brine, respectively. The physical properties of a specific liquid product were tested according to the ASTM methods. Liquid and gas products increased with time and temperature, and the rate of liquid and gas formations followed first order reaction. Using 100 g of plastic waste and 40 g of catalyst, the favorable time and temperature of pyrolysis were 105 minutes and 653-673 K, respectively. Under this condition, 86 - 87 % of liquid, 45 - 53 mL/g of gas, and 1% of solid residue were obtained. The quantity of liquid product was higher than the previous work (which was just 70-75 %) and its physical properties were between those of kerosene and diesel oil. The gross heating value of the liquid was 49 796.03 J/g, and the gas burnt with yellow flame and some soot. (Author)

  12. Concentration of ions in selected bottled water samples sold in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aris, Ahmad Zaharin; Kam, Ryan Chuan Yang; Lim, Ai Phing; Praveena, Sarva Mangala

    2013-03-01

    Many consumers around the world, including Malaysians, have turned to bottled water as their main source of drinking water. The aim of this study is to determine the physical and chemical properties of bottled water samples sold in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 20 bottled water brands consisting of `natural mineral (NM)' and `packaged drinking (PD)' types were randomly collected and analyzed for their physical-chemical characteristics: hydrogen ion concentration (pH), electrical conductivity (EC) and total dissolved solids (TDS), selected major ions: calcium (Ca), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na), and minor trace constituents: copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) to ascertain their suitability for human consumption. The results obtained were compared with guideline values recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) and Malaysian Ministry of Health (MMOH), respectively. It was found that all bottled water samples were in accordance with the guidelines set by WHO and MMOH except for one sample (D3) which was below the pH limit of 6.5. Both NM and PD bottled water were dominated by Na + K > Ca > Mg. Low values for EC and TDS in the bottled water samples showed that water was deficient in essential elements, likely an indication that these were removed by water treatment. Minerals like major ions were present in very low concentrations which could pose a risk to individuals who consume this water on a regular basis. Generally, the overall quality of the supplied bottled water was in accordance to standards and guidelines set by WHO and MMOH and safe for consumption.

  13. Laboratory Workflow Analysis of Culture of Periprosthetic Tissues in Blood Culture Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peel, Trisha N; Sedarski, John A; Dylla, Brenda L; Shannon, Samantha K; Amirahmadi, Fazlollaah; Hughes, John G; Cheng, Allen C; Patel, Robin

    2017-09-01

    Culture of periprosthetic tissue specimens in blood culture bottles is more sensitive than conventional techniques, but the impact on laboratory workflow has yet to be addressed. Herein, we examined the impact of culture of periprosthetic tissues in blood culture bottles on laboratory workflow and cost. The workflow was process mapped, decision tree models were constructed using probabilities of positive and negative cultures drawn from our published study (T. N. Peel, B. L. Dylla, J. G. Hughes, D. T. Lynch, K. E. Greenwood-Quaintance, A. C. Cheng, J. N. Mandrekar, and R. Patel, mBio 7:e01776-15, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.01776-15), and the processing times and resource costs from the laboratory staff time viewpoint were used to compare periprosthetic tissues culture processes using conventional techniques with culture in blood culture bottles. Sensitivity analysis was performed using various rates of positive cultures. Annualized labor savings were estimated based on salary costs from the U.S. Labor Bureau for Laboratory staff. The model demonstrated a 60.1% reduction in mean total staff time with the adoption of tissue inoculation into blood culture bottles compared to conventional techniques (mean ± standard deviation, 30.7 ± 27.6 versus 77.0 ± 35.3 h per month, respectively; P < 0.001). The estimated annualized labor cost savings of culture using blood culture bottles was $10,876.83 (±$337.16). Sensitivity analysis was performed using various rates of culture positivity (5 to 50%). Culture in blood culture bottles was cost-effective, based on the estimated labor cost savings of $2,132.71 for each percent increase in test accuracy. In conclusion, culture of periprosthetic tissue in blood culture bottles is not only more accurate than but is also cost-saving compared to conventional culture methods. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Survey on Heterotrophic Bacterial Contamination in Bottled Mineral Water by Culture Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essmaeel Ghorbanalinezhad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: This project focuses on the level of heterotrophic baceria in bottled mineral water which could be a health concern for the elderly, infants, pregnant women and immuno-compromised patients. Materials and Methods: Different brands of bottled water samples were selected randomly and evaluated for their bacteriological quality, using different specific culture media and biochemical tests. Water samples were analyzed within 24 hours of their purchase/collection. Samples were filtered with 0.45 micron and filters were plated in different media. Then media were incubated at 37˚C for 24-48 hours. Results: Morphological study and biochemical tests revealed a number of bacteria in different   brands of  bottled water. Heterotrophic bacteria(Gram positive cocci, Spore forming gram positive bacilli, non spore forming gram positive bacilli, gram negative bacilli, and gram negative coccobacilli; Pseudomonas and Stenotrophomonas counted in 70% of bottled water samples. There were no cases of fecal contamination or the presence of E.coli. Conclusions: Bottled water is not sterile and contains trace amounts of bacteria naturally present or introduced during processing. Testing drinking water for all possible pathogens is complex, time-consuming, and expensive. If only total coliform bacteria are detected in drinking water, the source is probably environmental. Since the significance of non-pathogenic heterotrophic bacteria in relation to health and diseases is not understood, there is an urgent need to establish a maximum limit for the heterotrophic count in the bottled mineral water. Growth conditions play a critical role in the recovery of heterotrophic bacteria in bottled drinking water.

  15. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  16. [Experimental study on carbon fiber reinforced plastic plate--analysis of stabilizing force required for plate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iizuka, H

    1990-11-01

    Plates currently in use for the management of bone fracture made of metal present with various problems. We manufactured carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) plates from Pyrofil T/530 puriplegs overlaid at cross angles of +/- 10 degrees, +/- 20 degrees, and +/- 30 degrees for trial and carried out an experimental study on rabbit tibiofibular bones using 316L stainless steel plates of comparable shape and size as controls. The results indicate the influence of CFRP plate upon cortical bone was milder than that of stainless steel plate, with an adequate stabilizing force for the repair of fractured rabbit tibiofibular bones. CFRP has the advantages over metals of being virtually free from corrosion and fatigue, reasonably radiolucent and able to meet a wide range of mechanical requirements. This would make CFRP plate quite promising as a new devices of treating fracture of bones.

  17. Physicochemical and bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water in three sites of Amhara Regional State, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biadglegne, Fantahun; Tessema, Belay; Kibret, Mulugeta; Abera, Bayeh; Huruy, Kahsay; Anagaw, Belay; Mulu, Andargachew

    2009-10-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking water is becoming increasing in Ethiopia. As a result there has been a growing concern about the chemical, physical and bacteriological quality of this product. Studies on the chemical, physical and bacteriological quality of bottled water is quite scarce in Ethiopia. This study was therefore aimed to assess the physicochemical and bacteriological qualities of three factories of bottled drinking water products produced in Amhara region. A Laboratory based comparative study was conducted to evaluate the physicochemical and bacteriological quality of three factories of bottled drinking water produced in Amhara region. Analysis on the quality of bottled drinking water from the sources, wholesalers and retailers were made with World Health Organization and Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia recommendations. Triplicate samples from three types of bottled drinking water were randomly collected and analyzed from June, 2006 to December, 2006. A total of 108 commercial bottled drinking water samples were analyzed. The result showed that except pH of factory A all the physicochemical parameters analyzed were with in the recommended limits. The pH value of factory A tested from sources is 5.3 and from wholesalers and retailers is 5.5 and 5.3, respectively, which is below the normal value set by World Health Organization (6.5-8.0) and Quality and Standards Authority of Ethiopia (6.0-8.5). Our analyses also demonstrated that 2 (16.7%) of the samples tested from sources and 1 (8.3%) from wholesalers of factory B were contaminated with total coliforms, where as 2 (16.7%) samples from retailers were also contaminated with total coliforms. On the other hand, 1 (8.3%) of the samples tested from wholesalers and 2 (16.7%) of the samples tested from retailers of factory A were also contaminated with total coliforms. Total coliforms were not detected from all samples of factory C, fecal coliforms were not also isolated from all samples

  18. The effects of adding waste plastic fibers on some properties of roller compacted concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abed Adil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt to produce of roller compacted concrete (RCC improved by adding waste plastic fibers (WPFs resulting from cutting the PET beverage bottles was recorded in this study. The method which is used for production of RCC is an approved design method for ACI committee (5R-207,1980[1]. WPF was added by volumetric percentages ranging between (0.5 to 2 % and reference concrete mix was produced for comparison reason. Many tests were conducted on the models produced by rolling compacted concrete like compressive strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, dry density, water absorption and ultrasonic pulse velocity. The analysis of the results showed that the use of plastic waste fibers (1% had led to improvement in the properties of each of the compressive strength and flexural strength compared with reference concrete. Results also showed that the addition of these, fibers increase water absorption and reduce the speed of Ultrasonic pulse velocity.

  19. PERCEPTION ABOUT BOTTLE FEEDING AMONG MOTHERS IN SELECTED HEALTH CARE SETTINGS IN ABA SOUTH LGA, ABIA STATE, NIGERIA

    OpenAIRE

    Achema.G.; Chigbo.R

    2011-01-01

    The study determined the perception of bottle feeding among mothers attending child welfare clinic in selected health centers in Aba South LGA. It also ascertained the knowledge of mothers about the breast feeding and factors responsible for chosen bottle feeding. A descriptive research design was adopted for the study where a total survey of 45 mothers who were selected systematically from the centers were interviewed as a method of data collection. The findings of the study showed that 93% ...

  20. A DNA metabarcoding study of a primate dietary diversity and plasticity across its entire fragmented range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwan Quéméré

    Full Text Available In tropical regions, most primary ecosystems have been replaced by mosaic landscapes in which species must cope with a large shift in the distribution of their habitat and associated food resources. Primates are particularly vulnerable to habitat modifications. Most species persist in small fragments surrounded by complex human-mediated matrices whose structure and connectivity may strongly influence their dispersal and feeding behavior. Behavioral plasticity appears to be a crucial parameter governing the ability of organisms to exploit the resources offered by new matrix habitats and thus to persist in fragmented habitats. In this study, we were interested in the dietary plasticity of the golden-crowned sifaka (Propithecus tattersalli, an endangered species of lemur, found only in the Daraina region in north-eastern Madagascar. We used a DNA-based approach combining the barcoding concept and Illumina next-generation sequencing to (i describe the species diet across its entire range and (ii evaluate the influence of landscape heterogeneity on diet diversity and composition. Faeces from 96 individuals were sampled across the entire species range and their contents were analyzed using the trnL metabarcoding approach. In parallel, we built a large DNA reference database based on a checklist of the plant species of the Daraina region. Our results suggest that golden-crowned sifakas exhibit remarkable dietary diversity with at least 130 plant species belonging to 80 genera and 49 different families. We highlighted an influence of both habitat type and openness on diet composition suggesting a high flexibility of foraging strategies. Moreover, we observed the presence of numerous cultivated and naturalized plants in the faeces of groups living in forest edge areas. Overall, our findings support our initial expectation that P. tattersalli is able to cope with the current level of alteration of the landscape and confirm our previous results on the

  1. FTIR Spectroscopic and DC Ionic conductivity Studies of PVDF-HFP: LiBF4: EC Plasticized Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangeetha, M.; Mallikarjun, A.; Jaipal Reddy, M.; Siva Kumar, J.

    2017-08-01

    In the present paper; the FTIR and Temperature dependent DC Ionic conductivity studies of polymer (80 Wt% PVDF-HFP) with inorganic lithium tetra fluoroborate salt (20 Wt% LiBF4) as ionic charge carrier and plasticized with various weight ratios of Ethylene carbonate plasticizer (10 Wt% to 70 Wt% EC) as gel polymer electrolytes. Solution casting method is used for the preparation of plasticized polymer-salt electrolyte films. FTIR analysis shows the good complexation between PVDF-HFP: LiBF4 and the presence of functional groups in the plasticized polymer-salt electrolyte membrane. Also the analysis and results show that the highest DC ionic conductivity of 1.66 × 10-3 SCm -1 was found at 373 K for a particular concentration of 80 Wt% PVDF-HFP: 20 Wt% LiBF4: 40 Wt% EC porous gel type polymer-salt plasticized porous membrane. Increase of temperature results expansion and segmental motion of polymer chain that generates free volume in turn promotes hopping of the lithium ions satisfying Vogel-Tammann-Fulcher equation.

  2. Preference for tap, bottled, and recycled water: Relations to PTC taste sensitivity and personality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Daniel; Gauvain, Mary; Z Reisz; Arthur, Isaac; Story, S Drew

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated people's preferences for different water sources and factors that predict such preferences using a blind taste test. Water preferences of 143 participants for one name-brand bottled water, one groundwater-sourced tap water, and one indirect potable reuse (IDR) water were assessed. For predictors of water preference, we measured each participant's PTC taste sensitivity and assessed two personality traits (Neuroticism, Openness to Experience). We also explored participants' descriptions of each water source. Results indicate a preference for water treated with Reverse Osmosis (RO) (bottled and IDR water) over groundwater-sourced water, which had higher pH levels and lower concentrations of Ca and HCO 3 - . PTC taste sensitivity did not predict preferences, while Openness to Experience and Neuroticism predicted preference for IDR water. Positive relations between Openness to Experience and preferences for bottled and IDR water were moderated by gender and were stronger among females. Participants described water primarily by its taste and texture. Findings suggest that (1) tap water treated by RO is equally preferable to some bottled water, (2) personality traits may affect water preferences, and (3) prior findings of gender differences in preferences for bottled water may reflect personality characteristics. Efforts to increase acceptance for sustainable water alternatives, such as IDR, may be more successful by assuring consumers about taste and addressing personality traits that encourage or inhibit use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials : a European study to underpin future legislation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jetten, J.; Kruijf, N. de; Castle, L.

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by industry and regulatory authorities for ensuring the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical) of reused plastics for food packaging. The study included thermal

  4. Studies on the Properties of Plasticizer and Lithium Salt on PMMA-based Solid Polymer Electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chew, K. W.; Tan, C. G.; Osman, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of plasticizer and lithium salt on PMMA-based solid polymer electrolyte have been investigated. In current project, three system samples consisted of pure poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA) system, plasticized poly(methyl methacrylate)(PMMA-EC) system and the LiCF 3 SO 3 salted-poly(methyl methacrylate) containing a fixed amount of plasticizer ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system have been prepared using solution casting technique. The conductivities of the films from each system are characterized by impedance spectroscopy and infrared spectrum. With the addition of plasticizer, results show improvement on the ionic conductivity value where the value of 6.25x10 -10 Scm -1 is obtained. This may be due to the nature of plasticizer that softens the polymer and hence enhanced the ionic transportation across the polymer. The room temperature conductivity for the highest conducting sample in the ([PMMA-EC]-LiCF 3 SO 3 ) system is 1.36x10 -5 Scm -1 . Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicates complexation between the polymer and the plasticizer and the polymer, the plasticizer and the salts, and the result of XRD further supports the observation.

  5. Study and understanding of n/γ discrimination processes in organic plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, Matthieu; Blanc, Pauline; Rocha, Licinio; Normand, Stephane; Pansu, Robert

    2013-01-01

    For 50 years, it was assumed that unlike liquid scintillators or organic crystals, plastic scintillators were not able to discriminate fast neutrons from gamma. In this work, we will demonstrate that triplet-triplet annihilations (which are responsible of n/γ discrimination) can occur even in plastic scintillators, following certain conditions. Thus, the presentation will deal with the chemical preparation, the characterization and the comparison of n/γ pulse shape discrimination of various plastic scintillators. To this aim, scale-up of the process allowed us to prepare a O 100 mm x*110 mm thick. (authors)

  6. Study on cosmic ray iron isotopes in an emulsion-plastic detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scherzer, R.; Enge, W.; Beaujean, R.; Hertzman, S.; Kristiansson, K.; Soederstroem, K.

    1976-01-01

    Combining cellulose nitrate plastics and nuclear emulsions a detector system for mass measurement in the iron group has been designed. The detector operates in an energy interval of 500-700 MeV/Nuc and has been flown in two balloon flights. In the emulsion range and track width are measured. Cone lengths and range are measured in the plastics. The charge of a particle can be determined both in emulsion and in plastics. The mass is determined by relating cone lengths to residual range. One advantage of this detector system is the high rejection of interacting particles. The present status is reported. (orig.) [de

  7. A physicochemical study of sugar palm (Arenga Pinnata) starch films plasticized by glycerol and sorbitol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poeloengasih, Crescentiana D.; Pranoto, Yudi; Hayati, Septi Nur; Hernawan, Rosyida, Vita T.; Prasetyo, Dwi J.; Jatmiko, Tri H.; Apriyana, Wuri; Suwanto, Andri

    2016-02-01

    The present work explores the physicochemical characteristics of sugar palm starch film for a potential hard capsule purpose. Sugar palm (Arenga pinnata) starch films were plasticized with glycerol or sorbitol in various concentrations (30% up to 50% w/w starch). Their effects on physicochemical properties of the films were investigated. The results showed that sugar palm starch was successfully developed as the main material of film using casting method. Incorporation of both glycerol or sorbitol affected the properties of films in different ways. It was found that thickness and solubility increased as plasticizer concentration increased, whereas retraction ratio, swelling degree and swelling thickness decreased with the increased plasticizer concentration.

  8. Studies on the seismic buckling design guideline of FBR main vessels. 9. Buckling evaluation under elastic-plastic seismic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagiwara, Yutaka; Yamamoto, Kohsuke; Kawamoto, Yoji; Nakagawa, Masaki; Akiyama, Hiroshi

    1998-01-01

    Plastic shear-bending buckling under seismic loadings is one of the major problems in the structural design of FBR main vessels. Pseudo-dynamic and dynamic buckling tests of cylinders were performed in order to study the effects of nonlinear seismic response on buckling strength, ductility, and plastic response reduction. The buckling strength formulae and the rule for ductility factors both derived from static tests were confirmed to be valid for the tests under dynamic loads. The displacement-constant rule for response reduction effect was modified by acceleration amplification factor in order to maintain applicability for various spectral profiles of seismic excitations. The response reduction estimated by the proposed rule was reasonably conservative for all cases of the pseudo-dynamic and the dynamic tests. Finally, a seismic safety assessment rule was proposed for plastic shear-bending buckling of cylinders, which include the proposed response reduction rule. (author)

  9. Investigation of Antimony Leaching from Bottles (PET into the Bottled Waters in Fars Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Noshadi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET is the most common material used in manufacturing mineral water bottles. Antimony trioxide (Sb2O3 used to form the PET containers may pollute water with their ingredients. In this research, graphite furnance atomic absorption spectrometry was used to investigate the effects of storage time (1 to 8 weeks, storage temperature (-20 to 80 °C, pH (6.3 to 8.3, exposure to sunlight, and UV radiation on leaching antimony from PET bottles into the mineral water of 15 bottled water brands available in Fars Province. Concentrations of antimony in the first and second weeks were lower than the maximum standard limit (5 ppb recommended by Iranian regulations. Antimony concentration in one sample (brand A rose above the standard limit after four weeks and in 3 samples (brands A, F, and J with antimony concentrations of 5.48, 5.08, and 5.06 µg/L, respectively exceeded the standard limit after 8 weeks. Sunlight, UV radiation, changes in pH, and storage at temperatures of -20 ℃, 60 ℃, and 80℃ were also found to increase antimony concentrations to levels above the maximum standard limit. Clearly, storing bottled mineral water in ambient conditions may lead to the release of antimony into bottled water, which is a serious threat to public health.

  10. Multi scale study of the plasticity at low temperature in α-iron: application for the cleavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaussidon, J.

    2007-10-01

    An accident inside a nuclear power plant may lead to the cleavage of the nuclear vessel made of bainitic steel. In order to understand the origin of this fracture, we studied BCC-iron plasticity at low temperature using numerical simulations at different scales. Molecular Dynamics simulations show the high dependency of screw dislocation motion with temperature and stress. Results from these simulations were added to experiment data to develop a new Dislocation Dynamics code dedicated to BCC iron at low temperature. The code was used to model plasticity into a ferritic lath for various temperatures. This work confirms that cleavage is favoured by low temperatures. (author)

  11. Basic study for plastic deformation of rapidly quenched Nd-Fe-Co-Ga-B magnets at elevated temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akayama, M.; Tanigawa, S.; Tokunaga, M.

    1990-01-01

    In order to optimize hot working conditions of rapidly quenched Nd-Fe-C-Ga-B magnets, the behavior of plastic deformation at elevated temperatures has been studied. Compressive and tensile tests were performed with various hot working parameters. Computer simulation of the die upsetting process was performed by rigid plastic FEM calculation. It was found that, to suppress the occurrence of peripheral cracks and improve magnetic properties, low strain rates are necessary. Computer calculation of the distribution of stress can explain the mechanism of peripheral crack initiation in the die upsetting process

  12. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  13. A study on the plasticity of soda-lime silica glass via molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Shingo; Sato, Yosuke

    2017-11-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were applied to construct a plasticity model, which enables one to simulate deformations of soda-lime silica glass (SLSG) by using continuum methods. To model the plasticity, stress induced by uniaxial and a variety of biaxial deformations was measured by MD simulations. We found that the surfaces of yield and maximum stresses, which are evaluated from the equivalent stress-strain curves, are reasonably represented by the Mohr-Coulomb ellipsoid. Comparing a finite element model using the constructed plasticity model to a large scale atomistic model on a nanoindentation simulation of SLSG reveals that the empirical method is accurate enough to evaluate the SLSG mechanical responses. Furthermore, the effect of ion-exchange on the SLSG plasticity was examined by using MD simulations. As a result, it was demonstrated that the effects of the initial compressive stress on the yield and maximum stresses are anisotropic contrary to our expectations.

  14. Numerical Study of the Plasticity-Induced Stabilization Effect on Martensitic Transformations in Shape Memory Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junker, Philipp; Hempel, Philipp

    2017-12-01

    It is well known that plastic deformations in shape memory alloys stabilize the martensitic phase. Furthermore, the knowledge concerning the plastic state is crucial for a reliable sustainability analysis of construction parts. Numerical simulations serve as a tool for the realistic investigation of the complex interactions between phase transformations and plastic deformations. To account also for irreversible deformations, we expand an energy-based material model by including a non-linear isotropic hardening plasticity model. An implementation of this material model into commercial finite element programs, e.g., Abaqus, offers the opportunity to analyze entire structural components at low costs and fast computation times. Along with the theoretical derivation and expansion of the model, several simulation results for various boundary value problems are presented and interpreted for improved construction designing.

  15. The Association of Bifidobacterium breve BR03 and B632 is Effective to Prevent Colics in Bottle-fed Infants: A Pilot, Controlled, Randomized, and Double-Blind Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giglione, Enza; Prodam, Flavia; Bellone, Simonetta; Monticone, Sonia; Beux, Sheila; Marolda, Agostina; Pagani, Alessia; Di Gioia, Diana; Del Piano, Mario; Mogna, Giovanni; Bona, Gianni

    To assess the effectiveness of Bifidobacterium breve B632 and BR03 association in the reduction of infants crying over time. The second endpoint was to observe the effect of the same strains on daily evacuations and on the number of regurgitations and vomits. Infant colics represent a clinical condition in childhood, characterized by an uncontrollable crying that occurs without any apparent organic cause. An altered intestinal microbiota composition in the very first months may induce intestinal colics in infants. Thus far, no treatment is really effective for this problem, but recent literature shows an increasing attention toward probiotics. A total of 83 subjects were enrolled, 60 breastfed infants and 23 bottle-fed infants. Sixty of them carried out the study: 29 infants were given probiotics, whereas 31 placebo. During the 90 days of the study, parents were asked to give 5 drops of active product (10 viable cells/strain) or placebo and to daily take note of: minutes of crying, number, color, and consistency of evacuations, and number of regurgitations or vomits. No significant differences were detected in the infants treated with probiotics, compared with placebo group (P=0.75). The analysis of the 3 months of treatment demonstrated that during the third month, the probiotic group cried 12.14 minutes on average and the placebo cried 46.65 minutes. This difference is statistically significant (P=0.016). The evidence of the usefulness of some probiotic strains in the treatment and prevention of infant colics is growing, and therefore their use in clinical practice is spreading.

  16. A study on synthesis of energy fuel from waste plastic and assessment of its potential as an alternative fuel for diesel engines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaimal, Viswanath K; Vijayabalan, P

    2016-05-01

    The demand for plastic is ever increasing and has produced a huge amount of plastic waste. The management and disposal of plastic waste have become a major concern, especially in developing cities. The idea of waste to energy recovery is one of the promising techniques used for managing the waste plastic. This paper assesses the potential of using Waste Plastic Oil (WPO), synthesized using pyrolysis of waste plastic, as an alternative for diesel fuel. In this research work, the performance and emission characteristics of a single cylinder diesel engine fuelled with WPO and its blends with diesel are studied. In addition to neat plastic oil, three blends (PO25, PO50 and PO75) were prepared on a volumetric basis and the engine was able to run on neat plastic oil. Brake thermal efficiency of blends was lower compared to diesel, but PO25 showed similar performance to that of diesel. The emissions were reduced considerably while using blends when compared to neat plastic oil. The smoke and NOX were reduced by 22% and 17.8% respectively for PO25 than that of plastic oil. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization and ageing study of poly(lactic acid) films plasticized with oligomeric lactic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Nuria; Martino, Verónica P.; Jiménez, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) was melt-blended with a bio-based oligomeric lactic acid (OLA) plasticizer at different concentrations between 15 wt% and 25 wt% in order to enhance PLA ductility and to get a fully biodegradable material with potential application in films manufacturing. OLA was an efficient plasticizer for PLA, as it caused a significant decrease on glass transition temperature (Tg) while improving considerably ductile properties. Only one Tg value was observed in all cases and no ap...

  18. Thermal degradation and kinetic study for different waste/rejected plastic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rana, Srujal; Parikh, Jigisha Kamal; Mohanty, Pravakar

    2013-01-01

    A kinetic analysis based on thermal decomposition of rejected polypropylene, plastic film and plastic pellets collected from different industrial outlet has been carried out. Non-isothermal experiments using different heating rates of 5, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 .deg. C min"−"1 have been performed from ambient to 700 .deg. C in a thermo-balance with the objective of determining the kinetic parameters. The values of activation energy and frequency factor were found to be in the range of 107-322 kJ/mol, 85-331 kJ/mol, 140-375 kJ/mol and 3.49E+07-4.74E+22 min⌃(-1), 3.52E+06-2.88E+22min⌃(-1), 7.28E+13-1.17E+25 min⌃(-1) for rejected polypropylene, plastic film and plastic pellets, respectively, by Coats-Redfern and Ozawa methods including different models. Kissinger method, a model free analysis is also adopted to find the kinetic parameters. Activation energy and frequency factor were found to be 108 kJ/mol, 98 kJ/mol, 132 kJ/mol and 6.89E+03, 2.12E+02, 8.06E+05 min⌃(-1) for rejected polypropylene, plastic film and plastic pellets, respectively, by using the Kissinger method

  19. Study on the synthesis of antibacterial plastic by using silver nanoparticles doped in zeolite framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Anh Quoc; Dang Van Phu; Nguyen Ngoc Duy; Nguyen Thi Kim Lan; Vo Thi Kim Lang; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) doped in the zeolite framework (AgNPs/Z) were successfully synthesized by gamma irradiation in ethanol solution of silver ion-zeolite (Ag"+/Z) prepared by ion exchange reaction between silver nitrate (AgNO_3) and zeolite 4A. The effect of the Ag"+ concentration and irradiation dose on the formation of AgNPs/Z were also investigated. AgNPs/Z with the silver content of about 10,000 ppm and AgNPs size of about 27 nm was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Firstly, AgNPs/Z was added into PP resins for creation of PP-AgNPs/Z masterbatch (Ag content of ~1.000 ppm) and then PP-AgNPs/Z plastics were prepared by mixing masterbatch with PP resins. The antibacterial activity of the PP-AgNPs/Z plastics was investigated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli). The results showed that PP-AgNPs/Z plastic contained 100 ppm of Ag possessed a high antibacterial property, namely the bactericidal effect was more than 96% on the plastic surface. In conclusion, possessing many advantages such as: vigorously antimicrobial effect and good dispersion in plastic matrix, AgNPs/Z is promising to be applied as bactericidal agent for plastic industry. (author)

  20. Study on the synthesis of antibacterial plastic by using silver nanoparticles doped in zeolite framework

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Anh Quoc; Dang Van Phu; Nguyen Ngoc Duy; Nguyen Thi Kim Lan; Vo Thi Kim Lang; Nguyen Quoc Hien

    2016-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) doped in the zeolite framework (AgNPs/Z) were successfully synthesized by γ-irradiation in ethanol solution of silver ion-zeolite (Ag"+/Z) prepared by ion exchange reaction between silver nitrate (AgNO_3) and zeolite 4A. The effects of the Ag"+ concentration and irradiation dose on the formation of AgNPs/Z were also investigated. AgNPs/Z with the silver content of about 10,000 ppm and the average particle size of AgNPs of about 27 nm was characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Firstly, AgNPs/Z was added into PP resins for creation of PP-AgNPs/Z masterbatch (Ag content of ~10.000 ppm) and then PP-AgNPs/Z plastics were prepared by mixing masterbatch with PP resins. The antibacterial activity of the PP-AgNPs/Z plastics was investigated against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli). The results showed that PPAgNPs/Z plastic contained 100 ppm of Ag possessed a high antibacterial property, namely the bactericidal effect was more than 96 % on the plastic surface. In conclusion, possessing many advantages such as: vigorously antibacterial effect and good dispersion in plastic matrix, AgNPs/Z is promising to be applied as bactericidal agent for plastic industry. (author)

  1. Two stage study of wound microorganisms affecting burns and plastic surgery inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Benjamin H; Ali, Syed N; Jeffery, Steven L A; Thomas, Sunil S

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to identify wound microorganisms and the reasons for differing prevalence between the wards, burns unit and intensive care unit (ICU) in a regional centre for burns and plastic surgery. Antibiotic sensitivities of the 10 most prevalent microorganisms cultured from inpatient wound swabs were also investigated. Inpatient wound swab data were collected retrospectively using notes and departmental database information between January and June 2007. Data were analyzed using chi-squared tests and P-values. Eight hundred five positive wound swabs from 204 swab positive inpatients were analyzed. Stage 1 of this study demonstrated 917 positive swab episodes and 30 varieties of organism. The five most prevalent organisms cultured were Staphylococcus (23.9%), Acinetobacter (21.2%), Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (20.8%), Pseudomonas (9.7%) and Enterococcus (5.2%). Stage 2 revealed that Acinetobacter baumanni (ABAU) was significantly more prevalent in military over civilian inpatients (P < .001) and that military inpatients had a significantly greater proportion of ABAU over civilian inpatients within the first 24 hours after admission (P < .001). ABAU episodes were significantly higher on the ICU over the burns unit and on the wards (P < .001). MRSA was significantly more prevalent in military inpatients (P < .001); however, no significant difference was observed within the first 24 hours after admission (P = .440). MRSA was more prevalent on the ICU over the burns unit (P = .023). Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAER) was significantly more prevalent in military inpatients over civilian inpatients (P < .001), and on the ICU over the burns unit and wards (P = .018). Stage 1 generated a comprehensive, up to date cross section of bacterial flora, with corresponding percentage antibiotic sensitivities, in a regional burns and plastic surgery centre. This will give clinicians a snapshot of organisms affecting inpatient wounds in advance of

  2. Application of biotests for the characterization of exposure pathways for endocrine disrupters from plastics; Anwendung von Biotests zur Charakterisierung der Expositionspfade fuer Umwelthormone aus Kunststoffen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Martin; Oehlmann, Joerg [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Abteilung Aquatische Oekotoxikologie

    2011-12-15

    The present project aims to characterise the exposure pathways for endocrine disruptors from plastic materials. A bioassay-based approach was employed to investigate and characterise the endocrine activity. Migration studies with food packaging and plastic preforms document the leaching of estrogen-like compounds from several types of plastic in the Yeast Estrogen Screen and the E-Screen. Additionally, anti-estrogenic activity was predominant in many samples. The detection of complex migration profiles provides evidence for the leaching of several, diverse-acting endocrine disruptors. Moreover, extracts of plastic food packaging exhibited agonistic activity on the estrogen receptor, retinoid X receptor, and vitamin D receptor. A theoretical exposure assessment for marine molluscs implies that endocrine disruptors from plastic might induce relevant effect in the environment. Within the exemplary investigation of bottled mineral water, 60% of the products were characterised as significantly estrogenic using the YES and E-Screen. These in vitro data point to the plastic packaging being one source of estrogenic contamination. An in vivo study employing the estrogen-sensitive model organism Potamopyrgus antipodarum supports this hypothesis. By using several analytical techniques (GC-MS, LC-MS/MS) we identified several well-known endocrine disruptors in bottled water and the plastic material, e.g. numerous phthalates and phenols. Moreover, potent antagonists of the estrogen and androgen receptor were extracted from bottled water. In a non-target analysis (Orbitrap-MS) a compound with the exact mass of 363.1992 [M+H{sup +}] correlated highly significantly with the biological activity. On the basis of the methods optimised and applied within the project we elaborated a set of aspects that are crucial for the applicability of bioassays to characterise the endocrine activity of complex samples. Employing a bioassay-based approach we provide evidence for the presence and

  3. [Development of a screening scale for children at risk of baby bottle tooth decay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khadra-Eid, J; Baudet, D; Fourny, M; Sellier, E; Brun, C; François, P

    2012-03-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay is a severe form of early childhood caries. This study aims to elaborate a screening tool for at risk children in order to facilitate primary prevention. A case-control study was conducted among children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and children with no dental caries. Cases were children aged 5 years or less at diagnosis who experienced at least four caries with one or more affecting maxillary incisors. Controls were children matched for age and sex. Parents were interviewed by phone about their child's exposure to potential risk factors. We included 88 children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and 88 children with no dental caries. In multivariate analysis, low social class (OR 6.39 [95% CI, 1.45-28.11]), prolonged bottle feeding or bedtime feeding (OR 153.2 [95% CI, 11.77-1994.96]), and snacking (OR 5.94 [95% CI, 1.35-26.2]) were significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay. Regular dental visits were a significant protecting factor (OR 0.13 [95% CI, 0.02-0.77]). A score was developed using these significant risk factors and tested on the survey population. The mean score was 13/20 for cases and 4/20 for controls. These results are in accordance with the literature, except for brushing teeth, which was not significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay in our study. A screening scale with a score of 20 points was proposed. Future validation is required. Pediatricians and general practitioners should encourage parents to change their habits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Temperature, salinity and and pigment data from CTD and bottle samples from the Bermuda Time Series (BATS/JGOFS) study area, Oct 1988 - Sep 1990 (NODC Accession 9200088)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Joint Global Ocean Flux Study (JGOFS) is an international and multi- disciplinary study with a primary objective of understanding global oceanic carbon and...

  5. Study the Possibility of Using an Elastomeric Blend as a Plastic Interfacial media in Ultrasonic Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auda Jabbar Braihi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work tries to study the using of bromobutyle / butyle elasomeric blends in ultrasonic transducers as a dry plastic interfacial media to inspect porous materials such as concrete and refractory materials which can absorb liquid medias , through the study of acoustic impedance characteristics at interfaces . These characteristics include acoustic impedance , the percentage of energy reflected, dB loss, Power ratios expressions , and Pressure ratios expressions (Reflection Coefficient & Transmission Coefficient . They are studied by using ultrasonic instrument named CSI (type CCT- 4 with 26 KHz frequency . Also, this research try to specify the suitable bromobutyle / butyle blend for immersion inspect through the matching between the acoustic impedance of the blend and that of water. Samples preparation achieved in Babylon Tiers Factory. Results showed that by increasing bromobutyle ratio in the blend both reflection coefficient and the percentage of energy reflected increased while acoustic impedance and Transmission Coefficient have been decreased. Also, the results show that 20 bromobutyle / 80 butyle is the suitable blend for immersion tests.

  6. Evidence for training-induced plasticity in multisensory brain structures: an MEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Paraskevopoulos

    Full Text Available Multisensory learning and resulting neural brain plasticity have recently become a topic of renewed interest in human cognitive neuroscience. Music notation reading is an ideal stimulus to study multisensory learning, as it allows studying the integration of visual, auditory and sensorimotor information processing. The present study aimed at answering whether multisensory learning alters uni-sensory structures, interconnections of uni-sensory structures or specific multisensory areas. In a short-term piano training procedure musically naive subjects were trained to play tone sequences from visually presented patterns in a music notation-like system [Auditory-Visual-Somatosensory group (AVS], while another group received audio-visual training only that involved viewing the patterns and attentively listening to the recordings of the AVS training sessions [Auditory-Visual group (AV]. Training-related changes in cortical networks were assessed by pre- and post-training magnetoencephalographic (MEG recordings of an auditory, a visual and an integrated audio-visual mismatch negativity (MMN. The two groups (AVS and AV were differently affected by the training. The results suggest that multisensory training alters the function of multisensory structures, and not the uni-sensory ones along with their interconnections, and thus provide an answer to an important question presented by cognitive models of multisensory training.

  7. Plastic scintillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreeshchev, E.A.; Kilin, S.F.; Kavyrzina, K.A.

    1978-01-01

    A plastic scintillator for ionizing radiation detectors with high time resolution is suggested. To decrease the scintillation pulse width and to maintain a high light yield, the 4 1 , 4 5 -dibromo-2 1 , 2 5 , 5 1 , 5 5 -tetramethyl-n-quinquiphenyl (Br 2 Me 4 Ph) in combination with n-terphenyl (Ph 3 ) or 2, 5-diphenyloxadiazol-1, 3, 4 (PPD) is used as a luminescent addition. Taking into consideration the results of a special study, it is shown, that the following ratio of ingradients is the optimum one: 3-4 mass% Ph 3 or 4-7 mas% PPD + 2-5 mass% Br 2 Me 4 Ph + + polymeric base. The suggested scintillator on the basis of polystyrene has the light yield of 0.23-0.26 arbitrary units and the scintillation pulse duration at half-height is 0.74-0.84 ns

  8. Thiazide diuretic-caused hyponatremia in the elderly hypertensive: will a bottle of Nepro a day keep hyponatremia and the doctor away? Study protocol for a proof-of-concept feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruzicka, Marcel; McCormick, Brendan; Magner, Peter; Ramsay, Tim; Edwards, Cedric; Bugeja, Ann; Hiremath, Swapnil

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension is the most common modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, with an increasing prevalence with age, but with easily available medications to control it. Adverse effects of these medications do limit their use, in particular hyponatremia due to thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics. This is more common in the elderly patients due to a combination of inadequate protein intake and impaired urinary dilution capability, made worse by additional thiazide use. Limiting free water intake and increasing protein intake are often not successful resulting in thiazide avoidance. Daily protein supplement is a potential option in this clinical scenario. We describe the protocol for a feasibility study to explore this option. This is a single-arm, prospective, open-label proof-of-concept trial, including elderly patients with thiazide diuretic-induced hyponatremia. Forty patients will be enrolled and receive a bottle of a protein supplement daily, providing 120 mmol of solutes and permitting an extra 163 mL free water loss, for 4 weeks. The main outcome measures will be (1) feasibility for enrollment, (2) safety of the intervention, and (3) potential efficacy of the intervention in improving hyponatremia. Secondary outcome measures will include changes in urine osmolality, body weight, and urea measurements. Thiazide diuretic-induced hyponatremia is an important adverse effect, with significant clinical impact, such as delirium and falls, and limits the use of these potent antihypertensive agents. There are little data on the effect or safety of protein supplementation and also on whether a trial of this is feasible. The results of this proof-of-concept feasibility trial will help plan and execute a larger definitive trial to test protein supplementation as an effective strategy in this condition. The trial is registered with Clinical trials, registration identifier: NCT02614807.

  9. A survey of the inorganic chemistry of bottled mineral waters from the British Isles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smedley, Pauline L.

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Bottled waters from the UK have major-ion compositions that broadly reflect the compositions of groundwaters abstracted directly from the corresponding host aquifers. → Many trace elements differ in composition from in situ groundwaters due to post-abstraction modifying processes. → All parameters analysed comply with European and national limits for drinking water and with WHO guideline values; elements that most closely approach the limits include U, Ba. → Bottled water compositions clearly show the influence of contamination with Sb from PET bottles, although concentrations do not exceed drinking-water limits. - Abstract: The inorganic chemistry of 85 samples of bottled natural mineral waters and spring waters has been investigated from 67 sources across the British Isles (England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland, Republic of Ireland). Sources include boreholes, springs and wells. Waters are from a diverse range of aquifer lithologies and are disproportionately derived from comparatively minor aquifers, the most represented being Lower Palaeozoic (10 sources), Devonian Sandstone (10 sources) and Carboniferous Limestone (9 sources). The waters show correspondingly variable major-ion compositions, ranging from Ca-HCO 3 , through mixed-cation-mixed-anion to Na-HCO 3 types. Concentrations of total dissolved solids are mostly low to very low (range 58-800 mg/L). All samples analysed in the study had concentrations of inorganic constituents well within the limits for compliance with European and national standards for bottled waters. Concentrations of NO 3 -N reached up to half the limit of 11.3 mg/L, although 62% of samples had concentrations 10 μg/L, both being from the Welsh Devonian Sandstone. The highest observed U concentration was 13.6 μg/L. Solute concentrations in waters contained in glass bottles compared with waters in PET showed slightly though significantly higher concentrations of Al, Ce, Cu, La, Nd, Mn, Sn, W, Zn and

  10. Rehabilitative interventions and brain plasticity in autism spectrum disorders: focus on MRI-based studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eCalderoni

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clinical and research evidence supports the efficacy of rehabilitative intervention for improving targeted skills or global outcomes in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, putative mechanisms of structural and functional brain changes are poorly understood. This review aims to investigate the research literature on the neural circuit modifications after non-pharmacological intervention. For this purpose, longitudinal studies that used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI-based techniques at the start and at the end of the trial to evaluate the neural effects of rehabilitative treatment in subjects with ASD were identified. The six included studies involved a limited number of patients in the active group (from 2 to 16, and differed by acquisition method (task-related and resting-state functional MRI as well as by functional MRI tasks. Overall, the results produced by the selected investigations demonstrated brain plasticity during the treatment interval that results in an activation/functional connectivity more similar to those of subjects with typical development. Repeated MRI evaluation may represent a promising tool for the detection of neural changes in response to treatment in patients with ASD. However, large-scale randomized controlled trials after standardized rehabilitative intervention are required before translating these preliminary results into clinical use.

  11. Simulation Study on Multipassed Welding Distortion of Combined Joint Types using Thermo-Elastic-Plastic FEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RN Lidam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the angular distortion induced by the gas metal arc welding (GMAW process on the combined butt and T-joint with a thickness of 9 mm. The material used in this study was low manganese carbon steel S355J2G3. A 2-D and 3-D thermo-elastic-plastic finite element (FE analysis has been developed to simulate the induced distortion of multipassed welding. In this research, SYSWELD 2010 with its computation management tool, known as multipassed welding advisor (MPA, was applied to analyze the distortion behavior of combined joint types. To model the heat source of GMAW, Goldak's double ellipsoid representation, which is available within this finite element analysis (FEA code was selected. Prior to the results discussion, this paper also shows the step-bystep procedures to simulate combined jointing which begins with metallurgical and customized heat source modeling, and is followed by creating geometrical mesh using Visual-Mesh 6.5 for analyzing and processing the results. Apart from 2-D and 3-D comparison analysis, the final objective of this research is also aimed to be a baseline study to provide preliminary information in preparing the tools and equipment for experimental investigation.

  12. $\\bar{p}$-Induced Fission Studies with Plastic Track Detectors Using 4$\\pi$-Geometry

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % EMU20 \\\\ \\\\ The annihilation of a stopped antiproton on the surface of a target nucleus produces on the average five pions with a mean energy of 230~MeV. The high excitation of the nuclei with low angular momentum transfer can also be achieved by direct pion-nucleus interactions. The fission probabilities of highly excited nuclei can be explained on the basis of high energy limit of statistical theory. Previously the binary fission and higher multiplicity break-up of various nuclei caused by the absorption of pions has been studied by our group. The mechanism of nuclear excitation may still be the same when an antiproton annihilates in a nucleus and produces pions. It would be interesting to see whether the $\\bar{p}$ annihilation produces high enough excitation energies for nuclear phase-transition to take place. If so, then the fragmentation would overwhelm binary and ternary fission process. \\\\ \\\\The use of a highly sensitive plastic detector, CR-39, was made by our group in a number of studies involving ...

  13. Study on elastic-plastic fracture toughness test in high temperature water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Yasufumi

    2016-01-01

    Structural integrity of internal components in light water reactors is important for the safety of operation and service lifetime. Fracture toughness is important parameter for structural integrity assessment of nuclear power plant. In general, fracture toughness of materials which compose the components in light water reactor is obtained with fracture toughness tests in air although some components are subjected to high temperature water because of the difficulty of fracture toughness test in high temperature water. However, the effects of high temperature water and hydrogen on fracture behavior of the structural materials in nuclear power plant such as low alloy steel, cast austenitic stainless steel, and Ni base alloy are concerned recently. In this study, elastic-plastic fracture toughness test of low alloy steel in simulated BWR water environment was studied. Fracture toughness test in high temperature water with original clip gage and normalization data reduction technique was established. The difference of fracture toughness J_Q tested in air between using elastic unload compliance method and normalization data reduction technique was also discussed. As a result, obtained value with normalization data reduction technique tended to be higher than the value with elastic unload compliance. (author)

  14. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging...... from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1...

  15. PRICE ELASTICITY OF SUPPLY OF BOTTLED QUALITY WHITE WINE IN THE CZECH REPUBLIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel SYROVÁTKA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the supply of the Czech producers of bottled quality white wine. Namely, a dependence of their sales of this wine category on the market price of bottled quality white wine was examined. Monthly data from the CZSO and SZIF database, years 2004–2012, were used for the price-supply analysis. Price-supply reactions of the Czech wine producers were investigated through two-stage cointegration method developed by Engle and Granger. Short-term and long-term price elasticity of studied market supply was based on the error correction model designed and statistically verified by the authors.

  16. Ocular injuries from carbonated soft drink bottle explosions.

    OpenAIRE

    Al Salem, M; Sheriff, S M

    1984-01-01

    Sixteen cases of ocular injuries serious enough to require admission to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, due to explosion of glass bottles of carbonated soft drinks are reported over a period of 14 months from the beginning of July 1981 to the end of August 1982. Prevalence was much greater in the summer months and among children. Explosions of bottles without prior agitation occurred in 11 cases (68.7%). High environmental temperature and defective bottles were the most important pre...

  17. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold water...

  18. A study of wrecked Dovekies (Alle alle) in the western North Atlantic highlights the importance of using standardized methods to quantify plastic ingestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery-Gomm, Stephanie; Valliant, Michelle; Schacter, Carley R; Robbins, Katherine F; Liboiron, Max; Daoust, Pierre-Yves; Rios, Lorena M; Jones, Ian L

    2016-12-15

    Quantification of plastic ingestion across a range of seabirds is required to assess the prevalence of plastics in marine food webs. We quantified plastic ingestion in beached Dovekies (Alle alle), following a wreck in Newfoundland, Canada. Of 171 birds, 30.4% had ingested plastic (mean 0.81±0.30 SE pieces per bird, mass 0.005±0.002 SE g per bird). Most plastics were fragments of polyethylene and polypropylene. Surprisingly, 37% were burned or melted, indicating a previously unreported source of ingested plastics (incinerated waste). We found no relationship between plastic ingestion and age, sex or body condition. By comparing our results with a similar nearby study, we illustrate the need for researchers to adopt standardized methods for plastic ingestion studies. We underline the importance of using histological techniques to reliably identify gastric pathologies, and advise caution when inferring population level trends in plastic ingestion from studies of emaciated, wrecked birds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Individual differences in behavioural plasticities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, Judy A

    2016-05-01

    Interest in individual differences in animal behavioural plasticities has surged in recent years, but research in this area has been hampered by semantic confusion as different investigators use the same terms (e.g. plasticity, flexibility, responsiveness) to refer to different phenomena. The first goal of this review is to suggest a framework for categorizing the many different types of behavioural plasticities, describe examples of each, and indicate why using reversibility as a criterion for categorizing behavioural plasticities is problematic. This framework is then used to address a number of timely questions about individual differences in behavioural plasticities. One set of questions concerns the experimental designs that can be used to study individual differences in various types of behavioural plasticities. Although within-individual designs are the default option for empirical studies of many types of behavioural plasticities, in some situations (e.g. when experience at an early age affects the behaviour expressed at subsequent ages), 'replicate individual' designs can provide useful insights into individual differences in behavioural plasticities. To date, researchers using within-individual and replicate individual designs have documented individual differences in all of the major categories of behavioural plasticities described herein. Another important question is whether and how different types of behavioural plasticities are related to one another. Currently there is empirical evidence that many behavioural plasticities [e.g. contextual plasticity, learning rates, IIV (intra-individual variability), endogenous plasticities, ontogenetic plasticities) can themselves vary as a function of experiences earlier in life, that is, many types of behavioural plasticity are themselves developmentally plastic. These findings support the assumption that differences among individuals in prior experiences may contribute to individual differences in behavioural

  20. A study on plastic strain accumulation caused by traveling of temperature distribution synchronizing with temperature rise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    The prevention of excessive deformation by thermal ratcheting is important in the design of high-temperature components of fast breeder reactors (FBR). This includes evaluation methods for a new type of thermal ratcheting caused by an axial traveling of temperature distribution, which corresponds to moving-up of liquid sodium surface in startup phase. Long range traveling of the axial temperature distribution brings flat plastic deformation profile in wide range. Therefore, at the center of this range, residual stress that brings shakedown behavior does not accumulate. As a result, repeating of this temperature traveling brings continuous accumulation of the plastic strain, even if there is no primary stress. In contrast, in the case with short range traveling, residual stress is caused by constraint against elastic part, and finally it results in shakedown. Because of this mechanism, we supposed that limit for the shakedown behavior depends on distance from the elastic part (i.e. half length of region with plastic deformation). In this paper, we examined characteristics of the accumulation of the plastic strain caused by realistic heat transients, namely, traveling of temperature distribution synchronizing with temperature rise. This examination was based on finite element analyses using elastic-perfectly plastic material. As a result, we confirmed that the shakedown limit depends not on the traveling range of the temperature distribution but the plastic deformation range, which was predicted by the elastic analysis. In the actual application, we can control the plastic deformation range by changing rate of the moving-up of liquid sodium surface. (author)

  1. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  2. Optimization of fixed titanium dioxide film on PET bottles and visual indicator for water disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Munoz, Manuel Antonio

    Water is perhaps the most important resource that sustains human life. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), almost two billion people do not have access to the required water that is needed to satisfy their daily needs and one billion do not have access to clean sources of water for consumption, most of them living in isolated and poor areas around the globe. Poor quality water increases the risk of cholera, typhoid fever and dysentery, and other water-borne illness making this problem a real crisis that humankind is facing. Several water disinfection technologies have been proposed as solutions for this problem. Solar water disinfection using TiO2 coated PET bottles was the alternative that is studied in this work. This technology does not only inactivate bacteria but also disintegrates organic chemicals that can be present in water. The objectives of this work address the optimization of the TiO 2 coated PET bottles technologies. The improvement on the bottle coating process, using two coats of 10% W/V of TiO2 in a solution of vinegar and sodium bicarbonate to form the TiO2 film, the use of a different indigo carmine (1.25 X 10-1mg/pill) concentration in the pill indicator of contamination, the increase of the disinfection rate through shaking the bottles, degradation under intermittent UV radiation and the effect of bottle size on photocatalytic water disinfection were among the most important findings. A new mathematical model that describes better photocatalytic water disinfection in TiO2 coated bottles and simulates water disinfection under different working conditions was another important achievement. These results can now be used to design a strategy for disseminating this technology in areas where it is required and, in that way, generate the greatest positive impact on the people needing safe drinking water.

  3. Plastic dosimeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Shiro; Matsuda, Kohji.

    1988-01-01

    The report outlines major features and applications of plastic dosimeters. Some plastic dosimeters, including the CTA and PVC types, detect the response of the plastic material itself to radiations while others, such as pigment-added plastic dosimeters, contain additives as radiation detecting material. Most of these dosimeters make use of color centers produced in the dosimeter by radiations. The PMMA dosimeter is widely used in the field of radiation sterilization of food, feed and medical apparatus. The blue cellophane dosimeter is easy to handle if calibrated appropriately. The rad-color dosimeter serves to determine whether products have been irradiated appropriately. The CTA dosimeter has better damp proofing properties than the blue cellophane type. The pigment-added plastic dosimeter consists of a resin such as nylon, CTA or PVC that contains a dye. Some other plastic dosimeters are also described briefly. Though having many advantages, these plastic dosimeter have disadvantages as well. Some of their major disadvantages, including fading as well as large dependence on dose, temperature, humidity and anviroment, are discussed. (Nogami, K.)

  4. Sensitivity study of the Storegga Slide tsunami using retrogressive and visco-plastic rheology models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihwan; Løvholt, Finn

    2016-04-01

    Enormous submarine landslides having volumes up to thousands of km3 and long run-out may cause tsunamis with widespread effects. Clay-rich landslides, such as Trænadjupet and Storegga offshore Norway commonly involve retrogressive mass and momentum release mechanisms that affect the tsunami generation. As a consequence, the failure mechanisms, soil parameters, and release rate of the retrogression are of importance for the tsunami generation. Previous attempts to model the tsunami generation due to retrogressive landslides are few, and limited to idealized conditions. Here, a visco-plastic model including additional effects such as remolding, time dependent mass release, and hydrodynamic resistance, is employed for simulating the Storegga Slide. As landslide strength parameters and their evolution in time are uncertain, it is necessary to conduct a sensitivity study to shed light on the tsunamigenic processes. The induced tsunami is simulated using Geoclaw. We also compare our tsunami simulations with recent analysis conducted using a pure retrogressive model for the landslide, as well as previously published results using a block model. The availability of paleotsunami run-up data and detailed slide deposits provides a suitable background for improved understanding of the slide mechanics and tsunami generation. The research leading to these results has received funding from the Research Council of Norway under grant number 231252 (Project TsunamiLand) and the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement 603839 (Project ASTARTE).

  5. Study of Ag/RGO/ITO sandwich structure for resistive switching behavior deposited on plastic substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Rajdeep; Rag, Adarsh; De, Shounak; Bhat, Somashekhara

    2018-05-01

    We report here the use of facile and environmentally benign way synthesized reduced graphene oxide (RGO) for low-voltage non-volatile memory device as charge storing element. The RGO solutions have been synthesized using electrochemical exfoliation of battery electrode. The solution processed based RGO solution is suitable for large area and low-cost processing on plastic substrate. Room-temperature current-voltage characterisation has been carried out in Ag/RGO/ITO PET sandwich configuration to study the type of trap distribution. It is observed that in the low-voltage sweep, ohmic current is the main mechanism of current flow and trap filled/assisted conduction is observed at high-sweep voltage region. The Ag/RGO/ITO PET sandwich structure showed bipolar resistive switching behavior. These mechanisms can be analyzed based on oxygen availability and vacancies in the RGO giving rise to continuous least resistive path (conductive) and high resistance path along the structure. An Ag/RGO/ITO arrangement demonstrates long retention time with low operating voltage, low set/reset voltage, good ON/OFF ratio of 103 (switching transition between lower resistance state and higher resistance state and decent switching performance. The RGO memory showed decent results with an almost negligible degradation in switching properties which can be used for low-voltage and low-cost advanced flexible electronics.

  6. The NMDA antagonist memantine affects training induced motor cortex plasticity – a study using transcranial magnetic stimulation [ISRCTN65784760

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwenkreis Peter

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Training of a repetitive synchronised movement of two limb muscles leads to short-term plastic changes in the primary motor cortex, which can be assessed by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS mapping. We used this paradigm to study the effect of memantine, a NDMA antagonist, on short-term motor cortex plasticity in 20 healthy human subjects, and we were especially interested in possible differential effects of different treatment regimens. In a randomised double-blinded cross over study design we therefore administered placebo or memantine either as a single dosage or as an ascending dosage over 8 days. Before and after one hour of motor training, which consisted of a repetitive co-contraction of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB and the deltoid muscle, we assessed the motor output map of the APB muscle by TMS under the different conditions. Results We found a significant medial shift of the APB motor output map after training in the placebo condition, indicating training-induced short-term plastic changes in the motor cortex. A single dosage of memantine had no significant effect on this training-induced plasticity, whereas memantine administered in an ascending dosage over 8 days was able to block the cortical effect of the motor training. The memantine serum levels after 8 days were markedly higher than the serum levels after a single dosage of memantine, but there was no individual correlation between the shift of the motor output map and the memantine serum level. Besides, repeated administration of a low memantine dosage also led to an effective blockade of training-induced cortical plasticity in spite of serum levels comparable to those reached after single dose administration, suggesting that the repeated administration was more important for the blocking effect than the memantine serum levels. Conclusion We conclude that the NMDA-antagonist memantine is able to block training-induced motor cortex plasticity when

  7. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J-S; Kim, C K; Park, S H; Hirschi, K D; Mok, I- G

    2005-03-01

    We describe a procedure for producing transgenic bottle gourd plants by inoculating cotyledon explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 that carries the binary vector pCAMBIA3301 containing a glufosinate ammonium-resistance (bar) gene and the beta-D-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The most effective bacterial infection was observed when cotyledon explants of 4-day-old seedlings were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 6-8 days on co-cultivation medium supplemented with 0.1-0.001 mg/l L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine (AVG). The putatively transformed shoots directly emerged at the proximal end of cotyledon explants after 2-3 weeks of culturing on selection medium containing 2 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. These shoots were rooted after 3 weeks of culturing on half-strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg/l indole acetic acid and 1 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. Transgenic plants were obtained at frequencies of 1.9%. Stable integration and transmission of the transgenes in T1 generation plants were confirmed by a histochemical GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses. Genetic segregation analysis of T1 progenies showed that transgenes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in bottle gourd.

  8. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT Genotype Affects Age-Related Changes in Plasticity in Working Memory: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Heinzel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Recent work suggests that a genetic variation associated with increased dopamine metabolism in the prefrontal cortex (catechol-O-methyltransferase Val158Met; COMT amplifies age-related changes in working memory performance. Research on younger adults indicates that the influence of dopamine-related genetic polymorphisms on working memory performance increases when testing the cognitive limits through training. To date, this has not been studied in older adults. Method. Here we investigate the effect of COMT genotype on plasticity in working memory in a sample of 14 younger (aged 24–30 years and 25 older (aged 60–75 years healthy adults. Participants underwent adaptive training in the n-back working memory task over 12 sessions under increasing difficulty conditions. Results. Both younger and older adults exhibited sizeable behavioral plasticity through training (P<.001, which was larger in younger as compared to older adults (P<.001. Age-related differences were qualified by an interaction with COMT genotype (P<.001, and this interaction was due to decreased behavioral plasticity in older adults carrying the Val/Val genotype, while there was no effect of genotype in younger adults. Discussion. Our findings indicate that age-related changes in plasticity in working memory are critically affected by genetic variation in prefrontal dopamine metabolism.

  9. A comparative study on shock compression of nanocrystalline Al and Cu: Shock profiles and microscopic views of plasticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Wen; Hou, Yong; Zhu, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    Shock compressions of nanocrystalline (nc) metals Al and Cu with the same grain size and texture are studied by using molecular dynamics simulations. Results have revealed that the shock front of both Al and Cu can be divided into three stages: elastic, grain-boundary-mediated, and dislocation-mediated plastic deformation. The transition planes among these three stages are proven to be non-planar by two-dimensional shock response analysis, including local stress, shear, temperature, and atom configuration. The difference between shocked Al and Cu is that the rise rate of the elastic stage of Cu is slightly higher than that of Al, and that the shock-front width of Al is wider than Cu at the same loading conditions. For the plastic stage, the dislocation density of shocked Al is lower than Cu, and the contribution of grain-boundary-mediated plasticity to shock front and strain for nc Al is more pronounced than for nc Cu. These results are explained through intrinsic material properties and atomistic analysis of the plastic process. In the case of the shocked Al sample, partial dislocations, perfect dislocations, and twins are observed, but few evidence of perfect dislocations and twins are observed in the shocked Cu

  10. Effects of diazepam and levodopa single doses on motor cortex plasticity modulation in healthy human subjects: A TMS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Nela V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Administration of pharmacological agents with specific actions on neurotransmitter systems is a powerful driver of functional cortical reorganization. Plastic reorganization of the motor cortex in humans studies by the use of non-invasive stimulation protocols, which mimic the Hebbian model of associative plasticity. Objective. Aiming to explore pharmacological modulation on human motor cortex plasticity, we tested healthy subjects after each dosage of diazepam, levodopa i placebo administration, using paired associative stimulation protocol (PAS that induce fenomena similar to a long-term potentiation and depression, as defined on the synaptic level. Methods. We analyzed effects of benzodiazepines (10 mg, levodopa (200 mg and placebo on PAS protocol in 14 healthy volunteers, using a double-blind placebo-controlled study design. PAS consisted of electrical stimuli pairs at n.medianus and magnetic pulses over the scalp (transcranial magnetic stimulation in precisely defined intervals (ISI was 10 and 25 ms for a total of about 15 minutes (200 pairs. MEP amplitudes before and after (0, 10, 20 and 30 minutes later interventional protocols were compared. Results. When protocols were applied with placebo depending on ISI (10 ms - inhibitory, 25 ms - facilitatory effects, MEP amplitudes decreased or increased, while values in the postinterventional period (0, 10, 20 and 30 min were compared with initial values before the use of SAS. The use of benzodiazepines caused the occlusion of LTP-like effect, in contrast to amplification effects recorded after the administration of levodopa. With respect to the LTD-like protocol, the reverse was true (ANOVA for repeat measurements p<0.001. Conclusion. Administration of GABA-ergic agonist diazepam interferes with the induction of associative plasticity in the motor cortex of healthy individuals, as opposed to the use of levodopa, which stimulates these processes. The observed effects point at a

  11. A pilot study investigating of the nature of point-of-sale alcohol promotions in bottle shops in a large Australian regional city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sandra C; Lynch, Melissa

    2007-08-01

    The promotion of alcohol by retailers and media can contribute to a culture of excessive alcohol consumption, but the effect of non-advertising alcohol promotions has largely been neglected. This study sought to gather initial data on this important area. An observational study of alcohol point-of-sale promotions in the Wollongong CBD area, conducted in July-August 2005. We identified 17 different promotions in three categories: gift with purchase; competitions; and buy some, get some free. Given previous research demonstrating the relationship between increased alcohol consumption and both ownership of alcohol-related merchandise and reduced per unit price, it appears that point-of-sale promotions may have the potential to further increase alcohol consumption among young people. Only when the extent and impact of such promotions is demonstrated will we be in a position to effectively advocate for appropriate regulations to ensure young people are not exposed to marketing strategies that further increase their exposure to alcohol-related harms.

  12. Study of Reactive Melt Processing Behavior of Externally Plasticized Cellulose Acetate in Presence of Isocyanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Erdmann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Two types of externally plasticized cellulose acetate (CA were chemically modified using 4,4'-methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI as crosslinking agent. Crosslinking was performed in the molten state by means of melt mixing in an internal mixer. The viscoelastic properties of the non-crosslinked, externally plasticized CA show typical temperature dependence, similar to conventional thermoplastics. A strong increase in storage modulus is observed with increasing crosslink density indicating that the crosslinked compounds exhibit predominately elastic response. The complex viscosity also increases considerably with increasing crosslink density and does not reach the typical Newtonian plateau at low radial frequencies any more. The viscoelastic properties correlate well with the data recorded online during reactive melt processing in the internal mixer. In comparison to the non-crosslinked CA, the crosslinked compounds show higher glass transition temperature, higher VICAT softening temperatures, improved thermal stability and lower plasticizer evaporation at evaluated temperatures.

  13. Atomic scale numerical simulation study of elementary mechanisms of plasticity in aluminium and copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslanides, Antoine

    1998-01-01

    This study deals with elementary mechanisms of plasticity, such as the dissociation of a perfect edge dislocation into Shockley partials, the annihilation of dislocation dipoles and the interaction between a dislocation and an interface (free surface and grain boundary). Dislocation core effects are expected to influence crucially these interactions. A deeper understanding of these situations is thus achieved by resorting to an atomistic numerical approach, the application of the elastic theory of dislocations being no longer justified. Two FCC metals are considered: aluminium and copper, with respectively a small and a large dissociation width. An empirical potential for aluminium was designed to study the perfect as well as the dissociated states of the dislocation. The results are compared to the ones obtained with the interaction model for copper, for both the edge and the screw characters. The obtained core radius value ensures the continuity between the atomic and the elastic treatments. The calculations concerning edge dislocation dipole configurations show that there exists a critical distance between the glide planes of the two constitutive dislocations under which a spontaneous recombination occurs. We then compute the variation of the excess energy associated to the gradual approach of an edge dislocation toward the free surface of a crystal. An estimation of the energy required for the introduction of a dislocation in a thin film is obtained. The study of the interaction between a dislocation and a tilt grain boundary shows that the dislocation is absorbed in the interface, the stress required for its extraction being rather large. Finally, by proceeding to the simulation of a tensile test, we demonstrate that the surface steps constitute favoured sites for the nucleation of the dislocations. (author) [fr

  14. Isotopic study of the wear of sliding bearings with plastic friction surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandur, J.; Varkonyi, A.

    1978-01-01

    A new complex device has been elaborated for the investigation of the duration of bearings in the Institute of Isotopes of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. The simultaneous determination of wear by an isotopic method the coefficient of friction by means of a Wheatstone bridge and the bearing temperature by means of a thermoresistor is described. Dynamic loading and variable revolution per minute are applied to produce a forced wear of the bearings. The isotopically labelled wear products are removed by oil and the collected sample is measured by a scintillation detector. Wear of a steel axle in plastic housing and plastic coated axle in cast iron housing was determined. (V.N.)

  15. Performance of molded plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gen, N.S.; Leman, V.E.; Solomonov, V.M.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of molded plastic scintillators is studied. The plastic scintillators studied were formed by transfer molding and intrusion from a scintillation composition consisting of polystyrene and a standard system of luminescent additives: 2 mass % of paraterphenyl + 0.06 mass % 1,4-di-/2-[5-phenyloxazoyly]/benzene and a plasticizer. The combined effect of mechanical load and temperature was studied. The effect of radiation on molded plastic scintillators was studied using gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. The studies show that the main operating characteristics of molded plastic scintillators are on a par with those of polymerized plastic scintillators. At the same time, molded plastic scintillators are superior in thermal stability at temperatures below the glass transition temperature and with respect to their working temperature range

  16. Time-in-a-bottle (TIAB): a longitudinal, correlational study of patterns, potential predictors, and outcomes of immunosuppressive medication adherence in adult kidney transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Cynthia L; Ashbaugh, Catherine; Peace, Leanne; Cetingok, Muammer; Hamburger, Karen Q; Owens, Sarah; Coffey, Deanna; Webb, Andrew W; Hathaway, Donna; Winsett, Rebecca P; Madsen, Richard; Wakefield, Mark R

    2013-01-01

    This study examined patterns, potential predictors, and outcomes of immunosuppressive medication adherence in a convenience sample of 121 kidney transplant recipients aged 21 yr or older from three kidney transplant centers using a theory-based, descriptive, correlational, longitudinal design. Electronic monitoring was conducted for 12 months using electronic monitoring. Participants were persistent in taking their immunosuppressive medications, but execution, which includes both taking and timing, was poor. Older age was the only demographic variable associated with medication adherence (r = 0.25; p = 0.005). Of the potential predictors examined, only medication self-efficacy was associated with medication non-adherence, explaining about 9% of the variance (r = 0.31, p = 0.0006). The few poor outcomes that occurred were not significantly associated with medication non-adherence, although the small number of poor outcomes may have limited our ability to detect a link. Future research should test fully powered, theory-based, experimental interventions that include a medication self-efficacy component. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  18. A voxelwise approach to determine consensus regions-of-interest for the study of brain network plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah M. Rajtmajer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite exciting advances in the functional imaging of the brain, it remains a challenge to define regions of interest (ROIs that do not require investigator supervision and permit examination of change in networks over time (or plasticity. Plasticity is most readily examined by maintaining ROIs constant via seed-based and anatomical-atlas based techniques, but these approaches are not data-driven, requiring definition based on prior experience (e.g. choice of seed-region, anatomical landmarks. These approaches are limiting especially when functional connectivity may evolve over time in areas that are finer than known anatomical landmarks or in areas outside predetermined seeded regions. An ideal method would permit investigators to study network plasticity due to learning, maturation effects, or clinical recovery via multiple time point data that can be compared to one another in the same ROI while also preserving the voxel-level data in those ROIs at each time point. Data-driven approaches (e.g., whole-brain voxelwise approaches ameliorate concerns regarding investigator bias, but the fundamental problem of comparing the results between distinct data sets remains. In this paper we propose an approach, aggregate-initialized label propagation (AILP, which allows for data at separate time points to be compared for examining developmental processes resulting in network change (plasticity. To do so, we use a whole-brain modularity approach to parcellate the brain into anatomically constrained functional modules at separate time points and then apply the AILP algorithm to form a consensus set of ROIs for examining change over time. To demonstrate its utility, we make use of a known dataset of individuals with traumatic brain injury sampled at two time points during the first year of recovery and show how the AILP procedure can be applied to select regions of interest to be used in a graph theoretical analysis of plasticity.

  19. Plastic deformation of crystals: analytical and computer simulation studies of dislocation glide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altintas, S.

    1978-05-01

    The plastic deformation of crystals is usually accomplished through the motion of dislocations. The glide of a dislocation is impelled by the applied stress and opposed by microstructural defects such as point defects, voids, precipitates and other dislocations. The planar glide of a dislocation through randomly distributed obstacles is considered. The objective of the present research work is to calculate the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for athermal glide and the velocity of the dislocation at finite temperature as a function of the applied stress and the nature and strength of the obstacles. Dislocation glide through mixtures of obstacles has been studied analytically and by computer simulation. Arrays containing two kinds of obstacles as well as square distribution of obstacle strengths are considered. The critical resolved shear stress for an array containing obstacles with a given distribution of strengths is calculated using the sum of the quadratic mean of the stresses for the individual obstacles and is found to be in good agreement with the computer simulation data. Computer simulation of dislocation glide through randomly distributed obstacles containing up to 10 6 obstacles show that the CRSS decreases as the size of the array increases and approaches a limiting value. Histograms of forces and of segment lengths are obtained and compared with theoretical predictions. Effects of array shape and boundary conditions on the dislocation glide are also studied. Analytical and computer simulation results are compared with experimental results obtained on precipitation-, irradiation-, forest-, and impurity cluster-hardening systems and are found to be in good agreement

  20. Optics of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics – A theoretical and an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohmann, Ansgar; ElMaklizi, Ahmed; Foschum, Florian; Voit, Florian; Bergmann, Florian; Simon, Emanuel; Reitzle, Dominik; Kienle, Alwin

    2016-01-01

    Laser processing of carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP) as well as their design optimization are strongly emerging fields. As the optics of CFRP is still rather unknown, the optical behavior of CFRP was investigated in this study. Different simulation models were implemented to simulate reflectance from CFRP samples as well as distribution and absorption of light within these samples. The methods include an analytical solution of Maxwell's equations and Monte Carlo solutions of the radiative transfer theory. We show that strong inaccurracies occur, if light propagation in CFRP is modeled using the radiative transfer theory. Therefore, the solution of Maxwell's equations is the method of choice for calculation of light propagation in CFRP. Furthermore, measurements of the reflectance of light from CFRP were performed and compared to the simulations for investigation of the optical behavior. Information on the refractive index of carbon fibers was obtained via goniometric measurements. The amount of reflected light was determined as 6.05±0.38% for light polarized parallel to the fiber direction, while it was 3.65±0.41% for light polarized perpendicular to the fiber direction in case of laser-processed CFRP. - Highlights: • The light scattering of CFRP was studied using Maxwell's equations and radiative transfer theory. • The simulations were validated by experiments. • Strong inaccuracies occur if light propagation in CFRP structures is modeled with the RTT. • The Bouguer–Lambert–Beer model with μ_a=4πf_VIm(n_c_y_l)/λ cannot be used in CFRP samples. • Reflectance values were determined and information on the refractive index was inferred.

  1. Plastic deformation of crystals: analytical and computer simulation studies of dislocation glide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altintas, S.

    1978-05-01

    The plastic deformation of crystals is usually accomplished through the motion of dislocations. The glide of a dislocation is impelled by the applied stress and opposed by microstructural defects such as point defects, voids, precipitates and other dislocations. The planar glide of a dislocation through randomly distributed obstacles is considered. The objective of the present research work is to calculate the critical resolved shear stress (CRSS) for athermal glide and the velocity of the dislocation at finite temperature as a function of the applied stress and the nature and strength of the obstacles. Dislocation glide through mixtures of obstacles has been studied analytically and by computer simulation. Arrays containing two kinds of obstacles as well as square distribution of obstacle strengths are considered. The critical resolved shear stress for an array containing obstacles with a given distribution of strengths is calculated using the sum of the quadratic mean of the stresses for the individual obstacles and is found to be in good agreement with the computer simulation data. Computer simulation of dislocation glide through randomly distributed obstacles containing up to 10/sup 6/ obstacles show that the CRSS decreases as the size of the array increases and approaches a limiting value. Histograms of forces and of segment lengths are obtained and compared with theoretical predictions. Effects of array shape and boundary conditions on the dislocation glide are also studied. Analytical and computer simulation results are compared with experimental results obtained on precipitation-, irradiation-, forest-, and impurity cluster-hardening systems and are found to be in good agreement.

  2. International policies to reduce plastic marine pollution from single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads): A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthos, Dirk; Walker, Tony R

    2017-05-15

    Marine plastic pollution has been a growing concern for decades. Single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads) are a significant source of this pollution. Although research outlining environmental, social, and economic impacts of marine plastic pollution is growing, few studies have examined policy and legislative tools to reduce plastic pollution, particularly single-use plastics (plastic bags and microbeads). This paper reviews current international market-based strategies and policies to reduce plastic bags and microbeads. While policies to reduce microbeads began in 2014, interventions for plastic bags began much earlier in 1991. However, few studies have documented or measured the effectiveness of these reduction strategies. Recommendations to further reduce single-use plastic marine pollution include: (i) research to evaluate effectiveness of bans and levies to ensure policies are having positive impacts on marine environments; and (ii) education and outreach to reduce consumption of plastic bags and microbeads at source. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Study of the application of non-plastic clays from Pocos de Caldas - part 1: chemical-mineralogic characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roveri, C.D.; Mariano, N.A.; Faustino, L.M.; Aielo, G.F.; Pinto, L.P.A.; Maestrelli, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Pocos de Caldas is an important 'hidrotermomineral' center of Brazil, where can be found non-plastic clays deposits with no significant records about its characterization; this fact difficult the studies of industrial application. These nonplastic clays, not used, have been stored in sheds or open, which creates a high cost to the industry, and become an environmental liability. In the present work, the chemical-mineralogical study of six samples of non-plastic clays was realized, to expand the horizons of researches about such materials. This preliminary study showed that, overall, the samples are composed of refractory minerals such as kaolinite and gibbsite, with less significant amounts of other phases such as quartz, illite and vermiculite. The chemical analysis permitted the grouping of raw materials into two groups according to their refractories proprieties, guiding to the subsequent characterization. (author)

  4. Effect of infusion bottle height on lens power after lens refilling with and without a plug

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, SA; Terwee, T; Haitjema, HJ; Kooijman, AC; Barkhof, J

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of intraoperative infusion bottle height on the power of refilled pig lenses. Setting: Research Laboratory, Pharmacia Intraocular Lens Manufacturing Plant, Groningen, The Netherlands. Methods: This study comprised 2 groups of pig eyes. In 1 group, the lens was

  5. Study on elastic-plastic deformation analysis using a cyclic stress-strain curve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igari, Toshihide; Setoguchi, Katsuya; Yamauchi, Masafumi

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the elastic-plastic deformation analysis using a cyclic stress-strain curve with an intention to apply this method for predicting the low-cycle fatigue life. Uniaxial plastic cycling tests were performed on 2 1/4Cr-1Mo steel to investigate the correspondence between the cyclic stress-strain curve and the hysteresis loop, and also to determine what mathematical model should be used for analysis of deformation at stress reversal. Furthermore, a cyclic in-plane bending test was performed on a flat plate to clarify the validity of the cyclic stress-strain curve-based theoretical analysis. The results obtained are as follows: (1) The cyclic stress-strain curve corresponds nearly to the ascending curve of hysteresis loop scaled by a factor of 1/2 for both stress and strain. Therefore, the cyclic stress-strain curve can be determined from the shape of hysteresis loop, for simplicity. (2) To perform the elastic-plastic deformation analysis using the cyclic stress-strain curve is both practical and effective for predicting the cyclic elastic-plastic deformation of structures at the stage of advanced cycles. And Masing model can serve as a suitable mathematical model for such a deformation analysis. (author)

  6. A study of an assisting robot for mandible plastic surgery based on augmented reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunyong; Lin, Li; Zhou, Chaozheng; Zhu, Ming; Xie, Le; Chai, Gang

    2017-02-01

    Mandible plastic surgery plays an important role in conventional plastic surgery. However, its success depends on the experience of the surgeons. In order to improve the effectiveness of the surgery and release the burden of surgeons, a mandible plastic surgery assisting robot, based on an augmented reality technique, was developed. Augmented reality assists surgeons to realize positioning. Fuzzy control theory was used for the control of the motor. During the process of bone drilling, both the drill bit position and the force were measured by a force sensor which was used to estimate the position of the drilling procedure. An animal experiment was performed to verify the effectiveness of the robotic system. The position error was 1.07 ± 0.27 mm and the angle error was 5.59 ± 3.15°. The results show that the system provides a sufficient accuracy with which a precise drilling procedure can be performed. In addition, under the supervision's feedback of the sensor, an adequate safety level can be achieved for the robotic system. The system realizes accurate positioning and automatic drilling to solve the problems encountered in the drilling procedure, providing a method for future plastic surgery.

  7. Plastic tube hadron calorimeter: study of operation properties and particle separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akopdzhanov, G.A.; Belousov, V.I.; Blik, A.M.; Romanovski, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    The DELPHI hadron calorimeter prototype plastic tubes were tested to show a long-term stability of the prototype operating with the gas mixture carbon dioxide isobutane. The operating properties of the prototype are investigated and presented as well as the results on particles separation. 5 refs.; 11 figs.; 9 tabs

  8. Experimental studies on the crystallographic and plastic anisotropies of zircaloy-4 tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa Viana, C.S. da

    1982-01-01

    The crystallographic and plastic anisotropies of a zircaloy-4 tubing using direct pole figures and experimental yield loci are analyzed. Tensile and plane-strain compression tests were used to assess the mecahnical behaviour. The results are discussed with respect to the dimensional stability and mechanical behaviour expected for the tube in its use in the core of pressurized water cooled reactors. (Author) [pt

  9. Neural Plasticity in Functional and Anatomical MRI Studies of Children with Tourette Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Eichele

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tourette syndrome (TS is a neuropsychiatric disorder with childhood onset characterized by chronic motor and vocal tics. The typical clinical course of an attenuation of symptoms during adolescence in parallel with the emerging self-regulatory control during development suggests that plastic processes may play an important role in the development of tic symptoms.

  10. Stability studies and degradation analysis of plastic solar cell materials by FTIR spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neugebauer, H.; Brabec, C.J.; Hummelen, J.C.; Janssen, R.A.J.; Sariciftci, N.S.

    1999-01-01

    Results of controlled degradation experiments performed with the individual components and with the actual mixture used in plastic solar cells are shown. A testing procedure for the stability and for degradation effects under illumination in controlled atmosphere using FTIR-ATR spectroscopy is

  11. Developmental plasticity of ascending spinal axons studies using the North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terman, J R; Wang, X M; Martin, G F

    1999-01-11

    The objectives of the present study were to determine if axons of all ascending tracts grow through the lesion after transection of the thoracic spinal cord during development in the North American opossum, and if so, whether they reach regions of the brain they normally innervate. Opossum pups were subjected to transection of the mid-thoracic cord at PD5, PD8, PD12, PD20, or PD26 and injections of Fast Blue (FB) into the lower thoracic or upper lumbar cord 30-40 days or 6 months later. In the PD5 transected cases, labeled axons were present in all of the supraspinal areas labeled by comparable injections in unlesioned, age-matched controls. In the experimental cases, however, labeled axons appeared to be fewer in number and in some areas more restricted in location than in the controls. When lesions were made at PD8, labeled axons were present in the brain of animals allowed to survive 30-40 days prior to FB injections but they were not observed in those allowed to survive 6 months. When lesions were made at PD12 or later, labeled axons were never found rostral to the lesion. It appears, therefore, that axons of all ascending spinal pathways grow though the lesion after transection of the thoracic cord in developing opossums and that they innervate appropriate areas of the brain. Interestingly, the critical period for such growth is shorter than that for most descending axons, suggesting that factors which influence loss of developmental plasticity are not the same for all axons.

  12. Plasticity in the adult language system: a longitudinal electrophysiological study on second language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, M; Dierks, T; Brandeis, D; Wirth, M; Strik, W; Koenig, T

    2006-11-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to trace changes in brain activity related to progress in second language learning. Twelve English-speaking exchange students learning German in Switzerland were recruited. ERPs to visually presented single words from the subjects' native language (English), second language (German) and an unknown language (Romansh) were measured before (day 1) and after (day 2) 5 months of intense German language learning. When comparing ERPs to German words from day 1 and day 2, we found topographic differences between 396 and 540 ms. These differences could be interpreted as a latency shift indicating faster processing of German words on day 2. Source analysis indicated that the topographic differences were accounted for by shorter activation of left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) on day 2. In ERPs to English words, we found Global Field Power differences between 472 and 644 ms. This may due to memory traces related to English words being less easily activated on day 2. Alternatively, it might reflect the fact that--with German words becoming familiar on day 2--English words loose their oddball character and thus produce a weaker P300-like effect on day 2. In ERPs to Romansh words, no differences were observed. Our results reflect plasticity in the neuronal networks underlying second language acquisition. They indicate that with a higher level of second language proficiency, second language word processing is faster and requires shorter frontal activation. Thus, our results suggest that the reduced IFG activation found in previous fMRI studies might not reflect a generally lower activation but rather a shorter duration of activity.

  13. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S. measure...

  14. Aschroft Pressure Switch - Monitor for Low SCHe Supply Bottle Pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VAN KATWIJK, C.

    2000-01-01

    These pressure switches are located in the SCHe helium supply lines at the pressure bottles and upstream of the PRV. The switches monitor the SCHe supply bottle pressure and are set to alarm at 2200 psig. There is one switch for each SCHe supply (4). Electronic output signal is NON-SAFETY (GS)

  15. Improvements to the Whoosh Bottle Rocket Car Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Staiger, Felicia A.; Jujjavarapu, Chaitanya N.

    2015-01-01

    The whoosh bottle rocket car has been redesigned to be more reusable and more robust, making it even easier to use as a demonstration. Enhancements of this demonstration, including the use of heat sensitive ink and electronic temperature probes, enable users to find warmer and cooler regions on the surface of the whoosh bottle.

  16. Filling or Draining a Water Bottle with Two Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2016-01-01

    Three simple experiments are described using a small water bottle with two holes in the side of the bottle. The main challenge is to predict and then explain the observations, but the arrangements can also be used for quantitative measurements concerning hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli's equation, surface tension and bubble formation.

  17. Quality assessment of sachet and bottled water sold in Gboko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality of selected sachet and bottled water produced and sold within Gboko town, Benue State was investigated to determine their Shelf life. Eight brands of sachet water and four brands of bottled water samples were collected from different manufacturers within 24 hours and stored at ambient temperature.

  18. Labeling practices of water bottling firms and its public health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Bottled water labels enable the consumers to choose brands that can best fit to their needs and preferences. Anything inaccurate, however, may pose serious public health risks, especially to vulnerable individuals. In Ethiopia, regular monitoring of bottled water quality and labelling practices is still lacking.

  19. Computed Tomography characterization of the Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    The work carried out in this research aims at identifying suitable ways for thorough characterization of the quality of paper bottles. Industrial X-ray Computed Tomography (XCT) is particularly advantageous in determining the quality of paper bottles and thus correlating it with the production...

  20. Quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The quality characteristics of commercial bottled water sold in Owerri, Imo State, Nigeria were investigated to determine their physical, chemical and bacteriological content. The four brands of bottled water investigated were Mevok ®, Ozonized April ®, Lacrystal ® and Eva ®. The mean turbidity value of all the samples were ...

  1. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... in the same tax class when that wine is removed from bond, without benefit of tolerance, when the... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and...

  2. Stem cell plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmipathy, Uma; Verfaillie, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    The central dogma in stem cell biology has been that cells isolated from a particular tissue can renew and differentiate into lineages of the tissue it resides in. Several studies have challenged this idea by demonstrating that tissue specific cell have considerable plasticity and can cross-lineage restriction boundary and give rise to cell types of other lineages. However, the lack of a clear definition for plasticity has led to confusion with several reports failing to demonstrate that a single cell can indeed differentiate into multiple lineages at significant levels. Further, differences between results obtained in different labs has cast doubt on some results and several studies still await independent confirmation. In this review, we critically evaluate studies that report stem cell plasticity using three rigid criteria to define stem cell plasticity; differentiation of a single cell into multiple cell lineages, functionality of differentiated cells in vitro and in vivo, robust and persistent engraft of transplanted cells.

  3. Determination of di(2-ethylhexyl phthalate in plastic medical devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Ivana S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of DEHP in dialysis and infusion sets for peritoneal dialysis and parenteral nutrition, which are made of PVC and other plastic polymeric materials, were investigated. Phthalate determination was carried out by gas chromatography - mass spectrometry method (GC-MS. The results showed that the peritoneal dialysis set (bag and tubing made of PVC contains DEHP in significant amount, about 31 - 34%. Solution for peritoneal dialysis which was stored in the investigated PVC bag, contains low amount of DEHP, about 3.72 μg dm-3. Infusion bottles which are made of LDPE, also contain DEHP but in lower amount than PVC bags. LDPE bottle for packaging physiological saline solution (0.9% NaCl showed higher amount of DEHP than LDPE bottle for packaging Ringer’s solution. In contrast, solution stored in bottle with lower DEHP level, i.e. Ringer’s solution contained about three times higher concentration of DEHP than physiological saline solution stored in bottle with higher DEHP level. Concentrations of DEHP in Ringer’s solution and physiological saline solution are 17.30 and 5.83 μg dm-3, respectively. The obtained values are under estimated upper-bound dose of DEHP received by adult patients undergoing procedures of peritoneal dialysis and parenteral nutrition. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, III 41018

  4. Screening sealed bottles for liquid explosives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sankaran; McMichael, W. Casey; Kim, Y.-W.; Sheldon, Alan G.; Magnuson, Erik E.; Ficke, L.; Chhoa, T. K.; Moeller, C. R.; Barrall, Geoffrey A.; Burnett, Lowell J.; Czipott, Peter V.; Pence, J. S.; Skvoretz, David C.

    1997-01-01

    A particularly disturbing development affecting transportation safety and security is the increasing use of terrorist devices which avoid detection by conventional means through the use of liquid explosives and flammables. The hazardous materials are generally hidden in wine or liquor bottles that cannot be opened routinely for inspection. This problem was highlighted by the liquid explosives threat which disrupted air traffic between the US an the Far East for an extended period in 1995. Quantum Magnetics has developed a Liquid Explosives Screening systems capable of scanning unopened bottles for liquid explosives. The system can be operated to detect specific explosives directly or to verify the labeled or bar-coded contents of the container. In this system, magnetic resonance (MR) is used to interrogate the liquid. MR produces an extremely rich data set and many characteristics of the MR response can be determined simultaneously. As a result, multiple MR signatures can be defined for any given set of liquids, and the signature complexity then selected according to the level of threat. The Quantum Magnetics Liquid Explosives Screening System is currently operational. Following extensive laboratory testing, a field trial of the system was carried out at the Los Angeles International Airport.

  5. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  6. Physical metallurgy of laser surface melted plastic mould steels: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colaço, R.

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to illustrate the potential of laser surface melting to improve the surface characteristics of plastic mould steels, using a typical plastic mould steel (DIN X43Cr12 as a case study. After laser surface melting the microstructure of this steel is formed by fine dendrites of austenite partially transformed into martensite. Although the equilibrium solidification phase is 8- ferrite, the formation of primary austenite is kinetically favored and this phase tends to predominate at the high solidification speeds used in laser processing. It was observed that the volume fraction of retained austenite depends critically on the laser processing parameters, so that the microstructure can change from almost completely martensitic to almost completely austenitic by changing the laser processing parameters. Laser melted tool steels show remarkable secondary hardening after tempering at suitable temperatures. In DIN X42Cr13 the secondary hardening peak temperature after LSM (600°C is 100°C higher than after conventional heat treatment (500°C, due to the presence of large amounts of retained austenite. It was observed that this phase only destabilizes above 600°C, due to the precipitation of M7C3 and stress relieving. After destabilization, retained austenite transforms into martensite during cooling. Secondary hardening is due to the transformation of retained austenite into martensite and to the precipitation of M7C3 and M23C6 carbides.

    El objetivo del presente trabajo es ilustrar el potencial de la fusión superficial mediante láser para la mejora de las características estructurales de los moldes de acero para plásticos, centrándolo en el caso concreto del acero DIN X42Cr13. Tras el tratamiento de fusión superficial mediante láser, la microestructura del material está formada por dendritas finas de austenita parcialmente transformadas en

  7. Security of bottle to fill in a high pressure air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todic, M.; Latinovic, T.; Golubovic-Bugarski, V.; Majstorovic, A.

    2018-01-01

    Charging the bottle of high pressure air isolation devices is performed by a high-pressure compressor. The charging time is in function of the compressor capacity and the intensity of the nominal pressure of the air in the bottle. However, in accident situations this time is long and therefore high-pressure accumulators are used where the filling time of the bottle of isolation apparatus has been drastically reduced. Due to the short filling time of the bottle through the air flow, there is a thermodynamic load of bottle material that could endanger the safety of users and other participants in the area. It is therefore necessary to determine the critical parameters of the rapid charge and their intensity.

  8. Ocular injuries from carbonated soft drink bottle explosions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Salem, M; Sheriff, S M

    1984-04-01

    Sixteen cases of ocular injuries serious enough to require admission to Ibn-Sina Hospital, Kuwait, Arabian Gulf, due to explosion of glass bottles of carbonated soft drinks are reported over a period of 14 months from the beginning of July 1981 to the end of August 1982. Prevalence was much greater in the summer months and among children. Explosions of bottles without prior agitation occurred in 11 cases (68.7%). High environmental temperature and defective bottles were the most important predisposing factors. Preventive measures we suggest are better standards for manufacturers, more careful inspection of returnable bottles to detect defective ones, a separate detailed warning label on all bottles, and health education especially of school children about this and other risks of serious injury to the eyes and other parts of the body.

  9. Sub-nanosecond plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Caldwell, S.E.; Hocker, L.P.; Crandall, D.G.; Zagarino, P.A.; Cheng, J.; Tirsell, G.; Hurlbut, C.R.

    1977-01-01

    Quenched plastic scintillators have been developed that yield much faster short decay components and greatly reduced long decay components compared to conventional plastic scintillators. The plastics are produced through the addition of selected quench agents to NE111 plastic scintillator that result in reduced total light output. Eight different agents have been studied. Benzophenone and piperidine are two of the most effective quench agents. Data are presented both for short and long decay components. The plastics are expected to make significant contributions in areas of plasma diagnostics

  10. Sub-nanosecond plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, P.B.; Caldwell, S.E.; Hocker, L.P.; Crandall, D.G.; Zagarino, P.A.; Cheng, J.; Tirsell, G.; Hurlbut, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    Quenched plastic scintillators have been developed that yield much faster short decay components and greatly reduced long decay components compared to conventional plastic scintillators. The plastics are produced through the addition of selected quench agents to NE111 plastic scintillator that result in reduced total light output. Eight different agents have been studied. Benzophenone and piperidine are two of the most effective quench agents. Data are presented both for short and long decay components. The plastics are expected to make significant contributions in areas of plasma diagnostics

  11. BDNF-Val66Met-Polymorphism Impact on Cortical Plasticity in Schizophrenia Patients: A Proof-of-Concept Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitsche, Michael A.; Wobrock, Thomas; Bunse, Tilmann; Rein, Bettina; Herrmann, Maximiliane; Schmitt, Andrea; Nieratschker, Vanessa; Witt, Stephanie H.; Rietschel, Marcella; Falkai, Peter; Hasan, Alkomiet

    2015-01-01

    Background: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to be a moderator of neuroplasticity. A frequent BDNF-polymorphism (Val66Met) is associated with impairments of cortical plasticity. In patients with schizophrenia, reduced neuroplastic responses following non-invasive brain stimulation have been reported consistently. Various studies have indicated a relationship between the BDNF-Val66Met-polymorphism and motor-cortical plasticity in healthy individuals, but schizophrenia patients have yet to be investigated. The aim of this proof-of-concept study was, therefore, to test the impact of the BDNF-Val66Met-polymorphism on inhibitory and facilitatory cortical plasticity in schizophrenia patients. Methods: Cortical plasticity was investigated in 22 schizophrenia patients and 35 healthy controls using anodal and cathodal transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the left primary motor cortex. Animal and human research indicates that excitability shifts following anodal and cathodal tDCS are related to molecular long-term potentiation and long-term depression. To test motor-cortical excitability before and after tDCS, well-established single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation protocols were applied. Results: Our analysis revealed increased glutamate-mediated intracortical facilitation in met-heterozygotes compared to val-homozygotes at baseline. Following cathodal tDCS, schizophrenia met-heterozygotes had reduced gamma-amino-butyric-acid-mediated short-interval intracortical inhibition, whereas healthy met-heterozygotes displayed the opposite effect. The BDNF-Val66Met-polymorphism did not influence single-pulse motor-evoked potential amplitudes after tDCS. Conclusions: These preliminary findings support the notion of an association of the BDNF-Val66Met-polymorphism with observable alterations in plasticity following cathodal tDCS in schizophrenia patients. This indicates a complex interaction between inhibitory

  12. Influence of yeast strain, priming solution and temperature on beer bottle conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconi, Ombretta; Rossi, Serena; Galgano, Fernanda; Sileoni, Valeria; Perretti, Giuseppe

    2016-09-01

    Recently, there has been a significant increase in the number of microbreweries. Usually, craft beers are bottle conditioned; however, few studies have investigated beer refermentation. One of the objectives of this study was to evaluate the impacts of different experimental conditions, specifically yeast strain, priming solution and temperature, on the standard quality attributes, the volatile compounds and the sensory profile of the bottle-conditioned beer. The other aim was to monitor the evolution of volatile compounds and amino acids consumption throughout the refermentation process to check if it is possible to reduce the time necessary for bottle conditioning. The results indicate that the volatile profile was mainly influenced by the strain of yeast, and this may have obscured the possible impacts of the other parameters. Our results also confirm that the two yeast strains showed different metabolic activity, particularly with respect to esters production. Moreover, we found the Safbrew S-33® strain when primed with Siromix® and refermented at 30 °C yielded the fastest formation of higher alcohols while maintaining low production of off-flavours. These results suggest a formulation that may reduce the time needed for bottle conditioning without affecting the quality of the final beer which may simultaneously improve efficiency and economic profits. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Study on elastic-plastic behaviour of inclusions in cold drawn wire by using reverse analysis and nanoindentation test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kyung-Hun

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to investigate the elastic-plastic behavior of inclusions, i.e. SiO2 particles, in cold drawn wire using reverse analysis and nanoindentation test. First, the nanoindentation tests were performed to obtain indentation load P – penetration depth h curves. Second, the reverse analysis which is consisted of various dimensionless functions including change in E∗/σr, Wp/Wt and n was used to extract the elastic-plastic properties of the indented inclusions and metals from indentation responses. To verify the accuracy of calculated properties, uniaxial tensile tests were performed for different materials which are AISI 1045 and AISI 1080. Results (E, σy, n of tensile tests for each material were also compared with those of nanoindentation tests.

  14. Plastics from household waste as a source of heavy metal pollution: An inventory study using INAA as the analytical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bode, P.; De Bruin, M.; Aalbers, Th.G.; Meyer, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    An inventory study to the levels of cadmium in the plastic component of household waste was carried out utilizing INAA as the analytical technique. In a 2-h irradiation, 2-d decay, and 1-h measurement, protocol adequate sensitivities could be obtained for Cd, but also for a group of other metals: Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Sr, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Sn, Sb, Ba, and Hg. Red-, orange-, and yellow-colored plastics either contain Cd at high levels (over 1000 mg/kg) or have relatively low Cd concentrations (<50 mg/kg). High concentrations were also occasionally found for Sr,Se,Ba,Sb, and Hg. INAA appeared very well to be routinely usable for such analysis because of the absence of a destruction step, adequate sensitivity, high accuracy, and multielement results

  15. Optimization of mass of plastic scintillator film for flow-cell based tritium monitoring: a Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Arup Singha; Palani Selvam, T.; Raman, Anand; Raja, V.; Chaudhury, Probal

    2014-01-01

    Over the years, various types of tritium-in-air monitors have been designed and developed based on different principles. Ionization chamber, proportional counter and scintillation detector systems are few among them. A plastic scintillator based, flow-cell type online tritium-in-air monitoring system was developed for online monitoring of tritium in air. The value of the scintillator mass inside the cell-volume, which maximizes the response of the detector system, should be obtained to get maximum efficiency. The present study is aimed to optimize the amount of mass of the plastic scintillator film for the flow-cell based tritium monitoring instrument so that maximum efficiency is achieved. The Monte Carlo based EGSnrc code system has been used for this purpose

  16. Biochemical monitoring of sweet fruit flavoured glass bottled soft drinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watto, M.H.S.; Kazi, T.G.; Bhanger, M.I.; Jakhrani, M.A.; Iqbal, J.; Porgar, A.S.

    2000-01-01

    Fruit flavored glass bottled soft drinks are widely used in developing countries including Pakistan. People suffer greatly both in terms of health and economy if soft drinks are contaminated with microbes and toxic metals. Samples of sixteen different brands of soft drinks were analyzed for microbial and trace elemental study. Microbial study included identification of different coliforms like E. coli, Bacillus cereus, Salmonella, Shigella, Enterobacter, Klebsiela, and total Coliforms. Only seven samples were found to be free from investigated microbes. Contamination in other samples was probably due to improper handling and storage and could be dangerous to human health. Fifteen trace and toxic elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry following improved ash digestion method. The level of Al, Fe, Na, K, Ni, Pb and Cd was found to be higher in investigated samples than the international safety limits of WHO. Other elements investigated in all the samples were below the WHO maximum allowable concentration for drinking water. (author)

  17. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  18. A study of serrated plastic flow behavior in an aluminum-lithium binary alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, D.L.; Yang, D.Z.; Lei, T.Q.

    1990-01-01

    The serrated plastic flow behavior of an Al-2.73wt%Li alloy at various aging conditions is investigated. The stress-strain curve of the alloy is examined using an Instron machine. The microstructure of the alloy before and after deformation is observed using a transmission electron microscope. It has been shown that the stress-strain curve in the alloy is serrated and both time and/or temperature of aging affect the formation of serrations. The δ' phase (Al 3 Li) which is induced by plastic deformation precipitates along dislocations. The formation mechanism of the serrated stress-strain curve in the Al-Li binary alloy is discussed. (orig.)

  19. Glass fiber -reinforced plastic tapered poles for transmission and distribution lines: development and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, S.; Burachysnsky, V.; Polyzois, D.

    1999-01-01

    A research project to develop lightweight poles for use in power transmission and distribution lines and involving the use of glass fiber-reinforced plastic using the filament winding process is described. Twelve full scale specimen poles were designed, fabricated and subjected to cantilever bending to test failure modes. The test parameters included fiber orientation, ratio of longitudinal-to-circumferential fiber, and the number of layers. Results showed that local buckling was the most dominant failure mode, attributable to the high radius-to-thickness ratio of the specimen poles. Overall, however, these fiber-reinforced plastic poles compared favourably to wooden poles in carrying capacity with significant weight reduction. Lateral displacement at ultimate loads did not exceed the acceptable limit of 10 per cent of the specimen free length. 7 refs., 3 tabs., 2 figs

  20. Preliminary estimation of infantile exposure to BPA based on the standard quality of baby bottles distributed in Isfahan urban society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Abdi Moghadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study was aimed to estimate the bisphenol A (BPA intake from baby bottles, considering the diversity and the standard quality of the baby bottles distributed in an Isfahan urban society. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in Isfahan in 2011. Baby shops ( n = 33 and drug stores ( n = 7 in four district areas were included in the study. The distribution of baby bottles was investigated regarding their brand, origin, and being labeled "BPA free." Estimation of exposure to BPA from baby bottles was made based on the national and international representative data. Results: The products marked as "BPA free" were found among the western products and limited to two of the selected areas. No "BPA free" marked baby bottle was distinguished among the Iranian made products. Of the 8% exclusively formula-fed infants, 90% may be the high consumers of BPA from polycarbonate baby bottles, with an intake of 1.5-2 μg/kg b.w./day for the moderate and 7.5-10 μg/kg b.w./day in case of worse condition. Conclusion: Considering the current globally accepted threshold daily intake (TDI for BPA, primary exposure estimation is that feeding using non-BPA-free baby bottles is not a serious health concern in Iran. Thought that threshold level of TDI is discussed to be reduced in future, improvement and revision of the national standards can be effective in reducing the exposure to BPA in Iranian infants so as to provide large margin of safety for them.

  1. A feasibility study of ortho-positronium decays measurement with the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaminska, D.; Gajos, A.; Czerwinski, E.; Alfs, D.; Bednarski, T.; Bialas, P.; Dulski, K.; Glowacz, B.; Gupta-Sharma, N.; Korcyl, G.; Krawczyk, N.; Kubicz, E.; Mohammed, M.; Niedzwiecki, Sz.; Pawlik-Niedzwiecka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Wieczorek, A.; Zielinski, M.; Moskal, P.; Curceanu, C.; Silarski, M.; Gorgol, M.; Jasinska, B.; Zgardzinska, B.; Hiesmayr, B.C.; Kowalski, P.; Raczynski, L.; Wislicki, W.; Krzemien, W.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the application of the Jagiellonian positron emission tomograph (J-PET) for the registration of gamma quanta from decays of ortho-positronium (o-Ps). The J-PET is the first positron emission tomography scanner based on organic scintillators in contrast to all current PET scanners based on inorganic crystals. Monte Carlo simulations show that the J-PET as an axially symmetric and high acceptance scanner can be used as a multi-purpose detector well suited to pursue research including e.g. tests of discrete symmetries in decays of ortho-positronium in addition to the medical imaging. The gamma quanta originating from o-Ps decay interact in the plastic scintillators predominantly via the Compton effect, making the direct measurement of their energy impossible. Nevertheless, it is shown in this paper that the J-PET scanner will enable studies of the o-Ps → 3γ decays with angular and energy resolution equal to σ(θ) ∼ 0.4 circle and σ(E) ∼ 4.1 keV, respectively. An order of magnitude shorter decay time of signals from plastic scintillators with respect to the inorganic crystals results not only in better timing properties crucial for the reduction of physical and instrumental background, but also suppresses significantly the pile-ups, thus enabling compensation of the lower efficiency of the plastic scintillators by performing measurements with higher positron source activities. (orig.)

  2. A pyrolysis study for the thermal and kinetic characteristics of an agricultural waste with two different plastic wastes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çepelioğullar, Özge; Pütün, Ayşe E

    2014-10-01

    In this study, thermochemical conversion of plastic wastes (PET and PVC) together with an agricultural waste (hazelnut shell) was investigated. In order to determine the thermal and kinetic behaviours, pyrolysis experiments were carried out from room temperature to 800 °C, with a heating rate of 10 °C min(-1) in the presence of a N2 atmosphere in a thermogravimetric analyzer. With the obtained thermogravimetric data, an appropriate temperature was specified for the pyrolysis of biomass-plastic wastes in a fixed-bed reactor. At the second step, pyrolysis experiments were carried out at the same conditions with the thermogravimetric analyzer, except the final temperature which was up to 500 °C in this case. After pyrolysis experiments, pyrolysis yields were calculated and characterization studies for bio-oil were investigated. Experimental results showed that co-pyrolysis has an important role in the determination of the pyrolysis mechanism and the process conditions while designing/implementing a thermochemical conversion method where biomass-plastic materials were preferred as raw materials. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. A feasibility study of ortho-positronium decays measurement with the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminska, D.; Gajos, A.; Czerwinski, E.; Alfs, D.; Bednarski, T.; Bialas, P.; Dulski, K.; Glowacz, B.; Gupta-Sharma, N.; Korcyl, G.; Krawczyk, N.; Kubicz, E.; Mohammed, M.; Niedzwiecki, Sz.; Pawlik-Niedzwiecka, M.; Rudy, Z.; Wieczorek, A.; Zielinski, M.; Moskal, P. [Jagiellonian University, Faculty of Physics, Astronomy and Applied Computer Science, Krakow (Poland); Curceanu, C.; Silarski, M. [INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, CP 13, Frascati (Italy); Gorgol, M.; Jasinska, B.; Zgardzinska, B. [Maria Curie-Sklodowska University, Department of Nuclear Methods, Institute of Physics, Lublin (Poland); Hiesmayr, B.C. [University of Vienna, Faculty of Physics, Vienna (Austria); Kowalski, P.; Raczynski, L.; Wislicki, W. [Swierk Computing Centre, National Centre for Nuclear Research, Otwock-Swierk (Poland); Krzemien, W. [National Centre for Nuclear Research, High Energy Department, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    2016-08-15

    We present a study of the application of the Jagiellonian positron emission tomograph (J-PET) for the registration of gamma quanta from decays of ortho-positronium (o-Ps). The J-PET is the first positron emission tomography scanner based on organic scintillators in contrast to all current PET scanners based on inorganic crystals. Monte Carlo simulations show that the J-PET as an axially symmetric and high acceptance scanner can be used as a multi-purpose detector well suited to pursue research including e.g. tests of discrete symmetries in decays of ortho-positronium in addition to the medical imaging. The gamma quanta originating from o-Ps decay interact in the plastic scintillators predominantly via the Compton effect, making the direct measurement of their energy impossible. Nevertheless, it is shown in this paper that the J-PET scanner will enable studies of the o-Ps → 3γ decays with angular and energy resolution equal to σ(θ) ∼ 0.4 {sup circle} and σ(E) ∼ 4.1 keV, respectively. An order of magnitude shorter decay time of signals from plastic scintillators with respect to the inorganic crystals results not only in better timing properties crucial for the reduction of physical and instrumental background, but also suppresses significantly the pile-ups, thus enabling compensation of the lower efficiency of the plastic scintillators by performing measurements with higher positron source activities. (orig.)

  4. A feasibility study of ortho-positronium decays measurement with the J-PET scanner based on plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamińska, D.; Gajos, A.; Czerwiński, E.; Alfs, D.; Bednarski, T.; Białas, P.; Curceanu, C.; Dulski, K.; Głowacz, B.; Gupta-Sharma, N.; Gorgol, M.; Hiesmayr, B. C.; Jasińska, B.; Korcyl, G.; Kowalski, P.; Krzemień, W.; Krawczyk, N.; Kubicz, E.; Mohammed, M.; Niedźwiecki, Sz.; Pawlik-Niedźwiecka, M.; Raczyński, L.; Rudy, Z.; Silarski, M.; Wieczorek, A.; Wiślicki, W.; Zgardzińska, B.; Zieliński, M.; Moskal, P.

    2016-08-01

    We present a study of the application of the Jagiellonian positron emission tomograph (J-PET) for the registration of gamma quanta from decays of ortho-positronium (o-Ps). The J-PET is the first positron emission tomography scanner based on organic scintillators in contrast to all current PET scanners based on inorganic crystals. Monte Carlo simulations show that the J-PET as an axially symmetric and high acceptance scanner can be used as a multi-purpose detector well suited to pursue research including e.g. tests of discrete symmetries in decays of ortho-positronium in addition to the medical imaging. The gamma quanta originating from o-Ps decay interact in the plastic scintillators predominantly via the Compton effect, making the direct measurement of their energy impossible. Nevertheless, it is shown in this paper that the J-PET scanner will enable studies of the { o-Ps }→ 3γ decays with angular and energy resolution equal to σ (θ ) ≈ {0.4°} and σ (E) ≈ 4.1 {keV}, respectively. An order of magnitude shorter decay time of signals from plastic scintillators with respect to the inorganic crystals results not only in better timing properties crucial for the reduction of physical and instrumental background, but also suppresses significantly the pile-ups, thus enabling compensation of the lower efficiency of the plastic scintillators by performing measurements with higher positron source activities.

  5. Numerical studies of cavitation erosion on an elastic-plastic material caused by shock-induced bubble collapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turangan, C. K.; Ball, G. J.; Jamaluddin, A. R.; Leighton, T. G.

    2017-09-01

    We present a study of shock-induced collapse of single bubbles near/attached to an elastic-plastic solid using the free-Lagrange method, which forms the latest part of our shock-induced collapse studies. We simulated the collapse of 40 μm radius single bubbles near/attached to rigid and aluminium walls by a 60 MPa lithotripter shock for various scenarios based on bubble-wall separations, and the collapse of a 255 μm radius bubble attached to aluminium foil with a 65 MPa lithotripter shock. The coupling of the multi-phases, compressibility, axisymmetric geometry and elastic-plastic material model within a single solver has enabled us to examine the impingement of high-speed liquid jets from the shock-induced collapsing bubbles, which imposes an extreme compression in the aluminium that leads to pitting and plastic deformation. For certain scenarios, instead of the high-speed jet, a radially inwards flow along the aluminium surface contracts the bubble to produce a `mushroom shape'. This work provides methods for quantifying which parameters (e.g. bubble sizes and separations from the solid) might promote or inhibit erosion on solid surfaces.

  6. The environmental degradation caused by the inadequate dispose of plastic packs: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Claudionor Oliveira; Santos, Gilbertânia Mendonça; Silva, Lucicleide Neves

    2013-01-01

    Modern society is accustomed to living with the ease and versatility that high consumption forms offer. Given a high level of consumption, globalization, technological innovations that seek every day to ensure your space in the market, and thereby contribute to the socioeconomic balance. The modernization making life easier for the general public and the other side may generate environmental disorders is the case of plastic packaging has on the environment long term. With their disuse and dis...

  7. Performance studies towards a TOF-PET sensor using Compton scattering at plastic scintillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuramoto, M.; Nakamori, T.; Gunji, S.; Kamada, K.; Shoji, Y.; Yoshikawa, A.; Aoki, T.

    2018-01-01

    We have developed a sensor head for a time-of-flight (TOF) PET scanner using plastic scintillators that have a very fast timing property. Given the very small cross section of photoelectric absorption in plastic scintillators at 511 keV, we use Compton scattering in order to compensate for detection efficiency. The detector will consist of two layers of scatterers and absorbers which are made of plastic and inorganic scintillators such as GAGG:Ce, respectively. Signals are read by monolithic Multi Pixel Photon Counters, and with energy deposits and interaction time stamps are being acquired. The scintillators are built to be capable of resolving interaction position in three dimensions, so that our system has also a function of depth-of-interaction (DOI) PET scanners. TOF resolution of ~ 200 ps (FWHM) is achieved in both cases of using the leading-edge discriminator and time-walk correction and using a configuration sensitive to DOI. Both the position resolution and spectroscopy are demonstrated using the prototype data acquisition system, with Compton scattering events subsequently being obtained. We also demonstrated that the background rejection technique using the Compton cone constraint could be valid with our system.

  8. Study on Plastic Deformation Characteristics of Shot Peening of Ni-Based Superalloy GH4079

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L. Q.; Liang, Y. L.; Hu, H.

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, the X-ray stress diffractometer, surface roughness tester, field emission scanning electron microscope(SEM), dynamic ultra-small microhardness tester were used to measure the surface residual stress and roughness, topography and surface hardness changes of GH4079 superalloy, which was processed by metallographic grinding, turning, metallographic grinding +shot peening and turning + shot peening. Analysized the effects of shot peening parameters on shot peening plastic deformation features; and the effects of the surface state before shot peening on shot peening plastic deformation characteristics. Results show that: the surface residual compressive stress, surface roughness and surface hardness of GH4079 superalloy were increased by shot peening, in addition, the increment of the surface residual compressive stress, surface roughness and surface hardness induced by shot peening increased with increasing shot peening intensity, shot peening time, shot peening pressure and shot hardness, but harden layer depth was not affected considerably. The more plastic deformation degree of before shot peening surface state, the less increment of the surface residual compressive stress, surface roughness and surface hardness induced by shot peening.

  9. An experimental study on thermo-catalytic pyrolysis of plastic waste using a continuous pyrolyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxilio, Anthony R; Choo, Wei-Lit; Kohli, Isha; Chakravartula Srivatsa, Srikanth; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2017-09-01

    A bench scale, two-stage, thermo-catalytic reactor equipped with a continuous feeding system was used to pyrolyse pure and waste plastics. Experiments using five zeolitic and clay-based catalysts of different forms (pellet and powders) and different plastic feedstocks - virgin HDPE, HDPE w1aste and mixed plastic waste (MPW) were compared to the control experiments - pyrolysis without catalyst. Results indicated that the two pelletized catalysts were the most promising for the conditions employed. Of these two, one with higher acidity and surface area was highly selective for the gasoline fraction (C 5 -C 11 ) giving 80% from the total medium distillate conversion using virgin HDPE as feedstock. It also produced the least amount of olefins (17% for virgin HDPE, 4% for HDPE waste and 2% for MPW) and coke (HDPE, 3% for HDPE waste and 5% for MPW), and the highest aromatics content (22% for virgin HDPE from un-distilled medium distillate, 5% for HDPE and 13% for MPW both from distilled medium distillate). The second pelletized catalyst exhibited high selectivity for the diesel fraction (C 12 -C 25 ) giving 63% from the total medium distillate conversion using virgin HDPE as feedstock. The amount of coke deposited on the catalyst surface depended mainly on the mesopore volume, with less coke deposited as the mesopore volume increased. The variation in catalyst selectivity with acidity strength due to Lewis sites on the catalyst surface controls selectivity towards carbon chain length. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Inter- and intragranular plasticity mechanisms in ultrafine-grained Al thin films: An in situ TEM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mompiou, F.; Legros, M.; Boé, A.; Coulombier, M.; Raskin, J.-P.; Pardoen, T.

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the elementary deformation mechanisms in small-grained metals has been the subject of numerous recent studies. In the submicron range, mechanisms other than intragranular dislocation mechanisms, such as grain boundary (GB)-based mechanisms, are active and can explain the deviations from the Hall–Petch law. Here, we report observations performed during in situ transmission electron microscopy (TEM) tensile tests on initially dislocation-free Al thin films with a mean grain size around 250 nm prepared by microfabrication techniques. Intergranular plasticity is activated at the onset of plasticity. It consists of the motion of dislocations in the GB plane irrespective of the GB character. Surface imperfections, such as GB grooves, are supposed to trigger intergranular plasticity. At larger deformations, the motion of the intergranular dislocations leads to GB sliding and eventually cavitation. In the meantime, GB stress-assisted migration and dislocation emission inside the grain from GB sources have also been observed. The observation of these different mechanisms during the deformation provides an important insight into the understanding of the mechanical properties of metallic thin films.

  11. A Study on Compressive Anisotropy and Nonassociated Flow Plasticity of the AZ31 Magnesium Alloy in Hot Rolling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of anisotropy in compression is studied on hot rolling of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a three-dimensional constitutive model based on the quadratic Hill48 yield criterion and nonassociated flow rule (non-AFR. The constitutive model is characterized by compressive tests of AZ31 billets since plastic deformations of materials are mostly caused by compression during rolling processes. The characterized plasticity model is implemented into ABAQUS/Explicit as a user-defined material subroutine (VUMAT based on semi-implicit backward Euler's method. The subroutine is employed to simulate square-bar rolling processes. The simulation results are compared with rolled specimens and those predicted by the von Mises and the Hill48 yield function under AFR. Moreover, strip rolling is also simulated for AZ31 with the Hill48 yield function under non-AFR. The strip rolling simulation demonstrates that the lateral spread generated by the non-AFR model is in good agreement with experimental data. These comparisons between simulation and experiments validate that the proposed Hill48 yield function under non-AFR provides satisfactory description of plastic deformation behavior in hot rolling for AZ31 alloys in case that the anisotropic parameters in the Hill48 yield function and the non-associated flow rule are calibrated by the compressive experimental results.

  12. Quality Tools and TRIZ Based Quality Improvement Case Study at PT ‘X’ A Plastic Moulding Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirawan, Christina; Chandra, Fory

    2016-02-01

    Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) is a creative encouraging problem solving method. TRIZ is prepared by Altshuller for product design. Altshuller prepared contradiction matrix and suggestion to solve contradictions usually occur in product design. This paper try to combine TRIZ with quality tools such as Pareto and Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) to solve contradiction in quality improvement problem, neither than product design problem. Pareto used to identify defect priority, FTA used to analysis and identify root cause of defect. When there is contradiction in solving defect causes, TRIZ used to find creative problem solving. As a case study, PT ’X’, a plastic molding manufacturing industry was taken. PT ‘X’ using traditional press machine to produce plastic thread cone. There are 5 defect types that might occur in plastic thread cone production, incomplete form, dirty, mottle, excessive form, rugged. Research about quality improvement effort using DMAIC at PT ‘X’ have been done by Fory Candra. From this research, defect types, priority, root cause from FTA, recommendation from FMEA. In this research, from FTA reviewed, contradictions found among causes troublesome quality improvement efforts. TRIZ used to solve the contradictions and quality improvement effort can be made effectively.

  13. Magical Engineering Plastic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-15

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  14. Magical Engineering Plastic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Ung

    1988-01-01

    This book introduces engineering plastic about advantage of engineering plastic, plastic material from processing method, plastic shock, plastic until now, background of making of engineering plastic, wonderful engineering plastic science such as a high molecule and molecule, classification of high molecule, difference between metal and high molecule, heat and high molecule materials, and property of surface, engineering plastic of dream like from linseed oil to aramid, small dictionary of engineering plastic.

  15. Distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on beaches in the SE Pacific (Chile): a study supported by a citizen science project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo-Ruz, Valeria; Thiel, Martin

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of large and small plastic debris is a problem throughout the world's oceans and coastlines. Abundances and types of small plastic debris have only been reported for some isolated beaches in the SE Pacific, but these data are insufficient to evaluate the situation in this region. The citizen science project "National Sampling of Small Plastic Debris" was supported by schoolchildren from all over Chile who documented the distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches. Thirty-nine schools and nearly 1000 students from continental Chile and Easter Island participated in the activity. To validate the data obtained by the students, all samples were recounted in the laboratory. The results of the present study showed that the students were able to follow the instructions and generate reliable data. The average abundance obtained was 27 small plastic pieces per m(2) for the continental coast of Chile, but the samples from Easter Island had extraordinarily higher abundances (>800 items per m(2)). The abundance of small plastic debris on the continental coast could be associated with coastal urban centers and their economic activities. The high abundance found on Easter Island can be explained mainly by the transport of plastic debris via the surface currents in the South Pacific Subtropical Gyre, resulting in the accumulation of small plastic debris on the beaches of the island. This first report of the widespread distribution and abundance of small plastic debris on Chilean beaches underscores the need to extend plastic debris research to ecological aspects of the problem and to improve waste management. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Radioactivity in bottled waters sold in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila Rangel, J.I.; Lopez del Rio, H.; Mireles Garcia, F.; Quirino Torres, L.L.; Villalba, M.L.; Colmenero Sujo, L.; Montero Cabrera, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of gross alpha and beta activities were made on 21 domestic and international brands of bottled (purified and mineral) water sold in the Mexican market to assess its radiological quality. Alpha and beta activities were determined using a liquid-scintillation detector with pulse-shape analysis feature. All the purified water had values of beta activity lower than the limit for potable drinking water (1.0 Bq/l), while three brands surpassed the limit of alpha activity (0.1 Bq/l). The limit for alpha radioactivity content was exceed by three mineral waters; the results show a correlation between radioactivity content and mineral salts, which are related with the origin and treatment of the waters

  17. Ship-in-a-bottle catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haw, James F.; Song, Weiguo

    2006-07-18

    In accordance with the present invention there is provided a novel catalyst system in which the catalytic structure is tailormade at the nanometer scale using the invention's novel ship-in-a-bottle synthesis techniques. The invention describes modified forms of solid catalysts for use in heterogeneous catalysis that have a microporous structure defined by nanocages. Examples include zeolites, SAPOs, and analogous materials that have the controlled pore dimensions and hydrothermal stability required for many industrial processes. The invention provides for modification of these catalysts using reagents that are small enough to pass through the windows used to access the cages. The small reagents are then reacted to form larger molecules in the cages.

  18. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  19. Pervasive plastic

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-05-01

    Human manipulation of hydrocarbons — as fuel and raw materials for modern society — has changed our world and the indelible imprint we will leave in the rock record. Plastics alone have permeated our lives and every corner of our planet.

  20. Measurements of radon and radium activity in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Reque, Marilson; Tabuchi, Camila Garcia; Del Claro, Flavia; Perna, Allan Felipe, E-mail: jaquelinekappke@gmail.com [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana (UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Deniak, Valeriy [Instituto de Pesquisa Pele Pequeno Principe, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Current work presents the results of further development of optimized experimental protocol for RAD7 instant radon detector (Durridge Company Inc.) usage in low level radon in water measurements and the results concerning Ra-226 activity evaluation in bottled mineral water samples purchased at Brazilian market. With the purpose to achieve the statistically consistent results for the activity levels of 0.1Bq/L for radon (radium) activity in water, present study used modified experimental protocol which consists of: 1) water samples were stored in hermetically sealed glass vials of 250mL during 30 days to guarantee that Rn-222 will reach the secular equilibrium; 2) the measurements were performed using WAT250 protocol of RAD7 detector; 3) with an aim to decrease the background, the cleaning (activated carbon filter) and drying (DRIERITE desiccant) vessels, which have a function to retain the radioactive decay product of Rn-222 and humidity, were connected to a closed air loop of RAD7 permanently by means of valves and taps, which gave a possibility to repeat all sequence of measurements (including background evaluation) three or four times without to open the air loop and disconnect the sample vial with water. Each water sample was submitted to such measurements two or three times. Obtained results presented the level of Ra-226 activity in studied samples of bottled mineral water that varied from 0.007 ± 0.061 Bq/L to 0.145 ± 0.049 Bq/L, which is below the limit of 0,5 Bq/L established by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2011 for drinking water. (author)