WorldWideScience

Sample records for plastic bottles filled

  1. New alternatives in construction: earth filled pet bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz Valencia, Daniel; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; López Pérez, Cecilia;; Cortes, Eliana; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana; Froese, Andreas; Pontificia Universidad Javeriana

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACTTwo of the main problems of mankind are the lack of housing and the accumulation of solid waste and garbage thatultimately brings environmental problems. Within this solid waste are plastics such as the PET bottles (for examplesoda bottles). In order to try to solve both problems, since 2001 Eco-Tec Soluciones has pioneered in the constructionof houses and water storage structures with PET bottles filled with rammed earth. Groups GRIME and Estructuras yConstrucción of the Pontificia U...

  2. A Plastic Bottle in Rectosigmoid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Derakhshanfar

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation and treatment of foreign bodies in rectum involves careful history and physical examination. The cases of forced introduction of the objects most commonly are , sexual assault , self – introduced for anal eroticism and accidental insertion.Case Report: We describe a case of a patient with rectal impaction following self administration of a plastic bottle for anal sexual gratification. A 49 years old man was admitted in the emergency department with the history of self introduced a bottle into his rectum physical examination and abdominal X-Ray diagnosed the case as impacted foreign body in rectosigmoid. An attempt was made to deliver the bottle through the rectum but because of high lying big bottle in the sigmoid laporotomy was performed and the bottle was removed though a longitudinal incision on sigmoid colon.Conclusion: Retained rectosigmoid foreign bodies have been encountered more frequently and present a dilemma for management and rarely laporotomy for extraction of foreign bodies was performed.

  3. Effect of bottling and storage on the migration of plastic constituents in Spanish bottled waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, Albert; Bono-Blay, Francisco; Borrell, Antonio; Lacorte, Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Bottled water is packaged in either glass or, to a large extent, in plastic bottles with metallic or plastic caps of different material, shape and colour. Plastic materials are made of one or more monomers and several additives that can eventually migrate into water, either during bottle manufacturing, water filling or storage. The main objective of the present study was to carry out a comprehensive assessment of the quality of the Spanish bottled water market in terms of (i) migration of plastic components or additives during bottling and during storage and (ii) evaluation of the effect of the packaging material and bottle format on the migration potential. The compounds investigated were 5 phthalates, diethylhexyl adipate, alkylphenols and bisphenol A. A set of 362 bottled water samples corresponding to 131 natural mineral waters and spring waters sources and 3 treated waters of several commercial brands were analysed immediately after bottling and after one-year storage (a total of 724 samples). Target compounds were detected in 5.6% of the data values, with diethyl hexyl phthalate and bisphenol A being the most ubiquitous compounds detected. The total daily intake was estimated and a comparison with reference values was indicated.

  4. Gas Experiments with Plastic Soda Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanah, Patrick; Zipp, Arden P.

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an inexpensive device consisting of a plastic soda bottle and a modified plastic cap in a range of demonstrations and experimental activities having to do with the behavior of gases. (Author/WRM)

  5. Gas Property Demonstrations Using Plastic Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Dean J.; Bannon, Stephen J.; Gunter, Molly M.

    2011-01-01

    Plastic water bottles are convenient containers for demonstrations of gas properties illustrating Boyle's law, Charles's law, and Avogadro's law. The contents of iron-based disposable hand warmer packets can be used to remove oxygen gas from the air within an unfilled plastic water bottle.

  6. Migration of bisphenol A from plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and reusable polycarbonate drinking bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubwabo, C; Kosarac, I; Stewart, B; Gauthier, B R; Lalonde, K; Lalonde, P J

    2009-06-01

    Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) has recently received special attention. It has been shown that exposure to BPA may occur through the consumption of beverages or foods that have been in contact with polycarbonate (PC) plastic containers or epoxy resins in food packaging. A BPA migration study was conducted using a variety of plastic containers, including polycarbonate baby bottles, non-PC baby bottles, baby bottle liners, and reusable PC drinking bottles. Water was used to simulate migration into aqueous and acidic foods; 10% ethanol solution to simulate migration to low- and high-alcoholic foods; and 50% ethanol solution to simulate migration to fatty foods. By combining solid-phase extraction, BPA derivatization and analysis by GC-EI/MS/MS, a very low detection limit at the ng l(-1) level was obtained. Migration of BPA at 40 degrees C ranged from 0.11 microg l(-1) in water incubated for 8 h to 2.39 microg l(-1) in 50% ethanol incubated for 240 h. Residual BPA leaching from PC bottles increased with temperature and incubation time. In comparison with the migration observed from PC bottles, non-PC baby bottles and baby bottle liners showed only trace levels of BPA. Tests for leachable lead and cadmium were also conducted on glass baby bottles since these represent a potential alternative to plastic bottles. No detectable lead or cadmium was found to leach from the glass. This study indicated that non-PC plastic baby bottles, baby bottle liners and glass baby bottles might be good alternatives for polycarbonate bottles.

  7. UTILIZATION OF WASTE PLASTIC BOTTLES IN ASPHALT MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAHER BAGHAEE MOGHADDAM

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, large amounts of waste materials are being produced in the world. One of the waste materials is plastic bottle. Generating disposable plastic bottles is becoming a major problem in many countries. Using waste plastic as a secondary material in construction projects would be a solution to overcome the crisis of producing large amount of waste plastics in one hand and improving the structure’s characteristics such as resistance against cracking on the other hand. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adding plastic bottles in road pavement. Marshall properties as well as specific gravity of asphalt mixture containing different percentages of plastic bottles were evaluated. Besides, Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC was calculated for each percentages of plastic bottles used in the mix. The stiffness and fatigue characteristics of mixture were assessed at OAC value. Results showed that the stability and flow values of asphalt mixture increased by adding waste crushed plastic bottle into the asphalt mixture. Further, it was shown that the bulk specific gravity and stiffness of mixtures increased by adding lower amount of plastic bottles; however, adding higher amounts of plastic resulted in lower specific gravity and mix stiffness. In addition, it was concluded that the mixtures containing waste plastic bottles have lower OAC values compared to the conventional mixture, and this may reduce the amount of asphalt binder can be used in road construction projects. Besides, the mixtures containing waste plastic showed significantly greater fatigue resistance than the conventional mixture.

  8. Innovative Design of Plastic Bottle Recycling Box Based on ARM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuedong Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problems of on-site plastic bottles recycling and the reuse of waste, the automatic recycling system was developed on the basis of ARM. As the main controller, ARM not only controls the mechanical system of the collector to recover and break plastic bottles, but also communicates with and rewards the user by the automatic reward system through the wireless network. The experimental prototype test results show: post treated fragments of plastic bottles are small, which are convenient to transport and take advantage of; the operation of recovery is easy, and the interface of man-machine interaction is friendly which is easy to expand functions.

  9. Trash + Creativity = Problem Solved: Award Winners Give Plastic Bottles Second Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tech Directions, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Judge Harry T. Roman, an electrical engineer and inventor, has selected the best of the crop in the 2006/2007 Tech Directions Inventors Award Competition. The challenge this year called on students to slow the filling of landfills by devising uses for discarded plastic water, juice, soda, and sports-drink bottles. Judge Roman noted "many common…

  10. Study on the Plastic Bottle Recycling Based on Evolution Tree for Technical System

    OpenAIRE

    Yuedong Xiong; Huadong Huang

    2014-01-01

    Technical system theory of evolution tree was used in the study of the plastic bottle recycling, and established the evolutionary line of plastic bottle recycling on the basis of the analysis of plastic bottle recycling recovery evolution tree, and summed up a new smart plastic bottle recycling program. The new recovery recovers and smashes the plastic bottles through technical system, and communicates with users through automatically reward system and rewards the latter. The experimental pro...

  11. Raman and AFM study of gamma irradiated plastic bottle sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Yasir; Kumar, Vijay; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2013-02-01

    In this investigation, the effects of gamma irradiation on the structural properties of plastic bottle sheet are studied. The Plastic sheets were exposed with 1.25MeV 60Co gamma rays source at various dose levels within the range from 0-670 kGy. The induced modifications were followed by micro-Raman and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The Raman spectrum shows the decrease in Raman intensity and formation of unsaturated bonds with an increase in the gamma dose. AFM image displays rough surface morphology after irradiation. The detailed Raman analysis of plastic bottle sheets is presented here, and the results are correlated with the AFM observations.

  12. The Use of Plastic Lemonade Bottles as Fermenter Reaction Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, David; Howard, Barry

    1988-01-01

    Describes the construction and uses of a low cost fermenter reaction vessel which is suitable for laboratory growth of microorganisms by continuous and batch cultures from plastic soft drink bottles. Lists materials, discusses modifications that can be made and gives examples of use. (CW)

  13. Comparison of detection threshold values determined using glass sniff bottles and plastic squeeze bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wudarski, Thomas J; Doty, Richard L

    2004-02-01

    Olfactory threshold measures are influenced by such factors as odorant species, diluent type, psychophysical paradigm, and stimulus-presentation procedure. In this study, we compared phenyl ethyl alcohol odor-detection thresholds obtained using 120-ml glass sniff bottles to those obtained using 120-ml plastic squeeze bottles. Although these presentation media are commonly employed in published studies, there has never been a formal comparison of values obtained using them. 10 male and 10 female subjects were tested on two threshold test sessions, one for each type of bottle. Order of sessions was systematically counterbalanced and completed on the same day for a given subject, with a minimum of 30 min. elapsing between sessions. A seven-reversal, single-staircase threshold procedure was employed. Although the threshold values were similar for the two procedures, slightly lower thresholds were obtained using the glass sniff bottles [respective M (SEM) log vol/vol values = -6.61 (.20) and -6.13 (.24)]. These data suggest that, while threshold values using these two presentation procedures can be roughly compared across studies, accurate comparisons may require a slight mathematical adjustment.

  14. Controlling the Filling and Capping Operation of a Bottling Plant using PLC and SCADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunal Chakraborty

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents basic stages of operation of a bottling plant, i.e. the filling and capping process. The main aim of our paper is to control the filling and capping section of a bottling plant simultaneously. At first a set of empty bottle is run by using a conveyer towards filling section, after the operation, the filled bottles are sent towards the capping section. After successful capping operation, the sealed bottles terminate towards exit and a new set of empty bottle arrive, in this way the process continues. This paper includes the method using which, a bunch of bottles can be filled and capped at one instant of time. This method has made the operation more flexible and time saving. The filling and capping operations are controlled using Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC, as the PLC’s are very much user-efficient, cost-effective and easy to control. By using PLC automation the whole process is kept under control. SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition is used to monitor the process by means of a display system.

  15. Filling or draining a water bottle with two holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2016-07-01

    Three simple experiments are described using a small water bottle with two holes in the side of the bottle. The main challenge is to predict and then explain the observations, but the arrangements can also be used for quantitative measurements concerning hydrostatic pressure, Bernoulli’s equation, surface tension and bubble formation.

  16. Rapid Drinking Devices Constructed from I.V. Bags and Plastic Squeeze Bottles,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    i D-153 652 RAPID DRINKING DEVICES CONSTRUCTED FROM IY BAS AND 1/1 I PLASTIC SQUEEZE BOTTLES (U) A MY RESEARCH INST OF I ENVIRONMENTAL MEDICINE...TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVEREDLf Rapid Drinking Devices Constructed Fram I.V. ( Bags and Plastic Squeeze Bottles 6...running. The primary problem with using a plastic water bottle during a race is that it ~ must be held upright and squeezed tightly while the runner

  17. Comparative recovery of microorganisms from BacT/ALERT plastic and glass FA and FN blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, J A; Heiter, B J; Bourbeau, P P

    2005-07-01

    bioMerieux, Inc., has recently introduced plastic bottles to replace glass bottles for use in the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We compared the performance of the plastic to the glass bottles in a large clinical evaluation. Two blood cultures were collected from each patient, one using glass FA (aerobic) and FN (anaerobic) bottles and one using plastic FA and FN bottles. Of the 4,040 sets of four bottles collected, 3,110 contained the recommended 8 to 12 ml of blood, yielding 524 microorganisms with 359 judged to be clinically significant. Of the 359 significant organisms, 255 were recovered in either one or two bottles from both pairs of bottles in a set while 56 organisms were recovered only from the glass bottles and 48 were recovered only from the plastic bottles (P, not significant [NS]). Of the 286 significant organisms recovered only in the FA bottles (glass and plastic), 180 were recovered in both bottles, 57 in the plastic bottles only, and 49 in the glass bottles only (P, NS). Of the 303 significant organisms recovered in the FN bottles only (glass and plastic), 212 were recovered in both bottles, 46 in the plastic bottles only, and 45 in the glass bottles only (P, NS). For individual organisms, the only significant difference in recovery was obtained for Escherichia coli, with more isolates recovered in the FN plastic than in the FN glass bottles (P = 0.02). These data suggest that recovery of microorganisms with plastic FA/FN bottles is at least equal to that with glass FA/FN bottles while offering greater safety for users.

  18. Exploring the Gas Chemistry of Old Submarine Technologies Using Plastic Bottles as Reaction Vessels and Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horikoshi, Ryo; Takeiri, Fumitaka; Kobayashi, Yoji; Kageyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    We describe an activity that is suitable for high school students and makes use of plastic bottles. This activity allows students to familiarize themselves with gas chemistry by introducing technologies that were applied in old submarine systems. Plastic bottles, which are representative of submarines, are used as reaction vessels. Three simple…

  19. Effect of Fill Temperature on Clostridium botulinum Type A Toxin Activity during the Hot Filling of Juice Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Guy E; Fleischman, Gregory J; Balster, Fran; Reineke, Karl; Reddy, N Rukma; Larkin, John W

    2015-08-01

    The potential threat of terrorist attacks against the United States food supply using neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum (BoNT) has resulted in the need for studying the effect of various food process operations on the bioavailability of this toxin. The objective of this study was to evaluate C. botulinum type A neurotoxin bioavailability after a simulated hot fill juice bottling operation. C. botulinum type A acid mud toxin (∼10(6) mouse lethal dose [MLD50]/ml) was deposited into juice bottles at an experimentally determined fastest cooling spot. Bottles (12 or 20 oz [355 and 592 ml]) were filled with either apple juice or an orange drink, at 80 or 85°C, in either upright or inverted orientations. Toxicity of the juice was evaluated as a function of holding time (1 to 2 min) by the mouse bioassay. The fastest cooling point in the upright orientation was determined to be at a bottle's bottom rim. In the inverted orientation, the fastest cooling point was in the bottle cap region. With respect to these two points, the upright bottle cooled faster than the inverted bottle, which was reflected in a higher inactivation of BoNT in the latter. For the orange drink (pH 2.9) toxicity was reduced by 0.5 × 10(6) MLD50/ml to a nondetectable level after 1 min in all bottle sizes, orientations, and temperatures as measured by the mouse bioassay. This indicates that there was at least a 0.5 × 10(6) MLD50/ml reduction in activity. Inactivation in apple juice (pH 4.0), to the same degree as in the orange drink, was found only for the inverted orientation at 85°C. Complete inactivation in apple juice for all conditions was found at a lower added toxin level of 0.25 × 10(5) MLD50/ml. In general, bottle inversion and filling at 85°C provided complete inactivation of BoNT to the 0.5 × 10(6) MLD50/ml level. All experiments resulted in the inactivation of 2.5 × 10(4) MLD50/ml of BoNT regardless of juice type, fill temperature, or bottle orientation and size.

  20. Filling behaviour of wood plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duretek, I.; Lucyshyn, T.; Holzer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Wood plastic composites (WPC) are a young generation of composites with rapidly growing usage within the plastics industry. The advantages are the availability and low price of the wood particles, the possibility of partially substituting the polymer in the mixture and sustainable use of the earth’s resources. The current WPC products on the market are to a large extent limited to extruded products. Nowadays there is a great interest in the market for consumer products in more use of WPC as an alternative to pure thermoplastics in injection moulding processes. This work presents the results of numerical simulation and experimental visualisation of the mould filling process in injection moulding of WPC. The 3D injection moulding simulations were done with the commercial software package Autodesk® Moldflow® Insight 2016 (AMI). The mould filling experiments were conducted with a box-shaped test part. In contrast to unfilled polymers the WPC has reduced melt elasticity so that the fountain flow often does not develop. This results in irregular flow front shapes in the moulded part, especially at high filler content.

  1. Consumer exposure to Bisphenol A from plastic bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its' primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking containers, eyeglass lenses, sports safety equipment as well as consumer electronics. Studies have shown that BPA is leached from lacquer coated cans and baby feeding bottles due to hydrolysis of the Polymer during thermal treatment. Studies have also shown that even under normal use BPA may leach from food and beverage containers. For many years Bisphenol A was treated as neutral to human health. The detection of BPA in drinking water and food products has raised the interest of many researches since 1990. Thousands of studies have examined the impact of BPA to determine its effects in laboratory animals. Numerous toxicological and biochemical studies have supported that BPA has estrogenic properties. The effects of exposure to BPA can be harmful to fetus, infants and young children. BPA is used in products where traces of it can be found in every human at higher levels of concentration than that which causes problems in animals. The National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) has defined "low dose" of endocrine disrupting chemicals as doses below no observable adverse effect (NOAE) for specific chemicals. In BPA, this dose is 50 mg/kg of body weight per day. Today there are more than 150 published results describing how low doses of BPA effects animals. A recent study reported that adult female mice, monkeys, and humans metabolized BPA at almost identical rates. Since the level of BPA and other endocrine chemicals appears to be increasing throughout the World, especially where plastics are prevalent, it is extremely important to study the effects of this chemical on man and wildlife. This research effort

  2. Comparative Recovery of Microorganisms from BacT/ALERT Plastic and Glass FA and FN Blood Culture Bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Riley, J. A.; Heiter, B J; Bourbeau, P P

    2005-01-01

    bioMerieux, Inc., has recently introduced plastic bottles to replace glass bottles for use in the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We compared the performance of the plastic to the glass bottles in a large clinical evaluation. Two blood cultures were collected from each patient, one using glass FA (aerobic) and FN (anaerobic) bottles and one using plastic FA and FN bottles. Of the 4,040 sets of four bottles collected, 3,110 contained the recommended 8 to 12 ml of blood, yielding 524 microorga...

  3. Validation of Performance of Plastic versus Glass Bottles for Culturing Anaerobes from Blood in BacT/ALERT SN Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Mirrett, Stanley; Joyce, Maria J.; Reller, L. Barth

    2005-01-01

    To validate performance, we compared the new plastic BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) SN bottle to the current glass SN bottle with samples of blood obtained for culture from adults and found them comparable for both recovery and speed of detection of microorganisms. We conclude that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  4. Validation of performance of plastic versus glass bottles for culturing anaerobes from blood in BacT/ALERT SN medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirrett, Stanley; Joyce, Maria J; Reller, L Barth

    2005-12-01

    To validate performance, we compared the new plastic BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Durham, NC) SN bottle to the current glass SN bottle with samples of blood obtained for culture from adults and found them comparable for both recovery and speed of detection of microorganisms. We conclude that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  5. Community challenges when using large plastic bottles for Solar Energy Disinfection of Water (SODIS)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borde, Preeti; Elmusharaf, Khalifa; McGuigan, Kevin G; Keogh, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    .... The exposure to sunlight is typically carried out in small volume plastic beverage bottles (up to 2 l). Given the water requirements of consumption and basic personal hygiene, this may not always meet the needs of communities...

  6. Bottle filling machine bottle holder stainless steel prop Process Analysis%灌瓶机不锈钢托瓶支架加工工艺分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易忠奇; 陈平华

    2013-01-01

    针对ASY1/20塑料安瓿制瓶、灌装、封口一体机不锈钢托瓶支架零件机械加工工艺方案的确定方法、理论依据及对各加工工序所需的工装夹具设计进行了详细的阐述。同时,在机械加工中不锈钢材质零件属难加工材料,就如何确保零件的加工质量和提高加工效率,对切削用的刀具材料、参数选择及加工工艺进行探讨,并在实际生产中得到了应用,有效的提高产品质量和经济效益。%For ASY1/20 plastic ampoule bottle, filling and sealing machine stainless steel prop bottle holder parts ma-chining process plan determination methods, theoretical basis and the various processing steps required for fixture design was elaborated. Meanwhile, in machining stainless steel parts are difficult to machine materials, on how to ensure part quality and improve processing efficiency, cutting tool material selection and processing parameters are discussed, and in the actual production has been applied, effectively improve the product quality and economic efficiency.

  7. Simple Model of a Rolling Water-Filled Bottle on an Inclined Ramp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shihao; Hu, Naiwen; Yao, Tianchen; Chu, Charles; Babb, Simona; Cohen, Jenna; Sangiovanni, Giana; Watt, Summer; Weisman, Danielle; Klep, James; Walecki, Wojciech J.; Walecki, Eve S.; Walecki, Peter S.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate a water-filled bottle rolling down an incline and ask the following question: is a rolling bottle better described by a model ignoring all internal motion where the bottle is approximated by a material point sliding down an incline, or is it better described by a rigid solid cylinder rolling down the incline without skidding? The measurements presented here represent a special case of similar experiments described by K.A. Jackson et al. (see Ref. 1 and references within). There exists also a report by Kagan describing the motion of soda cans rolling on an incline. In our case we investigate motion of the fully filled bottle. We demonstrate that within accuracy of our experiment the motion of the bottle can be described by a simple "frictionless water" model. The analysis of the dynamics of the bodies sliding and rolling on a ramp is a standard component of introductory physics classes, and a required component of the Advanced Placement (AP) Physics curriculum.

  8. Migration of bisphenol A and nonylphenol from mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers into water at different temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ali Kazemi; Habibollah Younesi; Nader Bahramifar

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: bisphenol A and nonylphenol are xenoestrogen materials used as a monomer of plastics in widely volume in the production of plastic materials especially mineral water bottles and disposable plastic containers...

  9. Performance of Hot Asphalt Mixtures Containing Plastic Bottles as Additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hakeem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on evaluating the resistance of polymer modified asphalt mixes and the role played by asphalt in the realm of construction is undeniably important. Addition of polymers(PB as additives to asphalt helps to improve the strength and water repellent property of the mix and as well as helps environment in various ways and at the same time, analyzing its lower maintenance activities and service life is most important. The use of inexpensive polymers, in this case, waste polymers has without any doubt proven to be the most convenient way of reducing the cost of construction and at the same time maintaining quality. The main resolve for this research was to establish the effects of the use of plastic bottles on hot asphalt and its mixtures. In order to put this into perspective, varying percentages of asphalt mixtures were calculated and subjected to laboratory tests. The two-factor variance analysis (ANOVA was conducted to determine the significance at various confidence limits. The results indicate that the inclusion of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET had a particularly substantial effect on the properties of asphalt. Consequently, it can encourage the re-utilization of waste in the manufacturing industry in an ecologically friendly and cost-effective way.

  10. Controlled clinical comparison of plastic versus glass bottles of BacT/ALERT PF medium for culturing blood from children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Cathy A; Mirrett, Stanley; Woods, Christopher W; Reller, L Barth

    2005-01-01

    The plastic pediatric BacT/ALERT (bioMérieux, Durham, N.C.) PF (PPF) is a new nonvented aerobic culture medium in a clear plastic bottle designed to prevent breakage. We compared the performance of the new PPF bottle to that of the present glass BacT/ALERT PF bottle for the recovery of microorganisms as well as for the time to detection of growth in samples of blood obtained for culture from children. We found that the PPF and PF bottles were comparable for recovery of microorganisms and that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  11. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  12. Heat Transfer in Glass, Aluminum, and Plastic Beverage Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, William M.; Shevlin, Ryan C.; Soffen, Tanya S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses a controversy regarding the effect of bottle material on the thermal performance of beverage bottles. Experiments and calculations that verify or refute advertising claims and represent an interesting way to teach heat transfer fundamentals are described. Heat transfer coefficients and the resistance to heat transfer offered…

  13. Identification and quantification of the migration of chemicals from plastic baby bottles used as substitutes for polycarbonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneau, C; Van den Eede, L; Valzacchi, S

    2012-01-01

    The results of a study on the analytical identification and quantification of migration of chemicals from plastics baby bottles found in the European Union market made of materials that are now present as substitutes for polycarbonate (PC) are reported. A total of 449 baby bottles with a focus on first age or sets of bottles were purchased from 26 European Union countries, Canada, Switzerland and the USA. From this collection, which contained several duplicates, a total of 277 baby bottles were analysed. The materials included different types of plastic such as PC, polyamide (PA), polyethersulphone (PES), polypropylene (PP), but also silicone, and from the United States a co-polyester marketed under the trade name Tritan™. The bottles were subjected to the conventional migration test for hot fill conditions, i.e. 2 h at 70°C. The simulant used was that specified in European Union legislation (2007/19/EC) for milk, i.e. 50% ethanol. In a first phase 1, migration was conducted since the scope of this investigation was a screening rather than a true compliance testing check. Second and third migrations were performed on selected articles when migrated substances exceeded limits specified in the legislation. In order to verify some materials, a portion of the bottle was cut to run an FT-IR fingerprint to confirm the nature of the polymer. The migration solutions in general showed a low release of substances. Results showed that bottles made of PP and silicones showed a greater number of substances in the migration solutions and in greater quantity. Chemicals from PP included alkanes, which could be found in >65% of the bottles at levels up to 3500 µg kg⁻¹; and benzene derivatives in 17% of the baby bottles and found at levels up to 113 µg kg⁻¹. Some substances were found on a regular basis such as plasticisers, esters and antioxidants (e.g. tris(2,4-di-tert-butylphenyl)phosphate, known as Irgafos 168. Some substances found were not included in the

  14. Application of automated image analysis to the identification and extraction of recyclable plastic bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Edgar SCAVINO; Dzuraidah Abdul WAHAB; Aini HUSSAIN; Hassan BASRI; Mohd Marzuki MUSTAFA

    2009-01-01

    An experimental machine vision apparatus was used to identify and extract recyclable plastic bottles out of a conveyor belt. Color images were taken with a commercially available Webcam, and the recognition was performed by our homemade software, based on the shape and dimensions of object images. The software was able to manage multiple bottles in a single image and was additionally extended to cases involving touching bottles. The identification was fulfilled by comparing the set of measured features with an existing database and meanwhile integrating various recognition techniques such as minimum distance in the feature space, self-organized maps, and neural networks. The recognition system was tested on a set of 50 different bottles and provided so far an accuracy of about 97% on bottle identification. The extraction of the bottles was performed by means of a pneumatic arm, which was activated according to the plastic type; polyethylene-terephthalate (PET) bottles were left on the conveyor belt, while non-PET boules were extracted. The software was designed to provide the best compromise between reliability and speed for real-time applications in view of the commercialization of the system at existing recycling plants.

  15. Consumer Exposure to Bisphenol A from Plastic Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidabadi, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a plastic monomer and plasticizer and is a chemical that has one of the highest volume production worldwide, with more than six billion pounds each year. Its primary use is the production of polycarbonate plastics, epoxy resins used to line metal cans in a host of plastic consumer products such as toys, water pipes, drinking…

  16. EXPERIMENT BASED FAULT DIAGNOSIS ON BOTTLE FILLING PLANT WITH LVQ ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa DEMETGÜL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an artificial neural network is developed to find an error rapidly on pneumatic system. Also the ANN prevents the system versus the failure. The error on the experimental bottle filling plant can be defined without any interference using analog values taken from pressure sensors and linear potentiometers. The sensors and potentiometers are placed on different places of the plant. Neural network diagnosis faults on plant, where no bottle, cap closing cylinder B is not working, bottle cap closing cylinder C is not working, air pressure is not sufficient, water is not filling and low air pressure faults. The fault is diagnosed by artificial neural network with LVQ. It is possible to find an failure by using normal programming or PLC. The reason offing Artificial Neural Network is to give a information where the fault is. However, ANN can be used for different systems. The aim is to find the fault by using ANN simultaneously. In this situation, the error taken place on the pneumatic system is collected by a data acquisition card. It is observed that the algorithm is very capable program for many industrial plants which have mechatronic systems.

  17. Spark Ignition of Combustible Vapor in a Plastic Bottle as a Demonstration of Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    I report an innovation that provides a compelling demonstration of rocket propulsion, appropriate for students of physics and other physical sciences. An electrical spark is initiated from a distance to cause the deflagration of a combustible vapor mixed with air in a lightweight plastic bottle that is consequently propelled as a rocket by the…

  18. How consumers of plastic water bottles are responding to environmental policies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orset, Caroline; Barret, Nicolas; Lemaire, Aurélien

    2017-03-01

    Although plastic induces environmental damages, almost all water bottles are made from plastic and the consumption never stops increasing. This study evaluates the consumers' willingness to pay (WTP) for different plastics used for water packaging. Successive messages emphasizing the characteristics of plastic are delivered to consumers allowing explaining the influence of information on the consumers' WTP. We find that information has a manifest effect on the WTP. We show there is a significant premium associated with recycled plastic packaging and biodegradable bioplastic packaging. As there is no consensus on the plastic which is the most or the least dangerous for the environment, we propose different policies for protecting the environment. We discuss about the impact of these policies on consumer's purchasing decisions: switching one plastic packaging for another, or leaving water plastic bottles market. We present the environmental policies that are effective according to the point of view adopted. Choosing between these policies then depends on the priorities of the regulator and pressure of lobbies.

  19. Spark Ignition of Combustible Vapor in a Plastic Bottle as a Demonstration of Rocket Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattox, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    I report an innovation that provides a compelling demonstration of rocket propulsion, appropriate for students of physics and other physical sciences. An electrical spark is initiated from a distance to cause the deflagration of a combustible vapor mixed with air in a lightweight plastic bottle that is consequently propelled as a rocket by the release of combustion products, i.e., a "whoosh rocket." My recommendation is that the standard fuel for pedagogical whoosh demonstrations be isopropanol, and the recommended vessel is the 3.8-L high-density polyethylene (HDPE) bottle.

  20. Histogram of Intensity Feature Extraction for Automatic Plastic Bottle Recycling System Using Machine Vision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzaimah Ramli

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many recycling activities adopt manual sorting for plastic recycling that relies on plant personnel who visually identify and pick plastic bottles as they travel along the conveyor belt. These bottles are then sorted into the respective containers. Manual sorting may not be a suitable option for recycling facilities of high throughput. It has also been noted that the high turnover among sorting line workers had caused difficulties in achieving consistency in the plastic separation process. As a result, an intelligent system for automated sorting is greatly needed to replace manual sorting system. The core components of machine vision for this intelligent sorting system is the image recognition and classification. In this research, the overall plastic bottle sorting system is described. Additionally, the feature extraction algorithm used is discussed in detail since it is the core component of the overall system that determines the success rate. The performance of the proposed feature extractions were evaluated in terms of classification accuracy and result obtained showed an accuracy of more than 80%.

  1. Characteristics of bacterial and fungal growth in plastic bottled beverages under a consuming condition model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Maiko; Ohnishi, Takahiro; Araki, Emiko; Kanda, Takashi; Tomita, Atsuko; Ozawa, Kazuhiro; Goto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Kanji; Konuma, Hirotaka; Hara-Kudo, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    Microbial contamination in unfinished beverages can occur when drinking directly from the bottle. Various microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, are able to grow in these beverages at room temperature or in a refrigerator. In this study, we elucidated the characteristics of microorganism growth in bottled beverages under consuming condition models. Furthermore, we provide insight into the safety of partially consumed bottled beverages with respect to food hygiene. We inoculated microorganisms, including foodborne pathogens, into various plastic bottled beverages and analysed the dynamic growth of microorganisms as well as bacterial toxin production in the beverages. Eight bottled beverage types were tested in this study, namely green tea, apple juice drink, tomato juice, carbonated drink, sport drink, coffee with milk, isotonic water and mineral water, and in these beverages several microorganism types were used: nine bacteria including three toxin producers, three yeasts, and five moulds. Following inoculation, the bottles were incubated at 35°C for 48 h for bacteria, 25°C for 48 h for yeasts, and 25°C for 28 days for moulds. During the incubation period, the number of bacteria and yeasts and visible changes in mould-growth were determined over time. Our results indicated that combinations of the beverage types and microorganism species correlated with the degree of growth. Regarding factors that affect the growth and toxin-productivity of microorganisms in beverages, it is speculated that the pH, static/shaking culture, temperature, additives, or ingredients, such as carbon dioxide or organic matter (especially of plant origin), may be important for microorganism growth in beverages. Our results suggest that various types of unfinished beverages have microorganism growth and can include food borne pathogens and bacterial toxins. Therefore, our results indicate that in terms of food hygiene it is necessary to consume beverages immediately after opening

  2. Controlled clinical comparison of plastic and glass bottles of BacT/ALERT FA medium for culturing organisms from blood of adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petti, Cathy A; Mirrett, Stanley; Woods, Christopher W; Reller, L Barth

    2005-04-01

    A new, clear-plastic nonvented aerobic FA bottle, designed to prevent breakage, has been developed for the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We assessed the new plastic FA bottle by comparing its performance with that of the current glass FA bottle for recovery of microorganisms and time to detection of growth in blood samples obtained for culture from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infections. We conclude that the BacT/ALERT plastic and glass FA bottles are comparable for recovery of microorganisms and that the safety advantage of plastic bottles can be achieved without compromising performance.

  3. Algal growth inhibition test in filled, closed bottles for volatile and sorptive materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mayer, Philipp; Nyholm, Niels; Verbruggen, Eric M. J.;

    2000-01-01

    Exposure concentrations of many hydrophobic substances are difficult to maintain in algal growth inhibition tests performed in open agitated flasks. This is partly because such compounds tend to volatilize from aqueous solution and partly because of sorption to the algal biomass as well as to the......Exposure concentrations of many hydrophobic substances are difficult to maintain in algal growth inhibition tests performed in open agitated flasks. This is partly because such compounds tend to volatilize from aqueous solution and partly because of sorption to the algal biomass as well...... as to the test container. A simple filled closed bottle test with low algal densities and bicarbonate enrichment is described here as an approach to minimize the loss of test material from solution. The algal medium was enriched with 300 mg NaHCO3/L, the pH was adjusted to 7.0 by addition of HCl...

  4. Simultaneous Sterilization With Surface Modification Of Plastic Bottle By Plasma-Based Ion Implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakudo, N.; Ikenaga, N.; Ikeda, F.; Nakayama, Y.; Kishi, Y.; Yajima, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Dry sterilization of polymeric material is developed. The technique utilizes the plasma-based ion implantation which is same as for surface modification of polymers. Experimental data for sterilization are obtained by using spores of Bacillus subtilis as samples. On the other hand we previously showed that the surface modification enhanced the gas barrier characteristics of plastic bottles. Comparing the implantation conditions for the sterilization experiment with those for the surface modification, we find that both sterilization and surface modification are simultaneously performed in a certain range of implantation conditions. This implies that the present bottling system for plastic vessels will be simplified and streamlined by excluding the toxic peroxide water that has been used in the traditional sterilization processes.

  5. Plastic Bottle Cutter:能瞬间将塑料瓶变成塑料绳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    近日法国两名设计者开发了一款Plastic BottleCutter塑料瓶切割器,能瞬间将各种塑料瓶变成可再利用的塑料绳。这款切割器的设计十分简单,由一根木棍及一个可替换的刀片组成。Plastic BottleCutter能将塑料瓶转换成各种宽度的塑料绳,在回收后能重新被用于制造出各种物品,包括扫帚、篮子、门帘等等日常用品。这些塑料绳甚至能被当成汽车拉绳使用。

  6. Plastic bottle oscillator as an on-off-type oscillator: Experiments, modeling, and stability analyses of single and coupled systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohira, Masahiro I.; Kitahata, Hiroyuki; Magome, Nobuyuki; Yoshikawa, Kenichi

    2012-02-01

    An oscillatory system called a plastic bottle oscillator is studied, in which the downflow of water and upflow of air alternate periodically in an upside-down plastic bottle containing water. It is demonstrated that a coupled two-bottle system exhibits in- and antiphase synchronization according to the nature of coupling. A simple ordinary differential equation is deduced to interpret the characteristics of a single oscillator. This model is also extended to coupled oscillators, and the model reproduces the essential features of the experimental observations.

  7. New absorbent acoustic materials from plastic bottle remnants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    del Rey, R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the building acoustics field usually fibrous materials are used as sound absorbing materials. Nowadays polyester fiber is one of the most used but the pure chip of polyester has a problem. Polyester is obtained of petroleum and its price was increasing last years. This paper, presents an alternative polyester wool which obtained by PET treatment (recycle of plastic bottle’s. Absorption coefficient values at normal incidence measured in reverberation chamber were compared (new wool obtained by PET method and materials obtained from pure chip of polyester.Furthermore, this paper propound a empiric model that describe the acoustic performance of this new wool. The results have been good. The pure fiber has been replaced by recycle fiber in its manufacture process.

    En el ámbito de acústica de la edificación es común el uso de materiales fibrosos como materiales absorbentes acústicos. Uno de estos materiales cada vez más utilizado es la lana de poliéster. Un problema que presenta el chip virgen de poliéster es que se obtiene del petróleo, cuyo precio no hace más que incrementarse en los últimos años. En este trabajo se presenta una lana de poliéster alternativa, obtenida mediante el tratamiento del PET, a través del conveniente ciclo de reciclado de botellas de plástico. Se comparan valores del coeficiente de absorción; en incidencia normal y en cámara reverberante de los materiales elaborados a partir de chip virgen y de las nuevas lanas obtenidas del PET. Además, se propone un modelo empírico de comportamiento acústico de estas nuevas lanas. Los resultados obtenidos han sido favorables, la fibra virgen ya ha sido sustituida por fibra reciclada en su proceso de fabricación.

  8. A complete life cycle assessment of high density polyethylene plastic bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treenate, P.; Limphitakphong, N.; Chavalparit, O.

    2017-07-01

    This study was aimed to determine environmental performances of a lubricant oil bottle made from high density polyethylene and to develop potential measures for reducing its impacts. A complete life cycle assessment was carried out to understand a whole effect on the environment from acquiring, processing, using, and disposing the product. Two scenarios of disposal phase; recycle and incineration: were examined to quantify a lesser degree on environmental impact. The results illustrated that major impacts of the two scenarios were at the same categories with the highest contributor of raw material acquisition and pre-processing. However, all impacts in case of recycling provided a lower point than that in case of incineration, except mineral extraction. Finally, feasible measures for reducing the environmental impact of high density polyethylene plastic bottle were proposed in accordance with 3Rs concept.

  9. Controlled Clinical Comparison of Plastic and Glass Bottles of BacT/ALERT FA Medium for Culturing Organisms from Blood of Adult Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Petti, Cathy A.; Mirrett, Stanley; Woods, Christopher W.; Reller, L. Barth

    2005-01-01

    A new, clear-plastic nonvented aerobic FA bottle, designed to prevent breakage, has been developed for the BacT/ALERT blood culture system. We assessed the new plastic FA bottle by comparing its performance with that of the current glass FA bottle for recovery of microorganisms and time to detection of growth in blood samples obtained for culture from adult patients with suspected bloodstream infections. We conclude that the BacT/ALERT plastic and glass FA bottles are comparable for recovery ...

  10. Solar detoxification plant for a hazardous plastic bottle recycling plant in El Ejido: feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanco, J.; Malato, S. [CIEMAT, Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), Tabernas (Spain); Richter, C. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Koeln (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The removal of persistent organic chemicals from water is a pressing ecological problem. Persistent contaminants, such as pesticides, solvents, detergents and a variety of industrial chemicals, are capable of deep penetration into the soil and reach groundwater due to combination of chemical stability, resistance to biodegradation and sufficient water solubility. The Spanish province of Almeria has experienced an important economical growth during the last 20 years due to the installation of a large number of greenhouses, which benefit from the extremely sunny climate for production of vegetables and fruits. Unfortunately, this development is accompanied by an intensive use of a wide variety of pesticides with the subsequent problem of empty plastic bottles. Unitl now these plaguicide containers have usually been burnt or buried. Since the problem has been growing in the last years, a parallel environmental consciousness has been rising in the region concerning the recycling of these pesticide bottles; this process includes washing of the shredded plastic containers, which gives rise to relatively small quantities of water contaminated with toxic and persistent compounds at a concentration level of some hundred mg/l of total organic carbon content. This appears to be a very promising application for TiO{sub 2} - Solar Photocatalytic Detoxification, which provides an adequate solution as there is no clear alternative way to solve the problem. (orig.)

  11. Effect of reduced pressure, vibration and orientation to simulate high altitude testing of liquid pharmaceutical glass and plastic bottles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, S. Paul; Burgess, Gary; Kremer, Matt; Lockhart, Hugh

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses the impact of high-altitude shipments of glass and plastic bottles on package integrity. High altitudes are encountered when trucks travel over mountain passes and when cargo and feeder aircraft transport packages in non-pressurized or partially pressurized cargo holds. This is

  12. Effect of gamma irradiation on the properties of plastic bottle sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Ali, Yasir; Sonkawade, R. G.; Dhaliwal, A. S.

    2012-09-01

    In this article, the effects of gamma irradiation on the optical and structural properties of plastic bottle sheets have been studied. Bottle sheets were exposed with 1.25 MeV 60Co γ-ray's source at various dose levels within the range from 0 to 670 kGy. The changes so induced were analyzed by using UV-Vis and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. UV-Vis spectra show the peaks, their shifting and broadening as a result of gamma irradiation. With increasing γ-dose, the values of the direct and indirect band gap are found to be decreased. These results are in good agreement with the corresponding results published previously for polyethylene terephthalate polymer. We also calculated numbers of carbon atoms per conjugation length. The X-ray diffraction spectra exhibited an increase in peak intensity after gamma irradiation. Furthermore, the percentage crystallinity and crystallite size for pristine and irradiated sample have been calculated. It has been found that both crystallinity and crystallite size increase due to irradiation. In addition, interchain distances, micro strain, inter planar distance, dislocation density and distortion parameters were calculated. The analysis revealed there is the significant decrease in micro strain, dislocation density and distortion parameters with an increase of gamma dose, which is in line with the crystallinity calculation. Moreover, Interchain and Interplanar distances were marginally changed. These results demonstrated the applicability of sheets as a cost-effective dosimeter.

  13. Particulate Filled Composite Plastic Materials from Recycled Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aare ARUNIIT

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP scrap consisted of acrylic plastic with glass fibre reinforcement in polyester resin matrix was used in our experiments. The multi-functional DS-series disintegrator mills were used for mechanical processing of GFRP scrap. Preceding from the results characterization of the milled powder particles size, shape and other properties the numerical algorithm for modelling of the density of the new filler material was developed. The main goal of the current study is to develop new particulate filled composite plastic material from recycled GFRP scrap. With recovered plastic powder material the higher filler content in polyester resin matrix can be achieved. The new composite is modelled on basis of the properties of new material. Such an approach requires tests of the new material. The considered target characteristics of the new material are the tensile strength, elongation at break and the cost. The multicriteria optimization problem has been formulated and solved by use of physical programming techniques and Pareto optimality concept. The designed new composites were manufactured in different mixing ratios of powder and binder agent. The strength and stiffness properties of new composite material were tested. http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.3.593

  14. Recycling of polyethylene terephthalate (PET plastic bottle wastes in bituminous asphaltic concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adebayo Olatunbosun Sojobi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research sheds light on the concept of eco-friendly road construction which comprises eco-design, eco-extraction, eco-manufacturing, eco-construction, eco-rehabilitation, eco-maintenance, eco-demolition, and socioeconomic empowerment. It also revealed the challenges being faced in its adoption and the benefits derivable from its application. Furthermore, the effects of recycling PET plastic bottle wastes produced in North Central Nigeria in bituminous asphaltic concrete (BAC used in flexible pavement construction were also evaluated. The mix design consists of 60/70 penetration-grade asphaltic concrete (5%, 68% coarse aggregate, 6% fine aggregate, and 21% filler using the dry process at 170°C. The optimum bitumen content (OBC for conventional BAC was obtained as 4% by weight of total aggregates and filler. Polymer-coated aggregate (PCA-modified BAC seems preferable because it has the potential to utilize more plastic wastes with a higher optimum plastic content (OPC of 16.7% by weight of total aggregates and filler compared to that of 9% by weight of OBC achieved by PMB-BAC. For both PMB- and PCA-modified BAC, an increase in air void, void in mineral aggregate, and Marshall stability were observed. Eco-friendly road construction which recycles PET wastes should be encouraged by government considering its potential environmental and economic benefits.

  15. Microbiological Investigations of ReNu Plastic Bottles and the 2004 to 2006 ReNu With MoistureLoc-Related Worldwide Fusarium Keratitis Event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, John D; Warwar, Ronald E; Elder, B Laurel; Khamis, Harry J

    2016-05-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine whether the contact lens solution RevitaLens Ocutec (containing the antimicrobial agents alexidine and polyquaternium-1) would inhibit Fusarium organisms when heated in ReNu plastic bottles; whether alexidine would inhibit Fusarium organisms when heated in non-ReNu plastic bottles; and whether an alexidine-neutralizing compound leaches from heated ReNu bottles. RevitaLens and an alexidine solution (0.00045%), previously stored in ReNu bottles at room temperature (RT) and 56°C, were incubated with 7 different Fusarium organisms. The alexidine solution was similarly stored in seven non-ReNu plastic bottles and incubated with these same organisms. To determine if an alexidine-neutralizing compound might be leaching from heated ReNu bottles, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) was incubated at RT and 56°C in ReNu bottles, combined with alexidine, and then tested for anti-Fusarium capability. After being heated in ReNu bottles, RevitaLens retained its anti-Fusarium capability, whereas the alexidine solution did not. The alexidine solution heated in seven non-ReNu plastic bottles retained its anti-Fusarium capability. The alexidine solution retained its anti-Fusarium capability when incubated with a PBS solution that had been heated in ReNu bottles, indicating, microbiologically, that an alexidine-neutralizing compound did not leach from the heated ReNu bottle. Alexidine uniquely fails to inhibit Fusarium organisms when heated in a plastic ReNu bottle, but not in seven other plastic bottles, whereas the anti-Fusarium capability of RevitaLens (containing the antimicrobial agents alexidine and polyquaternium-1) is unaffected by heating in a ReNu bottle. There does not seem to be an alexidine-neutralizing compound leaching from heated ReNu bottles. An interaction between alexidine and its heated ReNu bottle may have been a critical factor in the worldwide ReNu with MoistureLoc-related Fusarium keratitis event of 2004 to 2006.

  16. Microbes on a Bottle: Substrate, Season and Geography Influence Community Composition of Microbes Colonizing Marine Plastic Debris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberbeckmann, Sonja; Osborn, A Mark; Duhaime, Melissa B

    2016-01-01

    Plastic debris pervades in our oceans and freshwater systems and the potential ecosystem-level impacts of this anthropogenic litter require urgent evaluation. Microbes readily colonize aquatic plastic debris and members of these biofilm communities are speculated to include pathogenic, toxic, invasive or plastic degrading-species. The influence of plastic-colonizing microorganisms on the fate of plastic debris is largely unknown, as is the role of plastic in selecting for unique microbial communities. This work aimed to characterize microbial biofilm communities colonizing single-use poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) drinking bottles, determine their plastic-specificity in contrast with seawater and glass-colonizing communities, and identify seasonal and geographical influences on the communities. A substrate recruitment experiment was established in which PET bottles were deployed for 5-6 weeks at three stations in the North Sea in three different seasons. The structure and composition of the PET-colonizing bacterial/archaeal and eukaryotic communities varied with season and station. Abundant PET-colonizing taxa belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes (e.g. Flavobacteriaceae, Cryomorphaceae, Saprospiraceae-all known to degrade complex carbon substrates) and diatoms (e.g. Coscinodiscophytina, Bacillariophytina). The PET-colonizing microbial communities differed significantly from free-living communities, but from particle-associated (>3 μm) communities or those inhabiting glass substrates. These data suggest that microbial community assembly on plastics is driven by conventional marine biofilm processes, with the plastic surface serving as raft for attachment, rather than selecting for recruitment of plastic-specific microbial colonizers. A small proportion of taxa, notably, members of the Cryomorphaceae and Alcanivoraceae, were significantly discriminant of PET but not glass surfaces, conjuring the possibility that these groups may directly interact with the PET

  17. Glass vs. Plastic: Life Cycle Assessment of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Bottles across Global Supply Chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Accorsi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The environmental impacts of global food supply chains are growing with the need for their measurement and management. This paper explores the operations of a global supply chain for extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO according to a life cycle assessment (LCA methodology. The LCA assessment methodology is applied to determine the environmental impact categories associated with the bottled EVOO life cycle, focusing on packaging decisions. The proposed analysis identifies the greatest environmental stressors of the EVOO supply chain, thereby supporting strategic and operative decisions toward more efficient and environmentally-friendly operations management and packaging choices. This paper quantifies the environmental categories of the impacts of global warming potential, ozone layer depletion, non-renewable energy use, acidification, eutrophication and photochemical smog, for the observed EVOO supply chain, given alternative packaging configurations, i.e., a glass bottle vs. a plastic bottle. The observed system includes the supply of EVOO, the EVOO processing and bottling, the supply of packaging, the distribution of final products to customers, the end-of-life (EOL treatments regarding the management, recycling and the disposal of waste across a global supply chain. The findings from the LCA highlight the potential of PET bottles in reducing the environmental impact of EVOO supply chains and identifies hotspots of discussion for policy-makers, EVOO producers and consumers.

  18. Chemical contamination of soft drinks in sealed plastic bottles by environmental stress cracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Dan; Israelsohn-Azulay, Osnat

    2009-01-01

    A contamination of soft drinks in sealed bottles by organic solvents is reported: closed bottles full of soft drinks were accidentally placed on a cardboard soaked with thinner and the organic fluid subsequently fissured the bottom of the bottles and penetrated into the soft drinks without any apparent leakage of the soft drinks. Experiments were carried out to simulate the process: the penetration of different organic solvents into soft drinks through the bottom of closed bottles was tested. The penetration occurred only when the closed bottles contained carbonated soft drinks (CSD), indicating that inner pressure is a necessary condition for the fissuring of the bottles. This paper discusses environmental stress cracking of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles by organic solvents and migration of chemicals to CSD. Experiments were conducted to determine the conditions in which PET can be permeable to poisoning organic products.

  19. Constructing a Plastic Bottle Wind Turbine as a Practical Aid for Learning about Using Wind Energy to Generate Electricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleyard, S. J.

    2009-01-01

    A simple horizontal axis wind turbine can be easily constructed using a 1.5 l PET plastic bottle, a compact disc and a small dynamo. The turbine operates effectively at low wind speeds and has a rotational speed of 500 rpm at a wind speed of about 14 km h[superscript -1]. The wind turbine can be used to demonstrate the relationship between open…

  20. [Simultaneous determination of 11 bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xinlei; Gao, Xia; Hu, Guanghui; Chi, Haitao; Le, Shengfeng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Weili

    2014-09-01

    A sensitive method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 11 bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water by ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The samples were freeze-dried under vacuum and then dissolved with methanol. The separation was performed on a UPLC BEH C18 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm) by using 0.1% (v/v) NH3 · H2O and methanol as mobile phases with gradient elution at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. The electrospray ionization (ESI) source in negative ion mode was used for the analysis of the 11 bisphenols in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The results verified that the standard curves for the 11 bisphenols were obtained with good correlation coefficients (R2) > 0.997 in their concentration ranges. The limits of detection (LOD, S/N = 3) for the 11 bisphenols were in the range of 0.01-1.00 μg/L. The mean recoveries for the 11 bisphenols at three spiked levels (low, middle, high) were 75.3%-102.1% with the relative standard deviations of 1.5%-8.9%. Seven plastic bottled drinking water samples were tested, and no bisphenol was found. The method is accurate, simple, rapid and feasible for the simultaneous determination of bisphenols in plastic bottled drinking water.

  1. Chemical Recycling of Pop Bottles: The Synthesis of Dibenzyl Terephthalate from the Plastic Polyethylene Terephthalate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahue, Craig J.; Exline, Jennifer A.; Warner, Cynthia

    2003-01-01

    A laboratory procedure involving the chemical recycling of the plastic polyethylene terephthalate (PET or PETE) from 2-L pop bottles is described. A transesterification reaction is employed to depolymerize PET. At atmospheric pressure in refluxing benzyl alcohol in the presence of a catalyst, PET is converted to dibenzyl terephthalate in moderate yields. This procedure models an industrial process that involves the transesterification reaction of PET with methanol at high temperature and pressure, conditions not normally accessible in an undergraduate laboratory, to yield dimethyl terephthalate and ethylene glycol. A second method of preparing dibenzyl terephthalate starting with terephthaloyl chloride is also described. The diester from these two approaches is characterized using melting points, TLC, and IR and NMR spectroscopy. This experiment has been used in a general chemistry sequence that has sections on organic chemistry and polymer chemistry, but is also well suited for an introductory organic chemistry laboratory course or a polymer chemistry laboratory course. This lab experiment is part of a larger effort to develop a general chemistry sequence for engineering students using the theme of chemistry and the automobile. Student results are presented.

  2. Screening adulteration of polypropylene bottles with postconsumer recycled plastics for oral drug package by near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lan-Gui; Sun, Hui-Min; Jin, Shao-Hong

    2011-11-14

    Adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastic materials was considerably difficult to identify due to the similar chemical compositions of virgin and recycled plastics. In the present study, near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with conformity test was proposed to screen the adulteration of pharmaceutical packaging containers. Two kinds of representative screening models were investigated on polypropylene (PP) bottles for oral drug package. The reliability of the screening models was validated through studying the identification reliability, specificity, and robustness of the methods. The minimum spiking level of two modeled adulterants at the proportion of 20% could be detected, and the unqualified sample from a domestic manufacturer was rejected by this developed method. This strategy represents a rapid and promising analytical method for screening the adulteration of pharmaceutical plastic packaging containers with postconsumer recycled plastics.

  3. Determining Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of corn ethanol processing byproducts (i.e., DDGS) as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling...

  4. Determination of Machining Parameters of Corn Byproduct Filled Plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a collaborative project between the USDA and Northern Illinois University, the use of ethanol corn processing by-products as bio-filler materials in the compression molding of phenolic plastics has been studied. This paper reports on the results of a machinability study in the milling of various ...

  5. 塑料啤酒瓶的制造方案%Manufacturing Scheme of Plastic Beer Bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方圣行; 胡莹梅

    2001-01-01

    The status and prospect of the material and processing forplastic beer bottle at home and abroad are introduced.The new fruits as well as PACVD techniqne and nano-polymer to improve the barrier property are described.It will be a great foreground that the plastic beer bottle is domestically developed.%介绍了国内外制造塑料啤酒瓶的材料及其加工工艺的现状和发展前景,提出了用PACVD(等离子辅助化学气相沉积)技术与纳米聚合物提高啤酒瓶阻隔性的新成果,指出在国内发展塑料啤酒瓶包装的伟大前景。

  6. The comparison of BOPP and PET bottles applied to hot-filled juices and soft drinks%BOPP瓶与PET瓶 在热灌装果汁及饮料应用上之比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    区少梅; 黄冠宾

    2001-01-01

    以白柚果汁为例,分别热灌装于BOPP(biaxial oriented polypropyle与PET(polyethylene terephthalate)瓶内,藉分析贮藏35d于4℃、25℃及37℃之温度下样品之物理化学性质,探讨两种包材对于热罐装饮料品质影响。%With pomelo juice as an example, the effects of two different plastic bottles, BOPP (biaxial oriented polypropylene) and PET (polyethylene terephthalate), on the physicochemical properties of the hot-filled pomelo juice during storage at 4, 25 and 37℃ for 35 days were investigated.

  7. Field comparison of solar water disinfection (SODIS) efficacy between glass and polyethylene terephalate (PET) plastic bottles under sub-Saharan weather conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiimwe, J K; Quilty, B; Muyanja, C K; McGuigan, K G

    2013-12-01

    Concerns about photodegradation products leaching from plastic bottle material into water during solar water disinfection (SODIS) are a major psychological barrier to increased uptake of SODIS. In this study, a comparison of SODIS efficacy using glass and plastic polyethylene terephalate (PET) bottles was carried out under strong real sunlight and overcast weather conditions at Makerere University in central Uganda. Both clear and turbid natural water samples from shallow wells and open dug wells, respectively, were used. Efficacy was determined from the inactivation of a wild strain of Escherichia coli in solar-exposed contaminated water in both glass and PET bottles. The studies reveal no significant difference in SODIS inactivation between glass and PET bottles (95% CI, p > 0.05), for all water samples under the different weather conditions except for clear water under overcast conditions where there was a small but significant difference (95% CI, p = 0.047) with less viable bacterial counts in PET bottles at two intermediate time points but not at the end of the exposure. The results demonstrate that SODIS efficacy in glass under tropical field conditions is comparable to PET plastic. SODIS users in these regions can choose either of reactors depending on availability and preference of the user.

  8. Impact Wear Properties of Metal-Plastic Multilayer Composites Filled with Glass Fiber Treated with Rare Earth Element Surface Modifier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程先华; 薛玉君

    2001-01-01

    The friction and wear properties of metal-plastic multilayer composites filled with glass fiber, which is treated with rare earth element surface modifier, under impact load and dry friction conditions were investigated. Experimental results show that the metal-plastic multilayer composite filled with glass fiber exhibits excellent friction and impact wear properties when using rare earth elements as surface modifier for the surface treatment of glass fiber.

  9. Development and application of a non-targeted extraction method for the analysis of migrating compounds from plastic baby bottles by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Matthias; van Hoeck, Els; Vervliet, Philippe; Scippo, Marie Louise; Simon, Coraline; van Loco, Joris; Covaci, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    In 2011, the European Union prohibited the production of polycarbonate (PC) baby bottles due to the toxic effects of the PC monomer bisphenol-A. Therefore, baby bottles made of alternative materials, e.g. polypropylene (PP) or polyethersulphone (PES), are currently marketed. The principal aim of the study was the identification of major compounds migrating from baby bottles using a liquid-liquid extraction followed by GC/MS analysis. A 50% EtOH in water solution was selected as a simulant for milk. After sterilisation of the bottle, three migration experiments were performed during 2 h at 70°C. A non-targeted liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate-n-hexane (1:1) was performed on the simulant samples. Identification of migrants from 24 baby bottles was done using commercially available WILEY and NIST mass spectra libraries. Differences in the migrating compounds and their intensities were observed between the different types of plastics, but also between the same polymer from a different producer. Differences in the migration patterns were perceived as well between the sterilisation and the migrations and within the different migrations. Silicone, Tritan™ and PP exhibited a wide variety of migrating compounds, whereas PES and polyamide (PA) showed a lower amount of migrants, though sometimes in relatively large concentrations (azacyclotridecan-2-one up to 250 µg kg⁻¹). Alkanes (especially in PP bottles), phthalates (dibutylphthalate in one PP bottle (±40 µg kg⁻¹) and one silicone bottle (±25 µg kg⁻¹); diisobutylphthalate in one PP (±10 µg kg⁻¹), silicone (up to ±80 µg kg⁻¹); and Tritan™ bottle (±30 µg kg⁻¹)), antioxidants (Irgafos 168, degradation products of Irganox 1010 and Irganox 1076), etc. were detected for PP, silicone and Tritan™ bottles. Although the concentrations were relatively low, some compounds not authorised by European Union Regulation No. 10/2011, such as 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (10-100 µg kg⁻¹) or 2

  10. Novel spectrophotometric method for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francisco, Barbara Bruna A.; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S.; Brum, Daniel M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil); Cassella, Ricardo J., E-mail: cassella@vm.uff.br [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Outeiro de Sao Joao Batista s/n, Centro, Niteroi/RJ 24020-141 (Brazil)

    2010-09-15

    In the present work, a new spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of aluminum in soda drinks packed in different materials. Reaction among Al(III), phenylfluorone (PF) and cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) in slightly alkaline medium was explored for this purpose. The method was optimized regarding to its chemical parameters in order to establish better conditions in terms of sensitivity and selectivity. The results obtained showed that the concentration of CPC presented remarkable influence on the sensitivity and acted as a sensitizer for the studied system. The possible interferences of some metallic cations were evaluated and the cations Cu(II), Mn(II), and Zn(II) presented noticed interference on the Al(III) signal. So, their interference was eliminated by using EDTA with minimum loss of sensitivity. The results obtained in the determination of total aluminum in soda drinks by the developed methodology were not statistically different from those obtained by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. In the optimized conditions the method presented a linear range of 5-100 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.81 and 2.7 {mu}g L{sup -1}, respectively. The methodology was successfully applied in the determination of aluminum in 10 samples of soda drinks packed in cans and plastic bottles.

  11. Convergent ablation measurements of plastic ablators in gas-filled rugby hohlraums on OMEGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casner, A.; Jalinaud, T.; Masse, L.; Galmiche, D.

    2015-10-01

    Indirect-drive implosions experiments were conducted on the Omega Laser Facility to test the performance of uniformly doped plastic ablators for Inertial Confinement Fusion. The first convergent ablation measurements in gas-filled rugby hohlraums are reported. Ignition relevant limb velocities in the range from 150 to 300 μm .n s-1 have been reached by varying the laser drive energy and the initial capsule aspect ratio. The measured capsule trajectory and implosion velocity are in good agreement with 2D integrated simulations and a zero-dimensional modeling of the implosions. We demonstrate experimentally the scaling law for the maximum implosion velocity predicted by the improved rocket model [Y. Saillard, Nucl. Fusion 46, 1017 (2006)] in the high-ablation regime case.

  12. Analysis of a ceramic filled bio-plastic composite sandwich structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib Ullah, M. [Institute of Space Science (ANGKASA), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi Selangor 43600 (Malaysia); Department of Electrical, Electronic and System Engineering, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi 43600 (Malaysia); Islam, M. T. [Institute of Space Science (ANGKASA), Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi Selangor 43600 (Malaysia)

    2013-11-25

    Design and analysis of a ceramic-filled bio-plastic composite sandwich structure is presented. This proposed high-dielectric structure is used as a substrate for patch antennas. A meandered-strip line-fed fractal-shape patch antenna is designed and fabricated on a copper-laminated sandwich-structured substrate. Measurement results of this antenna show 44% and 20% of bandwidths with maximum gains of 3.45 dBi and 5.87 dBi for the lower and upper bands, respectively. The half-power beam widths of 104° and 78° have been observed from the measured radiation pattern at the two resonance frequencies 0.9 GHz and 2.5 GHz.

  13. Simulation of the X-Ray Beam Absorption by the ABS-Plastic Filled with Different Metallic Additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miloichikova, I. A.; Stuchebrov, S. G.; Verigin, D. A.; Krasnykh, A. A.; Danilova, I. B.

    2016-11-01

    This article is a part of the work on developing new materials for manufacturing filaments for fused deposition modeling (FDM). The computations of depth dose distributions for gamma-radiation in ABS plastic filled with lead and zinc additives of various concentration were performed via Monte Carlo technique and are represented in graphic form.

  14. Discovery Bottles: A Unique Inexpensive Tool for the K-2 Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    Discover discovery bottles! These wide-mouth plastic containers of any size filled with objects of different kinds can be terrific tools for science explorations and a great way to cultivate science minds in a K-2 science classroom. In addition, the author has found them to be a useful, inexpensive, and engaging way to help students develop skills…

  15. Effect of plastic film mulching on the grain filling and hormonal changes of maize under different irrigation conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Liu

    Full Text Available Plastic film mulching (PM is widely utilized for maize production in China. However, the effect of PM on the grain yield of crops has not been established, and the biochemical mechanism underlying the increase or decrease in grain yield under PM is not yet understood. Grain filling markedly affects the grain yield. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of PM on maize grain filling under different irrigation levels and the relationship of such effects with hormonal changes. In the present study, PM was compared with traditional nonmulching management (TN under 220 mm, 270 mm and 320 mm irrigation amount, and the grain filling characters of the grains located in various parts of the ear and the hormonal changes in the grains were measured. The results indicated that at 220 mm irrigation, PM significantly increased the grain filling rate of the middle and basal grains and decreased the grain filling rate of the upper grains. At 270 mm irrigation, the PM significantly increased the grain filling rate of the all grains. At 320 mm irrigation, the PM only significantly increased the grain filling rate of the upper grains. The IAA, Z+ZR and ABA content in the grains was positively correlated with the grain weight and grain-filling rates; however, the ETH evolution rate of the grains was negatively correlated with the grain weight and grain-filling rates. These results show that the effect of PM on maize grain filling is related to the irrigation amount and that the grain position on the ear and the grain filling of the upper grains was more sensitive to PM and irrigation than were the other grains. In addition, the PM and irrigation regulated the balance of hormones rather than the content of individual hormones to affect the maize grain filling.

  16. Dispersive solid-phase extraction based on magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted microspheres for selective screening of phthalates in plastic bottled beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jindong; Wang, Mingyu; Yan, Hongyuan; Yang, Gengliang

    2014-04-02

    A new magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted dispersive solid-phase extraction (MAG-MIM-dSPE) coupled with gas chromatography-FID was developed for selective determination of phthalates in plastic bottled beverages. The new magnetic dummy molecularly imprinted microspheres (MAG-MIM) using diisononyl phthalate as a template mimic were synthesized by coprecipitation coupled with aqueous suspension polymerization and were successfully applied as the adsorbents for MAG-MIM-dSPE to extract and isolate five phthalates from plastic bottled beverages. Validation experiments showed that the MAG-MIM-dSPE method had good linearity at 0.0040-0.40 μg/mL (0.9991-0.9998), good precision (3.1-6.9%), and high recovery (89.5-101.3%), and limits of detection were obtained in a range of 0.53-1.2 μg/L. The presented MAG-MIM-dSPE method combines the quick separation of magnetic particles, special selectivity of MIM, and high extraction efficiency of dSPE, which could potentially be applied to selective screening of phthalates in beverage products.

  17. Stability of Vancomycin 25 mg/mL in Ora-Sweet and Water in Unit-Dose Cups and Plastic Bottles at 4°C and 25°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensom, Mary H H; Decarie, Diane; Lakhani, Anisha

    2010-09-01

    Solutions of vancomycin for oral administration are not available commercially in Canada or the United States but are needed for patients who cannot swallow capsules. To evaluate the stability of vancomycin solutions stored in unit-dose cups and plastic bottles under refrigeration (4°C) and at room temperature (25°C) for up to 75 days. Vancomycin 25 mg/mL in Ora-Sweet vehicle and water (1:1 ratio by volume) was dispensed into opaque blue polyethylene unit-dose cups with aluminum seal (14 replicates) or amber plastic prescription bottles (6 replicates). Seven cups and 3 bottles were refrigerated (4°C), and the remainder of the containers were stored at room temperature (25°C). At the time of preparation and at 15, 30, 40, 50, 63, and 75 days, 3 aliquots were collected from one of the cups and from every bottle and were stored frozen (-85°C) until the time of analysis. Physical characteristics were evaluated at each time point, including measurement of pH and visual assessment of colour and precipitation. After thawing, the samples were analyzed in triplicate by a validated stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. A solution was considered stable if 90% of the initial concentration of vancomycin was maintained. No notable changes in colour, taste, or pH were observed in vancomycin solutions stored in the unit-dose cups at 4°C or 25°C or in the plastic bottles stored at 4°C over the 75-day study period. Starting on day 63, a white precipitate was observed in the solutions stored in plastic bottles at 25°C, but there were no notable changes in taste or pH during the 75-day period. The 95% confidence interval of the slope of the curve relating concentration to time, determined by linear regression, indicated that vancomycin solutions stored in cups or bottles at 4°C would maintain at least 93.6% of the initial vancomycin concentration for 75 days and that solutions stored at 25°C would maintain at least 90.0% of the initial

  18. BOTTLE MATERIAL AND CLEANSING PROCEDURES OF INFANT FEEDING BOTTLES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Lang

    2016-01-01

    The cleanliness of feeding bottles is vital for child health. Although machine cleansing of bottles in the food industry has been established, mechanical and manual cleansing methods are highly variable. This study was undertaken to determine the differences in the cleanliness of bottles that were cleaned using various combinations of bottle materials [glass and polypropylene (PP)], rinsing water volumes (1/3, 1/2, and 2/3 capacity of a bottle), and sustained shaking times (5 seconds and 20 seconds). Total organic carbon (TOC) and conductivity measurements were respectively used to evaluate the rinsed quantities of organic and inorganic formula residue from feeding bottles. The results indicated that glass bottles filled with rinsing water to 2/3 of their capacity showed the most efficient cleansing performance. However, the PP bottles exhibited a relatively poor cleansing result, particularly for organic cleanliness. The organic residue tends to accumulate on the PP bottle interior because of the aggregation of compounds with similar properties. The shaking time hardly influenced the cleanliness. The glass bottle was superior to the PP bottle in both organic and inorganic cleanliness, and organic constituents were more difficult to rinse from the bottle than the inorganic constituents were.

  19. Energy implications of bottled water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleick, P. H.; Cooley, H. S.

    2009-01-01

    As bottled water use continues to expand around the world, there is growing interest in the environmental, economical, and social implications of that use, including concerns about waste generation, proper use of groundwater, hydrologic effects on local surface and groundwater, economic costs, and more. A key concern is how much energy is required to produce and use bottled water. This paper estimates the energy footprint required for various phases of bottled water production, transportation, and use. We do not develop a single comprehensive life-cycle energy estimate because of differences among water sources, bottling processes, transportation costs, and other factors, but we quantify key energy inputs necessary for site-specific assessments. We also apply these inputs to three site-specific examples of the energy required from production to the point of use: local bottled water produced and used in Los Angeles, water bottled in the South Pacific and shipped by cargo ship to Los Angeles, and water bottled in France and shipped in various ways to Los Angeles. For water transported short distances, the energy requirements of bottled water are dominated by the energy used to produce the plastic bottles. Long-distance transport, however, can lead to energy costs comparable to, or even larger than, those of producing the bottle. All other energy costs—for processing, bottling, sealing, labeling, and refrigeration—are far smaller than those for the production of the bottle and transportation. These data can be used to generate specific estimates for different sources, treatments, and delivery options.

  20. Plastic collapse and energy absorption of circular filled tubes under quasi-static loads by computational analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beng, Yeo Kiam; Tzeng, Woo Wen [Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Sabah (Malaysia)

    2017-02-15

    This study presents the finite element analysis of plastic collapse and energy absorption of polyurethane-filled aluminium circular tubes under quasi-static transverse loading. Increasing focuses were given to impact damage of structures where energy absorbed during impact could be controlled to avoid total structure collapse of energy absorbers and devices designed to dissipate energy. ABAQUS finite element analysis application was utilized for modelling and simulating the polyurethane-filled aluminium tubes, different set of diameterto- thickness ratios and span lengths, subjected to transverse three-point-bending load. Different sets of polyurethane-filled aluminium tubes subjected to the transverse loading were modelled and simulated. The failure modes and mechanisms of filled tubes and its capabilities as energy absorbers to further improve and strengthening of empty tube were also identified. The results showed that plastic deformation response was affected by the geometric constraints and parameters of the specimens. The diameter-to-thickness ratio and span lengths had shown to play crucial role in optimizing the PU-filled tube as energy absorber.

  1. MEASUREMENT OF PHTHALATE LEVELS IN HUMAN MILK: CONTRIBUTION FROM PLASTICS IN BREAST PUMPS, STORAGE BOTTLES AND BAGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalates are plasticizers used to impart flexibility in products widely used by the general population, including polyvinyl chloride, plastic toys, and medical devices. Some phthalates act as anti-androgens, and prenatal or perinatal exposure to phthalates in laboratory animals...

  2. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapa-Martínez, C.A.; Hinojosa-Reyes, L.; Hernández-Ramírez, A.; Ruiz-Ruiz, E.; Maya-Treviño, L.; Guzmán-Mar, J.L., E-mail: jorge.guzmanmr@uanl.edu.mx

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75 °C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15 days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2{sup 3} factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3 mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28–2.30 μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5 μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH 7 stored at 75 °C for a period of 5 days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400 ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2 ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples. - Highlights: • The PET safety due to the release of Sb was evaluated in Mexican water PET

  3. 储存条件对塑料瓶装大豆油中塑化剂含量影响的研究%Influence of storage condition on the contents of plasticizers in soybean oil packaged in plastic bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉兰; 张明明; 朱远坤; 杨书平

    2015-01-01

    The fresh soybean oils were stored respectively in PET plastic bottle and PE plastic bottle, and the influences of storage temperature, storage time and light on the contents of plasticizers in the soybean oil were investigated. The results showed that the contents of DBP and DEHP in soybean oils packaged in PE plastic bottle were obviously higher than those in PET plastic bottle when the storage temperature was above 27℃ and storage time was 20 d. The contents of DPP in soybean oils had no change when the tem-perature didn’t exceed 50℃, while it rose significantly when the temperature was above 50℃. Further-more, when stored at 65℃ for 90 d, the contents of DPP in the soybean oils packaged in PET and PE plastic bottles were up to 1 559. 3 μg/kg and 2 756. 8 μg/kg, respectively. In addition, when stored at 65℃ for 50 d, DMP could be detected in soybean oil packaged in PE plastic bottle, and its contents were 43. 7(50 d),128. 7(70 d),114. 3 μg/kg(90 d). When stored at 50℃ for 90 d, the content of DBP in soybean oil packaged in PE plastic bottle reached 452. 0μg/kg, 1. 5 times as high as the national standard limit for DBP. Compared with the lucifuge storage, light had no influence on DPP and small im-pacts on DBP and DEHP for a short time. Under the same storage temperature and light condition, as storage time prolonging, the content of DBP in soybean oils packaged in PET and PE plastic bottles were on a rise, and the content of DEHP presented a fluctuation trend.%以新鲜大豆油为原料,将其分别盛装于PET材质塑料瓶和PE材质塑料瓶中,研究不同储存温度、储存时间以及光照对大豆油中邻苯二甲酸酯类塑化剂含量变化的影响。结果表明:储存20 d且储存温度高于27℃时PE瓶装大豆油中DBP和DEHP含量明显高于PET瓶装大豆油的;大豆油中DPP含量在储存温度不超过50℃时基本无变化,但储存温度高于50℃时,其含量明显增加。65℃储存90 d后,PET、PE瓶

  4. Adsorbability Study of Plastic Transfusion Bottle and Infusion Set to Diazepam%塑料输液瓶和输液器对地西泮的吸附性考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏清荣; 梁俊; 曹银

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To study the adsorbability of plastic transfusion bottle and infusion set to diazepam. METHODS:With the reference of plastic-bottled 5% glucose injection,HPLC was used to determine the changes of mass concentration of diazepam adding into plastic-bottled 5% glucose injection at different time;disposable plastic infusion set was connected to simulate intrave-nous infusion and determine the changes of mass concentration of diazepam in the liquid effluent at different time. RESULTS:The mass concentration of diazepam in glass infusion bottles group was higher than in plastic transfusion bottles group. The adsorbabili-ties of solutions showed the strongest at the time of 15-20 min. The mass concentration of the effluent liquid from the glass bottle group was about 80% of the original concentration and plastic bottle group was about 67%. As the time went on,the adsorbability was gradually saturated at 60 min and the concentration rose again;the mass concentration of the effluent liquid from the glass bot-tle group returned to 95%of the original concentration at 80 min and the plastic bottle group was about 75%of the original concen-tration. CONCLUSIONS:Both plastic infusion bottle and infusion set have strong adsorbability to diazepam. It is suggested that the dosage of diazepam should be increased by 25% to 33% while plastic-bottled 5% glucose injection is used as solvent for intrave-nous drip.%目的:考察塑料输液瓶和输液器对地西泮的吸附性。方法:以玻璃瓶装的5%葡萄糖注射液为对照,采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)法测定地西泮加入塑料瓶装的5%葡萄糖注射液后放置不同时间的质量浓度变化;并连接一次性塑料输液器模拟静滴状态,于不同时间收集流出液体测定其中地西泮的质量浓度变化。结果:玻璃瓶组地西泮质量浓度高于塑料瓶组,两组溶液经过输液器15~20 min时吸附性最强,玻璃瓶组流出液体质

  5. An evaluation of the migration of antimony from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) plastic used for bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa-Martínez, C A; Hinojosa-Reyes, L; Hernández-Ramírez, A; Ruiz-Ruiz, E; Maya-Treviño, L; Guzmán-Mar, J L

    2016-09-15

    The leaching of antimony (Sb) from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottling material was assessed in twelve brands of bottled water purchased in Mexican supermarkets by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with a hydride generation system (HG-AFS). Dowex® 1X8-100 ion-exchange resin was used to preconcentrate trace amounts of Sb in water samples. Migration experiments from the PET bottle material were performed in water according to the following storage conditions: 1) temperature (25 and 75°C), 2) pH (3 and 7) and 3) exposure time (5 and 15days), using ultrapure water as a simulant for liquid foods. The test conditions were studied by a 2(3) factorial experimental design. The Sb concentration measured in the PET packaging materials varied between 73.0 and 111.3mg/kg. The Sb concentration (0.28-2.30μg/L) in all of the PET bottled drinking water samples examined at the initial stage of the study was below the maximum contaminant level of 5μg/L prescribed by European Union (EU) regulations. The parameters studied (pH, temperature, and storage time) significantly affected the release of Sb, with temperature having the highest positive significant effect within the studied experimental domain. The highest Sb concentration leached from PET containers was in water samples at pH7 stored at 75°C for a period of 5days. The extent of Sb leaching from the PET ingredients for different brands of drinking water can differ by as much as one order of magnitude in experiments conducted under the worst-case conditions. The chronic daily intake (CDI) caused by the release of Sb in one brand exceeded the Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) regulated CDI value of 400ng/kg/day, with values of 514.3 and 566.2ng/kg/day for adults and children. Thus, the appropriate selection of the polymer used for the production of PET bottles seems to ensure low Sb levels in water samples.

  6. The Technical Study of Electromagnetic Forming Sealing for the Plastic Bottle%塑料瓶的电磁成形封口研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱春城; 李洪涛

    2000-01-01

    对塑料瓶的电磁成形封接工艺进行研究,通过对放电电压、电容、线圈位置等参数进行调节,得出了优化的封口工艺。试验结果表明:线圈位置,电压对封口效果影响较大。%This paper introduces the research of electromagnetic forming sealing for the plastic bottle. The sealing technology is opimized by adjusting discharge voltage,capacitance、 coil position. The experiments show that coil position and voltage have larger influence to the sealing effect.

  7. Electrochemical determination of bisphenol A in plastic bottled drinking water and canned beverages using a molecularly imprinted chitosan-graphene composite film modified electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Peihong; Xu, Zhifeng; Kuang, Yunfei

    2014-08-15

    Herein, a novel electrochemical sensor based on an acetylene black paste electrode modified with molecularly imprinted chitosan-graphene composite film for sensitive and selective detection of bisphenol A (BPA) has been developed. Several important parameters controlling the performance of the sensor were investigated and optimised. The imprinted sensor offers a fast response and sensitive BPA quantification. Under the optimal conditions, a linear range from 8.0 nM to 1.0 μM and 1.0 to 20 μM for the detection of BPA was observed with the detection limit of 6.0 nM (S/N=3). Meanwhile, the fabricated sensor showed excellent specific recognition to template molecule among the structural similarities and coexistence substances. Furthermore, this imprinted electrochemical sensor was successfully employed to detect BPA in plastic bottled drinking water and canned beverages.

  8. Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    their impact on the environment, especially the oceans. For example, the life span of a plastic bottle in the ocean is 500 years, and during its degradation, the plastic is reduced to micro pieces, which causes the starvation of several marine animals. The new bottle is completely made from molded paper pulp...... technologies, the manufacturing technology for the production of the bottle has to offer the possibility of significant energy savings. Molded pulp products are made from wood fibers dispersed in water, and then they are formed, drained and dried. A relatively large quantity of resources (i.e. energy and time......) is consumed during the drying process. It is in this process stage that an innovative way of drying the products can be exploited by using the concept of impulse drying. Impulse drying is an advance drying technique in which water is removed from a wet paper pulp by the combination of mechanical pressure...

  9. Snuff Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Chinese snuff bottles are artistic curiosities enjoyed by connoisseurs and collectors alike. In the 17th century, artisans of the Chinese imperial court made several different kinds of snuff bottles with a superior aesthetic. Nowadays, China still

  10. Compressive and Fracture Properties of Syntactic Foam Filled with Hollow Plastic Bead(HPC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The compressive mechanical properties of syntactic foams reinforced by hollow plastic beads were studied by the quasi-static compression test. The failure mechanism of syntactic foams was also investigated by macroscopic and microscopic observation on the fractured specimens. The experimental results show that the density of syntactic foams is still the key factor affecting their mechanical properties. The macroscopic and microscopic observation on the fractured specimens indicates that the main failure mode is the elastic-plastic collapse caused by shear.

  11. USE OF SINGLE-MINUTE EXCHANGE OF DIE – SMED – AS A STRATEGY TO INCREASE PRODUCTIVITY IN A PLASTIC BOTTLE LABELER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teonas Bartz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The increase in the production and sale of food products stored in plastic containers, which serve different markets, caused the company researched departed in search of new concepts to increase the productivity of production equipment. With the increase of productivity, there is greater flexibility in planning and scheduling of production and exchange of tools. The implementation of the methodology of Single-Minute Exchange of Die – SMED reduces the setup time of equipment, maximizing the period of machine operation. With this the company more flexible production process and can reduce production batches, increasing operating rates, productivity and competitiveness of organizations. In this paper, we present the steps necessary for the implementation of the SMED in a labeling machine for plastic bottles. To this end, there were activities analysis, suggestions for improvements in machinery and procedures, timing of the steps before and after the improvements implemented and analyzes of the times obtained. After that, we obtained a significant reduction in setup time machine studied.

  12. Evaluating localism in the management of post-consumer plastic bottles in Honolulu, Hawai'i: perspectives from industrial ecology and political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joo Young; Gupta, Clare

    2015-05-01

    Localism or regionalization has become a popular topic in urban design, but recent critics raise the question of whether the local or regional scale is most desirable for industrial ecosystems. As a way to explore the claim that localized metabolism is more sustainable, this study examines the costs and benefits of two differentially scaled strategies for the management of post-consumer polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles originating in the city of Honolulu, Hawai'i: local incineration and trans-continental recycling. We first estimate total environmental impacts of two options using life cycle assessment, and then disaggregate them into local versus non-local impacts to examine the spatial distribution of costs and benefits. We further assess the environmental justification for localized waste management in relation to the broader socio-economic motivations that underlie the way that plastics are managed in Honolulu. In doing so we assess the scale at which waste management is optimized from an environmental standpoint as well as the non-environmental considerations such as security and safety that influence the politics of scale involved in urban metabolic design. By illustrating the trade-offs between a local versus global metabolic pathway for plastic waste, the results from our Honolulu case study are globally relevant for communities interested in sustainable urban design and in particular urban waste management.

  13. Evaluation of a sticky trap (AedesTraP, made from disposable plastic bottles, as a monitoring tool for Aedes aegypti populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Santos Eloína Maria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dengue virus, which is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes is the most important emerging viral disease, infecting more than 50 million people annually. Currently used sticky traps are useful tools for monitoring and control of A. aegypti, despite differences in efficiency, labor requirements and cost. In the present work, a field assay was carried out to evaluate the performance of a sticky trap (AedesTrap, produced using disposable material, in capturing gravid Aedes spp. females. Additionally, conditions necessary for the improved performance of the device, such as number of traps per site and location (indoors or outdoors were evaluated. Methods During a one year period, traps were placed in a dengue endemic area in 28 day cycles. The trap, named AedesTrap, consisted of a disposable plastic soda bottle coated inside with colophony resin, which served as a sticky substrate. Disposable bottles were donated by restaurants, and traps were made by laboratory staff, reducing the cost of the sticky trap (less than U$3. Mosquito capture in indoor and outdoor areas was compared by placing the traps in laundry room, kitchen or bedroom (indoors and front or back yard (outdoors. The relationship between the number of AedesTraps and quantity of captured mosquitoes was investigated by utilizing one or three traps/site. Results During a 28 day cycle, a single AedesTrap was capable of capturing up to 15 A. aegypti in a house, with a mean capture of 0.5 to 2.63 females per premise. The AedesTrap collected three times more outdoors versus indoors. Similarly, the capability of detecting Aedes spp. infestation, and of capturing females, was three times higher when using three AedesTraps per house, compared with one trap per house. Conclusions AedesTrap was shown to be capable of capturing A. aegypti and other culicidae, providing information on the adult mosquito population, and allowing the identification of areas critically

  14. Influence of storage temperature and time on the physicochemical and bioactive properties of roselle-fruit juice blends in plastic bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mgaya-Kilima, Beatrice; Remberg, Siv Fagertun; Chove, Bernard Elias; Wicklund, Trude

    2014-03-01

    Roselle-fruit juice blends were made from roselle extract and mango, papaya, and guava juices at the ratio of 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, % roselle: fruit juice, respectively. The blends were pasteurized at 82.5°C for 20 min and stored in 100 mL plastic bottles at 28 and 4°C for 6 months. The effects of storage time and temperature on physicochemical and bioactive properties were evaluated. Total soluble solids, pH, and reducing sugars increased significantly (P fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased significantly (P fruit blends (40% roselle) decreased from 58-55% to 43-42% when stored at 28 and 4°C, respectively. TMA losses were 86-65% at 28°C and 75-53% at 4°C while TPC losses were 66-58% at 28°C and 51-22% at 4°C. Loss of antioxidant capacity (FRAP) was 18-46% at 28°C and 17-35% at 4°C. A principal component analysis (PCA) differentiated roselle-juice fruit blends into two clusters with two principle components PC1 and PC2, which explained 97 and 3% (blends stored at ambient temperature) and 96 and 4% (blends stored at refrigerated temperature) of the variation, respectively. PC1 differentiated roselle-guava juice blends which were characterized by vitamin C, TPC, FRAP, and pH, while PC2 from another cluster of roselle-mango and roselle-papaya juice blends and was characterized by TSS, RS, and color parameters (L* a* b*). However, TMA was the main variable with the highest effect on all roselle-fruit juice blends regardless of the storage time and temperature.

  15. Analysis of Phthalic Acid Esters in Plastic Bottled Beverages%塑料瓶装饮料中邻苯二甲酸醋的含量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荔群; 陈蓉芳; 高强; 厉曙光

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective ] To determine the concentrations of di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in beverages bottled in plastic containers and to analyze the effect of some factors on the concentration of phthalates. [ Methods ] Forty-nine different brands of beverage were selected from the market and gas chromatography was applied to determine the level of phthalates in the beverage. The differences between three sorts of beverages (tea, juice, and dairy drinks) were tested by ANOVA and the effects of storage time and pH value on the concentration of phthalates in beverage were analyzed using Linear Regression Model. [ Results ] DEP wasn't found while the detection rates of DBP and DEHP in samples were 98.0% and 100% respectively with the average concentrations of 0.038 mg/L and 0.071 mg/L respectively. The detection range of DBP and DEHP in tea drinks were 0-0.047 mg/L and 0.045-0.146 mg/L respectively. The highest detection level of DBP in juice drinks was 0.127mg/L, and DEHP was found in the range from 0.060mg/L to 0.371 mg/L. The maximum concentrations of DBP and DEHP in dairy drinks were 0.081 mg/L and 0.089 mg/L respectively, and the minimum concentrations were 0.032 mg/L and 0.033 mg/L respectively. The levels of DBP in juice and dairy drinks were significantly higher than those in tea drinks (p=0.003 and P=0.002). The levels of DEHP in juice drinks were higher than those in tea and dairy drinks (P=0.00l and P=0.002). The fixed multivariate linear model showed that, the logarithms of DBP concentrations of juice and dairy drinks were 0.36 and 0.50 units higher than that of tea drinks, the logarithm of DEHP concentration of juice drinks was 0.47 units higher than that of tea drinks, and the logarithm of DEHP concentration of acid drinks was 0.30 units higher than that of weak acid drinks.[ Conclusion ] It can be concluded that the detection rates of DBP and DEHP in plastic bottled beverages were fairly high and

  16. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  17. Filling a Plastic Bag with Carbon Dioxide: A Student-Designed Guided-Inquiry Lab for Advanced Placement and College Chemistry Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanni, Laura M.

    2014-01-01

    A guided-inquiry lab, suitable for first-year general chemistry or high school advanced placement chemistry, is presented that uses only inexpensive, store-bought materials. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) with aqueous acetic acid (vinegar), under the constraint of the challenge to completely fill a sealable plastic bag with the…

  18. Bottled Water and Fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bottled water and fluoride. Does bottled water contain fluoride? Bottled water products may contain fluoride, depending on ... How can I find out the level of fluoride in bottled water? The FDA does not require ...

  19. Effects of Water Bottle Materials and Filtration on Bisphenol A Content in Laboratory Animal Drinking Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honeycutt, Jennifer A; Nguyen, Jenny Q T; Kentner, Amanda C; Brenhouse, Heather C

    2017-05-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is widely used in the polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins that are found in laboratory animal husbandry materials including cages and water bottles. Concerns about BPA exposure in humans has led to investigations that suggest physiologic health risks including disruptions to the endocrine system and CNS. However, the extent of exposure of laboratory animals to BPA in drinking water is unclear. In the first study, we compared the amount of BPA contamination in water stored in plastic bottles used in research settings with that in glass bottles. The amount of BPA that leached into water was measured across several time points ranging from 24 to 96 h by using a BPA ELISA assay. The results showed that considerable amounts of BPA (approximately 0.15 μg/L) leached from polycarbonate bottles within the first 24 h of storage. In the second study, BPA levels were measured directly from water taken from filtered compared with unfiltered taps. We observed significantly higher BPA levels in water from unfiltered taps (approximately 0.40 μg/L) compared with taps with filtration systems (approximately 0.04 μg/L). Taken together, our findings indicate that the use of different types of water bottles and water sources, combined with the use of different laboratory products (food, caging systems) between laboratories, likely contribute to decreased rigor and reproducibility in research. We suggest that researchers consider reporting the types of water bottles used and that animal care facilities educate staff regarding the importance of flushing nonfiltered water taps when filling animal water bottles.

  20. Dynamic Measurements of Plastic Deformation in a Water-Filled Aluminum Tube in Response to Detonation of a Small Explosives Charge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harold Sandusky

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been conducted to benchmark computer code calculations for the dynamic interaction of explosions in water with structures. Aluminum cylinders with a length slightly more than twice their diameter were oriented vertically, sealed on the bottom by a thin plastic sheet, and filled with distilled water. An explosive charge suspended in the center of the tube plastically deformed but did not rupture the wall. Tube wall velocity, displacement, and strain were directly measured. The agreement among the three sets of dynamic data and the agreement of the terminal displacement measurements with the residual deformation were excellent.

  1. 塑料瓶中双酚A的电化学测定方法研究%Study on Electrochemical Determination of Biphenonl A in Plastic Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余辉; 何凤云; 卞育蓉

    2012-01-01

    The electrochemical behavior of bisphenol A(BPA) at a carbon paste electrode(CPE) modified with a multi-wall carbon nanotubes(MWCNTs) film was studied with cyclic voltammetry(CV). Results showed that the MWCNTs-CPE had a strong electrocatalytic effect on BPA. In phospate buffer solution(PBS) of pH 7.0, BPA exhibited a significant oxidation peak at 0.504 V. Based on this, a sensitive electrochemical method was developed for the determination of BPA in plastic bottle. The experimental parameters, such as the pH of the supporting electrolyte, scan rate and accumulation time were optimized. The defferential pulse current of BPA was linear with its concentration in the range of 5.0 × 10-7-2.0 × 10-5 mol / L ( r=0.995 45 ). The detection limit was 1.0 × 10-7 mol/L at the signal-to-noise of 3. The established methods was applied to determine bisphenol A in plastic cup sample with recovery of 104.4%, and the RSD was 3.9%(n=6).%制备了多壁碳纳米管修饰碳糊电极( MWCNTs/CPE),用循环伏安法(CV)和差分脉冲伏安法(DPV)研究了环境激素双酚A在多壁碳纳米管修饰电极上的电化学行为.结果表明,多壁碳纳米管修饰碳糊电极对双酚A有明显的电催化作用,在pH 7.0的磷酸盐缓冲溶液(PBS)中,双酚A在0.504 V处有1个明显的氧化峰.实验考察了底液的pH值、扫描速度、富集时间等因素的影响.在优化的条件下,双酚A的示差脉冲峰电流与其浓度在5.0×10-7~2.0×10-5范围内呈良好的线性关系(r=0.995 45),检出限为1.0×10-7 mol/L(S/N=3).该法用于实际样品中双酚A含量的测定,回收率为104.4%,测定结果的相对标准偏差为3.9%(n=6).

  2. 聚丙烯塑料输液瓶拉环盖内面无菌可靠性调查%The asepsis security of the interior covers of polypropylene plastic dropping bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐雪芬

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨聚丙烯甥料输液瓶拉环盖内面的无菌可靠性.方法 将聚丙烯塑料输液瓶随机分为2组:对照组42瓶用生理盐水棉签直接采集开启后的聚丙烯塑料输液瓶拉环盖内面样本,实验组42瓶分别用0.5%碘伏、75%乙醇棉签常规消毒开启后的聚丙烯甥料输液瓶拉环盖内面,待干燥后用生理盐水棉签采集样本.所取样本均由主管检验师接种于无菌普通琼脂营养平板.置于37℃恒温培养箱内培养,以观察细菌生长情况.结果 2组细菌生长差异有统计学意义,X2=46.791,P<0.01.结论 聚丙烯塑料输液瓶拉环盖内面必须严格执行常规消毒后方能应用于临床.%Objective To study the asepsis security of the interior cover of polypropylene plastic dropping bottle.Methods The whole samples were divided randomly into two groups,each group included 42 polypropylene plastic dropping bottles,Samples of the control group were collected from the interior covers of dropping bottles wiping with sterile normal saline cotton swabs.Samples of the experimental group were also collected from the interior covers wiping with sterile normal saline cotton swabs aher disinfected by 0.5%iodophors and 75%alcohol respectively.All samples were inoculated on the aseptic plain agar nutrition flat plate.then incubated in 37℃ incubaton to observe the growth of bacteria.Results There Was statistical significance between the two groups in the growth of bacteria,χ2=46.791,P<0.01.Conclusions The interior covers of polypropylene plastic dropping bottle should be disinfected strictly before they are used in clinic.

  3. Bottled Water Mania: Americas Misguided Infatuation with Bottled Water over Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-01

    to remove pathogens. There are no requirements for filtration of bottled water. Tap water must be tested for cryptosporidium, giardia, and viruses ...Plastic bottles in landfills can take hundreds of years to decompose, causing a profound environmental impact. The oceans are another victim of

  4. Performance of funnel-shaped plastic bottle for water saving cultivation in extreme arid region%极端干旱区漏斗状塑料瓶的节水栽培性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹林涛; 高斌; 王前道; 曹亦斌

    2012-01-01

    为解决缺水高渗透地区新栽植物难以存活问题,该文通过室内实验与现场试验研究了塑料瓶的节水栽培性能.室内模拟不同的水分散失条件,连续多U定时测试塑料瓶内砂土的含水量,回归分析剩余含水量随时问的变化函数.结果表明:温度越高,水分散失速度越大;由饱和含水量至萎蔫含水量,在室温(22±1)℃下可以间隔9d浇水1次;漏斗状比直筒状瓶有利于延迟水分渗透;砂粒与有机肥比黏粒有利于锁住水分,可用以调节水分散失速度.现场栽植试验(有瓶与无瓶)比较亦证实该方法的有效性.由于漏斗状塑料瓶具有留存水流与延迟渗透的节水功效,有利于缺水或高渗透地区草、灌木植物的栽培.%In order to resolve the plants survival difficulty in high permeability or water-shortage area, the water-saving cultivation by funnel-shaped plastic bottle was studied through laboratory and field tests. Different water losing conditions were simulated in the laboratory to continuously test water content of sandy soil in the plastic bottle every day. Then, the regressive function was built to describe the relationship between remaining water content in sandy soil and time. Testing Results showed that the higher the environment temperature was, the greater the rate of water loss. From the saturated water content to the wilting water content, an interval of watering could be 9 days at room temperature((22±l)°C).The funnel-shaped bottles could delay water loss compared to straight cylinder-shaped bottles. Sand particles combined with organic fertilizers were more facilitated to conserve water than clay soil, and they could be used to adjust the rate of water loss. Field planting tests (with bottles and without bottles) confirmed its water-saving effectiveness. Due to high efficiency of water accumulation and saving, funnel-shaped bottles can benefit plants cultivation in high permeability or water-shortage area.

  5. Design and Research of Machine for Blanking and Filling Paper Pad into Bottle Cap%瓶盖垫片冲塞机的设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄晋; 刘楚辉; 徐乐; 夏琳; 彭姣娇

    2014-01-01

    Aim to the inefficiency of production which medicine bottle cap paper pad washing exists,a new design scheme is put forward. This project adopts the conveyor belt to replace the traditional vibration feeding plate to send cap that greatly enhances the speed of cap sorting as well as reduces noise. It takes advantages of the difference of cap center of gravity position because of caps mouth towards different direction and gets rid of the caps whose mouths’ direction cannot meet the requirements. This approach is quite easy and effective. In addition, combing blanking and tamping of cap gasket shorten the process and improve the efficiency of production significantly. What’ s more, it can adapt to different caps of specification requirement by means of replacement of blanking die, turntable and push rod of different models and adjust to distance between slides to send cap on both sides of the plywood. It lays a solid foundation for the realization of high speed and automatic production of caps.%针对现有瓶盖垫片冲塞机所存在的生产能力不足的问题,提出一种新的设计方案。采用传送带取代传统的振动送料盘送盖,以大大提高理盖速度并降低噪声。利用盖口朝向不同的瓶盖重心位置上的差异进行瓶盖筛选,剔除盖口朝向不满足要求的瓶盖,方法简单而有效。将瓶盖垫片的冲裁和填塞进行合并,缩短了工序,可显著提高生产效率。通过更换不同型号的冲裁模、转盘和推杆,并调节送盖滑道两侧夹板的间距就能适应不同规格瓶盖的要求,为实现瓶盖的高速全自动生产奠定了基础。

  6. Snuff bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Snuff bottles first appeared in China in the Ming dynasty(1368-1644) and, as their name suggests, were originally indeed used as a container for snuff tobacco, first of all by the Manchu, Mongols and Tibetans. The reason for their popularity at that time is to be found in the customs of those ethnic minorities: because those ethnic groups mainly led a nomadic life that entailed frequent use of hay or firewood.

  7. Concrete-Filled-Large Deformable FRP Tubular Columns under Axial Compressive Loading

    OpenAIRE

    Omar I. Abdelkarim; Mohamed A. ElGawady

    2015-01-01

    The behavior of concrete-filled fiber tubes (CFFT) polymers under axial compressive loading was investigated. Unlike the traditional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP) such as carbon, glass, aramid, etc., the FRP tubes in this study were designed using large rupture strains FRP which are made of recycled materials such as plastic bottles; hence, large rupture strain (LRS) FRP composites are environmentally friendly and can be used in the context of green construction. This study performed finite...

  8. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more difficult it can be to break the bottle habit. Longer bottle use may lead to cavities or ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try ...

  9. An Assessment of the Compressive Strength of Glass Reinforced Plastic Waste Filled Concrete for Potential Applications in Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asokan Pappu

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available

    Efforts were made to recycle Glass reinforced plastic (GRP waste powder in concrete products and assess its compressive strength to comply with British Standards for use in construction applications. More than 90 GRP waste-filled concrete specimens were

  10. Theoretical prediction of the effect of heat transfer parameters on cooling rates of liquid-filled plastic straws used for cryopreservation of spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansinen, M; Santos, M V; Zaritzky, N; Baez, R; Chirife, J

    2010-01-01

    Heat transfer plays a key role in cryopreservation of liquid semen in plastic straws. The effect of several parameters on the cooling rate of a liquid-filled polypropylene straw when plunged into liquid nitrogen was investigated using a theoretical model. The geometry of the straw containing the liquid was assimilated as two concentric finite cylinders of different materials: the fluid and the straw; the unsteady-state heat conduction equation for concentric cylinders was numerically solved. Parameters studied include external (convection) heat transfer coefficient (h), the thermal properties of straw manufacturing material and wall thickness. It was concluded that the single most important parameter affecting the cooling rate of a liquid column contained in a straw is the external heat transfer coefficient in LN2. Consequently, in order to attain maximum cooling rates, conditions have to be designed to obtain the highest possible heat transfer coefficient when the plastic straw is plunged in liquid nitrogen.

  11. Helmholtz Resonance in a Water Bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annirudh Balachandran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The resonance that occurs when blowing across the top of a water bottle filled with different volumes of water was studied. It was shown that, contrary to popular belief, a water bottle is not an ideal Helmholtz resonator. Resonance in a water bottle with an extendable neck was then studied to determine how the length of the neck affects the resonance. The results showed that ideal Helmholtz resonance occurs when the neck length was in a middle range, while for no neck a standing wave resonance occurs. For a very long neck the results were inconclusive.

  12. A Plastic Menagerie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    Bobble heads had become quite popular, depicting all sorts of sports figures, animals, and even presidents. In this article, the author describes how her fourth graders made bobble head sculptures out of empty plastic drink bottles. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  13. 21 CFR 880.6085 - Hot/cold water bottle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hot/cold water bottle. 880.6085 Section 880.6085... Devices § 880.6085 Hot/cold water bottle. (a) Identification. A hot/cold water bottle is a device intended for medical purposes that is in the form of a container intended to be filled with hot or cold...

  14. The Type of Container and Filling Method Have Consequences on Semen Quality in Swine AI Doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iulian Ibanescu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The automatic filling of semen doses for artificial insemination in swine shows economic advantages over the old-style, manual filling. However, no data could be found regarding the impact, if any, of this packing method on semen quality. This study aimed to compare two types of containers for boar semen, namely the automatically-filled tube and the manually-filled bottle, in terms of preserving the quality of boar semen. Five ejaculates from five different boars were diluted with the same extender and then divided in two aliquots. First aliquot was loaded in tubes filled by an automatic machine while the second was loaded manually in special plastic bottles. The semen was stored in liquid state at 17°C, regardless of the type of container and examined daily, for five days of storage by means of a computer-assisted sperm analyzer. Both types of containers maintained the semen within acceptable values, but after five days of storage significant differences (p<0.05 between the container types were observed in terms of all selected kinetic parameters. The tube showed better values for sperm motility and velocity, while the bottle showed superior values for straightness and linearity of sperm movement. The automatically-filled tubes offered better sperm motility in every day of the study. Given the fact that sperm motility is still the main criterion in assessing semen quality in semen production centers, the main conclusion of this study is that the automatic loading in tubes is superior and recommended over the old-style manual loading in bottles.

  15. Plastic fish

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness.   Artwork by Wolfgang Trettnak. Packaging materials, consumer goods (shoes, kids’ toys, etc.), leftovers from fishing and aquaculture activities… our oceans and beaches are full of plastic litter. Most of the debris from beaches is plastic bottles. “PET bottles have high durability and stability,” explains Wolfgang Trettnak, a chemist by education and artist from Austria, who gave a lecture on this topic organised by the Staff Association at CERN on 26 May. “PET degrades very slowly and the estimated lifetime of a bottle is 450 years.” In addition to the beach litter accumulated from human use, rivers bring several ki...

  16. Stopping the Bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is coming later. The next week, eliminate another bottle feeding and provide milk in a cup instead. Try to do this when your baby is sitting at the table in a high chair. Generally, the last bottle to stop should be the nighttime bottle. That ...

  17. Characterization of aqueous alcohol solutions in bottles with THz reflection spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Peter Uhd; Jensen, Jens K.; Møller, Uffe

    2008-01-01

    be classified as either harmless or inflammable. The method operates in reflection mode with the result that liquids opaque to THz radiation can be characterized with little influence of the bottle shape. The method works with plastic bottles as well as glass bottles, with absorption of THz radiation...... by the plastic or the glass being the limiting factor. The reflection mode allows for automatic control of the validity of the measurement. The method will be useful in liquid scanning systems at security checkpoints....

  18. Non-invasive determination of ethanol, propylene glycol and water in a multi-component pharmaceutical oral liquid by direct measurement through amber plastic bottles using Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broad, N W; Jee, R D; Moffat, A C; Eaves, M J; Mann, W C; Dziki, W

    2000-11-01

    Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy was used to quantify rapidly the ethanol (34-49% v/v), propylene glycol (20-35% v/v) and water (11-20% m/m) contents within a multi-component pharmaceutical oral liquid by measurement directly through the amber plastic bottle packaging. Spectra were collected in the range 7302-12,000 cm-1 and calibration models set-up using partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and multiple linear regression. Reference values for the three components were measured using capillary gas chromatography (ethanol and propylene glycol) and Karl Fischer (water) assay procedures. The calibration and test sets consisted of production as well as laboratory batches that were made to extend the concentration ranges beyond the natural production variation. The PLSR models developed gave standard errors of prediction (SEP) of 1.1% v/v for ethanol, 0.9% v/v for propylene glycol and 0.3% m/m for water. For each component the calibration model was validated in terms of: linearity, repeatability, intermediate precision and robustness. All the methods produced statistically favourable outcomes. Ten production batches independent of the calibration and test sets were also challenged against the PLSR models, giving SEP values of 1.3% v/v (ethanol), 1.0% v/v (propylene glycol) and 0.2% m/m (water). NIR transmission spectroscopy allowed all three liquid constituents to be non-invasively measured in under 1 min.

  19. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  20. The Dynamic Density Bottle: A Make-and-Take, Guided Inquiry Activity on Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntzleman, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    An activity is described wherein students observe dynamic floating and sinking behavior of plastic pieces in various liquids. The liquids and solids are all contained within a plastic bottle; the entire assembly is called a "density bottle". After completing a series of experiments that guides students to think about the relative…

  1. The Effect of Plastic-Covered Ridge and Furrow Planting on the Grain Filling and Hormonal Changes of Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yang; HAN Juan; WEN Xiao-xia; WU Wei; GUO Qiang; ZENG Ai; LIAO Yun-cheng

    2013-01-01

    Although plastic-covered ridge and furrow planting (RF) has been reported to produce substantial increases in the grain weight of winter wheat, the underlying mechanism is not yet understood. The present study used two cultivars, Xinong 538 and Zhoumai 18, and RF and traditional lfatten planting (TF, control) with the objective of investigating the effect of RF on wheat grain iflling and the possible relationship of hormonal changes in the wheat grains under RF to grain iflling. The results indicated that RF signiifcantly increased the grain weight, although the effects on grain iflling were different: RF signiifcantly increased the grain-iflling rate and grain weight of inferior grains, whereas RF had no signiifcant effect on grain-iflling rate and grain weight of superior grains. The ifnal grain weight of inferior grains under RF was 39.1 and 50.7 mg for Xinong 538 and Zhoumai 18, respectively, 3.6 and 3.4 mg higher than the values under TF. However, the ifnal grain weight of superior grains under RF was only 0.6 and 0.8 mg higher than under TF for Xinong 538 and Zhoumai 18, respectively. RF signiifcantly decreased the ethylene and gibberellic acid content in the inferior grains and increased the indole-3-acetic acid, abscisic acid and zeatin+zeatin riboside content in the inferior grains; however, no signiifcant difference between RF and TF was observed for the hormonal content in the superior grains. Based on these results, we concluded that RF signiifcantly modulated hormonal changes in the inferior grains and, thus, affected the grain iflling and grain weight of the inferior grains;in contrast, RF had no signiifcant effect on grain iflling, grain weight and hormonal changes in the superior wheat grains.

  2. PET吹灌旋一体机及其在环保型轻量瓶装水生产线中的应用%The Application of the Blow-Fill-Cap BFC-Block in Bottled Water Production Line of Environmentally Friendly and Light-weight-situation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建锋; 张洁生

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the structure and composition of the Blow-Fill-Cap BFC-Block and process,explaining the necessity and significance of the environment-friendly light flask,to further illustrate the application of the Blow-Fill-Cap BFC-Block in bottled water production line of environmentally friendly lightweight-situation .%介绍了吹灌旋一体机的主要结构及其组成和工艺流程,同时说明环保型轻量瓶技术产生的必要性和意义,进一步说明吹灌旋一体机在环保型轻量瓶装水生产线上应用情况.

  3. Health beliefs about bottled water: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wernham Aaron GH

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been a consistent rise in bottled water consumption over the last decade. Little is known about the health beliefs held by the general public about bottled water as this issue is not addressed by the existing quantitative literature. The purpose of this study was to improve understanding of the public's health beliefs concerning bottled mineral water, and the extent to which these beliefs and other views they hold, influence drinking habits. Methods A qualitative study using semi-structured interviews, with 23 users of the Munrow Sports Centre on the University of Birmingham campus. Results Health beliefs about bottled water could be classified as general or specific beliefs. Most participants believed that bottled water conferred general health benefits but were unsure as to the nature of these. In terms of specific health beliefs, the idea that the minerals in bottled water conferred a health benefit was the most commonly cited. There were concerns over links between the plastic bottle itself and cancer. Participants believed that bottled water has a detrimental effect on the environment. Convenience, cost and taste were influential factors when making decisions as to whether to buy bottled water; health beliefs were unimportant motivating factors. Conclusion The majority of participants believed that bottled water has some health benefits. However, these beliefs played a minor role in determining bottled water consumption and are unlikely to be helpful in explaining recent trends in bottled water consumption if generalised to the UK population. The health beliefs elicited were supported by scientific evidence to varying extents. Most participants did not feel that bottled water conferred significant, if any, health benefits over tap water.

  4. Processamento e avaliação de estabilidade de bebida isotônica em garrafa plástica Processing and stability evaluation of isotonic drink in plastic bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues Petrus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Processou-se uma mistura isotônica com pH 3,4; objetivando-se a produção de uma bebida microbiologicamente estável, prescindindo de refrigeração. A bebida isotônica foi pasteurizada a 85°C/5s em trocador de calor a placas e acondicionada em garrafas de polietileno tereftalato (PET sanificadas por aspersão com solução de ácido peracético 0,3% durante 5s, a 30°C. Foram processados 1 lote com 50mg/L de sorbato de potássio, 1 lote com 100mg/L e 1 lote sem sorbato. Os 3 lotes foram mantidos a 25°C durante 26 semanas, sendo realizadas determinações de pH, sólidos solúveis, acidez total titulável, ácido ascórbico, testes de aceitação sensorial e contagens de microrganismos mesófilos aeróbios totais, bolores e leveduras durante a estocagem. Verificou-se diferença significativa (pThe objective of this work was to obtain an isotonic drink by using pasteurization and packing into aseptic bottles, stable at room temperature, without the addition of chemical preservatives. For the sanitation of the plastic bottles some sanitizers were tested, based on their efficiency to destroy microorganism, maintaining minimum residual hydrogen peroxide, and keeping the drink sensory quality. The isotonic drink (pH 3,40 was thermaly processed in a plate pasteurizer at 85ºC/5s and packed into PET bottles sanitized by spraying peracetic acid at 0.3%/5s at 30ºC. The processed drink contained three different concentrations of potassium sorbate (control, 50 and 100mg/L. The stability of the products were evaluated at 25ºC for 26 weeks by measuring the pH, soluble solids, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, microbial count, and sensory tests. The sensory evaluation and the count of the total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, moulds and yeast were measured during storage. There was no difference (p<0,05 for the pH, soluble solids and acidity of the processed drinks during the storage period except for the ascorbic acid which reduced to about 30% of the

  5. Plastic compression technology and mold design of HDPE closures for beverage bottles%低磨损HDPE饮料瓶盖压塑成型模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗达; 梁文杰

    2013-01-01

    针对传统饮料瓶盖压塑成型模具中存在的内衬套与螺纹型芯采用滑动摩擦结构,摩擦表面容易拉毛、卡死,模具容易磨损等问题,将磨损小、运动阻力小的滚动摩擦技术应用到压塑成型模具中,开展了能否在内衬套与螺纹型芯之间加入一个滚动部件代替原来滑动摩擦的分析,建立了滑动摩擦、滚动摩擦与磨损速度之间的关系,提出了在内衬套与螺纹型芯之间加入一个钢球保持圈,将原来的滑动摩擦改为滚动摩擦的方法,以达到减少磨损、提高模具寿命的目的.在提高模具寿命、瓶盖质量上,对模具的结构、制造技术、经济效益等方面进行了评价.开展了新结构压塑成型模具的设计、制造工作,并在原制盖机上进行了长期试验.研究结果表明,该模具磨损非常小,瓶盖质量比以前更好;且与传统的压塑成型模具相比寿命可提高1倍以上.%Aiming that the sliding friction structure in the inner lining sleeve and the screw thread core of the traditional beverage bottle cap pressing forming mould caused the friction surfaces to nap,blocking,easy wear etc., the rolling friction technology with wear small, small movement resistance was applied to the compression molding mould. Whether a rolling member was inserted between the inner bushing and the screw thread core in place of the original sliding friction was discussed.The relationship between the sliding friction, rolling friction and the wear speed was established, a ball retainer ring was added between the inner bushing and the screw thread core. The original sliding friction was changed into the rolling friction, thereby reducing wear and improving the life of the mould. The mould structure, manufacturing technology, economic benefits etc. were evaluated on the mould life and the cap quality. New structure of compression molding mold was designed and manufactured, and the long term test was developed on the original

  6. Damage evaluation of fiber reinforced plastic-confined circular concrete-filled steel tubular columns under cyclic loading using the acoustic emission technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Du, Fangzhu; Ou, Jinping

    2017-03-01

    Glass-fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP)-confined circular concrete-filled steel tubular (CCFT) columns comprise of concrete, steel, and GFRP and show complex failure mechanics under cyclic loading. This paper investigated the failure mechanism and damage evolution of GFRP–CCFT columns by performing uniaxial cyclic loading tests that were monitored using the acoustic emission (AE) technique. Characteristic AE parameters were obtained during the damage evolution of GFRP–CCFT columns. Based on the relationship between the loading curve and these parameters, the damage evolution of GFRP–CCFT columns was classified into three stages that represented different damage degrees. Damage evolution and failure mode were investigated by analyzing the b-value and the ratio of rise time to waveform amplitude and average frequency. The damage severity of GFRP–CCFT columns were quantitatively estimated according to the modified index of damage and NDIS-2421 damage assessment criteria corresponding to each loading step. The proposed method can explain the damage evolution and failure mechanism for GFRP–CCFT columns and provide critical warning information for composite structures.

  7. Serious eye injuries caused by bottles containing carbonated drinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, F; Mester, V; Morris, R; Dalma, J

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To analyse serious eye injuries caused by bottles containing pressurised drinks. Methods: Retrospective review of the databases of US, Hungarian, and Mexican eye injury registries. Results: In the combined database (12 889 injuries), 90 cases (0.7%) were caused by bottle tops or glass splinters. The incidence varied widely: 0.3% (United States), 3.1% (Hungary), and 0.9% (Mexico), as did the agent. Champagne bottle corks were responsible in 20% (United States), 71% (Hungary; p<0.0001), and 0% (Mexico). Most eyes improved, but 26% remained legally blind. Conclusions: The presence of warning labels on champagne bottles appears to reduce cork related eye injuries, as does using plastic bottles and caps. PMID:14693777

  8. ARRAYS OF BOTTLES OF PLUTONIUM NITRATE SOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margaret A. Marshall

    2012-09-01

    In October and November of 1981 thirteen approaches-to-critical were performed on a remote split table machine (RSTM) in the Critical Mass Laboratory of Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in Richland, Washington using planar arrays of polyethylene bottles filled with plutonium (Pu) nitrate solution. Arrays of up to sixteen bottles were used to measure the critical number of bottles and critical array spacing with a tight fitting Plexiglas® reflector on all sides of the arrays except the top. Some experiments used Plexiglas shells fitted around each bottles to determine the effect of moderation on criticality. Each bottle contained approximately 2.4 L of Pu(NO3)4 solution with a Pu content of 105 g Pu/L and a free acid molarity H+ of 5.1. The plutonium was of low 240Pu (2.9 wt.%) content. These experiments were sponsored by Rockwell Hanford Operations because of the lack of experimental data on the criticality of arrays of bottles of Pu solution such as might be found in storage and handling at the Purex Facility at Hanford. The results of these experiments were used “to provide benchmark data to validate calculational codes used in criticality safety assessments of [the] plant configurations” (Ref. 1). Data for this evaluation were collected from the published report (Ref. 1), the approach to critical logbook, the experimenter’s logbook, and communication with the primary experimenter, B. Michael Durst. Of the 13 experiments preformed 10 were evaluated. One of the experiments was not evaluated because it had been thrown out by the experimenter, one was not evaluated because it was a repeat of another experiment and the third was not evaluated because it reported the critical number of bottles as being greater than 25. Seven of the thirteen evaluated experiments were determined to be acceptable benchmark experiments. A similar experiment using uranyl nitrate was benchmarked as U233-SOL-THERM-014.

  9. Vision-based level control for beverage-filling processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Dietmar; Braune, Ingolf

    1994-11-01

    This paper presents a vision-based on-line level control system which is used in beverage filling machines. Motivation for the development of this sensor system was the need for an intelligent filling valve, which can provide constant filling levels for all container/product combinations (i.e. juice, milk, beer, water, etc. in glass or PET bottles with various transparency and shape) by using a non-tactile and completely sterile measurement method. The sensor concept being presented in this paper is based on several CCD-cameras imaging the moving containers from the outside. The stationary lighting system illuminating the bottles is located within the filler circle. The field of view covers between 5 and 8 bottles depending on the bottle diameter and the filler partitioning. Each filling element's number is identified by the signals of an angular encoder. The electro-pneumatic filling valves can be opened and closed by computer control The cameras continuously monitor the final stages of the filling process, i.e. after the filling height has reached the upper half of the bottle. The sensor system measures the current filling height and derives the filling speed. Based on static a priori- knowledge and dynamic process knowledge the sensor system generates a best estimate of the particular time when the single valve is to be closed. After every new level measurement the system updates the closing time. The measurement process continues until the result of the next level calculation would be available after the estimated closing time would have been passed. The vision-based filling valve control enables the filling machine to adapt the filling time of each valve to the individual bottle shape. Herewith a standard deviation between 2 and 4 mm (depending on the slew rate in the bottle neck) can be accomplished, even at filling speed > 70.000 bottles per hour. 0

  10. Chemical migration in drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: a source of controversy

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Chagnon, Marie-Christine; Etienne, Serge

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Due to its chemical inertness and physical properties PET is particularly suitable for food packaging applications, especially for drinking water. More bottled water is consumed than other bottled beverages. This article is a survey and toxicological investigation of chemical compounds, which are able to diffuse from PET bottles to water. The exact detailed chemical composition of plastic materials is known only from information provided by manufacturers. A declaration...

  11. Development of a Specialized Pack for Shipping Water Specimens in Glass Bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-08-01

    AD-R120 514 DEVELOPMENT OF A SPECIALIZED PACK FOR SHIPPING WATER ji’j SPECIMENS IN GLASS BOTTLES (U) AIR FORCE PACKAGING EVALUATION AGENCY WRIGHT...787-4519 immi Commercial (513) 257-4234 DIVIUCINT (W A SPICIALIZED PACK FOR SHIPING MATh SPECIMUS IN GLASS BOTTLS • S I) Air Force Packaging...breakage, during shipment, of glass bottles filled with water specimens. A prototype of the specialized container, employing the proposed Poly-Foam

  12. Variations on the "Whoosh" Bottle Alcohol Explosion Demonstration Including Safety Notes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortman, John J.; Rush, Andrea C.; Stamper, Jennifer E.

    1999-08-01

    The explosion or burning of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and isopropanol in large small-necked bottles when ignited with a match has been studied with respect to the nature of the alcohol, temperature, concentration dilutions with water, oxygen concentration, plastic versus glass bottles, and salts added for color. The various effects are explained in terms of vapor pressures. Safety guidelines are emphasized.

  13. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jenik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO2 and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake. Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1,163±479.1 g were studied at 35.4±1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO2 was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  14. A New Bottle Design Decreases Hypoxemic Episodes during Feeding in Preterm Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenik, Alejandro; Fustiñana, Carlos; Marquez, Maritza; Mage, David; Fernandez, Gloria; Mariani, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen saturation is lower during bottle feeding than during breastfeeding in preterm infants. Our objective was to compare two different bottle systems in healthy preterm infants before discharge in terms of SpO(2) and oral feeding efficiency (rate of milk intake). Infants without supplement oxygen needs were evaluated twice on the same day during two consecutive feeds, by the same nurse. Infants served as their own controls for comparison of two systems of bottles, the order of which was randomized. The new bottle's nipple design mimics mom's breast in shape and feel, and the bottle vents to air when the child sucks on the nipple. The other system was the hospital's standard plastic bottle with silicone nipple. The rate of milk intake was calculated as the total volume transferred minus volume lost divided by time of feeding, mL/min. Thirty-four infants (BW: 1, 163 ± 479.1 g) were studied at 35.4 ± 1.3 weeks after-conception. SpO(2) was significantly higher in infants fed with the new bottle design. Milk intake rate was significantly higher with the new bottle than with the standard bottle design. The new bottle design improves oral feeding performance in preterm infants near to discharge when compared to that of a standard bottle.

  15. Migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Jens Højslev; Lund, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    An enforcement campaign was carried out to assess the migration of 2-butoxyethyl acetate (2-BEA) from polycarbonate infant feeding bottles intended for repeated use. Migration was measured by three successive migration tests into two of the European Union official food simulants: distilled water...... and 3% acetic acid testing at 40degrees C for 10 days. The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration (DVFA) has assessed that a migration above 0.33 mg for 2-BEA and a group of eight related substances kg(-1) foodstuff from plastics articles used exclusively for infants is unacceptable. Migration of 2......-BEA was found from eight of 12 bottles. However, migration above the target value of 0.33 mg kg(-1) was not observed in the third decisive test from any of the 12 different brands of polycarbonate feeding bottles. A migration of between 0.05 and 0.26 mg kg(-1) from seven of 12 bottles was measured...

  16. Effects of Fill Pattern in FDM Technology on Mechanical Properties of Plastic Products%FDM工艺中填充方式对塑料制品力学性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马昊鹏; 迟百宏; 李飞; 焦志伟; 杨卫民

    2017-01-01

    采用熔融沉积成型方式制备ABS力学测试样条,通过拉伸和冲击测试研究不同填充方式对塑料制品拉伸强度、断裂伸长率和冲击强度的影响.实验表明,对于方格填充呈现出随填充角度增大,拉伸强度和断裂伸长率增大,冲击强度减小的现象.直线填充与45.方格填充实测结果近似相同,蜂窝填充拉伸强度和断裂伸长率与15°方格填充近似相同,冲击强度与30°方格填充近似相同.在实际生产中,需根据制品力学性能要求在其不同区域选择合适的填充方式,以提高制品整体力学性能,降低生产成本.%The ABS mechanical testing samples were produced by FDM technology.The effect of different fill patterns on the impact strength,tensile strength and elongation at break of the plastic products was studied.It was found that for the square filling,the tensile strength and elongation at break increased,but the impact strength decreased with the increase of filling angle.The measured results of linear filling and 45 degree grid filling were similar.The tensile strength and elongation at break of the honeycomb filling and the 15 degrees square filling were similar,and the impact strength of the honeycomb filling and the 30 degrees square filling were approximately the same.In the actual production,according to the mechanical properties of different regions of the products,should select suitable fill pattern,in order to improve the mechanical properties of products and reduce the cost of production.

  17. Co-leaching of brominated compounds and antimony from bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andra, Syam S; Makris, Konstantinos C; Shine, James P; Lu, Chensheng

    2012-01-01

    A fast-growing bottled water market is occasionally challenged by reports calling for contaminant leaching from water-contact materials (plastics). Our focus was on leaching of antimony (Sb) and brominated compounds expressed by total soluble bromine (Br) measurements, including those of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE). Studies are lacking on concomitant leaching of two or more inorganic plastic constituents from the same bottle. A market-representative basket survey of bottled water was initiated in Boston, USA supermarkets. Bottled water classes sampled were: i) non-carbonated (NCR), ii) carbonated (CR), and iii) non-carbonated and enriched (NCRE). Plastic bottle materials sampled were: polyethylene terephthalate (PET), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), polystyrene (PS), and polycarbonate (PC). Storage conditions for the 31 bottled water samples were: 23°C temperature, no-shaking and 12h/12h light/dark for 60days of equilibration. Average Br and Sb concentrations after 60-days of storage followed the order of NCRPET. Upon quantitative validation of PBDE leaching from certain plastic bottles into water, a revisit to existing PBDE exposure assessment reports will be deemed necessary. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday A Edaigbini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013. The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5% males and 61 (36.5% females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%. Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%, Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%, postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%, empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%, heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6% each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8% and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%. A hundred and one (60.5% of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6% by consultants, house officers 15 (9% and senior registrars 10 (6%. The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6% and pneumothorax (3.6%. The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion : Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles.

  19. Indications and Complications of Tube Thoracostomy with Improvised Underwater Seal Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edaigbini, Sunday A; Delia, Ibrahim Z; Aminu, Muhammad B; Orogade, Abosede A; Anumenechi, Ndubuisi; Aliyu, Ibrahim D

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tube thoracostomy is a lifesaving and frequently performed procedure in hospitals where the expertise and necessary tools are available. Where the ideal drainage receptacle is unavailable, the underwater seal device can be improvised with bottled water plastic can especially in emergency situations. Aims and Objectives: To determine the frequencies of the various indications and complications of tube thoracostomy with improvised underwater seal. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a structured proforma was used for assessment over a 3-year period (May 2010-April 2013). The proforma was filled at the time of the procedure by the performing surgeon and patients were followed up with serial chest X-rays until certified cured. A 1.5 L bottled water container was used as the underwater seal receptacle. The data was analysed with SPSS 15 software program. Results: A total of 167 patients were managed. There were 106 (63.5%) males and 61 (36.5%) females. The mean age was 34.85 ± 16.72 with a range of 1-80 years. The most frequent indication was for malignant/paramalignant effusion, 46 (27.5%). Others were trauma, 44 (26.3%), Parapneumonic effusion, 20 (12%), postthoracotomy 14 (8.4%), empyema thoracis 12 (7.2%), heart disease and tuberculous effusion 11 (6.6%) each, pneumothorax 8 (4.8%) and misdiagnosis 1 (0.6%). A hundred and one (60.5%) of the procedures were performed by registrars, 41 (24.6%) by consultants, house officers 15 (9%) and senior registrars 10 (6%). The overall complication rate was 16.8% with the more frequent complications been empyema (5.6%) and pneumothorax (3.6%). The average duration of tube placement was 13.02 ± 12.362 days and range of 1-110 days. Conclusion: Tube thoracostomy can be a relatively safe procedure with acceptable complication rates even with improvised underwater seal drainage bottles. PMID:25191098

  20. PET/PEN瓶注拉吹成型工艺研究%Study on Injection-Stretch-Blow Forming Process for PET/PEN Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董海东

    2011-01-01

    The Moldflow software was used to analyze the injection molding process of a 2-cavity hot runner injection mould for PET/PEN bottle-blank. The mold filling, flowing and cooling processes were visually simulated and the parameters under the conditions of the molding process were obtained. It predicted the potential defects of plastic parts during forming process. The aim was to optimize the cooling channels' diameter,layout and gating system size to propose a better injection scheme;then high-quality bottle-blank was to be injected and finally PET/PEN bottle was made though stretch-blow molding process. Thus it could ensure the even-distributed thickness of the bottle and make it a qualified bottle.%利用Moldflow软件模拟分析了一模两腔PET/PEN瓶坯的注射成型过程,预测塑件成型过程中可能出现的缺陷,优化冷却水道直径、布局和浇注系统尺寸,提出优化的注射成型方案,然后利用注塑机和PET/PEN瓶坯模具注射成型高质量的瓶坯,再利用吹瓶机等设备拉伸-吹塑成型PET/PEN瓶,这样可确保成型瓶子的厚度均匀分布,以生产合格的PET/PEN瓶.

  1. Evaluation, modelling and optimization of the cleaning process of contaminated plastic food refillables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlieghere, F; De Meulenaer, B; Sekitoleko, P; Estrella Garcia, A A; Huyghebaert, A

    1997-01-01

    In this study several types of bottle materials (glass, PET (polyethylene terephthalate), PC (polycarbonate), HDPE (high density polyethylene), PP (polypropylene) and PVC (polyvinyl chloride)) were evaluated in order to be used as food refillables, comparing the residual chemical contamination after classical caustic washing. Bottles were contaminated with model chemicals (chloroxylenol and d-limonene) and caustic washed with varied process parameters using a simulated laboratory-scale washing procedure. After washing, the chemical-contaminated bottles were filled with water and stored for 28 days at 37 degrees C. The concentrations of the model chemicals in the water after storage were taken as a measure of chemical contamination. The influence of the cleaning parameters (temperature, caustic and commercial additive concentration) was studied using response surface methodology. Washing temperature showed a significant influence on the removal of absorbed chemicals from surfaces compared with the effect of the caustic and especially the additive concentration. Optimization of caustic cleaning for the cleaning process in question led to better cleaning effectiveness, although none of the different washing conditions were able to remove all absorbed chemicals out of the polymeric resins. Commercially available plastic refillables (PET and PC) showed the best chemical rinsability. Glass bottles, however, had in every case the best rinsing characteristics.

  2. Flexural Toughness of Ring-Shaped Waste Bottle Fiber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles are plastic containers that are typically discarded, and thus, cause environmental pollution. To solve this problem, PET bottles are recycled incorporating with concrete. A ring-shaped PET (RPET fiber are introduced in this study and designed with a special shape to mobilize fiber yielding rather than fiber pullout. Therefore, aim of this paper is to investigate the influence of RPET bottles fibre in terms of toughness strength. The width of RPET fibers is fixed at 5 and 10 mm and the loads were applied to the third points of the specimen. The experiment indicates that RPET-5 and RPET-10 FC presented an increase in the toughness index of I20 on averages of 23.1% and 39.9% respectively, compared to normal specimens. It can conclude that incorporating RPET fiber in concrete presents significant improved of concrete properties.

  3. Concentrations of selected trace elements in mineral and spring bottled waters on the Serbian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, M; Popović, I; Pocajt, V; Antanasijević, D; Perić-Grujić, A

    2011-01-01

    Eight selected trace elements, which are generally included in regulations, were analyzed in 23 types of bottled waters. Ten mineral and seven spring bottled waters were from the Serbian market and six mineral bottled waters were obtained in different EU countries. For the purpose of comparison, selected tap waters were also analyzed. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and antimony). Results were compared with the Serbian regulations for bottled water, EU regulations and guideline values set by the World Health Organization for drinking water. With few exceptions, the trace element levels of most bottled waters were below the guideline values. However, a higher content of antimony was observed in waters from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers, indicating a potential leaching of this element from the plastic packaging.

  4. Ocular injuries from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® drinks in Port Harcourt, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro-Egbe CN

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinyere Nnenne Pedro-Egbe, Chibuike Sydney Ejimadu, Henrietta NwachukwuDepartment of Ophthalmology, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, NigeriaBackground: Eye injuries and subsequent loss of vision from the glass and caps of exploding pressurized bottled drinks have been well reported, and as a result most developed countries now use mainly plastic bottles. In Nigeria, however, most drinks are still sold in glass bottles and ocular injuries from this source are therefore not uncommon.Aim: To retrospectively analyze ocular injuries resulting from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola® and propose ways of eliminating such injuries in future.Setting: Eye Clinic, University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital, Port Harcourt, Nigeria.Materials and methods: The medical records of all cases of ocular injury that presented at the Eye Clinic of the University of Port Harcourt Teaching Hospital over a 5-year period (January 2006 to December 2010 were retrieved and relevant data including age, sex, occupation, events surrounding bottle explosion, and type of ocular injury sustained were extracted.Results: A total of 426 cases of ocular injuries was seen during the period under review. There were 335 (78.6% males and 91 (21.4% females. Six patients had ocular injury from exploding glass-bottled Coca-Cola®, giving an incidence of 1.4%. The presenting visual acuities (VA were light perception (2 cases, counting fingers (2 cases, and 1 VA of 6/24 and 1 VA of 6/12. There were 4 (66.7% cases of corneoscleral laceration with uveal prolapse and 1 case of total hyphema.Conclusion: Because pressurized glass-bottles can explode with normal handling, legislation to ban the use of glass containers for bottling carbonated drinks will go a long way to reducing ocular morbidity from this source. Plastic bottles should be introduced as an alternative.Keywords: ocular injuries, exploding glass-bottled drink

  5. [Safety verification for reuse of PET and glass bottles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Eiichi; Imai, Toshio; Niimi, Hiroji

    2011-01-01

    In order to verify the safety associated with reusing PET and glass bottles, a challenge test was conducted with five surrogate contaminants: 1,1,1-trichloroethane, chlorobenzene, toluene, benzophenone and phenyl cyclohexane. Bottles were filled with a cocktail solution of these contaminants and stored at 50 °C for 7 days, then washed with water and alkaline solutions. Material and migration tests were conducted at each step. The material test results showed that 430-1,440 µg/g of the contaminants were retained after water washing, and that even after washing with a 3.5% NaOH solution, 225-925 µg/g of the contaminants were retained. The migration tests revealed that 0.095-7.35 µg/mL of the contaminants were eluted. Similar tests were conducted with a soft drink ingredient, limonene. The results revealed that 48 µg/g of limonene was retained even after washing with NaOH solution, and that 0.16 µg/mL of limonene was eluted. Conversely, no contaminants were eluted from glass bottles after washing with the NaOH solution. Thus, from the viewpoint of safety and the preservation of content quality, PET bottles are not considered suitable for reuse when compared with glass bottles.

  6. Implementation of Human Machine Interface Control for Filling and Capping System

    OpenAIRE

    Su Yadanar; Theingi; Nu Nu Win

    2014-01-01

    This research is mainly aimed to perform the bottle filling and capping process simultaneously in the pharmaceutical factory by using the PC based human machine interface system. Filling and capping is carried out by the machine that packages the medical powder into the bottle and then filled bottle is capped. So, PC based HMI system is created for operator control on the work cell. By designing the programming of Visual Basic.Net and Mikro C, the monitoring and running conditions in the pac...

  7. Baby bottle tooth decay in Native American children in Head Start centers.

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay is a unique pattern of dental caries (tooth decay) affecting the dentition of young children. It is associated with the practice of putting the child to sleep with a nursing bottle filled with liquid that contains sugar. Practitioners who treat Native American children have noted that this population suffers from a high prevalence of the condition. In order to establish specific program priorities and treatment needs for this segment of the Native American population, ...

  8. 27 CFR 19.382 - Bottling tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling tanks. 19.382... Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.382 Bottling tanks. All spirits shall be bottled from tanks listed and certified as accurately calibrated in the notice of...

  9. Droplet Measurement below Single-Layer Grid Fill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitkovic Pavol

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main part of the heat transfer in a cooling tower is in a fill zone. This one is consist of a cooling fill. For the cooling tower is used a film fill or grid fill or splash fill in the generally. The grid fill has lower heat transfer performance like film fill usually. But their advantage is high resistance to blockage of the fill. The grid fill is consisted with independent layers made from plastic usually. The layers consist of several bars connected to the different shapes. For experiment was used the rhombus shape. The drops diameter was measured above and below the Grid fill.

  10. Breaking beer bottles with cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunny; Fontana, Jake; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Shelley, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Hitting the top of a beer bottle, nearly full of water, with an open hand can cause the bottle to break, with the bottom separating from upper section. We have studied this phenomenon using a high-speed camera, and observed the formation, coalescence and collapse of bubbles. The breaking of glass is due to cavitation, typically occurring near the bottom edge. We make numerical estimates of the relevant physical parameters, and compare these with experimental observations.

  11. Use of polycarbonate plastic products and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. K. Srivastava

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As plastic and plastic products are being used in day to day at the cost of environment pollution, the human and wild life health and has become a global concern. Researchers found link between abnormal liver enzymes in the people and Bisphenol-A (BPA. Changes in insulin resistance, reproduction system, cardiovascular and brain function are also reported. BPA is used in the production of epoxy resins, polycarbonate resins, and polyester resins. BPA can leach out of certain plastic products including variety of modern goods, reusable food storage containers, eyeglass lenses, white dental fillings, sealants, medical equipments etc. In the body, BPA behaves as an estrogen receptor agonist and mimics estrogen hormone. Bisphenol-A (BPA is a widespread endocrine-disrupting chemical (EDC used as the base compound in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics. Children and unborn and new born babies are at high risk of unwanted effects of BPA. Children suffer from chronic exposure to bisphenol A with manifestation of gastrointestinal problems, adrenal stress, immune dysfunction, toxic over load and neurological disorders. Some study in Japan has observed that more BPA can leach from polycarbonate products that have been scratched or is more than 4 years old or used bottles that have been subjected to bottle brushing or dishwashing and sterilization. People exposed to higher levels of BPA due to use of plastic food and beverages containers are more likely to develop cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and metabolic disorder. Recent studies have suggested that BPA exposure may have a role in the development of weight gain, insulin resistance, pancreatic endocrine dysfunction, thyroid hormone disruption, and several other mechanisms involved in the development of diabetes. Urinary BPA levels are found to be associated with diabetes mellitus independent of traditional diabetes risk factors. There is a concern of exposure of BPA to pregnant women that can

  12. Chemometrics-enhanced fiber optic Raman detection, discrimination and quantification of chemical agents simulants concealed in commercial bottles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataly J. Galan-Freyle

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemometric techniques such as partial least squares combined with discriminant analysis (PLS–DA and artificial neural networks (ANN analysis were used to enhance the detection, discrimination and quantification of chemical warfare agents simulants. Triethyl phosphate (TEP mixed with commercial products in their original containers was analyzed through the container walls using fiber-optic-coupled Raman spectroscopy. Experiments were performed by employing a custom built optical fiber probe operating at 488 nm. Detection was accomplished using mixtures of the contents of the commercial bottles and water. The bottle materials included green plastic, green glass, clear plastic, clear glass, amber glass and white plastic. To account for the low scattering-peak intensities of some bottle materials, integration times were increased. Short integration times provided no information for amber glass and white plastic. The limits of detection were on the order of 1–5%, depending on bottle materials and contents. Good discrimination was achieved with PLS–DA when models were generated from a dataset originating from the same type of bottle material. ANN performed better when large sets of data were used, discriminating TEP from bottle materials and contents, as well as accurately classifying over 90% of the data.

  13. Newspaper+Water Bottle=?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>这是由日本每日新闻社于201 3年为让更多的日本年轻人发现纸质报纸的价值而展开的营销战役。每日新闻社将报纸与瓶装水结合在一起,形成"News Bottle",即将新闻报道作为瓶装水的标签。其目的是为了在纸质报纸销售量逐年递减的今天,让年轻人更多地接触报纸,激发他们对于纸质报纸的阅读兴趣。每日新闻社通过365天持续更新瓶装水的标签,使人们每天都能在瓶装水上读到最新热点和头条新闻,以此来吸引年轻人的注意力,建立起年轻人与《每日新闻》的互动,最终得到年轻人们的自愿持续关注。每日新闻社还利用AR技术,让人们能通过移动

  14. Newspaper+Water Bottle=?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>这是由日本每日新闻社于2013年为让更多的日本年轻人发现纸质报纸的价值而展开的营销战役。每日新闻社将报纸与瓶装水结合在一起,形成"News Bottle",即将新闻报道作为瓶装水的标签。其目的是为了在纸质报纸销售量逐年递减的今天,让年轻人更多地接触报纸,激发他们对于纸质报纸的阅读兴趣。每日新闻社通过365天持续更新瓶装水的标签,使人们每天都能在瓶装水上读到最新热点和头条新闻,以此来吸引年轻人的注意力,建立起年轻人与《每日新闻》的互

  15. DISCARD OF THE PLASTIC BOTTLES AND DETERMINATION OF AUTOMOTIVE LUBRICANT OIL RESIDUES IN RIO CLARO-SP = DESCARTE DE EMBALAGENS E QUANTIFICAÇÃO DO VOLUME DE ÓLEO LUBRIFICANTE RESIDUAL NO MUNICÍPIO DE RIO CLARO-SP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edério Dino Bidóia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about environment conservation have grown in recent years, mainly in industrialized countries, due to growing awareness in these societies regarding the importance of environment quality as the basis for the preservation of future generations. Thus, rather than viewing the environment as a good to be consumed by the productive sector, it is seen as world heritage of humanity. Although lubricant oil represents a small percentage of the waste generated by humans, its impact is very great. One ton of lubricant oil dumped into water systems is equivalent to the pollution caused by 40,000 inhabitants. Thus, only one liter of oil is able to consume the oxygen of a million liters of water, forming, in few days, a fine layer on the surface of 1000 m2 which blocks the passage of air and light for the aquatic organisms. In this context, a study was carried out to collect empty plastic automotive lubricant oil bottles at various gasoline stations in Rio Claro-SP to verify the final destination and determine the volume of lubricant remaining in the bottles. = As preocupações com a conservação do meio ambiente têm crescido nos últimos anos, principalmente em países industrializados, devido à consciência que tem sido construída nessas sociedades sobre a importância da qualidade ambiental como base para a preservação da vida das futuras gerações. A sua carga poluidora é equivalente a 40.000 habitantes por tonelada de óleo despejada em corpos d’água. Apenas um litro de óleo é capaz de esgotar o oxigênio de um milhão de litros de água, formando, em poucos dias, uma fina camada sobre a superfície de 1.000 m2, o que bloqueia a passagem de ar e luz, impedindo a respiração e a fotossíntese. Neste contexto, foi realizada uma pesquisa nos centros de lubrificação e postos de combustíveis do município de Rio Claro-SP para verificar o destino final das embalagens já utilizadas, teoricamente vazias, e também houve coleta destas

  16. DETERMINATION OF PHTHALATES FROM BOTTLED WATER BY GC-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IRINA DUMITRAȘCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Determination of phthalates from bottled water by GC-MS. Phthalates are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment, due to their widespread use in the last years. These compounds are used principally as plasticizers, to impact flexibility, workability and durability to polymers but they can also be found in products such as paints, adhesives, inks and cosmetics. Phthalates are not chemically bounded to polymers; hence they are easily released and migrate into foods, beverages and drinking water from the packaging or bottling materials or manufacturing processes. This process accelerates as plastic products age and break down. With respect to their endocrine disrupting potential, phthalates such as benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP, di-butyl phthalate (DBP and di-isobutyl phthalate (DIBP have been found to elicit estrogenic responses in in vitro assays. It is possible that phthalates are a contributory factor to endocrine-mediated adverse effects observed in wildlife and humans over the past few decades. In this experiment we have analyzed the phthalates from different bottled waters purchased from the market. Determination by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry detector (GC–MS in electronic ionization mode (EI with selected-ion monitoring (SIM acquisition method (GC–MS (EI–SIM has been carried out. Methods have been developed for both qualitative and quantitative analysis of phthalates. The base peak (m/z = 149 of all the phthalates was selected for the screening studies. The characteristic ions of each compound were chosen for quantitative studies.

  17. The HPLC Detection Method of DNOP and DBP in the Beverage of Plastic Bottle Packing%瓶装饮料中DNOP、DBP类增塑剂的液相色谱检测方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王楠; 王伟; 张玉; 葛杭丽; 黎天天

    2012-01-01

    邻苯二甲酸酯类是一类重要的增塑剂,也是环境类激\\素,会影响动物内分泌系统;对人不仅有慢性毒性,致突变、致癌作用,还有生殖、发育毒性.本文研究高效液相色谱检测瓶装饮料中两种邻苯二甲酸酯(DNOP、DBP)的方法.样品经过滤、浓缩后过柱净化、富集,用50℃氮吹仪吹干,甲醇定容后过膜(0.22 μm),在UV 225nm处检测.以ProELUT PLS GLASS 200 mg/6mL小柱作为样品前处理净化柱,结果对DBP的加标回收率在83.4%~93.4%之间,对DBP的加标回收率在80.4%~86.0%之间.本实验条件下DBP和DNOP的仪器检出限均为0.01 μg/mL,说明用液相色谱法检测瓶装饮料中邻苯二甲酸酯类物质含量是可行的.且快速、有效.%Phthalate esters (PAEs) were a class of important plasticizers, and it also were the environmental estrogens, it affects the animal endocrine system. PAEs were not only with chronic toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic effects to people, but also with reproductive and upgrowth toxicity. This study focused on the method of detection of DNOP and DBP in plastic packing beverage by HPLC. The sample were filtrated and enrichment by clean up column, and nitrogen drying at 50℃, and pass through 0.22 u,m film after fixed volume with methanol, and detected at 225 nm by HPLC. ProELUT PLS G1ASS 200 mg/6 mL as the clean up column, the recovery rate of DBP was 83.4%-93.4%, DNOP was 80.4%~86.0%. The detection limit of instrument was 0.01μg/mL. The results showed that the HPLC method was effective and convenient for the detection of DNOP and DBP in beverage.

  18. Radioactivity in French bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loyen, J.; Brassac, A.; Augeray, C.; Fayolle, C.; Gleizes, M. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire - IRSN (France)

    2014-07-01

    As IRSN is considered as a reference laboratory for radioactivity measurements, French health ministry and French nuclear safety authority asked IRSN to carry out a study in order to get a fresh and complete status of radiological water quality of French bottled waters. The study was carried out during 12 months in 2012. A total of 142 bottled waters samples were analyzed (75 spring waters and 67 natural mineral waters). The laboratories of IRSN were in charge of: - systematic measurement of radioactivity following requirements of the French health ministry (Circulaire du 13/06/2007) regarding the monitoring and management of sanitary risk linked to the presence of radionuclides in drinking waters (natural mineral waters excepted). - systematic uranium mass concentration determination; - a few radon-222 gas measurements for waters in glass bottles. This study is a flash assessment of radiological characteristics of French bottled waters, at the analysis date for the sample received. It was done in informative way and was not done for regulatory control purposes.. This study has shown that: - all bottled waters analyzed have a tritium activity concentration lower than the quality reference value of 100 Bq/l of the French regulation; - More than 105 bottled waters analyzed (80% of the springs waters and 70% of natural mineral waters received) have a gross alpha activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 0,1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a residual gross beta activity concentration lower than the guideline value of 1 Bq/l of the French regulation; - All bottled waters analyzed have a uranium mass concentration lower than the provisory guideline value of 30 μg/l of the WHO for drinking waters; - radon-222 was only significantly measured once upon 6 glass bottled waters with a value far below the reference value of 100 Bq/l of the future European Directive on drinking waters. For 32 bottled waters with gross alpha

  19. 21 CFR 165.110 - Bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled water. 165.110 Section 165.110 Food and... CONSUMPTION BEVERAGES Requirements for Specific Standardized Beverages § 165.110 Bottled water. (a) Identity—(1) Description. Bottled water is water that is intended for human consumption and that is sealed...

  20. 27 CFR 31.232 - Wine bottling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wine bottling. 31.232... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Miscellaneous § 31.232 Wine bottling. Each person desiring to bottle, package, or repackage taxpaid wines must, before carrying on those operations,...

  1. Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S

    2009-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the quality of bottled water with potabilized desalinated tap water. Fourteen brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market and analyzed for physicochemical parameters in the Royal Commission Environmental Laboratory. Results were compared with 5-year continuous monitoring data of tap water from different locations in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah (MYAS) including storage tanks of desalination plant. Results show that there was no significant difference in the quality of tap water and bottled water. Bacteriological test was never found positive in the 5-year data in tap water. Similarly, physicochemical analysis shows the persistent quality of tap water. Based on hardness analysis, bottled and tap water are categorized as soft water. Trihalomethanes (THMs) study also indicates that traces of disinfection by products (DBPs) are present in both tap and bottled water and are much less than the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency maximum permissible limits. It is also important to note that the tap water distribution network in MAYS is a high-pressure recirculation network and there is no chance to grow bacteria in stagnant water in pipe lines or houses. Recently, the Royal Commission has replaced the whole drinking water network, which was made of asbestos-cemented pipes with glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes, to avoid any asbestos contaminations. Based on these results, it is concluded that drinking water distributed in the city is of very good and persistent quality, comparable with bottled water. Continuous monitoring also guarantees the safe drinking water to the community. Hence, it is the responsibility of the Royal Commission to encourage the peoples in the city to drink tap water as it is as good as bottled water even better than some of the brands and is monitored regularly. It is also much cheaper compared to bottled water and is available round the clock

  2. Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Plastic Surgery KidsHealth > For Teens > Plastic Surgery Print A A ... forehead lightened with a laser? What Is Plastic Surgery? Just because the name includes the word "plastic" ...

  3. Qualitative Assessment Of Bottled Water In The Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, S.; Saleem, Abdul

    1996-01-01

    Many brands of bottled water are being produced in the Middle East including the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries. Over fourteen brands of bottled water could be found in the market of Doha. Use of bottled water has kept on increasing in this region. Reasons for the increase in use of bottled water for drinking have been discussed. The raw water source for the bottled water is groundwater. Most of the manufacturers of the bottled water claim bottled water as "Natural Mineral Water...

  4. Migration of plasticizers phthalates, bisphenol A and alkylphenols from plastic containers and evaluation of risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guart, A; Bono-Blay, F; Borrell, A; Lacorte, S

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the potential migration of plasticisers, plastic components and additives from several plastic water bottles. Compounds studied were phthalates (dimethyl phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, benzylbutyl phthalate, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), bis(2-ethylhexyl) adipate, octylphenol, 4-nonylphenol and bisphenol A. Polycarbonate (PC), high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and polystyrene (PS) plastics used in the water bottling sector were tested using three kinds of total or specific migration tests: (1) standard method UNE-EN ISO 177; (2) ultrasonic forced extraction; and (3) standard method UNE-EN 13130-1. In addition, bottled waters contained in different plastic materials were analysed to determine the potential migration of target compounds in real conditions. In all cases, samples were solid-phase extracted using Oasis HLB 200 mg cartridges and analysed using GC-MS in scan-acquisition mode. Bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol were detected in incubated samples, indicating that migration from food plastics can occur at the experimental conditions tested. The total daily intake was calculated according to the levels detected in bottled water and the assessment of the consumers' risk was evaluated taking into consideration toxicological and legislative values.

  5. Application of silicone based elastomers for manufacturing of Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    Due to ever-increasing demand of sustainable products, eco-friendly packaging solutions are finding their importance in the paper packaging industry. Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) is an alternative to plastic, glass and metal based packaging for beverages. The tool concept for manufacturing of paper...... bottle uses a silicone based elastomer as the core. The expansion of core in the tool resists shrinkage of paper during drying as well as helps in obtaining good fiber compaction. The feasibility of the tool concept in the production of GFB is discussed in this work....

  6. Novel Gas Barrier SiOC Coating to PET Bottles through a Hot Wire CVD Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Nakaya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to enhance the gas barrier enhancement of plastic containers such as poly(ethylene terephthalate bottles, a novel method was found using a hot wire CVD technique, where tantalum wire is heated and exposed to a gas flow of vinyl silane. The resultant SiOC thin film was confirmed to characteristically contain Si-Si bonds in its surface and demonstrate a remarkably and highly practical decrease of the permeation of various gas through poly(ethylene terephthalate bottles.

  7. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf

    2012-01-01

    infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status......This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging...... from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1...

  8. Chemistry with Inexpensive Materials: Spray Bottles and Plastic Bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltewicz, Susan

    1993-01-01

    Presents eight chemistry activities that are interesting and involve simple, easily available materials. Topics include mystery writing, valentine hearts, flame tests, evaporation race, buoyancy versus mass, determination of relative masses of gases, mole sample container, and cold and hot packs. (DDR)

  9. EXAMINATION OF BOTTLED WATER FOR NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to examine bottled water for the presence of nontuberculous mycobacteria as a potential source of infection in AIDS patients. Twenty brands of bottled water commonly used in the Los Angeles area were tested for the presence of nontuberculous mycoba...

  10. A pilot study comparing opaque, weighted bottles with conventional, clear bottles for infant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Alison K; Pollack Golen, Rebecca

    2015-02-01

    It is hypothesized that the visual and weight cues afforded by bottle-feeding may lead mothers to overfeed in response to the amount of liquid in the bottle. The aim of the present pilot study was to test this hypothesis by comparing mothers' sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues and infants' intakes when mothers use opaque, weighted bottles (that remove visual and weight cues) compared to conventional, clear bottles to feed their infants. We also tested the hypothesis that mothers' pressuring feeding style would moderate the effect of bottle type. Formula-feeding dyads (N = 25) visited our laboratory on two separate days. Mothers fed their infants from a clear bottle one day and an opaque, weighted bottle on the other; bottle-order was counterbalanced across the two days. Infant intake was assessed by weighing each bottle before and after the feeding. Maternal sensitivity and responsiveness to infant cues was objectively assessed using the Nursing Child Assessment Feeding Scale. Mothers were significantly more responsive to infant cues when they used opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .04). There was also a trend for infants to consume significantly less formula when fed from opaque compared to clear bottles (p = .08). Mothers' pressuring feeding style moderated the effect of bottle type on maternal responsiveness to infant cues (p = .02) and infant intake (p = .03). Specifically, mothers who reported higher levels of pressuring feeding were significantly more responsive to their infants' cues (p = .02) and fed their infants significantly less formula when using opaque versus clear bottles (p = .01); no differences were seen for mothers who reported lower levels of pressuring feeding. This study highlights a simple, yet effective intervention for improving the bottle-feeding practices of mothers who have pressuring feeding styles.

  11. Baby bottle tooth decay in Native American children in Head Start centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, E; Mabry, J; Robertson, D; Thompson, J

    1989-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay is a unique pattern of dental caries (tooth decay) affecting the dentition of young children. It is associated with the practice of putting the child to sleep with a nursing bottle filled with liquid that contains sugar. Practitioners who treat Native American children have noted that this population suffers from a high prevalence of the condition. In order to establish specific program priorities and treatment needs for this segment of the Native American population, additional information is required on both prevalence and severity of baby bottle tooth decay. In this survey, an overall prevalence of 70 percent was observed when Navajo and Cherokee Head Start students ages 4-5 years were examined. Of the children affected by baby bottle tooth decay, 87 percent displayed the most severe manifestation of the disease. The prevalence of this disease in these Native American children appears to be substantially higher than in other populations. Further study is needed to identify the factors contributing to this difference in prevalence and to identify effective measures for reducing the occurrence of baby bottle tooth decay among Native Americans. PMID:2493662

  12. Revisiting the fog bottle experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamcharean, C.; Khanchong, C.; Wattanakasiwich, P.

    2016-11-01

    In this article we propose an irreversible adiabatic expansion model, modified from previous work, to explain the fog bottle experiment. Our model divides the phenomenon into five thermodynamic states, and we include in our calculation irreversible work pushing a stopper out of the bottle and heat gain from the condensation of saturated vapour. In the experiment, thermodynamic variables including pressure and temperature as functions of time were measured. The work done in pushing the stopper out was measured and the condensation heat was determined using the Clausius-Clapeyron equation to determine saturated vapour pressure. As a result, fog formation was explained through a phase diagram of water showing the saturated vapour pressure during irreversible adiabatic expansion. Also, state variables (P, V and T) and the entropy change of the real process were compared with the reversible and irreversible adiabatic expansion and our modified process. Using a P-T diagram, we show that the amount of reversible work is always higher than the amount of irreversible work, due to dissipative work. According to our modified model, the dissipative work and the heat transferred from condensation cause irreversibility or {{Δ }}{S}{{t}{{o}}{{t}}{{a}}{{l}}}\\gt 0.

  13. Implementation of Human Machine Interface Control for Filling and Capping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yadanar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This research is mainly aimed to perform the bottle filling and capping process simultaneously in the pharmaceutical factory by using the PC based human machine interface system. Filling and capping is carried out by the machine that packages the medical powder into the bottle and then filled bottle is capped. So, PC based HMI system is created for operator control on the work cell. By designing the programming of Visual Basic.Net and Mikro C, the monitoring and running conditions in the packaging system are shown on the screen of the computer. The entire system is more flexible and time saving. In this project, a prototype is implemented by using the DC motors, sensing devices, limit switches, peripheral interface controller and serial port communication. This PC based HMI control system is very flexible, cost effective, space efficient and reduce complexity and is used to monitor the process.

  14. About Dental Amalgam Fillings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Medical Procedures Dental Devices Dental Amalgam About Dental Amalgam Fillings Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... should I have my fillings removed? What is dental amalgam? Dental amalgam is a dental filling material ...

  15. Quality and safety aspects of reusable plastic food packaging materials: influence of reuse on intrinsic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetten, J; de, Kruijf N

    2002-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a comprehensive package of quality assurance criteria for use by the industry and by regulatory authorities to ensure the quality and safety-in-use (sensory, microbiological and chemical safety) of reused plastics for food packaging. The paper describes the investigations into potential adulteration effects by reuse on the intrinsic properties of plastics in more detail. The plastic articles investigated were bottles of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polycarbonate (PC) and vending cups of polypropylene (PP). The influence of repeated use on the migration of plastic constituents, degradation products of plastic additives, barrier properties and surface characteristics were investigated. The overall conclusion was that the investigated intrinsic properties of the refillable articles were not significantly influenced by repeated use. Only the hydrophobicity of the refillable PC and PP articles seemed to be influenced by repeated washing. PC bottles washed 15 times were significantly less hydrophobic than unwashed bottles.

  16. Plasticity theory

    CERN Document Server

    Lubliner, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    The aim of Plasticity Theory is to provide a comprehensive introduction to the contemporary state of knowledge in basic plasticity theory and to its applications. It treats several areas not commonly found between the covers of a single book: the physics of plasticity, constitutive theory, dynamic plasticity, large-deformation plasticity, and numerical methods, in addition to a representative survey of problems treated by classical methods, such as elastic-plastic problems, plane plastic flow, and limit analysis; the problem discussed come from areas of interest to mechanical, structural, and

  17. 充碳塑料管壳式增湿-去湿淡化装置及过程:模拟和实验研究%Modelling and Experimental Investigation of Humidification Dehumidification Desalination Using a Carbon-Filled-Plastic Shell-Tube Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成怀刚; 王世昌

    2007-01-01

    The modelling and experimental investigation of a thermally coupled humidification-dehumidification desalination process using a carbon-filled-polypropylene shell-tube column are presented. A heat/mass transfer model is established to study the correlation among productivity, thermal efficiency, physicochemical parameters (gas/liquid phase temperature, heat/mass transfer coefficient, Reynolds number etc.), and operating conditions (the temperature of feed water, the flow rates of external steam, feed water, and carrier air); at the same time, the effects of operating conditions on the productivity and thermal eficiency of the column are investigated both theoretically and experimentally, which indicate that the optimum flow rates of external steam, feed water, and carrier gas are 0.18, 60, and 10kg·h-1, respectively, and the higher the feed water temperature (≤95℃) is, the greater the productivity and the thermal efficiency will be. Furthermore, performance comparison with the previous study shows that the condensate productivity of this carbon-filled-plastic column is not lower than that of the copper column, which demonstrates the practicability and feasibility of applying such a plastic column to the humidification-dehumidification desalination process.

  18. 27 CFR 24.308 - Bottled or packed wine record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled or packed wine... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Records and Reports § 24.308 Bottled or packed wine record. A proprietor who bottles, packs, or receives bottled or packed beverage wine in bond shall...

  19. Comparative life cycle assessment and life cycle costing of four disposal scenarios for used polyethylene terephthalate bottles in Mauritius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foolmaun, Rajendra Kumar; Ramjeeawon, Toolseeram

    2012-09-01

    The annual rise in population growth coupled with the flourishing tourism industry in Mauritius has lead to a considerable increase in the amount of solid waste generated. In parallel, the disposal of non-biodegradable wastes, especially plastic packaging and plastic bottles, has also shown a steady rise. Improper disposal of used polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles constitutes an eyesore to the environmental landscape and is a threat to the flourishing tourism industry. It is of utmost importance, therefore, to determine a suitable disposal method for used PET bottles which is not only environmentally efficient but is also cost effective. This study investigated the environmental impacts and the cost effectiveness of four selected disposal alternatives for used PET bottles in Mauritius. The four disposal routes investigated were: 100% landfilling; 75% incineration with energy recovery and 25% landfilling; 40% flake production (partial recycling) and 60% landfilling; and 75% flake production and 25% landfilling. Environmental impacts of the disposal alternatives were determined using ISO standardized life cycle assessment (LCA) and with the support of SimaPro 7.1 software. Cost effectiveness was determined using life cycle costing (LCC). Collected data were entered into a constructed Excel-based model to calculate the different cost categories, Net present values, damage costs and payback periods. LCA and LCC results indicated that 75% flake production and 25% landfilling was the most environmentally efficient and cost-effective disposal route for used PET bottles in Mauritius.

  20. Resonance in Bottles with Different Shapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Helmholtz Resonance equation derived in the 1800’s describes the nature of resonance in narrow-necked vessels, known as Helmholtz Resonators. It is commonly accepted that when air is blown across the opening of a bottle, the resonance can be modeled by the Helmholtz equation. Resonance was studied in two differently shaped bottles as the volume of the air cavity was varied. It was found that resonance in one of the bottles was accurately modeled by the Helmholtz equation but not in the other.

  1. Silicon oxide permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) have displaced established materials in many areas of food and beverage packaging. Plastic packing materials offer are various advantages concerning production and handling. PET bottles for instance are non-breakable and lightweight compared to glass and metal containers. However, PET offers poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf live of packaged food is reduced. Permeation of gases can be reduced by depositing transparent plasma polymerized silicon oxide (SiOx) barrier coatings. A microwave (2.45 GHz) driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna to treat PET foils or bottles. To increase the barrier properties of the coatings furthermore a RF substrate bias (13.56 MHz) is applied. The composition of the coatings is analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy regarding carbon and hydrogen content. Influence of gas phase composition and substrate bias on chemical composition of the coatings is discussed. A strong relation between barrier properties and film composition is found: good oxygen barriers are observed as carbon content is reduced and films become quartz-like. Regarding oxygen permeation a barrier improvement factor (BIF) of 70 is achieved.

  2. GLOBEC NEP Rosette Bottle Data (2002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — GLOBEC (GLOBal Ocean ECosystems Dynamics) NEP (Northeast Pacific) Rosette Bottle Data from New Horizon Cruise (NH0207: 1-19 August 2002). Notes: Physical data...

  3. Plastic Jellyfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Christine

    2000-01-01

    Presents an environmental science activity designed to enhance students' awareness of the hazards of plastic waste for wildlife in aquatic environments. Discusses how students can take steps to reduce the effects of plastic waste. (WRM)

  4. Bottled vs. Canned Beer: Do They Really Taste Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Barnett

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available People often say that beer tastes better from a bottle than from a can. However, one can ask how reliable this perceived difference is across consumers. And, if reliable, one can further ask whether it is a purely psychological phenomenon (associated with the influence of packaging on taste perception, or whether instead it reflects some more mundane physico-chemical interaction between the packaging material (or packing procedure/process and the contents. Two experiments were conducted in order to address these questions. In the main experiment, 151 participants at the 2016 Edinburgh Science Festival were served a special ‘craft beer’ in a plastic cup. The beer was either poured from a bottle or can (a between-participants experimental design was used. The participants were encouraged to pick up the packaging in order to inspect the label before tasting the beer. The participants rated the perceived taste, quality, and freshness of the beer, as well as their likelihood of purchase, and estimated the price. All of the beer came from the same batch (specifically a Session IPA from Barney’s Brewery in Edinburgh. None of the participants were familiar with this particular craft brew. Nevertheless, those who evaluated the beer from the bottle rated it as tasting better than those who rated the beer served from the can. Having demonstrated such a perceptual difference (in terms of taste, we then went on to investigate whether people would prefer one packaging format over the other when the beer from bottle and can was served blind to a new group of participants (i.e., when the participants did not know the packaging material. The participants in this control study (n = 29 were asked which beer they preferred. Alternatively, they could state that the two samples tasted the same. No sign of a consistent preference was obtained under such blind tasting conditions. Explanations for the psychological impact of the packaging format, in terms of

  5. The research of clean bottle and bottle embryo recycle in the PP bottle infusion production%洁净瓶胚料在塑瓶大输液生产中回收利用的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔良峰; 黄桂华

    2015-01-01

    Objective Crush the clean plastic bottles and bottle embryos into a certain size of particles,add new pp ag-gregate mixed according to certain proportion,blow them into PP bottles again,the pp bottles will be used in the production of pp bottle infusions. Through the identification of the risk and influence factor during the recycle of the pp materials,take corresponding control measures to ensure the quality of the final products not be affected. Methods ①Identify the risk,re-search in the risk control and production process according the risk point. ②Select pp aggregate from 3 different manufactur-ers,research the different proportions of making pp bottles. ③Use the pp bottles in the production of 0. 9% sodium chloride injection and 5% glucose injection,test,research the accelerated stability study and the package material compatibili-ty. Make sure if there is quality difference between the new products which uses mixing aggregate and original products. Re-sults and Conclusion Recycle the homogeneous clean plastic bottles and bottle embryos with a certain propor-tion. Research the accelerated stability study and the package material compatibility,and compared with normal production, there is no obvious difference in the data,and the biological experiments meet the requirement at the same time. This method can ensure the product safety and stability.%目的:将塑瓶大输液生产中灌装药液前产生的洁净瓶、胚,重新粉碎成一定粒径的颗粒后,与新 PP 粒料按一定比例混合后,重新吹制成 PP 输液瓶,用于 PP 塑瓶大输液产品的生产。通过对回收利用过程中的各种风险和影响因素进行识别,采取针对性的控制措施,确保最终产品质量不受影响。方法①进行风险识别,确定风险点并据此进行风险控制与工艺研究;②选取3个不同厂家的 PP 粒料,进行不同混合比例的制瓶研究;③将不同混合比例的 PP 瓶分别用于0.9%

  6. A novel one-step synthesis for carbon-based nanomaterials from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Essawy, Noha A; Konsowa, Abdelaziz H; Elnouby, Mohamed; Farag, Hassan A

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays our planet suffers from an accumulation of plastic products that have the potential to cause great harm to the environment in the form of air, water, and land pollution. Plastic water bottles have become a great problem in the environment because of the large numbers consumed throughout the world. Certain types of plastic bottles can be recycled but most of them are not. This paper describes an economical solvent-free process that converts polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles waste into carbon nanostructure materials via thermal dissociation in a closed system under autogenic pressure together with additives and/or catalyst, which can act as cluster nuclei for carbon nanostructure materials such as fullerenes and carbon nanotubes. This research succeeded in producing and controlling the microstructure of various forms of carbon nanoparticles from the PET waste by optimizing the preparation parameters in terms of time, additives, and amounts of catalyst. Plastic water bottles are becoming a growing segment of the municipal solid waste stream in the world; some are recycled but many are left in landfill sites. Recycling PET bottles waste can positively impact the environment in several ways: for instance, reduced waste, resource conservation, energy conservation, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, and decreasing the amount of pollution in air and water sources. The main novelty of the present work is based on the acquisition of high-value carbon-based nanomaterials from PET waste by a simple solvent-free chemical technique. Thus, the prepared materials are considered to be promising, cheap, eco-friendly materials that may find use in different applications.

  7. Impact of plastics on fate and transport of organic contaminants in landfills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquing, Jovita M; Saquing, Carl D; Knappe, Detlef R U; Barlaz, Morton A

    2010-08-15

    Factors controlling organic contaminant sorption to common plastics in municipal solid waste were identified. Consumer plastics [drinking water container, prescription drug bottle, soda bottle, disposable cold cup, computer casing, furniture foam, carpet, vinyl flooring, formica sheet] and model polymers [high-density polyethylene (HDPE), medium-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC)] were characterized by X-ray diffractometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and elemental analysis. The material characterization was used to interpret batch isotherm and kinetic data. K(p) values describing toluene sorption to rubbery or "soft" polymers could be normalized by the amorphous polymer fraction (f(amorphous)) but not by the organic carbon fraction (f(oc)). Diffusion coefficients (D) describing the uptake rate of toluene by rubbery plastics (HDPE, drinking water container, prescription drug bottle) were similar (D approximately 10(-10) cm(2)/s), indicating that pure HDPE can be used as a model for rubbery plastics. Toluene diffusivity was similar among glassy or "hard" plastics (PVC, soda bottle, computer casing, disposable cold cup; D approximately 10(-12) cm(2)/s) but lower than for rubbery plastics. Plastics in landfills are potential sinks of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) because of their higher affinity for HOCs compared to lignocellulosic materials and the slow desorption of HOCs from glassy plastics.

  8. Catalytic thermal cracking of post-consumer waste plastics to fuels: Part 1 - Kinetics and optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) was used to investigate thermal and catalytic pyrolysis of waste plastics such as prescription bottles (polypropylene/PP), high density polyethylene, landfill liners (polyethylene/PE), packing materials (polystyrene/PS), and foams (polyurethane/PU) into crude plastic...

  9. Skin perfusion pressure measured with a photo sensor in an air-filled plastic balloon: validity and reproducibility on the lower leg in normal subjects and patients suspected of obliterative arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Steen Levin; Nielsen, Anne Lerberg; Vind, Susanne Haase

    2011-01-01

    An inflatable small plastic bag including a photo sensor was constructed for measurement of skin perfusion pressure avoiding the rim of the photo sensor over bony and tendineous surfaces of the tibia below the knee, at the ankle, and on the dorsal forefoot. Compression was obtained using a conical...... pressure device thus had acceptable validity and reproducibility for estimation of the skin perfusion pressure and can be used on bony and tendineous sites on the lower limb in regions where critical wound healing is frequent, e.g. ankle and forefoot....

  10. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    OpenAIRE

    Lindsay Miller; Katie Soulliere; Susan Sawyer-Beaulieu; Simon Tseng; Edwin Tam

    2014-01-01

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technolog...

  11. Microstructural Design & Optimization of Highly Filled Epoxy Based Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    particle concentration and decreasing the particle size were found to increase the stress at 4% strain [5]. A study of aluminum filled epoxy ( DGEBA ...to increase the strength corresponding to 4% plastic strain [5]. A study of aluminum filled epoxy ( DGEBA /MTHPA) composites has found that a small

  12. Concrete-Filled-Large Deformable FRP Tubular Columns under Axial Compressive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar I. Abdelkarim

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of concrete-filled fiber tubes (CFFT polymers under axial compressive loading was investigated. Unlike the traditional fiber reinforced polymers (FRP such as carbon, glass, aramid, etc., the FRP tubes in this study were designed using large rupture strains FRP which are made of recycled materials such as plastic bottles; hence, large rupture strain (LRS FRP composites are environmentally friendly and can be used in the context of green construction. This study performed finite element (FE analysis using LS-DYNA software to conduct an extensive parametric study on CFFT. The effects of the FRP confinement ratio, the unconfined concrete compressive strength ( , column size, and column aspect ratio on the behavior of the CFFT under axial compressive loading were investigated during this study. A comparison between the behavior of the CFFTs with LRS-FRP and those with traditional FRP (carbon and glass with a high range of confinement ratios was conducted as well. A new hybrid FRP system combined with traditional and LRS-FRP is proposed. Generally, the CFFTs with LRS-FRP showed remarkable behavior under axial loading in strength and ultimate strain. Equations to estimate the concrete dilation parameter and dilation angle of the CFFTs with LRS-FRP tubes and hybrid FRP tubes are suggested.

  13. "Bottle-Brush" Heat Exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tward, E.; Gatewood, J. R.

    1982-01-01

    Heat exchanger consists of a metal tube with wires extending inward from wall. Conduction of heat along wires improves heat transfer to gas or other filling. Fluid is heated throughout the cross section of tube. Suggested applications are refrigerators, heat engines, thermal instrumentation, and heat switches.

  14. Influence of bottle-feeding on serum bisphenol a levels in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhie, Young-Jun; Nam, Hyo-Kyoung; Oh, Yeon Joung; Kim, Ho-Seong; Lee, Kee-Hyoung

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), particularly during developmental periods, gives rise to a variety of adverse health outcomes. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known EDC commonly found in plastic products including food and water containers, baby bottles, and metal can linings. This study investigates infant exposure to BPA and the effect of bottle-feeding on serum BPA levels in infants. Serum BPA levels in normal healthy infants 6 to 15 months of age (n=60) were evaluated by a competitive ELISA. BPA was detected in every study sample. Serum BPA levels of bottle-fed infants (n=30) were significantly higher than those of breast-fed infants (n=30) (96.58±102.36 vs 45.53±34.05 pg/mL, P=0.014). There were no significant differences in serum BPA levels between boys (n=31) and girls (n=29). No significant correlations were found between serum BPA levels and age, body weight, birth weight, and gestational age. Bottle-feeding seems to increase the risk of infant exposure to BPA. Establishment of health policies to reduce or prevent BPA exposure in infants is necessary.

  15. Getting a prescription filled

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are located inside of a grocery or large "chain" store. It is best to fill all prescriptions ... be used for long-term medicines and medical supplies. The website should have clear directions for filling ...

  16. 基于弹塑性理论带肋填砂管桩承载力的研究与应用%Study and Application on Bearing Capacity of Ribbed and Sand-filled Tube Pile Based on Elastic-plastic Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴庆斌

    2012-01-01

    带肋填砂管桩是对普通预应力混凝土管桩改进后形成的一种新的管桩应用类型。基于弹塑性理论的带肋填砂管桩沉降计算方法,既考虑桩身在荷载传递作用下的弹性压缩沉降,也考虑桩端以下土层的弹性和弹塑性变形沉降,并给出端阻力和桩侧阻力的分配系数确定方法。根据该模型计算结果,可进一步分析有关数据的特点及其产生的原理。结果表明,该模型的计算结果与实测结果较吻合,具有一定的应用价值。%Ribbed and sand-filled tube pile is a new applied tube pile after the improvement of the general prestressed concrete pile. The settlement calculation of ribbed and sand-filled tube pile based on elastic-plastic theory not only takes into account of the compression settlement under the load transfer of the pile, but also the soil elastic and plastic settlement below the pile tip, and the method of coefficients between resistances of the pile tip and the pile side is presented. According to the result, the relevant statistics and their principle can be studied. Results indicates that the calculation agrees well with the measurement, and is of practical value.

  17. Environmental evaluation of global impacts caused by industrial activities. LCA of returnable beer bottle; Sangyo katsudo ni yotte shojiru chikyu kankyo impact no teiryoteki hyokaho. Reitoshite, beer bin no LCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamura, H.; Utsuno, F.; Yasui, I. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Industrial Science

    1995-04-01

    An application is reported of the LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) concerning reusable beer bottles (volume: 633cc). Data were collected for examination covering the four stages of natural resource acquisition, bottle production, beer filling and packaging, and distribution and consumption (with the stage of waste management being excluded because of inadequate data). Examination was made of changes brought about in the total energy consumption by varying the five parameters, that is, the number of usage of bottles, transportation distance for empty bottles, cullet ratio in glass manufacturing, transportation distance for cullet, and the bottle weight. It was found that the total energy consumption decreases with an increase in the number of usage of bottles, that an increase in the cullet ratio and a decrease in the bottle weight are effective in decreasing the total energy consumption, and that there is an energy-wise disadvantage when empty bottles are transported over a longer distance without an increase in the number of usage of bottles. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Comparative evolution of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and sulfites during storage of a rosé wine bottled in PET and glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toussaint, Marie; Vidal, Jean-Claude; Salmon, Jean-Michel

    2014-04-02

    The management of dissolved and headspace gases during bottling and the choice of packaging are both key factors for the shelf life of wine. Two kinds of 75 cL polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles (with or without recycled PET) were compared to glass bottles filled with a rosé wine, closed with the same screwcaps and stored upright at 20 °C in light or in the dark. Analytical monitoring (aphrometric pressure, headspace volume, O2, N2, CO2, and SO2) was carried out for 372 days. After the consumption of O2 trapped during bottling, the total O2 content in glass bottles remained stable. A substantial decrease of CO2 and SO2 concentration and an increase of O2 concentration were observed in the PET bottles after 6 months because of the considerable gas permeability of monolayer PET. Light accelerated O2 consumption during the early months. Finally, the kinetic monitoring of partial pressures in gas and liquid phases in bottles showed contrasting behavior of O2 and N2 in comparison with CO2.

  19. Chemical compounds and toxicological assessments of drinking water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: A source of controversy reviewed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cristina; Dauchy, Xavier; Chagnon, Marie-Christine; Etienne, Serge

    2012-03-01

    A declaration of conformity according to European regulation No. 10/2011 is required to ensure the safety of plastic materials in contact with foodstuffs. This regulation established a positive list of substances that are authorized for use in plastic materials. Some compounds are subject to restrictions and/or specifications according to their toxicological data. Despite this, the analysis of PET reveals some non-intentionally added substances (NIAS) produced by authorized initial reactants and additives. Genotoxic and estrogenic activities in PET-bottled water have been reported. Chemical mixtures in bottled water have been suggested as the source of these toxicological effects. Furthermore, sample preparation techniques, such as solid-phase extraction (SPE), to extract estrogen-like compounds in bottled water are controversial. It has been suggested that inappropriate extraction methods and sample treatment may result in false-negative or positive responses when testing water extracts in bioassays. There is therefore a need to combine chemical analysis with bioassays to carry out hazard assessments. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and antimony are clearly related to migration from PET into water. However, several studies have shown other theoretically unexpected substances in bottled water. The origin of these compounds has not been clearly established (PET container, cap-sealing resins, background contamination, water processing steps, NIAS, recycled PET, etc.). Here, we surveyed toxicological studies on PET-bottled water and chemical compounds that may be present therein. Our literature review shows that contradictory results for PET-bottled water have been reported, and differences can be explained by the wide variety of analytical methods, bioassays and exposure conditions employed.

  20. Parents and nursing-bottle caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Everdingen, T; Eijkman, M A; Hoogstraten, J

    1996-01-01

    In this study, the role of the parent in the phenomenon of nursing bottle caries is investigated. The main goal is to try to assess whether differences exist between parents and their children who suffer from nursing bottle caries and parents and children who are not affected by this form of dental decay. To this purpose, a questionnaire was constructed. Results showed that, in contrast to parents of non-caries children, more parents of caries children give a bottle straight from birth. These bottles more often contain sugared drinks and are given during daytime as well as at night. Children with caries and non-caries children differ in two respects: caries children on the whole are older and they have been sick more often than non-caries children. Finally, habit seems to be the major factor contributing to the use of a bottle to a relatively high age. Discussion focuses on the characterization of "typical" caries parents and their children and the implication for educational programs such a characterization could have.

  1. Ergonomics Designs of Aluminum Beverage Cans & Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jing; Itoh, Ryouiti; Yamazaki, Koetsu; Nishiyama, Sadao; Shinguryo, Takuro

    2005-08-01

    This paper introduced the finite element analyses into the ergonomics designs to evaluate the human feelings numerically and objectively. Two design examples in developing aluminum beverage cans & bottles are presented. The first example describes a design of the tab of the can with better finger access. A simulation of finger pulling up the tab of the can has been performed and a pain in the finger has been evaluated by using the maximum value of the contact stress of a finger model. The finger access comparison of three kinds of tab ring shape designs showed that the finger access of the tab that may have a larger contact area with finger is better. The second example describes a design of rib-shape embossed bottles for hot vending. Analyses of tactile sensation of heat have been performed and the amount of heat transmitted from hot bottles to finger was used to present the hot touch feeling. Comparison results showed that the hot touch feeling of rib-shape embossed bottles is better than that of cylindrical bottles, and that the shape of the rib also influenced the hot touch feeling.

  2. Buying and Caring for Baby Bottles and Nipples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and nipples. References American Academy of Pediatrics. Practical Bottle Feeding Tips. Available at: www.healthychildren.org/English/ages-stages/baby/feeding-nutrition/Pages/Practical-Bottle-Feeding-Tips.aspx. Accessed April 7, 2015. Stettler N, ...

  3. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccini, Gabriela dos Santos; Benício, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Venancio, Sonia Isoyama

    2014-08-01

    To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding). Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding): mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as "baby friendly", required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91), and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  4. Determinants of using pacifier and bottle feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela dos Santos Buccini

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the factors associated with the use of pacifiers and/or bottle feeding in infants aged under one year. METHODS This is a cross-sectional study with 34,366 children and using data from the database of the 2nd Nationwide Survey of Breastfeeding Prevalence performed in the Brazilian capitals and Federal District in 2008. Cluster sampling was used. The questionnaire included questions about the use of artificial nipples in the last 24 hours. The analysis considered three outcomes: exclusive use of pacifier, exclusive use of bottle feeding, and use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding. Prevalence ratios were obtained using Poisson regression with robust variance following a hierarchical model. RESULTS The following factors were associated with exclusive use of the pacifier: mother working outside the home, primiparity, child was not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with exclusive use of bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, low birth weight, child not breastfed within the first hour, and child had consumed milk formula and tea on the first day at home. The following factors were associated with use of artificial nipples (pacifier and bottle feeding: mother working outside the home, primiparity, cesarean delivery, the male gender, low birth weight, born in a hospital not accredited as “baby friendly”, required health baby monitoring in the Primary Health Care Unit (PR = 0.91, and child had consumed milk formula, water, or tea on the first day at home. CONCLUSIONS This study identified profiles of exclusive users of pacifiers, bottle feeding, and both. The provided information can guide preventive practices for child health.

  5. Flammability of Gas-Filled Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushkov Valentin Anatol'evich

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The regularities of flame propagation on the horizontal surface of gas-filled polymers are considered depending on the concentration of oxygen in the oxidizer flow. The values of the coefficients in the expression describing relationship between the rate of flame propagation on the surface of foams and oxygen concentration are obtained. It was shown that with the mass content of reactive organophosphorus compounds reaching 4.0...5.9%, non-smoldering resole foam plastics with high performance characteristics are obtained. It was found that in order to obtain moderately combustible polyurethane foams based on oxyethylated phosphorus-containing polyols, the phosphorus concentration should not exceed 3 % of mass. To obtain flame-retardant urea-formaldehyde foam cellular plastics, the concentration of phosphorus should not exceed 0.3 % of mass. Physical-mechanical properties and flammability indices of developed gas-filled polymers based on reactive oligomers are presented.

  6. Formation of Small Bottle Light Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RAO Lian-zhou; PU Ji-Xiong

    2007-01-01

    A method for obtaining small bottle light beams,e.g.0.92λ×0.4λ,in a high numerical-aperture lens system is proposed and numerically demonstrated.This can be achieved by changing the radius of each zone of the binary element and polarization rotation angle of the cylindrically polarized vectorial vortex beam.It is found that the transversal and axial sizes of this bottle bearn are equal to about 0.92λ and 0.4λ,respectively.In addition,the connection between angular momentum and topological Pancharatnam charge is also shown.

  7. 27 CFR 24.255 - Bottling or packing wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling or packing wine..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Storage, Treatment and Finishing of Wine Bottling, Packing, and Labeling of Wine § 24.255 Bottling or packing wine. (a) General. Proprietors of a bonded wine premises and...

  8. 27 CFR 19.749 - Bottling and packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottling and packaging record. 19.749 Section 19.749 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Account § 19.749 Bottling and packaging record. The bottling and packaging record shall be prepared...

  9. Bottle-feeding and the Risk of Pyloric Stenosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Camilla; Biggar, Robert J; Fischer, Thea Kølsen

    2012-01-01

    Bottle-feeding has been suggested to increase the risk of pyloric stenosis (PS). However, large population-based studies are needed. We examined the effect of bottle-feeding during the first 4 months after birth, by using detailed data about the timing of first exposure to bottle...

  10. 27 CFR 28.102 - Bottles to have closures affixed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles to have closures... Transportation to a Manufacturing Bonded Warehouse § 28.102 Bottles to have closures affixed. Every bottle containing distilled spirits to be withdrawn under the provisions of this subpart shall have a closure...

  11. Plastics Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Tommy G.

    This curriculum guide is designed to assist junior high schools industrial arts teachers in planning new courses and revising existing courses in plastics technology. Addressed in the individual units of the guide are the following topics: introduction to production technology; history and development of plastics; safety; youth leadership,…

  12. 洗发水瓶揭盖式瓶盖注塑模设计%Design of Injection Mould for Shampoo Bottle Uncovery Type Bottle Cap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何亮; 喻慧文; 曾雪东

    2015-01-01

    洗发水瓶揭盖式瓶盖的结构比较复杂,应用Pro/E软件的塑料顾问模块对塑料件进行分析,确定合适的点浇口位置,并着重阐述了滑块斜顶抽芯机构、顶管二次脱模的设计要点和模具工作原理。应用结果表明,该模具结构动作准确、可靠,成型的塑料件质量较好,具有良好的经济效益。%The structure of shampoo bottle uncovery type bottle cap is complex. The pin gate position was determined by using the plastic advisor of Pro/E software. The design points of lifter slider core pulling mechanism and ejector sleeve using to secondary stripping were mainly described,in addition the mould working principle were too discussed. Production practice prove that the design of the mould structure is reasonable and reliable,the plastic parts have good quality,and it has the good economic efficiency.

  13. Legionella pneumophila in commercial bottled mineral water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klont, R.R.; Rijs, A.J.M.M.; Warris, A.; Sturm, P.D.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2006-01-01

    Sixty-eight commercial bottled mineral waters (64 brands, 68 different 'best-before dates') were tested for the presence of bacteria and fungi. Six samples were Legionella antigen positive and six were Legionella pneumophila PCR positive. Two samples were both Legionella antigen and L. pneumophila P

  14. IS BOTTLE GOURD A NATURAL GUARD??

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Satbir

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Bottle gourd is one of the excellent fruits gifted by nature to human beings having composition of all the essential constituents that are required for good health and quality human life. Lagenaria siceraria (Cucurbitaceae, popularly known as bottle gourd, lauki or ghiya, is a climbing plant, which bears hard-shelled and bottle-shaped gourds as fruits. It forms an excellent diet being rich in vitamins, iron and minerals. The fruit is reported to contain the triterepenoide cucurbitacins B, D, G, H, two sterols viz., fucosterol and campesterol, aerpene byonolic acid (an allergic compound, flavone-C glycosides (a ribosome inactivating protein and lagenin. Extract of the ghiya seeds show antibiotic activity. The fruit juice is helpful in constipation, premature graying hair, urinary disorders and insomnia. Lauki has the highest content of choline among all the vegetables known to man till date, which serves as the precursor of neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which in turn is crucial for retaining and enhancing memory. Furthermore, Lagenaria siceraria is a vegetable useful in the management of many diseases like cardiac disorders, hepatic diseases and ulcer. Bottle gourd juice helps to regulate blood pressure of hypertensive patients, because of its high potassium content. It helps in losing weight quickly, because of its high dietary fiber and low fat and cholesterol content. In the light of above facts, the authors have made a humble attempt to compile an up-to-date review article on Lagenaria siceraria covering its phytochemistry, pharmacological actions and folk medicinal uses.

  15. Leaching of the plasticizer di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) from plastic containers and the question of human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erythropel, Hanno C; Maric, Milan; Nicell, Jim A; Leask, Richard L; Yargeau, Viviane

    2014-12-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used plasticizer to render poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) soft and malleable. Plasticized PVC is used in hospital equipment, food wrapping, and numerous other commercial and industrial products. Unfortunately, plasticizers can migrate within the material and leach out of it over time, ending up in the environment and, frequently, the human body. DEHP has come under increased scrutiny as its breakdown products are believed to be endocrine disruptors and more toxic than DEHP itself. DEHP and its breakdown products have been identified as ubiquitous environmental contaminants, and daily human exposure is estimated to be in the microgram per kilogram level. The objective of this review is to summarize and comment on published sources of DEHP exposure and to give an overview of its environmental fate. Exposure through bottled water was examined specifically, as this concern is raised frequently, yet only little exposure to DEHP occurs through bottled water, and DEHP exposure is unlikely to stem from the packaging material itself. Packaged food was also examined and showed higher levels of DEHP contamination compared to bottled water. Exposure to DEHP also occurs in hospital environments, where DEHP leaches directly into liquids that passed through PVC/DEHP tubing and equipment. The latter exposure is at considerably higher levels compared to food and bottled water, specifically putting patients with chronic illnesses at risk. Overall, levels of DEHP in food and bottled water were below current tolerable daily intake (TDI) values. However, our understanding of the risks of DEHP exposure is still evolving. Given the prevalence of DEHP in our atmosphere and environment, and the uncertainty revolving around it, the precautionary principle would suggest its phaseout and replacement. Increased efforts to develop viable replacement compounds, which necessarily includes rigorous leaching, toxicity, and impact assessment studies, are

  16. Water-filled telescopes

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, E

    2014-01-01

    In this short note we discuss the case of the thought experiments on water-filled telescopes and their realizations during 18th and 19th century. The story of those instruments shows that the scientific progress occurs in a curious way, since there was no stringent reason for the construction of a water-filled telescope.

  17. Plastic bronchitis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singhi, Anil Kumar; Vinoth, Bharathi; Kuruvilla, Sarah; Sivakumar, Kothandam

    2015-01-01

    Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics...

  18. Plastic Fishes

    CERN Multimedia

    Trettnak, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    In terms of weight, the plastic pollution in the world’s oceans is estimated to be around 300,000 tonnes. This plastic comes from both land-based and ocean-based sources. A lecture at CERN by chemist Wolfgang Trettnak addressed this issue and highlighted the role of art in raising people’s awareness. The slideshow below gives you a taste of the artworks by Wolfgang Trettnak and Margarita Cimadevila.

  19. Plastic Bridge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1994-01-01

    Already ubiquitous in homes and cars, plastic is now appearing inbridges. An academic-industrial consortium based at the University ofCalifornia in San Diego is launching a three-year research program aimed atdeveloping the world’s first plastic highway bridge, a 450-foot span madeentirely from glass-,carbon,and polymer-fiber-reinforced composite mate-rials, the stuff of military aircraft. It will cross Interstate 5 to connect thetwo sides of the school’s campus.

  20. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Özkan, Kemal, E-mail: kozkan@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Ergin, Semih, E-mail: sergin@ogu.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işık, Şahin, E-mail: sahini@ogu.edu.tr [Computer Engineering Dept., Eskişehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskişehir (Turkey); Işıklı, İdil, E-mail: idil.isikli@bilecik.edu.tr [Electrical Electronics Engineering Dept., Bilecik University, 11210 Bilecik (Turkey)

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • PET, HPDE or PP types of plastics are considered. • An automated classification of plastic bottles based on the feature extraction and classification methods is performed. • The decision mechanism consists of PCA, Kernel PCA, FLDA, SVD and Laplacian Eigenmaps methods. • SVM is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used. - Abstract: Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher’s Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple

  1. Leaching of styrene and other aromatic compounds in drinking water from PS bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maqbool Ahmad; Ahmad S.Bajahlan

    2007-01-01

    Bottled water may not be safer, or healthier, than tap water. The present studies have proved that styrene and some other aromatic compounds leach continuously from polystyrene (PS) bottles used locally for packaging. Water sapmles in contact with PS were extracted by a preconcentration technique called as "purge and trap" and analysed by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS). Eleven aromatic compounds were identified in these studies. Maximum concentration of styrene in PS bottles was 29.5 μg/L. Apart from styrene, ethyl benzene, toluene and benzene were also quantified but their concentrations were much less than WHO guide line values. All other compounds were in traces. Quality of plastic and storage time were the major factor in leaching of styrene. Concentration of styrene was increased to 69.53 μg/L after one-year storage time. In Styrofoam and PS cups studies, hot water was found to be contaminated with styrene and other aromatic compounds. It was observed that temperature played a major role in the leaching of styrene monomer from Styrofoam cups. Paper cups were found to be safe for hot drinks.

  2. Feeding Bottles Usage and the Prevalence of Childhood Allergy and Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Yun Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children’s ages ranging from 2 to 7 years in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children’s wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00–1.09, allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00–1.08, and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01–1.2 were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children’s ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  3. Feeding bottles usage and the prevalence of childhood allergy and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Nai-Yun; Wu, Pei-Chih; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Sundell, Jan; Su, Huey-Jen

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the association between the length of use of feeding bottles or pacifiers during childhood and the prevalence of respiratory and allergic morbidities. A large-scale questionnaire survey was performed in day care centers and kindergartens (with children's ages ranging from 2 to 7 years) in southern Taiwan, and a total of 14,862 questionnaires completed by parents were finally recruited for data analysis. Effects of using feeding bottles on children's wheezing/asthma (adjusted OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.00-1.09), allergic rhinitis (adjusted OR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08), and eczema (adjusted OR: 1.07, 95% CI 1.01-1.2) were found. Moreover, significant dose-dependent relationships were further established after an adjustment for confounders was performed that included children's ages, gender, gestational age, birth weight, length of breastfeeding, the age when first given infant formula or complementary foods, family history, parental educational levels, and smoking status, as well as the problem of indoor water damage. This study was the first to reveal the potential risk of using plastic consumer products such as feeding bottles on the reported health status of preschool children in Asian countries.

  4. GREEN PLASTIC: A NEW PLASTIC FOR PACKAGING

    OpenAIRE

    Mr. Pankaj Kumar*, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    This paper gives a brief idea about a new type of plastic called as bio-plastic or green plastic. Plastic is used as a packaging material for various products, but this plastic is made up of non renewable raw materials. There are various disadvantages of using conventional plastic like littering, CO2 production, non-degradable in nature etc. To overcome these problems a new type of plastic is discovered called bio-plastic or green plastic. Bio-plastic is made from renewable resources and also...

  5. Caution on the storage of waters and aqueous solutions in plastic containers for hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2012-11-30

    The choice of containers for storage of aqueous samples between their collection, transport and water hydrogen ((2)H) and oxygen ((18)O) stable isotope analysis is a topic of concern for a wide range of fields in environmental, geological, biomedical, food, and forensic sciences. The transport and separation of water molecules during water vapor or liquid uptake by sorption or solution and the diffusive transport of water molecules through organic polymer material by permeation or pervaporation may entail an isotopic fractionation. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the extent of such fractionation. Sixteen bottle-like containers of eleven different organic polymers, including low and high density polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and perfluoroalkoxy-Teflon (PFA), of different wall thickness and size were completely filled with the same mineral water and stored for 659 days under the same conditions of temperature and humidity. Particular care was exercised to keep the bottles tightly closed and prevent loss of water vapor through the seals. Changes of up to +5‰ for δ(2)H values and +2.0‰ for δ(18)O values were measured for water after more than 1 year of storage within a plastic container, with the magnitude of change depending mainly on the type of organic polymer, wall thickness, and container size. The most important variations were measured for the PET and PC bottles. Waters stored in glass bottles with Polyseal™ cone-lined PP screw caps and thick-walled HDPE or PFA containers with linerless screw caps having an integrally molded inner sealing ring preserved their original δ(2)H and δ(18)O values. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen stable isotope compositions of the organic polymeric materials were also determined. The results of this study clearly show that for precise and accurate measurements of the water stable isotope composition in aqueous solutions, rigorous sampling and

  6. Filling a Conical Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Kyle; Eslam-Panah, Azar

    2016-11-01

    Root canal treatment involves the removal of infected tissue inside the tooth's canal system and filling the space with a dense sealing agent to prevent further infection. A good root canal treatment happens when the canals are filled homogeneously and tightly down to the root apex. Such a tooth is able to provide valuable service for an entire lifetime. However, there are some examples of poorly performed root canals where the anterior and posterior routes are not filled completely. Small packets of air can be trapped in narrow access cavities when restoring with resin composites. Such teeth can cause trouble even after many years and lead the conditions like acute bone infection or abscesses. In this study, the filling of dead-end conical cavities with various liquids is reported. The first case studies included conical cavity models with different angles and lengths to visualize the filling process. In this investigation, the rate and completeness at which a variety of liquids fill the cavity were observed to find ideal conditions for the process. Then, a 3D printed model of the scaled representation of a molar with prepared post spaces was used to simulate the root canal treatment. The results of this study can be used to gain a better understanding of the restoration for endodontically treated teeth.

  7. Black holes with bottle-shaped horizons

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    We present a new class of four-dimensional AdS black holes with non-compact event horizons of finite area. The event horizons are topologically spheres with one puncture, with the puncture pushed to infinity in the form of a cusp. Because of the shape of their event horizons, we call such black holes "black bottles". The solution was obtained as a special case of the Plebanski-Demianski solution, and may describe either static or rotating black bottles. For certain ranges of parameters, an acceleration horizon may also appear in the space-time. We study the full parameter space of the solution, and the various limiting cases that arise. In particular, we show how the rotating black hole recently discovered by Klemm arises as a special limit.

  8. Isolation of Leptospira from blood culture bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girault, Dominique; Soupé-Gilbert, Marie-Estelle; Geroult, Sophie; Colot, Julien; Goarant, Cyrille

    2017-01-31

    With the increasing use of real-time PCR techniques, Leptospira isolation has mostly been abandoned for the diagnosis of human leptospirosis. However, there is a great value of collecting Leptospira isolates to better understand the epidemiology of this complex zoonosis and to provide the researchers with different isolates. In this study, we have successfully isolated different Leptospira strains from BacT/Alert aerobic blood culture bottles and suggest that this privileged biological material offers an opportunity to isolate leptospires.

  9. Recall campaign for gas bottles and banks

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    The previous contract with gas supplier Carbagas ended on 31 March 2015. Gas bottles and banks are not a property of CERN. According to the contract terms, they can remain on CERN sites without any extra costs until 30 September 2015.    If you are using Carbagas containers (bottles and/or banks) for gas purchased between 1 April 2010 and 31 March 2015, multiple options exist: Return them to the closest gas point. Purchase them on the following basis:     Rent them on the following basis: 12 CHF/month for bottles, 144 CHF/month for banks. The recall campaign has been going on for several months already: we would like to thank everyone who has already replied to it. If you haven’t answered yet, there is still time. If you know of unused or abandoned Carbagas containers, please don’t hesitate to contact us. Thank you i...

  10. Plastic condoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1968-01-01

    Only simple equipment, simple technology and low initial capital investment are needed in their manufacture. The condoms can be made by people who were previously unskilled or only semi-skilled workers. Plastic condoms differ from those made of latex rubber in that the nature of the plastic film allows unlimited shelf-life. Also, the plastic has a higher degree of lubricity than latex rubber; if there is a demand for extra lubrication in a particular market, this can be provided. Because the plastic is inert, these condoms need not be packaged in hermetically sealed containers. All these attributes make it possible to put these condoms on the distributors' shelves in developing countries competitively with rubber condoms. The shape of the plastic condom is based on that of the lamb caecum, which has long been used as luxury-type condom. The plastic condom is made from plastic film (ethylene ethyl acrilate) of 0.001 inch (0.0254 mm.) thickness. In addition, a rubber ring is provided and sealed into the base of the condom for retention during coitus. The advantage of the plastic condom design and the equipment on which it is made is that production can be carried out either in labour-intensive economy or with varying degrees of mechanization and automation. The uniform, finished condom if made using previously untrained workers. Training of workers can be done in a matter of hours on the two machines which are needed to produce and test the condoms. The plastic film is provided on a double wound roll, and condom blanks are prepared by means of a heat-sealing die on the stamping machine. The rubber rings are united to the condom blanks on an assembly machine, which consists of a mandrel and heat-sealing equipment to seal the rubber ring to the base of the condom. Built into the assembly machine is a simple air-testing apparatus that can detect the smallest pinhole flaw in a condom. The manufacturing process is completed by unravelling the condom from the assembly

  11. Evaluation of the migration of chemicals from baby bottles under standardised and duration testing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onghena, Matthias; Van Hoeck, Els; Negreira, Noelia; Quirynen, Laurent; Van Loco, Joris; Covaci, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    After the prohibition of bisphenol-A-containing polycarbonate baby bottles in the European Union (EU), alternative materials, such as polypropylene, polyethersulphone, Tritan™ copolyester, etc., have appeared on the market. Based on an initial screening and in vitro toxicity assessment, the most toxic migrating compounds were selected to be monitored and quantified using validated GC- and LC-QqQ-MS methods. The effect of several 'real-life-use conditions', such as microwave, sterilisation and dishwasher, on the migration of different contaminants was evaluated by means of duration tests. These results were compared with a reference treatment (filling five times with pre-heated simulant at 40°C) and with the legal EU 'repetitive-use conditions' (three migrations, 2 h at 70°C). Analysis of the third migration step of the EU repetitive-use conditions (which has to comply with the EU legislative migration limits) showed that several non-authorised compounds were observed in some baby bottles exceeding 10 µg kg(-1). However, all authorised compounds were detected well below their respective specific migration limits (SMLs). The reference experiment confirmed the migration of some of the compounds previously detected in the EU repetitive-use experiment, though at lower concentrations. Analysis of extracts from the microwave and dishwasher experiments showed a reduction in the migration during the duration tests. In general, the concentrations found were low and comparable with the reference experiment. Similar observations were made for the two sterilisation types: steam and cooking sterilisation. However, steam sterilisation seems to be more recommended for daily use of baby bottles, since it resulted in a lower release of substances afterwards. Repeated use of baby bottles under 'real-life' conditions showed no increase in the migration of investigated compounds and, after some time, the migration of these compounds even became negligible.

  12. Plastic Bronchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Bruce K

    2016-09-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and probably underrecognized disorder, diagnosed by the expectoration or bronchoscopic removal of firm, cohesive, branching casts. It should not be confused with purulent mucous plugging of the airway as seen in patients with cystic fibrosis or bronchiectasis. Few medications have been shown to be effective and some are now recognized as potentially harmful. Current research directions in plastic bronchitis research include understanding the genetics of lymphatic development and maldevelopment, determining how abnormal lymphatic malformations contribute to cast formation, and developing new treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C; Fotopoulou, K N; Karapanagioti, H K; Geraga, M; Zeri, C; Papathanassiou, E; Galgani, F; Papatheodorou, G

    2016-03-22

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea-E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  14. The degradation potential of PET bottles in the marine environment: An ATR-FTIR based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioakeimidis, C.; Fotopoulou, K. N.; Karapanagioti, H. K.; Geraga, M.; Zeri, C.; Papathanassiou, E.; Galgani, F.; Papatheodorou, G.

    2016-03-01

    The dominance and persistence of plastic debris in the marine environment are well documented. No information exists in respect to their lifespan in the marine environment. Nevertheless, the degradation potential of plastic litter items remains a critical issue for marine litter research. In the present study, polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PETs) collected from the submarine environment were characterized using ATR-FTIR in respect to their degradation potential attributed to environmental conditions. A temporal indication was used as indicative to the years of presence of the PETs in the environment as debris. PETs seem to remain robust for approximately fifteen years. Afterwards, a significant decrease of the native functional groups was recorded; some even disappear; or new-not typical for PETs-are created. At a later stage, using the PET time series collected from the Saronikos Gulf (Aegean Sea–E. Mediterranean), it was possible to date bottles that were collected from the bottom of the Ionian Sea (W. Greece). It is the first time that such a study has been conducted with samples that were actually degraded in the marine environment.

  15. Tiny Gems of Chinese Handicraft:Snuff Bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER; LIM

    1998-01-01

    THE snuff bottle, a kind of handicraft introduced to China from abroad along with the habit of sniffing powdered tobacco, has a history of more than 200 years. Despite the fact that the practice of taking snuff has long since disappeared, Chinese snuff bottles have become precious collector’s items because of their exquisite artistry. The snuff bottle was especially popular in the reign of Emperor Yongzheng (1723-1735) during the Qing

  16. Mixed plastics recycling technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hegberg, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Presents an overview of mixed plastics recycling technology. In addition, it characterizes mixed plastics wastes and describes collection methods, costs, and markets for reprocessed plastics products.

  17. EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENTAL ANOMALY IDENTIFICATION OF GIANT MIMI-MINTUNO (Tachupleus gigas DURING ARTIFICIAL INCUBATION PERIOD IN THE VIAL BOTTLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciptono Ciptono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to reveal the phenomenon of presence / absence of anomalies in the early development of Mimi-giant mintuno (Tachypleus gigas during artificial incubation in the vial bottles. Samples 5 eggs are fertilized incorporated into transparent 50 bottles and vials each filled with clear sea water medium. Embryonic stages (instars hatch, bottles marked, then dumped seawater medium was replaced with 4% formalin solution and glycerin amount of 5% by volume, up to ¾ of the total volume of the vial bottles. Standard stages of giant Mimi-mintuno embryonic normal development Mimi-mintuno according to Itow (1988. The description type of anomalies contained in the post-hatching embryo development. The observations are documented in the form of stereo-microphotograph. The results showed that there are forms anomalies: (a. Delayed development, the structure of the body is not perfect; (b. In observation of the embryo hatches, open shell and egg perivitelline membrane has been opened but delayed development, the structure of the body is not perfect; (c. Embryos after hatched perfectly, abnormalities of morphologic structure such as abnormal protrusion on the dorsal carapace part found.   Keywords: Tachypleus gigas, artificially, incubation

  18. MAT 300  Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Laynebaril

    2017-01-01

     MAT 300  Assignment 1: Bottling Company Case Study Click Link Below To Buy: http://hwcampus.com/shop/mat-300-assignment-1-bottling-company-case-study/   Due Week 10 and worth 140 points Imagine you are a manager at a major bottling company. Customers have begun to complain that the bottles of the brand of soda produced in your company contain less than the advertised sixteen (16) ounces of product. Your boss wants to solve the problem at hand and has asked you to investig...

  19. Plastic zonnecellen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roggen, Marjolein

    1998-01-01

    De zonnecel van de toekomst is in de maak. Onderzoekers van uiteenlopend pluimage werken eendrachtig aan een plastic zonnecel. De basis is technisch gelegd met een optimale, door invallend licht veroorzaakte, vorming van ladingdragers binnen een composiet van polymeren en buckyballs. Nu is het zaak

  20. Chronic alcohol alters rewarded behaviors and striatal plasticity

    OpenAIRE

    DePoy, Lauren; Daut, Rachel; Wright, Tara; Camp, Marguerite; Crowley, Nicole; Noronha, Bianca; Lovinger, David; Holmes, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) alters neural functions and behaviors mediated by the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and prefrontal cortex. Here, we examined the effects of prolonged (16-bout) CIE on DLS plasticity and DLS-mediated behaviors. Ex vivo electrophysiological recordings revealed loss in efficacy of DLS synaptically induced activation and absent long-term depression after CIE. CIE increased two-bottle choice drinking and impaired Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer but not discrimin...

  1. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable... its bottled water standard of quality regulations by establishing an allowable level for...

  2. Bottled water: United States consumers and their perceptions of water quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hu, Zhihua; Morton, Lois Wright; Mahler, Robert L

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water...

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Bisphenol A Leached from Household Plastics by Solid-Phase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bettie Obi; Burke, Fernanda M.; Harrison, Rebecca; Burdette, Samantha

    2012-01-01

    The measurement of trace levels of bisphenol A (BPA) leached out of household plastics using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is reported here. BPA is an endocrine-disrupting compound used in the industrial manufacture of polycarbonate plastic bottles and epoxy resin can liners. This experiment…

  5. Plastic bronchitis: a management challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberlein, Michael H; Drummond, Michael B; Haponik, Edward F

    2008-02-01

    Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon and underdiagnosed entity, characterized by recurrent expectoration of large, branching bronchial casts. We describe a 39-year-woman with no prior lung disease who had episodic wheezing, severe dyspnea with expectoration of large and thick secretions, branching in appearance, which she described as resembling squid. A comprehensive evaluation revealed no specific cause and a diagnosis of idiopathic plastic bronchitis was made. In plastic bronchitis the bronchial casts may vary in size from small segmental casts of a bronchus to casts filling the airways of an entire lung. Plastic bronchitis can therefore present as an acute life-threatening emergency if mechanical obstruction of major airways occurs. The casts are differentiated into type I, inflammatory casts, or type II, acellular casts. The type I inflammatory casts are often associated with bronchial disease and often have an acute presentation. The acellular type of cast production is often chronic or recurrent. Numerous systemic illnesses are associated with plastic bronchitis, but often, as in our patient, no underlying cause can be identified. The treatment of plastic bronchitis includes acute therapy to aid the removal and expectoration of casts, and specific short- or long-term treatments attempting to address the underlying hypersecretory process. The therapeutic options are supported only by anecdotal evidence based on case reports as the rarity and heterogeneity of plastic bronchitis confounds systematic investigations of its treatment. Improved understanding of the regulation of mucus production may allow for new treatment options in plastic bronchitis and other chronic lung diseases characterized by hypersecretion of mucus.

  6. Underground void filling by cemented mill tailings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Choudhary Bhanwar Singh; Kumar Santosh

    2013-01-01

    Underground mining always create voids. These voids can cause subsidence of surface. So it is always a demand to fill the void in such a manner that the effect of underground mining can be minimized. Void filling using mill tailings especially in metal mining is one of the best techniques. The tailings produced in milling process have traditionally been disposed in tailing ponds creating a waste disposal and environ-mental problems in terms of land degradation, air and water pollution, etc. This disposal practice is more acute in the metal milling industry where the fine grinding, required for value liberation, results in the production of very fine tailings in large percentage. This paper includes discussions on the effectiveness of different paste mixes with varying cement contents in paste backfilling operations. The results revealed that material composition and use of super plasticizer strongly influenced the strength of cemented backfill.

  7. Plastic Surgery Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PSN PSEN GRAFT Contact Us News Plastic Surgery Statistics Plastic surgery procedural statistics from the American Society of Plastic Surgeons. Statistics by Year Print 2016 Plastic Surgery Statistics 2015 ...

  8. Towards a sensory congruent beer bottle: Consumer associations between beer brands, flavours, and bottle designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, Anna; Heiltjes, Sanne; van den Berg-Weitzel, Lianne; Lloyd, Peter; Bohemia, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Sensory packaging design congruent with product and brand characteristics may be used as an innovative tool to communicate product and brand values to consumers and to enhance taste experience. This study investigated whether consumers associate sensory properties of beer bottles with certain brand

  9. Effects of Number and Location of Bins on Plastic Recycling at a University

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Ryan T.; Lerman, Dorothea C.; Fritz, Jennifer N.; Hodde, Henry B.

    2010-01-01

    The proportion of plastic bottles that consumers placed in appropriate recycling receptacles rather than trash bins was examined across 3 buildings on a university campus. We extended previous research on interventions to increase recycling by controlling the number of recycling receptacles across conditions and by examining receptacle location…

  10. THE HISTORY OF BORSEC MINERAL WATER BOTTLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. B. TOFAN

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The History of Borsec Mineral Water Bottling. The mineral water springs of Borsec have been known to exist since ancient times. It started as a legend, presented by Orbán Balász, who mentions an author named Salzer. In his „Voyage Diaries in Transylvania”, Salzer recounts the discovery of healing springs in the area, and attributes it, like many other authors, to a Romanian shepherd called Gheorghe, who, suffering from ulcer, returning home one day, drank from one of the Borsec springs. Drinking the sour water, he felt better. Consequently, he remained there for a couple of days, drinking water from the same spot and curing his ailment. Written documents date back from the 16th century, when Bethlen Farkas, in the historical novel „Historia”, recounts that, in 1594, Sigismund Bathory, who resided in Alba Iulia, suffered from nervous exhaustion. His Italian doctor, Bucello, who knew about the curing effects of the Borsec mineral waters, prescribed a treatment using the water from the „Lobogó” spring. The water, transported to the princely estate in large covered barrels, eventually healed Sigismund Bathory. It is easy to see why, at the end of the 16th century, the mineral water of Borsec, with its miracle properties, was well known in Transylvania and at the imperial court of Vienna. The above mentioned spring, used from the 19th century onwards, for spas and for bottling, earned great renown, especially due to the high concentration of CO2 (over 2.5 g/l. The bottled sparkling water, due to its pleasant taste and its chemical stability, is the most sought after table water. This explains why, in most cases, the notion of mineral water is associated with „Borsec”.

  11. Little bottles and the promise of probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burges Watson, Duika; Moreira, Tiago; Murtagh, Madeleine

    2009-03-01

    In this article we explore; regimes of hope' in contemporary bioscience as articulated in spaces of health consumption. We use the case study of probiotic little bottles, highlighting their promissory branding as consumer products, to consider how hope and truth play out across different spaces of health care - the supermarket, media and laboratory. Drawing on work within both sociological and geographic literatures to think about hope, truth and probiotics, this article explores their ambiguous promise through an analysis of their biomedical and popular representation. The seemingly incommensurate promise of probiotics between popular and medical spheres provides the point of departure for an examination of the geographies of hope, truth and selfhood.

  12. Plastic bronchitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Singhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plastic bronchitis, a rare but serious clinical condition, commonly seen after Fontan surgeries in children, may be a manifestation of suboptimal adaptation to the cavopulmonary circulation with unfavorable hemodynamics. They are ominous with poor prognosis. Sometimes, infection or airway reactivity may provoke cast bronchitis as a two-step insult on a vulnerable vascular bed. In such instances, aggressive management leads to longer survival. This report of cast bronchitis discusses its current understanding.

  13. 27 CFR 19.394 - Bottled-in-bond spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottled-in-bond spirits. 19.394 Section 19.394 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... which are labeled as bottled-in-bond for domestic consumption shall meet the requirements in 27 CFR...

  14. 27 CFR 27.206 - Bottles not constituting approved containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottles not constituting approved containers. 27.206 Section 27.206 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... officer that such bottle is not an approved container for distilled spirits for consumption in the...

  15. Rework and postponement: a comparison of bottling strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.H. Teunter (Ruud); S.D.P. Flapper

    2003-01-01

    textabstractThis paper presents the results of a case study in a batch production facility for biological vaccines. The problem considered is that of finding the best bottling strategy for produced batches. A batch can be bottled directly after production, after positive intermediate test results, o

  16. Engineering Study of 500 ML Sample Bottle Transportation Methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOGER, R.M.

    1999-08-25

    This engineering study reviews and evaluates all available methods for transportation of 500-mL grab sample bottles, reviews and evaluates transportation requirements and schedules and analyzes and recommends the most cost-effective method for transporting 500-mL grab sample bottles.

  17. 27 CFR 25.158 - Tax computation for bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.158 Section 25.158 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.158 Tax computation for bottled beer. Barrel equivalents for various case sizes are as follows: (a) For U.S....

  18. What about the Bottle? Answers to Common Questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laird, Valerie

    2001-01-01

    Acknowledges the large amount of confusing information about bottle feeding in areas including nutrition, sanitation, dental health, psychology, and child development. Answers specific questions pertaining to choice of formula and formula preparation, supporting breastfeeding, bottle choice, solid food introduction, feeding position, spitting up,…

  19. Stress-strain response of plastic waste mixed soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, G L Sivakumar; Chouksey, Sandeep Kumar

    2011-03-01

    Recycling plastic waste from water bottles has become one of the major challenges worldwide. The present study provides an approach for the use plastic waste as reinforcement material in soil. The experimental results in the form of stress-strain-pore water pressure response are presented. Based on experimental test results, it is observed that the strength of soil is improved and compressibility reduced significantly with addition of a small percentage of plastic waste to the soil. The use of the improvement in strength and compressibility response due to inclusion of plastic waste can be advantageously used in bearing capacity improvement and settlement reduction in the design of shallow foundations. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel vision-based PET bottle recycling facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiangyu; He, Zaixing; Zhang, Shuyou; Zhao, Xinyue

    2017-02-01

    Post-consumer PET bottle recycling is attracting increasing attention due to its value as an energy conservation and environmental protection measure. Sorting by color is a common method in bottle recycling; however, manual operations are unstable and time consuming. In this paper, we design a vision-based facility to perform high-speed bottle sorting. The proposed facility consists mainly of electric and mechanical hardware and image processing software. To solve the recognition problem of isolated and overlapped bottles, we propose a new shape descriptor and utilize the support vector data description classifier. We use color names to represent the colors in the real world in order to avoid problems introduced by colors that are similar. The facility is evaluated by the target error, outlier error and total error. The experimental results demonstrate that the facility we developed is capable of recycling various PET bottles.

  1. Microstructure Filled Hohlraums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A. S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Thomas, C. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Reese, T. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-24

    We propose replacing the gas fill in a hohlraum with a low average density, variable uniformity 3D printed structure. This creates a bimodal hohlraum which acts like a vacuum hohlraum initially during the picket, but could protect the capsule from glint or direct illumination, and then once expanded, homogenizes to behave like a variable z gas-fill during peak portion of the drive. This is motivated by a two main aims: 1) reduction of the Au bubble velocity to improve inner beam propagation, and 2) the introduction of a low density, high-Z, x-ray converter to improve x-ray production in the hohlraum and uniformity of the radiation field seen by the capsule.

  2. Complications of Dermal Filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ahmad Salati

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dermal fillers have globally become sought after drugs due to the desire of aging population to regain the youthful looks without any surgical operations. But like other procedures, dermal filling can become complicated. Besides the profitability have introduced the factor of malpractice which can bring in misery rather than beauty and youthful body contours. This article briefly reviews the common adverse effects of dermal fillers.

  3. Impact of temperature and storage duration on the chemical and odor quality of military packaged water in polyethylene terephthalate bottles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greifenstein, Michael, E-mail: Michael.Greifenstein@us.army.mil [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); White, Duvel W., E-mail: duvel.white@us.army.mil [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Stubner, Alex, E-mail: alex.stubner@usuhs.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Hout, Joseph, E-mail: joseph.hout@usuhs.edu [Department of Preventive Medicine and Biometrics, 4301 Jones Bridge Road, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, MD 20814 (United States); Whelton, Andrew J., E-mail: ajwhelton@southalabama.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, 3021 Shelby Hall, University of South Alabama, Mobile, AL 36688 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The impact of temperature and storage time on military packaged water (MPW) quality was examined at four temperatures (23.0 °C to 60.0 °C) for 120 days. Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles were filled in California and Afghanistan with unbuffered water treated by reverse osmosis. The US military's water pH long-term potability standard was exceeded, and US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) and US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also exceeded. During a 70 day exposure period, Port Hueneme MPW total organic carbon and total trihalomethane levels increased from < 0.25 mg/L to 2.0 ± 0.0 mg/L and < 0.05 μg/L to 51.5 ± 2.1 μg/L, respectively. PET released organic contaminants into MPW and residual disinfectant generated trihalomethane contaminants. After 14 days at 37.7 °C and 60.0 °C, Afghanistan MPW threshold odor number values were 8.0 and 8.6, respectively. Total organic carbon concentration only increased with exposure duration at 60.0 °C. Acetaldehyde and formaldehyde contaminants were not detected likely due to the high method detection limits applied in this study. Phthalate contaminants detected and their maximum levels were butylbenzylphthalate (BBP) 0.43 μg/L, di-n-butylphthalate (DnBP) 0.38 μg/L, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) 0.6 μg/L, and diethylphthalate (DEP) 0.32 μg/L. Antimony was only detected in 60.0 °C Afghanistan MPW on Day 28 and beyond, and its maximum concentration was 3.6 ± 0.3 μg/L. No antimony was found in bottles exposed to lesser temperatures. Environmental health, PET synthesis and bottle manufacturers, and bottle users can integrate results of this work to improve health protective decisions and doctrine. - Highlights: • Temperature and storage time impacted military bottled water quality up to 60 °C. • The chemical quality of water bottled in California and Afghanistan was affected. • Drinking water pH and odor intensity limits were also

  4. A new classification scheme of plastic wastes based upon recycling labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Kemal; Ergin, Semih; Işık, Şahin; Işıklı, Idil

    2015-01-01

    Since recycling of materials is widely assumed to be environmentally and economically beneficial, reliable sorting and processing of waste packaging materials such as plastics is very important for recycling with high efficiency. An automated system that can quickly categorize these materials is certainly needed for obtaining maximum classification while maintaining high throughput. In this paper, first of all, the photographs of the plastic bottles have been taken and several preprocessing steps were carried out. The first preprocessing step is to extract the plastic area of a bottle from the background. Then, the morphological image operations are implemented. These operations are edge detection, noise removal, hole removing, image enhancement, and image segmentation. These morphological operations can be generally defined in terms of the combinations of erosion and dilation. The effect of bottle color as well as label are eliminated using these operations. Secondly, the pixel-wise intensity values of the plastic bottle images have been used together with the most popular subspace and statistical feature extraction methods to construct the feature vectors in this study. Only three types of plastics are considered due to higher existence ratio of them than the other plastic types in the world. The decision mechanism consists of five different feature extraction methods including as Principal Component Analysis (PCA), Kernel PCA (KPCA), Fisher's Linear Discriminant Analysis (FLDA), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) and Laplacian Eigenmaps (LEMAP) and uses a simple experimental setup with a camera and homogenous backlighting. Due to the giving global solution for a classification problem, Support Vector Machine (SVM) is selected to achieve the classification task and majority voting technique is used as the decision mechanism. This technique equally weights each classification result and assigns the given plastic object to the class that the most classification

  5. Safety of Bottled Water Beverages Including Flavored Water and Nutrient-Added Water Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Association, bottled water was the second most popular beverage in the U.S. in 2005, with Americans consuming more than 7.5 million gallons of bottled water - an average of 26 gallons per person. Today, only carbonated soft drinks out-sell bottled water. Defining "Bottled ...

  6. Sustainable Recycling of PET Bottles in Rio de Janeiro Title: Reciclaje Sostenible de Botellas de PET en Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Edmundo Costa Leite; José Henrique Penido Monteiro

    2003-01-01

    This work presents a case study on solid waste management in the city of Rio de Janeiro. This privately-owned initiative involves the application of market instruments to boost the recycling of used plastic bottles.Abstract: Este trabajo presenta un estudio de caso exitoso implementado en la ciudad de Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, evidenciando la utilización de un instrumento basado en el mercado con el propósito de perfeccionar la calidad de los servicios de aseo urbano de la ciudad. En esto estud...

  7. Migration of antimony from PET bottles into beverages: determination of the activation energy of diffusion and migration modelling compared with literature data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welle, F; Franz, R

    2011-01-01

    Plastics bottles made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) are increasingly used for soft drinks, mineral water, juices and beer. In this study a literature review is presented concerning antimony levels found both in PET materials as well as in foods and food simulants. On the other hand, 67 PET samples from the European bottle market were investigated for their residual antimony concentrations. A mean value of 224 ± 32 mg kg(-1) was found, the median was 220 mg kg(-1). Diffusion coefficients for antimony in PET bottle materials were experimentally determined at different temperature between 105 and 150°C. From these data, the activation energy of diffusion for antimony species from the PET bottle wall into beverages and food simulants was calculated. The obtained value of 189 kJ mol(-1) was found to be in good agreement with published data on PET microwave trays (184 kJ mol(-1)). Based on these results, the migration of antimony into beverages was predicted by mathematical migration modelling for different surface/volume ratios and antimony bottle wall concentrations. The results were compared with literature data as well as international legal limits and guidelines values for drinking water and the migration limit set from food packaging legislation. It was concluded that antimony levels in beverages due to migration from PET bottles manufactured according to the state of the art can never reach or exceed the European-specific migration limit of 40 microg kg(-1). Maximum migration levels caused by room-temperature storage even after 3 years will never be essentially higher than 2.5 microg kg(-1) and in any case will be below the European limit of 5 microg kg(-1) for drinking water. The results of this study confirm that the exposure of the consumer by antimony migration from PET bottles into beverages and even into edible oils reaches approximately 1% of the current tolerable daily intake (TDI) established by World Health Organisation (WHO). Having

  8. Recycling policies and programmes for PET drink bottles in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanse, Elvira

    2011-09-01

    Transition and emerging economies confront a steadily increasing generation of municipal solid waste in the form of disposable packaging. The following article reports the situation of soft drink bottles made of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) in Mexico. Since 2002 schemes following the European Green Dot principle have been partly implemented to place responsibility on the producer, mainly soft drink bottlers. Private stakeholders are responsible for national recovery activities. Meanwhile Government presence to promote recovery is absent. Of post-consumer PET 75% is exported, and the newly created bottle-to-bottle (BTB) PET industry is confronted with bottlenecks in their post-consumer PET supply.

  9. Flutist produces four resonances with a single bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Michael J.; Boysen, Erika

    2017-03-01

    In a dramatic physics demonstration, a professional flutist produces four resonances with a 12 ounce Boylan soda bottle solely through her breath control. The 22 cm bottle acts like a Helmholtz resonator for the lowest pitch. The three higher pitches fall near the 3rd, 5th, and 7th harmonics for a 22 cm closed pipe. A video of this remarkable feat is provided (Ruiz 2016 YouTube: Four Resonances with a 12-ounce Soda Bottle (https://youtu.be/ibtVrp2NF_k)). The video also reveals that a flutist can bend resonance pitches by as much as 10% through control of air speed.

  10. Evolutionary medicine: bottle feeding, birth spacing, and autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Gordon G; Hobbs, Dawn R

    2011-09-01

    To compensate for the high metabolic costs of lactation, the likelihood of re-impregnation shortly after childbirth is normally reduced due to hormonal changes triggered by breast feeding during the postpartum period. Nowadays, however, bottle feeding as a substitute for breast feeding precludes such changes and leads to early postpartum reinstatement of fertility. We suggest that recent data showing the risk of autism goes up dramatically as the time between pregnancies goes down [1] may be a byproduct of bottle feeding. The decision to bottle feed your last child may unwittingly put your next child at risk of being autistic.

  11. Dynamically tunable optical bottles from an optical fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Yuhao; Yan, Lu; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard

    2012-01-01

    Optical fibers have long been used to impose spatial coherence to shape free-space optical beams. Recent work has shown that one can use higher order fiber modes to create more exotic beam profiles. We experimentally generate optical bottles from Talbot imaging in the coherent superposition of two...... fiber modes excited with long period gratings, and obtain a 28 μm × 6 μm bottle with controlled contrast up to 10.13 dB. Our geometry allows for phase tuning of one mode with respect to the other, which enables us to dynamically move the bottle in free space....

  12. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  13. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for

  14. Quality of Sachet Water and Bottled Water in Bolgatanga Municipality of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Oyelude

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics of sachet and bottled water brands on sale in Bolgatanga municipality, Ghana. Turbidity, colour, total dissolved solids, total hardness, calcium ion, magnesium ion, total iron, chloride ion, nitrate ion, phosphate ion and sulphate ion of all samples were within the WHO drinking-water guideline. About fifty percent of the water samples had fluoride ion level ranging from 0.15-0.45 mg/L. These values are below the WHO recommended minimum limit of 0.5 mg/L. Sachet water samples generally possessed good physicochemical characteristics. However, three out of every four sachet water samples were contaminated by coliform bacteria ranging from 12-168 cfu/100 mL. Faecal coliform bacteria ranging from 2-63 cfu/100 mL were detected in more than 60% of the sachet water brands. All the unbranded hand-filled hand-tied sachet water samples without exception were contaminated by faecal coliform bacteria. This is contrary to the recommendation by WHO that faecal coliform bacteria must not be detectable in a 100-mL sample of drinking water. Although two percent of the bottled water samples had pH levels below the minimum level of 6.5 recommended by WHO, the samples generally possessed good physicochemical and bacteriological characteristics. On the average, bottled water samples were of good quality and the sachet water samples were of variable quality. This was probably due to the problem of poor sanitation in Bolgatanga municipality and the fact that sachet water brands are not always produced under scrutinised hygienic conditions.

  15. Inappropriate bottle use: an early risk for overweight? Literature review and pilot data for a bottle-weaning trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonuck, Karen A; Huang, Vincent; Fletcher, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Identifying early risk factors for childhood obesity is critical, as weight in infancy and early childhood tracks to later periods. Continued bottle use - primarily from excess milk intake - is emerging as a potential risk factor for early childhood overweight. Over three fourths of US infants drink from bottles beyond the recommended weaning age of 12 months, and two thirds of UK infants use a bottle at 18 months. This paper is divided into three parts. Part 1 reviews the literature on beverage intake, weight and bottle use in young children. Part II describes pilot data on milk bottle use and weight in 12-60-month-olds, collected prior to a randomized controlled (RCT) trial of a bottle-weaning intervention. Median daily milk bottle consumption at 12 months was 5.0 (interquartile range = 3-6). Among 12-36-month-olds, current users were significantly more likely to be >95th% weight-for-height (19% vs. 0%, P 85% weight-for-height (27% vs. 11%, P flip chart. An observational study nested within the RCT will describe dietary changes during this period of feeding transitions.

  16. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R.J. MORRIS, Sean M. ROGERS

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Most species evolve within fluctuating environments, and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity. One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity, or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes. Yet, not all plasticity is adaptive. Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution, much less is known about maladaptive plasticity. However, maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments. This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity, two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation, genetic compensation and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation, plastic compensation. Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity. In particular, plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence. We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change [Current Zoology 59 (4: 526–536, 2013].

  17. Overcoming maladaptive plasticity through plastic compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matthew R.J.MORRIS; Sean M.ROGERS

    2013-01-01

    Most species evolve within fluctuating environments,and have developed adaptations to meet the challenges posed by environmental heterogeneity.One such adaptation is phenotypic plasticity,or the ability of a single genotype to produce multiple environmentally-induced phenotypes.Yet,not all plasticity is adaptive.Despite the renewed interest in adaptive phenotypic plasticity and its consequences for evolution,much less is known about maladaptive plasticity.However,maladaptive plasticity is likely an important driver of phenotypic similarity among populations living in different environments.This paper traces four strategies for overcoming maladaptive plasticity that result in phenotypic similarity,two of which involve genetic changes (standing genetic variation,genetic compensation) and two of which do not (standing epigenetic variation,plastic compensation).Plastic compensation is defined as adaptive plasticity overcoming maladaptive plasticity.In particular,plastic compensation may increase the likelihood of genetic compensation by facilitating population persistence.We provide key terms to disentangle these aspects of phenotypic plasticity and introduce examples to reinforce the potential importance of plastic compensation for understanding evolutionary change.

  18. Risk Perceptions of Arsenic in Tap Water and Consumption of Bottled Water

    OpenAIRE

    Jakus, Paul M.; Shaw, W. Douglass; Nguyen, To N.; Walker, Mark

    2009-01-01

    The demand for bottled water has increased rapidly over the past decade, but bottled water is extremely costly compared to tap water. The convenience of bottled water surely matters to consumers, but are others factors at work? This manuscript examines whether purchases of bottled water are associated with the perceived risk of tap water. All of the past studies on bottled water consumption have used simple scale measures of perceived risk that do not correspond to risk measures used by risk ...

  19. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Robert L.; Lois Wright Morton; Zhihua Hu

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  20. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Mahler, Robert L.; Lois Wright Morton; Zhihua Hu

    2011-01-01

    Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report...

  1. The frequency of bottle feeding as the main factor of baby bottle tooth decay syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Fahlevi Rizal

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Dental caries remains as main problem in Indonesia and its prevalence is high (90.05%. However, there is no appropriate data that can be used to analyze dental caries in toddlers, especially baby bottle tooth decay syndrome (BBTD, though the number of BBTD cases is high in some pediatric dental clinics (90% of patients visiting the clinics. Even though some factors have already been considered to be the risk factor of BBTD, the main risk factor of BBTD is still unknown, especially BBTD in Indonesia. Purpose: This research was aimed to obtain data relating with bottle-feeding habit in 3-5 year old children in Indonesia and its caries risk. Method: The study was an observational research conducted with clinical examination through caries status (deft of each child deserved by pediatric dentists and through questionnaire distributed to parents to examine the risk factor of BBTD. Observation was conducted on 62 children in the range of age 3 to 5 years old with bottle-feeding habit. Result: The results revealed that status of caries was various. The data showed that the frequency of bottle feeding more than twice could trigger BBTD 2.27 times higher than other factors such as the use of bottle feeding as a pacifier prior sleeping, the period of bottle-feeding, and the breast-feeding experience. Conclusion: though milk as subtract can possibly become a factor triggering caries, the frequency of bottle-feeding is highly considered as main factor. Since it could modulated the bacterial colonization on dental surface, which affects its virulence.Latar belakang: Karies masih menjadi masalah utama di Indonesia. Dalam praktek sehari-hari prevalensi karies masih sangat tinggi (90.05%. Belum ada data yang memadai dalam penelaahan karies yang spesifik pada anak balita selama ini khususnya kasus sindroma karies botol (SKB sementara itu kasus SKB ditemukan sangat tinggi di beberapa klinik gigi anak (90% dari jumlah pasien yang datang ke klinik

  2. Tension-filled Governance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celik, Tim Holst

    Since the crisis-engrossed 1970s, and especially the 1990s, ‘governance’ has become a dominant concern and concept; notably, within particularly political science, a certain diagnosis explicitly or implicitly focused on a shift ‘from government to governance’ has become increasingly popular....... This study examines the governance phenomenon of the post-1970/1990s period from a state-situated and historically informed perspective. Specifically, taking initial analytical departure in an approach of the early 1970s associated with James O’Connor, Jürgen Habermas and Claus Offe focused...... on the statesituated tension-filled functional relationship between legitimation and accumulation, the study both historically and theoretically reworks this approach and reapplies it for the post-1970s/1990s governance period. It asks whether and to what extent governance has served as a distinctive post- 1970s/1990s...

  3. Preparing for faster filling

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2010-01-01

    Following the programmed technical stop last week, operators focussed on preparing the machine for faster filling, which includes multibunch injection and a faster pre-cycle phase.   The LHC1 screen shot during the first multibunch injection operation. The LHC operational schedule incorporates a technical stop for preventive maintenance roughly every six weeks of stable operation, during which several interventions on the various machines are carried out. Last week these included the replacement of a faulty magnet in the SPS pre-accelerator, which required the subsequent re-setting of the system of particle extraction and transfer to the LHC. At the end of last week, all the machines were handed back for operation and work could start on accommodating all the changes made into the complex systems in order for normal operation to be resumed. These ‘recovery’ operations continued through the weekend and into this week. At the beginning of this week, operators succeeded in pro...

  4. Bulk-Fill Resin Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benetti, Ana Raquel; Havndrup-Pedersen, Cæcilie; Honoré, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    the restorative procedure. The aim of this study, therefore, was to compare the depth of cure, polymerization contraction, and gap formation in bulk-fill resin composites with those of a conventional resin composite. To achieve this, the depth of cure was assessed in accordance with the International Organization...... for Standardization 4049 standard, and the polymerization contraction was determined using the bonded-disc method. The gap formation was measured at the dentin margin of Class II cavities. Five bulk-fill resin composites were investigated: two high-viscosity (Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill, SonicFill) and three low......-viscosity (x-tra base, Venus Bulk Fill, SDR) materials. Compared with the conventional resin composite, the high-viscosity bulk-fill materials exhibited only a small increase (but significant for Tetric EvoCeram Bulk Fill) in depth of cure and polymerization contraction, whereas the low-viscosity bulk...

  5. Bottler of the Year: Coca-Cola Bottling Co. Consolidated

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elizabeth Fuhrman

    2010-01-01

    .... Coca-Cola Bottling Co Consolidated, Charlotte, NC, has built its core business this year through innovative pricing strategies, enabling its sales force with new technology, grass roots marketing...

  6. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  7. Physical, chemical and microbial analysis of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasikaran, S; Sritharan, K; Balakumar, S; Arasaratnam, V

    2012-09-01

    People rely on the quality of the bottled drinking water, expecting it to be free of microbial contamination and health hazards. To evaluate the quality of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula by analysing the physical, chemical and microbial contents and comparing with the recommended Sri Lankan Standard (SLS) values. All bottled water samples sold in Jaffna peninsula were collected. Electrical conductivity, total dissolved solid, pH, calcium, nitrate, total aerobic and anaerobic count, coliform bacterial count and faecal contamination were checked. These are 22 brands of bottled drinking water sold in Jaffna peninsula. The sample had very low electrical conductivity when compared with SLS (750 μS/ cm) and varied from 19 to 253 μS/cm with the mean of 80.53 (±60.92) μS/cm. The pH values of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 4.11 to 7.58 with a mean of 6.2 (±0.75). The total dissolved solid content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 9 to 123.67 mg/l with a mean of 39.5 (±30.23) mg/l. The calcium content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 6.48 to 83.77 mg/l with a mean of 49.9 (±25.09) mg/l. The nitrate content of the bottled drinking water brands varied from 0.21 to 4.19 mg/l with the mean of 1.26 (±1.08) mg/l. Aerobic bacterial count varied from 0 to 800 colony forming unit per ml (cfu/ml) with a mean of 262.6 (±327.50) cfu/ml. Among the 22 drinking bottled water brands 14 and 9% of bottled drinking water brands showed fungal and coliform bacterial contaminants respectively. The water brands which contained faecal contamination had either Escherichia coli or Klebsiella spp. The bottled drinking water available for sale do not meet the standards stipulated by SLS.

  8. Mechanical and microwave absorbing properties of carbon-filled polyurethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucerová, Z; Zajícková, L; Bursíková, V; Kudrle, V; Eliás, M; Jasek, O; Synek, P; Matejková, J; Bursík, J

    2009-01-01

    Polyurethane (PU) matrix composites were prepared with various carbon fillers at different filler contents in order to investigate their structure, mechanical and microwave absorbing properties. As fillers, flat carbon microparticles, carbon microfibers and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) were used. The microstructure of the composite was examined by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Mechanical properties, namely universal hardness, plastic hardness, elastic modulus and creep were assessed by means of depth sensing indentation test. Mechanical properties of PU composite filled with different fillers were investigated and the composite always exhibited higher hardness, elastic modulus and creep resistance than un-filled PU. Influence of filler shape, content and dispersion was also investigated.

  9. Solubility of a new calcium silicate-based root-end filling material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shishir Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The purpose of this study was to compare solubility of a new calcium silicate-based cement, Biodentine with three commonly used root-end filling materials viz. glass-ionomer cement (GIC, intermediate restorative material (IRM, and mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA. Materials and Methods: Twenty stainless steel ring molds were filled with cements corresponding to four groups (n = 5. The weight of 20 dried glass bottles was recorded. Samples were transferred to bottles containing 5 ml of distilled water and stored for 24 h. The bottles were dried at 105΀C and weighed. This procedure was repeated for 3, 10, 30, and 60 days. Data was analyzed with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA test (P < 0.05. Results: Biodentine demonstrated significantly higher solubility than MTA for 30- and 60-day immersion periods. Statistical difference was noted between the solubility values of Biodentine samples amongst each of the five time intervals. Conclusions: Biodentine exhibited higher solubility in comparison with all other cements.

  10. An ultracold neutron storage bottle for UCN density measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bison, G; Daum, M; Kirch, K; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Meier, M; Ries, D; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Zsigmond, G

    2016-01-01

    We have developed a storage bottle for ultracold neutrons (UCN) in order to measure the UCN density at the beamports of the Paul Scherrer Institute's (PSI) UCN source. This paper describes the design, construction and commissioning of the robust and mobile storage bottle with a volume comparable to typical storage experiments 32 liter e.g. searching for an electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  11. An ultracold neutron storage bottle for UCN density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bison, G.; Burri, F.; Daum, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kirch, K. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Krempel, J. [Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Lauss, B., E-mail: bernhard.lauss@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Meier, M. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Ries, D., E-mail: dieter.ries@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Institute for Particle Physics, Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Zürich (Switzerland); Schmidt-Wellenburg, P.; Zsigmond, G. [Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI), CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2016-09-11

    We have developed a storage bottle for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) in order to measure the UCN density at the beamports of the Paul Scherrer Institute's (PSI) UCN source. This paper describes the design, construction and commissioning of the robust and mobile storage bottle with a volume comparable to typical storage experiments (32 L) e.g. searching for an electric dipole moment of the neutron.

  12. Study on the leaching of phthalates from polyethylene terephthalate bottles into mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keresztes, Szilvia; Tatár, Enikő [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Czégény, Zsuzsanna [Institute of Materials and Environmental Chemistry, Research Centre for Natural Sciences, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1525 Budapest, P.O. Box 17 (Hungary); Záray, Gyula [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary); Mihucz, Victor G., E-mail: vigami72@yahoo.es [Laboratory of Environmental Chemistry and Bioanalytics, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest, Pázmány Péter sétány 1/A (Hungary)

    2013-08-01

    Carbonated and non-carbonated mineral water samples bottled in 0.5-L, 1.5-L and 2.0-L polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers belonging to three different water brands commercialized in Hungary were studied in order to determine their phthalate content by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. Among the six investigated phthalates, diisobutyl phthalate, di-n-butyl-phthalate, benzyl-butyl phthalate and di(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP) were determined in non-carbonated samples as follows: < 3.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.2 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.6 ng L{sup −1}–0.8 μg L{sup −1}, < 6.0 ng L{sup −1}–0.1 μg L{sup −1} and < 16.0 ng L{sup −1}–1.7 μg L{sup −1}, respectively. Any of the above-mentioned phthalate esters could be detected in carbonated mineral water samples. DEHP was the most abundant phthalate in the investigated samples. It could be detected after 44 days of storage at 22 °C and its leaching was the most pronounced when samples were stored over 1200 days. Mineral water purchased in PET bottles of 0.5 L had the highest phthalate concentrations compared to those obtained for waters of the identical brand bottled in 1.5-L or 2.0-L PET containers due to the higher surface/volume ratio. No clear trend could be established for phthalate leaching when water samples were kept at higher temperatures (max. 60 °C) showing improper storage conditions. Phthalate determination by pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometric measurements in the plastic material as well as in the aqueous phase proved the importance of the quality of PET raw material used for the production of the pre-form (virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET). - Highlights: • DEHP — most abundant phthalate in bottled mineral water • Temperature and contact surface area influence phthalate leaching. • Phthalate occurrence depends on virgin vs. polymer containing recycled PET. • pH (carbonated vs. non-carbonated samples) affects hydrolysis of phthalate esters.

  13. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay Miller

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  14. Challenges and Alternatives to Plastics Recycling in the Automotive Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lindsay; Soulliere, Katie; Sawyer-Beaulieu, Susan; Tseng, Simon; Tam, Edwin

    2014-08-15

    Plastics are increasingly a preferred material choice in designing and developing complex, consumer products, such as automobiles, because they are mouldable, lightweight, and are often perceived to be highly recyclable materials. However, actually recycling the heterogeneous plastics used in such durable items is challenging, and presents very different scenarios to how simple products, such as water bottles, are recovered via curbside or container recycling initiatives. While the technology exists to recycle plastics, their feasibility to do so from high level consumer or industrial applications is bounded by technological and economical restraints. Obstacles include the lack of market for recyclates, and the lack of cost efficient recovery infrastructures or processes. Furthermore, there is a knowledge gap between manufacturers, consumers, and end-of-life facility operators. For these reasons, end-of-life plastics are more likely to end up down-cycled, or as shredder residue and then landfilled. This paper reviews these challenges and several alternatives to recycling plastics in order to broaden the mindset surrounding plastics recycling to improve their sustainability. The paper focuses on the automotive sector for examples, but discussion can be applied to a wide range of plastic components from similarly complex products.

  15. Rare earth elements in some bottled waters of Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todorović Maja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-one bottled mineral and spring waters from Serbia were analyzed for 16 inorganic chemical parameters, including lanthanides and yttrium which belong to the group of so-called rare earth elements (REE. REE concentrations in the bottled water samples varied over a broad range, from 5.39 to 1585.82 ng/L. Total concentrations in the bottled water samples were calculated taking into account the classification of lanthanides into heavy (HREE and light (LREE, with yttrium added to the HREE group. The LREE concentrations ranged from 3.62 to 1449.63 ng/L, while those of the HREE were from 0 to 136.19 ng/L. Distinct REE signatures were observed in waters that drained specific rocks. The REE patterns in groundwater from granitic and related rocks showed LREE and HREE enrichment, while groundwater with mafic rock influence exhibited slightly LREE enrichment. Several bottled water samples featured naturally-occurring carbon dioxide, whose solutional capacity contributed to the highest REE concentrations in the analyzed samples. High REE concentrations are also a result of sudden changes in oxidation-reduction conditions, which particularly affect La, Ce and Eu. Aquifers developed in granitic and related rocks (methamorphic and sedimentary rocks constitute favorable environments for HREE in groundwater, corroborated by the occurrence of HREE in bottled water samples. The bottled water samples largely exhibited a negative cerium anomaly and nearly all the samples showed a positive europium anomaly.

  16. A self-feeding roller bottle for continuous cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berson, R Eric; Friederichs, Goetz

    2008-01-01

    The concept of a self-feeding roller bottle that delivers a continuous supply of fresh media to cells in culture, which is mechanically simplistic and works with existing roller apparatuses, is presented here. A conventional roller bottle is partitioned into two chambers; one chamber contains the fresh culture media reservoir, and the other contains the cell culture chamber. A spiroid of tubing inside the fresh media reservoir acts as a pump when the bottle rotates on its horizontal axis, continuously delivering fresh media through an opening in the partition to the cell culture chamber. The modified bottle proved capable of maintaining steady-state cell densities of a hybridoma cell line over the 10-day period tested, although at lower densities than reached during batch operation due to the continuous volume dilution. Steady-state density proved to be controllable by adjusting the perfusion rate, which changes with the rotation rate of the bottle. Specific antibody production rate is as much as 3.7 times the rate in conventional roller bottles operating with intermittent batch feeding.

  17. Mechanics of sucking: comparison between bottle feeding and breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ustrell Josep M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is very little evidence of the similarity of the mechanics of maternal and bottle feeding. We assessed the mechanics of sucking in exclusive breastfeeding, exclusive bottle feeding, and mixed feeding. The hypothesis established was that physiological pattern for suckling movements differ depending on the type of feeding. According to this hypothesis, babies with breastfeeding have suckling movements at the breast that are different from the movements of suckling a teat of babies fed with bottle. Children with mixed feeding mix both types of suckling movements. Methods Cross-sectional study of infants aged 21-28 days with only maternal feeding or bottle feeding (234 mother-infant pairs, and a randomized open cross-over field trial in newborns aged 21-28 days and babies aged 3-5 months with mixed feeding (125 mother-infant pairs. Primary outcome measures were sucks and pauses. Results Infants aged 21-28 days exclusively bottle-fed showed fewer sucks and the same number of pauses but of longer duration compared to breastfeeding. In mixed feeding, bottle feeding compared to breastfeeding showed the same number of sucks but fewer and shorter pauses, both at 21-28 days and at 3-5 months. The mean number of breastfeedings in a day (in the mixed feed group was 5.83 ± 1.93 at 21-28 days and 4.42 ± 1.67 at 3-5 months. In the equivalence analysis of the mixed feed group, the 95% confidence interval for bottle feeding/breastfeeding ratio laid outside the range of equivalence, indicating 5.9-8.7% fewer suction movements, and fewer pauses, and shorter duration of them in bottle feeding compared with breastfeeding. Conclusions The mechanics of sucking in mixed feeding lay outside the range of equivalence comparing bottle feeding with breastfeeding, although differences were small. Children with mixed feeding would mix both types of sucking movements (breastfeeding and bottle feeding during the learning stage and adopt their own

  18. Dark Matter in a twisted bottle

    CERN Document Server

    Arbey, Alexandre; Deandrea, Aldo; Kubik, Bogna

    2013-01-01

    The real projective plane is a compact, non-orientable orbifold of Euler characteristic 1 without boundaries, which can be described as a twisted Klein bottle. We shortly review the motivations for choosing such a geometry among all possible two-dimensional orbifolds, while the main part of the study will be devoted to dark matter study and limits in Universal Extra Dimensional (UED) models based on this peculiar geometry. In the following we consider such a UED construction based on the direct product of the real projective plane with the standard four-dimensional Minkowski space-time and discuss its relevance as a model of a weakly interacting Dark Matter candidate. One important difference with other typical UED models is the origin of the symmetry leading to the stability of the dark matter particle. This symmetry in our case is a remnant of the six-dimensional Minkowski space-time symmetry partially broken by the compactification. Another important difference is the very small mass splitting between the ...

  19. Dark Matter in a twisted bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbey, Alexandre; Cacciapaglia, Giacomo; Deandrea, Aldo; Kubik, Bogna

    2013-01-01

    The real projective plane is a compact, non-orientable orbifold of Euler characteristic 1 without boundaries, which can be described as a twisted Klein bottle. We shortly review the motivations for choosing such a geometry among all possible two-dimensional orbifolds, while the main part of the study will be devoted to dark matter study and limits in Universal Extra Dimensional (UED) models based on this peculiar geometry. In the following we consider such a UED construction based on the direct product of the real projective plane with the standard four-dimensional Minkowski space-time and discuss its relevance as a model of a weakly interacting Dark Matter candidate. One important difference with other typical UED models is the origin of the symmetry leading to the stability of the dark matter particle. This symmetry in our case is a remnant of the six-dimensional Minkowski space-time symmetry partially broken by the compactification. Another important difference is the very small mass splitting between the particles of a given Kaluza-Klein tier, which gives a very important role to co-annihilation effects. Finally the role of higher Kaluza-Klein tiers is also important and is discussed together with a detailed numerical description of the influence of the resonances.

  20. Pet Bottle Design, Correlation Analysis Of Pet Bottle Characteristics Subjective Judgment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darko Avramović

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Ability to predict consumer’s reaction to particular design solution of the product is very important. Gathering andanalysis of subjective judgments of particular characteristics, based on which the aesthetic of the product is judged,is one of predicting the consumer’s reaction in the future. Knowledge gathered this manner can serve as a referencefor further studies of determining factors for aesthetic results and design quality. There are two opposed opinionsregarding prediction of aesthetic impression. One opinion is that taste of individual cannot be discussed because itis extremely variable and the possibility of meaningful analysis of aesthetic impression is rejected. Other opinionstates that there is a consistent preference of certain aesthetic characteristics despite individual and group differences.Main goal of this paper is to examine the correlation between subjective judgments of certain PET bottlecharacteristics. Analysis showed meaningful correlation between some of the PET bottle characteristics while othercharacteristics showed less correlation. It can be concluded that not all of the characteristics have the same influenceon the aesthetics and design quality of the PET bottle form. Emphasizing the characteristics relative to aesthetics ofthe product can produce better market results, taking in to account that consumer’s buy the product they consider tobe more attractive if other parameters of the product are similar.

  1. Medication safety: Filling your prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines. Also learn what each medicine looks like. Filling Your Prescriptions Your health plan may require you to use certain pharmacies. ... standards. The website should have clear directions for filling or ... seeing you. Make sure your health plan will cover the cost of using the ...

  2. Use of waste plastic in construction of bituminous road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Jirge

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Bottles, containers and packing strips etc. is increasing day by day. As a result amount of waste plastic also increases. This leads to various environmental problems. Many of the wastes produced today will remain in the environment for many years leading to various environmental concerns. Therefore it is necessary to utilize thewastes effectively with technical development in each field. Many by-products are being produced using the plastic wastes. Our present work is helping to take care of these aspects. Plastic waste, consisting of carry bags, cups and other utilized plastic can be used as a coating over aggregate and this coated stone can be used for roadconstruction. The mix polymer coated aggregate and tyre modified bitumen have shown higher strength. Use of this mix for road construction helps to use plastics waste. Once the plastic waste is separated from municipal solid waste, the organic matter can be converted into manure and used. Our paper will discuss in detail theprocess and its successful applications.

  3. Mechanics of filled carbon nanotubes

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, A.O.

    2014-04-01

    The benefits of filling carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with assorted molecular and crystalline substances have been investigated for the past two decades. Amongst the study of new structural phases, defects, chemical reactions and varied types of host-guest interactions, there is one fundamental characterisation aspect of these systems that continues to be overlooked: the mechanical behaviour of filled CNTs. In contrast to their empty counterparts, the mechanics of filled CNTs is a subject where reports appear far and apart, this despite being key to the application of these materials in technological devices. In the following paragraphs, we review the work that has been carried out up to the present on the mechanics of filled CNTs. The studies discussed range from experimental resonant frequency essays performed within electron microscopes to modelling, via molecular dynamics, of three-point bending of nanotubes filled with gases. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Potential health impacts of consuming desalinated bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowell, Candace; Kuiper, Nora; Shomar, Basem

    2015-06-01

    This study compared physicochemical properties, anion and carbon content and major and trace elements in desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water available in Qatar, and assessed the potential health risks associated with prolonged consumption of desalinated water. Results indicate that Qatar's population is not at elevated risk of dietary exposure to As (mean = 666 ng/L), Ba (48.0 μg/L), Be (9.27 ng/L), Cd (20.1 ng/L), Cr (874 ng/L), Pb (258 ng/L), Sb (475 ng/L) and U (533 ng/L) from consumption of both desalinated and non-desalinated bottled water types available in the country. Consumers who primarily consume desalinated water brands further minimize risk of exposure to heavy metals as levels were significantly lower than in non-desalinated bottled water. Desalinated bottled water was not a significant contributor to recommended daily intakes for Ca, Mg and F(-) for adults and children and may increase risk of deficiencies. Desalinated bottled water accounted for only 3% of the Institute of Medicine (IOM) adequate intake (AI) for Ca, 5-6% of the recommended daily allowance for Mg and 4% of the AI for F among adults. For children desalinated water contributed 2-3% of the IOM AICa, 3-10% of the RDA(Mg) and 3-9% of the AIF.

  5. Radium activity measurements in bottled mineral water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, Jaqueline; Paschuk, Sergei A.; Correa, Janine N.; Denyak, Valeriy; Reque, Marilson, E-mail: sergei@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnologica Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Rocha, Paschuk; Rocha, Zildete; Santos, Talita O., E-mail: rochaz@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    This work presents the preliminary results of {sup 226}Ra activity measurements of fifteen samples of bottled mineral water acquired at markets of Curitiba-PR, Brazil. The measurements were performed at the Laboratory of Applied Nuclear Physics of the Federal University of Technology - Parana (UTFPR) in collaboration with the Center of Nuclear Technology Development of Brazilian Nuclear Energy Committee (CNEN). The experimental setup was based on the electronic radon detector RAD7 (Durridge Company, Inc.). The measurements were carried out with a special kit of accessory vessels (vials) RAD7 H{sub 2}O, which allows one to identify the {sup 222}Rn activity concentration in small water samples of 40 mL and 250 mL in the range going from less than 30 pCi/L to greater than 10{sup 5} pCi/L. During each measurement a vial from RAD H{sub 2}O was poured with a sample of water. The air pump, included in the close loop aeration circuit and connected to the vial and RAD7 detector, operated for five minutes to snatch the sample of air maintained above the level of water sample and transporting it from the vial through the system. Evaluation of the concentration of soluble radium ({sup 226}Ra) salts in water and their activity was performed after 30 days when {sup 222}Rn in the water samples reached secular equilibrium. The background measurements were performed using the samples of the distilled water. Considering the importance of background measurements, it was found that the value suggested by user Manual protocol (RAD7) for the case of low activity radon measurements, has to be slightly modified. (author)

  6. High-Q plasmonic bottle microresonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, M. Narizee; Ding, Ming; Murugan, G. Senthil; Zervas, Michalis N.

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a hybrid plasmonic bottle microresonator (PBMR) which supports whispering gallery modes (WGMs) along with surface plasmon waves (SPWs) for high performance optical sensor applications. The BMR was fabricated through "soften-and-compress" technique with a thin gold layer deposited on top of the resonator. A polarization-resolved measurement was set-up in order to fully characterize the fabricated PBMR. Initially, the uncoated BMR with waist diameter of 181 μm, stem diameter of 125 μm and length of 400 μm was fabricated and then gold film was deposited on the surface. Due to surface curvature, the gold film covering half of the BMR had a characteristic meniscus shape and maximum thickness of 30 nm. The meniscus provides appropriately tapered edges which facilitate the adiabatic transformation of BMR WGMs to SPWs and vice versa. This results in low transition losses, which combined with partially-metal-coated resonator, can result in high hybrid-PBMR Q's. The transmission spectra of the hybrid PBMR are dramatically different to the original uncoated BMR. Under TE(TM) excitation, the PBMR showed composite resonances with Q of ~2100(850) and almost identical ~ 3 nm FSR. We have accurately fitted the observed transmission resonances with Lorentzian-shaped curves and showed that the TE and TM excitations are actually composite resonances comprise of two and three partially overlapping resonances with Q's in excess of 2900 and 2500, respectively. To the best of our knowledge these are the highest Qs observed in plasmonic microcavities.

  7. Thermal Viscoelastic Analysis of Plastic Components Considering Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chel Woo; Jeoung, Kab Sik; Moon, Hyung-Il; Kim, Heon Young

    Plastics is commonly used in consumer electronics because of it is high strength per unit mass and good productivity, but plastic components may often become distorted after injection molding due to residual stress after the filling, packing, and cooling processes. In addition, plastic deteriorates depending on various temperature conditions and the operating time, which can be characterized by stress relaxation and creep. The viscoelastic behavior of plastic materials in the time domain can be expressed by the Prony series using the ABAQUS commercial software package. This paper suggests a process for predicting post-production deformation under cyclic thermal loading. The process was applied to real plastic panels, and the deformation predicted by the analysis was compared to that measured in actual testing, showing the possibility of using this process for predicting the post-production deformation of plastic products under thermal loading.

  8. Numerical Simulation and Optimal Design of Beverage PET Bottle Preform%饮料PET瓶坯的数值模拟及优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    印雄飞; 苏良瑶

    2011-01-01

    A scope in the each parameter of the bottle perform according to relative blow molding process was limited, 8 bottle perform were designed, the injection molding process of every preform in the moldflow environment was simulated, the filling time and packing time of each one were got, the model by the BP algorithm was established, the total time of filling and packing as the target was set, the optimal design was got in the parameter scope. The result showed that this method can guide the bottle preform design with high practical value.%根据相应的吹塑成型工艺要求限定瓶坯各参数的范围,设计8个瓶坯,在Moldflow环境中模拟各个瓶坯的注塑成型过程,得到相应的充填和保压时间,通过BP算法建立模型,并以充填和保压的总时间为目标值,得到在参数范围内的最优设计方案.结果表明,该方法能够指导瓶坯设计,具有一定的实际意义.

  9. Recycling of Plastic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde

    2011-01-01

    Plastic is produced from fossil oil. Plastic is used for many different products. Some plastic products like, for example, wrapping foil, bags and disposable containers for food and beverage have very short lifetimes and thus constitute a major fraction of most waste. Other plastic products like......, for example, gutters, window frames, car parts and transportation boxes have long lifetimes and thus appear as waste only many years after they have been introduced on the market. Plastic is constantly being used for new products because of its attractive material properties: relatively cheap, easy to form......, good strength and long durability. Recycling of plastic waste from production is well-established, while recycling of postconsumer plastic waste still is in its infancy. This chapter describes briefly how plastic is produced and how waste plastic is recycled in the industry. Quality requirements...

  10. Bottled Water: United States Consumers and Their Perceptions of Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Mahler

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of bottled water is increasing worldwide. Prior research shows many consumers believe bottled water is convenient and has better taste than tap water, despite reports of a number of water quality incidents with bottled water. The authors explore the demographic and social factors associated with bottled water users in the U.S. and the relationship between bottled water use and perceptions of the quality of local water supply. They find that U.S. consumers are more likely to report bottled water as their primary drinking water source when they perceive that drinking water is not safe. Furthermore, those who give lower ratings to the quality of their ground water are more likely to regularly purchase bottle water for drinking and use bottle water as their primary drinking water source.

  11. EFFECT OF PASTEURIZATION TEMPERATURE AND ASEPTIC FILLING ON THE SHELF-LIFE OF MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Rodrigues PETRUS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aseptic filling process can contribute to extend the shelf-life of pasteurized milk. However, this technology is not still commercially practiced in Brazil for this product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the pasteurization temperature and aseptic filling on the stability of milk packaged in high density polyethylene bottle (HDPE. Three batches of one hundred bottles each were processed at 72, 83, and 94ºC/15s, followed by aseptic packaging and storage at 9ºC, simulating a deficient cold chain scenario as found in the Brazilian market. Microbiological stability evaluation was based on mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts. Sensory shelf-life was estimated according to the ratings assigned to the attributes appearance, aroma, flavor and overall appreciation of milk samples. The pasteurization temperature, in the range investigated, did not affect the shelf-life of milk, which lasted up to 11 days for the three processed batches. The aseptic filling, associated to the employed thermal treatments, did not extend the shelf-life of milk stored under the abuse condition of 9°C, considering that the commercial product shelf-life in Brazil is of about 10 days.

  12. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  13. Bottle feeding simulates child loss: postpartum depression and evolutionary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallup, Gordon G; Nathan Pipitone, R; Carrone, Kelly J; Leadholm, Kevin L

    2010-01-01

    At the level of a mother's basic biology, the decision to bottle feed unwittingly mimics conditions associated with the death of an infant. Child loss is a well documented trigger for depression particularly in mothers, and growing evidence shows that bottle feeding is a risk factor for postpartum depression. The implications of this hypothesis for infant feeding practices, hospital procedures that lead to intermittent separation between mothers and infants during the immediate postpartum period, parallels between an increased desire to hold infants by mothers who bottle feed and responses to infant death among nonhuman primates, and the relationship between weaning and depression are discussed in the context of an emerging discipline known as evolutionary medicine.

  14. Bottle atom trapping configuration by optical dipole forces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Aldossary

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bottle beam configuration is a light field created by the interference of a pair of Laguerre–Gauss light beams with zero orbital angular momentum. In this work we show the theoretical study of the bottle beam as well as the use of this beam for the creation of a novel atom optical dipole trap namely the bottle atom trap. In such a trap the resulting dark trapping region is three-dimensional and has a cylindrical symmetry. These promising results show that this trap is a nice candidate for trapping Bose–Einstein condensates and may serve as an optical tweezer mechanism potentially useful for trapping micron-sized dielectric particles.

  15. Relationship between breastfeeding, bottle-feeding and development of malocclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narbutytė, Indrė; Narbutytė, Agnė; Linkevičienė, Laura

    2013-01-01

    The importance of breastfeeding to the child's psychological and physical development is evidence-based. However, scientific literature contains controversial opinions on its influence to the development of maxillofacial system. This article aims at reviewing the effects of breastfeeding and bottle-feeding to the development of malocclusion and non-nutritive sucking habits. Thirty-four articles analyzing the above mentioned associations were selected from Pubmed database. Breastfeeding and bottle-feeding may have different impact on the development of maxillofacial system due to unequal functional load of certain facial muscles involved in the feeding processes. Shortage of scientific research prevents from relating bottle-feeding with the development of skeletal malocclusions. Prolonged breastfeeding may have protective effect on developing posterior crossbite and anterior openbite. However, conflicting opinions have been observed. It has been stated that longer duration of breastfeeding diminishes the risk of acquiring non - nutritive sucking habits.

  16. Effect of PVP on the characteristic of modified membranes made from waste PET bottles for humic acid removal [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrul Arahman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the possibility of using recycled polymer (waste polyethylene terephthalate [PET] bottles as a membrane material. Furthermore, the effect of the addition of a pore-forming agent and preparation conditions was also observed. Methods: Porous polymeric membranes were prepared via thermally induced phase separation by dissolving recycled PET in phenol. PET polymer was obtained from waste plastic bottles as a new source of polymeric material. For original PET membrane, the casting solution was prepared by dissolving of 20wt% PET in phenol solution. For PET modified membrane, a 5 wt% of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP was added into polymer solution. The solution was cast onto a glass plate at room temperature followed by evaporation before the solidification process. The membranes formed were characterized in terms of morphology, chemical group, and filtration performance. A humic acid solution was used to identify the permeability and the solute rejection of the membranes. Results: The results showed that the recycled PET from waste plastic bottles was applicable to use as a membrane material for a water treatment process. The maximum flux of 97.0 l/m2.hr was obtained from filtration test using PET membrane. The highest rejection of humic acid in a water sample, which reached up to 75.92%, was obtained using the PET/PVP membrane. Conclusions: The recycled PET from waste bottles was successfully used to prepare porous membrane. The membrane was modified by the addition of PVP as a membrane modifying agent. SEM analysis confirmed that the original PET membrane has a rough and large pore structure. The addition of PVP improved the pore density with a narrow pore structure. The PET/PVP membrane conditioned with evaporation was the best in humic acid rejection.

  17. Designing a Closed Loop System for PET Bottles Recovery in Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Lincoln, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The project is to design a closed loop system for PET bottle recovery. The purpose is to tackle the issue of indiscriminate dumping of PET bottles and to build a sustainable long term design to enable manufacturing companies reclaim used PET bottles, recycle and reuse the bottles in their manufacturing operations The thesis consist of the theoretical and the empirical sections which helped the author to divide the project into two different design options to fit the Nigerian context. In o...

  18. 77 FR 54930 - Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A Subsidiary of Plastics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Employment and Training Administration Carlyle Plastics and Resins, Formerly Known as Fortis Plastics, A... plastic parts. New information shows that Fortis Plastics is now called Carlyle Plastics and Resins. In... of Carlyle Plastics and Resins, formerly known as Fortis Plastics, a subsidiary of...

  19. Cholera in Portugal, 1974. II. Transmission by bottled mineral water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, P A; Rosenberg, M L; Florencia, J; Costa, J B; do Prado Quintino, L; Gangarosa, E J

    1977-04-01

    During a cholera epidemic, Vibrio cholerae was isolated from two springs which supplied mineral water to a spa and to a commercial water bottling plant. Epidemiologic investigation found that cholera attack rates were 10-fold greater among visitors to the spa than among non-visitors. A subsequent matched-pair case-control study which excluded persons who had visted the spa showed that a history of consumption of the bottled non-carbonated water was significantly more common among bacteriologically confirmed cholera cases than among paired controls.

  20. Raman lasing in a hollow, bottle-like microresonator

    CERN Document Server

    Ooka, Yuta; Ward, Jonathan; Chromaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of an ultrahigh quality factor, bottle-like microresonator from a hollow microcapillary, and the realisation of Raman lasing therein at pump wavelengths of $1.55~\\mathrm{\\mu m}$ and $780~\\mathrm{nm}$. Third-order cascaded Raman lasing was observed when pumped at $780~\\mathrm{nm}$. The aerostatic pressure tunability of the Raman laser was also investigated. Thence, we demonstrate that a high dynamic range, high resolution pressure sensor can be realised using the Raman spectrum of the hollow, bottle-like microresonator.

  1. 塑料啤酒瓶的开发途径%DEVELOPMENT OF PLASTICS BEER BOTTLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方圣行; 胡莹梅

    2001-01-01

    简述了目前国际上塑料啤酒瓶的开发情况,分析其材料和构成特点,尤其对重要性能指标--优良的气体阻隔性的获得方式作了归纳,并介绍了国际上在此方面的技术进展和工业化情况.

  2. 21 CFR 189.301 - Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tin-coated lead foil capsules for wine bottles. 189... lead foil capsules for wine bottles. (a) Tin-coated lead foil is composed of a lead foil coated on one... covering applied over the cork and neck areas) on wine bottles to prevent insect infestation, as a barrier...

  3. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  4. 77 FR 43237 - Genome in a Bottle Consortium-Work Plan Review Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Genome in a Bottle Consortium--Work Plan Review Workshop.... SUMMARY: NIST announces the Genome in a Bottle Consortium meeting to be held on Thursday and Friday, August 16 and 17, 2012. The Genome in a Bottle Consortium is planning to develop the reference...

  5. 78 FR 47674 - Genome in a Bottle Consortium-Progress and Planning Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Genome in a Bottle Consortium--Progress and Planning... workshop. SUMMARY: NIST announces the Genome in a Bottle Consortium meeting to be held on Thursday and Friday, August 15 and 16, 2013. The Genome in a Bottle Consortium is developing the reference...

  6. 27 CFR 19.204 - Alternation of distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. 19.204 Section 19.204 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... distilled spirits plant and taxpaid wine bottling house premises. (a) General. A proprietor of a distilled spirits plant operating a contiguous taxpaid wine bottling house desiring to alternate the use of...

  7. Detection algorithm for glass bottle mouth defect by continuous wavelet transform based on machine vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jinfang; Zhang, Changjiang

    2014-11-01

    An efficient algorithm based on continuous wavelet transform combining with pre-knowledge, which can be used to detect the defect of glass bottle mouth, is proposed. Firstly, under the condition of ball integral light source, a perfect glass bottle mouth image is obtained by Japanese Computar camera through the interface of IEEE-1394b. A single threshold method based on gray level histogram is used to obtain the binary image of the glass bottle mouth. In order to efficiently suppress noise, moving average filter is employed to smooth the histogram of original glass bottle mouth image. And then continuous wavelet transform is done to accurately determine the segmentation threshold. Mathematical morphology operations are used to get normal binary bottle mouth mask. A glass bottle to be detected is moving to the detection zone by conveyor belt. Both bottle mouth image and binary image are obtained by above method. The binary image is multiplied with normal bottle mask and a region of interest is got. Four parameters (number of connected regions, coordinate of centroid position, diameter of inner cycle, and area of annular region) can be computed based on the region of interest. Glass bottle mouth detection rules are designed by above four parameters so as to accurately detect and identify the defect conditions of glass bottle. Finally, the glass bottles of Coca-Cola Company are used to verify the proposed algorithm. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can accurately detect the defect conditions of the glass bottles and have 98% detecting accuracy.

  8. 75 FR 16363 - Beverages: Bottled Water; Reopening of the Comment Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...: Bottled Water; Reopening of the Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Proposed... 4, 1993 (58 FR 41612), amending the quality standard for bottled water (currently in 21 CFR 165.110(b)). In the 1993 proposed rule, FDA proposed to revise the bottled water quality standard...

  9. Community Responses to the Removal of Bottled Water on a University Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailovich, Katja; Fitzgerald, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aimed to examine the impact of the removal of bottled water on the campus community. This paper presents the findings of a survey conducted at the first Australian university to remove single-use bottled water from sale on a small regional university campus. The removal of bottled water from sale at the university formed part…

  10. 49 CFR 192.175 - Pipe-type and bottle-type holders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. 192.175 Section....175 Pipe-type and bottle-type holders. (a) Each pipe-type and bottle-type holder must be designed so as to prevent the accumulation of liquids in the holder, in connecting pipe, or in...

  11. 27 CFR 25.157 - Determination of tax on bottled beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... bottled beer. 25.157 Section 25.157 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Tax on Beer Determination of Tax § 25.157 Determination of tax on bottled beer. The quantities of bottled beer removed subject to tax shall be computed...

  12. Acetaldehyde in mineral water stored in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles: Odour threshold and quantification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijssen, B.; Kamperman, T.; Jetten, J.

    1996-01-01

    The use of PET bottles for packaging soft drinks and mineral waters is still growing world wide. The production process for these bottles is improving constantly. These improvements are focussed on bottles with better barrier properties, higher inertness and higher heat stability. One of the factors

  13. Our plastic age

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Richard C. Thompson; Shanna H. Swan; Charles J. Moore; Frederick S. vom Saal

    2009-01-01

    Within the last few decades, plastics have revolutionized our daily lives. Globally we use in excess of 260 million tonnes of plastic per annum, accounting for approximately 8 per cent of world oil production...

  14. Weinig plastic in vissenmaag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foekema, E.M.

    2012-01-01

    Waar de magen van sommige zeevogels vol plastic zitten, lijken vissen in de Noordzee nauwelijks last te hebben van kunststofafval. Onderzoekers die plastic resten zochten in vissenmagen vonden ze in elk geval nauwelijks.

  15. Ear Plastic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Plastic Surgery Ear Plastic Surgery Patient Health Information ... they may improve appearance and self-confidence. Can Ear Deformities Be Corrected? Formation of the ear during ...

  16. Wine bottle colour and oxidative spoilage: whole bottle light exposure experiments under controlled and uncontrolled temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Daniel A; Clark, Andrew C; Smith, Trevor A; Ghiggino, Kenneth P; Scollary, Geoffrey R

    2013-06-15

    Exposure of a Chardonnay wine to light from a mercury vapour lamp under controlled temperature conditions showed that colour enhancement was dependent on bottle colour. The increase in colouration was Antique Greenlight exposure. Without temperature control, wine colour development was highest in Antique Green and lowest in Flint. This alternate order reflects the ability of the darker bottles to retain heat longer than lighter coloured ones as confirmed by surface temperature decay rates. Specific pigments contributing to the wine colour enhancement in uncontrolled temperature/light exposure experiments could not be identified, although tentative evidence was obtained for the presence of flavan-3-ol based compounds. The different bottle glass surfaces did not influence the rate of loss of dissolved oxygen or oxidation of ascorbic acid. The potential to develop the results obtained in this study to identify markers for light and/or temperature exposure of white wines is discussed.

  17. Removal of root filling materials.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Duncan, H.F. Chong, B.S.

    2011-05-01

    Safe, successful and effective removal of root filling materials is an integral component of non-surgical root canal re-treatment. Access to the root canal system must be achieved in order to negotiate to the canal terminus so that deficiencies in the original treatment can be rectified. Since a range of materials have been advocated for filling root canals, different techniques are required for their removal. The management of commonly encountered root filling materials during non-surgical re-treatment, including the clinical procedures necessary for removal and the associated risks, are reviewed. As gutta-percha is the most widely used and accepted root filling material, there is a greater emphasis on its removal in this review.

  18. Gas-filled double glazing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goesele, K.; Schuele, W.; Lakatos, B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the results of experiments the sonar and thermal properties of insulated double glazing filled with gas are tested. The sound insulation properties of double glazing can be improved by introducing a gas of a heavy specific weight, such as CO/sub 2/ or SF/sub 6/ into the hollow space. Even gases with a light specific weight produce an improvement in sound insulation; light gases diffuse outwards much more rapidly, however, and can thus be eliminated for practical purposes. The combination of a gas-filled space between the panes and the use of sufficiently heavy compound panes were tested. The thermal properties of insulated double glazing filled with specifically heavy gas gave favourable results with a lower heat transition coefficient. The use of gas to fill double glazing has a particularly favourable effect if the panes are given a heat-reflecting coating in synthetic frames.

  19. Evacuation from smoke filled corridors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janse, E.W.; Leur, P.H.E. van de; Oerle, N.J. van

    1998-01-01

    underpinning compartmentation requirements in the Dutch regulations is that people can and will go through 30 m of smoke filled space. The hypothesis leads to the requirement that corridors are divided in compartments with a maximum length of 30 meters.

  20. Biodegradability of Plastics

    OpenAIRE

    Yutaka Tokiwa; Calabia, Buenaventurada P.; Charles U. Ugwu; Seiichi Aiba

    2009-01-01

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical ...

  1. Chemical Recycle of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Fatima

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Various chemical processes currently prevalent in the chemical industry for plastics recycling have been discussed. Possible future scenarios in chemical recycling have also been discussed. Also analyzed are the effects on the environment, the risks, costs and benefits of PVC recycling. Also listed are the various types of plastics and which plastics are safe to use and which not after rcycle

  2. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example...

  3. Depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedalino, Inaam; Hartup, Grant R; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, manufacturers have introduced flowable composite resins that reportedly can be placed in increments of 4 mm or greater. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of bulk-fill flowable composite resins (SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Venus Bulk Fill) and a conventional flowable composite resin (Revolution Formula 2). Depth of cure was measured in terms of bottom-maximum Knoop hardness number (KHN) ratios and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 4049 scrape technique. Shades A2 and A3 of SureFil SDR Flow, Grandio Flow, and Revolution Formula 2 were tested. Venus Bulk Fill was tested in its only available shade (universal). Specimens in thicknesses of 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 mm were polymerized for 20 or 40 seconds, and a hardness tester was used to determine the hardness ratios for each shade at each thickness. For the scraping technique, after specimens were exposed to the curing light, unpolymerized composite resin was removed with a plastic instrument, the polymerized composite was measured, and the length was divided by 2 per ISO guidelines. According to the KHN ratios and the scrape test, Venus Bulk Fill predictably exceeded the manufacturer's claim of a 4-mm depth of cure at both 20 and 40 seconds of curing time. The overall results for depth of cure showed that Venus Bulk Fill ≥ SureFil SDR Flow ≥ Grandio Flow ≥ Revolution Formula 2.

  4. Effectiveness of organoclays as compatibilizers for multiphase polymer blends - A sustainable route for the mechanical recycling of co-mingled plastics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causa, Andrea; Mistretta, Maria Chiara; Acierno, Domenico; Filippone, Giovanni

    2014-05-01

    We prepare and characterize multiphase systems in which small amounts of recycled polymer, namely polyethylene terephtalate (PET) ground from waste bottles, are dispersed in a co-continuous blend of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). Some of such ternary systems are also filled with plate-like clay nanoparticles with different polarities, in order to assess their influence on the morphology and mechanical behaviour of the blends. On the basis of preliminary wettability considerations and inspections by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the PET is found to preferentially locate within the PP phase. Such a positioning is desirable in order to minimize the presence of multiple interfaces, which is one of the major issues in the recycling process of co-mingles plastics. By means of SEM, dynamic-mechanical analysis and tensile tests we show that the addition of a filler with low polarity, which locates at the PET-matrix interface, has relevant implications on the structure and properties of the ternary systems, refining their morphology at the micro-scale and enhancing their high-temperature mechanical behaviour.

  5. Effectiveness of organoclays as compatibilizers for multiphase polymer blends – A sustainable route for the mechanical recycling of co-mingled plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Causa, Andrea; Acierno, Domenico; Filippone, Giovanni [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, dei Materiali e della Produzione Industriale, Università di Napoli Federico II, Piazzale V. Tecchio, 80, 80125 Napoli (Italy); Mistretta, Maria Chiara [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Ambientale, Aerospaziale, dei Materiali, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, ed. 6, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2014-05-15

    We prepare and characterize multiphase systems in which small amounts of recycled polymer, namely polyethylene terephtalate (PET) ground from waste bottles, are dispersed in a co-continuous blend of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). Some of such ternary systems are also filled with plate-like clay nanoparticles with different polarities, in order to assess their influence on the morphology and mechanical behaviour of the blends. On the basis of preliminary wettability considerations and inspections by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the PET is found to preferentially locate within the PP phase. Such a positioning is desirable in order to minimize the presence of multiple interfaces, which is one of the major issues in the recycling process of co-mingles plastics. By means of SEM, dynamic-mechanical analysis and tensile tests we show that the addition of a filler with low polarity, which locates at the PET-matrix interface, has relevant implications on the structure and properties of the ternary systems, refining their morphology at the micro-scale and enhancing their high-temperature mechanical behaviour.

  6. Microbiological quality of water processed and bottled in Zimbabwe

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cyanide residues from disused gold mine dumps. There are various ... bottled in Zimbabwe has. African Journal of Health Sciences Volume 9 Number 1-2, January-June 2002 ... metabolism on triple sugar iron (TSI) afar. Bacillus species were ...

  7. 27 CFR 24.256 - Bottle aging wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bottle aging wine. 24.256 Section 24.256 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... not have labels affixed until the wine is removed for consumption or sale. However, the bins,...

  8. 40 CFR 141.101 - Use of bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of bottled water. 141.101 Section 141.101 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS Use of Non-Centralized Treatment Devices §...

  9. Blue Bottle Experiment: Learning Chemistry without Knowing the Chemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Areekul, Cherprang; Montriwat, Punchalee; Rajchakit, Urawadee

    2017-01-01

    The blue bottle experiment is a popular chemical demonstration because of its simplicity and visual appeal. Most papers on the topic focus on a new formulation or a new presentation, but only a few discuss pedagogical application for a full lab session. This article describes the use of this experiment in the first session of undergraduate…

  10. Reducing Baby Bottle Tooth Decay. A SERVE Research Brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southeastern Regional Vision for Education (SERVE), Tallahassee, FL.

    This pamphlet discusses strategies for reducing baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) among Native American children. BBTD in infants and toddlers is a painful disease characterized by extensive decay of the upper front and side teeth. It is caused by prolonged exposure of teeth to carbohydrates, such as those contained in infant formula, milk, and fruit…

  11. Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

  12. Fluoride Content of Bottled Drinking Waters in Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almulla, Hessa Ibrahim; King, Nigel M; Alnsour, Hamza Mohammad; Sajnani, Anand K

    2016-12-01

    Fluoridation of drinking water has been recognized as one of the most effective ways of achieving community-wide exposure to the caries prevention effects of fluoride (F). A vast majority of people in Qatar use bottled water for drinking. Use of bottled water without knowing the F level may expose children to dental caries risk if the F level is lower than optimal or to dental fluorosis if the F level is too high. The aim of this study was to determine the F concentration of bottled water available in Qatar. A total of 32 brands of bottled water were evaluated. The F concentrations displayed on the labels were recorded. The F ion-selective electrode method was used to measure the F concentration in water samples, and three measurements were taken for every sample to ensure reproducibility. The p value was set at 0.05. The F concentration ranged from 0.06 to 3.0 ppm with a mean value of 0.8 ppm (±0.88). The F levels were provided by the manufacturers on the labels of 60 % of the samples, but this was significantly lower than the measured F levels (p water that was produced in Saudi Arabia had significantly higher levels of F when compared to those produced in other countries (p water. Furthermore, there was a significant disparity between the F levels which were measured and those that were provided on the labels.

  13. A survey of the radiological quality of Mexican bottled waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez del R, H.; Davila R, J. I.; Rosales H, M. A.; Mireles G, F.; Pinedo V, J. L., E-mail: hlopezdelrio@hotmail.com [Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Unidad Academica de Estudios Nucleares, Cipres No. 10, Fracc. La Penuela, 98060 Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    More bottled drinking water is consumed per capita in Mexico than in any other country in the world. With the purpose of verifying the compliance with Mexican standards for radioactive content of drinking water, the gross alpha and beta activities were measured in 34 brands of bottled water consisting of purified water (19), natural mineral water (12), and mineralized water (3). Electrical conductivity of water samples ranged from 10 to 1465 μS/cm, and mostly high values were for the mineralized water samples. Gross alpha activities ranged from <12.2 to 709.8 mBq/L, while gross beta activities values varied from <26 to 616 mBq/L. All the bottled water samples had radioactivity content below the maximum permissible levels established in the Official Mexican Norm, except for the gross alpha level of one natural mineral water. Based upon these results it can be concluded that, in general, the analyzed bottled waters have acceptable quality with regard to radioactive content of gross alpha and beta activities. (Author)

  14. Perceptions of bottled water consumers in three Brazilian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Queiroz, Josiane T Matos; Doria, Miguel de França; Rosenberg, Mark W; Heller, Léo; Zhouri, Andréa

    2013-09-01

    This study presents perceptions of consumers of bottled water in their households in three Brazilian municipalities. Data from interviews were analyzed using the Discourse Collective Subject method. Interviewees spent, on average, the equivalent of 40% of their water bill for the public water supply on the purchase of bottled water. The decision about water consumption in the household was predominantly made by women. Interviewees were particularly concerned with health risks and expressed a strong preference for the safety and organoleptic qualities of bottled water, particularly in cases where the tap water supply did not fully meet the regulated water quality standards. Interviewees were largely unaware of the origin, type, storage, and social and environmental impacts of bottled water. Results highlight the importance of water education efforts among the general population and the key role of women in the processes related to drinking water. The need for gender-specific interventions and the empowerment of women on water issues is noted. Results also strongly support the relevance of ensuring the provision of safe drinking water, from the source to the consumption point, with the trust of consumers.

  15. Classification of Lagrangian Fibrations over a Klein Bottle

    CERN Document Server

    Sepe, D

    2009-01-01

    This paper completes the classification of regular Lagrangian fibratiopns over compact surfaces. \\cite{misha} classifies regular Lagrangian fibrations over $\\mathbb{T}^2$. The main theorem in \\cite{hirsch} is used in order to classify integral affine structures on the Klein bottle $K^2$ and, hence, regular Lagrangian fibrations over this space.

  16. Chromatic Enumeration for Singular Maps on the Klein Bottle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李赵祥; 刘彦佩

    2002-01-01

    A map is singular if each edge is on the same face on a surface (i.e.,it has only one face on a surface).In this paper we present the chromatic enumeration for rooted singular maps on the Klein bottle.

  17. 27 CFR 5.41 - Bottle cartons, booklets and leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), or any written, printed, graphic, or other matter accompanying the bottle to the consumer buyer shall not contain any statement, design, device, or graphic, pictorial, or emblematic representation that is... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Labeling...

  18. Painting Cloud Nine: A Study of Magritte's Bottle Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Dianne

    2000-01-01

    Provides background information on Rene Magritte and his work. Offers an activity in which elementary and middle school students can learn about Magritte's sky and silhouette series of painted wine bottles. Explains that the lesson should be used when students are learning about poetry in language arts classes. (CMK)

  19. Bottle Babies: A Guide to the Baby Foods Issue. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottingham, Jane, Comp.

    This guide has been compiled as an aide-memoire and resource book about the increasing incidence of malnutrition in infants caused by bottle feeding in the Third World. It deals with four major interrelated issues: (1) the prevalence of protein energy malnutrition, (2) the importance of breast milk, not only in preventing malnutrition and disease…

  20. Computed Tomography characterization of the Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    process. The Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) is a freeform geometry consisting of cellulose fibers. Accurate dimensional measurements such as wall thickness of the GFB is not possible using Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs). XCT on one hand provides an effective means of measuring wall thickness...

  1. Biodegradability of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokiwa, Yutaka; Calabia, Buenaventurada P; Ugwu, Charles U; Aiba, Seiichi

    2009-08-26

    Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.). In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  2. Plastic value chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baxter, John; Wahlstrom, Margareta; Zu Castell-Rüdenhausen, Malin

    2014-01-01

    Optimizing plastic value chains is regarded as an important measure in order to increase recycling of plastics in an efficient way. This can also lead to improved awareness of the hazardous substances contained in plastic waste, and how to avoid that these substances are recycled. As an example......, plastics from WEEE is chosen as a Nordic case study. The project aims to propose a number of improvements for this value chain together with representatives from Nordic stakeholders. Based on the experiences made, a guide for other plastic value chains shall be developed....

  3. Biodegradability of Plastics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutaka Tokiwa

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Plastic is a broad name given to different polymers with high molecular weight, which can be degraded by various processes. However, considering their abundance in the environment and their specificity in attacking plastics, biodegradation of plastics by microorganisms and enzymes seems to be the most effective process. When plastics are used as substrates for microorganisms, evaluation of their biodegradability should not only be based on their chemical structure, but also on their physical properties (melting point, glass transition temperature, crystallinity, storage modulus etc.. In this review, microbial and enzymatic biodegradation of plastics and some factors that affect their biodegradability are discussed.

  4. Journal of CHINA PLASTICS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Journal of CHINA PLASTICS was authorized and approved by The State Committee of Science and Technology of China and The Bureau of News Press of China, and published by The China Plastics Processing Industry Association,Beijing Technology and Business University and The Institute of Plastics Processing and Application of Light Industry, distributed worldwide. Since its birth in 1987, CHINA PLASTICS has become a leading magazine in plastics industry in China, a national Chinese core journal and journal of Chinese scientific and technological article statistics. It is covered by CA.

  5. Several properties offilament fibers made from recycled bottles of mineral water using melt spinning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muslim, Ikhwanul; Mardiyati; Basuki, Arif

    2016-01-01

    Waste mineral water bottles made of PET called post-consumer POSTC-PET packaging with recycling code no. 1 can be made into another material other than the bottle by using a mechanical recycling process. In this experiment carried waste recycling process bottled mineral water bottles of PET into filament fibres with the aid of a melt spinning. From the resulting experimental filament fibres diameter of 14-15 microns, obtained the draw ratio is 1/46, 573,5 - 699,8 MPa tensile strength, modulus of elasticity of 2,01 - 2,45GPa, moisture regain of 2,84. Keywords. PET; Bottle; Fiber; Melt; Spinning; Drawing.

  6. Combating oil spill problem using plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, Junaid, E-mail: junaidupm@gmail.com [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Karachi (Pakistan); Ning, Chao; Barford, John [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); McKay, Gordon [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Division of Sustainable Development, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Hamad Bin Khalifa University, Qatar Foundation, Doha (Qatar)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Up-cycling one type of pollution i.e. plastic waste and successfully using it to combat the other type of pollution i.e. oil spill. • Synthesized oil sorbent that has extremely high oil uptake of 90 g/g after prolonged dripping of 1 h. • Synthesized porous oil sorbent film which not only facilitates in oil sorption but also increases the affinity between sorbent and oil by means of adhesion. - Abstract: Thermoplastic polymers (such as polypropylene, polyethylene, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and high density polyethylene (HDPE)) constitute 5–15% of municipal solid waste produced across the world. A huge quantity of plastic waste is disposed of each year and is mostly either discarded in landfills or incinerated. On the other hand, the usage of synthetic polymers as oil sorbents, in particular, polyolefins, including polypropylene (PP), and polyethylene (PE) are the most commonly used oil sorbent materials mainly due to their low cost. However, they possess relatively low oil absorption capacities. In this work, we provide an innovative way to produce a value-added product such as oil-sorbent film with high practical oil uptake values in terms of g/g from waste HDPE bottles for rapid oil spill remedy.

  7. Challenges in plastics recycling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Jakobsen, L. G.; Eriksen, Marie Kampmann

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of waste plastics still remains a challenging area in the waste management sector. The current and potential goals proposed on EU or regional levels are difficult to achieve, and even to partially fullfil them the improvements in collection and sorting should be considerable. A study...... was undertaken to investigate the factors affecting quality in plastics recycling. The preliminary results showed factors primarily influencing quality of plastics recycling to be polymer cross contamination, presence of additives, non-polymer impurities, and polymer degradation. Deprivation of plastics quality......, with respect to recycling, has been shown to happen throughout the plastics value chain, but steps where improvements may happen have been preliminary identified. Example of Cr in plastic samples analysed showed potential spreading and accumulation of chemicals ending up in the waste plastics. In order...

  8. Glassy metallic plastics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a class of bulk metallic glass including Ce-, LaCe-, CaLi-, Yb-, and Sr-based metallic glasses, which are regarded as glassy metallic plastics because they combine some unique properties of both plastics and metallic alloys. These glassy metallic plastics have very low glass transition temperature (Tg~25oC to 150oC) and low Young’s modulus (~20 GPa to 35 GPa). Similar to glassy plastics, these metallic plastics show excellent plastic-like deformability on macro-, micro- and even nano-scale in their supercooled liquid range and can be processed, such as elongated, compressed, bent, and imprinted at low temperatures, in hot water for instance. Under ambient conditions, they display such metallic properties as high thermal and electric conductivities and excellent mechanical properties and other unique properties. The metallic plastics have potential applications and are also a model system for studying issues in glass physics.

  9. A comparison of recent Standard Seawater and Quality Evaluation of the Standard Seawater supplied in a bottle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Takeshi; Takatsuki, Yasushi; Imai, Jun; Aoyama, Michio

    The results of IAPSO Standard Seawater (SSW) comparisons are presented for batches P 132 to P 140. We try to match up our data with the previous result of comparison experiment to make the newest "offset table". According to the newest "offset table" proposed in this study, the standard deviation of the batch to batch differences among batches P 132 to P 140 is calculated to be 0.3 × 10-3 in salinity. This value is smaller than the value reported in the previous studies. The quality of SSW, from the point of view of batch to batch differences, has improved recently. The SSW batch P 138 and P 140 were stored in bottles made from borosilicate glass and closed with chemically resistant plastic stoppers, while batches P 133 to P 137 and P 139 were stored in glass ampoules. We measured 30 bottles of P 138 and P 140 along with several ampoules of other batches in order to check the quality, those are, within-batch difference and batch-to-batch difference. The standard deviations (1σ) of 30 repeat measurements on P 138 and P 140 were both 0.3 × 10-3 in salinity. The difference between label-delived and measured salinity of P 138 referred to batch P 137 was -0.1 × 10-3 and that of P 140 reffered to batch P 139 was -0.5 × 10-3 in salinity. These values are comparable with other batches stored in a traditional glass ampoules. This result shows that SSW in a shot-bottle is, at least as for P 138 and P 140 at this moment, almost equivalent to SSW in a glass ampoule in quality.

  10. Study of the influence of the protective covering from contamination on the radiopharmaceutical bottle in measurement of activity; Estudo da influencia do involucro protetor de contaminacao no frasco de radiofarmacos na medicao da atividade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuahara, L.T.; Correa, E.L.; Potiens, M.P.A, E-mail: lilian547@hotmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to determine the influence of the use of a plastic covering on the bottle used to supply radiopharmaceuticals to analyze the feasibility of its use at the time of manufacture, in order to avoid contamination in the activity meter well chamber. For that were held several measured with liquid {sup 137}Cs source with and without this envelope and the activity meters of the calibration laboratory. Tests showed a small variation in the percentage of measures with the plastic covering, value considerably low, which will not cause injury in providing radiopharmaceuticals for the Service Nuclear Medicine.

  11. Evaluation function of drinking ease from aluminum beverage bottles relative to optimum bottle opening diameter and beverage type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chihara, Takanori; Yamazaki, Koetsu

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, aluminum beverage bottles having screw tops with opening diameters of 28 and 38 mm have been launched in the Japanese market in keeping with the modern-day drinking habits of consumers. Although Japanese consumers are familiar with such bottles, a majority of them feel that the 28 mm opening is too small and the 38 mm opening is too large. Therefore, we felt the need to develop a method for evaluating consumer feelings when they drink a beverage directly from the bottle opening. For this purpose, we propose an evaluation function of drinking ease that calculates the optimum opening diameter of the bottle. From results of our previous study, we know that there exists an ideal volume of beverage flowing into the mouth, at which consumers feel most comfortable while drinking directly from bottles. Therefore, we define the evaluation function of drinking ease in terms of the difference between the actual volume of fluid in the mouth and the expected ideal volume. If this difference is small, consumers probably feel comfortable while drinking the beverage. We consider a design variable, i.e., the opening diameter, and two state variables, i.e., the volume of beverage remaining in the bottle and the height of consumers, and construct the response surface of the evaluation function by using radial basis function networks. In addition, for investigating the influence of beverage type on the evaluation function, we select green tea and a carbonated beverage (Coke) as test beverages. Results of optimization of the proposed function show that when the opening diameters are 35.4 mm and 34.4 mm in the case of green tea and Coke, respectively, the actual volume of fluid in the mouth is closest to the ideal volume and the participants feel most comfortable. These results are in agreement with results of our previous study that an opening diameter of 33 mm is optimum for young Japanese adults. Thus, we confirm that the proposed function is accurate; it can be used

  12. Paleovalley fills: Trunk vs. tributary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvale, E.P.; Archer, A.W.

    2007-01-01

    A late Mississippian-early Pennsylvanian eustatic sea level drop resulted in a complex lowstand drainage network being eroded across the Illinois Basin in the eastern United States. This drainage system was filled during the early part of the Pennsylvanian. Distinct differences can be recognized between the trunk and tributary paleovalley fills. Fills preserved within the trunk systems tend to be fluvially dominated and consist of bed-load deposits of coarse- to medium-grained sandstone and conglomerate. Conversely, the incised valleys of tributary systems tend to be filled with dark mudstone, thinly interbedded sandstones, and mudstones and siltstones. These finer grained facies exhibit marine influences manifested by tidal rhythmites, certain traces fossils, and macro- and microfauna. Examples of tributary and trunk systems, separated by no more than 7 km (4.3 mi) along strike, exhibit these styles of highly contrasting fills. Useful analogs for understanding this Pennsylvanian system include the Quaternary glacial sluiceways present in the lower Ohio, White, and Wabash river valleys of Indiana (United States) and the modern Amazon River (Brazil). Both the Amazon River and the Quaternary rivers of Indiana have (or had) trunk rivers that are (were) dominated by large quantities of bed load relative to their tributaries. The trunk valley systems of these analogs aggraded much more rapidly than their tributary valleys, which evolved into lakes because depositional rates along the trunk are (were) so high that the mouths of the tributaries have been dammed by bed-load deposits. These Holocene systems illustrate that sediment yields can significantly influence the nature of fill successions within incised valleys independent of rates of sea level changes or proximity to highstand coastlines. Copyright ?? 2007. The American Association of Petroleum Geologists. All rights reserved.

  13. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triolo, A.; Lechner, R.E.; Desmedt, A.; Pieper, J. [CNR - Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, sez. Messina, Via La Farina 237, 98123 Messina (Italy); Lo Celso, F.; Triolo, R. [Dip. Chimica Fisica, V. le delle Scienze, Parco d' Orleans, Padiglione 17, Universita di Palermo, 90128 Palermo (Italy); Negroni, F. [Pirelli Pneumatici S.p.A, V. le Sarca 222, 20126 Milano (Italy); Arrighi, V.; Qian, H. [Chemistry School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, EH14 4AS Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Frick, B. [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6, rue Jules Horowitz, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble, Cedex 9 (France)

    2002-07-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  14. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    CERN Document Server

    Triolo, A; Desmedt, A; Pieper, J K; Lo Celso, F; Triolo, R; Negroni, F; Arrighi, V; Qian, H; Frick, B

    2002-01-01

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface. (orig.)

  15. QENS investigation of filled rubbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triolo, A.; Lo Celso, F.; Negroni, F.; Arrighi, V.; Qian, H.; Lechner, R. E.; Desmedt, A.; Pieper, J.; Frick, B.; Triolo, R.

    The polymer segmental dynamics is investigated in a series of silica-filled rubbers. The presence of inert fillers in polymers greatly affects the mechanical and physical performance of the final materials. For example, silica has been proposed as a reinforcing agent of elastomers in tire production. Results from quasielastic neutron scattering and Dynamic Mechanical Thermal Analysis (DMTA) measurements are presented on styrene-ran-butadiene rubber filled with silica. A clear indication is obtained of the existence of a bimodal dynamics, which can be rationalized in terms of the relaxation of bulk rubber and the much slower relaxation of the rubber adsorbed on the filler surface.

  16. Gas-Filled Capillary Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinhauer, L. C.; Kimura, W. D.

    2006-11-01

    We have developed a 1-D, quasi-steady-state numerical model for a gas-filled capillary discharge that is designed to aid in selecting the optimum capillary radius in order to guide a laser beam with the required intensity through the capillary. The model also includes the option for an external solenoid B-field around the capillary, which increases the depth of the parabolic density channel in the capillary, thereby allowing for propagation of smaller laser beam waists. The model has been used to select the parameters for gas-filled capillaries to be utilized during the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration — Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) experiment.

  17. Helioseismology in a bottle: modal acoustic velocimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Triana, Santiago Andrés; Nataf, Henri-Claude; Thorette, Aurélien; Lekic, Vedran; Lathrop, Daniel P

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the differential rotation of the Sun's interior is one of the great achievements of helioseismology, providing important constraints for stellar physics. The technique relies on observing and analyzing rotationally-induced splittings of p-modes in the star. Here we demonstrate the first use of the technique in a laboratory setting. We apply it in a spherical cavity with a spinning central core (spherical-Couette flow) to determine the mean azimuthal velocity of the air filling the cavity. We excite a number of acoustic resonances (analogous to p-modes in the Sun) using a speaker and record the response with an array of small microphones on the outer sphere. Many observed acoustic modes show rotationally-induced splittings, which allow us to perform an inversion to determine the air's azimuthal velocity as a function of both radius and latitude. We validate the method by comparing the velocity field obtained through inversion against the velocity profile measured with a calibrated hot film anemo...

  18. Insect cell culture in reagent bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieffel, S; Roest, S; Klopp, J; Carnal, S; Marti, S; Gerhartz, B; Shrestha, B

    2014-01-01

    Growing insect cells with high air space in culture vessel is common from the early development of suspension cell culture. We believed and followed it with the hope that it allows sufficient air for optimal cell growth. However, we missed to identify how much air exactly cells need for its growth and multiplication. Here we present the innovative method that changed the way we run insect cell culture. The method is easy to adapt, cost-effective and useful for both academic and industrial research labs. We believe this method will revolutionize the way we run insect cell culture by increasing throughput in a cost-effective way. In our study we identified:•Insect cells need to be in suspension; air space in culture vessel and type of culture vessel is of less importance. Shaking condition that introduces small air bubbles and maintains it in suspension for longer time provides better oxygen transfer in liquid. For this, high-fill volume in combination with speed and shaking diameter are important.•Commercially available insect cells are not fragile as original isolates. These cells can easily withstand higher shaking speed.•Growth condition in particular lab set-up needs to be optimized. The condition used in one lab may not be optimum for another lab due to different incubators from different vendors.

  19. Microstructural residual stress in particle-filled dental composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejzek, Ondřej; Spaniel, Miroslav; Mareš, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The main goal of this study is to develop a micromechanical model of a particle-filled dental composite focused on the residual stress (RS) field developed during the curing process in its microstructure. A finite element model of a representative volume element of filler and resin was developed, and volumetric shrinkage was simulated during the curing process. Four material models (von Mises plasticity model, Drucker-Prager plasticity model, von Mises plasticity model with stress relaxation and Drucker-Prager plasticity with stress relaxation) of the polymer resin were built to assess the influence of the material model on the resulting internal stress. The relationship between the curing process and the magnitude of the stress components will be described, and an analysis of the post-curing state of the material in particular microstructure locations will be conducted in this study. Obtained RS is comparable to the stresses developed in the material under the external load. The substantial dependence on the choice of material model for resin is to be observed, and the suitability of particular models is discussed.

  20. Portable standoff Raman system for fast detection of homemade explosives through glass, plastic, and water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Anupam K.; Sharma, Shiv K.; Acosta, Tayro E.; Porter, John N.; Lucey, Paul G.; Bates, David E.

    2012-06-01

    The University of Hawaii has been developing portable remote Raman systems capable of detecting chemicals in daylight from a safe standoff distance. We present data on standoff detection of chemicals used in the synthesis of homemade explosives (HME) using a portable standoff Raman system utilizing an 8-inch telescope. Data show that good-quality Raman spectra of various hazardous chemicals such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, potassium perchlorate, sulfur, nitrobenzene, benzene, acetone, various organic and inorganic chemicals etc. could be easily obtained from remote distances, tested up to 120 meters, with a single-pulse laser excitation and with detection time less than 1 μs. The system uses a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser source (532 nm, 100 mJ/pulse, 15 Hz, pulse width 10 ns) capable of firing a single or double pulse. The double-pulse configuration also allows the system to perform standoff LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) at 50 m range. In the standoff Raman detection, the doublepulse sequence simply doubles the signal to noise ratio. Significant improvement in the quality of Raman spectra is observed when the standoff detection is made with 1s integration time. The system uses a 50-micron slit and has spectral resolution of 8 cm-1. The HME chemicals could be easily detected through clear and brown glass bottles, PP and HDPE plastic bottles, and also through fluorescent plastic water bottles. Standoff Raman detection of HME chemical from a 10 m distance through non-visible concealed bottles in plastic bubble wrap packaging is demonstrated with 1 s integration time. Possible applications of the standoff Raman system for homeland security and environmental monitoring are discussed.

  1. Performance analysis and optimization for CSDGB filling system of a beverage plant using particle swarm optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the performance analysis and optimization for Carbonated Soft Drink Glass Bottle (CSDGB filling system of a beverage plant using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO approach. The CSDGB system consists of seven main subsystems arranged in series namely Uncaser, Bottle Washer, Electronic Inspection Station, Filling Machine, Crowner, Coding Machine and Case Packer. Considering exponential distribution for probable failures and repairs, mathematical modeling is performed using Markov Approach (MA. The differential equations have been derived on the basis of probabilistic approach using transition diagram. These equations are solved using normalizing condition and recursive method to drive out the steady state availability expression of the system i.e. system’s performance criterion. The performance optimization of system has been carried out by varying the number of particles and number of generations. It has been observed that the maximum availability of 90.27% is achieved at flock size of 55 and 90.84% at 300th generation. Thus, findings of the paper will be useful to the plant management for execution of proper maintenance decisions.

  2. The water cycle in a bottle: simulation of a hydrogeological basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebot Castelló, M. R.; Leiva Hevia, S.

    2012-04-01

    THE WATER CYCLE IN A BOTTLE: simulation of a hydrogeological basin Author: Mª Roser Nebot (Institut Manuel Blancafort, La Garriga, Barcelona, Spain) Co-author: Sílvia Leiva Hevia (Institut Llicà d'Amunt, Lliça d'Amunt, Barcelona, Spain) The activity can be implemented in a great range of ages, because it has many different levels of depth. It is based on the construction of an analogical model of a hydrogeological basin using a 5L or 8L empty bottle. There are also other hands-on experiences that can be done in relation to the central one, such as creating a fountain, making a cloud, fog, a breeze… The use of a model that the students have to build and interact with enhances the possibility of cooperative and dialogic learning. The set of activities begins with an introduction to see what the students know about the water cycle and to focus on what they are going to work on. It also makes them think about underground water, which is frequently forgotten when drawing and studying the water cycle. Then, the building of the water cycle simulation from an empty bottle is presented, see http://www.xtec.cat/cirel/pla_le/nottingham/roser_nebot/index.htm (Unit 5). You will also find other activities related to the water cycle at the site. The students build the model, water the soil, and observe infiltration and the formation of a lake. Using a syringe they overexploit the well and dry the lake. By making the students label the underground water level and observe how water percolates through the holes in the aquifer we are making them aware that underground water doesn't circulate in rivers inside underground tunnels, but through the interconnected holes and crevices. Inside the bottle there is a little plant to observe evapotranspiration but, because it is very difficult to see the water droplets in the small plant that is inside the set-up, it is advisable to do a parallel experiment using bigger plants in a pot, covering them with a plastic bag tied around the

  3. Partial discharge patterns and surface deterioration in voids in filled and unfilled epoxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holbøll, Joachim; Henriksen, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from analyses of pulses from partial discharges (PDs) in single spherical voids in filled and unfilled epoxy plastic and related to the observed surface deterioration. The filler types used were dolomite, alumina, and silica. Long-time aging tests including pulse phase...

  4. Unsteady Capillary Filling By Electrocapillarity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In Seok; Lee, Jung A.

    2016-11-01

    Unsteady filling of electrolyte solution inside a nanochannel by the electrocapillarity effect is studied. The filling rate is predicted as a function of the bulk concentration of the electrolyte, the surface potential (or surface charge density), and the cross sectional shape of the channel. Since the driving force of the flow is the electrocapillarity, it is first analyzed by using the solution of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. From the analysis, it is found that the results for many different cross sectional shapes can be unified with good accuracy if the hydraulic radius is adopted as the characteristic length scale of the problem. Especially in the case of constant surface potential, for both limits of κh -> 0 and κh -> ∞ , it can be shown theoretically that the electrocapillarity is independent of the cross sectional shape if the hydraulic radius is the same. In order to analyze the geometric effects more systematically, we consider the regular N-polygons with the same hydraulic radius and the rectangles of different aspect ratios. Washburn's approach is then adopted to predict the filling rate of electrolyte solution inside a nanaochannel. It is found that the average filling velocity decreases as N increases in the case of regular N-polygons with the same hydraulic radius. This is because of that the regular N-polygons of the same hydraulic radius share the same inscribing circle. This work has been supported by BK21+ program.

  5. Filling in the retinal image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larimer, James; Piantanida, Thomas

    1990-01-01

    The optics of the eye form an image on a surface at the back of the eyeball called the retina. The retina contains the photoreceptors that sample the image and convert it into a neural signal. The spacing of the photoreceptors in the retina is not uniform and varies with retinal locus. The central retinal field, called the macula, is densely packed with photoreceptors. The packing density falls off rapidly as a function of retinal eccentricity with respect to the macular region and there are regions in which there are no photoreceptors at all. The retinal regions without photoreceptors are called blind spots or scotomas. The neural transformations which convert retinal image signals into percepts fills in the gaps and regularizes the inhomogeneities of the retinal photoreceptor sampling mosaic. The filling-in mechamism plays an important role in understanding visual performance. The filling-in mechanism is not well understood. A systematic collaborative research program at the Ames Research Center and SRI in Menlo Park, California, was designed to explore this mechanism. It was shown that the perceived fields which are in fact different from the image on the retina due to filling-in, control some aspects of performance and not others. Researchers have linked these mechanisms to putative mechanisms of color coding and color constancy.

  6. Space-filling polyhedral sorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haaland, Peter

    2016-06-21

    Solid sorbents, systems, and methods for pumping, storage, and purification of gases are disclosed. They derive from the dynamics of porous and free convection for specific gas/sorbent combinations and use space filling polyhedral microliths with facial aplanarities to produce sorbent arrays with interpenetrating interstitial manifolds of voids.

  7. Filling of charged cylindrical capillaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Siddhartha; Chanda, Sourayon; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Tas, N.R.; Chakraborty, Suman; Mitra, Sushanta K.

    2014-01-01

    We provide an analytical model to describe the filling dynamics of horizontal cylindrical capillaries having charged walls. The presence of surface charge leads to two distinct effects: It leads to a retarding electrical force on the liquid column and also causes a reduced viscous drag force because

  8. Plastic Pollution from Ships

    OpenAIRE

    Čulin, Jelena; Bielić, Toni

    2016-01-01

    The environmental impact of shipping on marine environment includes discharge of garbage. Plastic litter is of particular concern due to abundance, resistance to degradation and detrimental effect on marine biota. According to recently published studies, a further research is required to assess human health risk. Monitoring data indicate that despite banning plastic disposal at sea, shipping is still a source of plastic pollution. Some of the measures to combat the problem are discussed.

  9. The Effect of two kinds of replacement transfusion bottle method for neonatal transfusion residual%两种更换输液瓶法对新生儿输液残留量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈继梅

    2012-01-01

    目的:控制新生儿静脉输液过程中输液瓶药液残留量,最大限度地保证药物剂量准确.方法:将需要输注的54瓶,容量为100 ml,装有50 ml 10%葡萄糖塑料材质输液瓶,随机分为对照组和观察组,每组27瓶,对照组在更换输液瓶时,待输液瓶内液体滴至瓶颈处,莫菲氏滴管上段输液器内有空气时,即更换输液瓶.观察组在更换输液瓶时,待输液瓶内液体滴至瓶颈处,莫菲氏滴管上段输液器内有空气时,操作者左手拇指与示指捏住输液瓶颈,右手将输液器排气管反折,置于左手中指与无名指之间,右手拇指与示指将输液器轻轻拔出瓶口约0.5 cm,然后挤压莫菲氏滴管,使输液瓶颈部残存的液体流入输液器内,再更换输液瓶.比较两种更换输液瓶法液体残留量.结果:观察组输液瓶残留液体量低于对照组(P<0.01).结论:管理者必须关注新生儿输液的每一个环节,控制各环节的药液丢失量,确保新生儿用药量的准确性.%Objective:To control neonatal venous infusion bottles of liquid medicine residue, the maximum guarantee drug dosage is accurate. Methods:The required transfusion of 54 bottles, of capacity 100 ml, but with 50ml 10% GS plastic infusion bottle, were randomly divided into two groups: observation group and control group, each group have 27 bottles, The control group in the transfusion bottle was replaced, the infusion bottle drops of the liquid to the bottleneck, the murphy dropper infusion in upper air,replacement transfusion bottle. The observation group in the transfusion bottle is replaced, the infusion bottle drops of the liquid to the bottleneck, the murphy dropper infusion in upper air, the left thumb and index finger to pinch the infusion bottleneck, right hand infusion exhaust pipe reflexed , placed in the left hand middle finger and ring finger, right hand thumb and index finger will infusion bottle mouth gently pulled out by approx 0.5 cm, then squeeze the

  10. Handbook of Plastic Welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Islam, Aminul

    The purpose of this document is to summarize the information about the laser welding of plastic. Laser welding is a matured process nevertheless laser welding of micro dimensional plastic parts is still a big challenge. This report collects the latest information about the laser welding of plasti...... as a knowledge handbook for laser welding of plastic components. This document should provide the information for all aspects of plastic laser welding and help the design engineers to take all critical issues into consideration from the very beginning of the design phase....

  11. Plastics and health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halden, Rolf U

    2010-01-01

    By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.

  12. Synaptic Plasticity and Nociception

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ChenJianguo

    2004-01-01

    Synaptic plasticity is one of the fields that progresses rapidly and has a lot of success in neuroscience. The two major types of synaptie plasticity: long-term potentiation ( LTP and long-term depression (LTD are thought to be the cellular mochanisms of learning and memory. Recently, accumulating evidence suggests that, besides serving as a cellular model for learning and memory, the synaptic plasticity involves in other physiological or pathophysiological processes, such as the perception of pain and the regulation of cardiovascular system. This minireview will focus on the relationship between synaptic plasticity and nociception.

  13. Bottle characteristics of topical international glaucoma medications versus local brands in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasser Al-Jumaian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available What Is Known and Objective: Physical bottle characteristics differ of brand name topical glaucoma medications and local generic equivalents. This study compares the bottle characteristics of international topical glaucoma brands versus local brands from the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data were collected on bottle drum volume, drop volume, bottle "squeezability," bottle tip diameter, labels and instructions, cap color coding, and clarity of the drug label. Density-based calculations of drops in bottle volume were assessed using an analytic balance. Bottle tip diameter was measured using 0.05 mm Vernier calipers. A Likert scale-based questionnaire was used to evaluate the subjective opinions of patients on bottle squeezability, clarity of usage and storage instructions, and the consistency of the cap color coding. Results: The volumes of international brands were statistically significantly higher than the local brands (P < 0.001. A number of drops per bottle and tip diameter were comparable between the international local brands. Cap color coding was inconsistent for international and local brands. Patients were dissatisfied with the label font size. Patients reported that the international and local brands were similar in terms of the ease of opening the bottle, instilling a drop, and the clarity of the instructions; but the local brands were subjectively easier to squeeze than international brands. What Is New and Conclusions: This is the first study to compare bottle characteristics of local Saudi Arabia brands with international brands. The bottle characteristics and patient feedback were similar between the local and international topical glaucoma medications. However, there were differences between the local and international brands in drug volume, bottle squeezability. Hence, patient compliance and drop dosage may differ based on the origin of manufacture.

  14. Effect of the features of functionalized structure on elastic properties and strength of partially-filled brittle porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, Igor S.; Shilko, Evgeny V.; Konovalenko, Ivan S.; Vodopjyanov, Egor M.

    2016-11-01

    A two-scale mechanical model of brittle porous material partially filled with plastic filler (inclusions) was developed within the framework of the formalism of movable cellular automaton method. The model was applied to study the mechanical properties of mesoscopic samples with a linear distribution of the local porosity in the depth of the material. Calculation results showed essentially nonlinear dependence of their elastic and strength properties on the degree of pore space filling. It is found that depending on the sign of the gradient of porosity the value of shear strength of partially filled samples can significantly increase or remain constant with increase in the value of the degree of filling.

  15. CHARACTER DETECTION AND RECOGNITION SYSTEM OF BEER BOTTLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shen Bangxing; Wu Wenjun; Zhang Yepeng; Shen Gang; Yang Liangen

    2005-01-01

    An optical imaging system and a configuration characteristic algorithm are presented to reduce the difficulties in extracting intact characters image with weak contrast, in recognizing characters on fast moving beer bottles. The system consists of a hardware subsystem, including a rotating device, CCD, 16 mm focus lens, a frame grabber card, a penetrating lighting and a computer, and a software subsystem. The software subsystem performs pretreatment, character segmentation and character recognition. In the pretreatment, the original image is filtered with preset threshold to remove isolated spots. Then the horizontal projection and the vertical projection are used respectively to retrieve the character segmentation. Subsequently, the configuration characteristic algorithm is applied to recognize the characters. The experimental results demonstrate that this system can recognize the characters on beer bottles accurately and effectively; the algorithm is proven fast, stable and robust, making it suitable in the industrial environment.

  16. Stable isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bădăluţă, Carmen; Nagavciuc, Viorica; Perșoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    Romania has a high potential of mineral waters resources, featuring one of the largest mineral resources at European and global level. In the last decade, due to increased in consumption of bottled water, numerous brands have appeared on the market, with equally numerous and variable sources of provenance. In this study we have analyzed the isotopic composition of bottled mineral waters from Romania in order to determine their source and authenticity. We have analysed 32 carbonated and 24 non-carbonated mineral waters from Romania. and the results were analysed in comparison with stable isotope data from precipitation and river waters. Generally, the isotopic values of the mineral waters follow those in precipitation; however, differences occur in former volcanic regions (due to deep circulation of meteoric waters and increased exchange with host rock and volcanic CO2), as well as in mountainous regions, where high-altitude recharge occurs.

  17. Plastic Fibre Reinforced Soil Blocks as a Sustainable Building Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, C. K. Subramania; Nambiar, E. K. Kunhanandan; Abraham, Benny Mathews

    2012-10-01

    Solid waste management, especially the huge quantity of waste plastics, is one of the major environmental concerns nowadays. Their employability in block making in the form of fibres, as one of the methods of waste management, can be investigated through a fundamental research. This paper highlights the salient observations from a systematic investigation on the effect of embedded fibre from plastic waste on the performance of stabilised mud blocks. Stabilisation of the soil was done by adding cement, lime and their combination. Plastic fibre in chopped form from carry bags and mineral water bottles were added (0.1% & 0.2% by weight of soil) as reinforcement. The blocks were tested for density, and compressive strength, and observed failure patterns were analysed. Blocks with 0.1% of plastic fibres showed an increase in strength of about 3 to 10%. From the observations of failure pattern it can be concluded that benefits of fibre reinforcement includes both improved ductility in comparison with raw blocks and inhibition of crack propogation after its initial formation.

  18. The torus and the Klein Bottle amplitude of permutation orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kadar, Z

    2000-01-01

    The torus and the Klein bottle amplitude coefficients are computed in permutation orbifolds of RCFT-s in terms of the same quantities in the original theory and the twist group. An explicit expression is presented for the number of self conjugate primaries in the orbifold as a polynomial of the total number of primaries and the number of self conjugate ones in the parent theory. The formulae in the $Z_2$ orbifold illustrate the general results.

  19. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine.

  20. Bottling plant location of microbreweries in East Midlands area, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Zheng, Chi

    2013-01-01

    Facility location decisions are critical in real-life projects, which impact on profitability of investment and service levels from demand side. In this paper, a project-based facility location problem should be resolved which refers to the establishment of a centralized bottling plant to serve microbreweries in East Midlands area of UK. This problem will be structured by firstly finding a mathematically theoretical location using the centre-of-gravity method and then formulate the problem as...

  1. Permeation barrier coating and plasma sterilization of PET bottles and foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steves, Simon; Deilmann, Michael; Bibinov, Nikita; Awakowicz, Peter

    2009-10-01

    Modern packaging materials such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) offer various advantages over glass or metal containers. Beside this they only offer poor barrier properties against gas permeation. Therefore, the shelf-live of packaged food is reduced. Additionally, common sterilization methods like heat, hydrogen peroxide or peracetic acid may not be applicable due to reduced heat or chemical resistance of the plastic packaging material. For the plasma sterilization and permeation barrier coating of PET bottles and foils, a microwave driven low pressure plasma reactor is developed based on a modified Plasmaline antenna. The dependencies of important plasma parameters, such as gas mixture, process pressure, power and pulse conditions on oxygen permeation through packaging foil are investigated. A residual permeation as low as J = 1.0 ±0.3 cm^3m-2day-1bar-1 for 60 nm thick silicon oxide (SiOx) coated PET foils is achieved. To discuss this residual permeation, coating defects are visualized by capacitively coupled atomic oxygen plasma etching of coated substrate. A defect density of 3000 mm-2 is revealed responsible for permeation. For plasma sterilization, optimized plasma parameters based on fundamental research of plasma sterilization mechanisms permit short treatment times of a few seconds.

  2. Analysis of physical and chemical parameters of bottled drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Walia, T P S; Lark, B S; Sumanjit

    2006-04-01

    Seventeen different brands of bottled drinking water, collected from different retail shops in Amritsar, were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters to ascertain their compliability with the prescribed/recommended limits of the World Heath Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It was found that the majority of the brands tested were over-treated. Lower values of hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductance than the prescribed limits of WHO showed that water was deficient in essential minerals. Minerals like magnesium, potassium, calcium and fluoride were present in some cases in such a low concentration that water seemed to be as good as distilled water. Samples showing fluoride lesser than 0.5 mg/l warranted additional sources of fluoride for the people consuming only bottled water for drinking purposes. Zero values for chlorine demand as shown by all the bottled water samples showed that water samples were safe from micro-organisms. In case of heavy metals, only lead had been found to be greater than the limit of 0.015 mg/l as prescribed by WHO and USEPA, in seven out of 17 samples. Lead even at such a low concentration can pose a great health hazard.

  3. Quality assessment of Romanian bottled mineral water and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Carstea, Elfrida; Levei, Erika A; Hoaghia, Maria-Alexandra; Savastru, Roxana

    2016-09-01

    This study reports the evaluation of bottled mineral water characteristics using fluorescence spectroscopy (synchronous fluorescence scans and emission spectra) and physico-chemical analyses. Samples from 14 still mineral water brands were compared to 11 tap waters collected from two Romanian cities. Correlation and factor analyses were undertaken to understand the relationships between the individual components. The concentration of major and minor ions showed great variation between the bottled mineral water samples highlighting the diversity of the water intakes, while in the case of tap water the chemical composition was relatively similar for samples collected in the same city. Fluorescence data showed that the mineral water contained low quantities of organic matter. The humic fraction was dominant in all samples, while the microbial fraction was low in most samples. Synchronous fluorescence scans provided more information, regarding the composition of organic matter, compared to emission spectra. The study evidenced the correlation between fluorescence parameters and major elements and highlighted the potential of using fluorescence for qualitative evaluation of the bottled mineral water quality, as a screening method before undertaking complex analyses.

  4. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) toxicity: a "bitter" diagnostic dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatib, Khalid Ismail; Borawake, Kapil Sharad

    2014-12-01

    Consumption of a glass of bottle gourd juice is thought to work as a health "tonic" and part of traditional healthy living practices in India. The juice may in certain circumstances turn bitter with increased levels of the cytotoxic compound called Cucurbitacins. If the bitter juice is consumed it causes a toxic reaction in the gut, leading to abdominal discomfort/pain, vomiting, hematemesis, and hypotension which may be rarely fatal, especially in persons with pre-existing illness. In the absence of clear cut history regarding the consumption of the bitter bottle gourd juice and the initiation of symptoms, the differential diagnosis for the above symptoms will include diseases causing gastrointestinal bleed with hypotension and/or shock. We report a case of bitter bottle gourd poisoning presenting with abdominal symptoms, hematemesis and shock and with an initial differential diagnosis of septicemia with septic shock and multi-organ involvement. We conduct a literature review and ponder the various differential diagnoses of this clinical scenario.

  5. Design of Filling Machine Based on PLC and Pneumatic Technology%洗灌旋三合一灌装设备的结构设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋容; 杨伟; 龙淑嫔

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces the mineral water filling process and the design of a filling machine with the functions of washing and filling bottles ,and screwing the cap of bottles .On the basis of discussion on design schemes , the paper puts emphasis on the structure design of the main parts of the machine ,such as the bottle holder ,the screw head ,and the pneumatic control system .The practical application shows the machine is of stable and reliable running .%介绍了针对矿泉水瓶灌装工艺而设计的洗灌旋三合一灌装设备。着重对灌装工艺流程、灌装设备设计方案进行了论述;对清洗机上的洗瓶夹、灌装机上的灌装机械阀、旋盖机上的旋盖头和下盖槽进行了结构设计;设计了设备的气动控制系统,对设备的PLC控制系统进行了说明。

  6. The synthesis of nanostructured SiC from waste plastics and silicon powder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Zhicheng; Xu, Liqiang; Pang, Qiaolian; Xing, Zheng; Ma, Xiaojian; Qian, Yitai

    2009-09-01

    Waste plastics constitute a growing environmental problem. Therefore, the treatment of waste plastics should be considered. Here we synthesize 3C-SiC nanomaterials coexisting with amorphous graphite particles utilizing waste plastics and Si powder at 350-500 °C in a stainless steel autoclave. 3C-SiC could be finally obtained after refluxing with aqueous HClO4 (70 wt%) at 180 °C. X-ray powder diffraction patterns indicate that the product is 3C-SiC with the calculated lattice constant a = 4.36 Å. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images show that the SiC samples presented two morphologies: hexagonal platelets prepared by the waste detergent bottles or beverage bottles and nanowires prepared by waste plastic bags respectively. The corresponding selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern indicates that either the entire hexagonal platelet or the nanowire is single crystalline. High-resolution TEM shows the planar surfaces of the SiC platelet correspond to {111} planes; the lateral surfaces are {110} planes and the preferential growth direction of the nanowires is along [111]. The output of SiC was ~39% based on the amount of Si powder.

  7. "New" Compounds from Old Plastics: Recycling PET Plastics via Depolymerization. An Activity for the Undergraduate Organic Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Don; Wright, Geoff; Kroemer, Ryan; Engel, Josh

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes work done to develop a meaningful undergraduate organic lab activity that illustrates chemistry of the real world while utilizing reactions typically included in the organic lecture and lab. We show how a common plastic can be converted into several compounds using ester hydrolysis and SN2 reactions. Contributing to the critical shortage of landfill space faced by many communities is the large quantity of plastic refuse. Thus, there is a real need to recycle plastic products. One way to recycle plastics such as polyethyleneterephthalate (PET), the polyester from which numerous consumer products such as 2-liter soda bottles are made, is to depolymerize them and then to use the resulting monomers to produce new products. PET is industrially depolymerized via an acid-catalyzed transesterification reaction conducted under conditions of high temperature and pressure that are not feasible in the undergraduate lab. Despite literature reports that PET is remarkably resistant to hydrolysis, we found that PET can be readily hydrolyzed by refluxing with potassium hydroxide or potassium tert-butoxide in amyl alcohol to give terephthalic acid in high yield. It is then possible to readily synthesize terephthalate diesters via SN2 reactions of ammonium terephthalate salts with alkyl halides. Fischer esterification can also be used to prepare the diesters, but yields are significantly lower.

  8. Halos of Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maya Reid

    2012-01-01

    The halos that span South Africa's coastline are anything but angelic. Fanning out around four major urban centers-Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London and Durban-they are made up of innumerable bits and pieces of plastic. As a form of pollution, their shelflife is unfathomable. Plastic is essentially chemically inactive. It's designed to never break down.

  9. Biodegradation of plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimao, M

    2001-06-01

    Widespread studies on the biodegradation of plastics have been carried out in order to overcome the environmental problems associated with synthetic plastic waste. Recent work has included studies of the distribution of synthetic polymer-degrading microorganisms in the environment, the isolation of new microorganisms for biodegradation, the discovery of new degradation enzymes, and the cloning of genes for synthetic polymer-degrading enzymes.

  10. DESIGNERS’ KNOWLEDGE IN PLASTICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare

    2013-01-01

    The Industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics materials and manufacturing principles of polymer products is very important for the innovative strength of the industry, according to a group of Danish plastics manufacturers, design students and practicing industrial designers. These three groups...... answered the first Danish national survey, PD13[1], investigating the importance of industrial designers’ knowledge in plastics and the collaboration between designers and the polymer industry. The plastics industry and the industrial designers collaborate well, but both groups frequently experience...... that the designers’ lack of knowledge concerning polymer materials and manufacturing methods can be problematic or annoying, and design students from most Danish design universities express the need for more contact with the industry and more competencies and tools to handle even simple topics when designing plastic...

  11. Consciousness and neural plasticity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In contemporary consciousness studies the phenomenon of neural plasticity has received little attention despite the fact that neural plasticity is of still increased interest in neuroscience. We will, however, argue that neural plasticity could be of great importance to consciousness studies....... If consciousness is related to neural processes it seems, at least prima facie, that the ability of the neural structures to change should be reflected in a theory of this relationship "Neural plasticity" refers to the fact that the brain can change due to its own activity. The brain is not static but rather...... the relation between consciousness and brain functions. If consciousness is connected to specific brain structures (as a function or in identity) what happens to consciousness when those specific underlying structures change? It is therefore possible that the understanding and theories of neural plasticity can...

  12. Reducing Display Bottle Cooler Energy Consumption Using PCM As Active Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, Marcel van; de Jong, Hans

    2014-01-01

    The final results of an analytical and experimental study in reducing the energy consumption of a display bottle cooler using Phase Change Material (PCM) as an active thermal storage are presented. The objective of the study was to design and built a 350 dm3 glass door bottle cooler having an appliance energy consumption reduction of over 75% compared to state of the art bottle coolers (2010 figures). Calculation results show that active thermal storage using PCM can be effectively applied to...

  13. The consumption and recycling collection system of PET bottles: a case study of Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hua; Wen, Zong-Guo

    2014-06-01

    After studying the recycling collection system of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles worldwide, the authors conducted an intercept survey in Beijing. Two separate questionnaires were issued, one questionnaire to PET bottle consumers and one to PET bottle recyclers. In this study, consumers are defined as people that consume PET-bottled beverages in their daily life. Recyclers were defined as those involved in the collection and recycling of PET bottles. These include scavengers, itinerant waste buyers, small community waste-buying depots, medium/large redemption depots, and recycling companies. In total, 580 surveys were completed, including 461 by consumers and 119 by recyclers. The authors found that consumption of PET bottles in Beijing was nearly 100,000 tonnes in 2012. Age, occupation, gender, and education were identified as significant factors linked to PET-bottled beverage consumption, while income was not a significant factor. 90% Of post-consumed PET bottles were collected by informal collectors (i.e., scavengers and itinerant waste buyers). The survey also found that nearly all PET bottles were reprocessed by small factories that were not designed with pollution control equipment, which allows them to offer higher prices for waste recyclable bottles. As Beijing is trying to build a formal recycling collection system for recyclables, subsidies should be given to the formal recycling sector rather than being charged land use fees, and attention should also be given to informal recyclers that make their living from the collection of recyclables. Informal and formal sectors may work together by employing the scavengers and itinerant waste buyers for the formal sectors. In addition to the recycling of PET bottles, concern should also be allocated to reduce consumption, especially among young people, as they, compared to other groups, have a stronger demand for PET-bottled beverages and will be the main body of society.

  14. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of bottled waters of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, Gabriel J; Winter, David A; Spero, Howard J; Zierenberg, Robert A; Reeder, Mathew D; Cerling, Thure E; Ehleringer, James R

    2005-01-01

    Bottled and packaged waters are an increasingly significant component of the human diet. These products are regulated at the regional, national, and international levels, and determining the authenticity of marketing and labeling claims represents a challenge to regulatory agencies. Here, we present a dataset of stable isotope ratios for bottled waters sampled worldwide, and consider potential applications of such data for regulatory, forensic and geochemical standardization applications. The hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of 234 samples of bottled water range from -147 per thousand to +15 per thousand and from -19.1 per thousand to +3.0 per thousand, respectively. These values fall within and span most of the normal range for meteoric waters, indicating that these commercially available products represent a source of waters for use as laboratory working standards in applications requiring standardization over a large range of isotope ratios. The measured values of bottled water samples cluster along the global meteoric water line, suggesting that bottled water isotope ratios preserve information about the water sources from which they were derived. Using the dataset, we demonstrate how bottled water isotope ratios provide evidence for substantial evaporative enrichment of water sources prior to bottling and for the marketing of waters derived from mountain and lowland sources under the same name. Comparison of bottled water isotope ratios with natural environmental water isotope ratios demonstrates that on average the isotopic composition of bottled water tends to be similar to the composition of naturally available local water sources, suggesting that in many cases bottled water need not be considered as an isotopically distinct component of the human diet. Our findings suggest that stable isotope ratios of bottled water have the power to distinguish ultimate (e.g., recharge) and proximal (e.g., reservoir) sources of bottled water and constitute a potential

  15. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    OpenAIRE

    McLeod, Lianne; Bharadwaj, Lalita; Waldner, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    0.001) or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01) were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001), while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p <

  16. Infant feeding bottle design, growth and behaviour: results from a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fewtrell MS

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whether the design of an anti-vacuum infant feeding bottle influences infant milk intake, growth or behavior is unknown, and was the subject of this randomized trial. Methods Subjects 63 (36 male healthy, exclusively formula-fed term infants. Intervention Randomisation to use Bottle A (n = 31, one-way air valve: Philips Avent versus Bottle B (n = 32, internal venting system: Dr Browns. 74 breast-fed reference infants were recruited, with randomisation (n = 24 to bottle A (n = 11 or B (n = 13 if bottle-feeding was subsequently introduced. Randomisation stratified by gender and parity; computer-based telephone randomisation by independent clinical trials unit. Setting Infant home. Primary outcome measure infant weight gain to 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes (i milk intake (ii infant behaviour measured at 2 weeks (validated 3-day diary; (iii risk of infection; (iv continuation of breastfeeding following introduction of mixed feeding. Results Number analysed for primary outcome Bottle A n = 29, Bottle B n = 25. Primary outcome There was no significant difference in weight gain between randomised groups (0-4 weeks Bottle A 0.74 (SD 1.2 SDS versus bottle B 0.51 (0.39, mean difference 0.23 (95% CI -0.31 to 0.77. Secondary outcomes Infants using bottle A had significantly less reported fussing (mean 46 versus 74 minutes/day, p Breast-fed reference group There were no significant differences in primary or secondary outcomes between breast-fed and formula fed infants. The likelyhood of breastfeeding at 3 months was not significantly different in infants subsequently randomised to bottle A or B. Conclusion Bottle design may have short-term effects on infant behaviour which merit further investigation. No significant effects were seen on milk intake or growth; confidence in these findings is limited by the small sample size and this needs confirmation in a larger study. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov NCT00325208.

  17. The Colorful Chemical Bottle Experiment Kit: From School Laboratory To Public Demonstration

    OpenAIRE

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham; Hsu, Suphattra

    2015-01-01

    The blue bottle experiment was first introduced to the chemical education literature as a simple demonstration on kinetics. Its original formulation contains only glucose, NaOH and small amount of methylene blue. The solution turns blue when shaken and fades to colorless upon standing. This bluing/de-bluing cycle may be repeated and may be compared to blood colors in animal's respiratory cycle. Inspired by the blue bottle experiment, the colorful chemical bottle experiment kit was commerciall...

  18. Simulations of indirectly driven gas-filled capsules at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Eder, D. C.; Pino, J. E.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Remington, B. A.; Rowley, D. P.; Yeamans, C. B.; Tipton, R. E.; Barrios, M.; Benedetti, R.; Berzak Hopkins, L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Bond, E. J.; Bradley, D. K.; Caggiano, J. A.; Callahan, D. A.; Cerjan, C. J.; Clark, D. S.; Divol, L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); and others

    2014-11-15

    Gas-filled capsules imploded with indirect drive on the National Ignition Facility have been employed as symmetry surrogates for cryogenic-layered ignition capsules and to explore interfacial mix. Plastic capsules containing deuterated layers and filled with tritium gas provide a direct measure of mix of ablator into the gas fuel. Other plastic capsules have employed DT or D{sup 3}He gas fill. We present the results of two-dimensional simulations of gas-filled capsule implosions with known degradation sources represented as in modeling of inertial confinement fusion ignition designs; these are time-dependent drive asymmetry, the capsule support tent, roughness at material interfaces, and prescribed gas-ablator interface mix. Unlike the case of cryogenic-layered implosions, many observables of gas-filled implosions are in reasonable agreement with predictions of these simulations. Yields of TT and DT neutrons as well as other x-ray and nuclear diagnostics are matched for CD-layered implosions. Yields of DT-filled capsules are over-predicted by factors of 1.4–2, while D{sup 3}He capsule yields are matched, as well as other metrics for both capsule types.

  19. Tap or bottled water: drinking preferences among urban minority children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huerta-Saenz, Lina; Irigoyen, Matilde; Benavides, Jorge; Mendoza, Maria

    2012-02-01

    The last decade has seen an increasing trend in consumer preference of bottled water over tap water. Little is known what type of water children and adolescents prefer for drinking and what their parents think of their community tap water. The study objective was to assess drinking water preferences, perceptions of the qualities of tap water and bottled water, and fluoride knowledge in an urban pediatric population. We conducted an anonymous survey of a convenience sample of caretakers of children and adolescents at an urban clinic regarding their preferences for tap or bottled water, their perceptions of the quality of tap and bottled water and their knowledge of fluoride. Of the 208 participants (79% African American, 9% Latino), 59% drank tap water, 80% bottled water. Only 17% drank tap water exclusively, 38% drank bottled water exclusively, 42% drank both. We found no significant differences in water preferences across age groups, from infancy to adulthood, or among ethnic groups. Ratings for taste, clarity, purity and safety were significantly higher for bottled water than tap water (P water. We conclude bottled water was preferred over tap water in an urban minority pediatric population. Perceptions of the qualities of water seemed to drive drinking preferences. Public health strategies are needed to increase public awareness of the impact of bottled water consumption on oral health, household budgets and the environment.

  20. Temporal variation of microbiological and chemical quality of noncarbonated bottled drinking water sold in Sri Lanka.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herath, A T; Abayasekara, C L; Chandrajith, Rohana; Adikaram, N K B

    2012-03-01

    Use of bottled water in Sri Lanka has increased over the last decade, while new brands of bottled water are often introduced to the market. However, the manufacturers' adherence to bottled water regulations is questionable, raising concerns regarding the quality of bottled water. The objective of the current study was to investigate the microbiological and chemical quality of bottled water in Sri Lanka. Thirty bottled water brands were sampled and their chemical and microbiological parameters were analyzed. Microbiological analysis was carried out within 1 to 3, 3 to 6, 6 to 9, and 9 to 12 mo after the date of manufacture. The results indicated that 63% of brands tested exceeded the levels permitted by the Sri Lanka Standards Institution (SLSI) for presumptive total coliforms (TC) (bottled drinking water. Throughout their shelf life, the counts of TC, FC, and HPC bacteria decreased. Bacteria identified were Klebsiella pneumoniae ssp. pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Pasteurella haemolytica, the most frequently being P. aeruginosa. The dominant fungi identified were Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. Inorganic chemical parameters were within permitted levels for all brands except for initial content of ammonia. The results of this study show the need for the bottling industry to be monitored closely by relevant authorities, in order to provide safe bottled drinking water to consumers in Sri Lanka.

  1. Chemical and sensory effects of storing sauvignon Blanc wine in colored bottles under artificial light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres-Mella, Alejandro; Flores-Valdivia, Daniela; Laurie, V Felipe; López-Solís, Remigio; Peña-Neira, Álvaro

    2014-07-23

    The chemical and sensory effects of storing Sauvignon Blanc in colored bottles and exposing them to artificial light were examined. The colors of the bottles chosen were Dead Leaf Green, Antique Green, Amber, and Flint. The light was provided by fluorescent tubes with a regime of 16 h of exposure during 8 months of storage. The results indicated that the wine's chemical composition was affected by the type of bottle used. The Flint bottle presented the lowest concentration of total phenols. Yellow coloration was not dependent on the bottle color, as the wine in darker bottles (Amber, Antique Green, and Dead Leaf Green) had considerably more yellow color development than the wine in clear bottles. With regard to the sensory analyses performed, a trend showing an increase in color intensity and a decrease in overall aromas depending on the bottle color was observed. The wine's aromatic description changed significantly during its storage under artificial light conditions, demonstrating a decrease in vegetal aromas and an increase in citrus and tropical flavors that was dependent on the bottle color.

  2. Impact of oxygen dissolved at bottling and transmitted through closures on the composition and sensory properties of a Sauvignon Blanc wine during bottle storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Paulo; Silva, Maria A; Pons, Alexandre; Tominaga, Takatoshi; Lavigne, Valérie; Saucier, Cédric; Darriet, Philippe; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Dubourdieu, Denis

    2009-11-11

    This work outlines the results from an investigation to determine the effect of the oxygen dissolved at bottling and the specific oxygen barrier properties of commercially available closures on the composition, color and sensory properties of a Bordeaux Sauvignon Blanc wine during two years of storage. The importance of oxygen for wine development after bottling was also assessed using an airtight bottle ampule. Wines were assessed for the antioxidants (SO(2) and ascorbic acid), varietal thiols (4-mercapto-4-methylpentan-2-one, 3-mercaptohexan-1-ol), hydrogen sulfide and sotolon content, and color throughout 24 months of storage. In addition, the aroma and palate properties of wines were also assessed. The combination of oxygen dissolved at bottling and the oxygen transferred through closures has a significant effect on Sauvignon Blanc development after bottling. Wines highly exposed to oxygen at bottling and those sealed with a synthetic, Nomacorc classic closure, highly permeable to oxygen, were relatively oxidized in aroma, brown in color, and low in antioxidants and volatile compounds compared to wines sealed with other closures. Conversely, wines sealed under more airtight conditions, bottle ampule and screw cap Saran-tin, have the slowest rate of browning, and displayed the greatest contents of antioxidants and varietal thiols, but also high levels of H(2)S, which were responsible for the reduced dominating character found in these wines, while wines sealed with cork stoppers and screw cap Saranex presented negligible reduced and oxidized characters.

  3. BOPP Plastic Bottle Large Transfusion Bottle Blank Cooling Mode Improvement%BOPP塑瓶大输液瓶胚冷却方式的改进

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦玉超; 周奇

    2013-01-01

    介绍了BOPP塑瓶制瓶工艺的间歇冷却和在线冷却2种冷却方式,并分析了其优缺点,在此基础上进行了改造.实践证明改造后的在线冷却方式技术成熟、工艺简单、改造时间短、费用低,提高了产品质量及吹瓶合格率,大大降低了生产成本,节约了劳动力.

  4. Plastic bottle infusion of linear stretching bottle blowing machine%输液塑瓶直线式拉伸吹瓶机的改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周仓; 袁海泉

    2013-01-01

    在不改变主体结构的前提下,对SMART-800MB8SERVO (I)一出八直线式拉伸输液塑瓶吹瓶机上胚机构、送胚取瓶机构、中继站及相关部位进行改造,以提高塑瓶质量、降低能耗、减少维修备件消耗及维修工作量、提高劳动生产率、降低生产成本,具有较好的工厂效益和社会效益.

  5. Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe to a stainless steel flange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Arnaud; Hoffmann, Ernst

    2008-02-05

    Arrangement for connecting a fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) to a stainless steel flange (12, 16), in which the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) is accommodated in a ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) in the flange (12, 16), the groove conforming to the dimensions of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18), where the gap remaining between the end of the fiber-reinforced plastic pipe (18) and the ring-shaped groove (12a, 16a) is filled with a sealant (19).

  6. Sound Transmission Properties of Mineral-filled High-Density Polyethylene (HDPE and Wood-HDPE Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birm-June Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Wood plastic composites (WPCs offer various advantages and potential as a competitive alternative to conventional noise barriers. For this purpose, the influence of composite formulation on the sound transmission loss (TL of WPCs needs to be fully understood. In TL testing, stiffness and surface density are major factors influencing the sound insulation property of filled plastics and WPCs. Experimental TL values decreased as sound frequency increased; and the TL values increased after passing a certain frequency level. The comparison of experimental TL curves among filled composites showed that the addition of fillers led to an increase in resonance frequency and TL values. However, at high filling levels, the stiffness decrease led to TL reductions. The experimental TL curves of filled composites, composed of mass law and stiffness law predictions, were well approximated with their combined TL predictions.

  7. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of

  8. Cortical plasticity and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Raluca; Kilgard, Michael P

    2006-01-01

    The brain is constantly adapting to environmental and endogenous changes (including injury) that occur at every stage of life. The mechanisms that regulate neural plasticity have been refined over millions of years. Motivation and sensory experience directly shape the rewiring that makes learning and neurological recovery possible. Guiding neural reorganization in a manner that facilitates recovery of function is a primary goal of neurological rehabilitation. As the rules that govern neural plasticity become better understood, it will be possible to manipulate the sensory and motor experience of patients to induce specific forms of plasticity. This review summarizes our current knowledge regarding factors that regulate cortical plasticity, illustrates specific forms of reorganization induced by control of each factor, and suggests how to exploit these factors for clinical benefit.

  9. Mechanical plasticity of cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonakdar, Navid; Gerum, Richard; Kuhn, Michael; Spörrer, Marina; Lippert, Anna; Schneider, Werner; Aifantis, Katerina E.; Fabry, Ben

    2016-10-01

    Under mechanical loading, most living cells show a viscoelastic deformation that follows a power law in time. After removal of the mechanical load, the cell shape recovers only incompletely to its original undeformed configuration. Here, we show that incomplete shape recovery is due to an additive plastic deformation that displays the same power-law dynamics as the fully reversible viscoelastic deformation response. Moreover, the plastic deformation is a constant fraction of the total cell deformation and originates from bond ruptures within the cytoskeleton. A simple extension of the prevailing viscoelastic power-law response theory with a plastic element correctly predicts the cell behaviour under cyclic loading. Our findings show that plastic energy dissipation during cell deformation is tightly linked to elastic cytoskeletal stresses, which suggests the existence of an adaptive mechanism that protects the cell against mechanical damage.

  10. Targeting tumour Cell Plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth D. WILLIAMS

    2009-01-01

    @@ Her research is focused on understanding the mechanisms of tumour progression and metastasis, particularly in uro-logical carcinomas (bladder and prostate). Tumour cell plasticity, including epithelial-mesenchymal transition, is a cen-tral theme in Dr Williams' work.

  11. Laser cutting plastic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Cleave, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    A 1000-watt CO/sub 2/ laser has been demonstrated as a reliable production machine tool for cutting of plastics, high strength reinforced composites, and other nonmetals. More than 40 different plastics have been laser cut, and the results are tabulated. Applications for laser cutting described include fiberglass-reinforced laminates, Kevlar/epoxy composites, fiberglass-reinforced phenolics, nylon/epoxy laminates, ceramics, and disposable tooling made from acrylic.

  12. Localization of plastic deformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rice, J R

    1976-04-01

    The localization of plastic deformation into a shear band is discussed as an instability of plastic flow and a precursor to rupture. Experimental observations are reviewed, a general theoretical framework is presented, and specific calculations of critical conditions are carried out for a variety of material models. The interplay between features of inelastic constitutive description, especially deviations from normality and vertex-like yielding, and the onset of localization is emphasized.

  13. Filling of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reece D. Gately

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The reliable production of carbon nanotubes and nanofibres is a relatively new development, and due to their unique structure, there has been much interest in filling their hollow interiors. In this review, we provide an overview of the most common approaches for filling these carbon nanostructures. We highlight that filled carbon nanostructures are an emerging material for biomedical applications.

  14. Development of plastic surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pećanac Marija Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Plastic surgery is a medical specialty dealing with corrections of defects, improvements in appearance and restoration of lost function. Ancient Times. The first recorded account of reconstructive plastic surgery was found in ancient Indian Sanskrit texts, which described reconstructive surgeries of the nose and ears. In ancient Greece and Rome, many medicine men performed simple plastic cosmetic surgeries to repair damaged parts of the body caused by war mutilation, punishment or humiliation. In the Middle Ages, the development of all medical braches, including plastic surgery was hindered. New age. The interest in surgical reconstruction of mutilated body parts was renewed in the XVIII century by a great number of enthusiastic and charismatic surgeons, who mastered surgical disciplines and became true artists that created new forms. Modern Era. In the XX century, plastic surgery developed as a modern branch in medicine including many types of reconstructive surgery, hand, head and neck surgery, microsurgery and replantation, treatment of burns and their sequelae, and esthetic surgery. Contemporary and future plastic surgery will continue to evolve and improve with regenerative medicine and tissue engineering resulting in a lot of benefits to be gained by patients in reconstruction after body trauma, oncology amputation, and for congenital disfigurement and dysfunction.

  15. 3D Taste the custom of male perfume bottles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亮

    2016-01-01

    3 d printing as today’s advanced manufacturing technology, its application is quite widespread, and is gradually used for direct manufacturing of some products, which means that the technology is widespread. The smell of perfume is not only let people send out an attractive aromatic body, more can apply colours to a drawing of a person’s taste. Nowadays, women is not the only customer base of perfume brand, the proportion of men is more and more heavy, men pay more attention to their life taste and life status, therefore, can send out charming fragrance, as well as a way of individual grade and life status of perfume bottles is indispensable.

  16. [India: breast feeding is obsolete, the bottle is modern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniyal, M

    1992-09-07

    In July, 1992 Indian health groups met in New Delhi to demand that the government promote a child nutrition code based on the 1981 code of the WHO which stated that mother's milk is quite sufficient and is the best nourishment for infants. Every day approximately 40,000 children are born in India, but thousands of them die in infancy because of infection caused by the unsanitary mixing of milk powder in unsterile bottles. Indian health activists want the government to regulate the production, access, and distribution of mother's milk substitutes, bottles, and child nutriments. A new law based on internationally recognized codes for marketing mother's milk substitutes could put an end to the present irresponsible marketing. Activists are not opposed to the production of milk powder, but they think it should only be used when the mother has no milk. The turnover of India's child nutrition industry is about $280 million per year with an annual increase of 5%. The use of bottle feeding has infiltrated the whole urban scene, and it is spreading in rural areas. Women consider bottle feeding a modern way of child feeding. 60 million kg of milk powder is produced yearly and sold under 25 different product names. Amul and Nestle command 85% of the growing market. Experts have calculated that 1 billion liters of mother's milk is wasted and replaced by substitute milk every year. Many Indian children get their first substitute milk at health posts where free or subsidized milk is distributed despite notices calling on mothers to breast-feed. According to a national survey sponsored by UNICEF, almost 1/2 of India's mothers give their children milk substitutes at the instigation of doctors or health personnel. 63% of children in the state of West Bengal were undernourished because families did not buy enough milk powder. The activists want the government to launch an offensive against the advertisement of breast milk substitutes in state-owned TV and radio and to promote proper

  17. Characterizing Green Fiber Bottle Prototypes Using Computed Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano; Stolfi, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    in the desired shape and structure. However, there are certain limitations associated to the product characterization using tactile measuring methods. In this work, a new approach has been applied for defect analysis and quality control of non-homogenous prototype paper products using computed tomography.......Due to ever increasing demand of sustainability and biodegradability, there arises a need to develop environmental friendly packaging products. Green fiber bottle is a packaging product for carbonated beverages, made out of cellulose fibers. The production process accounts for moulding paper pulp...

  18. DESIGN OF INJECTION MOLD OF BOTTLE CAP WITH INTERNAL THREAD%带完整内螺纹瓶盖注塑模具设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭新玲

    2011-01-01

    According to the complex structure of plastic bottle cap with internal thread,the pin gate position was confirmed by using the Moldflow analyse software. The design issues of side core-withdrawn mechanism and thread demoulding mechanism and the mold working principle were mainly elaborated. Ihe problems such as the difficulty of automatic demoulding of fully internl thread plastic piece were solved successfully by using the plastic piece seetion lock rotate mechanisum, and the quality and production efficiency of plastic pieces were improved.%针对结构较复杂的带内螺纹塑料瓶盖,应用模流分析软件Moldflow确定点浇口的具体位置,并着重阐述了侧抽芯机构、脱螺纹机构的设计要点和模具工作原理,通过采用塑料件断面止转结构,成功解决了完整内螺纹塑料件自动脱模困难等问题,提高了塑料件质量和生产效率.

  19. Sorting Plastic Waste in Hydrocyclone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernestas Šutinys

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The article presents material about sorting plastic waste in hydrocyclone. The tests on sorting plastic waste were carried out. Also, the findings received from the performed experiment on the technology of sorting plastic waste are interpreted applying an experimental model of the equipment used for sorting plastics of different density.Article in Lithuanian

  20. Evaluating the Effect of Dental Filling Material and Filling Depth on the Strength and Deformation of Filled Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seifollah Gholampour

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available ackground and aim: It is important to evaluate the effect of the type of filling material on deformation and strength of tooth after filling and also the effect of filling depth on quality of restoration of a decayed tooth. Material and Methods: The Orthopantomogram (OPG of the first and second molars of a 28-year-old man was made and the teeth were 3D modeled. The stress-deformation analysis was then performed on the models in the three states of normal tooth, tooth filled with amalgam and tooth filled with composite using finite element method under a distributed load of 400N equivalent to chewing force. Two values (1/2 and 1/3 of the tooth height were considered for filling depth in the analyses. Results: The results showed that the normal first molar was exposed to a 7.2% greater risk of dental injuries compared to the normal second molar and also a greater stress is created in it when it is filled with composite. The first molar filled with a composite material is 13.7% weaker than the normal tooth while it is almost as strong as a normal tooth when it is filled with amalgam. The effect of the type of filling material on the strength and deformation of the second molar was trivial. Conclusion: Amalgam is a more proper dental filling material for the first molar although a 16.7% change in drilling depth is needed for tooth preparation. Dental filling material and filling depth have a small effect on the strength and deformation of filled second molars.

  1. 27 CFR 19.384 - Preparation of bottling or packaging record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... packaging record. 19.384 Section 19.384 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Than Denaturation and Manufacture of Articles Bottling, Packaging, and Removal of Products § 19.384 Preparation of bottling or packaging record. The proprietor shall prepare a record for each batch of...

  2. 75 FR 14607 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... and E. coli; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Food... ``Bottled Water: Total Coliform and E. coli--Small Entity Compliance Guide'' for a final rule published in... are Escherichia coli (E. coli), an indicator of fecal contamination. FDA also amended its bottled...

  3. Application of silicone based elastomers for manufacturing of Green Fiber Bottle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saxena, Prateek; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2017-01-01

    Due to ever-increasing demand of sustainable products, eco-friendly packaging solutions are findingtheir importance in the paper packaging industry [1]. Green Fiber Bottle (GFB) is an alternative toplastic, glass and metal based packaging for beverages. The manufacturing of paper bottle is a two...

  4. Head Start Combats Baby Bottle Tooth Decay Among Native American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Margaret G.; Stubbs, Phyllis E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents current developments concerning nursing bottle caries--"baby bottle tooth decay"--and spotlights a program funded by Head Start to reduce the prevalence of these painful and disfiguring, but preventable, children's dental diseases among American Indians and Alaska Native families. (Author/BB)

  5. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after micro

  6. A study considering the force required for broken glass bottles to penetrate a skin simulant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Gary; Lawes, Simon; Hainsworth, Sarah; Rutty, Guy

    2012-01-01

    Injuries and assaults related to alcohol consumption are a growing concern in many countries. In such cases, the use of impulsive weapons, an object from the immediate environment, such as a glass bottle, is not uncommon. This current study utilises a material testing system to measure the force required to push a broken glass bottle into a skin simulant with the displacement of the bottle into the skin simulant being recorded simultaneously, using a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). From this data, load versus displacement plots were produced. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) was also used to analyse bottle wall thickness to determine if a relationship could be found between force required for penetration and bottle wall thickness. The forces required for the penetration of the skin simulant ranged from 9.8 to 56.7 N. The range was found to be independent of bottle type with the variation in force for penetration being attributed to the varying fracture points, with some fractures presenting a sharper point on first contact with the skin. Although the dangers associated with the use of broken bottles as weapons is apparent, there is a paucity of information in this area in the current English literature, which this study has addressed. The results of this study also highlight the risks of attempting reconstructions of broken bottle stab events.

  7. Regulation and Education: Strategies for Solving the Bottle Feeding Problem. Monograph Series No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Ted

    This book is the fourth monograph in the Cornell International Monograph Series, the second in the series to deal with the question of breast versus bottle feeding. The introduction to the monograph discusses the shift from breast to bottle feeding in both industrialized and developing nations. Some of the reasons for, and consequences of, the…

  8. Relationship of Breast-fed and Bottle-fed First Grade Students and I.Q.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Danette

    Previous studies have indicated some support for the hypothesis that breast feeding has a positive effect on intelligence and attainment among young children. This study examined the effects of breast-feeding versus bottle-feeding on the intelligence quotients (IQs) of first graders. A total of 26 breast-fed and 26 bottle-fed first graders from an…

  9. Identification of sources and production processes of bottled waters by stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brencic, Mihael; Vreca, Polona

    2006-01-01

    Bottled water is a food product that considerably depends on the environment from which it originates, not only at the place where it is produced, but predominantly on the conditions in the recharge area of the wells captured for bottling. According to their source and the bottling process, bottled waters can be divided into natural and artificially sparkling waters, still and flavoured waters. These waters originate from various parts of the hydrological cycle and their natural origin is reflected in their hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopic compositions (delta(2)H and delta(18)O). A total of 58 domestic and foreign brands and 16 replicates of bottled waters, randomly collected on the Slovene market in September 2004, were analysed for delta(2)H and delta(18)O. The isotopic composition varied between -83 per thousand and -46 per thousand with an average of -66 per thousand for hydrogen, and between -11.9 per thousand and -7.5 per thousand with an average of -9.6 per thousand for oxygen. This investigation helped (1) to determine and test the classification of bottled waters, (2) to determine the natural origin of bottled water, and (3) to indicate differences between the natural and production processes. The production process may influence the isotopic composition of flavoured waters and artificially sparkling waters. No such modification was observed for still and natural sparkling waters. The methods applied, together with hydrological knowledge, can be used for the authentication of bottled waters for regulatory and consumer control applications.

  10. Migration of bisphenol A into water from polycarbonate baby bottles during microwave heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehlert, K.A.; Beumer, C.W.E.; Groot, M.C.E.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive migration database was established for bisphenol A from polycarbonate baby bottles into water during exposure to microwave heating. Eighteen different brands of polycarbonate baby bottles sold in Europe were collected. Initial residual content of bisphenol A and migration after

  11. Bottle feeding, increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship: is there any association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabbar, Nadia Salem Abdel; Bueno, Ana Beatriz Miguel; Silva, Patrícia Elaine da; Scavone-Junior, Helio; Inês Ferreira, Rívea

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bottle feeding and prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship. The sample consisted of 911 children (461 boys, 450 girls) aged 3 (13.9%), 4 (40.8%), 5 (34%) and 6 (11.3%) years, with complete primary dentition. Information about nutritive and nonnutritive (pacifier and/or digit) sucking habits was collected through questionnaires. Three calibrated dentists (κ: 0.9-1.0 and Rs > 0.90) performed the clinical assessments. The children were divided into four groups: G1 - not bottle-fed; G2 - exclusively bottle-fed; G3 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased before 3 years of age; and G4 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased between 3 and 4 years of age. Associations between nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and the malocclusions studied were analyzed by multiple binary logistic regression (α= 0.05). The frequencies of increased overjet were: 25.3% (G1), 38.8% (G2), 39.2% (G3) and 47.8% (G4). The percentages of Class 2 canine relationship were: 27.9% (G1), 48.8% (G2), 43.4% (G3) and 43% (G4). No significant effect of bottle feeding was found. The chances of diagnosing increased overjet (O.R. = 4.42, p overjet and Class 2 canine relationship in the primary dentition.

  12. Head Start Combats Baby Bottle Tooth Decay Among Native American Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Margaret G.; Stubbs, Phyllis E.

    1987-01-01

    Presents current developments concerning nursing bottle caries--"baby bottle tooth decay"--and spotlights a program funded by Head Start to reduce the prevalence of these painful and disfiguring, but preventable, children's dental diseases among American Indians and Alaska Native families. (Author/BB)

  13. Introduction of Bottle Gourd DNA into Watermelon by Soaking Embryo for Resistance to Wilt Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In order to utilize wilt disease resistance of bottle gourd, total DNA of bottle gourd was introduced into watermelon through the method of soaking embryo. The DNA-introduced variant offsprings were cultured in contaminated soil to elect the wilt disease resistance for more than 3 generations. 2 high- resistant and 2 middle-resistant watermelon materials were obtained.

  14. Improved watermelon quality using bottle gourd rootstock expressing a Ca(2+)/H(+) antiporter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle gourd ("Lagenaria siceraria" Standl.) has been commonly used as a source of rootstock for watermelon. To improve its performance as a rootstock without adverse effects on the scion, the bottle gourd was genetically engineered using a modified "Arabidopsis" Ca(2+)/H(+) exchanger sCAX2B. This t...

  15. Etopic expression of "Arabidopsis" H(+)-pyrophosphatase AVP1 enhances drought resistance in bottle gourd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottle gourd ("Lagenaria siceraria" Standl.) has been used as a source of rootstock for grafting watermelon to improve its fruit quality. We report here the development of a bottle gourd with resistance to drought by ectopic expression of the "Arabidopsis AVP1" gene that encodes a vacuolar H(+)-pyro...

  16. Factors influencing the practice of bottle feeding in infants at the well-child clinic Dr. Pirngadi Hospital Medan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukman, H; Kaswadharma, K C; Lubis, I Z; Manoeroeng, S M; Lubis, C P

    1991-01-01

    From July to August 1988, a cross sectional analytical study on factors influencing bottle-feeding practice in infants at the Well-Child Clinic Dr. Pirngadi Hospital Medan, was conducted by using a designated interview and questionnaire. The sample size was determined by a standard formula. The purpose of this study was to define factors influencing bottle-feeding practice in infants. During that period, 264 cases were studied. Of 85 infants age 0-3 months, 10 infants (11.7%) were exclusively bottle-fed, 35 (41.2%) bottle- and breast fed and 40 (47.1%) exclusively breast-fed. The practice of bottle feeding seemed to increase with age. In 85 infants of 7-12 months old, 28 (32.9%) were bottle-fed, 29 (34.2%) breast and bottle-fed, and 28 (32.9%) breast-fed. The main reason to use bottle-feeding was that the mother worked outside the house as in the group of infants with working-mothers 30.7% were bottle-fed. In relation to mother's education, it seemed that the practice of bottle-feeding was more frequently found in infants of high-educated mothers (26%). The one child families preferred bottle-feeding more (30.7%). Based on the family income, it seemed that the higher the income, the more they tended to give bottle-feeding. In the age group of 0-6 months, there were 176 well-nourished babies of which 74 were (42.1%) breast feeding, 75 (42.6%) breast- and bottle-feeding, and 27 (15.3%) bottle-feeding. Whereas, of 54 wellnourished babies aged 7-12 months, 15 infants (27.7%) were breast-fed, 20 (37.7%) breast- and bottle-fed, and 19 (35.2%) bottle-fed.

  17. Plasma sterilization of polyethylene terephthalate bottles by pulsed corona discharge at atmospheric pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaoka, Satoshi

    2007-06-01

    A pulsed power supply was used to generate a corona discharge on a polyethylene terephthalate bottle, to conduct plasma sterilization at atmospheric pressure. Before generating such a discharge, minute quantities of water were attached to the inner surface of the bottle and to the surface of a high voltage (HV) electrode inserted into the bottle. Next, high-voltage pulses of electricity were discharged between electrodes for 6.0s, while rotating the bottle. The resulting spore log reduction values of Bacillus subtilis and Aspergillus niger on the inner surface of the bottle were 5.5 and 6 or higher, respectively, and those on the HV electrode surface were each 6 or higher for both strains. The presence of the by-products gaseous ozone, hydrogen peroxide, and nitric ions resulting from the electrical discharge was confirmed.

  18. The Colorful Chemical Bottle Experiment Kit: From School Laboratory To Public Demonstration

    CERN Document Server

    Limpanuparb, Taweetham

    2015-01-01

    The blue bottle experiment was first introduced to the chemical education literature as a simple demonstration on kinetics. Its original formulation contains only glucose, NaOH and small amount of methylene blue. The solution turns blue when shaken and fades to colorless upon standing. This bluing/de-bluing cycle may be repeated and may be compared to blood colors in animal's respiratory cycle. Inspired by the blue bottle experiment, the colorful chemical bottle experiment kit was commercially developed in 2006. The kit is a versatile pedagogical tool, not only for physical chemistry but also for analytical, biological and organic chemistry. It also helps teaching concepts in scientific method and laboratory safety. This manuscript contains four parts, brief review on literature relating to the blue bottle experiment, description of the colorful chemical bottle experiment kit, pedagogical discussion of the experiments and preliminary evaluation from students.

  19. Public perception and economic implications of bottled water consumption in underprivileged urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massoud, M A; Maroun, R; Abdelnabi, H; Jamali, I I; El-Fadel, M

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents a comparative assessment of public perception of drinking water quality in two underprivileged urban areas in Lebanon and Jordan with nearly similar cultural and demographic characteristics. It compares the quality of bottled water to the quality of the drinking water supplied through the public network and examines the economic implications of bottled water consumption in the two study areas. Participants' perception of the quality of drinking water provided via the public network was generally negative, and bottled water was perceived to be of better quality in both areas, thus affecting drinking water preferences and consumption patterns. The results reveal that the quality of bottled water is questionable in areas that lack enforcement of water quality standards, thus adding to the burden of an already disadvantaged community. Both areas demonstrated a considerable cost incurred for purchasing bottled water in low income communities reaching up to 26 % of total income.

  20. Gastrointestinal toxicity due to bitter bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria)--a report of 15 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Rajesh; Sud, Randhir; Khaliq, Abdul; Kumar, Mandhir; Jain, Sanjay

    2011-09-01

    Traditional medicine is widely practiced in tropical countries. Bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria) fruit juice is advocated as a part of complementary and alternative medicine. If the bottle gourd juice becomes bitter it is considered toxic. We report 15 patients, who developed toxicity due to drinking bitter bottle gourd juice. Patients presented with abdominal pain, vomiting, hematemesis, diarrhea and hypotension within 15 min to 6-h after ingestion of bottle gourd juice. Endoscopy showed esophagitis, gastric erosions, ulcers and duodenitis. Hypotension was treated with crystalloids and inotropic support. All patients recovered in 1-4 days. Endoscopically the lesions healed in 2 weeks. Bitter bottle gourd can cause gastrointestinal toxicity with hematemesis and hypotension. Supportive management is the treatment and all patients recover within 1 week.

  1. Seeding of capsule instability growth by fill tubes and support rods for inertial confinement fusion implosions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macphee, Andrew; Casey, Daniel; Clark, Daniel; Field, John; Haan, Steven; Hammel, Bruce; Kroll, Jeremy; Landen, Otto; Martinez, David; Milovich, Jose; Nikroo, Abbas; Rice, Neal; Robey, Harry; Smalyuk, Vladimir; Stadermann, Michael; Weber, Christopher; Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Collaboration; Atomics Collaboration, General

    2016-10-01

    Features associated with the target support tent and deuterium-tritium fuel fill tube and support rods can seed hydrodynamic instabilities leading to degraded performance for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) experiments at the National Ignition Facility. We performed in-flight radiography of ICF capsules in the vicinity of the capsule support tent and fill tube surrogates to investigate instability growth associated with these features. For both plastic and high density carbon ablators, the shadow of the 10 μm diameter glass fill-tube cast by the x-ray spots on the hohlraum wall were observed to imprint radial instabilities around the fill tube/capsule interface. Similarly, instability growth was observed for the shadow cast by 12 μm diameter silicon carbide capsule support rods mounted orthogonal to the fill tube as a tent alternative for a plastic ablator. The orientation of the shadows is consistent with raytracing. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. 40 CFR 142.57 - Bottled water, point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bottled water, point-of-use, and point... Issued by the Administrator § 142.57 Bottled water, point-of-use, and point-of-entry devices. (a) A State may require a public water system to use bottled water, point-of-use devices, or...

  3. 10 CFR 431.294 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines. 431.294 Section 431.294 Energy... method for the measurement of energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending... test procedure for energy consumption of refrigerated bottled or canned beverage vending machines shall...

  4. Assessment of Drinking Water Quality from Bottled Water Coolers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzieh Farhadkhani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Drinking water quality can be deteriorated by microbial and toxic chemicals during transport, storage and handling before using by the consumer. This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial and physicochemical quality of drinking water from bottled water coolers.A total of 64 water samples, over a 5-month period in 2012-2013, were collected from free standing bottled water coolers and water taps in Isfahan. Water samples were analyzed for heterotrophic plate count (HPC, temperature, pH, residual chlorine, turbidity, electrical conductivity (EC and total organic carbon (TOC. Identification of predominant bacteria was also performed by sequence analysis of 16S rDNA.The mean HPC of water coolers was determined at 38864 CFU/ml which exceeded the acceptable level for drinking water in 62% of analyzed samples. The HPC from the water coolers was also found to be significantly (P < 0.05 higher than that of the tap waters. The statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the values of pH, EC, turbidity and TOC in water coolers and tap waters. According to sequence analysis eleven species of bacteria were identified.A high HPC is indicative of microbial water quality deterioration in water coolers. The presence of some opportunistic pathogens in water coolers, furthermore, is a concern from a public health point of view. The results highlight the importance of a periodic disinfection procedure and monitoring system for water coolers in order to keep the level of microbial contamination under control.

  5. Microbial evaluation of bottled water marketed in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawna Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drinking unsafe and unhygienic water can cause waterborne diseases such as diarrhea and typhoid. The present study describes the microbial evaluation of bottled water sold in North India. The samples were analyzed for total viable count and coliforms and susceptibility to different antibiotics. Though free of coliforms, the samples had a total viable count ranging from 0.01 × 10 [1] cfu/mL to 2.40 × 10 [3] cfu/mL and in 17% of the samples, total viable count was much higher than specified by the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS, Government of India. Among the samples, 6.5% also showed fungal growth. On checking the sensitivity of bacteria isolates to different antibiotics, most of the strains were found to be resistant to a number of antibiotics. It can thus be concluded that the consumption of bottled water with a high viable count and that was bacteria-resistant to different antibiotics may have an effect on the health of the consumers, especially immune-compromised individuals.

  6. Nestle and breast vs. bottle feeding: mainstream and Marxist perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, C E

    1984-01-01

    The breast vs. bottle feeding issue has sparked a controversial debate. Mainstream analysis of the problem shows that arguments made by the business community, as represented by the Nestle Corporation, do not withstand examination of the evidence. For example, it cannot be substantiated that women begin formula feeding because they have entered the labor force. Mainstream studies of cost effectiveness further indicate that bottle feeding is a drain on the incomes of impoverished Third World families and nations. Marxist analysis gives a very different perspective. Nestle represents 19th century capitalist development and the Industrial Revolution, and 20th century imperialism, neocolonialism and monopoly capitalism. Its motive has been capital accumulation and expansion. To increase surplus value appropriation, capitalism must devalue the household (subsistence) economy in which women enjoyed considerable status. Women also produce the most fundamental commodity for capitalism-laborers; therefore, the biological connection must be masked and controlled for the benefit of capital. Thus, as the capitalist mode of production has developed, women have been removed from important roles in production and reproduction. Coupled with the ascendancy of science, expertism and public health imperialism, breast feeding in any market economy becomes nearly impossible. As women internalize the values of capitalist ideology, they elevate "man-made" marketed commodities over subsistence goods such as breast milk.

  7. The use of bottle caps as submerged aerated filter medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasceno de Oliveira, Laurence; Motlagh, Amir Mohaghegh; Goel, Ramesh; de Souza Missagia, Beatriz; Alves de Abreu Filho, Benício; Lautenschlager, Sandro Rogério

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a submerged aerated filter (SAF) using bottle caps as a support medium was evaluated. The system was fed with effluent from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket system at ETE 2-South wastewater treatment plant, under different volumetric organic load rates (VOLRs). The population of a particular nitrifying microbial community was assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridization with specific oligonucleotide probes. The system showed an average removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) equal to 76% for VOLRs between 2.6 and 13.6 kg COD m(-3)_media.day(-1). The process of nitrification in conjunction with the removal of organic matter was observed from applying VOLRs lower than 5.5 kg COD m(-3)_media.day(-1) resulting in 78% conversion of NH4(+)-N. As the applied organic load was reduced, an increase in the nitrifying bacteria population was observed compared with total 4'-6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) stained cells. Generally, SAF using bottle caps as a biological aerated filter medium treating wastewater from an anaerobic system showed promising removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and conversion of NH4(+)-N.

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of bottle gourd (Lagenaria siceraria Standl.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, J-S; Kim, C K; Park, S H; Hirschi, K D; Mok, I- G

    2005-03-01

    We describe a procedure for producing transgenic bottle gourd plants by inoculating cotyledon explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL1 that carries the binary vector pCAMBIA3301 containing a glufosinate ammonium-resistance (bar) gene and the beta-D-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. The most effective bacterial infection was observed when cotyledon explants of 4-day-old seedlings were co-cultivated with Agrobacterium for 6-8 days on co-cultivation medium supplemented with 0.1-0.001 mg/l L-alpha-(2-aminoethoxyvinyl) glycine (AVG). The putatively transformed shoots directly emerged at the proximal end of cotyledon explants after 2-3 weeks of culturing on selection medium containing 2 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. These shoots were rooted after 3 weeks of culturing on half-strength MS medium containing 0.1 mg/l indole acetic acid and 1 mg/l DL-phosphinothricin. Transgenic plants were obtained at frequencies of 1.9%. Stable integration and transmission of the transgenes in T1 generation plants were confirmed by a histochemical GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analyses. Genetic segregation analysis of T1 progenies showed that transgenes were inherited in a Mendelian fashion. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in bottle gourd.

  9. Noise risk assessment in a bottling line of a modern Sicilian winery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Vallone

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In wine industry, bottling is a phase of the production cycle characterized by high levels of noise mostly due to repeated collisions between the bottles. In Italy the Law Decree 81/2008 defined the requirements for assessing and managing noise risk, identifying a number of procedures to be adopted at different noise levels to limit workers exposure. This study aims at evaluating the equivalent and peak noise level inside the bottling plant area of a modern Sicilian winery. In particular, the influence of the working capacity (number of bottles produced per hour on noise levels was evaluated. We considered three test conditions: T1 with working capacity of 4,000 bottles per hour, T2 with working capacity of 5,000 bottles per hour and T3 with working capacity of 6,000 bottles per hour. Fifteen measurement points were identified inside the bottling area. The instrument used for the measurements is a precision integrating portable sound level meter, class 1, model HD2110L by Delta OHM, Italy. The tests were performed in compliance with ISO 9612 and ISO 9432 regulations. The results show that as bottling plant working capacity increases, noise level increases. The measured sound levels exceed the limits allowed by the regulations in all the test conditions; values exceeding the threshold limit of 80 dB(A were recorded coming up to a maximum value of 95 dB(A in test T3. In this case, the operator working along the bottling line is obliged to wear the appropriate Personal Protective Equipment.

  10. Bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water in Dharan municipality, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, Narayan Dutt; Poudyal, Nimesh; Bhattacharya, Shyamal Kumar

    2016-06-07

    Water-related diseases are of great concern in developing countries like Nepal. Every year, there are countless morbidity and mortality due to the consumption of unsafe drinking water. Recently, there have been increased uses of bottled drinking water in an assumption that the bottled water is safer than the tap water and its use will help to protect from water-related diseases. So, the main objective of this study was to analyze the bacteriological quality of bottled drinking water and that of municipal tap water. A total of 100 samples (76 tap water and 24 bottled water) were analyzed for bacteriological quality and pH. The methods used were spread plate method for total plate count (TPC) and membrane filter method for total coliform count (TCC), fecal coliform count (FCC), and fecal streptococcal count (FSC). pH meter was used for measuring pH. One hundred percent of the tap water samples and 87.5 % of the bottled water samples were found to be contaminated with heterotrophic bacteria. Of the tap water samples, 55.3 % were positive for total coliforms, compared with 25 % of the bottled water. No bottled water samples were positive for fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci, in contrast to 21.1 % and 14.5 % of the tap water samples being contaminated with fecal coliforms and fecal streptococci, respectively. One hundred percent of the tap water samples and 54.2 % of the bottled water samples had pH in the acceptable range. All of the municipal tap water samples and most of the bottled drinking water samples distributed in Dharan municipality were found to be contaminated with one or more than one type of indicator organisms. On the basis of our findings, we may conclude that comparatively, the bottled drinking water may have been safer (than tap water) to drink.

  11. Changes in sucking performance from nonnutritive sucking to nutritive sucking during breast- and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Katsumi; Ueda, Aki

    2006-05-01

    Our aim was to obtain a better understanding of the differences between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, particularly with regard to how sucking performance changes from nonnutritive sucking (NNS) to nutritive sucking (NS). Twenty-two normal term infants were studied while breast-feeding at 4 and 5 d postpartum. Five of the 22 infants were exclusively breast-fed, but we tested the other 17 infants while breast-feeding and while bottle-feeding. Before the milk ejection reflex (MER) occurs, little milk is available. As such, infants perform NNS before MER. For bottle-feeding, a one-way valve was affixed between the teat and the bottle so that the infants needed to perform NNS until milk flowed into the teat chamber. At the breast, the sucking pressure (-93.1 +/- 28.3 mm Hg) was higher during NNS compared with NS (-77.3 +/- 27.0 mm Hg). With a bottle, the sucking pressure was lower during NNS (-27.5 +/- 11.2 mm Hg) compared with NS (-87.5 +/- 28.5 mm Hg). Sucking frequency was higher and sucking duration was shorter during NNS compared with that during NS both at the breast and with a bottle. There were significant differences in the changes of sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS between breast- and bottle-feeding. The change in sucking pressure and duration from NNS to NS differed between breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. Even with a modified bottle and teats, bottle-feeding differs from breast-feeding.

  12. Highly flexible binder-free core-shell nanofibrous electrode for lightweight electrochemical energy storage using recycled water bottles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, HaoTian H.; Naguib, Hani E.

    2016-08-01

    The creation of a novel flexible nanocomposite fiber with conductive polymer polyaniline (PAni) coating on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate allowed for increased electrochemical performance while retaining ideal mechanical properties such as very high flexibility. Binder-free PAni-wrapped PET (PAni@PET) fiber with a core-shell structure was successfully fabricated through a novel technique. The PET nanofiber substrate was fabricated through an optimized electrospinning method, while the PAni shell was chemically polymerized onto the surface of the nanofibers. The PET substrate can be made directly from recycled PETE1 grade plastic water bottles. The resulting nanofiber with an average diameter of 121 nm ± 39 nm, with a specific surface area of 83.72 m2 g-1, led to better ionic interactions at the electrode/electrolyte interface. The PAni active layer coating was found to be 69 nm in average thickness. The specific capacitance was found to have increased dramatically from pure PAni with carbon binders. The specific capacitance was found to be 347 F g-1 at a relatively high scan rate of 10 mV s-1. The PAni/PET fiber also experienced very little degradation (4.4%) in capacitance after 1500 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles at a specific current of 1.2 A g-1. The mesoporous structure of the PAni@PET fibrous mat also allowed for tunable capacitance by controlling the pore sizes. This novel fabrication method offers insights for the utilization of recycled PETE1 based bottles as a high performance, low cost, highly flexible supercapacitor device.

  13. 双室聚丙烯低温反应瓶的设计制造及在硅芴合成中的应用%Fabrication of Multiple-tank Polypropylene Bottles and Its Application in Synthesizing Silafluorene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫越奇; 常学义

    2012-01-01

    设计制造了瓶底有一大一小2个室的聚丙烯(PP)塑料反应瓶,将其用于活泼的金属有机反应中硅芴的合成.首先将制备的2,2'-二锂基联苯(2)转移到小室中,然后将SiCl4溶液注入大室内,再将反应瓶倾斜,使得化合物2的溶液分次进入大室进行反应,保证反应在SiC14充分过量条件下进行,可大大降低螺硅芴(4)副反应产物的生成,使9,9-苯基硅芴的产率由20%提高至35% ~40%,SiCl4的用量降至4倍摩尔量,从而也降低了产物后处理中柱分离的处理量.%In order to improve the yield of synthesizing silafluorene, a plastic multiple-tank reaction bottle was designed and fabricated. It was well-known that the reaction of 4,4'-dibromo-2,2'-diiodobiphenyl(l) with butyllithium formed a key active intermediate 4,4'-dibromo-2,2'-dilithiumbiphenyl(2) , which should be kept under low temperature. In our previous work, we added a large excess of SiCl4(20 fold in molar ratio) into the solution of compound 2 to suppress the formation of spirosilafluorene(4). In this contribution, the use of a plastic multiple-tank reaction bottle made it possible to add the solution of compound 2 into SiCl4 because it provides compound 2 with a container in the bottom of the bottle. By leaning the reaction bottle, compound 2 can be transferred into the storage tank or transfer into the reaction tank under low temperature. This new apparatus can improve the yield of the silafluorene from 20% to 35% -40% with a much less SiCl4 feed ratio (4 fold in molar ratio). This plastic multiple-tank reaction bottle might be widely used in the organometallic chemistry.

  14. The incidence of plastic ingestion by fishes: from the prey's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Henry S

    2013-09-15

    One of the primary threats to ocean ecosystems from plastic pollution is ingestion by marine organisms. Well-documented in seabirds, turtles, and marine mammals, ingestion by fish and sharks has received less attention until recently. We suggest that fishes of a variety of sizes attack drifting plastic with high frequency, as evidenced by the apparent bite marks commonly left behind. We examined 5518 plastic items from random plots on Kamilo Point, Hawai'i Island, and found 15.8% to have obvious signs of attack. Extrapolated to the entire amount of debris removed from the 15 km area, over 1.3 tons of plastic is attacked each year. Items with a bottle shape, or those blue or yellow in color, were attacked with a higher frequency. The triangular edges or punctures left by teeth ranged from 1 to 20 mm in width suggesting a variety of species attack plastic items. More research is needed to document the specific fishes and rates of plastic ingestion.

  15. Evaluating the Effect of Dental Filling Material and Filling Depth on the Strength and Deformation of Filled Teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Seifollah Gholampour; Ghazale Zoorazma; Ehsan Shakouri

    2016-01-01

    ackground and aim: It is important to evaluate the effect of the type of filling material on deformation and strength of tooth after filling and also the effect of filling depth on quality of restoration of a decayed tooth. Material and Methods: The Orthopantomogram (OPG) of the first and second molars of a 28-year-old man was made and the teeth were 3D modeled. The stress-deformation analysis was then performed on the models in the three states of normal tooth, tooth filled with amalgam and ...

  16. Dedicated composite fillings − inlays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šaulić Slobodan

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The aim of the study was to evaluate the quality and persistance of esthetics of dedicated inlay by clinical methods. Methods. The paper reviews the clinical significance and technique of preparing particular composite inlays before and after the construction of the metallic framework partial denture. On the basis of indications the total of 30 inlays were placed into cavities under relatively dry working conditions. Six, twelve eighteen and twenty-four months after the placement of filling, control check-up was carried out by Ryge criteria. Results. After two years marginal discoloration as well as the change of the colour occured in 3.3% of inlays. There was neither detectable secondary caries, nor the symtoms of pulpal damage. The requirements to be fulfilled concerning the composite materials in order that they can be implemented for this purpose, were also discussed. Conclusion. From the clinical point of view, purpouse inlays from Herculite XRV lab C8B in combination with Opti Bond System and composite cement Porcelite Dual Cure showed high functional and esthetic values in the observational period of two years.

  17. The Simulation and Optimization of Aspheric Plastic Lens Injection Molding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Jialing; WEN Pengfei

    2005-01-01

    For the purpose of reducing the volumetric shrinkage and volumetric shrinkage variation, the process in injection molding of aspheric plastic lens was simulated, and several process parameters which include holding pressure, melt temperature, mold temperature, fill time, holding pressure time and cooling time were optimized by using an orthogonal experimental design method. Finally, the optimum process parameters and the influence degree of process parameters on the average volumetric shrinkage and the volumetric shrinkage variation are obtained.

  18. What's Wrong with the Tap? Examining Perceptions of Tap Water and Bottled Water at Purdue University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates ( n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors—especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean—but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  19. What's wrong with the tap? Examining perceptions of tap water and bottled water at Purdue University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates (n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors-especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean-but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  20. The photocatalytic enhancement of acrylic and PET solar water disinfection (SODIS) bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, J M; Perez, T M; Arsiaga, E G; Loetscher, L H; Boyd, J E

    2011-01-01

    The solar water disinfection method (SODIS) was modified by the addition of a photocatalytic layer of titania on the interior surface of polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and acrylic bottles. Titania was solvent deposited on the interior of commercially available PET bottles, as well as bottles that were constructed from acrylic. Uncoated and titania-coated acrylic bottles removed 3,000,000-5,000,000 colony forming units per milliliter of K12 E. coli from 670 mL of contaminated water in 40 min of solar irradiance. After five hours of sunlight exposure, the concentration of 10 ppm methyl orange (a representative organic water contaminant), was reduced by 61% using the titania-coated acrylic bottles. The concentration of 87 ppb microcystin-LR (a representative algal toxin) was reduced by 70% after 7 hours of sunlight exposure in the titania-coated acrylic bottles. Acrylic is an effective alternative to PET for use in the SODIS method due to its greater UV transparency. The addition of titania to PET and acrylic bottles confers the ability to remove chemical contaminants in addition to inactivating microbiological contaminants.

  1. Fluoride and bacterial content of bottled drinking water versus municipal tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mythri H

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Water is a divine gift. People quench their thirst without questioning the source of water. But, apprehension about contaminants in municipal water supplies along with increased fear of fluorosis made bottled drinking water as one of the important tradable commodities. Objectives: The objectives of the study were to determine and compare the fluoride and bacterial contents of commercially available bottled drinking water and municipal tap water in Davangere city, Karnataka. Materials and Methods: Fifty samples of 10 categories of bottled drinking water with different batch numbers were purchased and municipal water from different sources were collected. Fluoride levels were determined by an ion-selective electrode. Water was cultured quantitatively and levels of bacteria were calculated as colony-forming units (CFUs per milliliter. Results: Descriptive analysis of water samples for fluoride concentration was in the range of 0.07-0.33 for bottled drinking water, Bisleri showing the highest of 0.33. A comparison of the mean values of microbial count for bottled drinking water with that of municipal tap water showed no statistically significant difference, but was more than the standard levels along with the presence of fungus and maggots. Conclusion: The fluoride concentration was below the optimal level for both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water. CFUs were more than the recommended level in both municipal tap water and bottled drinking water.

  2. Shelf Life of Oxygen Moisture Bottle after Chemical Disinfection%氧气湿化瓶消毒后保存期的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少英; 李碧坚; 何丽媚

    2013-01-01

      目的通过对氧气湿化瓶化学消毒后保存期进行研究,以明确其保存有效期。方法将240个氧气湿化瓶化学消毒后分别保存于5个临床科室,保存时间180 d,每月进行细菌学监测。结果氧气湿化瓶化学消毒后保存30、60、90、120、150、180 d细菌监测结果均≤20 CFU/件,未检出致病菌,合格率100%。结论氧气湿化瓶化学消毒后用保鲜袋单独包装,做好保存环境管理,其保存期最少6个月。%Objective To explore the shelf life of oxygen moisture bottle after chemical disinfection and to make clear its validity. Methods A total of 240 oxygen moisture bottles after chemical disinfection had been stored in clinical departments for 180 days and bacteriological monitoring was carried out every month. Results Bacteria monitoring 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days after chemical disinfection showed there was 20 or less cfu/per piece and no pathogenic bacteria was found, with a qualification rate of 100%. Conclusion Once oxygen moisture bottle is packaged by plastic bag individually and stored in friendly environment, the shelf life of it after chemical disinfection could last for at least 6 months.

  3. Elasto-Plasticity Critical Corrosive Ratio Model for RC Structure Corrosive Expanding Crack

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yueshun; LU Yiyan; LIU Li

    2007-01-01

    The parameter of filling expanding ratio n, plasticity factor k1 and deformation parameter k2 is raised, and then the elasto-plasticity critical corrosive ratio model for RC structure corrosive expanding crack based on elasto-plasticity theory is constructed in this paper. The influences of parameters such as filling expansion ratio n, plasticity factor k1, deformation parameter k2, Poisson ratio of concrete v, diameter of reinforced bar d and protective layer thickness c on the critical corrosive ratio are researched by theory analysis and experiments. The experimental results validate the accuracy of the model. According to the experimental study, the least squares solution is calculated as n=1.8,k1 =0.61,k2 =0.5.

  4. Surfaces that become isotopic after Dehn filling

    CERN Document Server

    Bachman, David; Sedgwick, Eric

    2010-01-01

    We show that after generic filling along a torus boundary component of a 3-manifold, no two closed, 2-sided, essential surfaces become isotopic, and no closed, 2-sided, essential surface becomes inessential. That is, the set of essential surfaces (considered up to isotopy) survives unchanged in all suitably generic Dehn fillings. Furthermore, for all but finitely many non-generic fillings, we show that two essential surfaces can only become isotopic in a constrained way.

  5. SABIC Innovative Plastics: Be the World Best Plastic Resin Manufacturer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jenny Du

    2007-01-01

    @@ "SABIC Innovative Plastics is a global supplier of plastic resins, manufacturing and compounding polycarbonate, ABS, SAN, ASA, PPE, PC/ABS, PBT and PEI resins, as well as the LNP* line of high performance specialty compounds," said Hiroshi Yoshida, the Global Market Director for Electronics of SABIC Innovative Plastics based in Tokyo at the press conference held by SABIC Innovative Plastics, November 8th 2007, Shanghai.

  6. Bottle feeding, increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship: is there any association?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Salem Abdel Jabbar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the association between bottle feeding and prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 primary canine relationship. The sample consisted of 911 children (461 boys, 450 girls aged 3 (13.9%, 4 (40.8%, 5 (34% and 6 (11.3% years, with complete primary dentition. Information about nutritive and nonnutritive (pacifier and/or digit sucking habits was collected through questionnaires. Three calibrated dentists (κ: 0.9-1.0 and Rs > 0.90 performed the clinical assessments. The children were divided into four groups: G1 - not bottle-fed; G2 - exclusively bottle-fed; G3 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased before 3 years of age; and G4 - breast- and bottle-fed, bottle feeding ceased between 3 and 4 years of age. Associations between nutritive and nonnutritive sucking behaviors and the malocclusions studied were analyzed by multiple binary logistic regression (α= 0.05. The frequencies of increased overjet were: 25.3% (G1, 38.8% (G2, 39.2% (G3 and 47.8% (G4. The percentages of Class 2 canine relationship were: 27.9% (G1, 48.8% (G2, 43.4% (G3 and 43% (G4. No significant effect of bottle feeding was found. The chances of diagnosing increased overjet (O.R. = 4.42, p < 0.001 and Class 2 canine relationship (O.R. = 4.02, p < 0.001 were greater for children with pacifier and/or digit-sucking habits, compared to those without a history of nonnutritive sucking behavior. It may be suggested that bottle feeding alone is not directly associated with higher prevalence rates of increased overjet and Class 2 canine relationship in the primary dentition.

  7. Preserving in Plastic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahla, James

    1985-01-01

    Outlines steps for casting insects in permanent molds prepared from commercially available liquid plastic. Also describes dry mountings in glass, acrylic, and petri dishes. The rationale for specimen use, hints for producing quality results, purchasing information, and safety precautions are considered. (DH)

  8. Informative document waste plastics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelhout D; Sein AA; Duvoort GL

    1989-01-01

    This "Informative document waste plastics" forms part of a series of "informative documents waste materials". These documents are conducted by RIVM on the indstruction of the Directorate General for the Environment, Waste Materials Directorate, in behalf of the program of acti

  9. Discrete dislocation plasticity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Giessen, E.; Finel, A; Maziere, D; Veron, M

    2003-01-01

    Conventional continuum mechanics models of inelastic deformation processes axe size scale independent. In contrast, there is considerable experimental evidence that plastic flow in crystalline materials is size dependent over length scales of the order of tens of microns and smaller. At present ther

  10. Progress in neural plasticity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    POO; Mu-Ming

    2010-01-01

    One of the properties of the nervous system is the use-dependent plasticity of neural circuits.The structure and function of neural circuits are susceptible to changes induced by prior neuronal activity,as reflected by short-and long-term modifications of synaptic efficacy and neuronal excitability.Regarded as the most attractive cellular mechanism underlying higher cognitive functions such as learning and memory,activity-dependent synaptic plasticity has been in the spotlight of modern neuroscience since 1973 when activity-induced long-term potentiation(LTP) of hippocampal synapses was first discovered.Over the last 10 years,Chinese neuroscientists have made notable contributions to the study of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity,as well as of the plasticity beyond synapses,including activity-dependent changes in intrinsic neuronal excitability,dendritic integration functions,neuron-glia signaling,and neural network activity.This work highlight some of these significant findings.

  11. New plastic recycling technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greater than 60% of the total plastic content of municipal solid waste is comprised of polyolefins (high-density, low-density, and linear polyethylene and polypropylene. Polyethylene (PE) is the largest-volume component but presents a challenge due to the absence of low-energy de...

  12. Persisting Plastic Addiction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The policy on curbing plastic shopping bag use implemented three years ago has produced mixed results In a bustling farmers’market tucked in a narrow street in Xisanqi residential community in north Beijing,stalls selling vegetables,fruits and other foods line the sidewalk.

  13. Recycling of PET bottles as fine aggregate in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigione, Mariaenrica

    2010-06-01

    An attempt to substitute in concrete the 5% by weight of fine aggregate (natural sand) with an equal weight of PET aggregates manufactured from the waste un-washed PET bottles (WPET), is presented. The WPET particles possessed a granulometry similar to that of the substituted sand. Specimens with different cement content and water/cement ratio were manufactured. Rheological characterization on fresh concrete and mechanical tests at the ages of 28 and 365days were performed on the WPET/concretes as well as on reference concretes containing only natural fine aggregate in order to investigate the influence of the substitution of WPET to the fine aggregate in concrete. It was found that the WPET concretes display similar workability characteristics, compressive strength and splitting tensile strength slightly lower that the reference concrete and a moderately higher ductility.

  14. Growth of Scytalidium sp. in a counterfeit bevacizumab bottle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Garcia-Aguirre

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available After drawing a dose from an closed bevacizumab (Avastin bottle, a fungus-like foreign body was observed inside. Samples from the vial were cultured in Sabouraud Emmons media. Growth of multiple light brown colonies with dark pigment was observed after 10 days. The species was identified as Scytalidium sp.Vial, analysis reported that the seal was lacking proper identification measures and that the label, batch number and expiry date did not correspond to a genuine product. Chemical analysis showed no protein, but 3% of polyethylene glycol, citrate and ethanol. Counterfeit bevacizumab is a real situation that poses a significant risk for ophthalmology and oncology patients. The medical community should be aware of this situation in order to enforce adequate preventive measures.

  15. Switchable Magnetic Bottles and Field Gradients for Particle Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Vogel, Manuel; Quint, Wolfgang; von Lindenfels, David; Wiesel, Marco

    2014-01-01

    Versatile methods for the manipulation of individual quantum systems, such as confined particles, have become central elements in current developments in precision spectroscopy, frequency standards, quantum information processing, quantum simulation, and alike. For atomic and some subatomic particles, both neutral and charged, a precise control of magnetic fields is essen- tial. In this paper, we discuss possibilities for the creation of specific magnetic field configurations which find appli- cation in these areas. In particular, we pursue the idea of a magnetic bottle which can be switched on and off by transition between the normal and the superconducting phase of a suitable material in cryogenic environments, for example in trap experiments in moderate magnetic fields. Methods for a fine-tuning of the magnetic field and its linear and quadratic components in a trap are presented together with possible applications.

  16. Natural activity concentrations in bottled drinking water and consequent doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabadayi, Önder; Gümüs, Hasan

    2012-07-01

    The radioactivity concentrations of nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in bottled drinking water from six different manufacturers from Turkey were measured using high-resolution gamma-ray spectrometry. The measurement was done using a coaxial high-purity germanium detector system coupled to Ortec-Dspect jr digital MCA system. The average measured activity concentrations of the nuclides (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K are found to be 0.781, 1.05 and 2.19 Bq l(-1), respectively. The measured activity concentrations have been compared with similar studies from different locations. The annual effective doses for ingestion of radionuclides in the water are found to be 0.0246 mSv for (238)U and 0.169 mSv for (232)Th.

  17. Preventing baby bottle tooth decay: eight-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruerd, B; Jones, C

    1996-01-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay (BBTD) is a preventable dental disease that affects more than 50% of American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children. A community-oriented program to prevent BBTD was implemented in 12 AI/AN communities in 1986. In 1989, the overall prevalence of BBTD for the 12 sites combined decreased from 57% to 43% which represented a 25% reduction (P<.001). Funding for the formal program was discontinued in 1990. In 1994, the Indian Health Service Dental and Head Start funded an assessment of the current prevalence of BBTD and the level of program implementation at the 12 original sites. This paper describes the findings. At the five sites where both one-to- one counseling and community-based educational activities had continued, BBTD prevalence was reduced by 38%(P<.001) over the eight-year period. PMID:8610193

  18. Water Jets from Bottles, Buckets, Barrels, and Vases with Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopac, Vjera

    2015-03-01

    Observation of the water jets flowing from three equidistant holes on the side of a vertical cylindrical bottle is an interesting and widely used didactical experiment illustrating the laws of fluids in motion. In this paper we analyze theoretically and numerically the ranges of the stationary water jets flowing from various rotationally symmetric vessels with holes, and their dependence on the height of the holes above the bottom, on thickness of the block supporting the vessel, and on different shapes of the vessel profile. This investigation was motivated by controversial descriptions and illustrations repeatedly found in physics textbooks and by the fact that previously in the physics teaching literature only the cylindrical vessel was treated.

  19. Capability of 19-L polycarbonate plastic water cooler containers for efficient solar water disinfection (SODIS): Field case studies in India, Bahrain and Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Mathur, Chandana

    2015-01-01

    The small treated volume (typically ~2 L) associated with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles that are most frequently used in solar water disinfection (SODIS), is a major obstacle to uptake of this water treatment technology in resource-poor environments. In order to address this problem we have conducted a series of experiments in Spain, Bahrain and India, to assess the efficacy of large volume (19 L) transparent plastic (polycarbonate) water cooler/dispenser containers (WDCs)...

  20. Capability of 19-litre polycarbonate plastic water cooler containers for efficient solar water disinfection (SODIS): field case studies in India, Bahrain and Spain.

    OpenAIRE

    Keogh, Michael B; Castro-Alférez, M; Polo-López, M I; Calderero, I Fernández; Al-Eryani, Y A; Joseph-Titus, C; Sawant, B; R Dhodapkar; Mathur, C; McGuigan, Kevin G; Fernández-Ibáñez, P.

    2015-01-01

    The small treated volume (typically ~2 litres) associated with polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles that are most frequently used in solar water disinfection (SODIS), is a major obstacle to uptake of this water treatment technology in the developing world. In order to address this problem we have conducted a series of experiments in Spain, Bahrain and India, to assess the efficacy of large volume (19 litres) transparent plastic (polycarbonate) water cooler/dispenser containers (WDCs) as S...