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Sample records for plasmodium vivax electronic

  1. Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siv, Sovannaroth; Roca-Feltrer, Arantxa; Vinjamuri, Seshu Babu; Bouth, Denis Mey; Lek, Dysoley; Rashid, Mohammad Abdur; By, Ngau Peng; Popovici, Jean; Huy, Rekol; Menard, Didier

    2016-01-01

    The Cambodian National Strategic Plan for Elimination of Malaria aims to move step by step toward elimination of malaria across Cambodia with an initial focus on Plasmodium falciparum malaria before achieving elimination of all forms of malaria, including Plasmodium vivax in 2025. The emergence of artemisinin-resistant P. falciparum in western Cambodia over the last decade has drawn global attention to support the ultimate goal of P. falciparum elimination, whereas the control of P. vivax lags much behind, making the 2025 target gradually less achievable unless greater attention is given to P. vivax elimination in the country. The following review presents in detail the past and current situation regarding P. vivax malaria, activities of the National Malaria Control Program, and interventional measures applied. Constraints and obstacles that can jeopardize our efforts to eliminate this parasite species are discussed. PMID:27708187

  2. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  3. Plasmodium vivax: is it changing course?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.B.; Qadir, A.; Shaheen, N.; Babar, N.F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the haematological parameters in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was carried out at the Department of Medicine and Department of Pathology, Military Hospital Rawalpindi, Pakistan from 1st June 2010 to 30th September 2010. Methodology: Two hundred and sixteen patients were with confirmed Plasmodium vivax (P.vivax) infection. Demographic and malariometric data of all patients suffering from P.vivax was collected on a patient data form. The diagnosis of P.vivax malaria was established by peripheral blood film (PBF) and Rapid diagnostic test (RDT). All haematological parameters e.g. white blood cells (WBCs), platelet count, bilirubin levels were noted. Results: The mean age was 25.10 +- 5.35 years. Out of 216 patients 183 patients (84.7%) were males and thirty three patients (15.3%) were females. Thrombocytopenia was found in 186 patients (86.1%). Leucopoenia was noted in 37 patients (17.1%). Anaemia was found in 17 patients (7.8%). Increased bilrubin levels were noted in 65 patients (30%). Increased alanine transaminase levels were present in 32 patients (14.8%). Nine patients had serum creatinine levels more than 1.2 mg/dl (4.1%). Conclusion: Plasmodium vivax malaria although considered benign has the potential to cause serious haematological derangements in affected individuals. (author)

  4. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G; Sanchez, Juan F; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M

    2016-12-28

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s-2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005-2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine-primaquine for P. vivax Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  5. Epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Manrique, Paulo; Conn, Jan E.; Moreno, Marta; Lescano, Andres G.; Sanchez, Juan F.; Rodriguez, Hugo; Silva, Hermann; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in Peru, dominated by Plasmodium vivax, remains a public health problem. The 1990s saw newly epidemic malaria emerge, primarily in the Loreto Department in the Amazon region, including areas near to Iquitos, the capital city, but sporadic malaria transmission also occurred in the 1990s–2000s in both north-coastal Peru and the gold mining regions of southeastern Peru. Although a Global Fund-supported intervention (PAMAFRO, 2005–2010) was temporally associated with a decrease of malaria transmission, from 2012 to the present, both P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria cases have rapidly increased. The Peruvian Ministry of Health continues to provide artemesinin-based combination therapy for microscopy-confirmed cases of P. falciparum and chloroquine–primaquine for P. vivax. Malaria transmission continues in remote areas nonetheless, where the mobility of humans and parasites facilitates continued reintroduction outside of ongoing surveillance activities, which is critical to address for future malaria control and elimination efforts. Ongoing P. vivax research gaps in Peru include the following: identification of asymptomatic parasitemics, quantification of the contribution of patent and subpatent parasitemics to mosquito transmission, diagnosis of nonparasitemic hypnozoite carriers, and implementation of surveillance for potential emergence of chloroquine- and 8-aminoquinoline-resistant P. vivax. Clinical trials of tafenoquine in Peru have been promising, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency in the region has not been observed to be a limitation to its use. Larger-scale challenges for P. vivax (and malaria in general) in Peru include logistical difficulties in accessing remote riverine populations, consequences of government policy and poverty trends, and obtaining international funding for malaria control and elimination. PMID:27799639

  6. Frequency of thrombocytopenia in plasmodium vivax malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadeem, A.; Malik, T.M.; Malik, H.S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency of thrombocytopenia in Plasmodium vivax (P.vivax) malaria cases at two hospitals. Study Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: The study was conducted at the departments of Pathology, Combined Military Hospitals Malir and Sibi, Pakistan from Jul 2011 to Mar 2012. Patients and Methods: A total of 2709 samples were collected from febrile patients for detection of malaria parasite (944 from CMH Malir and 1765 from CMH Sibi). Cases having infection with P. falciparum alone or having mixed infection with P. Vivax and P. falciparum were excluded from the study. Both thick and thin film microscopy and immunochromatographic method (OptiMA L-IT) were used for detection of malarial parasite. Platelet counts were done using automated haematology analyser (Sysmex KX 21) with re-evaluation of low counts with manual methods. Results: Total of 170 patients were found positive for P. vivax malaria (44 from CMH Malir and 126 from CMH Sibi). Platelet counts ranged from 21 - 457 * 10/sub 9/ with a mean of 134 * 10/sub 9/. Ninety five (2.1%) from CMH Malir and 4.2% from CMH Sibi out of 170 patients had thrombocytopenia, and the difference in thrombocytopenia at the two hospitals was insignificant (0.017). Conclusion: Thrombocytopenia in patients with P. vivax infection is equally prevalent in the two hospitals, representing a widely different geographical area and should prompt a more thorough search for malaria parasite. (author)

  7. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Ana Cecilia; Ortiz, Andres; Coello, Jorge; Sosa-Ochoa, Wilfredo; Torres, Rosa E Mejia; Banegas, Engels I; Jovel, Irina; Fontecha, Gustavo A

    2012-11-26

    Understanding the population structure of Plasmodium species through genetic diversity studies can assist in the design of more effective malaria control strategies, particularly in vaccine development. Central America is an area where malaria is a public health problem, but little is known about the genetic diversity of the parasite's circulating species. This study aimed to investigate the allelic frequency and molecular diversity of five surface antigens in field isolates from Honduras. Five molecular markers were analysed to determine the genotypes of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum from endemic areas in Honduras. Genetic diversity of ama-1, msp-1 and csp was investigated for P. vivax, and msp-1 and msp-2 for P. falciparum. Allelic frequencies were calculated and sequence analysis performed. A high genetic diversity was observed within Plasmodium isolates from Honduras. A different number of genotypes were elucidated: 41 (n = 77) for pvama-1; 23 (n = 84) for pvcsp; and 23 (n = 35) for pfmsp-1. Pvcsp sequences showed VK210 as the only subtype present in Honduran isolates. Pvmsp-1 (F2) was the most polymorphic marker for P. vivax isolates while pvama-1 was least variable. All three allelic families described for pfmsp-1 (n = 30) block 2 (K1, MAD20, and RO33), and both allelic families described for the central domain of pfmsp-2 (n = 11) (3D7 and FC27) were detected. However, K1 and 3D7 allelic families were predominant. All markers were randomly distributed across the country and no geographic correlation was found. To date, this is the most complete report on molecular characterization of P. vivax and P. falciparum field isolates in Honduras with regards to genetic diversity. These results indicate that P. vivax and P. falciparum parasite populations are highly diverse in Honduras despite the low level of transmission.

  8. Rheopathologic Consequence of Plasmodium vivax Rosette Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rou Zhang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Malaria parasites dramatically alter the rheological properties of infected red blood cells. In the case of Plasmodium vivax, the parasite rapidly decreases the shear elastic modulus of the invaded RBC, enabling it to avoid splenic clearance. This study highlights correlation between rosette formation and altered membrane deformability of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes, where the rosette-forming infected erythrocytes are significantly more rigid than their non-rosetting counterparts. The adhesion of normocytes to the PvIRBC is strong (mean binding force of 440pN resulting in stable rosette formation even under high physiological shear flow stress. Rosetting may contribute to the sequestration of PvIRBC schizonts in the host microvasculature or spleen.

  9. Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria complicated with venous sinus thrombosis in Colombia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Miguel A Pinzn; Juan C Pineda; Fernando Rosso; Masaru Shinchi; Fabio Bonilla-Abada

    2013-01-01

    Complicated malaria is usually due to Plasmodium falciparum. Nevertheless, Plasmodium vivax is infrequently related with life-threatening complications. Few cases have been reported of severe Plasmodium vivax infection, and most of them from Southeast Asia and India. We report the first case of cerebral malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in Latin America, complicated with sagittal sinus thrombosis and confirmed by a molecular method.

  10. Therapeutic principles of primaquine against relapse of Plasmodium vivax malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J. K.

    2018-03-01

    Plasmodium vivax causes tens of millions of clinical attacks annually all across the malarious globe. Unlike the other major cause of human malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax places dormant stages called hypnozoites into the human liver that later awaken and provoke multiple clinical attacks in the weeks, months, and few years following the infectious anopheline mosquito bite. The only available treatment to prevent those recurrent attacks is primaquine (hypnozoitocide), and it must be administered with the drugs applied to end the acute attack (blood schizontocides). This paper reviews the therapeutic principles of applying primaquine to achieve radical cure of acute vivax malaria.

  11. Plasmodium vivax malaria among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan

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    Duria Abdulwhab Rayis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the epidemiology of malaria [especially Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax] among pregnant women in Eastern Sudan. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in the antenatal care of New Halfa hospital, Eastern Sudan to investigate the prevalence, manifestations and determinants of malaria (especially P. vivax among pregnant women. Results: Out of 2 378 pregnant women, there were 48 (2.0% and 36 (1.5% Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum and P. vivax infection, respectively. There was no significant difference in the age, parity, gestational age between women with malaria and healthy controls. The mean ± SD of the temperature was significantly higher in patients with P. vivax than in patient with P. falciparum malaria [(38.6 ± 0.7 °C vs. (38.1 ± 0.6 °C, P = 0.001]. Patients with P. vivax malaria had slightly (not reach statistical significance lower hemoglobin level compared with P. falciparum malaria and healthy controls. The geometric parasite count showed no significant difference between patients with P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria infections (12 189.9 vs. 9 755.1 trophozoite/µL, P = 0.356. Conclusions: P. vivax malaria is an existing health problem in Eastern Sudan. Further research is also needed.

  12. The periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grillet, María-Eugenia; El Souki, Mayida; Laguna, Francisco; León, José Rafael

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the periodicity of Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum incidence in time-series of malaria data (1990-2010) from three endemic regions in Venezuela. In particular, we determined whether disease epidemics were related to local climate variability and regional climate anomalies such as the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Malaria periodicity was found to exhibit unique features in each studied region. Significant multi-annual cycles of 2- to about 6-year periods were identified. The inter-annual variability of malaria cases was coherent with that of SSTs (ENSO), mainly at temporal scales within the 3-6 year periods. Additionally, malaria cases were intensified approximately 1 year after an El Niño event, a pattern that highlights the role of climate inter-annual variability in the epidemic patterns. Rainfall mediated the effect of ENSO on malaria locally. Particularly, rains from the last phase of the season had a critical role in the temporal dynamics of Plasmodium. The malaria-climate relationship was complex and transient, varying in strength with the region and species. By identifying temporal cycles of malaria we have made a first step in predicting high-risk years in Venezuela. Our findings emphasize the importance of analyzing high-resolution spatial-temporal data to better understand malaria transmission dynamics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Placental histopathological changes associated with Plasmodium vivax infection during pregnancy.

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    Rodrigo M Souza

    Full Text Available Histological evidence of Plasmodium in the placenta is indicative of placental malaria, a condition associated with severe outcomes for mother and child. Histological lesions found in placentas from Plasmodium-exposed women include syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, thickening of the placental barrier, necrosis of villous tissue and intervillositis. These histological changes have been associated with P. falciparum infections, but little is known about the contribution of P. vivax to such changes. We conducted a cross-sectional study with pregnant women at delivery and assigned them to three groups according to their Plasmodium exposure during pregnancy: no Plasmodium exposure (n = 41, P. vivax exposure (n = 59 or P. falciparum exposure (n = 19. We evaluated their placentas for signs of Plasmodium and placental lesions using ten histological parameters: syncytial knotting, syncytial rupture, placental barrier thickness, villi necrosis, intervillous space area, intervillous leucocytes, intervillous mononucleates, intervillous polymorphonucleates, parasitized erythrocytes and hemozoin. Placentas from P. vivax-exposed women showed little evidence of Plasmodium or hemozoin but still exhibited more lesions than placentas from women not exposed to Plasmodium, especially when infections occurred twice or more during pregnancy. In the Brazilian state of Acre, where diagnosis and primary treatment are readily available and placental lesions occur in the absence of detected placental parasites, relying on the presence of Plasmodium in the placenta to evaluate Plasmodium-induced placental pathology is not feasible. Multivariate logistic analysis revealed that syncytial knotting (odds ratio [OR], 4.21, P = 0.045, placental barrier thickness (OR, 25.59, P = 0.021 and mononuclear cells (OR, 4.02, P = 0.046 were increased in placentas from P. vivax-exposed women when compared to women not exposed to Plasmodium during pregnancy. A

  14. African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S; Learn, Gerald H; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Malenke, Jordan A; Sundararaman, Sesh A; Ramirez, Miguel A; Crystal, Patricia A; Smith, Andrew G; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Locatelli, Sabrina; Esteban, Amandine; Mouacha, Fatima; Guichet, Emilande; Butel, Christelle; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Speede, Sheri; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B; Gonder, Mary K; Kranzusch, Philip J; Walsh, Peter D; Georgiev, Alexander V; Muller, Martin N; Piel, Alex K; Stewart, Fiona A; Wilson, Michael L; Pusey, Anne E; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Zenglei; Färnert, Anna; Sutherland, Colin J; Nolder, Debbie; Hart, John A; Hart, Terese B; Bertolani, Paco; Gillis, Amethyst; LeBreton, Matthew; Tafon, Babila; Kiyang, John; Djoko, Cyrille F; Schneider, Bradley S; Wolfe, Nathan D; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Carter, Richard; Culleton, Richard L; Shaw, George M; Rayner, Julian C; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Sharp, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa.

  15. African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S.; Learn, Gerald H.; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Malenke, Jordan A.; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Ramirez, Miguel A.; Crystal, Patricia A.; Smith, Andrew G.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Locatelli, Sabrina; Esteban, Amandine; Mouacha, Fatima; Guichet, Emilande; Butel, Christelle; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Speede, Sheri; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Gonder, Mary K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Muller, Martin N.; Piel, Alex K.; Stewart, Fiona A.; Wilson, Michael L.; Pusey, Anne E.; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Zenglei; Färnert, Anna; Sutherland, Colin J.; Nolder, Debbie; Hart, John A.; Hart, Terese B.; Bertolani, Paco; Gillis, Amethyst; LeBreton, Matthew; Tafon, Babila; Kiyang, John; Djoko, Cyrille F.; Schneider, Bradley S.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Carter, Richard; Culleton, Richard L.; Shaw, George M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sharp, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa. PMID:24557500

  16. Costs and Cost-Effectiveness of Plasmodium vivax Control.

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    White, Michael T; Yeung, Shunmay; Patouillard, Edith; Cibulskis, Richard

    2016-12-28

    The continued success of efforts to reduce the global malaria burden will require sustained funding for interventions specifically targeting Plasmodium vivax The optimal use of limited financial resources necessitates cost and cost-effectiveness analyses of strategies for diagnosing and treating P. vivax and vector control tools. Herein, we review the existing published evidence on the costs and cost-effectiveness of interventions for controlling P. vivax, identifying nine studies focused on diagnosis and treatment and seven studies focused on vector control. Although many of the results from the much more extensive P. falciparum literature can be applied to P. vivax, it is not always possible to extrapolate results from P. falciparum-specific cost-effectiveness analyses. Notably, there is a need for additional studies to evaluate the potential cost-effectiveness of radical cure with primaquine for the prevention of P. vivax relapses with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase testing. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  17. Genotyping Plasmodium vivax isolates from the 2011 outbreak in Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanakos, Gregory; Alifrangis, Michael; Schousboe, Mette L

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria was common in Greece until the 1950s with epidemics involving thousands of cases every year. Greece was declared free of malaria by the World Health Organization in 1974. From 1974 to 2010, an average of 39 cases per year were reported, which were mainly imported. However...... during 2011 is described, to elucidate the possible origin and spread of the disease....

  18. Clinical and parasitological profiles of patients with non-complicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria in northwestern Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Knudson-Ospina, Angélica; Sánchez-Pedraza, Ricardo; Pérez-Mazorra, Manuel Alberto; Cortés-Cortés, Liliana Jazmín; Guerra-Vega, Ángela Patricia; Nicholls-Orejuela, Rubén Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes. En Colombia existen pocos estudios que buscan encontrar diferencias clínicas y parasitológicas en la malaria causada por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax. Objetivo. Describir el perfil clínico y parasitológico de las malarias por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax no complicadas en Tierralta, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron pacientes con paludismo no complicado por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax según los protocolos estandarizados po...

  19. Plasmodium vivax Biology: Insights Provided by Genomics, Transcriptomics and Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourgard, Catarina; Albrecht, Letusa; Kayano, Ana C. A. V.; Sunnerhagen, Per; Costa, Fabio T. M.

    2018-01-01

    During the last decade, the vast omics field has revolutionized biological research, especially the genomics, transcriptomics and proteomics branches, as technological tools become available to the field researcher and allow difficult question-driven studies to be addressed. Parasitology has greatly benefited from next generation sequencing (NGS) projects, which have resulted in a broadened comprehension of basic parasite molecular biology, ecology and epidemiology. Malariology is one example where application of this technology has greatly contributed to a better understanding of Plasmodium spp. biology and host-parasite interactions. Among the several parasite species that cause human malaria, the neglected Plasmodium vivax presents great research challenges, as in vitro culturing is not yet feasible and functional assays are heavily limited. Therefore, there are gaps in our P. vivax biology knowledge that affect decisions for control policies aiming to eradicate vivax malaria in the near future. In this review, we provide a snapshot of key discoveries already achieved in P. vivax sequencing projects, focusing on developments, hurdles, and limitations currently faced by the research community, as well as perspectives on future vivax malaria research. PMID:29473024

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of Epidemic Severe Malaria Caused by Plasmodium vivax in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santos-Ciminera, Patricia D

    2005-01-01

    .... In Manaus, the capital of Amazonas, atypical cases of Plasmodium vivax infections, including patients presenting with severe thrombocytopenia and bleeding, led to the hypothesis that severe disease...

  1. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

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    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  2. [Therapeutic response of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Arletta; Navarro-Costa, Dennis; Yucra, Omar; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Moscoso, Manuel; Arteaga, Ricardo; Nakao, Gladys

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine for Plasmodium vivax infections improves the capacity for surveillance of anti-malarial drug resistance. The therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine as treatment was evaluated for uncomplicated Plasmodium vivax malaria in Bolivia. An in vivo efficacy study of chloroquine was undertaken in three regions of Bolivia--Riberalta, Guayaramerín and Yacuiba. Two hundred and twenty-three patients (84, 80, and 59 in the three regions, respectively) aged over 5 years old were administered with chloroquine (25 mg/kg/three days) and followed for 28 days. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine were measured on day 2 and on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. The cumulative incidence of treatment failure was calculated using the Kaplan and Meier survival analysis. The mean parasitemias (asexual) on day 0 were 6,147 parasites/μl of blood in the Riberalta population, 4,251 in Guayaramerín and 5,214 in Yacuiba. The average blood concentrations of chloroquine-desethylchloroquine during day 2 were 783, 817, and 815 ng/ml, respectively. No treatment failures were observed in Yacuiba, whereas in Riberalta and Guayaramerín, the frequencies of treatment failures were 6.2% and 10%. Blood levels of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine in patients with treatment failure showed values below 70 ng/ml on the day of reappearance of parasitemia. Resistance of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine was not demonstrated in three regions of Bolivia.

  3. Identification of Protein Markers in Patients Infected with Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

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    Alan Kang-Wai Mu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is caused by parasitic protozoans of the genus Plasmodium and is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases in tropical and subtropical regions. For this reason, effective and practical diagnostic methods are urgently needed to control the spread of malaria. The aim of the current study was to identify a panel of new malarial markers, which could be used to diagnose patients infected with various Plasmodium species, including P. knowlesi, P. vivax and P. falciparum. Sera from malaria-infected patients were pooled and compared to control sera obtained from healthy individuals using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ technique. Mass spectrometry was used to identify serum proteins and quantify their relative abundance. We found that the levels of several proteins were increased in pooled serum from infected patients, including cell adhesion molecule-4 and C-reactive protein. In contrast, the serum concentration of haptoglobin was reduced in malaria-infected individuals, which we verified by western blot assay. Therefore, these proteins might represent infectious markers of malaria, which could be used to develop novel diagnostic tools for detecting P. knowlesi, P. vivax and P. falciparum. However, these potential malarial markers will need to be validated in a larger population of infected individuals.

  4. Epidemiology and Control of Plasmodium vivax in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, Toby; Nahzat, Sami; Sediqi, Walid

    2016-01-01

    Around half of the population of Afghanistan resides in areas at risk of malaria transmission. Two species of malaria (Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum) account for a high burden of disease—in 2011, there were more than 300,000 confirmed cases. Around 80–95% of malaria is P. vivax. Transmission is seasonal and focal, below 2,000 m in altitude, and in irrigated areas which allow breeding of anopheline mosquito vectors. Malaria risk is stratified to improve targeting of interventions. Sixty-three of 400 districts account for ∼85% of cases, and are the target of more intense control efforts. Pressure on the disease is maintained through case management, surveillance, and use of long-lasting insecticide-treated nets. Plasmodium vivax treatment is hampered by the inability to safely treat latent hypnozoites with primaquine because G6PD deficiency affects up to 10% of males in some ethnic groups. The risk of vivax malaria recurrence (which may be as a result of reinfection or relapse) is around 30–45% in groups not treated with primaquine but 3–20% in those given 14-day or 8-week courses of primaquine. Greater access to G6PD testing and radical treatment would reduce the number of incident cases, reduce the infectious reservoir in the population, and has the potential to reduce transmission as a result. Alongside the lack of G6PD testing, under-resourcing and poor security hamper the control of malaria. Recent gains in reducing the burden of disease are fragile and at risk of reversal if pressure on the disease is not maintained. PMID:27708189

  5. Implications of Plasmodium vivax Biology for Control, Elimination, and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliaro, Piero L.; Barnwell, John W.; Barry, Alyssa; Mendis, Kamini; Mueller, Ivo; Reeder, John C.; Shanks, G. Dennis; Snounou, Georges; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2016-01-01

    This paper summarizes our current understanding of the biology of Plasmodium vivax, how it differs from Plasmodium falciparum, and how these differences explain the need for P. vivax-tailored interventions. The article further pinpoints knowledge gaps where investments in research are needed to help identify and develop such specific interventions. The principal obstacles to reduce and eventually eliminate P. vivax reside in 1) its higher vectorial capacity compared with P. falciparum due to its ability to develop at lower temperature and over a shorter sporogonic cycle in the vector, allowing transmission in temperate zones and making it less sensitive to vector control measures that are otherwise effective on P. falciparum; 2) the presence of dormant liver forms (hypnozoites), sustaining multiple relapsing episodes from a single infectious bite that cannot be diagnosed and are not susceptible to any available antimalarial except primaquine, with routine deployment restricted by toxicity; 3) low parasite densities, which are difficult to detect with current diagnostics leading to missed diagnoses and delayed treatments (and protracted transmission), coupled with 4) transmission stages (gametocytes) occurring early in acute infections, before infection is diagnosed. PMID:27799636

  6. Oligohydramnios in a pregnant Pakistani woman with Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binello, Nicolò; Brunetti, Enrico; Cattaneo, Federico; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Malfitano, Antonello

    2014-04-23

    In the Western world, the diagnosis and management of Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnant women can be challenging, and the pathogenesis of adverse outcomes for both the mother and the foetus is still poorly known. The authors describe the case of a 29-year-old Pakistani woman at the 29th week of her second pregnancy, who was admitted to the Hospital following the abrupt onset of fever. At the time of admission, she had been living in Italy without travelling to any malaria-endemic areas for eight months. She was diagnosed with vivax malaria after a thin blood smear revealed the presence of plasmodial trophozoites and gametocytes and treated accordingly. Due to the onset of oligohydramnios, she underwent caesarian section at the 31st week of pregnancy with no further complications. Histological examination of the placenta showed no evidence of plasmodial infection, but was inconclusive. It is unclear whether oligohydramnios is a complication of pregnancy-related Plasmodium vivax malaria. Given the long latency of hypnozoites, every febrile pregnant patient with a previous stay in an endemic area should be screened for malaria with a thick and a thin blood smear.

  7. Implications of Plasmodium vivax Biology for Control, Elimination, and Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olliaro, Piero L; Barnwell, John W; Barry, Alyssa; Mendis, Kamini; Mueller, Ivo; Reeder, John C; Shanks, G Dennis; Snounou, Georges; Wongsrichanalai, Chansuda

    2016-12-28

    This paper summarizes our current understanding of the biology of Plasmodium vivax, how it differs from Plasmodium falciparum, and how these differences explain the need for P. vivax-tailored interventions. The article further pinpoints knowledge gaps where investments in research are needed to help identify and develop such specific interventions. The principal obstacles to reduce and eventually eliminate P. vivax reside in 1) its higher vectorial capacity compared with P. falciparum due to its ability to develop at lower temperature and over a shorter sporogonic cycle in the vector, allowing transmission in temperate zones and making it less sensitive to vector control measures that are otherwise effective on P. falciparum; 2) the presence of dormant liver forms (hypnozoites), sustaining multiple relapsing episodes from a single infectious bite that cannot be diagnosed and are not susceptible to any available antimalarial except primaquine, with routine deployment restricted by toxicity; 3) low parasite densities, which are difficult to detect with current diagnostics leading to missed diagnoses and delayed treatments (and protracted transmission), coupled with 4) transmission stages (gametocytes) occurring early in acute infections, before infection is diagnosed. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. High prevalence of drug-resistance mutations in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in southern Ethiopia

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    Löscher Thomas

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Ethiopia, malaria is caused by both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Drug resistance of P. falciparum to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP and chloroquine (CQ is frequent and intense in some areas. Methods In 100 patients with uncomplicated malaria from Dilla, southern Ethiopia, P. falciparum dhfr and dhps mutations as well as P. vivax dhfr polymorphisms associated with resistance to SP and P. falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr1 mutations conferring CQ resistance were assessed. Results P. falciparum and P. vivax were observed in 69% and 31% of the patients, respectively. Pfdhfr triple mutations and pfdhfr/pfdhps quintuple mutations occurred in 87% and 86% of P. falciparum isolates, respectively. Pfcrt T76 was seen in all and pfmdr1 Y86 in 81% of P. falciparum. The P. vivax dhfr core mutations N117 and R58 were present in 94% and 74%, respectively. Conclusion These data point to an extraordinarily high frequency of drug-resistance mutations in both P. falciparum and P. vivax in southern Ethiopia, and strongly support that both SP and CQ are inadequate drugs for this region.

  9. Cytokine balance in human malaria: does Plasmodium vivax elicit more inflammatory responses than Plasmodium falciparum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel M Gonçalves

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which humans regulate pro- and anti-inflammatory responses on exposure to different malaria parasites remains unclear. Although Plasmodium vivax usually causes a relatively benign disease, this parasite has been suggested to elicit more host inflammation per parasitized red blood cell than P. falciparum. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured plasma concentrations of seven cytokines and two soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α receptors, and evaluated clinical and laboratory outcomes, in Brazilians with acute uncomplicated infections with P. vivax (n = 85, P. falciparum (n = 30, or both species (n = 12, and in 45 asymptomatic carriers of low-density P. vivax infection. Symptomatic vivax malaria patients, compared to those infected with P. falciparum or both species, had more intense paroxysms, but they had no clear association with a pro-inflammatory imbalance. To the contrary, these patients had higher levels of the regulatory cytokine interleukin (IL-10, which correlated positively with parasite density, and elevated IL-10/TNF-α, IL-10/interferon (IFN-γ, IL-10/IL-6 and sTNFRII/TNF-α ratios, compared to falciparum or mixed-species malaria patient groups. Vivax malaria patients had the highest levels of circulating soluble TNF-α receptor sTNFRII. Levels of regulatory cytokines returned to normal values 28 days after P. vivax clearance following chemotherapy. Finally, asymptomatic carriers of low P. vivax parasitemias had substantially lower levels of both inflammatory and regulatory cytokines than did patients with clinical malaria due to either species. CONCLUSIONS: Controlling fast-multiplying P. falciparum blood stages requires a strong inflammatory response to prevent fulminant infections, while reducing inflammation-related tissue damage with early regulatory cytokine responses may be a more cost-effective strategy in infections with the less virulent P. vivax parasite. The early induction

  10. Oligohydramnios in a pregnant Pakistani woman with Plasmodium vivax malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Binello, Nicolò; Brunetti, Enrico; Cattaneo, Federico; Lissandrin, Raffaella; Malfitano, Antonello

    2014-01-01

    In the Western world, the diagnosis and management of Plasmodium vivax malaria in pregnant women can be challenging, and the pathogenesis of adverse outcomes for both the mother and the foetus is still poorly known. The authors describe the case of a 29-year-old Pakistani woman at the 29th week of her second pregnancy, who was admitted to the Hospital following the abrupt onset of fever. At the time of admission, she had been living in Italy without travelling to any malaria-endemic areas for...

  11. Absence of Plasmodium inui and Plasmodium cynomolgi, but detection of Plasmodium knowlesi and Plasmodium vivax infections in asymptomatic humans in the Betong division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siner, Angela; Liew, Sze-Tze; Kadir, Khamisah Abdul; Mohamad, Dayang Shuaisah Awang; Thomas, Felicia Kavita; Zulkarnaen, Mohammad; Singh, Balbir

    2017-10-17

    Plasmodium knowlesi, a simian malaria parasite, has become the main cause of malaria in Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Epidemiological data on malaria for Sarawak has been derived solely from hospitalized patients, and more accurate epidemiological data on malaria is necessary. Therefore, a longitudinal study of communities affected by knowlesi malaria was undertaken. A total of 3002 blood samples on filter paper were collected from 555 inhabitants of 8 longhouses with recently reported knowlesi malaria cases in the Betong Division of Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo. Each longhouse was visited bimonthly for a total of 10 times during a 21-month study period (Jan 2014-Oct 2015). DNA extracted from blood spots were examined by a nested PCR assay for Plasmodium and positive samples were then examined by nested PCR assays for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium inui. Blood films of samples positive by PCR were also examined by microscopy. Genus-specific PCR assay detected Plasmodium DNA in 9 out of 3002 samples. Species-specific PCR identified 7 P. knowlesi and one P. vivax. Malaria parasites were observed in 5 thick blood films of the PCR positive samples. No parasites were observed in blood films from one knowlesi-, one vivax- and the genus-positive samples. Only one of 7 P. knowlesi-infected individual was febrile and had sought medical treatment at Betong Hospital the day after sampling. The 6 knowlesi-, one vivax- and one Plasmodium-infected individuals were afebrile and did not seek any medical treatment. Asymptomatic human P. knowlesi and P. vivax malaria infections, but not P. cynomolgi and P. inui infections, are occurring within communities affected with malaria.

  12. Traffic pathways of Plasmodium vivax antigens during intraerythrocytic parasite development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracho, Carmen; Dunia, Irene; De, La Rosa Mercedes; Benedetti, Ennio-Lucio; Perez, Hilda A

    2002-03-01

    We investigated the secretory traffic of a Plasmodium vivax antigen (Pv-148) synthesised by the parasite during the blood cycle, exported into the host cell cytosol and then transported to the surface membrane of the infected erythrocyte. Studies of the ultrastructure of erythrocytes infected with P. vivax showed that intracellular schizogony is accompanied by the generation of parasite-induced membrane profiles in the erythrocyte cytoplasm. These structures are detectable soon after the parasite invades the erythrocyte and develop an elaborate organisation, leading to a tubovesicular membrane (TVM) network, in erythrocytes infected with mature trophozoites. Interestingly, the clefts formed stacked, flattened cisternae resembling a classical Golgi apparatus. The TVM network stained with the fluorescent Golgi marker Bodipy-ceramide. Specific immunolabelling showed that Pv-148 was transferred from the parasite to the erythrocyte surface membrane via the clefts and the TVM network. These findings suggest that the TVM network is part of the secretory pathways involved in parasite protein transport across the Plasmodium-infected erythrocyte and that Pv- 148 may represent a marker that links the parasite with the host cell cytoplasm and, in turn, with the extracellular milieu.

  13. Drug resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax collected in Honduras, Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovel, Irina T; Mejía, Rosa E; Banegas, Engels; Piedade, Rita; Alger, Jackeline; Fontecha, Gustavo; Ferreira, Pedro E; Veiga, Maria I; Enamorado, Irma G; Bjorkman, Anders; Ursing, Johan

    2011-12-19

    In Honduras, chloroquine and primaquine are recommended and still appear to be effective for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of resistance associated genetic polymorphisms in P. falciparum and P. vivax collected in Honduras. Blood samples were collected from patients seeking medical attention at the Hospital Escuela in Tegucigalpa from 2004 to 2006 as well as three regional hospitals, two health centres and one regional laboratory during 2009. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt), multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1), dihydrofolate reductase (pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (pfdhps) genes and in P. vivax multidrug resistance 1 (pvmdr1) and dihydrofolate reductase (pvdhfr) genes were detected using PCR based methods. Thirty seven P. falciparum and 64 P. vivax samples were collected. All P. falciparum infections acquired in Honduras carried pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhps and pfdhfr alleles associated with chloroquine, amodiaquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine sensitivity only. One patient with parasites acquired on a Pacific Island had pfcrt 76 T and pfmdr1 86Y alleles. That patient and a patient infected in West Africa had pfdhfr 51I, 59 R and 108 N alleles. Pvmdr1 976 F was found in 7/37 and two copies of pvmdr1 were found in 1/37 samples. Pvdhfr 57 L + 58 R was observed in 2/57 samples. The results indicate that P. falciparum from Honduras remain sensitive to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. This suggests that chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine should be efficacious for treatment of uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria, supporting current national treatment guidelines. However, genetic polymorphisms associated with chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine tolerance were detected in local P. vivax and imported P. falciparum infections. Continuous monitoring of the prevalence of drug resistant/tolerant P

  14. Plasmodium vivax hospitalizations in a monoendemic malaria region: severe vivax malaria?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quispe, Antonio M; Pozo, Edwar; Guerrero, Edith; Durand, Salomón; Baldeviano, G Christian; Edgel, Kimberly A; Graf, Paul C F; Lescano, Andres G

    2014-07-01

    Severe malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax is no longer considered rare. To describe its clinical features, we performed a retrospective case control study in the subregion of Luciano Castillo Colonna, Piura, Peru, an area with nearly exclusive vivax malaria transmission. Severe cases and the subset of critically ill cases were compared with a random set of uncomplicated malaria cases (1:4). Between 2008 and 2009, 6,502 malaria cases were reported, including 106 hospitalized cases, 81 of which fit the World Health Organization definition for severe malaria. Of these 81 individuals, 28 individuals were critically ill (0.4%, 95% confidence interval = 0.2-0.6%) with severe anemia (57%), shock (25%), lung injury (21%), acute renal failure (14%), or cerebral malaria (11%). Two potentially malaria-related deaths occurred. Compared with uncomplicated cases, individuals critically ill were older (38 versus 26 years old, P < 0.001), but similar in other regards. Severe vivax malaria monoinfection with critical illness is more common than previously thought. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  15. N-Terminal Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-1, a Potential Subunit for Malaria Vivax Vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda G. Versiani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The human malaria is widely distributed in the Middle East, Asia, the western Pacific, and Central and South America. Plasmodium vivax started to have the attention of many researchers since it is causing diseases to millions of people and several reports of severe malaria cases have been noticed in the last few years. The lack of in vitro cultures for P. vivax represents a major delay in developing a functional malaria vaccine. One of the major candidates to antimalarial vaccine is the merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP1, which is expressed abundantly on the merozoite surface and capable of activating the host protective immunity. Studies have shown that MSP-1 possesses highly immunogenic fragments, capable of generating immune response and protection in natural infection in endemic regions. This paper shows humoral immune response to different proteins of PvMSP1 and the statement of N-terminal to be added to the list of potential candidates for malaria vivax vaccine.

  16. Plasmodium cynomolgi genome sequences provide insight into Plasmodium vivax and the monkey malaria clade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachibana, Shin-Ichiro; Sullivan, Steven A; Kawai, Satoru; Nakamura, Shota; Kim, Hyunjae R; Goto, Naohisa; Arisue, Nobuko; Palacpac, Nirianne M Q; Honma, Hajime; Yagi, Masanori; Tougan, Takahiro; Katakai, Yuko; Kaneko, Osamu; Mita, Toshihiro; Kita, Kiyoshi; Yasutomi, Yasuhiro; Sutton, Patrick L; Shakhbatyan, Rimma; Horii, Toshihiro; Yasunaga, Teruo; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A; Carlton, Jane M; Tanabe, Kazuyuki

    2012-09-01

    P. cynomolgi, a malaria-causing parasite of Asian Old World monkeys, is the sister taxon of P. vivax, the most prevalent malaria-causing species in humans outside of Africa. Because P. cynomolgi shares many phenotypic, biological and genetic characteristics with P. vivax, we generated draft genome sequences for three P. cynomolgi strains and performed genomic analysis comparing them with the P. vivax genome, as well as with the genome of a third previously sequenced simian parasite, Plasmodium knowlesi. Here, we show that genomes of the monkey malaria clade can be characterized by copy-number variants (CNVs) in multigene families involved in evasion of the human immune system and invasion of host erythrocytes. We identify genome-wide SNPs, microsatellites and CNVs in the P. cynomolgi genome, providing a map of genetic variation that can be used to map parasite traits and study parasite populations. The sequencing of the P. cynomolgi genome is a critical step in developing a model system for P. vivax research and in counteracting the neglect of P. vivax.

  17. High incidence of Plasmodium vivax malaria in newly arrived Eritrean refugees in Sweden since May 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonden, K; Castro, E; Törnnberg, L; Stenstrom, C; Tegnell, A; Farnert, A

    2014-09-04

    Since May 2014, an increase in Plasmodium vivax malaria has been observed in Sweden. As of 31 August 2014, 105 malaria cases have been reported in newly arrived Eritrean refugees, 84 of them P. vivax. The patients were mainly young men and reported migration through Ethiopia and/or Sudan. Severe anaemia and long symptom duration reflect inadequate healthcare during migration. Countries currently hosting Eritrean refugees need to consider P. vivax malaria in this group of migrants.

  18. Modelling the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Afghanistan 2006-2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegana, Victor A; Wright, Jim A; Nahzat, Sami M; Butt, Waqar; Sediqi, Amad W; Habib, Naeem; Snow, Robert W; Atkinson, Peter M; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2014-01-01

    Identifying areas that support high malaria risks and where populations lack access to health care is central to reducing the burden in Afghanistan. This study investigated the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum using routine data to help focus malaria interventions. To estimate incidence, the study modelled utilisation of the public health sector using fever treatment data from the 2012 national Malaria Indicator Survey. A probabilistic measure of attendance was applied to population density metrics to define the proportion of the population within catchment of a public health facility. Malaria data were used in a Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional-autoregressive model with ecological or environmental covariates, to examine the spatial and temporal variation of incidence. From the analysis of healthcare utilisation, over 80% of the population was within 2 hours' travel of the nearest public health facility, while 64.4% were within 30 minutes' travel. The mean incidence of P. vivax in 2009 was 5.4 (95% Crl 3.2-9.2) cases per 1000 population compared to 1.2 (95% Crl 0.4-2.9) cases per 1000 population for P. falciparum. P. vivax peaked in August while P. falciparum peaked in November. 32% of the estimated 30.5 million people lived in regions where annual incidence was at least 1 case per 1,000 population of P. vivax; 23.7% of the population lived in areas where annual P. falciparum case incidence was at least 1 per 1000. This study showed how routine data can be combined with household survey data to model malaria incidence. The incidence of both P. vivax and P. falciparum in Afghanistan remain low but the co-distribution of both parasites and the lag in their peak season provides challenges to malaria control in Afghanistan. Future improved case definition to determine levels of imported risks may be useful for the elimination ambitions in Afghanistan.

  19. Modelling the Incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Afghanistan 2006–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegana, Victor A.; Wright, Jim A.; Nahzat, Sami M.; Butt, Waqar; Sediqi, Amad W.; Habib, Naeem; Snow, Robert W.; Atkinson, Peter M.; Noor, Abdisalan M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying areas that support high malaria risks and where populations lack access to health care is central to reducing the burden in Afghanistan. This study investigated the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum using routine data to help focus malaria interventions. Methods To estimate incidence, the study modelled utilisation of the public health sector using fever treatment data from the 2012 national Malaria Indicator Survey. A probabilistic measure of attendance was applied to population density metrics to define the proportion of the population within catchment of a public health facility. Malaria data were used in a Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional-autoregressive model with ecological or environmental covariates, to examine the spatial and temporal variation of incidence. Findings From the analysis of healthcare utilisation, over 80% of the population was within 2 hours’ travel of the nearest public health facility, while 64.4% were within 30 minutes’ travel. The mean incidence of P. vivax in 2009 was 5.4 (95% Crl 3.2–9.2) cases per 1000 population compared to 1.2 (95% Crl 0.4–2.9) cases per 1000 population for P. falciparum. P. vivax peaked in August while P. falciparum peaked in November. 32% of the estimated 30.5 million people lived in regions where annual incidence was at least 1 case per 1,000 population of P. vivax; 23.7% of the population lived in areas where annual P. falciparum case incidence was at least 1 per 1000. Conclusion This study showed how routine data can be combined with household survey data to model malaria incidence. The incidence of both P. vivax and P. falciparum in Afghanistan remain low but the co-distribution of both parasites and the lag in their peak season provides challenges to malaria control in Afghanistan. Future improved case definition to determine levels of imported risks may be useful for the elimination ambitions in Afghanistan. PMID:25033452

  20. Perfil clínico y parasitológico de la malaria por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax no complicada en Córdoba, Colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    Angélica Knudson Ospina; Ricardo Sánchez Pedraza; Manuel Alberto Pérez Mazorra; Liliana Jazmín Cortés Cortés; Ángela Patricia Guerra Vega; Rubén Santiago Nicholls Orejuela

    2015-01-01

    Antecedentes. En Colombia existen pocos estudios que buscan encontrar diferencias clínicas y parasitológicas en la malaria causada por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax.  Objetivo. Describir el perfil clínico y parasitológico de las malarias por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax no complicadas en Tierralta, Córdoba, Colombia. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron pacientes con paludismo no complicado por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax según los protocolos estandariz...

  1. Resistance of infection by Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Añez, Arletta; Moscoso, Manuel; Laguna, Ángel; Garnica, Cecilia; Melgar, Viviana; Cuba, Mauren; Gutierrez, Sonia; Ascaso, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Chloroquine (CQ) over three days plus primaquine (PQ) for seven days is the treatment of choice of infections by Plasmodium vivax in Bolivia, where 95% of the cases of malaria are attributed to this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of CQ in this setting. Patients in the Amazon region of northern Bolivia, were included in the study from May to November 2011 and the therapeutic efficacy of CQ was evaluated over a 28-day follow-up period. Patients with P. vivax mono-infection received 25 mg/Kg body weight of CQ over three days. The concentrations of CQ + desethylchloroquine (DCQ) in blood were determined at days 7 and 28 of follow up; at follow-up and on the day of treatment failure was administered PQ. One hundred patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria, two were lost to follow up and another two were later excluded for protocol violation. Of the 96 patients who completed the follow up 10 showed TF; one presented continued parasitaemia until day 7 of follow up, three on day 21 and six on day 28 of follow up. The geometric mean of CQ + DCQ on day 7 was 321.7 ng/ml (range 197-535 ng/ml). In six patients with TF the CQ + DCQ concentrations in blood on the day of TF were >100 ng/ml. The rate of resistance was 6.5%. The present study demonstrates the presence of resistance to CQ in the treatment of malaria by P. vivax in the Amazon region of Bolivia. New clinical trials are needed to establish alternative treatments against these parasites in this region of South America.

  2. A clinical tool to predict Plasmodium vivax recurrence in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mat Ariffin, Norliza; Islahudin, Farida; Kumolosasi, Endang; Makmor-Bakry, Mohd

    2017-12-08

    Recurrence rates of Plasmodium vivax infections differ across various geographic regions. Interestingly, South-East Asia and the Asia-Pacific region are documented to exhibit the most frequent recurrence incidences. Identifying patients at a higher risk for recurrences gives valuable information in strengthening the efforts to control P. vivax infections. The aim of the study was to develop a tool to identify P. vivax- infected patients that are at a higher risk of recurrence in Malaysia. Patient data was obtained retrospectively through the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, from 2011 to 2016. Patients with incomplete data were excluded. A total of 2044 clinical P. vivax malaria cases treated with primaquine were included. Data collected were patient, disease, and treatment characteristics. Two-thirds of the cases (n = 1362) were used to develop a clinical risk score, while the remaining third (n = 682) was used for validation. Using multivariate analysis, age (p = 0.03), gametocyte sexual count (p = 0.04), indigenous transmission (p = 0.04), type of treatment (p = 0.12), and incomplete primaquine treatment (p = 0.14) were found to be predictors of recurrence after controlling for other confounding factors; these predictors were then used in developing the final model. The beta-coefficient values were used to develop a clinical scoring tool to predict possible recurrence. The total scores ranged between 0 and 8. A higher score indicated a higher risk for recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.971; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.562-2.487; p ≤ 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the developed (n = 1362) and validated model (n = 682) was of good accuracy (ROC: 0.728, 95% CI: 0.670-0.785, p value useful tool in targeting patients at a higher risk for recurrence for closer monitoring during follow-up, after treatment with primaquine.

  3. Muerte materna por malaria grave por Plasmodium vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nancy Arróspide

    Full Text Available Se presenta el caso de una mujer de 19 años con 29 semanas de gestación, procedente de Llumpe (Ancash con antecedentes de viajes a las localidades de Chanchamayo (Junín y Rinconada (Ancash. Ingresó al Hospital de Chacas (Ancash por presentar mal estado general, deshidratación, dificultad respiratoria, ictericia, sensación de alza térmica y dolor abdominal, tuvo reporte de: hemoparásitos 60% en frotis sanguíneo. Fue transferida al Hospital Ramos Guardia (Huaraz donde presentó mayor dificultad respiratoria, coluria, hematuria, disminución del débito urinario y reporte de Plasmodium (+, luego fue transferida al Hospital Cayetano Heredia (Lima donde ingresó a la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos (UCI, con evolución a falla multiorgánica, óbito fetal y muerte materna. Se confirmó infección por Plasmodium vivax. Destacamos la importancia de mejorar nuestras capacidades de diagnóstico y manejo para brindar un tratamiento adecuado y oportuno.

  4. [Maternal death from severe malaria due to Plasmodium vivax].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arróspide, Nancy; Espinoza, Máximo Manuel; Miranda-Choque, Edwin; Mayta-Tristán, Percy; Legua, Pedro; Cabezas, César

    2016-06-01

    Here we describe the case of a 19-year-old woman, in her 29th week of gestation, who was from Llumpe (Ancash, Peru) and had a history of traveling to Chanchamayo (Junín, Peru) and Rinconada (Ancash, Peru). The patient presented at Chacas Hospital (Chacas, Ancash, Peru) with general malaise, dehydration, respiratory distress, jaundice, the sensation of thermal rise, and abdominal pain. Analysis of blood smears revealed 60% hemoparasites. She was transferred to Ramos Guardia Hospital (Huaraz, Peru) where she presented increasing respiratory distress, choluria, hematuria, and decreased urine output, moreover she was positive for Plasmodium. From there she was transferred to Cayetano Heredia Hospital (Lima, Peru), where she was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) with multiple organ failure, stillbirth, and leading to death. She underwent mechanical ventilation, was administered clindamycin, and was prescribed quinine, which she did not received due a lack by availability. The evolution of the illness was torpid, and she ultimately developed multiple organ failure and died. Plasmodium vivax infection was confirmed. Accordingly, we emphasize the importance of improving our diagnostic capabilities and management techniques to enable clinicians to provide adequate and timely treatment.

  5. Limitations of microscopy to differentiate Plasmodium species in a region co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi

    OpenAIRE

    Barber, Bridget E; William, Timothy; Grigg, Matthew J; Yeo, Tsin W; Anstey, Nicholas M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background In areas co-endemic for multiple Plasmodium species, correct diagnosis is crucial for appropriate treatment and surveillance. Species misidentification by microscopy has been reported in areas co-endemic for vivax and falciparum malaria, and may be more frequent in regions where Plasmodium knowlesi also commonly occurs. Methods This prospective study in Sabah, Malaysia, evaluated the accuracy of routine district and referral hospital-based microscopy, and microscopy perfor...

  6. Perfil clínico y parasitológico de la malaria por Plasmodium falciparum y Plasmodium vivax no complicada en Córdoba, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angélica Knudson Ospina

    2015-10-01

    Conclusión. Se identificaron algunas diferencias clínicas entre los enfermos con Plasmodium vivax y los enfermos con Plasmodium falciparum, y las variables estudiadas se agruparon en cuatro perfiles que permiten una variedad de interpretaciones.

  7. The shape of the iceberg: quantification of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia and gametocytaemia in five low endemic settings in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tadesse, F.G.; Hoogen, L. van den; Lanke, K.H.; Schildkraut, J.; Tetteh, K.; Aseffa, A.; Mamo, H.; Sauerwein, R.; Felger, I.; Drakeley, C.; Gadissa, E.; Bousema, T.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The widespread presence of low-density asymptomatic infections with concurrent gametocytes may be a stumbling block for malaria elimination. This study investigated the asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in schoolchildren from five settings in

  8. Plasmodium vivax Diversity and Population Structure across Four Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfli, Cristian; Rodrigues, Priscila T; Antao, Tiago; Orjuela-Sánchez, Pamela; Van den Eede, Peter; Gamboa, Dionicia; van Hong, Nguyen; Bendezu, Jorge; Erhart, Annette; Barnadas, Céline; Ratsimbasoa, Arsène; Menard, Didier; Severini, Carlo; Menegon, Michela; Nour, Bakri Y M; Karunaweera, Nadira; Mueller, Ivo; Ferreira, Marcelo U; Felger, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the geographically most widespread human malaria parasite. To analyze patterns of microsatellite diversity and population structure across countries of different transmission intensity, genotyping data from 11 microsatellite markers was either generated or compiled from 841 isolates from four continents collected in 1999-2008. Diversity was highest in South-East Asia (mean allelic richness 10.0-12.8), intermediate in the South Pacific (8.1-9.9) Madagascar and Sudan (7.9-8.4), and lowest in South America and Central Asia (5.5-7.2). A reduced panel of only 3 markers was sufficient to identify approx. 90% of all haplotypes in South Pacific, African and SE-Asian populations, but only 60-80% in Latin American populations, suggesting that typing of 2-6 markers, depending on the level of endemicity, is sufficient for epidemiological studies. Clustering analysis showed distinct clusters in Peru and Brazil, but little sub-structuring was observed within Africa, SE-Asia or the South Pacific. Isolates from Uzbekistan were exceptional, as a near-clonal parasite population was observed that was clearly separated from all other populations (FST>0.2). Outside Central Asia FST values were highest (0.11-0.16) between South American and all other populations, and lowest (0.04-0.07) between populations from South-East Asia and the South Pacific. These comparisons between P. vivax populations from four continents indicated that not only transmission intensity, but also geographical isolation affect diversity and population structure. However, the high effective population size results in slow changes of these parameters. This persistency must be taken into account when assessing the impact of control programs on the genetic structure of parasite populations.

  9. Efficacy of chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax in the Saharan zone in Mauritania

    OpenAIRE

    Ould Ahmedou Salem, Mohamed Salem; Mohamed Lemine, Yeslim Ould; Deida, Jemila Mint; Lemrabott, Mohamed Aly Ould; Ouldabdallahi, Mohamed; Ba, Mamadou dit Dialaw; Boukhary, Ali Ould Mohamed Salem; Khairy, Mohamed Lemine Ould; Abdel Aziz, Mohamed Boubacar; Ringwald, Pascal; Basco, Leonardo K; Niang, Saidou Doro; Lebatt, Sidi Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Background: In 2006, the Mauritanian Ministry of Health adopted a new therapeutic strategy based on the systematic use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT), artesunate-amodiaquine and artemether-lumefantrine, for the first-and second-line treatment of uncomplicated malaria, respectively, regardless of Plasmodium spp. In the Saharan zone of the country, recent studies have shown that Plasmodium vivax largely predominates over Plasmodium falciparum. Anti-malarial drug response of P. v...

  10. Patterns of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria underscore importance of data collection from private health care facilities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sangeeta; Gunter, James T; Novak, Robert J; Regens, James L

    2009-10-12

    This study describes patterns of falciparum and vivax malaria in a private comprehensive-care, multi-specialty hospital in New Delhi from July 2006 to July 2008. Malarial morbidity by Plasmodium species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, or Plasmodium sp.) was confirmed using microscopy and antigen tests. The influence of seasonal factors and selected patient demographics on morbidity was evaluated. The proportions of malaria cases caused by P. falciparum at the private facility were compared to data from India's National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme (NVBDCP) during the same period for the Delhi region. In New Delhi, P. faciparum was the dominant cause of cases requiring treatment in the private hospital during the period examined. The national data reported a smaller proportion of malaria cases caused by P. falciparum in the national capital region than was observed in a private facility within the region. Plasmodium vivax also caused a large proportion of the cases presenting clinically at the private hospital during the summer and monsoon seasons. The proportion of P. falciparum malaria cases tends to be greatest during the post-monsoon season while the proportion of P. vivax malaria cases tends to be greatest in the monsoon season. Private hospital data demonstrate an under-reporting of malaria case incidences in the data from India's national surveillance programme during the same period for the national capital region.

  11. Plasmodium vivax molecular diagnostics in community surveys: pitfalls and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruenberg, Maria; Moniz, Clara Antunes; Hofmann, Natalie Ellen; Wampfler, Rahel; Koepfli, Cristian; Mueller, Ivo; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus; de Melo, Gisely Cardoso; Kuehn, Andrea; Siqueira, Andre M; Felger, Ingrid

    2018-01-30

    A distinctive feature of Plasmodium vivax infections is the overall low parasite density in peripheral blood. Thus, identifying asymptomatic infected individuals in endemic communities requires diagnostic tests with high sensitivity. The detection limits of molecular diagnostic tests are primarily defined by the volume of blood analysed and by the copy number of the amplified molecular marker serving as the template for amplification. By using mitochondrial DNA as the multi-copy template, the detection limit can be improved more than tenfold, compared to standard 18S rRNA targets, thereby allowing detection of lower parasite densities. In a very low transmission area in Brazil, application of a mitochondrial DNA-based assay increased prevalence from 4.9 to 6.5%. The usefulness of molecular tests in malaria epidemiological studies is widely recognized, especially when precise prevalence rates are desired. Of concern, however, is the challenge of demonstrating test accuracy and quality control for samples with very low parasite densities. In this case, chance effects in template distribution around the detection limit constrain reproducibility. Rigorous assessment of false positive and false negative test results is, therefore, required to prevent over- or under-estimation of parasite prevalence in epidemiological studies or when monitoring interventions.

  12. Comparison of three molecular methods for the detection and speciation of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum

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    Price Ric N

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate diagnosis of Plasmodium spp. is essential for the rational treatment of malaria. Despite its many disadvantages, microscopic examination of blood smears remains the current "gold standard" for malaria detection and speciation. PCR assays offer an alternative to microscopy which has been shown to have superior sensitivity and specificity. Unfortunately few comparative studies have been done on the various molecular based speciation methods. Methods The sensitivity, specificity and cost effectiveness of three molecular techniques were compared for the detection and speciation of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax from dried blood spots collected from 136 patients in western Thailand. The results from the three molecular speciation techniques (nested PCR, multiplex PCR, and real-time PCR were used to develop a molecular consensus (two or more identical PCR results as an alternative gold standard. Results According to the molecular consensus, 9.6% (13/136 of microscopic diagnoses yielded false negative results. Multiplex PCR failed to detect P. vivax in three mixed isolates, and the nested PCR gave a false positive P. falciparum result in one case. Although the real-time PCR melting curve analysis was the most expensive method, it was 100% sensitive and specific and least time consuming of the three molecular techniques investigated. Conclusion Although microscopy remains the most appropriate method for clinical diagnosis in a field setting, its use as a gold standard may result in apparent false positive results by superior techniques. Future studies should consider using more than one established molecular methods as a new gold standard to assess novel malaria diagnostic kits and PCR assays.

  13. Human vaccination against Plasmodium vivax Duffy-binding protein induces strain-transcending antibodies

    OpenAIRE

    Payne, Ruth O.; Silk, Sarah E.; Elias, Sean C.; Milne, Kathryn H.; Rawlinson, Thomas A.; Llewellyn, David; Shakri, A. Rushdi; Jin, Jing; Labb?, Genevi?ve M.; Edwards, Nick J.; Poulton, Ian D.; Roberts, Rachel; Farid, Ryan; J?rgensen, Thomas; Alanine, Daniel G.W.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria geographically; however, no effective vaccine exists. Red blood cell invasion by the P. vivax merozoite depends on an interaction between the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) and region II of the parasite's Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP_RII). Naturally acquired binding-inhibitory antibodies against this interaction associate with clinical immunity, but it is unknown whether these responses can be induced by human vac...

  14. Plasmodium vivax: modern strategies to study a persistent parasite's life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galinski, Mary R; Meyer, Esmeralda V S; Barnwell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax has unique attributes to support its survival in varying ecologies and climates. These include hypnozoite forms in the liver, an invasion preference for reticulocytes, caveola-vesicle complex structures in the infected erythrocyte membrane and rapidly forming and circulating gametocytes. These characteristics make this species very different from P. falciparum. Plasmodium cynomolgi and other related simian species have identical biology and can serve as informative models of P. vivax infections. Plasmodium vivax and its model parasites can be grown in non-human primates (NHP), and in short-term ex vivo cultures. For P. vivax, in the absence of in vitro culture systems, these models remain highly relevant side by side with human clinical studies. While post-genomic technologies allow for greater exploration of P. vivax-infected blood samples from humans, these come with restrictions. Two advantages of NHP models are that infections can be experimentally tailored to address hypotheses, including genetic manipulation. Also, systems biology approaches can capitalise on computational biology combined with set experimental infection periods and protocols, which may include multiple sampling times, different types of samples, and the broad use of "omics" technologies. Opportunities for research on vivax malaria are increasing with the use of existing and new methodological strategies in combination with modern technologies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. In Vivo Susceptibility of Plasmodium Vivax to Chloroquine in Southeastern Iran

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    S Dittrich

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plasmodium vivax is the predominant species causes of malaria with about 90% total annual reported malaria in Iran. This study conducted to determine the susceptibility of Plasmodium vivax isolates to chloroquine in Sistan and Balochistan Province, southeastern Iran.Methods: A total 270 subjects with symptomatic malaria and confirmed P. vivax infection completed the designed 28-day in vivo study. The thick and thin film blood smears were screened for malaria parasites by microscopy. The nested PCR was applied using the Plasmodium 18 subunit ribosomal ribonu­cleic (Ssr RNA genes for detecting mixed infections and diagnosis of parasites in the samples with low parasite on days 0, 5, 6, 7, and 28. Results: P. vivax was cleared in 15%, 50%, 95%, and 100% of patients on days 1, 2, 3, 4 respectively by microscopy assessment. Six patients were exhibited specific P. vivax band in nested PCR on day 5. No recurrence was observed on days 7, 14 and 28. Mean (±standard deviation parasite clearance time was 2.41 (±0.8 days. Conclusion: P. vivax is still susceptible to chloroquine in Southeatern Iran. This finding is compati­ble with results of neighboring countries Pakistan and Afghanistan.

  16. A molecular survey of acute febrile illnesses reveals Plasmodium vivax infections in Kedougou, southeastern Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niang, Makhtar; Thiam, Laty Gaye; Sow, Abdourahmane; Loucoubar, Cheikh; Bob, Ndeye Sakha; Diop, Fode; Diouf, Babacar; Niass, Oumy; Mansourou, Annick; Varela, Marie Louise; Perraut, Ronald; Sall, Amadou A; Toure-Balde, Aissatou

    2015-07-19

    Control efforts towards malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum significantly decreased the incidence of the disease in many endemic countries including Senegal. Surprisingly, in Kedougou (southeastern Senegal) P. falciparum malaria remains highly prevalent and the relative contribution of other Plasmodium species to the global malaria burden is very poorly documented, partly due to the low sensitivity of routine diagnostic tools. Molecular methods offer better estimate of circulating Plasmodium species in a given area. A molecular survey was carried out to document circulating malaria parasites in Kedougou region. A total of 263 long-term stored sera obtained from patients presenting with acute febrile illness in Kedougou between July 2009 and July 2013 were used for malaria parasite determination. Sera were withdrawn from a collection established as part of a surveillance programme of arboviruses infections in the region. Plasmodium species were characterized by a nested PCR-based approach targeting the 18S small sub-unit ribosomal RNA genes of Plasmodium spp. Of the 263 sera screened in this study, Plasmodium genomic DNA was amplifiable by nested PCR from 62.35% (164/263) of samples. P. falciparum accounted for the majority of infections either as single in 85.97% (141/164) of Plasmodium-positive samples or mixed with Plasmodium ovale (11.58%, 19/164) or Plasmodium vivax (1.21%, 2/164). All 19 (11.58%) P. ovale-infected patients were mixed with P. falciparum, while no Plasmodium malariae was detected in this survey. Four patients (2.43%) were found to be infected by P. vivax, two of whom were mixed with P. falciparum. P. vivax infections originated from Bandafassi and Ninefesha villages and concerned patients aged 4, 9, 10, and 15 years old, respectively. DNA sequences alignment and phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that sequences from Kedougou corresponded to P. vivax, therefore confirming the presence of P. vivax infections in Senegal. The results confirm the

  17. Understanding the population genetics of Plasmodium vivax is essential for malaria control and elimination

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    Arnott Alicia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditionally, infection with Plasmodium vivax was thought to be benign and self-limiting, however, recent evidence has demonstrated that infection with P. vivax can also result in severe illness and death. Research into P. vivax has been relatively neglected and much remains unknown regarding the biology, pathogenesis and epidemiology of this parasite. One of the fundamental factors governing transmission and immunity is parasite diversity. An understanding of parasite population genetic structure is necessary to understand the epidemiology, diversity, distribution and dynamics of natural P. vivax populations. In addition, studying the population structure of genes under immune selection also enables investigation of the dynamic interplay between transmission and immunity, which is crucial for vaccine development. A lack of knowledge regarding the transmission and spread of P. vivax has been particularly highlighted in areas where malaria control and elimination programmes have made progress in reducing the burden of Plasmodium falciparum, yet P. vivax remains as a substantial obstacle. With malaria elimination back on the global agenda, mapping of global and local P. vivax population structure is essential prior to establishing goals for elimination and the roll-out of interventions. A detailed knowledge of the spatial distribution, transmission and clinical burden of P. vivax is required to act as a benchmark against which control targets can be set and measured. This paper presents an overview of what is known and what is yet to be fully understood regarding P. vivax population genetics, as well as the importance and application of P. vivax population genetics studies.

  18. Insights into the Cytoadherence Phenomenon of Plasmodium vivax: The Putative Role of Phosphatidylserine

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    Paulo Renato Totino

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is the most geographically widespread and the dominant human malaria parasite in most countries outside of sub-Saharan Africa and, although it was classically recognized to cause benign infection, severe cases and deaths caused by P. vivax have remarkably been reported. In contrast to Plasmodium falciparum, which well-known ability to bind to endothelium and placental tissue and form rosettes is related to severity of the disease, it has been a dogma that P. vivax is unable to undergo cytoadherent phenomena. However, some studies have demonstrated that red blood cells (RBCs infected by P. vivax can cytoadhere to host cells, while the molecules participating in this host–parasite interaction are still a matter of speculation. In the present overview, we address the evidences currently supporting the adhesive profile of P. vivax and, additionally, discuss the putative role of phosphatidylserine—a cell membrane phospholipid with cytoadhesive properties that has been detected on the surface of Plasmodium-parasitized RBCs.

  19. Increased susceptibility of blood type O individuals to develop anemia in Plasmodium vivax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Sarah Stela; Milagres, Vanessa Gonçalves; Chaves, Daniel Gonçalves; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; Sousa, Tais Nobrega; Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves de

    2017-06-01

    Plasmodium vivax has been reported to cause severe malaria, and one of the main resulting complications is anemia. Considering that P. vivax infects only young erythrocytes, anemia has been associated with the destruction of infected and non-infected erythrocytes. However, few studies have focused on understanding the relationship between the pathogenesis of P. vivax malaria and human genetic polymorphisms. Although ABO groups seem to influence the outcome of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, the association between P. vivax and ABO blood groups has been minimally investigated. Thus, we investigate the correlation between ABO blood groups and anemia induced by P. vivax infection. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms at the ABO gene were genotyped by PCR-RFLP and Real-Time PCR in P. vivax-infected subjects. The ABO blood types were associated with the hematological data of the patients. Our main finding was that type O infected-individuals showed lower levels of hemoglobin and hematocrit compared to type A-infected individuals. The correlation between ABO blood groups and hemoglobin levels remained significant when a multiple linear regression was applied with the possible confounding effects of clinical-epidemiologic variables taken into account. The finding that type O individuals have a higher frequency of anemia is a first step to understand the mechanisms involved in malaria anemia, which could be associated to increased destruction of type O erythrocytes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Correction to: Polymorphisms in chloroquine resistance-associated genes in Plasmodium vivax in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golassa, Lemu; Erko, Berhanu; Baliraine, Frederick N; Aseffa, Abraham; Swedberg, Göte

    2018-05-02

    After publication of the original article [1], it came to the authors' attention that the primers mentioned in Table 1 for the amplification of the pvcrt-o gene of Plasmodium vivax are not the ones actually used for the experiments. The correct primers and PCR product size are as below.

  1. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of a novel Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite derived synthetic vaccine construct

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Céspedes, Nora; Jiménez, Eliécer; Lopez-Perez, Mary

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The circumsporozoite (CS) protein is a major malaria sporozoite surface antigen currently being considered as vaccine candidate. Plasmodium vivax CS (PvCS) protein comprises a dimorphic central repeat fragment flanked by conserved regions that contain functional domains involved in pa...

  2. Coinfection of Plasmodium vivax and Epstein-Barr virus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Akin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is an acute and chronic illness characterized by paroxysms of fever, chills, sweats, fatigue, anemia, and splenomegaly. It is still an important health problem in malaria-endemic countries. Children living in malaria-endemic areas have elevated Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV loads in the circulation and acute malaria infection leads to increased levels of circulating EBV that are cleared after anti-malaria treatment. There are many reports about the association of Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum malaria and EBV infection. Here we report a case who had coinfection of Plasmodium vivax (P. vivax malaria and EBV infection. To the best of our knowledge this is the first case indicating the association of P. vivax malaria and EBV infection.

  3. Development of in-vitro radiometric assay for the rapid assessment of chloroquine resistant plasmodium vivax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myint Oo; Myo Khin; Nwe Nwe Oo

    1997-01-01

    Previously, resistance of malaria parasite to chloroquine has been restricted only to Plasmodium falciparum. Recently, there have been many reports of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax. One of the mechanisms of chloroquine resistance is the decreased uptake of chloroquine or rapid efflux of the drug from the food vacuole of the parasite. In this study, we have measured the rapid efflux of IH-chloroquine in fifty blood samples from patients with P Vivax infection. All 50 patients were hospitalised for 28 days for the standard treatment with chloroquine. It was found that seven patients who did not respond to the standard regimen of chloroquine have parasites with rapid effluxes of IH-chloroquine. Since rapid effluxes of IH-chloroquine in the resistant parasites showed strong correlation with in vivo 28 days clinical trial, this assay could be used as rapid assessment of chloroquine resistance in patients with P vivax infection

  4. Development of in-vitro radiometric assay for the rapid assessment of chloroquine resistant plasmodium vivax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oo, Myint; Khin, Myo; Oo, Nwe Nwe [Department of Medical Research, Yangon (Myanmar)

    1997-12-01

    Previously, resistance of malaria parasite to chloroquine has been restricted only to Plasmodium falciparum. Recently, there have been many reports of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax. One of the mechanisms of chloroquine resistance is the decreased uptake of chloroquine or rapid efflux of the drug from the food vacuole of the parasite. In this study, we have measured the rapid efflux of IH-chloroquine in fifty blood samples from patients with P Vivax infection. All 50 patients were hospitalised for 28 days for the standard treatment with chloroquine. It was found that seven patients who did not respond to the standard regimen of chloroquine have parasites with rapid effluxes of IH-chloroquine. Since rapid effluxes of IH-chloroquine in the resistant parasites showed strong correlation with in vivo 28 days clinical trial, this assay could be used as rapid assessment of chloroquine resistance in patients with P vivax infection.

  5. The persistence and oscillations of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections over time in Vietnam: an open cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Thuy-Nhien; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Nguyen, Tuong-Vy; Truong, Phuc-Nhi; Hung, Son Do; Pham, Huong-Thu; Nguyen, Tam-Uyen; Le, Thanh Dong; Dao, Van Hue; Mukaka, Mavuto; Day, Nicholas Pj; White, Nicholas J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Thwaites, Guy E; Hien, Tran Tinh

    2018-05-01

    A substantial proportion of Plasmodium species infections are asymptomatic with densities too low to be detectable with standard diagnostic techniques. The importance of such asymptomatic plasmodium infections in malaria transmission is probably related to their duration and density. To explore the duration of asymptomatic plasmodium infections and changes in parasite densities over time, a cohort of participants who were infected with Plasmodium parasites was observed over a 2-year follow-up period. In this open cohort study, inhabitants of four villages in Vietnam were invited to participate in baseline and subsequent 3-monthly surveys up to 24 months, which included the collection of venous blood samples. Samples were batch-screened using ultra-sensitive (u)PCR (lower limit of detection of 22 parasites per mL). Participants found to be infected by uPCR during any of these surveys were invited to join a prospective cohort and provide monthly blood samples. We estimated the persistence of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections and changes in parasite densities over a study period of 24 months. Between Dec 1, 2013, and Jan 8, 2016, 356 villagers participated in between one and 22 surveys. These study participants underwent 4248 uPCR evaluations (11·9 tests per participant). 1874 (32%) of 4248 uPCR tests indicated a plasmodium infection; 679 (36%) of 1874 tests were P falciparum monoinfections, 507 (27%) were P vivax monoinfections, 463 (25%) were co-infections with P falciparum and P vivax, and 225 (12%) were indeterminate species of Plasmodium. The median duration of P falciparum infection was 2 months (IQR 1-3); after accounting for censoring, participants had a 20% chance of having parasitaemia for 4 months or longer. The median duration of P vivax infection was 6 months (3-9), and participants had a 59% chance of having parasitaemia for 4 months or longer. The parasite densities of persistent infections oscillated; following ultralow

  6. Plasmodium vivax populations revisited: mitochondrial genomes of temperate strains in Asia suggest ancient population expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Miao

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax is the most widely distributed human malaria parasite outside of Africa, and its range extends well into the temperate zones. Previous studies provided evidence for vivax population differentiation, but temperate vivax parasites were not well represented in these analyses. Here we address this deficit by using complete mitochondrial (mt genome sequences to elucidate the broad genetic diversity and population structure of P. vivax from temperate regions in East and Southeast Asia. Results From the complete mtDNA sequences of 99 clinical samples collected in China, Myanmar and Korea, a total of 30 different haplotypes were identified from 26 polymorphic sites. Significant differentiation between different East and Southeast Asian parasite populations was observed except for the comparison between populations from Korea and southern China. Haplotype patterns and structure diversity analysis showed coexistence of two different groups in East Asia, which were genetically related to the Southeast Asian population and Myanmar population, respectively. The demographic history of P. vivax, examined using neutrality tests and mismatch distribution analyses, revealed population expansion events across the entire P. vivax range and the Myanmar population. Bayesian skyline analysis further supported the occurrence of ancient P. vivax population expansion. Conclusions This study provided further resolution of the population structure and evolution of P. vivax, especially in temperate/warm-temperate endemic areas of Asia. The results revealed divergence of the P. vivax populations in temperate regions of China and Korea from other populations. Multiple analyses confirmed ancient population expansion of this parasite. The extensive genetic diversity of the P. vivax populations is consistent with phenotypic plasticity of the parasites, which has implications for malaria control.

  7. Genetic polymorphism and natural selection of Duffy binding protein of Plasmodium vivax Myanmar isolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) plays an essential role in erythrocyte invasion and a potential asexual blood stage vaccine candidate antigen against P. vivax. The polymorphic nature of PvDBP, particularly amino terminal cysteine-rich region (PvDBPII), represents a major impediment to the successful design of a protective vaccine against vivax malaria. In this study, the genetic polymorphism and natural selection at PvDBPII among Myanmar P. vivax isolates were analysed. Methods Fifty-four P. vivax infected blood samples collected from patients in Myanmar were used. The region flanking PvDBPII was amplified by PCR, cloned into Escherichia coli, and sequenced. The polymorphic characters and natural selection of the region were analysed using the DnaSP and MEGA4 programs. Results Thirty-two point mutations (28 non-synonymous and four synonymous mutations) were identified in PvDBPII among the Myanmar P. vivax isolates. Sequence analyses revealed that 12 different PvDBPII haplotypes were identified in Myanmar P. vivax isolates and that the region has evolved under positive natural selection. High selective pressure preferentially acted on regions identified as B- and T-cell epitopes of PvDBPII. Recombination may also be played a role in the resulting genetic diversity of PvDBPII. Conclusions PvDBPII of Myanmar P. vivax isolates displays a high level of genetic polymorphism and is under selective pressure. Myanmar P. vivax isolates share distinct types of PvDBPII alleles that are different from those of other geographical areas. These results will be useful for understanding the nature of the P. vivax population in Myanmar and for development of PvDBPII-based vaccine. PMID:22380592

  8. Modeling the dynamics of Plasmodium vivax infection and hypnozoite reactivation in vivo.

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    Adeshina I Adekunle

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of Plasmodium vivax infection is characterized by reactivation of hypnozoites at varying time intervals. The relative contribution of new P. vivax infection and reactivation of dormant liver stage hypnozoites to initiation of blood stage infection is unclear. In this study, we investigate the contribution of new inoculations of P. vivax sporozoites to primary infection versus reactivation of hypnozoites by modeling the dynamics of P. vivax infection in Thailand in patients receiving treatment for either blood stage infection alone (chloroquine, or the blood and liver stages of infection (chloroquine + primaquine. In addition, we also analysed rates of infection in a study in Papua New Guinea (PNG where patients were treated with either artesunate, or artesunate + primaquine. Our results show that up to 96% of the P. vivax infection is due to hypnozoite reactivation in individuals living in endemic areas in Thailand. Similar analysis revealed the around 70% of infections in the PNG cohort were due to hypnozoite reactivation. We show how the age of the cohort, primaquine drug failure, and seasonality may affect estimates of the ratio of primary P. vivax infection to hypnozoite reactivation. Modeling of P. vivax primary infection and hypnozoite reactivation provides important insights into infection dynamics, and suggests that 90-96% of blood stage infections arise from hypnozoite reactivation. Major differences in infection kinetics between Thailand and PNG suggest the likelihood of drug failure in PNG.

  9. Parasitemia characteristics of Plasmodium vivax malaria patients in the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Ae-Jung; Kwak, Yee Gyung; Kim, Eu Suk; Lee, Kkot Sil; Yeom, Joon-Sup; Cho, Yong-Kyun; Kim, Chang-Seok; Park, Jae-Won

    2011-01-01

    Parasitemia characteristics of Plasmodium vivax malaria in temperate regions may differ from those in tropical zones. However, most parasitological and clinical features of P. vivax malaria have been investigated in the latter. In this study, we investigated 383 malaria patients to clarify the parasitemia characteristics of a P. vivax strain in the Republic of Korea (ROK). The mean parasitemia (8,396/µL) was less than half of tropical P. vivax malaria, and multiple invasions of erythrocytes were not rare (53.5% of the patients, 2.4% of the total investigated RBCs), but less than the observations in tropical zones. The intervals between the first symptom onset and diagnosis were significantly longer in gametocyte (+) patients than in gametocyte (-) patients. Only half of the total patients had both genders of gametocytes (191 of 353), and the male gametocyte density (169/µL) was lower than that of P. vivax strains of a previous study. Multiple invasions of erythrocytes and gametocytemia were coincident factors of the degree of anemia in P. vivax malaria. The present findings demonstrate the P. vivax strain in ROK reveals relatively low parasitemia and low male to female gametocyte ratio. The low ratio may be related with low transmission efficacy.

  10. Developing Plasmodium vivax Resources for Liver Stage Study in the Peruvian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orjuela-Sanchez, Pamela; Villa, Zaira Hellen; Moreno, Marta; Tong-Rios, Carlos; Meister, Stephan; LaMonte, Gregory M; Campo, Brice; Vinetz, Joseph M; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2018-04-13

    To develop new drugs and vaccines for malaria elimination, it will be necessary to discover biological interventions, including small molecules that act against Plasmodium vivax exoerythrocytic forms. However, a robust in vitro culture system for P. vivax is still lacking. Thus, to study exoerythrocytic forms, researchers must have simultaneous access to fresh, temperature-controlled patient blood samples, as well as an anopheline mosquito colony. In addition, researchers must rely on native mosquito species to avoid introducing a potentially dangerous invasive species into a malaria-endemic region. Here, we report an in vitro culture system carried out on site in a malaria-endemic region for liver stage parasites of P. vivax sporozoites obtained from An. darlingi, the main malaria vector in the Americas. P. vivax sporozoites were obtained by dissection of salivary glands from infected An. darlingi mosquitoes and purified by Accudenz density gradient centrifugation. HC04 liver cells were exposed to P. vivax sporozoites and cultured up to 9 days. To overcome low P. vivax patient parasitemias, potentially lower mosquito vectorial capacity, and humid, nonsterile environmental conditions, a new antibiotic cocktail was included in tissue culture to prevent contamination. Culturing conditions supported exoerythrocytic (EEF) P. vivax liver stage growth up to 9 days and allowed for maturation into intrahepatocyte merosomes. Some of the identified small forms were resistant to atovaquone (1 μM) but sensitive to the phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase inhibitor, KDU691 (1 μM). This study reports a field-accessible EEF production process for drug discovery in a malaria-endemic site in which viable P. vivax sporozoites are used for drug studies using hepatocyte infection. Our data demonstrate that the development of meaningful, field-based resources for P. vivax liver stage drug screening and liver stage human malaria experimentation in the Amazon region is feasible.

  11. Insights into an Optimization of Plasmodium vivax Sal-1 In Vitro Culture: The Aotus Primate Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaldía, Nicanor; Nuñez, Marlon; Dutary, Sahir; Lim, Caeul; Barnes, Samantha; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Adams, John H.; Pasini, Erica M.

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is one of the most significant tropical diseases, and of the Plasmodium species that cause human malaria, P. vivax is the most geographically widespread. However, P. vivax remains a relatively neglected human parasite since research is typically limited to laboratories with direct access to parasite isolates from endemic field settings or from non-human primate models. This restricted research capacity is in large part due to the lack of a continuous P. vivax in vitro culture system, which has hampered the ability for experimental research needed to gain biological knowledge and develop new therapies. Consequently, efforts to establish a long-term P. vivax culture system are confounded by our poor knowledge of the preferred host cell and essential nutrients needed for in vitro propagation. Reliance on very heterogeneous P. vivax field isolates makes it difficult to benchmark parasite characteristics and further complicates development of a robust and reliable culture method. In an effort to eliminate parasite variability as a complication, we used a well-defined Aotus-adapted P. vivax Sal-1 strain to empirically evaluate different short-term in vitro culture conditions and compare them with previous reported attempts at P. vivax in vitro culture Most importantly, we suggest that reticulocyte enrichment methods affect invasion efficiency and we identify stabilized forms of nutrients that appear beneficial for parasite growth, indicating that P. vivax may be extremely sensitive to waste products. Leuko-depletion methods did not significantly affect parasite development. Formatting changes such as shaking and static cultures did not seem to have a major impact while; in contrast, the starting haematocrit affected both parasite invasion and growth. These results support the continued use of Aotus-adapted Sal-1 for development of P. vivax laboratory methods; however, further experiments are needed to optimize culture conditions to support long-term parasite

  12. Severity of thrombocytopenia in patients with plasmodium vivax malaria; a single center study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafeez, M.; Lodhi, F.R.

    2015-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia has been frequently observed in plasmodium vivax malaria in different studies. Finding out the severity of thrombocytopenia is perhaps equally important, as it has practical as well as prognostic implications. The objective of the study was to assess the severity of thrombocytopenia in patients suffering from malaria caused by plasmodium vivax. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out at Combined Military Hospital (CMH) Malir, Karachi, which is a tertiary care Hospital for all military personnel and their families in the province of Sindh. All patients of smear positive Vivax malaria during the study period were included, and those having hrombocytopenia from any other reason were excluded. They were treated with anti-malarial drugs and their platelet counts were monitored till they normalized and discharged from the hospital. Thrombocytopenia was defined as platelets count of <150,000/cu mm. Results were analysed by SPSS 11. Results: Out of 150 cases, 133 (88%) had thrombocytopenia. Their ages ranged from 15 to 55; mean age was 35 with SD ± 20. Low platelet count observed was between 11000 and 146000/cu mm with SD ± 27404. Mean value was 79 832/cu mm. None of the patient had any bleeding episode requiring a blood transfusion. Conclusion: Plasmodium vivax associated thrombocytopenia has a benign outcome irrespective of severity of the platelet counts. (author)

  13. Differing patterns of selection and geospatial genetic diversity within two leading Plasmodium vivax candidate vaccine antigens.

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    Christian M Parobek

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Although Plasmodium vivax is a leading cause of malaria around the world, only a handful of vivax antigens are being studied for vaccine development. Here, we investigated genetic signatures of selection and geospatial genetic diversity of two leading vivax vaccine antigens--Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (pvmsp-1 and Plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite protein (pvcsp. Using scalable next-generation sequencing, we deep-sequenced amplicons of the 42 kDa region of pvmsp-1 (n = 44 and the complete gene of pvcsp (n = 47 from Cambodian isolates. These sequences were then compared with global parasite populations obtained from GenBank. Using a combination of statistical and phylogenetic methods to assess for selection and population structure, we found strong evidence of balancing selection in the 42 kDa region of pvmsp-1, which varied significantly over the length of the gene, consistent with immune-mediated selection. In pvcsp, the highly variable central repeat region also showed patterns consistent with immune selection, which were lacking outside the repeat. The patterns of selection seen in both genes differed from their P. falciparum orthologs. In addition, we found that, similar to merozoite antigens from P. falciparum malaria, genetic diversity of pvmsp-1 sequences showed no geographic clustering, while the non-merozoite antigen, pvcsp, showed strong geographic clustering. These findings suggest that while immune selection may act on both vivax vaccine candidate antigens, the geographic distribution of genetic variability differs greatly between these two genes. The selective forces driving this diversification could lead to antigen escape and vaccine failure. Better understanding the geographic distribution of genetic variability in vaccine candidate antigens will be key to designing and implementing efficacious vaccines.

  14. Quantitative Determination of Plasmodium vivax Gametocytes by Real-Time Quantitative Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification in Clinical Samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beurskens, Martijn; Mens, Pètra; Schallig, Henk; Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji Budi Setia; Hermsen, Rob; Sauerwein, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Microscopic detection of Plasmodium vivax gametocytes, the sexual life stage of this malaria parasite, is insensitive because P vivax parasitaemia is low. To detect and quantity gametocytes a more sensitive, quantitative realtime Pvs25-QT-NASBA based oil Pvs25 mRNA was developed and tested in two

  15. Development of a single nucleotide polymorphism barcode to genotype Plasmodium vivax infections.

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    Mary Lynn Baniecki

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax, one of the five species of Plasmodium parasites that cause human malaria, is responsible for 25-40% of malaria cases worldwide. Malaria global elimination efforts will benefit from accurate and effective genotyping tools that will provide insight into the population genetics and diversity of this parasite. The recent sequencing of P. vivax isolates from South America, Africa, and Asia presents a new opportunity by uncovering thousands of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Genotyping a selection of these SNPs provides a robust, low-cost method of identifying parasite infections through their unique genetic signature or barcode. Based on our experience in generating a SNP barcode for P. falciparum using High Resolution Melting (HRM, we have developed a similar tool for P. vivax. We selected globally polymorphic SNPs from available P. vivax genome sequence data that were located in putatively selectively neutral sites (i.e., intergenic, intronic, or 4-fold degenerate coding. From these candidate SNPs we defined a barcode consisting of 42 SNPs. We analyzed the performance of the 42-SNP barcode on 87 P. vivax clinical samples from parasite populations in South America (Brazil, French Guiana, Africa (Ethiopia and Asia (Sri Lanka. We found that the P. vivax barcode is robust, as it requires only a small quantity of DNA (limit of detection 0.3 ng/μl to yield reproducible genotype calls, and detects polymorphic genotypes with high sensitivity. The markers are informative across all clinical samples evaluated (average minor allele frequency > 0.1. Population genetic and statistical analyses show the barcode captures high degrees of population diversity and differentiates geographically distinct populations. Our 42-SNP barcode provides a robust, informative, and standardized genetic marker set that accurately identifies a genomic signature for P. vivax infections.

  16. Development of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism Barcode to Genotype Plasmodium vivax Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniecki, Mary Lynn; Faust, Aubrey L.; Schaffner, Stephen F.; Park, Daniel J.; Galinsky, Kevin; Daniels, Rachel F.; Hamilton, Elizabeth; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Karunaweera, Nadira D.; Serre, David; Zimmerman, Peter A.; Sá, Juliana M.; Wellems, Thomas E.; Musset, Lise; Legrand, Eric; Melnikov, Alexandre; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Volkman, Sarah K.; Wirth, Dyann F.; Sabeti, Pardis C.

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax, one of the five species of Plasmodium parasites that cause human malaria, is responsible for 25–40% of malaria cases worldwide. Malaria global elimination efforts will benefit from accurate and effective genotyping tools that will provide insight into the population genetics and diversity of this parasite. The recent sequencing of P. vivax isolates from South America, Africa, and Asia presents a new opportunity by uncovering thousands of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Genotyping a selection of these SNPs provides a robust, low-cost method of identifying parasite infections through their unique genetic signature or barcode. Based on our experience in generating a SNP barcode for P. falciparum using High Resolution Melting (HRM), we have developed a similar tool for P. vivax. We selected globally polymorphic SNPs from available P. vivax genome sequence data that were located in putatively selectively neutral sites (i.e., intergenic, intronic, or 4-fold degenerate coding). From these candidate SNPs we defined a barcode consisting of 42 SNPs. We analyzed the performance of the 42-SNP barcode on 87 P. vivax clinical samples from parasite populations in South America (Brazil, French Guiana), Africa (Ethiopia) and Asia (Sri Lanka). We found that the P. vivax barcode is robust, as it requires only a small quantity of DNA (limit of detection 0.3 ng/μl) to yield reproducible genotype calls, and detects polymorphic genotypes with high sensitivity. The markers are informative across all clinical samples evaluated (average minor allele frequency > 0.1). Population genetic and statistical analyses show the barcode captures high degrees of population diversity and differentiates geographically distinct populations. Our 42-SNP barcode provides a robust, informative, and standardized genetic marker set that accurately identifies a genomic signature for P. vivax infections. PMID:25781890

  17. Coma Associated with Microscopy-Diagnosed Plasmodium vivax: A Prospective Study in Papua, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardianto, Setiawan O.; Tjitra, Emiliana; Kenangalem, Enny; Sugiarto, Paulus; Price, Ric N.; Anstey, Nicholas M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Coma complicates Plasmodium falciparum infection but is uncommonly associated with P. vivax. Most series of vivax coma have been retrospective and have not utilized molecular methods to exclude mixed infections with P. falciparum. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients hospitalized in Timika, Indonesia, with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) ≤10 and P. vivax monoinfection on initial microscopy over a four year period. Hematological, biochemical, serological, radiological and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations were performed to identify other causes of coma. Repeat microscopy, antigen detection and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were performed to exclude infections with other Plasmodium species. Results Of 24 patients fulfilling enrolment criteria, 5 had clear evidence for other non-malarial etiologies. PCR demonstrated 10 mixed infections and 3 P. falciparum monoinfections. 6 (25%) patients had vivax monoinfection and no apparent alternative cause, with a median GCS of 9 (range 8–10) and a median coma duration of 42 (range 36–48) hours. CSF leukocyte counts were coma was estimated at 1 in 29,486 clinical vivax infections with no deaths. In comparison, the risk of falciparum-associated coma was estimated at 1 in 1,276 clinical infections with an 18.5% mortality rate. Conclusions P. vivax-associated coma is rare, occurring 23 times less frequently than that seen with falciparum malaria, and is associated with a high proportion of non-malarial causes and mixed infections using PCR. The pathogenesis of coma associated with vivax malaria, particularly the role of comorbidities, is uncertain and requires further investigation. PMID:21666785

  18. Hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria successfully treated with plasma exchange

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    V S Keskar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS in an adult patient with Plasmodium vivax malaria. The patient presented with worsening anemia, persistent thrombocytopenia and acute kidney injury. HUS was diagnosed based on the high serum lactate dehydrogenase, elevated reticulocyte count and presence of schistocytes on peripheral blood smear. Kidney biopsy showed features of thrombotic microangiopathy. Complete hematological remission was achieved after five sessions of therapeutic plasma exchange. Renal function partially recovered and stabilized at discharge. Vivax malaria, generally considered benign, may be rarely associated with HUS.

  19. Comparative analysis of field-isolate and monkey-adapted Plasmodium vivax genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Ernest R; Barnwell, John W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Serre, David

    2015-03-01

    Significant insights into the biology of Plasmodium vivax have been gained from the ability to successfully adapt human infections to non-human primates. P. vivax strains grown in monkeys serve as a renewable source of parasites for in vitro and ex vivo experimental studies and functional assays, or for studying in vivo the relapse characteristics, mosquito species compatibilities, drug susceptibility profiles or immune responses towards potential vaccine candidates. Despite the importance of these studies, little is known as to how adaptation to a different host species may influence the genome of P. vivax. In addition, it is unclear whether these monkey-adapted strains consist of a single clonal population of parasites or if they retain the multiclonal complexity commonly observed in field isolates. Here we compare the genome sequences of seven P. vivax strains adapted to New World monkeys with those of six human clinical isolates collected directly in the field. We show that the adaptation of P. vivax parasites to monkey hosts, and their subsequent propagation, did not result in significant modifications of their genome sequence and that these monkey-adapted strains recapitulate the genomic diversity of field isolates. Our analyses also reveal that these strains are not always genetically homogeneous and should be analyzed cautiously. Overall, our study provides a framework to better leverage this important research material and fully utilize this resource for improving our understanding of P. vivax biology.

  20. Rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing uncomplicated non-falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria in endemic countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abba, Katharine; Kirkham, Amanda J; Olliaro, Piero L; Deeks, Jonathan J; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul; Takwoingi, Yemisi

    2014-01-01

    Background In settings where both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infection cause malaria, rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) need to distinguish which species is causing the patients' symptoms, as different treatments are required. Older RDTs incorporated two test lines to distinguish malaria due to P. falciparum, from malaria due to any other Plasmodium species (non-falciparum). These RDTs can be classified according to which antibodies they use: Type 2 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and aldolase (all species); Type 3 RDTs use HRP-2 (for P. falciparum) and pLDH (all species); Type 4 use pLDH (fromP. falciparum) and pLDH (all species). More recently, RDTs have been developed to distinguish P. vivax parasitaemia by utilizing a pLDH antibody specific to P. vivax. Objectives To assess the diagnostic accuracy of RDTs for detecting non-falciparum or P. vivax parasitaemia in people living in malaria-endemic areas who present to ambulatory healthcare facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria, and to identify which types and brands of commercial test best detect non-falciparum and P. vivax malaria. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the following databases up to 31 December 2013: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; MEDION; Science Citation Index; Web of Knowledge; African Index Medicus; LILACS; and IndMED. Selection criteria Studies comparing RDTs with a reference standard (microscopy or polymerase chain reaction) in blood samples from a random or consecutive series of patients attending ambulatory health facilities with symptoms suggestive of malaria in non-falciparum endemic areas. Data collection and analysis For each study, two review authors independently extracted a standard set of data using a tailored data extraction form. We grouped comparisons by type of RDT (defined by the combinations of antibodies used), and combined in meta-analysis where appropriate. Average sensitivities and

  1. Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity in Plasmodium vivax malaria patients evolving with cholestatic jaundice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax infection has been considered a benign and self-limiting disease, however, recent studies highlight the association between vivax malaria and life-threatening manifestations. Increase in reactive oxygen species has already been described in vivax malaria, as a result of the increased metabolic rate triggered by the multiplying parasite, and large quantities of toxic redox-active byproducts generated. The present study aimed to study the oxidative stress responses in patients infected with P. vivax, who developed jaundice (hyperbilirubinaemia) in the course of the disease, a common clinical complication related to this species. Methods An evaluation of the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes profile was performed in 28 healthy individuals and compared with P. vivax infected patients with jaundice, i.e., bilirubin jaundice (34 patients), on day 1 (D1) and day 14 (D14) after anti-malarial therapy. Results Hyperbilirubinaemia was more frequent among women and patients experiencing their first malarial infection, and lower haemoglobin and higher lactate dehydrogenase levels were observed in this group. Malondialdehyde levels and activity of celuroplasmin and glutathione reductase were increased in the plasma from patients with P. vivax with jaundice compared to the control group on D1. However, the activity of thioredoxin reductase was decreased. The enzymes glutathione reductase, thioredoxin reductase, thiols and malondialdehyde also differed between jaundiced versus non-jaundiced patients. On D14 jaundice and parasitaemia had resolved and oxidative stress biomarkers were very similar to the control group. Conclusion Cholestatic hyperbilirubinaemia in vivax malaria cannot be totally disassociated from malaria-related haemolysis. However, significant increase of lipid peroxidation markers and changes in antioxidant enzymes in patients with P. vivax-related jaundice was observed. These results suggest oxidative processes contributing

  2. Infection of Laboratory-Colonized Anopheles darlingi Mosquitoes by Plasmodium vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Marta; Tong, Carlos; Guzmán, Mitchel; Chuquiyauri, Raul; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro; Rodriguez, Hugo; Gamboa, Dionicia; Meister, Stephan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.; Maguina, Paula; Conn, Jan E.; Vinetz, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Anopheles darlingi Root is the most important malaria vector in the Amazonia region of South America. However, continuous propagation of An. darlingi in the laboratory has been elusive, limiting entomological, genetic/genomic, and vector–pathogen interaction studies of this mosquito species. Here, we report the establishment of an An. darlingi colony derived from wild-caught mosquitoes obtained in the northeastern Peruvian Amazon region of Iquitos in the Loreto Department. We show that the numbers of eggs, larvae, pupae, and adults continue to rise at least to the F6 generation. Comparison of feeding Plasmodium vivax ex vivo of F4 and F5 to F1 generation mosquitoes showed the comparable presence of oocysts and sporozoites, with numbers that corresponded to blood-stage asexual parasitemia and gametocytemia, confirming P. vivax vectorial capacity in the colonized mosquitoes. These results provide new avenues for research on An. darlingi biology and study of An. darlingi–Plasmodium interactions. PMID:24534811

  3. Multiple-clone activation of hypnozoites is the leading cause of relapse in Plasmodium vivax infection.

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    Flávia Carolina F de Araujo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax infection is characterized by a dormant hepatic stage, the hypnozoite that is activated at varying periods of time after clearance of the primary acute blood-stage, resulting in relapse. Differentiation between treatment failure and new infections requires characterization of initial infections, relapses, and clone multiplicity in vivax malaria infections. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Parasite DNA obtained from primary/relapse paired blood samples of 30 patients with P. vivax infection in Brazil was analyzed using 10 molecular markers (8 microsatellites and MSP-1 blocks 2 and 10. Cloning of PCR products and genotyping was used to identify low-frequency clones of parasites. We demonstrated a high frequency of multiple-clone infections in both primary and relapse infections. Few alleles were identified per locus, but the combination of these alleles produced many haplotypes. Consequently, the majority of parasites involved in relapse showed haplotypes that were distinct from those of primary infections. Plasmodium vivax relapse was characterized by temporal variations in the predominant parasite clones. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The high rate of low frequency alleles observed in both primary and relapse infections, along with temporal variation in the predominant alleles, might be the source of reported heterologous hypnozoite activation. Our findings complicate the concept of heterologous activation, suggesting the involvement of undetermined mechanisms based on host or environmental factors in the simultaneous activation of multiple clones of hypnozoites.

  4. Prevalence of Plasmodium vivax VK210 and VK247 subtype in Myanmar

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    Kang Yoon-Joong

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax is divided into two subtypes, a dominant form, VK210 and a variant form, VK247. This division is dependent on the amino acid composition of the circumsporozoite (CS protein. In this study, the prevalence of the VK247 variant form of P. vivax was investigated in Myanmar. Methods The existence of malaria parasites in blood samples was determined by microscopic examination, polymerase chain reaction (PCR and DNA hybridization assays. To test for antibodies against P. vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in blood samples, an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT was performed using asexual blood antigens. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with synthetic VK210 and VK247 antigens was carried out to discriminate between the P. vivax subtypes. Results By thick smear examination, 73 (n = 100 patients were single infected with P. vivax, one with P. falciparum and 13 with both species. By thin smear, 53 patients were single infected with P. vivax, eight with only P. falciparum and 16 with both. Most of the collected blood samples were shown to be P. vivax positive (n = 95 by PCR. All cases that were positive for P. falciparum by PCR (n = 43 were also positive for P. vivax. However, 52 cases were single infected with P. vivax. IFAT showed antibody titres from 1:32 to 1:4,096. Additionally, using specific antibodies for VK210 and VK247, ELISA showed that 12 patients had antibodies for only the VK210 subtype, 4 patients had only VK247 subtype antibodies and 21 patients had antibodies for both subtypes. Using a DNA hybridization test, 47 patients were infected with the VK210 type, one patient was infected with VK247 and 23 patients were infected with both subtypes. Conclusions The proportion of the VK247 subtype in Myanmar was 43.1% (n = 25 among 58 positive cases by serodiagnosis and 25.6% (n = 24 among 94 positive cases by genetic diagnosis. In both diagnostic methods, the infection status of malaria patients is

  5. Identification, characterization and antigenicity of the Plasmodium vivax rhoptry neck protein 1 (PvRON1

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    Patarroyo Manuel E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax malaria remains a major health problem in tropical and sub-tropical regions worldwide. Several rhoptry proteins which are important for interaction with and/or invasion of red blood cells, such as PfRONs, Pf92, Pf38, Pf12 and Pf34, have been described during the last few years and are being considered as potential anti-malarial vaccine candidates. This study describes the identification and characterization of the P. vivax rhoptry neck protein 1 (PvRON1 and examine its antigenicity in natural P. vivax infections. Methods The PvRON1 encoding gene, which is homologous to that encoding the P. falciparum apical sushi protein (ASP according to the plasmoDB database, was selected as our study target. The pvron1 gene transcription was evaluated by RT-PCR using RNA obtained from the P. vivax VCG-1 strain. Two peptides derived from the deduced P. vivax Sal-I PvRON1 sequence were synthesized and inoculated in rabbits for obtaining anti-PvRON1 antibodies which were used to confirm the protein expression in VCG-1 strain schizonts along with its association with detergent-resistant microdomains (DRMs by Western blot, and its localization by immunofluorescence assays. The antigenicity of the PvRON1 protein was assessed using human sera from individuals previously exposed to P. vivax malaria by ELISA. Results In the P. vivax VCG-1 strain, RON1 is a 764 amino acid-long protein. In silico analysis has revealed that PvRON1 shares essential characteristics with different antigens involved in invasion, such as the presence of a secretory signal, a GPI-anchor sequence and a putative sushi domain. The PvRON1 protein is expressed in parasite's schizont stage, localized in rhoptry necks and it is associated with DRMs. Recombinant protein recognition by human sera indicates that this antigen can trigger an immune response during a natural infection with P. vivax. Conclusions This study shows the identification and characterization of

  6. Design of Plasmodium vivax Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyltransferase Inhibitors as Potential Antimalarial Therapeutics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keough, D. T.; Rejman, Dominik; Pohl, Radek; Zborníková, Eva; Hocková, Dana; Croll, T.; Edstein, M. D.; Birrell, G. W.; Chavchich, M.; Naesens, L. M. J.; Pierens, G. K.; Brereton, I. M.; Guddat, L. W.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 1 (2018), s. 82-90 ISSN 1554-8929 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06049S; GA ČR GA15-11711S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : plasmodium vivax * inhibitor * pyrrolidine nucleotide bisphosphonate * HXGPRT Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 4.995, year: 2016

  7. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in the Republic of Djibouti: evaluation of their prevalence and potential determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaireh, Bouh Abdi; Briolant, Sébastien; Pascual, Aurélie; Mokrane, Madjid; Machault, Vanessa; Travaillé, Christelle; Khaireh, Mohamed Abdi; Farah, Ismail Hassan; Ali, Habib Moussa; Abdi, Abdul-Ilah Ahmed; Ayeh, Souleiman Nour; Darar, Houssein Youssouf; Ollivier, Lénaïck; Waiss, Mohamed Killeh; Bogreau, Hervé; Rogier, Christophe; Pradines, Bruno

    2012-11-28

    Formerly known as a hypoendemic malaria country, the Republic of Djibouti declared the goal of pre-eliminating malaria in 2006. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections in the Djiboutian population by using serological tools and to identify potential determinants of the disease and hotspots of malaria transmission within the country. The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax within the districts of the capital city and the rest of the Republic of Djibouti were assessed using 13 and 2 serological markers, respectively. The relationship between the immune humeral response to P. falciparum and P. vivax and variables such as age, gender, wealth status, urbanism, educational level, distance to rivers/lakes, living area, having fever in the last month, and staying in a malaria-endemic country more than one year was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 1910 Djiboutians. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models of the immune humeral response were obtained for P. falciparum and P. vivax. The P. falciparum and P. vivax seroprevalence rates were 31.5%, CI95% [29.4-33.7] and 17.5%, CI95% [15.8-19.3], respectively. Protective effects against P. falciparum and P. vivax were female gender, educational level, and never having visited a malaria-endemic area for more than one year. For P. falciparum only, a protective effect was observed for not having a fever in the last month, living more than 1.5 km away from lakes and rivers, and younger ages. This is the first study that assessed the seroprevalence of P. vivax in the Republic of Djibouti. It is necessary to improve knowledge of this pathogen in order to create an effective elimination programme. As supported by recent observations on the subject, the Republic of Djibouti has probably demonstrated a real decrease in the transmission of P. falciparum in the past seven years, which should encourage authorities to

  8. Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in the Republic of Djibouti: evaluation of their prevalence and potential determinants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaireh Bouh Abdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Formerly known as a hypoendemic malaria country, the Republic of Djibouti declared the goal of pre-eliminating malaria in 2006. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and mixed infections in the Djiboutian population by using serological tools and to identify potential determinants of the disease and hotspots of malaria transmission within the country. Methods The prevalence of P. falciparum and P. vivax within the districts of the capital city and the rest of the Republic of Djibouti were assessed using 13 and 2 serological markers, respectively. The relationship between the immune humeral response to P. falciparum and P. vivax and variables such as age, gender, wealth status, urbanism, educational level, distance to rivers/lakes, living area, having fever in the last month, and staying in a malaria-endemic country more than one year was estimated and analysed by questionnaires administered to 1910 Djiboutians. Multivariate ordinal logistic regression models of the immune humeral response were obtained for P. falciparum and P. vivax. Results The P. falciparum and P. vivax seroprevalence rates were 31.5%, CI95% [29.4-33.7] and 17.5%, CI95% [15.8-19.3], respectively. Protective effects against P. falciparum and P. vivax were female gender, educational level, and never having visited a malaria-endemic area for more than one year. For P. falciparum only, a protective effect was observed for not having a fever in the last month, living more than 1.5 km away from lakes and rivers, and younger ages. Conclusions This is the first study that assessed the seroprevalence of P. vivax in the Republic of Djibouti. It is necessary to improve knowledge of this pathogen in order to create an effective elimination programme. As supported by recent observations on the subject, the Republic of Djibouti has probably demonstrated a real decrease in the transmission of P. falciparum

  9. The origins of African Plasmodium vivax; insights from mitochondrial genome sequencing.

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    Richard Culleton

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax, the second most prevalent of the human malaria parasites, is estimated to affect 75 million people annually. It is very rare, however, in west and central Africa, due to the high prevalence of the Duffy negative phenotype in the human population. Due to its rarity in Africa, previous studies on the phylogeny of world-wide P. vivax have suffered from insufficient samples of African parasites. Here we compare the mitochondrial sequence diversity of parasites from Africa with those from other areas of the world, in order to investigate the origin of present-day African P. vivax. Mitochondrial genome sequencing revealed relatively little polymorphism within the African population compared to parasites from the rest of the world. This, combined with sequence similarity with parasites from India, suggests that the present day African P. vivax population in humans may have been introduced relatively recently from the Indian subcontinent. Haplotype network analysis also raises the possibility that parasites currently found in Africa and South America may be the closest extant relatives of the ancestors of the current world population. Lines of evidence are adduced that this ancestral population may be from an ancient stock of P. vivax in Africa.

  10. Multiplicity and diversity of Plasmodium vivax infections in a highly endemic region in Papua New Guinea.

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    Cristian Koepfli

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is highly endemic in the lowlands of Papua New Guinea and accounts for a large proportion of the malaria cases in children less than 5 years of age. We collected 2117 blood samples at 2-monthly intervals from a cohort of 268 children aged 1 to 4.5 years and estimated the diversity and multiplicity of P. vivax infection. All P. vivax clones were genotyped using the merozoite surface protein 1 F3 fragment (msp1F3 and the microsatellite MS16 as molecular markers. High diversity was observed with msp1F3 (H(E = 88.1% and MS16 (H(E = 97.8%. Of the 1162 P. vivax positive samples, 74% harbored multi-clone infections with a mean multiplicity of 2.7 (IQR = 1-3. The multiplicity of P. vivax infection increased slightly with age (P = 0.02, with the strongest increase in very young children. Intensified efforts to control malaria can benefit from knowledge of the diversity and MOI both for assessing the endemic situation and monitoring the effects of interventions.

  11. Variable number of tandem repeats of 9 Plasmodium vivax genes among Southeast Asian isolates.

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    Wang, Bo; Nyunt, Myat Htut; Yun, Seung-Gyu; Lu, Feng; Cheng, Yang; Han, Jin-Hee; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Park, Won Sun; Hong, Seok-Ho; Lim, Chae-Seung; Cao, Jun; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Cui, Liwang; Han, Eun-Taek

    2017-06-01

    The variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs) provides valuable information about both the functional and evolutionary aspects of genetic diversity. Comparative analysis of 3 Plasmodium falciparum genomes has shown that more than 9% of its open reading frames (ORFs) harbor VNTRs. Although microsatellites and VNTR genes of P. vivax were reported, the VNTR polymorphism of genes has not been examined widely. In this study, 230 P. vivax genes were analyzed for VNTRs by SERV, and 33 kinds of TR deletions or insertions from 29 P. vivax genes (12.6%) were found. Of these, 9 VNTR fragments from 8 P. vivax genes were used for PCR amplification and sequence analysis to examine the genetic diversity among 134 isolates from four Southeast Asian countries (China, Republic of Korea, Thailand, and Myanmar) with different malaria endemicity. We confirmed the existence of extensive polymorphism of VNTR fragments in field isolates. This detection provides several suitable markers for analysis of the molecular epidemiology of P. vivax field isolates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Caveolins and flotillin-2 are present in the blood stages of Plasmodium vivax.

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    Bracho, Carmen; Dunia, Irene; Romano, Mirtha; Raposo, Graça; De La Rosa, Mercedes; Benedetti, Ennio-Lucio; Pérez, Hilda A

    2006-07-01

    Blood stages of Plasmodium vivax induce the development of caveolae and caveola-vesicle complexes (CVC) in the membrane of their host erythrocyte. Caveolae are found in almost all types of cells and are involved in endogenous processes as calcium and cholesterol homeostasis, cell signalling, transporting, ligand internalization and transcytosis of serum components. Major structural components of caveolae are the proteins caveolins and flotillins. The functional role of caveolae in the P. vivax-infected erythrocyte is not properly understood. As these organelles have been shown to contain malaria antigens, it has been suggested that they are involved in the transport and release of specific parasite antigens from the infected erythrocyte and in the uptake of plasma proteins. Using specific antibodies to classical caveolae proteins and an immunolocalization approach, we found caveolin-2, caveolin-3, and flotillin-2 in the vesicle profiles and some CVC of P. vivax-infected erythrocytes. Caveolin-1-3 were not found in uninfected erythrocytes. This is the first report of identification and localization of caveolins in the CVC present in erythrocytes infected with P. vivax, thereby providing evidence of the role of this particular organelle in the protein-trafficking pathway that connect parasite-encoded proteins with the erythrocyte cytoplasm and the cell surface throughout the asexual blood cycle of vivax malaria parasite.

  13. Global host metabolic response to Plasmodium vivax infection: a 1H NMR based urinary metabonomic study

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    Sengupta Arjun

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax is responsible for the majority of malarial infection in the Indian subcontinent. This species of the parasite is generally believed to cause a relatively benign form of the disease. However, recent reports from different parts of the world indicate that vivax malaria can also have severe manifestation. Host response to the parasite invasion is thought to be an important factor in determining the severity of manifestation. In this paper, attempt was made to determine the host metabolic response associated with P. vivax infection by means of NMR spectroscopy-based metabonomic techniques in an attempt to better understand the disease pathology. Methods NMR spectroscopy of urine samples from P. vivax-infected patients, healthy individuals and non-malarial fever patients were carried out followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Two data analysis techniques were employed, namely, Principal Component Analysis [PCA] and Orthogonal Projection to Latent Structure Discriminant Analysis [OPLS-DA]. Several NMR signals from the urinary metabolites were further selected for univariate comparison among the classes. Results The urine metabolic profiles of P. vivax-infected patients were distinct from those of healthy individuals as well as of non-malarial fever patients. A highly predictive model was constructed from urine profile of malarial and non-malarial fever patients. Several metabolites were found to be varying significantly across these cohorts. Urinary ornithine seems to have the potential to be used as biomarkers of vivax malaria. An increasing trend in pipecolic acid was also observed. The results suggest impairment in the functioning of liver as well as impairment in urea cycle. Conclusions The results open up a possibility of non-invasive analysis and diagnosis of P. vivax using urine metabolic profile. Distinct variations in certain metabolites were recorded, and amongst these, ornithine may have the

  14. Independent Origin and Global Distribution of Distinct Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein Gene Duplications.

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    Jessica B Hostetler

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax causes the majority of malaria episodes outside Africa, but remains a relatively understudied pathogen. The pathology of P. vivax infection depends critically on the parasite's ability to recognize and invade human erythrocytes. This invasion process involves an interaction between P. vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP in merozoites and the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC on the erythrocyte surface. Whole-genome sequencing of clinical isolates recently established that some P. vivax genomes contain two copies of the PvDBP gene. The frequency of this duplication is particularly high in Madagascar, where there is also evidence for P. vivax infection in DARC-negative individuals. The functional significance and global prevalence of this duplication, and whether there are other copy number variations at the PvDBP locus, is unknown.Using whole-genome sequencing and PCR to study the PvDBP locus in P. vivax clinical isolates, we found that PvDBP duplication is widespread in Cambodia. The boundaries of the Cambodian PvDBP duplication differ from those previously identified in Madagascar, meaning that current molecular assays were unable to detect it. The Cambodian PvDBP duplication did not associate with parasite density or DARC genotype, and ranged in prevalence from 20% to 38% over four annual transmission seasons in Cambodia. This duplication was also present in P. vivax isolates from Brazil and Ethiopia, but not India.PvDBP duplications are much more widespread and complex than previously thought, and at least two distinct duplications are circulating globally. The same duplication boundaries were identified in parasites from three continents, and were found at high prevalence in human populations where DARC-negativity is essentially absent. It is therefore unlikely that PvDBP duplication is associated with infection of DARC-negative individuals, but functional tests will be required to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. Epidemiology of Disappearing Plasmodium vivax Malaria: A Case Study in Rural Amazonia

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    Lima, Nathália F.; Batista, Camilla L.; Bastos, Melissa da Silva; Nicolete, Vanessa C.; Fontoura, Pablo S.; Gonçalves, Raquel M.; Viana, Susana Ariane S.; Menezes, Maria José; Scopel, Kézia Katiani G.; Cavasini, Carlos E.; Malafronte, Rosely dos Santos; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Vinetz, Joseph M.; Castro, Márcia C.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.

    2014-01-01

    Background New frontier settlements across the Amazon Basin pose a major challenge for malaria elimination in Brazil. Here we describe the epidemiology of malaria during the early phases of occupation of farming settlements in Remansinho area, Brazilian Amazonia. We examine the relative contribution of low-density and asymptomatic parasitemias to the overall Plasmodium vivax burden over a period of declining transmission and discuss potential hurdles for malaria elimination in Remansinho and similar settings. Methods Eight community-wide cross-sectional surveys, involving 584 subjects, were carried out in Remansinho over 3 years and complemented by active and passive surveillance of febrile illnesses between the surveys. We used quantitative PCR to detect low-density asexual parasitemias and gametocytemias missed by conventional microscopy. Mixed-effects multiple logistic regression models were used to characterize independent risk factors for P. vivax infection and disease. Principal Findings/Conclusions P. vivax prevalence decreased from 23.8% (March–April 2010) to 3.0% (April–May 2013), with no P. falciparum infections diagnosed after March–April 2011. Although migrants from malaria-free areas were at increased risk of malaria, their odds of having P. vivax infection and disease decreased by 2–3% with each year of residence in Amazonia. Several findings indicate that low-density and asymptomatic P. vivax parasitemias may complicate residual malaria elimination in Remansinho: (a) the proportion of subpatent infections (i.e. missed by microscopy) increased from 43.8% to 73.1% as P. vivax transmission declined; (b) most (56.6%) P. vivax infections were asymptomatic and 32.8% of them were both subpatent and asymptomatic; (c) asymptomatic parasite carriers accounted for 54.4% of the total P. vivax biomass in the host population; (d) over 90% subpatent and asymptomatic P. vivax had PCR-detectable gametocytemias; and (e) few (17.0%) asymptomatic and subpatent P

  16. Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3 alpha: a high-resolution marker for genetic diversity studies.

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    Prajapati, Surendra Kumar; Joshi, Hema; Valecha, Neena

    2010-06-01

    Malaria, an ancient human infectious disease caused by five species of Plasmodium, among them Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria species and causes huge morbidity to its host. Identification of genetic marker to resolve higher genetic diversity for an ancient origin organism is a crucial task. We have analyzed genetic diversity of P. vivax field isolates using highly polymorphic antigen gene merozoite surface protein-3 alpha (msp-3 alpha) and assessed its suitability as high-resolution genetic marker for population genetic studies. 27 P. vivax field isolates collected during chloroquine therapeutic efficacy study at Chennai were analyzed for genetic diversity. PCR-RFLP was employed to assess the genetic variations using highly polymorphic antigen gene msp-3 alpha. We observed three distinct PCR alleles at msp-3 alpha, and among them allele A showed significantly high frequency (53%, chi2 = 8.22, p = 0.001). PCR-RFLP analysis revealed 14 and 17 distinct RFLP patterns for Hha1 and Alu1 enzymes respectively. Further, RFLP analysis revealed that allele A at msp-3 alpha is more diverse in the population compared with allele B and C. Combining Hha1 and Alu1 RFLP patterns revealed 21 distinct genotypes among 22 isolates reflects higher diversity resolution power of msp-3 alpha in the field isolates. P. vivax isolates from Chennai region revealed substantial amount of genetic diversity and comparison of allelic diversity with other antigen genes and microsatellites suggesting that msp-3 alpha could be a high-resolution marker for genetic diversity studies among P. vivax field isolates.

  17. Induction of Multifunctional Broadly Reactive T Cell Responses by a Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein Recombinant Chimera.

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    Cabrera-Mora, Monica; Fonseca, Jairo Andres; Singh, Balwan; Oliveira-Ferreira, Joseli; Lima-Junior, Josué da Costa; Calvo-Calle, J Mauricio; Moreno, Alberto

    2015-09-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread species of Plasmodium, causing up to 50% of the malaria cases occurring outside sub-Saharan Africa. An effective vaccine is essential for successful control and potential eradication. A well-characterized vaccine candidate is the circumsporozoite protein (CSP). Preclinical and clinical trials have shown that both antibodies and cellular immune responses have been correlated with protection induced by immunization with CSP. On the basis of our reported approach of developing chimeric Plasmodium yoelii proteins to enhance protective efficacy, we designed PvRMC-CSP, a recombinant chimeric protein based on the P. vivax CSP (PvCSP). In this engineered protein, regions of the PvCSP predicted to contain human T cell epitopes were genetically fused to an immunodominant B cell epitope derived from the N-terminal region I and to repeat sequences representing the two types of PvCSP repeats. The chimeric protein was expressed in soluble form with high yield. As the immune response to PvCSP has been reported to be genetically restricted in the murine model, we tested the immunogenicity of PvRMC-CSP in groups of six inbred strains of mice. PvRMC-CSP was able to induce robust antibody responses in all the mouse strains tested. Synthetic peptides representing the allelic forms of the P. vivax CSP were also recognized to a similar extent regardless of the mouse strain. Furthermore, the immunization regimen induced high frequencies of multifunctional CD4(+) and CD8(+) PvRMC-CSP-specific T cells. The depth and breadth of the immune responses elicited suggest that immunization with PvRMC-CSP can circumvent the genetic restriction of the immune response to P. vivax CSP. Interestingly, PvRMC-CSP was also recognized by naturally acquired antibodies from individuals living in areas where malaria is endemic. These features make PvRMC-CSP a promising vaccine candidate for further development. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All

  18. Simultaneous detection of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in clinical isolates by multiplex-nested RT-PCR.

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    Kuamsab, Napaporn; Putaporntip, Chaturong; Pattanawong, Urassaya; Jongwutiwes, Somchai

    2012-06-10

    Gametocyte carriage is essential for malaria transmission and endemicity of disease; thereby it is a target for malaria control strategies. Malaria-infected individuals may harbour gametocytes below the microscopic detection threshold that can be detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting gametocyte-specific mRNA. To date, RT-PCR has mainly been applied to the diagnosis of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes but very limited for that of Plasmodium vivax. A multiplex-nested RT-PCR targeting Pfs25 and Pvs25 mRNA specific to mature gametocytes of P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively, was developed. The assay was evaluated using blood samples collected in rainy and dry seasons from febrile patients,in a malaria-endemic area in Thailand. Malaria diagnosis was performed by Giemsa-stained blood smears and 18S rRNA PCR. The multiplex-nested RT-PCR detected Pfs25 mRNA in 75 of 86 (87.2%) P. falciparum-infected individuals and Pvs25 mRNA in 82 of 90 (91.1%) P. vivax malaria patients diagnosed by 18S rRNA PCR. Gametocytes were detected in 38 (eight P. falciparum and 30 P. vivax) of 157 microscopy positive samples, implying that a large number of patients harbour sub-microscopic gametocytaemia. No seasonal differences in gametocyte carriage were observed for both malaria species diagnosed by multiplex-nested RT-PCR. With single-nested RT-PCR targeting Pfs25 or Pvs25 mRNA as standard, the multiplex-nested RT-PCR offered sensitivities of 97.4% and 98.9% and specificities of 100% and 98.8% for diagnosing mature gametocytes of P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively. The minimum detection limit of the multiplex-nested PCR was 10 copies of templates. The multiplex-nested RT-PCR developed herein is useful for simultaneous assessment of both P. falciparum and P. vivax gametocyte carriage that is prevalent and generally sympatric in several malaria-endemic areas outside Africa.

  19. Relapse of imported Plasmodium vivax malaria is related to primaquine dose: a retrospective study

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    Townell Nicola

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relapsing Plasmodium vivax infection results in significant morbidity for the individual and is a key factor in transmission. Primaquine remains the only licensed drug for prevention of relapse. To minimize relapse rates, treatment guidelines have recently been revised to recommend an increased primaquine dose, aiming to achieve a cumulative dose of ≥6 mg/kg, i.e. ≥420 mg in a 70 kg patient. The aims of this study were to characterize the epidemiology of P. vivax infection imported into Queensland Australia, to determine the rates of relapse, to investigate the use of primaquine therapy, and its efficacy in the prevention of relapse. Methods A retrospective study was undertaken of laboratory confirmed P. vivax infection presenting to the two major tertiary hospitals in Queensland, Australia between January 1999 and January 2011. Primaquine dosing was classified as no dose, low dose ( Results Twenty relapses occurred following 151 primary episodes of P. vivax infection (13.2%. Relapses were confirmed among 3/21 (14.2%, 9/50 (18.0%, 1/54 (1.9% and 7/18 (38.9% of patients administered no dose, low dose, high dose and unknown primaquine dose respectively. High dose primaquine therapy was associated with a significantly lower rate of relapse compared to patients who were prescribed low dose therapy (OR 11.6, 95% CI 1.5-519, p = 0.005. Conclusions Relapse of P. vivax infection is more likely in patients who received low dose primaquine therapy. This study supports the recommendations that high dose primaquine therapy is necessary to minimize relapse of P. vivax malaria.

  20. Plasmodium vivax Population Structure and Transmission Dynamics in Sabah Malaysia

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    Abdullah, Noor Rain; Barber, Bridget E.; William, Timothy; Norahmad, Nor Azrina; Satsu, Umi Rubiah; Muniandy, Prem Kumar; Ismail, Zakiah; Grigg, Matthew J.; Jelip, Jenarun; Piera, Kim; von Seidlein, Lorenz; Yeo, Tsin W.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Price, Ric N.; Auburn, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Despite significant progress in the control of malaria in Malaysia, the complex transmission dynamics of P. vivax continue to challenge national efforts to achieve elimination. To assess the impact of ongoing interventions on P. vivax transmission dynamics in Sabah, we genotyped 9 short tandem repeat markers in a total of 97 isolates (8 recurrences) from across Sabah, with a focus on two districts, Kota Marudu (KM, n = 24) and Kota Kinabalu (KK, n = 21), over a 2 year period. STRUCTURE analysis on the Sabah-wide dataset demonstrated multiple sub-populations. Significant differentiation (F ST  = 0.243) was observed between KM and KK, located just 130 Km apart. Consistent with low endemic transmission, infection complexity was modest in both KM (mean MOI  = 1.38) and KK (mean MOI  = 1.19). However, population diversity remained moderate (H E  = 0.583 in KM and H E  = 0.667 in KK). Temporal trends revealed clonal expansions reflecting epidemic transmission dynamics. The haplotypes of these isolates declined in frequency over time, but persisted at low frequency throughout the study duration. A diverse array of low frequency isolates were detected in both KM and KK, some likely reflecting remnants of previous expansions. In accordance with clonal expansions, high levels of Linkage Disequilibrium (I A S >0.5 [P<0.0001] in KK and KM) declined sharply when identical haplotypes were represented once (I A S  = 0.07 [P = 0.0076] in KM, and I A S = -0.003 [P = 0.606] in KK). All 8 recurrences, likely to be relapses, were homologous to the prior infection. These recurrences may promote the persistence of parasite lineages, sustaining local diversity. In summary, Sabah's shrinking P. vivax population appears to have rendered this low endemic setting vulnerable to epidemic expansions. Migration may play an important role in the introduction of new parasite strains leading to epidemic expansions, with important implications for malaria

  1. Atovaquone and proguanil hydrochloride followed by primaquine for treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Thailand.

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    Looareesuwan, S; Wilairatana, P; Glanarongran, R; Indravijit, K A; Supeeranontha, L; Chinnapha, S; Scott, T R; Chulay, J D

    1999-01-01

    Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium vivax malaria has been reported in several geographical areas. The P. vivax life-cycle includes dormant hepatic parasites (hypnozoites) that cause relapsing malaria weeks to years after initial infection. Curative therapy must therefore target both the erythrocytic and hepatic stages of infection. Between July 1997 and June 1998, we conducted an open-label study in Thailand to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a sequential regimen of combination atovaquone (1000 mg) and proguanil hydrochloride (400 mg), once daily for 3 days, followed by primaquine (30 mg daily for 14 days) for treatment of vivax malaria. All 46 patients who completed the 3-day course of atovaquone-proguanil cleared their parasitaemia within 2-6 days. During a 12-week follow-up period in 35 patients, recurrent parasitaemia occurred in 2. Both recurrent episodes occurred 8 weeks after the start of therapy, consistent with relapse from persistent hypnozoites rather than recrudescence of persistent blood-stage parasites. The dosing regimen was well tolerated. Results of this trial indicate that atovaquone-proguanil followed by primaquine is safe and effective for treatment of vivax malaria.

  2. Point-of-care G6PD diagnostics for Plasmodium vivax malaria is a clinical and public health urgency

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    Baird, J. Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax threatens over 2 billion people globally and sickens tens of millions annually. Recent clinical evidence discredits the long-held notion of this infection as intrinsically benign revealing an often threatening course associated with mortality. Most acute attacks by this species derive from latent forms in the human liver called hypnozoites. Radical cure for P. vivax malaria includes therapy aimed both at the acute attack (blood schizontocidal) and against fu...

  3. A microscale human liver platform that supports the hepatic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and vivax.

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    March, Sandra; Ng, Shengyong; Velmurugan, Soundarapandian; Galstian, Ani; Shan, Jing; Logan, David J; Carpenter, Anne E; Thomas, David; Sim, B Kim Lee; Mota, Maria M; Hoffman, Stephen L; Bhatia, Sangeeta N

    2013-07-17

    The Plasmodium liver stage is an attractive target for the development of antimalarial drugs and vaccines, as it provides an opportunity to interrupt the life cycle of the parasite at a critical early stage. However, targeting the liver stage has been difficult. Undoubtedly, a major barrier has been the lack of robust, reliable, and reproducible in vitro liver-stage cultures. Here, we establish the liver stages for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax in a microscale human liver platform composed of cryopreserved, micropatterned human primary hepatocytes surrounded by supportive stromal cells. Using this system, we have successfully recapitulated the full liver stage of P. falciparum, including the release of infected merozoites and infection of overlaid erythrocytes, as well as the establishment of small forms in late liver stages of P. vivax. Finally, we validate the potential of this platform as a tool for medium-throughput antimalarial drug screening and vaccine development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Mining geographic variations of Plasmodium vivax for active surveillance: a case study in China.

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    Shi, Benyun; Tan, Qi; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Liu, Jiming

    2015-05-27

    Geographic variations of an infectious disease characterize the spatial differentiation of disease incidences caused by various impact factors, such as environmental, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. Some factors may directly determine the force of infection of the disease (namely, explicit factors), while many other factors may indirectly affect the number of disease incidences via certain unmeasurable processes (namely, implicit factors). In this study, the impact of heterogeneous factors on geographic variations of Plasmodium vivax incidences is systematically investigate in Tengchong, Yunnan province, China. A space-time model that resembles a P. vivax transmission model and a hidden time-dependent process, is presented by taking into consideration both explicit and implicit factors. Specifically, the transmission model is built upon relevant demographic, environmental, and biophysical factors to describe the local infections of P. vivax. While the hidden time-dependent process is assessed by several socioeconomic factors to account for the imported cases of P. vivax. To quantitatively assess the impact of heterogeneous factors on geographic variations of P. vivax infections, a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) simulation method is developed to estimate the model parameters by fitting the space-time model to the reported spatial-temporal disease incidences. Since there is no ground-truth information available, the performance of the MCMC method is first evaluated against a synthetic dataset. The results show that the model parameters can be well estimated using the proposed MCMC method. Then, the proposed model is applied to investigate the geographic variations of P. vivax incidences among all 18 towns in Tengchong, Yunnan province, China. Based on the geographic variations, the 18 towns can be further classify into five groups with similar socioeconomic causality for P. vivax incidences. Although this study focuses mainly on the transmission of P. vivax

  5. Prevalence of mutation and phenotypic expression associated with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax.

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    Zakai, Haytham A; Khan, Wajihullah; Asma, Umme

    2013-09-01

    Therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), which is commonly used to treat falciparum malaria, was assessed in isolates of Plasmodium falciparum (Welch, 1897) and Plasmodium vivax (Grassi et Feletti, 1890) ofAligarh, Uttar Pradesh, North India and Taif, Saudi Arabia during 2011-2012. Both the species showed mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) enzyme as they have common biochemical drug targets. Mutation rate for pfdhfr was higher compared to pvdhfr because the drug was mainly given to treat falciparum malaria. Since both the species coexist, P. vivax was also exposed to SP due to faulty species diagnosis or medication without specific diagnosis. Low level of mutations against SP in P. falciparum of Saudi isolates indicates that the SP combination is still effective for the treatment of falciparum malaria. Since SP is used as first-line of treatment because of high level of resistance against chloroquine (CQ), it may result in spread of higher level of mutations resulting in drug resistance and treatment failure in near future. Therefore, to avoid further higher mutations in the parasite, use of better treatment regimens such as artesunate combination therapy must be introduced against SP combination.

  6. Biochemical properties of a novel cysteine protease of Plasmodium vivax, vivapain-4.

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    Byoung-Kuk Na

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Multiple cysteine proteases of malaria parasites are required for maintenance of parasite metabolic homeostasis and egress from the host erythrocyte. In Plasmodium falciparum these proteases appear to mediate the processing of hemoglobin and aspartic proteases (plasmepsins in the acidic food vacuole and the hydrolysis of erythrocyte structural proteins at neutral pH. Two cysteine proteases, vivapain (VX-2 and VX-3 have been characterized in P. vivax, but comprehensive studies of P. vivax cysteine proteases remain elusive.We characterized a novel cysteine protease of P. vivax, VX-4, of which orthologs appears to have evolved differentially in primate plasmodia with strong cladistic affinity toward those of rodent Plasmodium. Recombinant VX-4 demonstrated dual substrate specificity depending on the surrounding micro-environmental pH. Its hydrolyzing activity against benzyloxycarbonyl-Leu-Arg-4-methyl-coumaryl-7-amide (Z-Leu-Arg-MCA and Z-Phe-Arg-MCA was highest at acidic pH (5.5, whereas that against Z-Arg-Arg-MCA was maximal at neutral pH (6.5-7.5. VX-4 preferred positively charged amino acids and Gln at the P1 position, with less strict specificity at P3 and P4. P2 preferences depended on pH (Leu at pH 5.5 and Arg at pH 7.5. Three amino acids that delineate the S2 pocket were substituted in VX-4 compared to VX-2 and VX-3 (Ala90, Gly157 and Glu180. Replacement of Glu180 abolished activity against Z-Arg-Arg-MCA at neutral pH, indicating the importance of this amino acid in the pH-dependent substrate preference. VX-4 was localized in the food vacuoles and cytoplasm of the erythrocytic stage of P. vivax. VX-4 showed maximal activity against actin at neutral pH, and that against P. vivax plasmepsin 4 and hemoglobin was detected at neutral/acidic and acidic pH, respectively.VX-4 demonstrates pH-dependent substrate switching, which might offer an efficient mechanism for the specific cleavage of different substrates in different intracellular

  7. Reactive Case Detection for Plasmodium vivax Malaria Elimination in Rural Amazonia.

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    Pablo S Fontoura

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Malaria burden in Brazil has reached its lowest levels in 35 years and Plasmodium vivax now accounts for 84% of cases countrywide. Targeting residual malaria transmission entrenched in the Amazon is the next major challenge for ongoing elimination efforts. Better strategies are urgently needed to address the vast reservoir of asymptomatic P. vivax carriers in this and other areas approaching malaria elimination.We evaluated a reactive case detection (RCD strategy tailored for P. vivax transmission in farming settlements in the Amazon Basin of Brazil. Over six months, 41 cases detected by passive surveillance triggered four rounds of RCD (0, 30, 60, and 180 days after index case enrollment, using microscopy- and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR-based diagnosis, comprising subjects sharing the household (HH with the index case (n = 163, those living in the 5 nearest HHs within 3 km (n = 878, and individuals from 5 randomly chosen control HHs located > 5 km away from index cases (n = 841. Correlates of infection were identified with mixed-effects logistic regression models. Molecular genotyping was used to infer local parasite transmission networks.Subjects in index and neighbor HHs were significantly more likely to be parasitemic than control HH members, after adjusting for potential confounders, and together harbored > 90% of the P. vivax biomass in study subjects. Clustering patterns were temporally stable. Four rounds of microscopy-based RCD would identify only 49.5% of the infections diagnosed by qPCR, but 76.8% of the total parasite biomass circulating in the proximity of index HHs. However, control HHs accounted for 27.6% of qPCR-positive samples, 92.6% of them from asymptomatic carriers beyond the reach of RCD. Molecular genotyping revealed high P. vivax diversity, consistent with complex transmission networks and multiple sources of infection within clusters, potentially complicating malaria elimination efforts.

  8. Higher Complexity of Infection and Genetic Diversity of Plasmodium vivax Than Plasmodium falciparum across all Malaria Transmission Zones of Papua New Guinea

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    Fola, Abebe A.; Harrison, G. L. Abby; Hazairin, Mita Hapsari; Barnadas, Céline; Hetzel, Manuel W.; Iga, Jonah; Siba, Peter M.; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E.

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have varying transmission dynamics that are informed by molecular epidemiology. This study aimed to determine the complexity of infection and genetic diversity of P. vivax and P. falciparum throughout Papua New Guinea (PNG) to evaluate transmission dynamics across the country. In 2008–2009, a nationwide malaria indicator survey collected 8,936 samples from all 16 endemic provinces of PNG. Of these, 892 positive P. vivax samples were genotyped at PvMS16 and PvmspF3, and 758 positive P. falciparum samples were genotyped at Pfmsp2. The data were analyzed for multiplicity of infection (MOI) and genetic diversity. Overall, P. vivax had higher polyclonality (71%) and mean MOI (2.32) than P. falciparum (20%, 1.39). These measures were significantly associated with prevalence for P. falciparum but not for P. vivax. The genetic diversity of P. vivax (PvMS16: expected heterozygosity = 0.95, 0.85–0.98; PvMsp1F3: 0.78, 0.66–0.89) was higher and less variable than that of P. falciparum (Pfmsp2: 0.89, 0.65–0.97). Significant associations of MOI with allelic richness (rho = 0.69, P = 0.009) and expected heterozygosity (rho = 0.87, P < 0.001) were observed for P. falciparum. Conversely, genetic diversity was not correlated with polyclonality nor mean MOI for P. vivax. The results demonstrate higher complexity of infection and genetic diversity of P. vivax across the country. Although P. falciparum shows a strong association of these parameters with prevalence, a lack of association was observed for P. vivax and is consistent with higher potential for outcrossing of this species. PMID:28070005

  9. The epidemiology of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in China, 2004-2012: from intensified control to elimination.

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    Zhang, Qian; Lai, Shengjie; Zheng, Canjun; Zhang, Honglong; Zhou, Sheng; Hu, Wenbiao; Clements, Archie C A; Zhou, Xiao-Nong; Yang, Weizhong; Hay, Simon I; Yu, Hongjie; Li, Zhongjie

    2014-11-03

    In China, the national malaria elimination programme has been operating since 2010. This study aimed to explore the epidemiological changes in patterns of malaria in China from intensified control to elimination stages. Data on nationwide malaria cases from 2004 to 2012 were extracted from the Chinese national malaria surveillance system. The secular trend, gender and age features, seasonality, and spatial distribution by Plasmodium species were analysed. In total, 238,443 malaria cases were reported, and the proportion of Plasmodium falciparum increased drastically from population. The areas affected by Plasmodium vivax malaria shrunk, while areas affected by P. falciparum malaria expanded from 294 counties in 2004 to 600 counties in 2012. This study demonstrated that malaria has decreased dramatically in the last five years, especially since the Chinese government launched a malaria elimination programme in 2010, and areas with reported falciparum malaria cases have expanded over recent years. These findings suggest that elimination efforts should be improved to meet these changes, so as to achieve the nationwide malaria elimination goal in China in 2020.

  10. Plasmodium vivax thrombospondin related adhesion protein: immunogenicity and protective efficacy in rodents and Aotus monkeys

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    Angélica Castellanos

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The thrombospondin related adhesion protein (TRAP is a malaria pre-erythrocytic antigen currently pursued as malaria vaccine candidate to Plasmodium falciparum. In this study, a long synthetic peptide (LSP representing a P. vivax TRAP fragment involved in hepatocyte invasion was formulated in both Freund and Montanide ISA 720 adjutants and administered by IM and subcutaneous routes to BALB/c mice and Aotus monkeys. We measured specific humoral immune responses in both animal species and performed a sporozoite challenge in Aotus monkeys to assess the protective efficacy of the vaccine. After immunization both mice and Aotus seroconverted as shown by ELISA, and the specific anti-peptide antibodies cross reacted with the parasite in IFAT assays. Only two out of six immunized animals became infected after P. vivax sporozoite challenge as compared with four out of six animals from the control group. These results suggest that this TRAP fragment has protective potential against P. vivax malaria and deserves further studies as vaccine candidate.

  11. Substantial population structure of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand facilitates identification of the sources of residual transmission.

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    Veerayuth Kittichai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax transmission in Thailand has been substantially reduced over the past 10 years, yet it remains highly endemic along international borders. Understanding the genetic relationship of residual parasite populations can help track the origins of the parasites that are reintroduced into malaria-free regions within the country.A total of 127 P. vivax isolates were genotyped from two western provinces (Tak and Kanchanaburi and one eastern province (Ubon Ratchathani of Thailand using 10 microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity was high, but recent clonal expansion was detected in all three provinces. Substantial population structure and genetic differentiation of parasites among provinces suggest limited gene flow among these sites. There was no haplotype sharing among the three sites, and a reduced panel of four microsatellite markers was sufficient to assign the parasites to their provincial origins.Significant parasite genetic differentiation between provinces shows successful interruption of parasite spread within Thailand, but high diversity along international borders implies a substantial parasite population size in these regions. The provincial origin of P. vivax cases can be reliably determined by genotyping four microsatellite markers, which should be useful for monitoring parasite reintroduction after malaria elimination.

  12. Substantial population structure of Plasmodium vivax in Thailand facilitates identification of the sources of residual transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittichai, Veerayuth; Koepfli, Cristian; Nguitragool, Wang; Sattabongkot, Jetsumon; Cui, Liwang

    2017-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax transmission in Thailand has been substantially reduced over the past 10 years, yet it remains highly endemic along international borders. Understanding the genetic relationship of residual parasite populations can help track the origins of the parasites that are reintroduced into malaria-free regions within the country. A total of 127 P. vivax isolates were genotyped from two western provinces (Tak and Kanchanaburi) and one eastern province (Ubon Ratchathani) of Thailand using 10 microsatellite markers. Genetic diversity was high, but recent clonal expansion was detected in all three provinces. Substantial population structure and genetic differentiation of parasites among provinces suggest limited gene flow among these sites. There was no haplotype sharing among the three sites, and a reduced panel of four microsatellite markers was sufficient to assign the parasites to their provincial origins. Significant parasite genetic differentiation between provinces shows successful interruption of parasite spread within Thailand, but high diversity along international borders implies a substantial parasite population size in these regions. The provincial origin of P. vivax cases can be reliably determined by genotyping four microsatellite markers, which should be useful for monitoring parasite reintroduction after malaria elimination.

  13. A Large Plasmodium vivax Reservoir and Little Population Structure in the South Pacific.

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    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available The importance of Plasmodium vivax in malaria elimination is increasingly being recognized, yet little is known about its population size and population genetic structure in the South Pacific, an area that is the focus of intensified malaria control.We have genotyped 13 microsatellite markers in 295 P. vivax isolates from four geographically distinct sites in Papua New Guinea (PNG and one site from Solomon Islands, representing different transmission intensities.Diversity was very high with expected heterozygosity values ranging from 0.62 to 0.98 for the different markers. Effective population size was high (12'872 to 19'533 per site. In PNG population structuring was limited with moderate levels of genetic differentiation. F ST values (adjusted for high diversity of markers were 0.14-0.15. Slightly higher levels were observed between PNG populations and Solomon Islands (F ST = 0.16.Low levels of population structure despite geographical barriers to transmission are in sharp contrast to results from regions of low P. vivax endemicity. Prior to intensification of malaria control programs in the study area, parasite diversity and effective population size remained high.

  14. Assessment of an automated capillary system for Plasmodium vivax microsatellite genotyping.

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    Manrique, Paulo; Hoshi, Mari; Fasabi, Manuel; Nolasco, Oscar; Yori, Pablo; Calderón, Martiza; Gilman, Robert H; Kosek, Margaret N; Vinetz, Joseph M; Gamboa, Dionicia

    2015-08-21

    Several platforms have been used to generate the primary data for microsatellite analysis of malaria parasite genotypes. Each has relative advantages but share a limitation of being time- and cost-intensive. A commercially available automated capillary gel cartridge system was assessed in the microsatellite analysis of Plasmodium vivax diversity in the Peruvian Amazon. The reproducibility and accuracy of a commercially-available automated capillary system, QIAxcel, was assessed using a sequenced PCR product of 227 base pairs. This product was measured 42 times, then 27 P. vivax samples from Peruvian Amazon subjects were analyzed with this instrument using five informative microsatellites. Results from the QIAxcel system were compared with a Sanger-type sequencing machine, the ABI PRISM(®) 3100 Genetic Analyzer. Significant differences were seen between the sequenced amplicons and the results from the QIAxcel instrument. Different runs, plates and cartridges yielded significantly different results. Additionally, allele size decreased with each run by 0.045, or 1 bp, every three plates. QIAxcel and ABI PRISM systems differed in giving different values than those obtained by ABI PRISM, and too many (i.e. inaccurate) alleles per locus were also seen with the automated instrument. While P. vivax diversity could generally be estimated using an automated capillary gel cartridge system, the data demonstrate that this system is not sufficiently precise for reliably identifying parasite strains via microsatellite analysis. This conclusion reached after systematic analysis was due both to inadequate precision and poor reproducibility in measuring PCR product size.

  15. Partial Sequence Analysis of Merozoite Surface Proteine-3α Gene in Plasmodium vivax Isolates from Malarious Areas of Iran

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    H Mirhendi

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Approximately 85-90% of malaria infections in Iran are attributed to Plasmodium vivax, while little is known about the genetic of the parasite and its strain types in this region. This study was designed and performed for describing genetic characteristics of Plasmodium vivax population of Iran based on the merozoite surface protein-3α gene sequence. Methods: Through a descriptive study we analyzed partial P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3α gene sequences from 17 clinical P. vivax isolates collected from malarious areas of Iran. Genomic DNA was extracted by Q1Aamp® DNA blood mini kit, amplified through nested PCR for a partial nucleotide sequence of PvMSP-3 gene in P. vivax. PCR-amplified products were sequenced with an ABI Prism Perkin-Elmer 310 sequencer machine and the data were analyzed with clustal W software. Results: Analysis of PvMSP-3 gene sequences demonstrated extensive polymorphisms, but the sequence identity between isolates of same types was relatively high. We identified specific insertions and deletions for the types A, B and C variants of P. vivax in our isolates. In phylogenetic comparison of geographically separated isolates, there was not a significant geo­graphical branching of the parasite populations. Conclusion: The highly polymorphic nature of isolates suggests that more investigations of the PvMSP-3 gene are needed to explore its vaccine potential.

  16. Design, construction and validation of a Plasmodium vivax microarray for the transcriptome profiling of clinical isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Boopathi, Pon Arunachalam

    2016-10-09

    High density oligonucleotide microarrays have been used on Plasmodium vivax field isolates to estimate whole genome expression. However, no microarray platform has been experimentally optimized for studying the transcriptome of field isolates. In the present study, we adopted both bioinformatics and experimental testing approaches to select best optimized probes suitable for detecting parasite transcripts from field samples and included them in designing a custom 15K P. vivax microarray. This microarray has long oligonucleotide probes (60 mer) that were in-situ synthesized onto glass slides using Agilent SurePrint technology and has been developed into an 8X15K format (8 identical arrays on a single slide). Probes in this array were experimentally validated and represents 4180 P. vivax genes in sense orientation, of which 1219 genes have also probes in antisense orientation. Validation of the 15K array by using field samples (n =14) has shown 99% of parasite transcript detection from any of the samples. Correlation analysis between duplicate probes (n = 85) present in the arrays showed perfect correlation (r(2) = 0.98) indicating the reproducibility. Multiple probes representing the same gene exhibited similar kind of expression pattern across the samples (positive correlation, r >= 0.6). Comparison of hybridization data with the previous studies and quantitative real-time PCR experiments were performed to highlight the microarray validation procedure. This array is unique in its design, and results indicate that the array is sensitive and reproducible. Hence, this microarray could be a valuable functional genomics tool to generate reliable expression data from P. vivax field isolates. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Design, construction and validation of a Plasmodium vivax microarray for the transcriptome profiling of clinical isolates

    KAUST Repository

    Boopathi, Pon Arunachalam; Subudhi, Amit; Middha, Sheetal; Acharya, Jyoti; Mugasimangalam, Raja Chinnadurai; Kochar, Sanjay Kumar; Kochar, Dhanpat Kumar; Das, Ashis

    2016-01-01

    High density oligonucleotide microarrays have been used on Plasmodium vivax field isolates to estimate whole genome expression. However, no microarray platform has been experimentally optimized for studying the transcriptome of field isolates. In the present study, we adopted both bioinformatics and experimental testing approaches to select best optimized probes suitable for detecting parasite transcripts from field samples and included them in designing a custom 15K P. vivax microarray. This microarray has long oligonucleotide probes (60 mer) that were in-situ synthesized onto glass slides using Agilent SurePrint technology and has been developed into an 8X15K format (8 identical arrays on a single slide). Probes in this array were experimentally validated and represents 4180 P. vivax genes in sense orientation, of which 1219 genes have also probes in antisense orientation. Validation of the 15K array by using field samples (n =14) has shown 99% of parasite transcript detection from any of the samples. Correlation analysis between duplicate probes (n = 85) present in the arrays showed perfect correlation (r(2) = 0.98) indicating the reproducibility. Multiple probes representing the same gene exhibited similar kind of expression pattern across the samples (positive correlation, r >= 0.6). Comparison of hybridization data with the previous studies and quantitative real-time PCR experiments were performed to highlight the microarray validation procedure. This array is unique in its design, and results indicate that the array is sensitive and reproducible. Hence, this microarray could be a valuable functional genomics tool to generate reliable expression data from P. vivax field isolates. (C) 2016 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. The susceptibility of Anopheles lesteri to infection with Korean strain of Plasmodium vivax

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    Kim Tong-Soo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following its recent re-emergence, malaria has gained renewed attention as a serious infectious disease in Korea. Three species of the Hyrcanusgroup, Anopheles lesteri, Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles pullus, have long been suspected malaria vectors. However, opinions about their vector ability are controversial. The present study was designed with the aim of determining the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to a Korean isolate of Plasmodium vivax. Also, An. sinensis is primarily suspected to be vector of malaria in Korea, but in Thailand, the same species is described to have less medical importance. Therefore, comparative susceptibility of Thai and Korean strains of An. sinensis with Thai strain of P. vivax may be helpful to understand whether these geographically different strains exhibit differences in their susceptibility or not. Methods The comparative susceptibility of An. lesteri, An. sinensis and An. pullus was studied by feeding laboratory-reared mosquitoes on blood from patients carrying gametocytes from Korea and Thailand. Results In experimental feeding with Korean strain of P. vivax, oocysts developed in An. lesteri, An. sinensis and An. pullus. Salivary gland sporozoites were detected only in An. lesteri and An. sinensis but not in An. pullus. Large differences were found in the number of sporozoites in the salivary glands, with An. lesteri carrying much higher densities, up to 2,105 sporozoites in a single microscope field of 750 × 560 μM, whereas a maximum of 14 sporozoites were found in any individual salivary gland of An. sinensis. Similar results were obtained from a susceptibility test of two different strains of An. sinensis to Thai isolate of P. vivax, and differences in vector susceptibility according to geographical variation were not detected. Conclusion The high sporozoite rate and sporozoite loads of An. lesteri indicate that this species is highly susceptible to infection with P. vivax

  19. Clinical Manifestations, Treatment, and Outcome of Hospitalized Patients with Plasmodium vivax Malaria in Two Indian States: A Retrospective Study

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    Jagjit Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This was a retrospective study done on 110 patients hospitalized with P. vivax malaria in three medical college hospitals, one in the union territory of Chandigarh and the other two in Gujarat, that is, Ahmedabad and Surat. The clinical presentation, treatment, and outcome were recorded. As per WHO criteria for severity, 19 of 110 patients had severe disease—six patients had clinical jaundice with hepatic dysfunction, three patients had severe anemia, three had spontaneous bleeding, two had acute respiratory distress syndrome, and one had cerebral malaria, hyperparasitemia, renal failure, circulatory collapse, and metabolic acidosis. All patients with severe P. vivax malaria survived, but one child with cerebral malaria had neurological sequelae. There was wide variation in the antimalarial treatment received at the three centres. Plasmodium vivax malaria can no longer be considered a benign condition. WHO guidelines for treatment of P. vivax malaria need to be reinforced.

  20. Could Plasmodium vivax malaria trigger malnutrition? Revisiting the Bradford Hill criteria to assess a causal relationship between two neglected problems

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    Wuelton Marcelo Monteiro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The benign characteristics formerly attributed to Plasmodium vivax infections have recently changed owing to the increasing number of reports of severe vivax malaria resulting in a broad spectrum of clinical complications, probably including undernutrition. Causal inference is a complex process, and arriving at a tentative inference of the causal or non-causal nature of an association is a subjective process limited by the existing evidence. Applying classical epidemiology principles, such as the Bradford Hill criteria, may help foster an understanding of causality and lead to appropriate interventions being proposed that may improve quality of life and decrease morbidity in neglected populations. Here, we examined these criteria in the context of the available data suggesting that vivax malaria may substantially contribute to childhood malnutrition. We found the data supported a role for P. vivax in the etiology of undernutrition in endemic areas. Thus, the application of modern causal inference tools, in future studies, may be useful in determining causation.

  1. The evolution and diversity of a low complexity vaccine candidate, merozoite surface protein 9 (MSP-9), in Plasmodium vivax and closely related species.

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    Chenet, Stella M; Pacheco, M Andreína; Bacon, David J; Collins, William E; Barnwell, John W; Escalante, Ananias A

    2013-12-01

    The merozoite surface protein-9 (MSP-9) has been considered a target for an anti-malarial vaccine since it is one of many proteins involved in the erythrocyte invasion, a critical step in the parasite life cycle. Orthologs encoding this antigen have been found in all known species of Plasmodium parasitic to primates. In order to characterize and investigate the extent and maintenance of MSP-9 genetic diversity, we analyzed DNA sequences of the following malaria parasite species: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium reichenowi, Plasmodium chabaudi, Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium coatneyi, Plasmodium gonderi, Plasmodium knowlesi, Plasmodium inui, Plasmodium simiovale, Plasmodium fieldi, Plasmodium cynomolgi and Plasmodium vivax and evaluated the signature of natural selection in all MSP-9 orthologs. Our findings suggest that the gene encoding MSP-9 is under purifying selection in P. vivax and closely related species. We further explored how selection affected different regions of MSP-9 by comparing the polymorphisms in P. vivax and P. falciparum, and found contrasting patterns between these two species that suggest differences in functional constraints. This observation implies that the MSP-9 orthologs in human parasites may interact differently with the host immune response. Thus, studies carried out in one species cannot be directly translated into the other. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Expression of Plasmodium vivax crt-o Is Related to Parasite Stage but Not Ex Vivo Chloroquine Susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pava, Zuleima; Handayuni, Irene; Wirjanata, Grennady; To, Sheren; Trianty, Leily; Noviyanti, Rintis; Poespoprodjo, Jeanne Rini; Auburn, Sarah; Price, Ric N; Marfurt, Jutta

    2016-01-01

    Chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium vivax is present in most countries where P. vivax infection is endemic, but the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible remain unknown. Increased expression of P. vivax crt-o (pvcrt-o) has been correlated with in vivo CQ resistance in an area with low-grade resistance. We assessed pvcrt-o expression in isolates from Papua (Indonesia), where P. vivax is highly CQ resistant. Ex vivo drug susceptibilities to CQ, amodiaquine, piperaquine, mefloquine, and artesunate were determined using a modified schizont maturation assay. Expression levels of pvcrt-o were measured using a novel real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR method. Large variations in pvcrt-o expression were observed across the 51 isolates evaluated, with the fold change in expression level ranging from 0.01 to 59 relative to that seen with the P. vivax β-tubulin gene and from 0.01 to 24 relative to that seen with the P. vivax aldolase gene. Expression was significantly higher in isolates with the majority of parasites at the ring stage of development (median fold change, 1.7) compared to those at the trophozoite stage (median fold change, 0.5; P determinant of ex vivo drug susceptibility. A comprehensive transcriptomic approach is warranted for an in-depth investigation of the role of gene expression levels and P. vivax drug resistance. Copyright © 2015 Pava et al.

  3. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

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    Cook Jackie

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess the risk of being malaria sero-positive at two consecutive time points during the rainy season and investigates who is most likely to sero-convert over the transmission season. Methods In 2005, two cross-sectional surveys, one in the middle and the other at the end of the malaria transmission season, were carried out in two ecologically distinct regions in Cambodia. Parasitological and serological data were collected in four districts. Antibodies to Plasmodium falciparum Glutamate Rich Protein (GLURP and Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-119 (MSP-119 were detected using Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The force of infection was estimated using a simple catalytic model fitted using maximum likelihood methods. Risks for sero-converting during the rainy season were analysed using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART method. Results A total of 804 individuals participating in both surveys were analysed. The overall parasite prevalence was low (4.6% and 2.0% for P. falciparum and 7.9% and 6.0% for P. vivax in August and November respectively. P. falciparum force of infection was higher in the eastern region and increased between August and November, whilst P. vivax force of infection was higher in the western region and remained similar in both surveys. In the western region, malaria transmission changed very little across the season (for both species. CART analysis for P. falciparum in the east highlighted age, ethnicity, village of residence and forest work as important predictors for malaria exposure during the rainy season. Adults were more likely to increase their antibody responses to P. falciparum during the

  4. Multiple origins of resistance-conferring mutations in Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase

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    O'Neil Michael T

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In order to maximize the useful therapeutic life of antimalarial drugs, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms by which parasites resistant to antimalarial drugs are selected and spread in natural populations. Recent work has demonstrated that pyrimethamine-resistance conferring mutations in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr have arisen rarely de novo, but spread widely in Asia and Africa. The origin and spread of mutations in Plasmodium vivax dhfr were assessed by constructing haplotypes based on sequencing dhfr and its flanking regions. Methods The P. vivax dhfr coding region, 792 bp upstream and 683 bp downstream were amplified and sequenced from 137 contemporary patient isolates from Colombia, India, Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Vanuatu. A repeat motif located 2.6 kb upstream of dhfr was also sequenced from 75 of 137 patient isolates, and mutational relationships among the haplotypes were visualized using the programme Network. Results Synonymous and non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs within the dhfr coding region were identified, as was the well-documented in-frame insertion/deletion (indel. SNPs were also identified upstream and downstream of dhfr, with an indel and a highly polymorphic repeat region identified upstream of dhfr. The regions flanking dhfr were highly variable. The double mutant (58R/117N dhfr allele has evolved from several origins, because the 58R is encoded by at least 3 different codons. The triple (58R/61M/117T and quadruple (57L/61M/117T/173F, 57I/58R/61M/117T and 57L/58R/61M/117T mutant alleles had at least three independent origins in Thailand, Indonesia, and Papua New Guinea/Vanuatu. Conclusion It was found that the P. vivax dhfr coding region and its flanking intergenic regions are highly polymorphic and that mutations in P. vivax dhfr that confer antifolate resistance have arisen several times in the Asian region. This contrasts

  5. Use of a colorimetric (DELI) test for the evaluation of chemoresistance of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax to commonly used anti-plasmodial drugs in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Pratt-Riccio, Lilian R; Chehuan, Yonne F; Siqueira, Maria José; das Graças Alecrim, Maria; Bianco-Junior, Cesare; Druilhe, Pierre; Brasseur, Philippe; de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria; Carvalho, Leonardo J M; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio T

    2013-08-12

    The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax resistance to available anti-malarial drugs represents a major drawback in the control of malaria and its associated morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoresistance profile of P. falciparum and P. vivax to commonly used anti-plasmodial drugs in a malaria-endemic area in the Brazilian Amazon. The study was carried out in Manaus (Amazonas state), in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 88 P. falciparum and 178 P. vivax isolates was collected from 2004 to 2007. The sensitivity of P. falciparum isolates was determined to chloroquine, quinine, mefloquine and artesunate and the sensitivity of P. vivax isolates was determined to chloroquine and mefloquine, by using the colorimetric DELI test. As expected, a high prevalence of P. falciparum isolates resistant to chloroquine (78.1%) was observed. The prevalence of isolates with profile of resistance or decreased sensitivity for quinine, mefloquine and artesunate was 12.7, 21.2 and 11.7%, respectively. In the case of P. vivax, the prevalence of isolates with profile of resistance for chloroquine and mefloquine was 9.8 and 28%, respectively. No differences in the frequencies of isolates with profile of resistance or geometric mean IC50s were seen when comparing the data obtained in 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007, for all tested anti-malarials. The great majority of P. falciparum isolates in the Brazilian malaria-endemic area remain resistant to chloroquine, and the decreased sensitivity to quinine, mefloquine and artesunate observed in 10-20% of the isolates must be taken with concern, especially for artesunate. Plasmodium vivax isolates also showed a significant proportion of isolates with decreased sensitivity to chloroquine (first-line drug) and mainly to mefloquine. The data presented here also confirm the usefulness of the DELI test to generate results able to impact on public health policies.

  6. Plasmodium vivax associated severe malaria complications among children in some malaria endemic areas of Ethiopia.

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    Ketema, Tsige; Bacha, Ketema

    2013-07-08

    Although, Plasmodium vivax is a rare parasite in most parts of Africa, it has significant public health importance in Ethiopia. In some parts of the country, it is responsible for majority of malaria associated morbidity. Recently severe life threatening malaria syndromes, frequently associated to P. falciparum, has been reported from P. vivax mono-infections. This prompted designing of the current study to assess prevalence of severe malaria complications related to P. vivax malaria in Ethiopia. The study was conducted in two study sites, namely Kersa and Halaba Kulito districts, located in southwest and southern parts of Ethiopia, respectively. Children, aged ≤ 10 years, who visited the two health centers during the study period, were recruited to the study. Clinical and demographic characteristics such as age, sex, temperature, diarrhea, persistent vomiting, confusion, respiratory distress, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, hemoglobinuria, and epitaxis were assessed for a total of 139 children diagnosed to have P. vivax mono-infection. Parasitological data were collected following standard procedures. Hemoglobin and glucose level were measured using portable hemocue instrument. Median age of children was 4.25 ± 2.95 years. Geometric mean parasite count and mean hemoglobin level were 4254.89 parasite/μl and 11.55 g/dl, respectively. Higher prevalence rate of malaria and severe malaria complications were observed among children enrolled in Halaba district (P infection (OR = 1.9, 95% CI, 1.08 to 3.34), while female had higher risk to anemia (OR = 1.91, 95% CI, 1.08 - 3.34). The observed number of anemic children was 43%, of which most of them were found in age range from 0-3 years. Furthermore, P. vivax malaria was a risk factor for incidence of anemia (P lower than those reported from other countries. However, incidence of severe malaria complications in one of the sites, Halaba district, where there is highest treatment failure to first line drug, could have

  7. Population genetic structure and natural selection of apical membrane antigen-1 in Plasmodium vivax Korean isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Mi; Lee, Jinyoung; Cho, Pyo-Yun; Moon, Sung-Ung; Ju, Hye-Lim; Ahn, Seong Kyu; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Lee, Hyeong-Woo; Kim, Tong-Soo; Na, Byoung-Kuk

    2015-11-16

    Plasmodium vivax apical membrane antigen-1 (PvAMA-1) is a leading candidate antigen for blood stage malaria vaccine. However, antigenic variation is a major obstacle in the development of an effective vaccine based on this antigen. In this study, the genetic structure and the effect of natural selection of PvAMA-1 among Korean P. vivax isolates were analysed. Blood samples were collected from 66 Korean patients with vivax malaria. The entire PvAMA-1 gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a TA cloning vector. The PvAMA-1 sequence of each isolate was sequenced and the polymorphic characteristics and effect of natural selection were analysed using the DNASTAR, MEGA4, and DnaSP programs. Thirty haplotypes of PvAMA-1, which were further classified into seven different clusters, were identified in the 66 Korean P. vivax isolates. Domain II was highly conserved among the sequences, but substantial nucleotide diversity was observed in domains I and III. The difference between the rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggested that the gene has evolved under natural selection. No strong evidence indicating balancing or positive selection on PvAMA-1 was identified. Recombination may also play a role in the resulting genetic diversity of PvAMA-1. This study is the first comprehensive analysis of nucleotide diversity across the entire PvAMA-1 gene using a single population sample from Korea. Korean PvAMA-1 had limited genetic diversity compared to PvAMA-1 in global isolates. The overall pattern of genetic polymorphism of Korean PvAMA-1 differed from other global isolates and novel amino acid changes were also identified in Korean PvAMA-1. Evidences for natural selection and recombination event were observed, which is likely to play an important role in generating genetic diversity across the PvAMA-1. These results provide useful information for the understanding the population structure of P. vivax circulating in Korea and have important

  8. Analysis of Polymorphisms in the Merozoite Surface Protein-3a Gene and Two Microsatellite Loci in Sri Lankan Plasmodium vivax: Evidence of Population Substructure in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Amerasinghe, Priyanie H

    2011-01-01

    Abstract. The geographical distribution of genetic variation in Plasmodium vivax samples (N = 386) from nine districts across Sri Lanka is described using three markers; the P. vivax merozoite surface protein-3a (Pvmsp-3a) gene, and the two microsatellites m1501 and m3502. At Pvmsp-3a, 11 alleles....... The results show evidence of high genetic diversity and possible population substructure of P. vivax populations in Sri Lanka....

  9. A Library of Plasmodium vivax Recombinant Merozoite Proteins Reveals New Vaccine Candidates and Protein-Protein Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostetler, Jessica B.; Sharma, Sumana; Bartholdson, S. Josefin; Wright, Gavin J.; Fairhurst, Rick M.; Rayner, Julian C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A vaccine targeting Plasmodium vivax will be an essential component of any comprehensive malaria elimination program, but major gaps in our understanding of P. vivax biology, including the protein-protein interactions that mediate merozoite invasion of reticulocytes, hinder the search for candidate antigens. Only one ligand-receptor interaction has been identified, that between P. vivax Duffy Binding Protein (PvDBP) and the erythrocyte Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC), and strain-specific immune responses to PvDBP make it a complex vaccine target. To broaden the repertoire of potential P. vivax merozoite-stage vaccine targets, we exploited a recent breakthrough in expressing full-length ectodomains of Plasmodium proteins in a functionally-active form in mammalian cells and initiated a large-scale study of P. vivax merozoite proteins that are potentially involved in reticulocyte binding and invasion. Methodology/Principal Findings We selected 39 P. vivax proteins that are predicted to localize to the merozoite surface or invasive secretory organelles, some of which show homology to P. falciparum vaccine candidates. Of these, we were able to express 37 full-length protein ectodomains in a mammalian expression system, which has been previously used to express P. falciparum invasion ligands such as PfRH5. To establish whether the expressed proteins were correctly folded, we assessed whether they were recognized by antibodies from Cambodian patients with acute vivax malaria. IgG from these samples showed at least a two-fold change in reactivity over naïve controls in 27 of 34 antigens tested, and the majority showed heat-labile IgG immunoreactivity, suggesting the presence of conformation-sensitive epitopes and native tertiary protein structures. Using a method specifically designed to detect low-affinity, extracellular protein-protein interactions, we confirmed a predicted interaction between P. vivax 6-cysteine proteins P12 and P41, further

  10. Cross-reactive anti-PfCLAG9 antibodies in the sera of asymptomatic parasite carriers of Plasmodium vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Joana D'Arc Neves; Zanchi, Fernando Berton; Rodrigues, Francisco Lurdevanhe da Silva; Honda, Eduardo Rezende; Katsuragawa, Tony Hiroschi; Pereira, Dhélio Batista; Taborda, Roger Lafontaine Mesquita; Tada, Mauro Shugiro; Ferreira, Ricardo de Godoi Mattos; Pereira-da-Silva, Luiz Hildebrando

    2013-01-01

    The PfCLAG9 has been extensively studied because their immunogenicity. Thereby, the gene product is important for therapeutics interventions and a potential vaccine candidate. Antibodies against synthetic peptides corresponding to selected sequences of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen PfCLAG9 were found in sera of falciparum malaria patients from Rondônia, in the Brazilian Amazon. Much higher antibody titres were found in semi-immune and immune asymptomatic parasite carriers than in subjects suffering clinical infections, corroborating original findings in Papua Guinea. However, sera of Plasmodium vivax patients from the same Amazon area, in particular from asymptomatic vivax parasite carriers, reacted strongly with the same peptides. Bioinformatic analyses revealed regions of similarity between P. falciparum Pfclag9 and the P. vivax ortholog Pvclag7. Indirect fluorescent microscopy analysis showed that antibodies against PfCLAG9 peptides elicited in BALB/c mice react with human red blood cells (RBCs) infected with both P. falciparum and P. vivax parasites. The patterns of reactivity on the surface of the parasitised RBCs are very similar. The present observations support previous findings that PfCLAG9 may be a target of protective immune responses and raises the possibility that the cross reactive antibodies to PvCLAG7 in mixed infections play a role in regulate the fate of Plasmodium mixed infections. PMID:23440122

  11. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests: Plasmodium falciparum infections with high parasite densities may generate false positive Plasmodium vivax pLDH lines

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    van Esbroeck Marjan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs detect Plasmodium falciparum and an antigen common to the four species. Plasmodium vivax-specific RDTs target P. vivax-specific parasite lactate dehydrogenase (Pv-pLDH. Previous observations of false positive Pv-pLDH test lines in P. falciparum samples incited to the present study, which assessed P. vivax-specific RDTs for the occurrence of false positive Pv-pLDH lines in P. falciparum samples. Methods Nine P. vivax-specific RDTs were tested with 85 P. falciparum samples of high (≥2% parasite density. Mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infections were ruled out by real-time PCR. The RDTs included two-band (detecting Pv-pLDH, three-band (detecting P. falciparum-antigen and Pv-pLDH and four-band RDTs (detecting P. falciparum, Pv-pLDH and pan-pLDH. Results False positive Pv-pLDH lines were observed in 6/9 RDTs (including two- three- and four-band RDTs. They occurred in the individual RDT brands at frequencies ranging from 8.2% to 29.1%. For 19/85 samples, at least two RDT brands generated a false positive Pv-pLDH line. Sixteen of 85 (18.8% false positive lines were of medium or strong line intensity. There was no significant relation between false positive results and parasite density or geographic origin of the samples. Conclusion False positive Pv-pLDH lines in P. falciparum samples with high parasite density occurred in 6/9 P. vivax-specific RDTs. This is of concern as P. falciparum and P. vivax are co-circulating in many regions. The diagnosis of life-threatening P. falciparum malaria may be missed (two-band Pv-pLDH RDT, or the patient may be treated incorrectly with primaquine (three- or four-band RDTs.

  12. Monitoring of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum response to chloroquine in Bandar-Abbas district, Hormozgan province, Iran

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    Nateghpour M M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 st1":*{behavior:url(#ieooui } /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Malaria is an important parasitic vector-borne disease with considerable infectivity and world-wide distribution. Since prevalence of chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum at the malarious areas such as Iran and reliable reports from many countries indicating emergence of chloroquine- resistant strains of P.vivax, this study was conducted to monitor the current response of vivax and falciparum plasmodia to chloroquine in Bandar-Abbas district, a malarious area in Iran."n"nMethods: The study was conducted at the Bandar-Abbas district in Hormozgan province, Iran. 123 patients were enrolled and considered. The patients were treated with a standard 3-day regimen of chloroquine and were followed-up clinically and parasitologically. The results were interpreted as mean parasite clearance time (MPCT in P. vivax and early treatment failure (ETF, late treatment failure (LTF and adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR in P. falciparum."n"nResults: The patients with vivax malaria were responded to the regimen of chloroquine within 24-216 hours. Most cases of the parasite clearance time occurred at 48 hours (50.40%, and less of them at 120, 168, 192 and 216 hours

  13. Activation of the hypnozoite: a part of Plasmodium vivax life cycle and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulden, Lena; Hulden, Larry

    2011-04-16

    Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread malaria parasite. It has a dormant stage in the human liver, which makes it difficult to eradicate. It is proposed that a relapse of vivax malaria, besides being genetically determined by the specific strain, is induced by the bites of uninfected vectors. The dormant stage maximizes the possibility for the parasite to reach the vector for sexual reproduction. The advantage would increase if the parasite was able to detect the presence of a new generation of vectors. The sporozoites function both in the vector and in the human hosts. They invade the cells of the salivary gland in the vector and the hepatocytes in the human. Some of the sporozoites develop into hypnozoites in the human liver. It is suggested that the hypnozoite activates when it recognizes the same Anopheles specific protein, which it had previously recognized as a sporozoite to invade the salivary gland in the vector. Another possibility is that the hypnozoite activates upon the bodily reaction by the human on a bite by an Anopheles female. The connection between the relapse and a new generation of vectors can be documented by simultaneous monitoring of both parasitaemia in humans and the presence of uninfective/infective vectors in the same area with seasonal malaria transmission. Experimental studies are needed to find the saliva components, which trigger the relapse. Although P. cynomolgi in monkeys also has hypnozoites and relapses, testing with monkeys might be problematical. These live in a reasonably stable tropical environment where relapses cannot easily be linked to vectors. The importance of the trigger increases in unpredictable variations in the vector season. Artificial triggering of hypnozoites would make the medication more effective and resistance against a protein that the parasite itself uses during its life cycle would not develop. In areas with seasonal vivax malaria it could be used locally for eradication.

  14. Plasmodium vivax antigen discovery based on alpha-helical coiled coil protein motif.

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    Nora Céspedes

    Full Text Available Protein α-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with α-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Plasmodium falciparum were identified in the P. vivax genome. The peptides identified in silico were chemically synthesized; circular dichroism studies indicated partial or high α-helical content. Antigenicity was evaluated using human sera samples from malaria-endemic areas of Colombia and Papua New Guinea. Eight of these fragments were selected and used to assess immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. ELISA assays indicated strong reactivity of serum samples from individuals residing in malaria-endemic regions and sera of immunized mice, with the α-helical coiled coil structures. In addition, ex vivo production of IFN-γ by murine mononuclear cells confirmed the immunogenicity of these structures and the presence of T-cell epitopes in the peptide sequences. Moreover, sera of mice immunized with four of the eight antigens recognized native proteins on blood-stage P. vivax parasites, and antigenic cross-reactivity with three of the peptides was observed when reacted with both the P. falciparum orthologous fragments and whole parasites. Results here point to the α-helical coiled coil peptides as possible P. vivax malaria vaccine candidates as were observed for P. falciparum. Fragments selected here warrant further study in humans and non-human primate models to assess their protective efficacy as single components or assembled as hybrid linear epitopes.

  15. Naturally Acquired Antibodies to Plasmodium vivax Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) in Rural Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza-Silva, Flávia A.; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica; Sanchez, Bruno A. M.; Ceravolo, Isabela P.; Malafronte, Rosely S.; Brito, Cristiana F. A.; Ferreira, Marcelo U.; Carvalho, Luzia H.

    2010-01-01

    Duffy binding protein (DBP), a leading malaria vaccine candidate, plays a critical role in Plasmodium vivax erythrocyte invasion. Sixty-eight of 366 (18.6%) subjects had IgG anti-DBP antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a community-based cross-sectional survey in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. Despite continuous exposure to low-level malaria transmission, the overall seroprevalence decreased to 9.0% when the population was reexamined 12 months later. Antibodies from 16 of 50 (36.0%) subjects who were ELISA-positive at the baseline were able to inhibit erythrocyte binding to at least one of two DBP variants tested. Most (13 of 16) of these subjects still had inhibitory antibodies when reevaluated 12 months later. Cumulative exposure to malaria was the strongest predictor of DBP seropositivity identified by multiple logistic regression models in this population. The poor antibody recognition of DBP elicited by natural exposure to P. vivax in Amazonian populations represents a challenge to be addressed by vaccine development strategies. PMID:20133990

  16. Acquired Antibody Responses against Plasmodium vivax Infection Vary with Host Genotype for Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maestre, Amanda; Muskus, Carlos; Duque, Victoria; Agudelo, Olga; Liu, Pu; Takagi, Akihide; Ntumngia, Francis B.; Adams, John H.; Sim, Kim Lee; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Corradin, Giampietro; Velez, Ivan D.; Wang, Ruobing

    2010-01-01

    Background Polymorphism of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) is associated with susceptibility to and the severity of Plasmodium vivax malaria in humans. P. vivax uses DARC to invade erythrocytes. Individuals lacking DARC are ‘resistant’ to P. vivax erythrocytic infection. However, susceptibility to P. vivax in DARC+ individuals is reported to vary between specific DARC genotypes. We hypothesized that the natural acquisition of antibodies to P. vivax blood stages may vary with the host genotype and the level of DARC expression. Furthermore, high parasitemia has been reported to effect the acquisition of immunity against pre-erythrocytic parasites. We investigated the correlation between host DARC genotypes and the frequency and magnitude of antibodies against P. vivax erythrocytic stage antigens. Methodology/Findings We assessed the frequencies and magnitudes of antibody responses against P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoite and erythrocytic antigens in Colombian donors from malaria-endemic regions. The frequency and level of naturally-acquired antibodies against the P. vivax erythrocytic antigens merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP1) and Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) varied with the host DARC genotypes. Donors with one negative allele (FY*B/FY*Bnull and FY*A/FY*Bnull) were more likely to have anti-PvMSP1 and anti-PvDBP antibodies than those with two positive alleles (FY*B/FY*B and FY*A/FY*B). The lower IgG3 and IgG1 components of the total IgG response may account for the decreased responses to P. vivax erythrocytic antigens with FY*A/FY*B and FY*B/FY*B genotypes. No such association was detected with P. falciparum erythrocytic antigens, which does not use DARC for erythrocyte invasion. Conclusion/Significance Individuals with higher DARC expression, which is associated with higher susceptibility to P. vivax infection, exhibited low frequencies and magnitudes of P. vivax blood-stage specific antibody responses. This may indicate that one of the

  17. Acquired antibody responses against Plasmodium vivax infection vary with host genotype for duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC.

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    Amanda Maestre

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Polymorphism of the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC is associated with susceptibility to and the severity of Plasmodium vivax malaria in humans. P. vivax uses DARC to invade erythrocytes. Individuals lacking DARC are 'resistant' to P. vivax erythrocytic infection. However, susceptibility to P. vivax in DARC+ individuals is reported to vary between specific DARC genotypes. We hypothesized that the natural acquisition of antibodies to P. vivax blood stages may vary with the host genotype and the level of DARC expression. Furthermore, high parasitemia has been reported to effect the acquisition of immunity against pre-erythrocytic parasites. We investigated the correlation between host DARC genotypes and the frequency and magnitude of antibodies against P. vivax erythrocytic stage antigens.We assessed the frequencies and magnitudes of antibody responses against P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoite and erythrocytic antigens in Colombian donors from malaria-endemic regions. The frequency and level of naturally-acquired antibodies against the P. vivax erythrocytic antigens merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP1 and Duffy binding protein (PvDBP varied with the host DARC genotypes. Donors with one negative allele (FY*B/FY*Bnull and FY*A/FY*Bnull were more likely to have anti-PvMSP1 and anti-PvDBP antibodies than those with two positive alleles (FY*B/FY*B and FY*A/FY*B. The lower IgG3 and IgG1 components of the total IgG response may account for the decreased responses to P. vivax erythrocytic antigens with FY*A/FY*B and FY*B/FY*B genotypes. No such association was detected with P. falciparum erythrocytic antigens, which does not use DARC for erythrocyte invasion.Individuals with higher DARC expression, which is associated with higher susceptibility to P. vivax infection, exhibited low frequencies and magnitudes of P. vivax blood-stage specific antibody responses. This may indicate that one of the primary mechanisms by which P. vivax evades

  18. Genome-wide diversity and differentiation in New World populations of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

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    Thais C de Oliveira

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Americas were the last continent colonized by humans carrying malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum from the New World shows very little genetic diversity and greater linkage disequilibrium, compared with its African counterparts, and is clearly subdivided into local, highly divergent populations. However, limited available data have revealed extensive genetic diversity in American populations of another major human malaria parasite, P. vivax.We used an improved sample preparation strategy and next-generation sequencing to characterize 9 high-quality P. vivax genome sequences from northwestern Brazil. These new data were compared with publicly available sequences from recently sampled clinical P. vivax isolates from Brazil (BRA, total n = 11 sequences, Peru (PER, n = 23, Colombia (COL, n = 31, and Mexico (MEX, n = 19.We found that New World populations of P. vivax are as diverse (nucleotide diversity π between 5.2 × 10-4 and 6.2 × 10-4 as P. vivax populations from Southeast Asia, where malaria transmission is substantially more intense. They display several non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (some of them previously undescribed in genes known or suspected to be involved in antimalarial drug resistance, such as dhfr, dhps, mdr1, mrp1, and mrp-2, but not in the chloroquine resistance transporter ortholog (crt-o gene. Moreover, P. vivax in the Americas is much less geographically substructured than local P. falciparum populations, with relatively little between-population genome-wide differentiation (pairwise FST values ranging between 0.025 and 0.092. Finally, P. vivax populations show a rapid decline in linkage disequilibrium with increasing distance between pairs of polymorphic sites, consistent with very frequent outcrossing. We hypothesize that the high diversity of present-day P. vivax lineages in the Americas originated from successive migratory waves and subsequent admixture between parasite lineages from geographically

  19. Genome-wide diversity and differentiation in New World populations of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thais C; Rodrigues, Priscila T; Menezes, Maria José; Gonçalves-Lopes, Raquel M; Bastos, Melissa S; Lima, Nathália F; Barbosa, Susana; Gerber, Alexandra L; Loss de Morais, Guilherme; Berná, Luisa; Phelan, Jody; Robello, Carlos; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R; Alves, João Marcelo P; Ferreira, Marcelo U

    2017-07-01

    The Americas were the last continent colonized by humans carrying malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum from the New World shows very little genetic diversity and greater linkage disequilibrium, compared with its African counterparts, and is clearly subdivided into local, highly divergent populations. However, limited available data have revealed extensive genetic diversity in American populations of another major human malaria parasite, P. vivax. We used an improved sample preparation strategy and next-generation sequencing to characterize 9 high-quality P. vivax genome sequences from northwestern Brazil. These new data were compared with publicly available sequences from recently sampled clinical P. vivax isolates from Brazil (BRA, total n = 11 sequences), Peru (PER, n = 23), Colombia (COL, n = 31), and Mexico (MEX, n = 19). We found that New World populations of P. vivax are as diverse (nucleotide diversity π between 5.2 × 10-4 and 6.2 × 10-4) as P. vivax populations from Southeast Asia, where malaria transmission is substantially more intense. They display several non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (some of them previously undescribed) in genes known or suspected to be involved in antimalarial drug resistance, such as dhfr, dhps, mdr1, mrp1, and mrp-2, but not in the chloroquine resistance transporter ortholog (crt-o) gene. Moreover, P. vivax in the Americas is much less geographically substructured than local P. falciparum populations, with relatively little between-population genome-wide differentiation (pairwise FST values ranging between 0.025 and 0.092). Finally, P. vivax populations show a rapid decline in linkage disequilibrium with increasing distance between pairs of polymorphic sites, consistent with very frequent outcrossing. We hypothesize that the high diversity of present-day P. vivax lineages in the Americas originated from successive migratory waves and subsequent admixture between parasite lineages from geographically diverse sites

  20. Genome-wide diversity and differentiation in New World populations of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Thais C.; Rodrigues, Priscila T.; Menezes, Maria José; Gonçalves-Lopes, Raquel M.; Bastos, Melissa S.; Lima, Nathália F.; Barbosa, Susana; Gerber, Alexandra L.; Loss de Morais, Guilherme; Berná, Luisa; Phelan, Jody; Robello, Carlos; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza R.

    2017-01-01

    Background The Americas were the last continent colonized by humans carrying malaria parasites. Plasmodium falciparum from the New World shows very little genetic diversity and greater linkage disequilibrium, compared with its African counterparts, and is clearly subdivided into local, highly divergent populations. However, limited available data have revealed extensive genetic diversity in American populations of another major human malaria parasite, P. vivax. Methods We used an improved sample preparation strategy and next-generation sequencing to characterize 9 high-quality P. vivax genome sequences from northwestern Brazil. These new data were compared with publicly available sequences from recently sampled clinical P. vivax isolates from Brazil (BRA, total n = 11 sequences), Peru (PER, n = 23), Colombia (COL, n = 31), and Mexico (MEX, n = 19). Principal findings/Conclusions We found that New World populations of P. vivax are as diverse (nucleotide diversity π between 5.2 × 10−4 and 6.2 × 10−4) as P. vivax populations from Southeast Asia, where malaria transmission is substantially more intense. They display several non-synonymous nucleotide substitutions (some of them previously undescribed) in genes known or suspected to be involved in antimalarial drug resistance, such as dhfr, dhps, mdr1, mrp1, and mrp-2, but not in the chloroquine resistance transporter ortholog (crt-o) gene. Moreover, P. vivax in the Americas is much less geographically substructured than local P. falciparum populations, with relatively little between-population genome-wide differentiation (pairwise FST values ranging between 0.025 and 0.092). Finally, P. vivax populations show a rapid decline in linkage disequilibrium with increasing distance between pairs of polymorphic sites, consistent with very frequent outcrossing. We hypothesize that the high diversity of present-day P. vivax lineages in the Americas originated from successive migratory waves and subsequent admixture between

  1. The Relative Contribution of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Infections to the Infectious Reservoir in a Low-Endemic Setting in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Fitsum G; Slater, Hannah C; Chali, Wakweya; Teelen, Karina; Lanke, Kjerstin; Belachew, Mulualem; Menberu, Temesgen; Shumie, Girma; Shitaye, Getasew; Okell, Lucy C; Graumans, Wouter; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Kedir, Soriya; Tesfaye, Addisu; Belachew, Feleke; Abebe, Wake; Mamo, Hassen; Sauerwein, Robert; Balcha, Taye; Aseffa, Abraham; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Gadisa, Endalamaw; Drakeley, Chris; Bousema, Teun

    2018-06-01

    The majority of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum infections in low-endemic settings are asymptomatic. The relative contribution to the infectious reservoir of these infections compared to clinical malaria cases is currently unknown. We assessed infectivity of passively recruited symptomatic malaria patients (n = 41) and community-recruited asymptomatic individuals with microscopy-detected (n = 41) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-detected infections (n = 82) using membrane feeding assays with Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes in Adama, Ethiopia. Malaria incidence and prevalence data were used to estimate the contributions of these populations to the infectious reservoir. Overall, 34.9% (29/83) of P. vivax- and 15.1% (8/53) P. falciparum-infected individuals infected ≥1 mosquitoes. Mosquito infection rates were strongly correlated with asexual parasite density for P. vivax (ρ = 0.63; P < .001) but not for P. falciparum (ρ = 0.06; P = .770). Plasmodium vivax symptomatic infections were more infectious to mosquitoes (infecting 46.5% of mosquitoes, 307/660) compared to asymptomatic microscopy-detected (infecting 12.0% of mosquitoes, 80/667; P = .005) and PCR-detected infections (infecting 0.8% of mosquitoes, 6/744; P < .001). Adjusting for population prevalence, symptomatic, asymptomatic microscopy-detected, and PCR-detected infections were responsible for 8.0%, 76.2%, and 15.8% of the infectious reservoir for P. vivax, respectively. For P. falciparum, mosquito infections were sparser and also predominantly from asymptomatic infections. In this low-endemic setting aiming for malaria elimination, asymptomatic infections were highly prevalent and responsible for the majority of onward mosquito infections. The early identification and treatment of asymptomatic infections might accelerate elimination efforts.

  2. Multiple-clone infections of Plasmodium vivax: definition of a panel of markers for molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Aracele M; de Araújo, Flávia C F; Fontes, Cor J F; Carvalho, Luzia H; de Brito, Cristiana F A; de Sousa, Taís N

    2015-08-25

    Plasmodium vivax infections commonly contain multiple genetically distinct parasite clones. The detection of multiple-clone infections depends on several factors, such as the accuracy of the genotyping method, and the type and number of the molecular markers analysed. Characterizing the multiplicity of infection has broad implications that range from population genetic studies of the parasite to malaria treatment and control. This study compared and evaluated the efficiency of neutral and non-neutral markers that are widely used in studies of molecular epidemiology to detect the multiplicity of P. vivax infection. The performance of six markers was evaluated using 11 mixtures of DNA with well-defined proportions of two different parasite genotypes for each marker. These mixtures were generated by mixing cloned PCR products or patient-derived genomic DNA. In addition, 51 samples of natural infections from the Brazil were genotyped for all markers. The PCR-capillary electrophoresis-based method was used to permit direct comparisons among the markers. The criteria for differentiating minor peaks from artifacts were also evaluated. The analysis of DNA mixtures showed that the tandem repeat MN21 and the polymorphic blocks 2 (msp1B2) and 10 (msp1B10) of merozoite surface protein-1 allowed for the estimation of the expected ratio of both alleles in the majority of preparations. Nevertheless, msp1B2 was not able to detect the majority of multiple-clone infections in field samples; it identified only 6 % of these infections. The merozoite surface protein-3 alpha and microsatellites (PvMS6 and PvMS7) did not accurately estimate the relative clonal proportions in artificial mixtures, but the microsatellites performed well in detecting natural multiple-clone infections. Notably, the use of a less stringent criterion to score rare alleles significantly increased the sensitivity of the detection of multi-clonal infections. Depending on the type of marker used, a considerable

  3. Genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3alpha (Pvmsp-3alpha) gene in Jhapa District of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adhikari, Madhav; Ranjitkar, Samir; Schousboe, Mette Leth

    2012-01-01

    In Nepal, Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 80-90% of the malaria cases, but limited studies have been conducted on the genetic diversity of this parasite population. This study was carried out to determine the genetic diversity of P. vivax population sampled from subjects living...... in an endemic area of Jhapa District by analyzing the polymorphic merozoite surface protein-3alpha (Pvmsp-3alpha) gene by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Three distinct genotypes were obtained from 96 samples; type A: 40 (71%), type B: 7 (13%), and type C: 9 (16%) which could be categorized...... into 13 allelic patterns: A1-A9, B1, B2, C1 and C2. These results indicated a high genetic diversity within the studied P. vivax population. As the transmission rate of malaria is low in Nepal, the diversity is most likely due to migration of people between the malaria endemic regions, either within...

  4. Correlation Between Haematological Parameters, Kidney Function Tests and Liver Function Tests in Plasmodium Falciparum and Vivax Malaria

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    Mitul Chhatriwala

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in India. Plasmodium falciparum remains the main culprit although cases with vivax malaria are on the rise. Severe malaria as defined by the WHO criteria has high rate of complications and mortality. In our study we recruited microscopy positive falciparum and vivax malaria patients. Haematological and biochemical laboratory investigations were carried out in recruited patients. Both parameters were found to be significantly derailed in falciparum cases as compared to vivax. A direct correlation has been observed between kidney function tests (serum creatinine,serum urea and direct bilirubin levels across all cases of malaria. Hence these parameters can be used to identify and monitor the progress of cases of severe malaria as significant proportion of patients fulfilled the criteria of severe malaria in the cohort.

  5. Heterogeneous genetic diversity pattern in Plasmodium vivax genes encoding merozoite surface proteins (MSP) -7E, -7F and -7L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garzón-Ospina, Diego; Forero-Rodríguez, Johanna; Patarroyo, Manuel A

    2014-12-13

    The msp-7 gene has become differentially expanded in the Plasmodium genus; Plasmodium vivax has the highest copy number of this gene, several of which encode antigenic proteins in merozoites. DNA sequences from thirty-six Colombian clinical isolates from P. vivax (pv) msp-7E, -7F and -7L genes were analysed for characterizing and studying the genetic diversity of these pvmsp-7 members which are expressed during the intra-erythrocyte stage; natural selection signals producing the variation pattern so observed were evaluated. The pvmsp-7E gene was highly polymorphic compared to pvmsp-7F and pvmsp-7L which were seen to have limited genetic diversity; pvmsp-7E polymorphism was seen to have been maintained by different types of positive selection. Even though these copies seemed to be species-specific duplications, a search in the Plasmodium cynomolgi genome (P. vivax sister taxon) showed that both species shared the whole msp-7 repertoire. This led to exploring the long-term effect of natural selection by comparing the orthologous sequences which led to finding signatures for lineage-specific positive selection. The results confirmed that the P. vivax msp-7 family has a heterogeneous genetic diversity pattern; some members are highly conserved whilst others are highly diverse. The results suggested that the 3'-end of these genes encode MSP-7 proteins' functional region whilst the central region of pvmsp-7E has evolved rapidly. The lineage-specific positive selection signals found suggested that mutations occurring in msp-7s genes during host switch may have succeeded in adapting the ancestral P. vivax parasite population to humans.

  6. Búsqueda e identificación de nuevos candidatos a vacuna contra la malaria producida por Plasmodium vivax

    OpenAIRE

    Andrés Mauricio Pinzón Velasco; Emiliano Barreto

    2004-01-01

    De las cuatro especies de plasmodios capaces de infectar con malaria a los seres humanos, Plasmodium falciparum es el que reviste mayor importancia debido a la severidad en la variante
    de malaria que produce, mortal en la mayoría de los casos. Esta ha sido la razón fundamental por la cual el conocimiento acerca de la genómica y proteómica de esta especie sea mayor al que se tiene de las demás especies de plasmodios que infectan a los seres humanos. Por otra parte, Plasmodium vivax ...

  7. The CD14+CD16+ inflammatory monocyte subset displays increased mitochondrial activity and effector function during acute Plasmodium vivax malaria.

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    Lis R V Antonelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Infection with Plasmodium vivax results in strong activation of monocytes, which are important components of both the systemic inflammatory response and parasite control. The overall goal of this study was to define the role of monocytes during P. vivax malaria. Here, we demonstrate that P. vivax-infected patients display significant increase in circulating monocytes, which were defined as CD14(+CD16- (classical, CD14(+CD16(+ (inflammatory, and CD14loCD16(+ (patrolling cells. While the classical and inflammatory monocytes were found to be the primary source of pro-inflammatory cytokines, the CD16(+ cells, in particular the CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes, expressed the highest levels of activation markers, which included chemokine receptors and adhesion molecules. Morphologically, CD14(+ were distinguished from CD14lo monocytes by displaying larger and more active mitochondria. CD14(+CD16(+ monocytes were more efficient in phagocytizing P. vivax-infected reticulocytes, which induced them to produce high levels of intracellular TNF-α and reactive oxygen species. Importantly, antibodies specific for ICAM-1, PECAM-1 or LFA-1 efficiently blocked the phagocytosis of infected reticulocytes by monocytes. Hence, our results provide key information on the mechanism by which CD14(+CD16(+ cells control parasite burden, supporting the hypothesis that they play a role in resistance to P. vivax infection.

  8. Analysis of von Willebrand factor A domain-related protein (WARP polymorphism in temperate and tropical Plasmodium vivax field isolates

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    Zakeri Sedigheh

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The identification of key molecules is crucial for designing transmission-blocking vaccines (TBVs, among those ookinete micronemal proteins are candidate as a general class of malaria transmission-blocking targets. Here, the sequence analysis of an extra-cellular malaria protein expressed in ookinetes, named von Willebrand factor A domain-related protein (WARP, is reported in 91 Plasmodium vivax isolates circulating in different regions of Iran. Methods Clinical isolates were collected from north temperate and southern tropical regions in Iran. Primers have been designed based on P. vivax sequence (ctg_6991 which amplified a fragment of about 1044 bp with no size variation. Direct sequencing of PCR products was used to determine polymorphism and further bioinformatics analysis in P. vivax sexual stage antigen, pvwarp. Results Amplified pvwarp gene showed 886 bp in size, with no intron. BLAST analysis showed a similarity of 98–100% to P. vivax Sal-I strain; however, Iranian isolates had 2 bp mismatches in 247 and 531 positions that were non-synonymous substitution [T (ACT to A (GCT and R (AGA to S (AGT] in comparison with the Sal-I sequence. Conclusion This study presents the first large-scale survey on pvwarp polymorphism in the world, which provides baseline data for developing WARP-based TBV against both temperate and tropical P. vivax isolates.

  9. Antigen-displaying lipid-enveloped PLGA nanoparticles as delivery agents for a Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, James J; Suh, Heikyung; Polhemus, Mark E; Ockenhouse, Christian F; Yadava, Anjali; Irvine, Darrell J

    2012-01-01

    The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent cause of malaria outside of sub-Saharan Africa, but efforts to develop viable vaccines against P. vivax so far have been inadequate. We recently developed pathogen-mimicking polymeric vaccine nanoparticles composed of the FDA-approved biodegradable polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide) acid (PLGA) "enveloped" by a lipid membrane. In this study, we sought to determine whether this vaccine delivery platform could be applied to enhance the immune response against P. vivax sporozoites. A candidate malaria antigen, VMP001, was conjugated to the lipid membrane of the particles, and an immunostimulatory molecule, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), was incorporated into the lipid membranes, creating pathogen-mimicking nanoparticle vaccines (VMP001-NPs). Vaccination with VMP001-NPs promoted germinal center formation and elicited durable antigen-specific antibodies with significantly higher titers and more balanced Th1/Th2 responses in vivo, compared with vaccines composed of soluble protein mixed with MPLA. Antibodies raised by NP vaccinations also exhibited enhanced avidity and affinity toward the domains within the circumsporozoite protein implicated in protection and were able to agglutinate live P. vivax sporozoites. These results demonstrate that these VMP001-NPs are promising vaccines candidates that may elicit protective immunity against P. vivax sporozoites.

  10. Antigen-displaying lipid-enveloped PLGA nanoparticles as delivery agents for a Plasmodium vivax malaria vaccine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J Moon

    Full Text Available The parasite Plasmodium vivax is the most frequent cause of malaria outside of sub-Saharan Africa, but efforts to develop viable vaccines against P. vivax so far have been inadequate. We recently developed pathogen-mimicking polymeric vaccine nanoparticles composed of the FDA-approved biodegradable polymer poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA "enveloped" by a lipid membrane. In this study, we sought to determine whether this vaccine delivery platform could be applied to enhance the immune response against P. vivax sporozoites. A candidate malaria antigen, VMP001, was conjugated to the lipid membrane of the particles, and an immunostimulatory molecule, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA, was incorporated into the lipid membranes, creating pathogen-mimicking nanoparticle vaccines (VMP001-NPs. Vaccination with VMP001-NPs promoted germinal center formation and elicited durable antigen-specific antibodies with significantly higher titers and more balanced Th1/Th2 responses in vivo, compared with vaccines composed of soluble protein mixed with MPLA. Antibodies raised by NP vaccinations also exhibited enhanced avidity and affinity toward the domains within the circumsporozoite protein implicated in protection and were able to agglutinate live P. vivax sporozoites. These results demonstrate that these VMP001-NPs are promising vaccines candidates that may elicit protective immunity against P. vivax sporozoites.

  11. Distribution of Mutations Associated with Antifolate and Chloroquine Resistance among Imported Plasmodium vivax in the State of Qatar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Devendra; Acharya, Anushree; Bharti, Praveen K; Abdelraheem, Mohamed H; Elmalik, Ashraf; Abosalah, Salem; Khan, Fahmi Y; ElKhalifa, Mohamed; Kaur, Hargobinder; Mohapatra, Pradyumna K; Sehgal, Rakesh; Idris, Mohammed A; Mahanta, Jagadish; Singh, Neeru; Babiker, Hamza A; Sultan, Ali A

    2017-12-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the most prevalent parasite worldwide, escalating by spread of drug resistance. Currently, in Qatar, chloroquine (CQ) plus primaquine are recommended for the treatment of P. vivax malaria. The present study examined the prevalence of mutations in dihydrofolate reductase ( dhfr ), dihydropteroate synthase ( dhps ) genes and CQ resistance transporter ( crt-o ) genes, associated with sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine resistance, among imported P. vivax cases in Qatar. Blood samples were collected from patients positive for P. vivax and seeking medical treatment at Hamad General Hospital, Doha, during 2013-2016. The Sanger sequencing method was performed to examine the single nucleotide polymorphisms in Pvdhfr , Pvdhps , and Pvcrt-o genes. Of 314 examined P. vivax isolates, 247 (78.7%), 294 (93.6%) and 261 (83.1%) were successfully amplified and sequenced for Pvdhfr , Pvdhps , and Pvcrt-o , respectively. Overall, 53.8% ( N = 133) carried mutant alleles (58R/117N) in Pvdhfr , whereas 77.2% ( N = 227) and 90% ( N = 235) isolates possessed wild type allele in Pvdhps and Pvcrt-o genes, respectively. In addition, a total of eleven distinct haplotypes were detected in Pvdhfr / Pvdhps genes. Interestingly, K10 insertion in the Pvcrt-o gene was observed only in patients originating from the Indian subcontinent. The results suggested that CQ remains an acceptable treatment regimen but further clinical data are required to assess the effectiveness of CQ and SP in Qatar to support the current national treatment guidelines. In addition, limited distribution of genetic polymorphisms associated with CQ and SP resistance observed in imported P. vivax infections, necessitates regular monitoring of drug resistant P. vivax malaria in Qatar.

  12. Plasmodium vivax dhfr and dhps mutations in isolates from Madagascar and therapeutic response to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine

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    Jahevitra Martial

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Four of five Plasmodium species infecting humans are present in Madagascar. Plasmodium vivax remains the second most prevalent species, but is understudied. No data is available on its susceptibility to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, the drug recommended for intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy. In this study, the prevalence of P. vivax infection and the polymorphisms in the pvdhfr and pvdhps genes were investigated. The correlation between these polymorphisms and clinical and parasitological responses was also investigated in P. vivax-infected patients. Methods Plasmodium vivax clinical isolates were collected in eight sentinel sites from the four major epidemiological areas for malaria across Madagascar in 2006/2007. Pvdhfr and pvdhps genes were sequenced for polymorphism analysis. The therapeutic efficacy of SP in P. vivax infections was assessed in Tsiroanomandidy, in the foothill of the central highlands. An intention-to-treat analysis of treatment outcome was carried out. Results A total of 159 P. vivax samples were sequenced in the pvdhfr/pvdhps genes. Mutant-types in pvdhfr gene were found in 71% of samples, and in pvdhps gene in 16% of samples. Six non-synonymous mutations were identified in pvdhfr, including two novel mutations at codons 21 and 130. For pvdhps, beside the known mutation at codon 383, a new one was found at codon 422. For the two genes, different combinations were ranged from wild-type to quadruple mutant-type. Among the 16 patients enrolled in the sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine clinical trial (28 days of follow-up and after adjustment by genotyping, 3 (19%, 95% CI: 5%–43% of them were classified as treatment failure and were pvdhfr 58R/117N double mutant carriers with or without the pvdhps 383G mutation. Conclusion This study highlights (i that genotyping in the pvdhfr and pvdhps genes remains a useful tool to monitor the emergence and the spread of P. vivax sulphadoxine

  13. Worldwide genetic variability of the Duffy binding protein: insights into Plasmodium vivax vaccine development.

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    Taís Nóbrega de Sousa

    Full Text Available The dependence of Plasmodium vivax on invasion mediated by Duffy binding protein (DBP makes this protein a prime candidate for development of a vaccine. However, the development of a DBP-based vaccine might be hampered by the high variability of the protein ligand (DBP(II, known to bias the immune response toward a specific DBP variant. Here, the hypothesis being investigated is that the analysis of the worldwide DBP(II sequences will allow us to determine the minimum number of haplotypes (MNH to be included in a DBP-based vaccine of broad coverage. For that, all DBP(II sequences available were compiled and MNH was based on the most frequent nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, the majority mapped on B and T cell epitopes. A preliminary analysis of DBP(II genetic diversity from eight malaria-endemic countries estimated that a number between two to six DBP haplotypes (17 in total would target at least 50% of parasite population circulating in each endemic region. Aiming to avoid region-specific haplotypes, we next analyzed the MNH that broadly cover worldwide parasite population. The results demonstrated that seven haplotypes would be required to cover around 60% of DBP(II sequences available. Trying to validate these selected haplotypes per country, we found that five out of the eight countries will be covered by the MNH (67% of parasite populations, range 48-84%. In addition, to identify related subgroups of DBP(II sequences we used a Bayesian clustering algorithm. The algorithm grouped all DBP(II sequences in six populations that were independent of geographic origin, with ancestral populations present in different proportions in each country. In conclusion, in this first attempt to undertake a global analysis about DBP(II variability, the results suggest that the development of DBP-based vaccine should consider multi-haplotype strategies; otherwise a putative P. vivax vaccine may not target some parasite populations.

  14. Worldwide genetic variability of the Duffy binding protein: insights into Plasmodium vivax vaccine development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nóbrega de Sousa, Taís; Carvalho, Luzia Helena; Alves de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The dependence of Plasmodium vivax on invasion mediated by Duffy binding protein (DBP) makes this protein a prime candidate for development of a vaccine. However, the development of a DBP-based vaccine might be hampered by the high variability of the protein ligand (DBP(II)), known to bias the immune response toward a specific DBP variant. Here, the hypothesis being investigated is that the analysis of the worldwide DBP(II) sequences will allow us to determine the minimum number of haplotypes (MNH) to be included in a DBP-based vaccine of broad coverage. For that, all DBP(II) sequences available were compiled and MNH was based on the most frequent nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms, the majority mapped on B and T cell epitopes. A preliminary analysis of DBP(II) genetic diversity from eight malaria-endemic countries estimated that a number between two to six DBP haplotypes (17 in total) would target at least 50% of parasite population circulating in each endemic region. Aiming to avoid region-specific haplotypes, we next analyzed the MNH that broadly cover worldwide parasite population. The results demonstrated that seven haplotypes would be required to cover around 60% of DBP(II) sequences available. Trying to validate these selected haplotypes per country, we found that five out of the eight countries will be covered by the MNH (67% of parasite populations, range 48-84%). In addition, to identify related subgroups of DBP(II) sequences we used a Bayesian clustering algorithm. The algorithm grouped all DBP(II) sequences in six populations that were independent of geographic origin, with ancestral populations present in different proportions in each country. In conclusion, in this first attempt to undertake a global analysis about DBP(II) variability, the results suggest that the development of DBP-based vaccine should consider multi-haplotype strategies; otherwise a putative P. vivax vaccine may not target some parasite populations.

  15. DAÑO VELLOSO HIPOXICO EXTENSO EN VELLOSIDAD PLACENTARIA INFECTADA POR PLASMODIUM VIVAX.

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    Olivar C. Castejon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: El propósito de este estudio de caso fue el determinar el daño velloso hipóxico extenso en una población de vellosidades obtenida de una placenta infectada por Plasmodium vivax y tratada con cloroquina cuantificando el daño en relación a otra población normal no infectada. Métodos: Un protocolo de observación se aplicó a la placenta infectada conteniendo las variables que definen el daño como la presencia de nódulos sincitiales, hipovascularidad vellosa y vellosidades fibróticas o avasculares cuyos porcentajes en la placenta estudio y control fueron medidos estadísticamente para estimar las diferencias significativas. Diez láminas teñidas con hematoxilina y eosina por cada placenta fueron empleadas determinándose el porcentaje de cada variable en 100 vellosidades en ambas placentas. Resultados: La placenta con P.vivax presentó entre un 29 y 58 % de nódulos sincitiales mientras que el control 3 y 24%. La fibrosis estromal entre 12 y 49%;la control entre 1 y 7%. La hipovascularidad entre 49 y 84%; la control entre 7 y 18%. Trombosis intervellosa, oclusión de la luz de vasos troncales,infartos y corangiosis se observaron en la infectada y no en el control. Conclusiones: Estos resultados sugieren un daño velloso hipóxico extenso en las vellosidades infectadas mientras que las del control permanecen normóxicas. Dicho daño pudiera impedir el suministro de gases y nutrientes que estimularía a nivel fetal la restricción del crecimiento intrauterino con la subsiguiente pérdida de peso fetal.

  16. TOLLIP gene variant is associated with Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Larissa W; Barbosa, Laila R A; de Araujo, Felipe J; da Costa, Allyson G; da Silva, Luan D O; Pinheiro, Suzana K; de Almeida, Anne C G; Kuhn, Andrea; Vitor-Silva, Sheila; de Melo, Gisely C; Monteiro, Wuelton M; de Lacerda, Marcus V G; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath

    2017-03-13

    Toll-interacting protein is a negative regulator in the TLR signaling cascade, particularly by impeding the TLR2 and, TLR4 pathway. Recently, TOLLIP was shown to regulate human TLR signaling pathways. Two common TOLLIP polymorphisms (rs5743899 and rs3750920) were reported to be influencing IL-6, TNF and IL-10 expression. In this study, TOLLIP variants were investigated to their relation to Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. This cohort study was performed in the municipalities of Careiro and, Manaus, in Western Brazilian Amazon. A total of 319 patients with P. vivax malaria and, 263 healthy controls with no previous history of malaria were included in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood collected on filter paper, using the QIAamp ® DNA Mini Kit, according to the manufacturer's suggested protocol. The rs5743899 and rs3750920 polymorphisms of the TOLLIP gene were typed by PCR-RFLP. Homozygous individuals for the rs3750920 T allele gene had twice the risk of developing malaria when compared to individuals homozygous for the C allele (OR 2.0 [95% CI 1.23-3.07]; p = 0.004). In the dominant model, carriers the C allele indicates protection to malaria, carriers of the C allele were compared to individuals with the T allele, and the difference is highly significant (OR 0.52 [95% CI 0.37-0.76]; p = 0.0006). The linkage disequilibrium between the two polymorphisms was weak (r 2  = 0.037; D' = 0.27). These findings suggest that genes involved in the TLRs-pathway may be involved in malaria susceptibility. The association of the TOLLIP rs3750920 T allele with susceptibility to malaria further provides evidence that genetic variations in immune response genes may predispose individuals to malaria.

  17. Strategies for understanding and reducing the Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoite reservoir in Papua New Guinean children: a randomised placebo-controlled trial and mathematical model.

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    Leanne J Robinson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The undetectable hypnozoite reservoir for relapsing Plasmodium vivax and P. ovale malarias presents a major challenge for malaria control and elimination in endemic countries. This study aims to directly determine the contribution of relapses to the burden of P. vivax and P. ovale infection, illness, and transmission in Papua New Guinean children.From 17 August 2009 to 20 May 2010, 524 children aged 5-10 y from East Sepik Province in Papua New Guinea (PNG participated in a randomised double-blind placebo-controlled trial of blood- plus liver-stage drugs (chloroquine [CQ], 3 d; artemether-lumefantrine [AL], 3 d; and primaquine [PQ], 20 d, 10 mg/kg total dose (261 children or blood-stage drugs only (CQ, 3 d; AL, 3 d; and placebo [PL], 20 d (263 children. Participants, study staff, and investigators were blinded to the treatment allocation. Twenty children were excluded during the treatment phase (PQ arm: 14, PL arm: 6, and 504 were followed actively for 9 mo. During the follow-up time, 18 children (PQ arm: 7, PL arm: 11 were lost to follow-up. Main primary and secondary outcome measures were time to first P. vivax infection (by qPCR, time to first clinical episode, force of infection, gametocyte positivity, and time to first P. ovale infection (by PCR. A basic stochastic transmission model was developed to estimate the potential effect of mass drug administration (MDA for the prevention of recurrent P. vivax infections. Targeting hypnozoites through PQ treatment reduced the risk of having at least one qPCR-detectable P. vivax or P. ovale infection during 8 mo of follow-up (P. vivax: PQ arm 0.63/y versus PL arm 2.62/y, HR = 0.18 [95% CI 0.14, 0.25], p < 0.001; P. ovale: 0.06 versus 0.14, HR = 0.31 [95% CI 0.13, 0.77], p = 0.011 and the risk of having at least one clinical P. vivax episode (HR = 0.25 [95% CI 0.11, 0.61], p = 0.002. PQ also reduced the molecular force of P. vivax blood-stage infection in the first 3 mo of follow-up (PQ arm 1.90/y

  18. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of atovaquone/proguanil for the prevention of Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria among migrants to Papua, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Judith; Baird, J Kevin; Fryauff, David J; Sismadi, Priyanto; Bangs, Michael J; Lacy, Mark; Barcus, Mazie J; Gramzinski, Robert; Maguire, Jason D; Kumusumangsih, Marti; Miller, Gerri B; Jones, Trevor R; Chulay, Jeffrey D; Hoffman, Stephen L

    2002-10-01

    The increasing prevalence of resistance to antimalarial drugs reduces options for malaria prophylaxis. Atovaquone/proguanil (Malarone; GlaxoSmithKline) has been >95% effective in preventing Plasmodium falciparum malaria in lifelong residents of areas of holoendemicity, but data from persons without clinical immunity or who are at risk for Plasmodium vivax malaria have not been described. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded study involving 297 people from areas of nonendemicity in Indonesia who migrated to Papua (where malaria is endemic) proguanil hydrochloride; n=148) or placebo (n=149) per day for 20 weeks. Hematologic and clinical chemistry values did not change significantly. The protective efficacy of atovaquone/proguanil was 84% (95% confidence interval [CI], 44%-95%) for P. vivax malaria, 96% (95% CI, 72%-99%) for P. falciparum malaria, and 93% (95% CI, 77%-98%) overall. Atovaquone/proguanil was well tolerated, safe, and effective for the prevention of drug-resistant P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria in individuals without prior malaria exposure who migrated to Papua, Indonesia.

  19. Genetic diversity of Plasmodium Vivax revealed by the merozoite surface protein-1 icb5-6 fragment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Wei; Zhang, Ling-Ling; Feng, Yan; Zhang, Xuan; Chen, Hua-Liang; Lu, Qiao-Yi; Yao, Li-Nong; Hu, Wei

    2017-06-05

    Plasmodium vivax remains a potential cause of morbidity and mortality for people living in its endemic areas. Understanding the genetic diversity of P. vivax from different regions is valuable for studying population dynamics and tracing the origins of parasites. The PvMSP-1 gene is highly polymorphic and has been used as a marker in many P. vivax population studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic diversity of the PvMSP-1 gene icb5-6 fragment and to provide more genetic polymorphism data for further studies on P. vivax population structure and tracking of the origin of clinical cases. Nested PCR and sequencing of the PvMSP-1 icb5-6 marker were performed to obtain the nucleotide sequences of 95 P. vivax isolates collected from Zhejiang province, China. To investigate the genetic diversity of PvMSP-1, the 95 nucleotide sequences of the PvMSP-1 icb5-6 fragment were genotyped and analyzed using DnaSP v5, MEGA software. The 95 P. vivax isolates collected from Zhejiang province were either indigenous cases or imported cases from different regions around the world. A total of 95 sequences ranging from 390 to 460 bp were obtained. The 95 sequences were genotyped into four allele-types (Sal I, Belem, R-III and R-IV) and 17 unique haplotypes. R-III and Sal I were the predominant allele-types. The haplotype diversity (Hd) and nucleotide diversity (Pi) were estimated to be 0.729 and 0.062, indicating that the PvMSP-1 icb5-6 fragment had the highest level of polymorphism due to frequent recombination processes and single nucleotide polymorphism. The values of dN/dS and Tajima's D both suggested neutral selection for the PvMSP-1icb5-6 fragment. In addition, a rare recombinant style of R-IV type was identified. This study presented high genetic diversity in the PvMSP-1 marker among P. vivax strains from around the world. The genetic data is valuable for expanding the polymorphism information on P. vivax, which could be helpful for further study on

  20. Imported Asymptomatic Bancroftian Filariasis Discovered from a Plasmodium vivax Infected Patient: A Case Report from Singapore

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    Jean-Marc Chavatte

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a vector-borne disease mainly caused by the parasitic nematode Wuchereria bancrofti and transmitted worldwide within the tropical and subtropical regions. Singapore was once endemic for bancroftian filariasis but recent reports are scarce and the disease is nearly forgotten. The case report presented here reports the incidental hospital laboratory finding of an asymptomatic microfilaremia in a relapsing Plasmodium vivax imported case during a malaria treatment follow-up appointment. The parasite was identified by microscopy as W. bancrofti and retrospective investigation of the sample collected during malaria onset was found to be also positive. Additional confirmation was obtained by DNA amplification, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis of the mitochondrial cox1 gene that further related the parasite to W. bancrofti strains from the Indian region. Considering the large proportion of asymptomatic filariasis with microfilaremia, the high number of migrants and travellers arriving from the surrounding endemic countries, and the common presence of local competent mosquito vectors, Singapore remains vulnerable to the introduction, reemergence, and the spread of lymphatic filariasis. This report brings out from the shadow the potential risk of lymphatic filariasis in Singapore and could help to maintain awareness about this parasitic disease and its public health importance.

  1. Placental Malaria in Colombia: Histopathologic Findings in Plasmodium vivax and P. falciparum Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime; Arango, Eliana; Maestre, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    Studies on gestational malaria and placental malaria have been scarce in malaria-endemic areas of the Western Hemisphere. To describe the histopathology of placental malaria in Colombia, a longitudinal descriptive study was conducted. In this study, 179 placentas were studied by histologic analysis (112 with gestational malaria and 67 negative for malaria). Placental malaria was confirmed in 22.35%, 50.0% had previous infections, and 47.5% had acute infections. Typical malaria-associated changes were observed in 37%. The most common changes were villitis, intervillitis, deciduitis, increased fibrin deposition, increased syncytial knots, mononuclear (monocytes/macrophages and lymphocytes), polymorphonuclear cell infiltration, and trophozoites in fetal erythrocytes. No association was found between type of placental changes observed and histopathologic classification of placental malaria. The findings are consistent with those reported for placental malaria in other regions. Plasmodium vivax was the main parasite responsible for placental and gestational malaria, but its role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria was not conclusive. PMID:23546807

  2. Sensitive Detection of Plasmodium vivax Using a High-Throughput, Colourimetric Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (HtLAMP Platform: A Potential Novel Tool for Malaria Elimination.

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    Sumudu Britton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax malaria has a wide geographic distribution and poses challenges to malaria elimination that are likely to be greater than those of P. falciparum. Diagnostic tools for P. vivax infection in non-reference laboratory settings are limited to microscopy and rapid diagnostic tests but these are unreliable at low parasitemia. The development and validation of a high-throughput and sensitive assay for P. vivax is a priority.A high-throughput LAMP assay targeting a P. vivax mitochondrial gene and deploying colorimetric detection in a 96-well plate format was developed and evaluated in the laboratory. Diagnostic accuracy was compared against microscopy, antigen detection tests and PCR and validated in samples from malaria patients and community controls in a district hospital setting in Sabah, Malaysia.The high throughput LAMP-P. vivax assay (HtLAMP-Pv performed with an estimated limit of detection of 1.4 parasites/ μL. Assay primers demonstrated cross-reactivity with P. knowlesi but not with other Plasmodium spp. Field testing of HtLAMP-Pv was conducted using 149 samples from symptomatic malaria patients (64 P. vivax, 17 P. falciparum, 56 P. knowlesi, 7 P. malariae, 1 mixed P. knowlesi/P. vivax, with 4 excluded. When compared against multiplex PCR, HtLAMP-Pv demonstrated a sensitivity for P. vivax of 95% (95% CI 87-99%; 61/64, and specificity of 100% (95% CI 86-100%; 25/25 when P. knowlesi samples were excluded. HtLAMP-Pv testing of 112 samples from asymptomatic community controls, 7 of which had submicroscopic P. vivax infections by PCR, showed a sensitivity of 71% (95% CI 29-96%; 5/7 and specificity of 93% (95% CI87-97%; 98/105.This novel HtLAMP-P. vivax assay has the potential to be a useful field applicable molecular diagnostic test for P. vivax infection in elimination settings.

  3. Fitness components and natural selection: why are there different patterns on the emergence of drug resistance in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax?

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    Schneider Kristan A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Considering the distinct biological characteristics of Plasmodium species is crucial for control and elimination efforts, in particular when facing the spread of drug resistance. Whereas the evolutionary fitness of all malarial species could be approximated by the probability of being taken by a mosquito and then infecting a new host, the actual steps in the malaria life cycle leading to a successful transmission event show differences among Plasmodium species. These “steps” are called fitness components. Differences in terms of fitness components may affect how selection imposed by interventions, e.g. drug treatments, differentially acts on each Plasmodium species. Thus, a successful malaria control or elimination programme should understand how differences in fitness components among different malaria species could affect adaptive evolution (e.g. the emergence of drug resistance. In this investigation, the interactions between some fitness components and natural selection are explored. Methods A population-genetic model is formulated that qualitatively explains how different fitness components (in particular gametocytogenesis and longevity of gametocytes affect selection acting on merozoites during the erythrocytic cycle. By comparing Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, the interplay of parasitaemia and gametocytaemia dynamics in determining fitness is modelled under circumstances that allow contrasting solely the differences between these two parasites in terms of their fitness components. Results By simulating fitness components, it is shown that selection acting on merozoites (e.g., on drug resistant mutations or malaria antigens is more efficient in P. falciparum than in P. vivax. These results could explain, at least in part, why resistance against drugs, such as chloroquine (CQ is highly prevalent in P. falciparum worldwide, while CQ is still a successful treatment for P. vivax despite its massive use

  4. Singapore's Anopheles sinensis Form A is susceptible to Plasmodium vivax isolates from the western Thailand-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Sook-Cheng; Andolina, Chiara; Malleret, Benoit; Christensen, Peter R; Lam-Phua, Sai-Gek; Razak, Muhammad Aliff Bin Abdul; Chong, Chee-Seng; Li, Daiqin; Chu, Cindy S; Russell, Bruce; Rénia, Laurent; Ng, Lee-Ching; Nosten, Francois

    2017-11-16

    Singapore has been certified malaria-free by the World Health Organization since November 1982. However, sporadic autochthonous malaria outbreaks do occur. In one of the most recent outbreaks of vivax malaria, an entomological investigation identified Anopheles sinensis as the most probable vector. As metaphase karyotype studies divided An. sinensis into two forms, A and B, with different vector competence: the investigation of vector competence of An. sinensis found in Singapore was thus pursued using Plasmodium vivax field isolates from the Thailand-Myanmar border. Adults and larvae An. sinensis were collected from Singapore from 14 different locations, using various trapping and collection methods between September 2013 and January 2016. Molecular identification of An. sinensis species were conducted by amplifying the ITS2 and CO1 region using PCR. Experimental infections of An. sinensis using blood from seven patients infected with P. vivax from the Thailand-Myanmar border were conducted with Anopheles cracens (An. dirus B) as control. Phylogenetic analysis showed that An. sinensis (F 22 , F 2 and collected from outbreak areas) found in Singapore was entirely Form A, and closely related to An. sinensis Form A from Thailand. Artificial infection of these Singapore strain An. sinensis Form A resulted in the development of oocysts in four experiments, with the number of sporozoites produced by one An. sinensis ranging from 4301 to 14,538. Infection experiments showed that An. sinensis Form A from Singapore was susceptible to Thai-Myanmar P. vivax strain, suggesting a potential role as a malaria vector in Singapore.

  5. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA

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    Margarete do Socorro Mendonça GOMES

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011. DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana, followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana.

  6. Prospective Study of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Recurrence after Radical Treatment with a Chloroquine-Primaquine Standard Regimen in Turbo, Colombia

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    Blair, Silvia; Akinyi Okoth, Sheila; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam; Marcet, Paula L.; Escalante, Ananias A.; Alexander, Neal; Rojas, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax recurrences help maintain malaria transmission. They are caused by recrudescence, reinfection, or relapse, which are not easily differentiated. A longitudinal observational study took place in Turbo municipality, Colombia. Participants with uncomplicated P. vivax infection received supervised treatment concomitantly with 25 mg/kg chloroquine and 0.25 mg/kg/day primaquine for 14 days. Incidence of recurrence was assessed over 180 days. Samples were genotyped, and origins of recurrences were established. A total of 134 participants were enrolled between February 2012 and July 2013, and 87 were followed for 180 days, during which 29 recurrences were detected. The cumulative incidence of first recurrence was 24.1% (21/87) (95% confidence interval [CI], 14.6 to 33.7%), and 86% (18/21) of these events occurred between days 51 and 110. High genetic diversity of P. vivax strains was found, and 12.5% (16/128) of the infections were polyclonal. Among detected recurrences, 93.1% (27/29) of strains were genotyped as genetically identical to the strain from the previous infection episode, and 65.5% (19/29) of infections were classified as relapses. Our results indicate that there is a high incidence of P. vivax malaria recurrence after treatment in Turbo municipality, Colombia, and that a large majority of these episodes are likely relapses from the previous infection. We attribute this to the primaquine regimen currently used in Colombia, which may be insufficient to eliminate hypnozoites. PMID:27185794

  7. Characteristics of Travel-Related Severe Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum Malaria in Individuals Hospitalized at a Tertiary Referral Center in Lima, Peru.

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    Llanos-Chea, Fiorella; Martínez, Dalila; Rosas, Angel; Samalvides, Frine; Vinetz, Joseph M; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2015-12-01

    Severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria is uncommon in South America. Lima, Peru, while not endemic for malaria, is home to specialized centers for infectious diseases that admit and manage patients with severe malaria (SM), all of whom contracted infection during travel. This retrospective study describes severe travel-related malaria in individuals admitted to one tertiary care referral hospital in Lima, Peru; severity was classified based on criteria published by the World Health Organization in 2000. Data were abstracted from medical records of patients with SM admitted to Hospital Nacional Cayetano Heredia from 2006 to 2011. Of 33 SM cases with complete clinical data, the mean age was 39 years and the male/female ratio was 2.8. Most cases were contracted in known endemic regions within Peru: Amazonia (47%), the central jungle (18%), and the northern coast (12%); cases were also found in five (15%) travelers returning from Africa. Plasmodium vivax was most commonly identified (71%) among the severe infections, followed by P. falciparum (18%); mixed infections composed 11% of the group. Among the criteria of severity, jaundice was most common (58%), followed by severe thrombocytopenia (47%), hyperpyrexia (32%), and shock (15%). Plasmodium vivax mono-infection predominated as the etiology of SM in cases acquired in Peru. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  8. Characterization of Plasmodium vivax transmission-blocking activity in low to moderate malaria transmission settings of the Colombian Pacific coast.

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    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Solarte, Yezid; Rocha, Leonardo; Alvarez, Diego; Beier, John C; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-02-01

    Malaria infection induces antibodies capable of suppressing the infectivity of gametocytes and gametes, however, little is known about the duration of the antibody response, the parasite specificity, and the role of complement. We report the analyses of the transmission-blocking (TB) activity of sera collected from 105 Plasmodium vivax-infected and 44 non-infected individuals from a malaria endemic region of Colombia, using a membrane feeding assay in Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes. In infected donors we found that TB activity was antibody dose dependent (35%), lasted for 2-4 months after infection, and in 70% of the cases different P. vivax wild isolates displayed differential susceptibility to blocking antibodies. Additionally, in a number of assays TB was complement-dependent. Twenty-seven percent of non-infected individuals presented TB activity that correlated with antibody titers. Studies here provide preliminary data on factors of great importance for further work on the development of TB vaccines.

  9. The Duffy binding protein as a key target for a Plasmodium vivax vaccine: lessons from the Brazilian Amazon

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    Taís Nóbrega de Sousa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax infects human erythrocytes through a major pathway that requires interaction between an apical parasite protein, the Duffy binding protein (PvDBP and its receptor on reticulocytes, the Duffy antigen/receptor for chemokines (DARC. The importance of the interaction between PvDBP (region II, DBPII and DARC to P. vivax infection has motivated our malaria research group at Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (state of Minas Gerais, Brazil to conduct a number of immunoepidemiological studies to characterise the naturally acquired immunity to PvDBP in populations living in the Amazon rainforest. In this review, we provide an update on the immunology and molecular epidemiology of PvDBP in the Brazilian Amazon - an area of markedly unstable malaria transmission - and compare it with data from other parts of Latin America, as well as Asia and Oceania.

  10. Development of a chimeric Plasmodium berghei strain expressing the repeat region of the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein for in vivo evaluation of vaccine efficacy.

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    Espinosa, Diego A; Yadava, Anjali; Angov, Evelina; Maurizio, Paul L; Ockenhouse, Christian F; Zavala, Fidel

    2013-08-01

    The development of vaccine candidates against Plasmodium vivax-the most geographically widespread human malaria species-is challenged by technical difficulties, such as the lack of in vitro culture systems and availability of animal models. Chimeric rodent Plasmodium parasites are safe and useful tools for the preclinical evaluation of new vaccine formulations. We report the successful development and characterization of chimeric Plasmodium berghei parasites bearing the type I repeat region of P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (CSP). The P. berghei-P. vivax chimeric strain develops normally in mosquitoes and produces highly infectious sporozoites that produce patent infection in mice that are exposed to the bites of as few as 3 P. berghei-P. vivax-infected mosquitoes. Using this transgenic parasite, we demonstrate that monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against P. vivax CSP strongly inhibit parasite infection and thus support the notion that these antibodies play an important role in protective immunity. The chimeric parasites we developed represent a robust model for evaluating protective immune responses against P. vivax vaccines based on CSP.

  11. Island-wide diversity in single nucleotide polymorphisms of the Plasmodium vivax dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthetase genes in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Mette L; Rajakaruna, Rupika S; Salanti, Ali

    2007-01-01

    into the level of drug pressure caused by SP use and presumably other antifolate drugs. In Sri Lanka, chloroquine (CQ) with primaquine (PQ) and SP with PQ is used as first and second line treatment, respectively, against uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and/or P. vivax infections. CQ/PQ is still efficacious...... against P. vivax infections, thus SP is rarely used and it is assumed that the prevalence of SNPs related to P. vivax SP resistance is low. However, this has not been assessed in Sri Lanka as in most other parts of Asia. This study describes the prevalence and distribution of SNPs related to P. vivax SP...... and 383, 553 and 585 of the Pvdhps gene by applying PCR followed by a hybridization step using sequence specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) in an ELISA format. RESULTS: In the study period, the government of Sri Lanka recorded 2,149 P. vivax cases from the nine districts out of which, 454 (21...

  12. The shape of the iceberg: quantification of submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia and gametocytaemia in five low endemic settings in Ethiopia.

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    Tadesse, Fitsum G; van den Hoogen, Lotus; Lanke, Kjerstin; Schildkraut, Jodie; Tetteh, Kevin; Aseffa, Abraham; Mamo, Hassen; Sauerwein, Robert; Felger, Ingrid; Drakeley, Chris; Gadissa, Endalamaw; Bousema, Teun

    2017-03-03

    The widespread presence of low-density asymptomatic infections with concurrent gametocytes may be a stumbling block for malaria elimination. This study investigated the asymptomatic reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections in schoolchildren from five settings in northwest Ethiopia. Two cross-sectional surveys were conducted in June and November 2015, enrolling 551 students from five schools and 294 students from three schools, respectively. Finger prick whole blood and plasma samples were collected. The prevalence and density of P. falciparum and P. vivax parasitaemia and gametocytaemia were determined by 18S rRNA quantitative PCR (qPCR) and pfs25 and pvs25 reverse transcriptase qPCR. Antibodies against blood stage antigens apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA-1) and merozoite surface protein-1 (MSP-1 19 ) were measured for both species. Whilst only 6 infections were detected by microscopy in 881 slides (0.7%), 107 of 845 blood samples (12.7%) were parasite positive by (DNA-based) qPCR. qPCR parasite prevalence between sites and surveys ranged from 3.8 to 19.0% for P. falciparum and 0.0 to 9.0% for P. vivax. The median density of P. falciparum infections (n = 85) was 24.4 parasites/µL (IQR 18.0-34.0) and the median density of P. vivax infections (n = 28) was 16.4 parasites/µL (IQR 8.8-55.1). Gametocyte densities by (mRNA-based) qRT-PCR were strongly associated with total parasite densities for both P. falciparum (correlation coefficient = 0.83, p = 0.010) and P. vivax (correlation coefficient = 0.58, p = 0.010). Antibody titers against P. falciparum AMA-1 and MSP-1 19 were higher in individuals who were P. falciparum parasite positive in both surveys (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). This study adds to the available evidence on the wide-scale presence of submicroscopic parasitaemia by quantifying submicroscopic parasite densities and concurrent gametocyte densities. There was considerable heterogeneity in the occurrence of P

  13. Duffy Negative Antigen Is No Longer a Barrier to Plasmodium vivax – Molecular Evidences from the African West Coast (Angola and Equatorial Guinea)

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    Mendes, Cristina; Dias, Fernanda; Figueiredo, Joana; Mora, Vicenta Gonzalez; Cano, Jorge; de Sousa, Bruno; do Rosário, Virgílio E.; Benito, Agustin; Berzosa, Pedro; Arez, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    Background Plasmodium vivax shows a small prevalence in West and Central Africa due to the high prevalence of Duffy negative people. However, Duffy negative individuals infected with P. vivax have been reported in areas of high prevalence of Duffy positive people who may serve as supply of P. vivax strains able to invade Duffy negative erythrocytes. We investigated the presence of P. vivax in two West African countries, using blood samples and mosquitoes collected during two on-going studies. Methodology/Findings Blood samples from a total of 995 individuals were collected in seven villages in Angola and Equatorial Guinea, and 820 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected in Equatorial Guinea. Identification of the Plasmodium species was achieved by nested PCR amplification of the small-subunit rRNA genes; P. vivax was further characterized by csp gene analysis. Positive P. vivax-human isolates were genotyped for the Duffy blood group through the analysis of the DARC gene. Fifteen Duffy-negative individuals, 8 from Equatorial Guinea (out of 97) and 7 from Angola (out of 898), were infected with two different strains of P. vivax (VK210 and VK247). Conclusions In this study we demonstrated that P. vivax infections were found both in humans and mosquitoes, which means that active transmission is occurring. Given the high prevalence of infection in mosquitoes, we may speculate that this hypnozoite-forming species at liver may not be detected by the peripheral blood samples analysis. Also, this is the first report of Duffy negative individuals infected with two different strains of P. vivax (VK247 and classic strains) in Angola and Equatorial Guinea. This finding reinforces the idea that this parasite is able to use receptors other than Duffy to invade erythrocytes, which may have an enormous impact in P. vivax current distribution. PMID:21713024

  14. Costs Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy in the Brazilian Amazon, a Low Endemic Area Where Plasmodium vivax Predominates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Bardají, Azucena; dos Santos Campos, Giselane; Fernandes, Silke; Hanson, Kara; Martínez-Espinosa, Flor Ernestina; Menéndez, Clara; Sicuri, Elisa

    2016-01-01

    Background Information on costs associated with malaria in pregnancy (MiP) in low transmission areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates is so far missing. This study estimates health system and patient costs of MiP in the Brazilian Amazon. Methods/Principal Findings Between January 2011 and March 2012 patient costs for the treatment of MiP were collected through an exit survey at a tertiary referral hospital and at a primary health care centre in the Manaus metropolitan area, Amazonas state. Pregnant and post-partum women diagnosed with malaria were interviewed after an outpatient consultation or at discharge after admission. Seventy-three interviews were included in the analysis. Ninety-six percent of episodes were due to P. vivax and 4% to Plasmodium falciparum. In 2010, the total median costs from the patient perspective were estimated at US $45.91 and US $216.29 for an outpatient consultation and an admission, respectively. When multiple P. vivax infections during the same pregnancy were considered, patient costs increased up to US $335.85, representing the costs of an admission plus an outpatient consultation. Provider direct and overhead cost data were obtained from several sources. The provider cost associated with an outpatient case, which includes several consultations at the tertiary hospital was US $103.51 for a P. vivax malaria episode and US $83.59 for a P. falciparum malaria episode. The cost of an inpatient day and average admission of 3 days was US $118.51 and US $355.53, respectively. Total provider costs for the diagnosis and treatment of all malaria cases reported in pregnant women in Manaus in 2010 (N = 364) were US $17,038.50, of which 92.4% (US$ 15,741.14) due to P. vivax infection. Conclusion Despite being an area of low risk malaria transmission, MiP is responsible for a significant economic burden in Manaus. Especially when multiple infections are considered, costs associated with P. vivax are higher than costs associated with P

  15. Costs Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy in the Brazilian Amazon, a Low Endemic Area Where Plasmodium vivax Predominates.

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    Camila Bôtto-Menezes

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on costs associated with malaria in pregnancy (MiP in low transmission areas where Plasmodium vivax predominates is so far missing. This study estimates health system and patient costs of MiP in the Brazilian Amazon.Between January 2011 and March 2012 patient costs for the treatment of MiP were collected through an exit survey at a tertiary referral hospital and at a primary health care centre in the Manaus metropolitan area, Amazonas state. Pregnant and post-partum women diagnosed with malaria were interviewed after an outpatient consultation or at discharge after admission. Seventy-three interviews were included in the analysis. Ninety-six percent of episodes were due to P. vivax and 4% to Plasmodium falciparum. In 2010, the total median costs from the patient perspective were estimated at US $45.91 and US $216.29 for an outpatient consultation and an admission, respectively. When multiple P. vivax infections during the same pregnancy were considered, patient costs increased up to US $335.85, representing the costs of an admission plus an outpatient consultation. Provider direct and overhead cost data were obtained from several sources. The provider cost associated with an outpatient case, which includes several consultations at the tertiary hospital was US $103.51 for a P. vivax malaria episode and US $83.59 for a P. falciparum malaria episode. The cost of an inpatient day and average admission of 3 days was US $118.51 and US $355.53, respectively. Total provider costs for the diagnosis and treatment of all malaria cases reported in pregnant women in Manaus in 2010 (N = 364 were US $17,038.50, of which 92.4% (US$ 15,741.14 due to P. vivax infection.Despite being an area of low risk malaria transmission, MiP is responsible for a significant economic burden in Manaus. Especially when multiple infections are considered, costs associated with P. vivax are higher than costs associated with P. falciparum. The information generated may

  16. Prevalence of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance in Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in two districts of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranjitkar, Samir; Schousboe, Mette L; Thomsen, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) and chloroquine (CQ) have been used in treatment of falciparum and vivax malaria in Nepal. Recently, resistance to both drugs have necessitated a change towards artemisinin combination therapy (ACT) against Plasmodium falciparum in highly...... endemic areas. However, SP is still used against P. falciparum infections in low endemic areas while CQ is used in suspected cases in areas with lack of diagnostic facilities. This study examines the prevalence of molecular markers of P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax CQ and SP resistance to determine...... and P. vivax for CQ (Pfcrt, Pfmdr1, Pvmdr1) and SP (Pfdhfr, Pfdhps, Pvdhfr), using various PCR-based methods. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Positive P. vivax and P. falciparum infections were identified by PCR in 92 and 41 samples respectively. However, some of these were negative in subsequent PCRs. Based...

  17. Preclinical assessment of viral vectored and protein vaccines targeting the Duffy-binding protein region II of Plasmodium vivax

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    Simone C de Cassan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Malaria vaccine development has largely focused on Plasmodium falciparum; however a reawakening to the importance of P. vivax has spurred efforts to develop vaccines against this difficult to treat and at times severe form of relapsing malaria, which constitutes a significant proportion of human malaria cases worldwide. The almost complete dependence of P. vivax red blood cell invasion on the interaction of the P. vivax Duffy-binding protein region II (PvDBP_RII with the human Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC, makes this antigen an attractive vaccine candidate against blood-stage P. vivax. Here, we generated both preclinical and clinically-compatible adenoviral and poxviral vectored vaccine candidates expressing the Salvador I allele of PvDBP_RII – including human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV5, chimpanzee adenovirus serotype 63 (ChAd63 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA vectors. We report on the antibody and T cell immunogenicity of these vaccines in mice or rabbits, either used alone in a viral vectored prime-boost regime, or in ‘mixed-modality’ adenovirus prime – protein-in-adjuvant boost regimes (using a recombinant protein PvDBP_RII protein antigen formulated in Montanide®ISA720 or Abisco®100 adjuvants. Antibodies induced by these regimes were found to bind to native parasite antigen from P. vivax infected Thai patients and were capable of inhibiting the binding of PvDBP_RII to its receptor DARC using an in vitro binding inhibition assay. In recent years, recombinant ChAd63 and MVA vectors have been quickly translated into human clinical trials for numerous antigens from P. falciparum as well as a growing number of other pathogens. The vectors reported here are immunogenic in small animals, elicit antibodies against PvDBP_RII and have recently entered clinical trials which will provide the first assessment of the safety and immunogenicity of the PvDBP_RII antigen in humans.

  18. Estimated effect of climatic variables on the transmission of Plasmodium vivax malaria in the Republic of Korea.

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    Kim, Young-Min; Park, Jae-Won; Cheong, Hae-Kwan

    2012-09-01

    Climate change may affect Plasmodium vivax malaria transmission in a wide region including both subtropical and temperate areas. We aimed to estimate the effects of climatic variables on the transmission of P. vivax in temperate regions. We estimated the effects of climatic factors on P. vivax malaria transmission using data on weekly numbers of malaria cases for the years 2001-2009 in the Republic of Korea. Generalized linear Poisson models and distributed lag nonlinear models (DLNM) were adopted to estimate the effects of temperature, relative humidity, temperature fluctuation, duration of sunshine, and rainfall on malaria transmission while adjusting for seasonal variation, between-year variation, and other climatic factors. A 1°C increase in temperature was associated with a 17.7% [95% confidence interval (CI): 16.9, 18.6%] increase in malaria incidence after a 3-week lag, a 10% rise in relative humidity was associated with 40.7% (95% CI: -44.3, -36.9%) decrease in malaria after a 7-week lag, a 1°C increase in the diurnal temperature range was associated with a 24.1% (95% CI: -26.7, -21.4%) decrease in malaria after a 7-week lag, and a 10-hr increase in sunshine per week was associated with a 5.1% (95% CI: -8.4, -1.7%) decrease in malaria after a 2-week lag. The cumulative relative risk for a 10-mm increase in rainfall (≤ 350 mm) on P. vivax malaria was 3.61 (95% CI: 1.69, 7.72) based on a DLNM with a 10-week maximum lag. Our findings suggest that malaria transmission in temperate areas is highly dependent on climate factors. In addition, lagged estimates of the effect of rainfall on malaria are consistent with the time necessary for mosquito development and P. vivax incubation.

  19. Reduced Plasmodium vivax erythrocyte infection in PNG Duffy-negative heterozygotes.

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    Kasehagen, Laurin J; Mueller, Ivo; Kiniboro, Benson; Bockarie, Moses J; Reeder, John C; Kazura, James W; Kastens, Will; McNamara, David T; King, Charles H; Whalen, Christopher C; Zimmerman, Peter A

    2007-03-28

    Erythrocyte Duffy blood group negativity reaches fixation in African populations where Plasmodium vivax (Pv) is uncommon. While it is known that Duffy-negative individuals are highly resistant to Pv erythrocyte infection, little is known regarding Pv susceptibility among heterozygous carriers of a Duffy-negative allele (+/-). Our limited knowledge of the selective advantages or disadvantages associated with this genotype constrains our understanding of the effect that interventions against Pv may have on the health of people living in malaria-endemic regions. We conducted cross-sectional malaria prevalence surveys in Papua New Guinea (PNG), where we have previously identified a new Duffy-negative allele among individuals living in a region endemic for all four human malaria parasite species. We evaluated infection status by conventional blood smear light microscopy and semi-quantitative PCR-based strategies. Analysis of a longitudinal cohort constructed from our surveys showed that Duffy heterozygous (+/-) individuals were protected from Pv erythrocyte infection compared to those homozygous for wild-type alleles (+/+) (log-rank tests: LM, p = 0.049; PCR, p = 0.065). Evaluation of Pv parasitemia, determined by semi-quantitative PCR-based methods, was significantly lower in Duffy +/- vs. +/+ individuals (Mann-Whitney U: p = 0.023). Overall, we observed no association between susceptibility to P. falciparum erythrocyte infection and Duffy genotype. Our findings provide the first evidence that Duffy-negative heterozygosity reduces erythrocyte susceptibility to Pv infection. As this reduction was not associated with greater susceptibility to Pf malaria, our in vivo observations provide evidence that Pv-targeted control measures can be developed safely.

  20. A high force of plasmodium vivax blood-stage infection drives the rapid acquisition of immunity in papua new guinean children.

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    Cristian Koepfli

    Full Text Available When both parasite species are co-endemic, Plasmodium vivax incidence peaks in younger children compared to P. falciparum. To identify differences in the number of blood stage infections of these species and its potential link to acquisition of immunity, we have estimated the molecular force of blood-stage infection of P. vivax ((molFOB, i.e. the number of genetically distinct blood-stage infections over time, and compared it to previously reported values for P. falciparum.P. vivax (molFOB was estimated by high resolution genotyping parasites in samples collected over 16 months in a cohort of 264 Papua New Guinean children living in an area highly endemic for P. falciparum and P. vivax. In this cohort, P. vivax episodes decreased three-fold over the age range of 1-4.5 years.On average, children acquired 14.0 new P. vivax blood-stage clones/child/year-at-risk. While the incidence of clinical P. vivax illness was strongly associated with mol FOB (incidence rate ratio (IRR = 1.99, 95% confidence interval (CI95 [1.80, 2.19], (molFOB did not change with age. The incidence of P. vivax showed a faster decrease with age in children with high (IRR = 0.49, CI95 [0.38, 0.64] p<0.001 compared to those with low exposure (IRR = 0.63, CI95[0.43, 0.93] p = 0.02.P. vivax (molFOB is considerably higher than P. falciparum (molFOB (5.5 clones/child/year-at-risk. The high number of P. vivax clones that infect children in early childhood contribute to the rapid acquisition of immunity against clinical P. vivax malaria.

  1. Directly-observed therapy (DOT for the radical 14-day primaquine treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria on the Thai-Myanmar border

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    Thanyavanich Nipon

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax has a dormant hepatic stage, called the hypnozoite, which can cause relapse months after the initial attack. For 50 years, primaquine has been used as a hypnozoitocide to radically cure P. vivax infection, but major concerns remain regarding the side-effects of the drug and adherence to the 14-day regimen. This study examined the effectiveness of using the directly-observed therapy (DOT method for the radical treatment of P. vivax malaria infection, to prevent reappearance of the parasite within the 90-day follow-up period. Other potential risk factors for the reappearance of P. vivax were also explored. Methods A randomized trial was conducted from May 2007 to January 2009 in a low malaria transmission area along the Thai-Myanmar border. Patients aged ≥ 3 years diagnosed with P. vivax by microscopy, were recruited. All patients were treated with the national standard regimen of chloroquine for three days followed by primaquine for 14 days. Patients were randomized to receive DOT or self-administered therapy (SAT. All patients were followed for three months to check for any reappearance of P. vivax. Results Of the 216 patients enrolled, 109 were randomized to DOT and 107 to SAT. All patients recovered without serious adverse effects. The vivax reappearance rate was significantly lower in the DOT group than the SAT group (3.4/10,000 person-days vs. 13.5/10,000 person-days, p = 0.021. Factors related to the reappearance of vivax malaria included inadequate total primaquine dosage received (P. vivax-genotype infection, and presence of P. falciparum infection during the follow-up period. Conclusions Adherence to the 14-day primaquine regimen is important for the radical cure of P. vivax malaria infection. Implementation of DOT reduces the reappearance rate of the parasite, and may subsequently decrease P. vivax transmission in the area.

  2. Recurrencias de malaria por Plasmodium vivax según el uso de primaquina: análisis de estudios descriptivos longitudinales Plasmodium vivax malaria recurrence according to the use of primaquine: analysis of longitudinal descriptive studies

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    Jaime Carmona-Fonseca

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: la primaquina (PQ es el único medicamento disponible en el mercado para prevenir recurrencias del paludismo por Plasmodium vivax pero varios aspectos suyos se desconocen. OBJETIVO: comparar regímenes de PQ para prevenir recurrencias de malaria vivax. METODOLOGÍA: revisión sistemática de datos. RESULTADOS: 1. ¿Según los estudios descriptivos, la PQ es eficaz para prevenir las recurrencias del paludismo vivax? Sí. La comparación de estudios que no usaron PQ con otros que sí la aplicaron, en cualquier esquema, mostró que si no se usa PQ la recurrencia es altamente probable. 2. ¿Tienen la misma eficacia dosis diarias (mg/kg iguales pero dosis totales diferentes? La dosis total de 75 mg es tanto o más eficaz que la de 210 mg. 3. ¿La eficacia anti-recurrencias depende del lugar donde sucede la infección? Si. Hay variación según país y región. 4. ¿La frecuencia de recurrencias depende del tiempo de seguimiento post tratamiento? La respuesta no es uniforme para todos los lugares. CONCLUSIONES: la PQ resultó eficaz para prevenir las recurrencias, pero no fue 100%. Las dosis totales de 210 y de 75 mg tuvieron igual eficacia, pero 75 mg sólo han sido evaluados en India, donde P. vivax parece ser más sensible a la PQ que en otros lugares. Parece indudable la influencia del lugar en la proporción de recurrencias, incluso con una misma dosis total. El papel del tiempo de seguimiento no resultó claro. Deben evaluarse esquemas alternativos al estándar, que tiene eficacia promedio de 90% o más.BACKGROUND: primaquine (PQ is the only drug available in the market to prevent Plasmodium vivax malaria recurrence, but several aspects are still unknown. OBJECTIVE: To compare PQ regimens to prevent recurrence of vivax malaria. METHODS: systematic review and meta-analysis of data. RESULTS: 1. According to descriptive studies, is PQ effective in preventing recurrence of vivax malaria? Yes. The comparison of studies that did not use

  3. Genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3alpha (Pvmsp-3alpha) gene in Jhapa District of Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Madhav; Ranjitkar, Samir; Schousboe, Mette Leth; Alifrangis, Michael; Imwong, Mallika; Bhatta, Dwij Raj; Banjara, Megha Raj

    2012-03-01

    In Nepal, Plasmodium vivax accounts for approximately 80-90% of the malaria cases, but limited studies have been conducted on the genetic diversity of this parasite population. This study was carried out to determine the genetic diversity of P. vivax population sampled from subjects living in an endemic area of Jhapa District by analyzing the polymorphic merozoite surface protein-3alpha (Pvmsp-3alpha) gene by using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Three distinct genotypes were obtained from 96 samples; type A: 40 (71%), type B: 7 (13%), and type C: 9 (16%) which could be categorized into 13 allelic patterns: A1-A9, B1, B2, C1 and C2. These results indicated a high genetic diversity within the studied P. vivax population. As the transmission rate of malaria is low in Nepal, the diversity is most likely due to migration of people between the malaria endemic regions, either within the country or between Nepal and India. Similar prevalence of the three genotypes of Pvmsp-3alpha between the two countries likely supports the latter explanation.

  4. Point-of-care G6PD diagnostics for Plasmodium vivax malaria is a clinical and public health urgency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J Kevin

    2015-12-14

    Malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax threatens over 2 billion people globally and sickens tens of millions annually. Recent clinical evidence discredits the long-held notion of this infection as intrinsically benign revealing an often threatening course associated with mortality. Most acute attacks by this species derive from latent forms in the human liver called hypnozoites. Radical cure for P. vivax malaria includes therapy aimed both at the acute attack (blood schizontocidal) and against future attacks (hypnozoitocidal). The only hypnozoitocide available is primaquine, a drug causing life-threatening acute hemolytic anemia in patients with the inherited blood disorder glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency. This disorder affects 400 million people worldwide, at an average prevalence of 8 % in malaria-endemic nations. In the absence of certain knowledge regarding the G6PD status of patients infected by P. vivax, providers must choose between the risk of harm caused by primaquine and that caused by the parasite by withholding therapy. Resolving this dilemma requires the availability of point-of-care G6PD diagnostics practical for use in the impoverished rural tropics where the vast majority of malaria patients seek care.

  5. The structure of Plasmodium vivax phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein suggests a functional motif containing a left-handed helix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arakaki, Tracy; Neely, Helen; Boni, Erica; Mueller, Natasha; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2007-01-01

    The crystal structure of a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein from P. vivax, a homolog of Raf-kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), has been solved to a resolution of 1.3 Å. The inferred interaction surface near the anion-binding site is found to include a distinctive left-handed α-helix. The structure of a putative Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) homolog from the eukaryotic parasite Plasmodium vivax has been studied to a resolution of 1.3 Å using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction at the Se K edge. This protozoan protein is topologically similar to previously studied members of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) sequence family, but exhibits a distinctive left-handed α-helical region at one side of the canonical phospholipid-binding site. Re-examination of previously determined PEBP structures suggests that the P. vivax protein and yeast carboxypeptidase Y inhibitor may represent a structurally distinct subfamily of the diverse PEBP-sequence family

  6. Neutral polymorphisms in putative housekeeping genes and tandem repeats unravels the population genetics and evolutionary history of Plasmodium vivax in India.

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    Surendra K Prajapati

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history and age of Plasmodium vivax has been inferred as both recent and ancient by several studies, mainly using mitochondrial genome diversity. Here we address the age of P. vivax on the Indian subcontinent using selectively neutral housekeeping genes and tandem repeat loci. Analysis of ten housekeeping genes revealed a substantial number of SNPs (n = 75 from 100 P. vivax isolates collected from five geographical regions of India. Neutrality tests showed a majority of the housekeeping genes were selectively neutral, confirming the suitability of housekeeping genes for inferring the evolutionary history of P. vivax. In addition, a genetic differentiation test using housekeeping gene polymorphism data showed a lack of geographical structuring between the five regions of India. The coalescence analysis of the time to the most recent common ancestor estimate yielded an ancient TMRCA (232,228 to 303,030 years and long-term population history (79,235 to 104,008 of extant P. vivax on the Indian subcontinent. Analysis of 18 tandem repeat loci polymorphisms showed substantial allelic diversity and heterozygosity per locus, and analysis of potential bottlenecks revealed the signature of a stable P. vivax population, further corroborating our ancient age estimates. For the first time we report a comparable evolutionary history of P. vivax inferred by nuclear genetic markers (putative housekeeping genes to that inferred from mitochondrial genome diversity.

  7. Neutral polymorphisms in putative housekeeping genes and tandem repeats unravels the population genetics and evolutionary history of Plasmodium vivax in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Surendra K; Joshi, Hema; Carlton, Jane M; Rizvi, M Alam

    2013-01-01

    The evolutionary history and age of Plasmodium vivax has been inferred as both recent and ancient by several studies, mainly using mitochondrial genome diversity. Here we address the age of P. vivax on the Indian subcontinent using selectively neutral housekeeping genes and tandem repeat loci. Analysis of ten housekeeping genes revealed a substantial number of SNPs (n = 75) from 100 P. vivax isolates collected from five geographical regions of India. Neutrality tests showed a majority of the housekeeping genes were selectively neutral, confirming the suitability of housekeeping genes for inferring the evolutionary history of P. vivax. In addition, a genetic differentiation test using housekeeping gene polymorphism data showed a lack of geographical structuring between the five regions of India. The coalescence analysis of the time to the most recent common ancestor estimate yielded an ancient TMRCA (232,228 to 303,030 years) and long-term population history (79,235 to 104,008) of extant P. vivax on the Indian subcontinent. Analysis of 18 tandem repeat loci polymorphisms showed substantial allelic diversity and heterozygosity per locus, and analysis of potential bottlenecks revealed the signature of a stable P. vivax population, further corroborating our ancient age estimates. For the first time we report a comparable evolutionary history of P. vivax inferred by nuclear genetic markers (putative housekeeping genes) to that inferred from mitochondrial genome diversity.

  8. Antimalarial activity of artefenomel (OZ439), a novel synthetic antimalarial endoperoxide, in patients with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax malaria: an open-label phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyo, Aung Pyae; Jittamala, Podjanee; Nosten, François H; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Imwong, Mallika; White, Nicholas J; Duparc, Stephan; Macintyre, Fiona; Baker, Mark; Möhrle, Jörg J

    2016-01-01

    Artefenomel (OZ439) is a novel synthetic trioxolane with improved pharmacokinetic properties compared with other antimalarial drugs with the artemisinin pharmacophore. Artefenomel has been generally well tolerated in volunteers at doses up to 1600 mg and is being developed as a partner drug in an antimalarial combination treatment. We investigated the efficacy, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of artefenomel at different doses in patients with Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax malaria. This phase 2a exploratory, open-label trial was done at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, Bangkok, and the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit in Thailand. Adult patients with acute, uncomplicated P falciparum or P vivax malaria received artefenomel in a single oral dose (200 mg, 400 mg, 800 mg, or 1200 mg). The first cohort received 800 mg. Testing of a new dose of artefenomel in a patient cohort was decided on after safety and efficacy assessment of the preceding cohort. The primary endpoint was the natural log parasite reduction per 24 h. Definitive oral treatment was given at 36 h. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01213966. Between Oct 24, 2010, and May 25, 2012, 82 patients were enrolled (20 in each of the 200 mg, 400 mg, and 800 mg cohorts, and 21 in the 1200 mg cohort). One patient withdrew consent (before the administration of artefenomel) but there were no further dropouts. The parasite reduction rates per 24 h ranged from 0·90 to 1·88 for P falciparum, and 2·09 to 2·53 for P vivax. All doses were equally effective in both P falciparum and P vivax malaria, with median parasite clearance half-lives of 4·1 h (range 1·3-6·7) to 5·6 h (2·0-8·5) for P falciparum and 2·3 h (1·2-3·9) to 3·2 h (0·9-15·0) for P vivax. Maximum plasma concentrations, dose-proportional to 800 mg, occurred at 4 h (median). The estimated elimination half-life was 46-62 h. No serious drug-related adverse effects were reported; other adverse effects were

  9. Vaccine Containing the Three Allelic Variants of the Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Antigen Induces Protection in Mice after Challenge with a Transgenic Rodent Malaria Parasite

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    Alba Marina Gimenez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is the most common species that cause malaria outside of the African continent. The development of an efficacious vaccine would contribute greatly to control malaria. Recently, using bacterial and adenoviral recombinant proteins based on the P. vivax circumsporozoite protein (CSP, we demonstrated the possibility of eliciting strong antibody-mediated immune responses to each of the three allelic forms of P. vivax CSP (PvCSP. In the present study, recombinant proteins representing the PvCSP alleles (VK210, VK247, and P. vivax-like, as well as a hybrid polypeptide, named PvCSP-All epitopes, were generated. This hybrid containing the conserved C-terminal of the PvCSP and the three variant repeat domains in tandem were successfully produced in the yeast Pichia pastoris. After purification and biochemical characterization, they were used for the experimental immunization of C57BL/6 mice in a vaccine formulation containing the adjuvant Poly(I:C. Immunization with a recombinant protein expressing all three different allelic forms in fusion elicited high IgG antibody titers reacting with all three different allelic variants of PvCSP. The antibodies targeted both the C-terminal and repeat domains of PvCSP and recognized the native protein on the surface of P. vivax sporozoites. More importantly, mice that received the vaccine formulation were protected after challenge with chimeric Plasmodium berghei sporozoites expressing CSP repeats of P. vivax sporozoites (Pb/PvVK210. Our results suggest that it is possible to elicit protective immunity against one of the most common PvCSP alleles using soluble recombinant proteins expressed by P. pastoris. These recombinant proteins are promising candidates for clinical trials aiming to develop a multiallele vaccine against P. vivax malaria.

  10. Plasmodium vivax congenital malaria in an area of very low endemicity in Guatemala: implications for clinical and epidemiological surveillance in a malaria elimination context

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    Castellanos María Eugenia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This is a report of the first Plasmodium vivax congenital malaria case in Guatemala and the first case in Latin America with genotypical, histological and clinical characterization. The findings show that maternal P. vivax infection still occurs in areas that are in the pathway towards malaria elimination, and can be associated with detrimental health effects for the neonate. It also highlights the need in very low transmission areas of not only maintaining, but increasing awareness of the problem and developing surveillance strategies, based on population risk, to detect the infection especially in this vulnerable group of the population.

  11. Chloroquine efficacy for Plasmodium vivax in Myanmar in populations with high genetic diversity and moderate parasite gene flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Htun, Myo Win; Mon, Nan Cho Nwe; Aye, Khin Myo; Hlaing, Chan Myae; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Handayuni, Irene; Trimarsanto, Hidayat; Bustos, Dorina; Ringwald, Pascal; Price, Ric N; Auburn, Sarah; Thriemer, Kamala

    2017-07-10

    Plasmodium vivax malaria remains a major public health burden in Myanmar. Resistance to chloroquine (CQ), the first-line treatment for P. vivax, has been reported in the country and has potential to undermine local control efforts. Patients over 6 years of age with uncomplicated P. vivax mono-infection were enrolled into clinical efficacy studies in Myawaddy in 2014 and Kawthoung in 2012. Study participants received a standard dose of CQ (25 mg/kg over 3 days) followed by weekly review until day 28. Pvmdr1 copy number (CN) and microsatellite diversity were assessed on samples from the patients enrolled in the clinical study and additional cross-sectional surveys undertaken in Myawaddy and Shwegyin in 2012. A total of 85 patients were enrolled in the CQ clinical studies, 25 in Myawaddy and 60 in Kawthoung. One patient in Myawaddy (1.2%) had an early treatment failure and two patients (2.3%) in Kawthoung presented with late treatment failures on day 28. The day 28 efficacy was 92.0% (95% CI 71.6-97.9) in Myawaddy and 98.3% (95% CI 88.7-99.8) in Kawthoung. By day 2, 92.2% (23/25) in Myawaddy and 85.0% (51/60) in Kawthoung were aparasitaemic. Genotyping and pvmdr1 CN assessment was undertaken on 43, 52 and 46 clinical isolates from Myawaddy, Kawthoung and Shwegyin respectively. Pvmdr1 amplification was observed in 3.2% (1/31) of isolates in Myawaddy, 0% (0/49) in Kawthoung and 2.5% (1/40) in Shwegyin. Diversity was high in all sites (H E 0.855-0.876), with low inter-population differentiation (F ST 0.016-0.026, P Myanmar, particularly given the potential connectivity between parasite population at different sites.

  12. Increasing Incidence of Plasmodium knowlesi Malaria following Control of P. falciparum and P. vivax Malaria in Sabah, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    William, Timothy; Rahman, Hasan A.; Jelip, Jenarun; Ibrahim, Mohammad Y.; Menon, Jayaram; Grigg, Matthew J.; Yeo, Tsin W.; Anstey, Nicholas M.; Barber, Bridget E.

    2013-01-01

    Background The simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a common cause of human malaria in Malaysian Borneo and threatens the prospect of malaria elimination. However, little is known about the emergence of P. knowlesi, particularly in Sabah. We reviewed Sabah Department of Health records to investigate the trend of each malaria species over time. Methods Reporting of microscopy-diagnosed malaria cases in Sabah is mandatory. We reviewed all available Department of Health malaria notification records from 1992–2011. Notifications of P. malariae and P. knowlesi were considered as a single group due to microscopic near-identity. Results From 1992–2011 total malaria notifications decreased dramatically, with P. falciparum peaking at 33,153 in 1994 and decreasing 55-fold to 605 in 2011, and P. vivax peaking at 15,857 in 1995 and decreasing 25-fold to 628 in 2011. Notifications of P. malariae/P. knowlesi also demonstrated a peak in the mid-1990s (614 in 1994) before decreasing to ≈100/year in the late 1990s/early 2000s. However, P. malariae/P. knowlesi notifications increased >10-fold between 2004 (n = 59) and 2011 (n = 703). In 1992 P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae/P. knowlesi monoinfections accounted for 70%, 24% and 1% respectively of malaria notifications, compared to 30%, 31% and 35% in 2011. The increase in P. malariae/P. knowlesi notifications occurred state-wide, appearing to have begun in the southwest and progressed north-easterly. Conclusions A significant recent increase has occurred in P. knowlesi notifications following reduced transmission of the human Plasmodium species, and this trend threatens malaria elimination. Determination of transmission dynamics and risk factors for knowlesi malaria is required to guide measures to control this rising incidence. PMID:23359830

  13. Frequent Spread of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Maintains High Genetic Diversity at the Myanmar-China Border, Without Distance and Landscape Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Eugenia; Lam, Nancy; Hemming-Schroeder, Elizabeth; Nguyen, Jennifer; Zhou, Guofa; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Yang, Zhaoqing; Cui, Liwang; Yan, Guiyun

    2017-12-05

    In Myanmar, civil unrest and the establishment of internally displaced person (IDP) settlements along the Myanmar-China border have impacted malaria transmission. Microsatellite markers were used to examine source-sink dynamics for Plasmodium vivax between IDP settlements and surrounding villages in the border region. Genotypic structure and diversity were compared across the 3 years following the establishment of IDP settlements, to infer demographic history. We investigated whether human migration and landscape heterogeneity contributed to P. vivax transmission. P. vivax from IDP settlements and local communities consistently exhibited high genetic diversity within populations but low polyclonality within individuals. No apparent genetic structure was observed among populations and years. P. vivax genotypes in China were similar to those in Myanmar, and parasite introduction was unidirectional. Landscape factors, including distance, elevation, and land cover, do not appear to impede parasite gene flow. The admixture of P. vivax genotypes suggested that parasite gene flow via human movement contributes to the spread of malaria both locally in Myanmar and across the international border. Our genetic findings highlight the presence of large P. vivax gene reservoirs that can sustain transmission. Thus, it is important to reinforce and improve existing control efforts along border areas. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Salivary Glands Proteins Expression of Anopheles dirus A Fed on Plasmodium vivax- and Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Human Blood

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    Saowanee Cotama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are able to adapt to feed on blood by the salivary glands which created a protein that works against the haemostasis process. This study aims to investigate the salivary glands proteins expression of 50 adult female An. dirus A mosquitoes, a main vector of malaria in Thailand, each group with an age of 5 days which were artificial membrane fed on sugar, normal blood, blood infected with P. vivax, and blood infected with P. falciparum. Then mosquito salivary gland proteins were analyzed by SDS-PAGE on days 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 after feeding. The findings revealed that the major salivary glands proteins had molecular weights of 62, 58, 43, 36, 33, 30, and 18 kDa. One protein band of approximately 13 kDa was found in normal blood and blood infected with P. vivax fed on day 0. A stronger protein band, 65 kDa, was expressed from the salivary glands of mosquitoes fed with P. vivax- or P. falciparum-infected blood on only day 0, but none on days 1 to 4. The study shows that salivary glands proteins expression of An. dirus may affect the malaria parasite life cycle and the ability of mosquitoes to transmit malaria parasites in post-24-hour disappearance observation.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors associated to pruritus in Plasmodium vivax patients using chloroquine in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballut, Priscilla C; Siqueira, Andre M; Orlando, Aline C B; Alexandre, Marcia A A; Alecrim, Maria Graças C; Lacerda, Marcus V G

    2013-12-01

    Chloroquine-induced pruritus has been described as a common adverse event in African patients being treated for Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and has been associated with treatment discontinuation in this setting. In Latin America, where Plasmodium vivax is the most common species causing malaria and chloroquine is still used as the first-line schizonticidal for treating this parasite infection, there are no reports on chloroquine-induced pruritus. This study aimed to estimate the frequency of pruritus and associated risk factors in P. vivax-infected patients treated with chloroquine in a reference centre in the Brazilian Amazon. In this cross-sectional study, patients who were prescribed with chloroquine for the treatment of microscopy-confirmed P. vivax infection in the past five days were actively asked about the occurrence of any level of pruritus and potential risk factors were investigated. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression was performed for the analysis of possible risk factors in two sets of patients: (1) all the patients interviewed and (2) restricted to patients with previous use of chloroquine. Among the 510 patients interviewed, 20.4% (95%CI: 16.9-23.9%) developed any level of pruritus during treatment with chloroquine. Most episodes of pruritus occurred during the first two days of treatment and the most common location was hands and feet. In multivariate analysis performed in the entire population, the only risk factors independently associated to pruritus were allergy history (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 1.83; 95%CI 1.02-3.31; p=0.044) and high parasitaemia (AOR: 1.96: 95%CI 1.22-3.13; p=0.005). In the analysis restricted to the 215 patients with previous use of chloroquine, previous chloroquine-induced pruritus was a strong predictor of pruritus occurrence (AOR: 11.84: 95%CI 3.15-44.47; pAmazon. Host-parasite interaction may play a relevant role in the development of pruritus and concurs with the finding of strong association of

  16. Association of TLR variants with susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria and parasitemia in the Amazon region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Allyson Guimarães; Ramasawmy, Rajendranath; Ibiapina, Hiochelson Najibe Santos; Sampaio, Vanderson Souza; Xábregas, Lilyane Amorim; Brasil, Larissa Wanderley; Tarragô, Andréa Monteiro; Almeida, Anne Cristine Gomes; Kuehn, Andrea; Vitor-Silva, Sheila; Melo, Gisely Cardoso; Siqueira, André Machado; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; Lacerda, Marcus Vinicius Guimarães; Malheiro, Adriana

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax malaria (Pv-malaria) is still considered a neglected disease despite an alarming number of individuals being infected annually. Malaria pathogenesis occurs with the onset of the vector-parasite-host interaction through the binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and receptors of innate immunity, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs). The triggering of the signaling cascade produces an elevated inflammatory response. Genetic polymorphisms in TLRs are involved in susceptibility or resistance to infection, and the identification of genes involved with Pv-malaria response is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease and may contribute to the formulation of control and elimination tools. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in an intense transmission area of Pv-malaria in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Genetic polymorphisms (SNPs) in different TLRs, TIRAP, and CD14 were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis in 325 patients infected with P. vivax and 274 healthy individuals without malaria history in the prior 12 months from the same endemic area. Parasite load was determined by qPCR. Simple and multiple logistic/linear regressions were performed to investigate association between the polymorphisms and the occurrence of Pv-malaria and parasitemia. The C/T (TLR5 R392StopCodon) and T/T (TLR9 -1486C/T) genotypes appear to be risk factors for infection by P. vivax (TLR5: C/C vs. C/T [OR: 2.116, 95% CI: 1.054-4.452, p = 0.031]; TLR9: C/C vs. T/T [OR: 1.919, 95% CI: 1.159-3.177, p = 0.010]; respectively). Fever (COEF = 7599.46, 95% CI = 3063.80-12135.12, p = 0.001) and the C/C genotype of TLR9 -1237C/T (COEF = 17006.63, 95% CI = 3472.83-30540.44, p = 0.014) were independently associated with increased parasitemia in patients with Pv-malaria. Variants of TLRs may predispose individuals to infection by P. vivax. The TLR5 R392StopCodon and TLR9 -1486C/T variants

  17. Association of TLR variants with susceptibility to Plasmodium vivax malaria and parasitemia in the Amazon region of Brazil.

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    Allyson Guimarães Costa

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax malaria (Pv-malaria is still considered a neglected disease despite an alarming number of individuals being infected annually. Malaria pathogenesis occurs with the onset of the vector-parasite-host interaction through the binding of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs and receptors of innate immunity, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs. The triggering of the signaling cascade produces an elevated inflammatory response. Genetic polymorphisms in TLRs are involved in susceptibility or resistance to infection, and the identification of genes involved with Pv-malaria response is important to elucidate the pathogenesis of the disease and may contribute to the formulation of control and elimination tools.A retrospective case-control study was conducted in an intense transmission area of Pv-malaria in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. Genetic polymorphisms (SNPs in different TLRs, TIRAP, and CD14 were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP analysis in 325 patients infected with P. vivax and 274 healthy individuals without malaria history in the prior 12 months from the same endemic area. Parasite load was determined by qPCR. Simple and multiple logistic/linear regressions were performed to investigate association between the polymorphisms and the occurrence of Pv-malaria and parasitemia. The C/T (TLR5 R392StopCodon and T/T (TLR9 -1486C/T genotypes appear to be risk factors for infection by P. vivax (TLR5: C/C vs. C/T [OR: 2.116, 95% CI: 1.054-4.452, p = 0.031]; TLR9: C/C vs. T/T [OR: 1.919, 95% CI: 1.159-3.177, p = 0.010]; respectively. Fever (COEF = 7599.46, 95% CI = 3063.80-12135.12, p = 0.001 and the C/C genotype of TLR9 -1237C/T (COEF = 17006.63, 95% CI = 3472.83-30540.44, p = 0.014 were independently associated with increased parasitemia in patients with Pv-malaria.Variants of TLRs may predispose individuals to infection by P. vivax. The TLR5 R392StopCodon and TLR9 -1486C

  18. Reporte de cinco casos de malaria neonatal grave por Plasmodium vivax en Urabá, Colombia

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    Juan Gabriel Piñeros

    2008-12-01

    Conclusión. Se trata de un reporte de cinco casos de malaria neonatal grave por P. vivax, especie que habitualmente no se relaciona con complicaciones, sin que existiera en ningún caso la sospecha clínica y con tratamiento inadecuado.

  19. Plasmodium vivax sporozoite challenge in malaria-naïve and semi-immune Colombian volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Forero-Peña, David A.; Rubiano, Kelly

    2014-01-01

    induced in naïve and semi-immune volunteers by infected mosquito bites was compared. Methods: Seven malaria-naïve and nine semi-immune Colombian adults (n = 16) were subjected to the bites of 2-4 P. vivax sporozoite-infected Anopheles mosquitoes. Parasitemia levels, malaria clinical manifestations...

  20. Efficacy and safety of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in Indonesian children infected with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

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    Emiliana Tjitra

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DPQ has been used since 2006 in Papua, Indonesia and is planned as an alternative artemisinin-based combination therapy for wider use in Indonesia. Confirmation of the drug’s efficacy and safety in children outside Papua is needed. Objective To measure the day-42 clinical and parasitological efficacy of DPQ in children with uncomplicated falciparum and vivax malaria. Methods This cross-sectional and observational study was held in Kalimantan and Sulawesi in 2010. Seventy and sixty children under 15 years of age with uncomplicated falciparum and vivax malaria were selected according to the 2003 WHO protocol for monitoring therapeutic efficacy of antimalarial treatments and was confirmed by microscopy and PCR. All subjects were treated with DPQ based on a dosage regimen of dihydroartemisinin 2-4 mg/kg BW/dose and piperaquine 16-32 mg/kg BW/dose, in single daily doses for 3 days and closely observed for 42 days. Data was analyzed using intention-to-treat (ITT and per protocol (PP populations. Results The mean fever and asexual parasite clearance times were 1.0 day and 1.6 days, respectively, in children with uncomplicated falciparum malaria, and 1.1 days and 1.2 days, respectively, in children with uncomplicatedvivax malaria. Clinical symptoms reduced over 50% by day 7. Hemoglobin recoveries showed improvement on days 14, 28 and 42, at 70.6%, 83.8%and 89.1%, respectively, in the falciparum malaria group, and 60.3%, 65,5% and 83.6%, respectively, in thevivax malaria group. Adequate clinical and parasitological response to DPQ on day 42 in the ITT and PP populations were reported as 98.6% (95% CI 92.3 to 99.7% and 100% (95% CI 94.7 to 100%, respectively, in the falciparum group, and 91.7% (95% CI 81.9 to 96.4% and 96.5% (95% CI 88.1 to 99.0%, respectively, the vivax group. Mild adverse events commonly noted were cough, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anorexia, and vomiting. Conclusion DPQ was effective against

  1. Monitoring of clinical efficacy and in vitro sensitivity of Plasmodium vivax to chloroquine in area along Thai Myanmar border during 2009-2010

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    Rungsihirunrat Kanchana

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Thailand, the proportion of Plasmodium vivax infection has become equal to Plasmodium falciparum. Reports of a trend of gradual decline of in vitro sensitivity of P. vivax to chloroquine in some areas of the country, together with accumulating evidences of chloroquine resistance P. vivax in other parts of the world, emphasize the need for closely and continuously monitoring clinical efficacy in conjunction with in vitro sensitivity of P. vivax isolates. Methods The study was conducted at Mae Tao clinic for migrant workers, Tak Province during March 2008 - August 2009. A total of 130 patients (17 Thais and 113 Burmeses; 64 males and 66 females with mono-infection of P. vivax malaria, aged between 15-60 years and weighing more than 40 kg, were included in the study. Patients received treatment with chloroquine (2,000 mg chloroquine phosphate over three days and the anti-relapse drug primaquine (15 mg for 14 days. In vitro sensitivity of P. vivax isolates was evaluated by schizont maturation inhibition assay. Results All patients showed satisfactory response to treatment. The cure rate was virtually 100% within the follow-up period of 42 days. Neither recurrence of P. vivax parasitaemia nor appearance of P. falciparum occurred during the investigation period. In vitro data showed a stable sensitivity of chloroquine in this area since 2006. Geometric mean and median (95% CI values of IC50 for chloroquine were 100.1 and 134.7 (1.1-264.9 nM, respectively. Conclusion In vivo results suggest that the standard regimen of chloroquine was still very effective for the treatment of blood infections with P. vivax in the Thai-Myanmar border area. In vitro sensitivity data however, raise the possibility of potential advent of resistance in the future. Regular monitoring of the chloroquine sensitivity of P. vivax is essential to facilitate the early recognition of treatment failures and to expedite the formulation of appropriate changes to

  2. Clinical and laboratory findings of Plasmodium vivax malaria in Colombia, 2001 Características clínicas y de laboratorio de la malaria por Plasmodium vivax, Colombia 2001

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    Marcela Echeverri

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was carried out in 104 patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria, from the region of Turbo (Antioquia, Colombia. Clinical features and levels of hemoglobin, glycemia, serum bilirubin, alanine-aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate-aminotransferase (AST, creatinine and complete blood cell profile were established. 65% of the studied individuals were men and their mean age was 23. Of all individuals 59% had lived in the region for > 1 year and 91% were resident in the rural area. 42% were farmers and 35% had a history of malaria. The mean parasitaemia was 5865 parasites/mm³. The evolution of the disease was short (average of 4.0 days. Fever, headache and chills were observed simultaneously in 91% of the cases while the most frequent signs were palmar pallor (46%, jaundice (15%, hepatomegaly (17%, and spleen enlargement (12%. Anemia was found in 39% of the women and in 51% of the men, 8% of individuals had thrombocytopaenia and 41% had hypoglycemia.Se realizó un estudio descriptivo con 104 enfermos de malaria por Plasmodium vivax, en Turbo (Antioquia, Colombia. Se evaluaron las características clínicas y los niveles de hemoglobina, glicemia, bilirrubina sérica, ALT, AST, creatinina y hemograma completo. Los hombres representaron el 65% del grupo, la edad promedio fue 23 años, el 59% tuvo más de un año de residir en el lugar, el 91% residían en zona rural, el 42% realizaba trabajos agrícolas y el 35% tenía antecedentes de malaria. La parasitemia promedio fue de 5865 parásitos/mm³. La evolución de la enfermedad fue corta (mediana de 4,0 días. Fiebre, cefalea y escalofrío estuvieron simultáneamente en 91% de los casos y los signos más frecuentes fueron palidez palmar (46%, ictericia (15%, hepatomegalia (17% y esplenomegalia (12%. La anemia se encontró en el 39% de las mujeres y en el 51% de los hombres, y el 8% presentó trombocitopenia. Los niveles séricos de bilirrubinas directa e indirecta, de enzimas ALT y AST y de

  3. Genetic variability and natural selection at the ligand domain of the Duffy binding protein in brazilian Plasmodium vivax populations

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    Gil Luiz HS

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium vivax malaria is a major public health challenge in Latin America, Asia and Oceania, with 130-435 million clinical cases per year worldwide. Invasion of host blood cells by P. vivax mainly depends on a type I membrane protein called Duffy binding protein (PvDBP. The erythrocyte-binding motif of PvDBP is a 170 amino-acid stretch located in its cysteine-rich region II (PvDBPII, which is the most variable segment of the protein. Methods To test whether diversifying natural selection has shaped the nucleotide diversity of PvDBPII in Brazilian populations, this region was sequenced in 122 isolates from six different geographic areas. A Bayesian method was applied to test for the action of natural selection under a population genetic model that incorporates recombination. The analysis was integrated with a structural model of PvDBPII, and T- and B-cell epitopes were localized on the 3-D structure. Results The results suggest that: (i recombination plays an important role in determining the haplotype structure of PvDBPII, and (ii PvDBPII appears to contain neutrally evolving codons as well as codons evolving under natural selection. Diversifying selection preferentially acts on sites identified as epitopes, particularly on amino acid residues 417, 419, and 424, which show strong linkage disequilibrium. Conclusions This study shows that some polymorphisms of PvDBPII are present near the erythrocyte-binding domain and might serve to elude antibodies that inhibit cell invasion. Therefore, these polymorphisms should be taken into account when designing vaccines aimed at eliciting antibodies to inhibit erythrocyte invasion.

  4. Respuesta terapéutica de Plasmodium vivax a la cloroquina, en Riberalta, Guayaramerín y Yacuiba, Bolivia

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    Arletta Añez

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La determinación de la eficacia de la cloroquina contra Plasmodium vivax permite mejorar la capacidad de vigilancia de la resistencia a los antipalúdicos. Objetivo. Evaluar la eficacia terapéutica de la cloroquina como tratamiento de malaria no complicada por P. vivax en Riberalta, Guayaramerín y Yacuiba, Bolivia. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio de la eficacia in vivo en pacientes mayores de cinco años; se suministró cloroquina (25 mg/kg en tres días y se hizo seguimiento por 28 días, midiendo los niveles de cloroquina en sangre y desetilcloroquina, el día dos y el día de registro de reaparición de parasitemia. Para la evaluación de la incidencia acumulada de falla del tratamiento, se usó el análisis de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meier. Resultados. Se estudiaron 223 pacientes (Riberalta, 84; Guayaramerín, 80; Yacuiba, 59. Las mediasde densidad parasitaria (formas asexuadas del día 0 en Riberalta fueron de 6.147, en Guayaramerín, 4.251, y en Yacuiba, 5.214 parásitos/μl de sangre. En el mismo orden, los promedios de concentraciones sanguíneas de cloroquina-desetilcloroquina del día 2 fueron de 783, 817 y 815 ng/ml. Mientras en Yacuiba no se presentaron fracasos terapéuticos, en Riberalta ocurrieron con frecuencia de 6,2 % y en Guayaramerín de 10 %. Los valores de cloroquina y desetilcloroquina en sangre de pacientes con fracaso terapéutico fueron menores de 70 ng/ml en el día de reaparición de parasitemia. Conclusión. No se evidenció resistencia de P. vivax a la cloroquina en las tres regiones de evaluación en Bolivia. Se requieren mayores estudios de la concentración de la cloroquina en sangre. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i4.750

  5. Genetic diversity and natural selection of Plasmodium vivax multi-drug resistant gene (pvmdr1) in Mesoamerica.

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    González-Cerón, Lilia; Montoya, Alberto; Corzo-Gómez, Josselin C; Cerritos, Rene; Santillán, Frida; Sandoval, Marco A

    2017-07-01

    The Plasmodium vivax multidrug resistant 1 gene (pvmdr1) codes for a transmembrane protein of the parasite's digestive vacuole. It is likely that the pvmdr1 gene mutations occur at different sites by convergent evolution. In here, the genetic variation of pvmdr1 at three sites of the Mesoamerican region was studied. Since 1950s, malarious patients of those areas have been treated only with chloroquine and primaquine. Blood samples from patients infected with P. vivax were obtained in southern Mexico (SMX), in the Northwest (NIC-NW) and in the northeast (NIC-NE) of Nicaragua. Genomic DNA was obtained and fragments of pvmdr1 were amplified and sequenced. The nucleotide and amino acid changes as well as the haplotype frequency in pvmdr1 were determined per strain and per geographic site. The sequences of pvmdr1 obtained from the studied regions were compared with homologous sequences from the GenBank database to explore the P. vivax genetic structure. In 141 parasites, eight nucleotide changes (two changes were synonymous and other six were nonsynonymous) were detected in 1536 bp. The PvMDR1 amino acid changes Y976F, F1076FL were predominant in endemic parasites from NIC-NE and outbreak parasites in NIC-NW but absent in SMX. Thirteen haplotypes were resolved, and found to be closely related, but their frequency at each geographic site was different (P = 0.0001). The pvmdr1 codons 925-1083 gene fragment showed higher genetic and haplotype diversity in parasites from NIC-NE than the other areas outside Latin America. The haplotype networks suggested local diversification of pvmdr1 and no significant departure from neutrality. The F ST values were low to moderate regionally, but high between NIC-NE or NIC-NW and other regions inside and outside Latin America. The pvmdr1 gene might have diversified recently at regional level. In the absence of significant natural, genetic drift might have caused differential pvmdr1 haplotype frequencies at different geographic sites

  6. Chloroquine resistant Plasmodium vivax: in vitro characterisation and association with molecular polymorphisms.

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    Rossarin Suwanarusk

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Treatment failure of chloroquine for P. vivax infections has reached high levels in the eastern provinces of Indonesia, however, in vitro characterization of chloroquine resistance and its associated molecular profile have yet to be determined.Using a modified schizont maturation assay we investigated the in vitro chloroquine susceptibility profile and molecular polymorphisms of P. vivax isolates collected from Papua, Indonesia, where high levels of clinical chloroquine treatment failure have been reported, and from Thailand, where chloroquine treatment is generally effective.The geometric mean chloroquine IC(50 for P. vivax isolates from Papua (n = 145 was 312 nM [95%CI: 237-411 nM] compared to 46.8 nM [95%CI: 34.7-63.1 nM] from Thailand (n = 81; p<0.001. Correlating with the known clinical efficacy of the area, a cut off for chloroquine resistance was defined as 220 nM, a level exceeded in 13.6% (11/81 of Thai isolates and 65% (94/145 of Papuan isolates; p<0.001. Several sequence polymorphisms in pvcrt-o and pvmdr1, and difference in pvmdr1 copy number were identified. A Y976F mutation in pvmdr1 was present in 96% (123/128 of Papuan isolates and 25% (17/69 of Thai isolates; p<0.001. Overall, the geometric mean chloroquine IC(50 in isolates with the Y976F mutation was 283 nM [95%CI: 211-379], compared to 44.5 nM [95%CI: 31.3-63.4] in isolates with the wild type; p< 0.001. Pvmdr1 amplification occurred in 23% (15/66 of Thai isolates compared to none (0/104 of Indonesian isolates (p<0.001, but was not associated with increased chloroquine resistance after controlling for geographical location.In vitro susceptibility testing of P. vivax discriminates between populations with differing levels of clinical efficacy of chloroquine. The pvmdr1 polymorphism at Y976F may provide a useful tool to highlight areas of emerging chloroquine resistance, although further studies defining its clinical correlates are needed.

  7. Lineage-specific positive selection at the merozoite surface protein 1 (msp1 locus of Plasmodium vivax and related simian malaria parasites

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    Kawai Satoru

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The 200 kDa merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP-1 of malaria parasites, a strong vaccine candidate, plays a key role during erythrocyte invasion and is a target of host protective immune response. Plasmodium vivax, the most widespread human malaria parasite, is closely related to parasites that infect Asian Old World monkeys, and has been considered to have become a parasite of man by host switch from a macaque malaria parasite. Several Asian monkey parasites have a range of natural hosts. The same parasite species shows different disease manifestations among host species. This suggests that host immune responses to P. vivax-related malaria parasites greatly differ among host species (albeit other factors. It is thus tempting to invoke that a major immune target parasite protein such as MSP-1 underwent unique evolution, depending on parasite species that exhibit difference in host range and host specificity. Results We performed comparative phylogenetic and population genetic analyses of the gene encoding MSP-1 (msp1 from P. vivax and nine P. vivax-related simian malaria parasites. The inferred phylogenetic tree of msp1 significantly differed from that of the mitochondrial genome, with a striking displacement of P. vivax from a position close to P. cynomolgi in the mitochondrial genome tree to an outlier of Asian monkey parasites. Importantly, positive selection was inferred for two ancestral branches, one leading to P. inui and P. hylobati and the other leading to P. vivax, P. fieldi and P. cynomolgi. This ancestral positive selection was estimated to have occurred three to six million years ago, coinciding with the period of radiation of Asian macaques. Comparisons of msp1 polymorphisms between P. vivax, P. inui and P. cynomolgi revealed that while some positively selected amino acid sites or regions are shared by these parasites, amino acid changes greatly differ, suggesting that diversifying selection is acting species

  8. Entomologic and molecular investigation into Plasmodium vivax transmission in Singapore, 2009.

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    Ng, Lee-Ching; Lee, Kim-Sung; Tan, Cheong-Huat; Ooi, Peng-Lim; Lam-Phua, Sai-Gek; Lin, Raymond; Pang, Sook-Cheng; Lai, Yee-Ling; Solhan, Suhana; Chan, Pei-Pei; Wong, Kit-Yin; Ho, Swee-Tuan; Vythilingam, Indra

    2010-10-29

    Singapore has been certified malaria free since November 1982 by the World Health Organization and despite occasional local transmission, the country has maintained the standing. In 2009, three clusters of malaria cases were reported in Singapore. Epidemiological, entomological and molecular studies were carried out to investigate the three clusters, namely Mandai-Sungei Kadut, Jurong Island and Sembawang. A total of 29 malaria patients, with no recent travel history, were reported in the three clusters. Molecular analysis based on the msp3α and msp1 genes showed two independent local transmissions: one in Mandai-Sungei Kadut and another in Sembawang. Almost all cases within each cluster were epidemiologically linked. In Jurong Island cluster, epidemiological link remains uncertain, as almost all cases had a unique genetic profile. Only two cases shared a common profile and were found to be linked to the Mandai-Sungei Kadut cluster. Entomological investigation found Anopheles sinensis to be the predominant Anopheline in the two areas where local transmission of P. vivax was confirmed. Anopheles sinensis was found to be attracted to human bait and bites as early as 19:45 hrs. However, all Anopheles mosquitoes caught were negative for sporozoites and oocysts by dissection. Investigation of P. vivax cases from the three cluster areas confirmed the occurrence of local transmission in two areas. Although An. sinensis was the predominant Anopheline found in areas with confirmed transmission, the vector/s responsible for the outbreaks still remains cryptic.

  9. Entomologic and molecular investigation into Plasmodium vivax transmission in Singapore, 2009

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    Solhan Suhana

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Singapore has been certified malaria free since November 1982 by the World Health Organization and despite occasional local transmission, the country has maintained the standing. In 2009, three clusters of malaria cases were reported in Singapore. Methods Epidemiological, entomological and molecular studies were carried out to investigate the three clusters, namely Mandai-Sungei Kadut, Jurong Island and Sembawang. Results A total of 29 malaria patients, with no recent travel history, were reported in the three clusters. Molecular analysis based on the msp3α and msp1 genes showed two independent local transmissions: one in Mandai-Sungei Kadut and another in Sembawang. Almost all cases within each cluster were epidemiologically linked. In Jurong Island cluster, epidemiological link remains uncertain, as almost all cases had a unique genetic profile. Only two cases shared a common profile and were found to be linked to the Mandai-Sungei Kadut cluster. Entomological investigation found Anopheles sinensis to be the predominant Anopheline in the two areas where local transmission of P. vivax was confirmed. Anopheles sinensis was found to be attracted to human bait and bites as early as 19:45 hrs. However, all Anopheles mosquitoes caught were negative for sporozoites and oocysts by dissection. Conclusion Investigation of P. vivax cases from the three cluster areas confirmed the occurrence of local transmission in two areas. Although An. sinensis was the predominant Anopheline found in areas with confirmed transmission, the vector/s responsible for the outbreaks still remains cryptic.

  10. Nationwide genetic surveillance of Plasmodium vivax in Papua New Guinea reveals heterogeneous transmission dynamics and routes of migration amongst subdivided populations.

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    Fola, Abebe A; Nate, Elma; Abby Harrison, G L; Barnadas, Céline; Hetzel, Manuel W; Iga, Jonah; Siba, Peter; Mueller, Ivo; Barry, Alyssa E

    2018-03-01

    The Asia Pacific Leaders in Malaria Alliance (APLMA) have committed to eliminate malaria from the region by 2030. Papua New Guinea (PNG) has the highest malaria burden in the Asia-Pacific region but with the intensification of control efforts since 2005, transmission has been dramatically reduced and Plasmodium vivax is now the dominant malaria infection in some parts of the country. To gain a better understanding of the transmission dynamics and migration patterns of P. vivax in PNG, here we investigate population structure in eight geographically and ecologically distinct regions of the country. A total of 219 P. vivax isolates (16-30 per population) were successfully haplotyped using 10 microsatellite markers. A wide range of genetic diversity (H e =0.37-0.87, R s =3.60-7.58) and significant multilocus linkage disequilibrium (LD) was observed in six of the eight populations (I A S =0.08-0.15 p-value<0.05) reflecting a spectrum of transmission intensities across the country. Genetic differentiation between regions was evident (Jost's D=0.07-0.72), with increasing divergence of populations with geographic distance. Overall, P. vivax isolates clustered into three major genetic populations subdividing the Mainland lowland and coastal regions, the Islands and the Highlands. P. vivax gene flow follows major human migration routes, and there was higher gene flow amongst Mainland parasite populations than among Island populations. The Central Province (samples collected in villages close to the capital city, Port Moresby), acts as a sink for imported infections from the three major endemic areas. These insights into P. vivax transmission dynamics and population networks will inform targeted strategies to contain malaria infections and to prevent the spread of drug resistance in PNG. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microsatellite DNA analysis revealed a drastic genetic change of Plasmodium vivax population in the Republic of Korea during 2002 and 2003.

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    Moritoshi Iwagami

    Full Text Available Vivax malaria was successfully eliminated in the Republic of Korea (South Korea in the late 1970s, but it was found to have re-emerged from 1993. In order to control malaria and evaluate the effectiveness of malaria controls, it is important to develop a spatiotemporal understanding of the genetic structure of the parasite population. Here, we estimated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the transmission of Plasmodium vivax in South Korea by analyzing microsatellite DNA markers of the parasite.We analyzed 14 microsatellite DNA loci of the P. vivax genome from 163 South Korean isolates collected from 1994 to 2008. Allelic data were used to analyze linkage disequilibrium (LD, genetic differentiation and population structure, in order to make a detailed estimate of temporal change in the parasite population. The LD analysis showed a gradual decrease in LD levels, while the levels of genetic differentiation between successive years and analysis of the population structure based on the Bayesian approach suggested that a drastic genetic change occurred in the South Korean population during 2002 and 2003.Although relapse and asymptomatic parasite carriage might influence the population structure to some extent, our results suggested the continual introduction of P. vivax into South Korea through other parasite population sources. One possible source, particularly during 2002 and 2003, is North Korea. Molecular epidemiology using microsatellite DNA of the P. vivax population is effective for assessing the population structure and temporal dynamics of parasite transmission; information that can assist in the elimination of vivax malaria in endemic areas.

  12. Re-assessing the relationship between sporozoite dose and incubation period in Plasmodium vivax malaria: a systematic re-analysis.

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    Lover, Andrew A; Coker, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    Infections with the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax are noteworthy for potentially very long incubation periods (6-9 months), which present a major barrier to disease elimination. Increased sporozoite challenge has been reported to be associated with both shorter incubation and pre-patent periods in a range of human challenge studies. However, this evidence base has scant empirical foundation, as these historical analyses were limited by available analytic methods, and provides no quantitative estimates of effect size. Following a comprehensive literature search, we re-analysed all identified studies using survival and/or logistic models plus contingency tables. We have found very weak evidence for dose-dependence at entomologically plausible inocula levels. These results strongly suggest that sporozoite dosage is not an important driver of long-latency. Evidence presented suggests that parasite strain and vector species have quantitatively greater impacts, and the potential existence of a dose threshold for human dose-response to sporozoites. Greater consideration of the complex interplay between these aspects of vectors and parasites are important for human challenge experiments, vaccine trials, and epidemiology towards global malaria elimination.

  13. Genetic Diversity and Natural Selection in 42 kDa Region of Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein-1 from China-Myanmar Endemic Border.

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    Zhou, Xia; Tambo, Ernest; Su, Jing; Fang, Qiang; Ruan, Wei; Chen, Jun-Hu; Yin, Ming-Bo; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2017-10-01

    Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 (PvMSP1) gene codes for a major malaria vaccine candidate antigen. However, its polymorphic nature represents an obstacle to the design of a protective vaccine. In this study, we analyzed the genetic polymorphism and natural selection of the C-terminal 42 kDa fragment within PvMSP1 gene (Pv MSP142) from 77 P. vivax isolates, collected from imported cases of China-Myanmar border (CMB) areas in Yunnan province and the inland cases from Anhui, Yunnan, and Zhejiang province in China during 2009-2012. Totally, 41 haplotypes were identified and 30 of them were new haplotypes. The differences between the rates of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggest that PvMSP142 has evolved under natural selection, and a high selective pressure preferentially acted on regions identified of PvMSP133. Our results also demonstrated that PvMSP142 of P. vivax isolates collected on China-Myanmar border areas display higher genetic polymorphisms than those collected from inland of China. Such results have significant implications for understanding the dynamic of the P. vivax population and may be useful information towards China malaria elimination campaign strategies.

  14. Immune Responses and Protection of Aotus Monkeys Immunized with Irradiated Plasmodium vivax Sporozoites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The experimental protocol was approved by the Animal Ethical Committee of the Universidad del Valle (Cali). Parasite and irradiation. Plasmodium...three repeats ofpll (GDRADGPA) and (ANGAGNQPG) sequences, derived from VK210 and VK247 CS variants, respectively. A non-malaria related peptide Ptt30...Universidad del Valle and Centro Internacional de Vacunas, Cali, Colombia, E-mails: alejovi@hotmail.com, anbonelo@yahoo.com, alejcaste@yahoo.com

  15. A focus of hyperendemic Plasmodium malariae-P. vivax with no P. falciparum in a primitive population in the Peruvian Amazon jungle.

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    Sulzer, A J; Cantella, R; Colichon, A; Gleason, N N; Walls, K W

    1975-01-01

    Findings in a sample population in southeastern Peru with a very high rate of malaria infection, due to Plasmodium malariae and P. vivax with apparently no P. falciparum, are described. The proportion of persons with P. malariae in this sample population, as determined by slide examination, appears to be the greatest ever reported for any area before the introduction of control measures. Although very few P. vivax were found on stained slides, results of the indirect immunofluorescence test indicated that this species was probably as prevalent as P. malariae; the absence of P. falciparum was supported by results of serologic tests. Possible reasons for this focus of malaria with no P. falciparum are discussed.

  16. Immunogenicity of Recombinant Proteins Consisting of Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein Allelic Variant-Derived Epitopes Fused with Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Flagellin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Monica Teixeira Andrade; Camacho, Ariane Guglielmi Ariza; Teixeira, Laís Helena; Bargieri, Daniel Youssef; Soares, Irene Silva; Tararam, Cibele Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    A Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein (CSP)-based recombinant fusion vaccine is the first malaria vaccine to reach phase III clinical trials. Resistance to infection correlated with the production of antibodies to the immunodominant central repeat region of the CSP. In contrast to P. falciparum, vaccine development against the CSP of Plasmodium vivax malaria is far behind. Based on this gap in our knowledge, we generated a recombinant chimeric protein containing the immunodominant central repeat regions of the P. vivax CSP fused to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-derived flagellin (FliC) to activate the innate immune system. The recombinant proteins that were generated contained repeat regions derived from each of the 3 different allelic variants of the P. vivax CSP or a fusion of regions derived from each of the 3 allelic forms. Mice were subcutaneously immunized with the fusion proteins alone or in combination with the Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR-3) agonist poly(I·C), and the anti-CSP serum IgG response was measured. Immunization with a mixture of the 3 recombinant proteins, each containing immunodominant epitopes derived from a single allelic variant, rather than a single recombinant protein carrying a fusion of regions derived from each of 3 allelic forms elicited a stronger immune response. This response was independent of TLR-4 but required TLR-5/MyD88 activation. Antibody titers significantly increased when poly(I·C) was used as an adjuvant with a mixture of the 3 recombinant proteins. These recombinant fusion proteins are novel candidates for the development of an effective malaria vaccine against P. vivax. PMID:23863502

  17. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals binding residues for the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Michael J; Garry, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The surface glycoprotein (SU, gp120) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) must bind to a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4, to invade CD4+ cells. Plasmodium vivax uses the Duffy Binding Protein (DBP) to bind the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC) and invade reticulocytes. Results Variable loop 3 (V3) of HIV-1 SU and domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax DBP share a sequence similarity. The site of amino acid sequence similarity was necessary, but not sufficient, ...

  18. A novel method for extracting nucleic acids from dried blood spots for ultrasensitive detection of low-density Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainabadi, Kayvan; Adams, Matthew; Han, Zay Yar; Lwin, Hnin Wai; Han, Kay Thwe; Ouattara, Amed; Thura, Si; Plowe, Christopher V; Nyunt, Myaing M

    2017-09-18

    Greater Mekong Subregion countries are committed to eliminating Plasmodium falciparum malaria by 2025. Current elimination interventions target infections at parasite densities that can be detected by standard microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). More sensitive detection methods have been developed to detect lower density "asymptomatic" infections that may represent an important transmission reservoir. These ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (usPCR) tests have been used to identify target populations for mass drug administration (MDA). To date, malaria usPCR tests have used either venous or capillary blood sampling, which entails complex sample collection, processing and shipping requirements. An ultrasensitive method performed on standard dried blood spots (DBS) would greatly facilitate the molecular surveillance studies needed for targeting elimination interventions. A highly sensitive method for detecting Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax 18S ribosomal RNA from DBS was developed by empirically optimizing nucleic acid extraction conditions. The limit of detection (LoD) was determined using spiked DBS samples that were dried and stored under simulated field conditions. Further, to assess its utility for routine molecular surveillance, two cross-sectional surveys were performed in Myanmar during the wet and dry seasons. The lower LoD of the DBS-based ultrasensitive assay was 20 parasites/mL for DBS collected on Whatman 3MM filter paper and 23 parasites/mL for Whatman 903 Protein Saver cards-equivalent to 1 parasite per 50 µL DBS. This is about 5000-fold more sensitive than standard RDTs and similar to the LoD of ≤16-22 parasites/mL reported for other ultrasensitive methods based on whole blood. In two cross-sectional surveys in Myanmar, nearly identical prevalence estimates were obtained from contemporaneous DBS samples and capillary blood samples collected during the wet and dry season. The DBS-based ultrasensitive method described in this

  19. Plasma metabolomics reveals membrane lipids, aspartate/asparagine and nucleotide metabolism pathway differences associated with chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium vivax malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jorge L.; Monteiro, Wuelton M.; Val, Fernando; Cordy, Regina J.; Liu, Ken; Melo, Gisely C.; Siqueira, Andre M.; Magalhaes, Belisa; Galinski, Mary R.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Jones, Dean P.

    2017-01-01

    Background Chloroquine (CQ) is the main anti-schizontocidal drug used in the treatment of uncomplicated malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax. Chloroquine resistant P. vivax (PvCR) malaria in the Western Pacific region, Asia and in the Americas indicates a need for biomarkers of resistance to improve therapy and enhance understanding of the mechanisms associated with PvCR. In this study, we compared plasma metabolic profiles of P. vivax malaria patients with PvCR and chloroquine sensitive parasites before treatment to identify potential molecular markers of chloroquine resistance. Methods An untargeted high-resolution metabolomics analysis was performed on plasma samples collected in a malaria clinic in Manaus, Brazil. Male and female patients with Plasmodium vivax were included (n = 46); samples were collected before CQ treatment and followed for 28 days to determine PvCR, defined as the recurrence of parasitemia with detectable plasma concentrations of CQ ≥100 ng/dL. Differentially expressed metabolic features between CQ-Resistant (CQ-R) and CQ-Sensitive (CQ-S) patients were identified using partial least squares discriminant analysis and linear regression after adjusting for covariates and multiple testing correction. Pathway enrichment analysis was performed using Mummichog. Results Linear regression and PLS-DA methods yielded 69 discriminatory features between CQ-R and CQ-S groups, with 10-fold cross-validation classification accuracy of 89.6% using a SVM classifier. Pathway enrichment analysis showed significant enrichment (p<0.05) of glycerophospholipid metabolism, glycosphingolipid metabolism, aspartate and asparagine metabolism, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and xenobiotics metabolism. Glycerophosphocholines levels were significantly lower in the CQ-R group as compared to CQ-S patients and also to independent control samples. Conclusions The results show differences in lipid, amino acids, and nucleotide metabolism pathways in the plasma of CQ-R versus

  20. Global and local genetic diversity at two microsatellite loci in Plasmodium vivax parasites from Asia, Africa and South America

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Mette L; Ranjitkar, Samir; Rajakaruna, Rupika S

    2014-01-01

    diversity are vital to the evaluation of drug and vaccine efficacy, tracking of P. vivax outbreaks, and assessing geographical differentiation between parasite populations. METHODS: The genetic diversity of eight P. vivax populations (n = 543) was investigated by using two microsatellites (MS), m1501 and m......3502, chosen because of their seven and eight base-pair (bp) repeat lengths, respectively. These were compared with published data of the same loci from six other P. vivax populations. RESULTS: In total, 1,440 P. vivax samples from 14 countries on three continents were compared. There was highest...... heterozygosity within Asian populations, where expected heterozygosity (He) was 0.92-0.98, and alleles with a high repeat number were more common. Pairwise FST revealed significant differentiation between most P. vivax populations, with the highest divergence found between Asian and South American populations...

  1. Host-parasite interaction: selective Pv-fam-a family proteins of Plasmodium vivax bind to a restricted number of human erythrocyte receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeshan, Mohammad; Tyagi, Rupesh Kumar; Tyagi, Kriti; Alam, Mohd Shoeb; Sharma, Yagya Dutta

    2015-04-01

    Plasmodium vivax synthesizes the largest number of 36 tryptophan-rich proteins belonging to the Pv-fam-a family. These parasite proteins need to be characterized for their biological function because tryptophan-rich proteins from other Plasmodium species have been proposed as vaccine candidates. Recombinant P. vivax tryptophan-rich antigens (PvTRAgs) were used to determine their erythrocyte-binding activity by a cell-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, flow cytometry, and a rosetting assay. Only 4 (PvTRAg26.3, PvTRAg34, PvTRAg36, and PvTRAg36.6) of 21 PvTRAgs bind to host erythrocytes. The cross-competition data indicated that PvTRAg36 and PvTRAg34 share their erythrocyte receptors with previously described proteins PvTRAg38 and PvTRAg33.5, respectively. On the other hand, PvTRAg26.3 and PvTRAg36.6 cross-compete with each other and not with any other PvTRAg, indicating that these 2 proteins bind to the same but yet another set of erythrocyte receptor(s). Together, 10 of 36 PvTRAgs possess erythrocyte-binding activity in which each protein recognizes >1 erythrocyte receptor. Further, each erythrocyte receptor is shared by >1 PvTRAg. This redundancy may be useful for the parasite to invade red blood cells and cause disease pathogenesis, and it can be exploited to develop therapeutics against P. vivax malaria. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Malaria diagnosis by PCR revealed differential distribution of mono and mixed species infections by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwal, Nisha; Singh, Upasana Shyamsunder; Dash, Manoswini; Kar, Sonalika; Rani, Swati; Rawal, Charu; Singh, Rajkumar; Anvikar, Anupkumar R; Pande, Veena; Das, Aparup

    2018-01-01

    Malaria is a vector-borne infectious disease, caused by five different species of the genus Plasmodium, and is endemic to many tropical and sub-tropical countries of the globe. At present, malaria diagnosis at the primary health care level in India is conducted by either microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT). In recent years, molecular diagnosis (by PCR assay), has emerged as the most sensitive method for malaria diagnosis. India is highly endemic to malaria and shoulders the burden of two major malaria parasites, Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax. Previous studies using PCR diagnostic assay had unraveled several interesting facts on distribution of malaria parasites in India. However, these studies had several limitations from small sample size to limited geographical areas of sampling. In order to mitigate these limitations, we have collected finger-prick blood samples from 2,333 malaria symptomatic individuals in nine states from 11 geographic locations, covering almost the entire malaria endemic regions of India and performed all the three diagnostic tests (microscopy, RDT and PCR assay) and also have conducted comparative assessment on the performance of the three diagnostic tests. Since PCR assay turned out to be highly sensitive (827 malaria positive cases) among the three types of tests, we have utilized data from PCR diagnostic assay for analyses and inferences. The results indicate varied distributional prevalence of P. vivax and P. falciparum according to locations in India, and also the mixed species infection due to these two species. The proportion of P. falciparum to P. vivax was found to be 49:51, and percentage of mixed species infections due to these two parasites was found to be 13% of total infections. Considering India is set for malaria elimination by 2030, the present malaria epidemiological information is of high importance.

  3. Population pharmacokinetics of a three-day chloroquine treatment in patients with Plasmodium vivax infection on the Thai-Myanmar border.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höglund, Richard; Moussavi, Younis; Ruengweerayut, Ronnatrai; Cheomung, Anurak; Äbelö, Angela; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2016-02-29

    A three-day course of chloroquine remains a standard treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection in Thailand with satisfactory clinical efficacy and tolerability although a continuous decline in in vitro parasite sensitivity has been reported. Information on the pharmacokinetics of chloroquine and its active metabolite desethylchloroquine are required for optimization of treatment to attain therapeutic exposure and thus prevent drug resistance development. The study was conducted at Mae Tao Clinic for migrant worker, Tak province, Thailand. Blood samples were collected from a total of 75 (8 Thais and 67 Burmeses; 36 males and 39 females; aged 17-52 years) patients with mono-infection with P. vivax malaria [median (95 % CI) admission parasitaemia 4898 (1206-29,480)/µL] following treatment with a three-day course of chloroquine (25 mg/kg body weight chloroquine phosphate over 3 days). Whole blood concentrations of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine were measured using high performance liquid chromatography with UV detection. Concentration-time profiles of both compounds were analysed using a population-based pharmacokinetic approach. All patients showed satisfactory response to standard treatment with a three-day course of chloroquine with 100 % cure rate within the follow-up period of 42 days. Neither recurrence of P. vivax parasitaemia nor appearance of P. falciparum occurred. A total of 1045 observations from 75 participants were included in the pharmacokinetic analysis. Chloroquine disposition was most adequately described by the two-compartment model with one transit compartment absorption model into the central compartment and a first-order transformation of chloroquine into desethylchloroquine with an additional peripheral compartment added to desethylchloroquine. First-order elimination from the central compartment of chloroquine and desethylchloroquine was assumed. The model exhibited a strong predictive ability and the pharmacokinetic parameters were

  4. Phase 1/2a Trial of Plasmodium vivax Malaria Vaccine Candidate VMP001/AS01B in Malaria-Naive Adults: Safety, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy.

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    Jason W Bennett

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A vaccine to prevent infection and disease caused by Plasmodium vivax is needed both to reduce the morbidity caused by this parasite and as a key component in efforts to eradicate malaria worldwide. Vivax malaria protein 1 (VMP001, a novel chimeric protein that incorporates the amino- and carboxy- terminal regions of the circumsporozoite protein (CSP and a truncated repeat region that contains repeat sequences from both the VK210 (type 1 and the VK247 (type 2 parasites, was developed as a vaccine candidate for global use.We conducted a first-in-human Phase 1 dose escalation vaccine study with controlled human malaria infection (CHMI of VMP001 formulated in the GSK Adjuvant System AS01B. A total of 30 volunteers divided into 3 groups (10 per group were given 3 intramuscular injections of 15 μg, 30 μg, or 60 μg respectively of VMP001, all formulated in 500 μL of AS01B at each immunization. All vaccinated volunteers participated in a P. vivax CHMI 14 days following the third immunization. Six non-vaccinated subjects served as infectivity controls.The vaccine was shown to be well tolerated and immunogenic. All volunteers generated robust humoral and cellular immune responses to the vaccine antigen. Vaccination did not induce sterile protection; however, a small but significant delay in time to parasitemia was seen in 59% of vaccinated subjects compared to the control group. An association was identified between levels of anti-type 1 repeat antibodies and prepatent period.This trial was the first to assess the efficacy of a P. vivax CSP vaccine candidate by CHMI. The association of type 1 repeat-specific antibody responses with delay in the prepatency period suggests that augmenting the immune responses to this domain may improve strain-specific vaccine efficacy. The availability of a P. vivax CHMI model will accelerate the process of P. vivax vaccine development, allowing better selection of candidate vaccines for advancement to field trials.

  5. The Incidence and Differential Seasonal Patterns of Plasmodium vivax Primary Infections and Relapses in a Cohort of Children in Papua New Guinea.

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    Amanda Ross

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax has the ability to relapse from dormant parasites in the liver weeks or months after inoculation, causing further blood-stage infection and potential onward transmission. Estimates of the force of blood-stage infections arising from primary infections and relapses are important for designing intervention strategies. However, in endemic settings their relative contributions are unclear. Infections are frequently asymptomatic, many individuals harbor multiple infections, and while high-resolution genotyping of blood samples enables individual infections to be distinguished, primary infections and relapses cannot be identified. We develop a model and fit it to longitudinal genotyping data from children in Papua New Guinea to estimate the incidence and seasonality of P vivax primary infection and relapse. The children, aged one to three years at enrolment, were followed up over 16 months with routine surveys every two months. Blood samples were taken at the routine visits and at other times if the child was ill. Samples positive by microscopy or a molecular method for species detection were genotyped using high-resolution capillary electrophoresis for P vivax MS16 and msp1F3, and P falciparum msp2. The data were summarized as longitudinal patterns of success or failure to detect a genotype at each routine time-point (eg 001000001. We assume that the seasonality of P vivax primary infection is similar to that of P falciparum since they are transmitted by the same vectors and, because P falciparum does not have the ability to relapse, the seasonality can be estimated. Relapses occurring during the study period can be a consequence of infections occurring prior to the study: we assume that the seasonal pattern of primary infections repeats over time. We incorporate information from parasitological and entomology studies to gain leverage for estimating the parameters, and take imperfect detection into account. We estimate the force of P

  6. Biological, immunological and functional properties of two novel multi-variant chimeric recombinant proteins of CSP antigens for vaccine development against Plasmodium vivax infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Samaneh H; Zakeri, Sedigheh; Salmanian, Ali H; Amani, Jafar; Mehrizi, Akram A; Snounou, Georges; Nosten, François; Andolina, Chiara; Mourtazavi, Yousef; Djadid, Navid D

    2017-10-01

    The circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax is a major pre-erythrocyte vaccine candidate. The protein has a central repeat region that belongs to one of repeat families (VK210, VK247, and the P. vivax-like). In the present study, computer modelling was employed to select chimeric proteins, comprising the conserved regions and different arrangements of the repeat elements (VK210 and VK247), whose structure is similar to that of the native counterparts. DNA encoding the selected chimeras (named CS127 and CS712) were synthetically constructed based on E. coli codons, then cloned and expressed. Mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs; anti-Pv-210-CDC and -Pv-247-CDC), recognized the chimeric antigens in ELISA, indicating correct conformation and accessibility of the B-cell epitopes. ELISA using IgG from plasma samples collected from 221 Iranian patients with acute P. vivax showed that only 49.32% of the samples reacted to both CS127 and CS712 proteins. The dominant subclass for the two chimeras was IgG1 (48% of the positive responders, OD 492 =0.777±0.420 for CS127; 48.41% of the positive responders, OD 492 =0.862±0.423 for CS712, with no statistically significant difference P>0.05; Wilcoxon signed ranks test). Binding assays showed that both chimeric proteins bound to immobilized heparan sulphate and HepG2 hepatocyte cells in a concentration-dependent manner, saturable at 80μg/mL. Additionally, anti-CS127 and -CS712 antibodies raised in mice recognized the native protein on the surface of P. vivax sporozoite with high intensity, confirming the presence of common epitopes between the recombinant forms and the native proteins. In summary, despite structural differences at the molecular level, the expression levels of both chimeras were satisfactory, and their conformational structure retained biological function, thus supporting their potential for use in the development of vivax-based vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  7. A knowledge-based approach for identification of drugs against vivapain-2 protein of Plasmodium vivax through pharmacophore-based virtual screening with comparative modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Manoj Kumar; Singh, Amisha; Swati, D

    2014-08-01

    Malaria is one of the most infectious diseases in the world. Plasmodium vivax, the pathogen causing endemic malaria in humans worldwide, is responsible for extensive disease morbidity. Due to the emergence of resistance to common anti-malarial drugs, there is a continuous need to develop a new class of drugs for this pathogen. P. vivax cysteine protease, also known as vivapain-2, plays an important role in haemoglobin hydrolysis and is considered essential for the survival of the parasite. The three-dimensional (3D) structure of vivapain-2 is not predicted experimentally, so its structure is modelled by using comparative modelling approach and further validated by Qualitative Model Energy Analysis (QMEAN) and RAMPAGE tools. The potential binding site of selected vivapain-2 structure has been detected by grid-based function prediction method. Drug targets and their respective drugs similar to vivapain-2 have been identified using three publicly available databases: STITCH 3.1, DrugBank and Therapeutic Target Database (TTD). The second approach of this work focuses on docking study of selected drug E-64 against vivapain-2 protein. Docking reveals crucial information about key residues (Asn281, Cys283, Val396 and Asp398) that are responsible for holding the ligand in the active site. The similarity-search criterion is used for the preparation of our in-house database of drugs, obtained from filtering the drugs from the DrugBank database. A five-point 3D pharmacophore model is generated for the docked complex of vivapain-2 with E-64. This study of 3D pharmacophore-based virtual screening results in identifying three new drugs, amongst which one is approved and the other two are experimentally proved. The ADMET properties of these drugs are found to be in the desired range. These drugs with novel scaffolds may act as potent drugs for treating malaria caused by P. vivax.

  8. Rapid diagnostic test for G6PD deficiency in Plasmodium vivax-infected men: a budget impact analysis based in Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixoto, Henry Maia; Brito, Marcelo Augusto Mota; Romero, Gustavo Adolfo Sierra; Monteiro, Wuelton Marcelo; de Lacerda, Marcus Vinícius Guimarães; de Oliveira, Maria Regina Fernandes

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the incremental budget impact (IBI) of a rapid diagnostic test to detect G6PDd in male patients infected with Plasmodium vivax in the Brazilian Amazon, as compared with the routine protocol recommended in Brazil which does not include G6PDd testing. The budget impact analysis was performed from the perspective of the Brazilian health system, in the Brazilian Amazon for the years 2013, 2014 and 2015. The analysis used a decision model to compare two scenarios: the first consisting of the routine recommended in Brazil which does not include prior diagnosis of dG6PD, and the second based on the use of RDT CareStart™ G6PD (CS-G6PD) in all male subjects diagnosed with vivax malaria. The expected implementation of the diagnostic test was 30% in the first year, 70% the second year and 100% in the third year. The analysis identified negative IBIs which were progressively smaller in the 3 years evaluated. The sensitivity analysis showed that the uncertainties associated with the analytical model did not significantly affect the results. A strategy based on the use of CS-G6PD would result in better use of public resources in the Brazilian Amazon. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The effect of zinc and vitamin C supplementation on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and immune response in patients with Plasmodium vivax malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zen Rahfiludin, M; Ginandjar, Praba

    2013-09-01

    Plasmodium vivax infection in humans can relapse and is associated with iron deficiency. The immune response plays an important role in preventing relapse. In this study we analyzed the effect of zinc and vitamin C supplementation on hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and immune response in patients with P. vivax malaria. We measured immune response by examining interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) levels. Subjects were divided into either treatment or control groups. The treatment group received daily zinc and vitamin C supplementation for 45 days. Compliance with supplement consumption was recorded weekly. After 45 days of supplementation, IFN-gamma and IL-1 levels were remeasured. All study subjects in both groups had normal hemoglobin and hematocrit levels. The hemoglobin levels increased only in the supplementation group (p=0.011), while hematocrit levels increased in both the supplementation (p=0.001) and control (p=0.023) groups. IFN-gamma decreased slightly in the supplementation group, but the change was not significant (p=0.688). IL-10 increased slightly in both the supplementation and the control groups, but the change were not significant (p=0.421 and p=0.556, respectively), suggesting the elevated hemoglobin and hematocrit levels were unrelated to immune response.

  10. Búsqueda e identificación de nuevos candidatos a vacuna contra la malaria producida por Plasmodium vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Mauricio Pinzón Velasco

    2004-07-01

    bioinformáticas, estableciendo diversos patrones de alineamiento, así como niveles de similitud no menores al 40%. A pesar de un riguroso enmascaramiento tanto de las secuencias protéicas de P. falciparum, como del genoma de P. vivax, en este último fue evidente una alta presencia de regiones repetitivas que no fueron enmascaradas por ninguna de las fuentes de ADN repetitivo presente en la base de datos de REPBASE, lo cual lleva a pensar que dichas regiones pueden ser específicas de este tipo de organismos. Finalmente se encontraron coincidencias entre 76 secuencias proteicas con actividad antigénica de P. falciparum y el genoma hasta ahora secuenciado de P. vivax, que cumplían con los requisitos mínimos para establecer los niveles de coincidencia, entre las cuales se determinó que cuatro constituyen importantes candidatos a una vacuna contra la malaria producida por P. vivax.

  11. Análise da freqüência de recaídas de malária por Plasmodium vivax em região não endêmica (São Paulo, Brasil Analysis of the frequency of relapses due to malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax in a non endemie area (São Paulo, Brazil

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    Marcos Boulos

    1991-04-01

    Full Text Available Em virtude da existência de poucas informações, devidamente registradas, sobre freqüência e épocas de recaídas de malária por Plasmodium vivax, contraída no Brasil, foi analisada casuística observada em região não endêmica e constituída por pacientes corretamente tratados. O índice de recaídas documentadas em São Paulo, foi alto (24,5%, com desenvolvimento precoce na maioria das oportunidades, ou seja, em tempo inferior a três meses.Very few well-established information is available about the frequency and timeliness of relapses in cases of Plasmodium vivax malaria acquired in Brazil. So, we analysed a series of correctly treated patients observed out of endemic areas. The rate of relapses seen in São Paulo, which may represent that of the parasitosis in the whole country, was high, ranging from 7.5% to 24.5%, and early in most cases, i.e. appearing by three months, what anticipates a high endemicity.

  12. Spatial variation in genetic diversity and natural selection on the thrombospondin-related adhesive protein locus of Plasmodium vivax (PvTRAP.

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    Rattiporn Kosuwin

    Full Text Available Thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP of malaria parasites is essential for sporozoite motility and invasions into mosquito's salivary gland and vertebrate's hepatocyte; thereby, it is a promising target for pre-erythrocytic vaccine. TRAP of Plasmodium vivax (PvTRAP exhibits sequence heterogeneity among isolates, an issue relevant to vaccine development. To gain insights into variation in the complete PvTRAP sequences of parasites in Thailand, 114 vivax malaria patients were recruited in 2006-2007 from 4 major endemic provinces bordering Myanmar (Tak in the northwest, n = 30 and Prachuap Khirikhan in the southwest, n = 25, Cambodia (Chanthaburi in the east, n = 29 and Malaysia (Yala and Narathiwat in the south, n = 30. In total, 26 amino acid substitutions were detected and 9 of which were novel, resulting in 44 distinct haplotypes. Haplotype and nucleotide diversities were lowest in southern P. vivax population while higher levels of diversities were observed in other populations. Evidences of positive selection on PvTRAP were demonstrated in domains II and IV and purifying selection in domains I, II and VI. Genetic differentiation was significant between each population except that between populations bordering Myanmar where transmigration was common. Regression analysis of pairwise linearized Fst and geographic distance suggests that P. vivax populations in Thailand have been isolated by distance. Sequence diversity of PvTRAP seems to be temporally stable over one decade in Tak province based on comparison of isolates collected in 1996 (n = 36 and 2006-2007. Besides natural selection, evidences of intragenic recombination have been supported in this study that could maintain and further generate diversity in this locus. It remains to be investigated whether amino acid substitutions in PvTRAP could influence host immune responses although several predicted variant T cell epitopes drastically altered the epitope

  13. Using G6PD tests to enable the safe treatment of Plasmodium vivax infections with primaquine on the Thailand-Myanmar border: A cost-effectiveness analysis.

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    Angela Devine

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Primaquine is the only licensed antimalarial for the radical cure of Plasmodium vivax infections. Many countries, however, do not administer primaquine due to fear of hemolysis in those with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency. In other settings, primaquine is given without G6PD testing, putting patients at risk of hemolysis. New rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs offer the opportunity to screen for G6PD deficiency prior to treatment with primaquine. Here we assessed the cost-effectiveness of using G6PD RDTs on the Thailand-Myanmar border and provide the model as an online tool for use in other settings.Decision tree models for the management of P. vivax malaria evaluated the costs and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs associated with recurrences and primaquine-induced hemolysis from a health care provider perspective. Screening with G6PD RDTs before primaquine use was compared to (1 giving chloroquine alone and (2 giving primaquine without screening. Data were taken from a recent study on the impact of primaquine on P. vivax recurrences and a literature review. Compared to the use of chloroquine alone, the screening strategy had similar costs while averting 0.026 and 0.024 DALYs per primary infection in males and females respectively. Compared to primaquine administered without screening, the screening strategy provided modest cost savings while averting 0.011 and 0.004 DALYs in males and females respectively. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses resulted in a greater than 75% certainty that the screening strategy was cost-effective at a willingness to pay threshold of US$500, which is well below the common benchmark of per capita gross domestic product for Myanmar.In this setting G6PD RDTs could avert DALYs by reducing recurrences and reducing hemolytic risk in G6PD deficient patients at low costs or cost savings. The model results are limited by the paucity of data available in the literature for some parameter values

  14. Unexpectedly long incubation period of Plasmodium vivax malaria, in the absence of chemoprophylaxis, in patients diagnosed outside the transmission area in Brazil

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    da Silveira Bressan Clarisse

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 2010, Brazil recorded 3343,599 cases of malaria, with 99.6% of them concentrated in the Amazon region. Plasmodium vivax accounts for 86% of the cases circulating in the country. The extra-Amazonian region, where transmission does not occur, recorded about 566 cases imported from the Amazonian area in Brazil and South America, from Central America, Asia and African countries. Prolonged incubation periods have been described for P. vivax malaria in temperate climates. The diversity in essential biological characteristics is traditionally considered as one possible explanation to the emergence of relapse in malaria and to the differences in the duration of the incubation period, which can also be explained by the use of chemoprophylaxis. Studying the reported cases of P. vivax malaria in Rio de Janeiro, where there is no vector transmission, has made it possible to evaluate the extension of the incubation period and to notice that it may be extended in some cases. Methods Descriptive study of every malaria patients who visited the clinic in the last five years. The mean, standard deviation, median, minimum and maximum of all incubation periods were analysed. Results From the total of 80 patients seen in the clinic during the study time, with confirmed diagnosis of malaria, 49 (63% were infected with P. vivax. Between those, seven had an estimated incubation period varying from three to 12 months and were returned travellers from Brazilian Amazonian states (6 and Indonesia (1. None of them had taken malarial chemoprophylaxis. Conclusions The authors emphasize that considering malaria as a possible cause of febrile syndrome should be a post-travel routine, independent of the time elapsed after exposure in the transmission area, even in the absence of malaria chemoprophylaxis. They speculate that, since there is no current and detailed information about the biological cycle of human malaria plasmodia's in Brazil, it is possible

  15. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals binding residues for the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines

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    Garry Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The surface glycoprotein (SU, gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV must bind to a chemokine receptor, CCR5 or CXCR4, to invade CD4+ cells. Plasmodium vivax uses the Duffy Binding Protein (DBP to bind the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC and invade reticulocytes. Results Variable loop 3 (V3 of HIV-1 SU and domain 1 of the Plasmodium vivax DBP share a sequence similarity. The site of amino acid sequence similarity was necessary, but not sufficient, for DARC binding and contained a consensus heparin binding site essential for DARC binding. Both HIV-1 and P. vivax can be blocked from binding to their chemokine receptors by the chemokine, RANTES and its analog AOP-RANTES. Site directed mutagenesis of the heparin binding motif in members of the DBP family, the P. knowlesi alpha, beta and gamma proteins abrogated their binding to erythrocytes. Positively charged residues within domain 1 are required for binding of P. vivax and P. knowlesi erythrocyte binding proteins. Conclusion A heparin binding site motif in members of the DBP family may form part of a conserved erythrocyte receptor binding pocket.

  16. Virus-Like Particle (VLP Plus Microcrystalline Tyrosine (MCT Adjuvants Enhance Vaccine Efficacy Improving T and B Cell Immunogenicity and Protection against Plasmodium berghei/vivax

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    Gustavo Cabral-Miranda

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Vaccination is the most effective prophylactic tool against infectious diseases. Despite continued efforts to control malaria, the disease still generally represents a significant unmet medical need. Microcrystalline tyrosine (MCT is a well described depot used in licensed allergy immunotherapy products and in clinical development. However, its proof of concept in prophylactic vaccines has only recently been explored. MCT has never been used in combination with virus-like particles (VLPs, which are considered to be one of the most potent inducers of cellular and humoral immune responses in mice and humans. In the current study we assessed the potential of MCT to serve as an adjuvant in the development of a vaccine against malaria either alone or combined with VLP using Plasmodium vivax thrombospondin-related adhesive protein (TRAP as a target antigen. We chemically coupled PvTRAP to VLPs derived from the cucumber mosaic virus fused to a universal T-cell epitope of the tetanus toxin (CMVtt, formulated with MCT and compared the induced immune responses to PvTRAP formulated in PBS or Alum. The protective capacity of the various formulations was assessed using Plasmodium berghei expressing PvTRAP. All vaccine formulations using adjuvants and/or VLP increased humoral immunogenicity for PvTRAP compared to the antigen alone. The most proficient responder was the group of mice immunized with the vaccine formulated with PvTRAP-VLP + MCT. The VLP-based vaccine formulated in MCT also induced the strongest T cell response and conferred best protection against challenge with recombinant Plasmodium berghei. Thus, the combination of VLP with MCT may take advantage of the properties of each component and appears to be an alternative biodegradable depot adjuvant for development of novel prophylactic vaccines.

  17. Various pfcrt and pfmdr1 Genotypes of Plasmodium falciparum Cocirculate with P. malariae, P. ovale spp., and P. vivax in Northern Angola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fançony, Cláudia; Gamboa, Dina; Sebastião, Yuri; Hallett, Rachel; Sutherland, Colin; Sousa-Figueiredo, José Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapy for malaria has become widely available across Africa. Populations of Plasmodium falciparum that were previously dominated by chloroquine (CQ)-resistant genotypes are now under different drug selection pressures. P. malariae, P. ovale curtisi, and P. ovale wallikeri are sympatric with P. falciparum across the continent and are frequently present as coinfections. The prevalence of human Plasmodium species was determined by PCR using DNA from blood spots collected during a cross-sectional survey in northern Angola. P. falciparum was genotyped at resistance-associated loci in pfcrt and pfmdr1 by real-time PCR or by direct sequencing of amplicons. Of the 3,316 samples collected, 541 (16.3%) contained Plasmodium species infections; 477 (88.2%) of these were P. falciparum alone, 6.5% were P. falciparum and P. malariae together, and 1.1% were P. vivax alone. The majority of the remainder (3.7%) harbored P. ovale curtisi or P. ovale wallikeri alone or in combination with other species. Of 430 P. falciparum isolates genotyped for pfcrt, 61.6% carried the wild-type allele CVMNK at codons 72 to 76, either alone or in combination with the resistant allele CVIET. No other pfcrt allele was found. Wild-type alleles dominated at codons 86, 184, 1034, 1042, and 1246 of the pfmdr1 locus among the sequenced isolates. In contrast to previous studies, P. falciparum in the study area comprises an approximately equal mix of genotypes associated with CQ sensitivity and with CQ resistance, suggesting either lower drug pressure due to poor access to treatment in rural areas or a rapid impact of the policy change away from the use of standard monotherapies. PMID:22850519

  18. The Robust and Modulated Biomarker Network Elicited by the Plasmodium vivax Infection Is Mainly Mediated by the IL-6/IL-10 Axis and Is Associated with the Parasite Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allyson Guimarães da Costa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies have shown that the inflammatory process, including the biomarker production, and the intense activation of innate immune responses are greater in the malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax than other species. Here, we examined the levels of serum biomarkers and their interaction during acute malaria. Material and Methods. Blood samples were collected from P. vivax-infected patients at admission and from healthy donors. Levels of serum biomarkers were measured by Cytometric Bead Assay or ELISA. Results. P. vivax infection triggered the production of both inflammatory and regulatory biomarkers. Levels of IL-6, CXCL-8, IFN-γ, IL-5, and IL-10 were higher in P. vivax-infected patients than in healthy donors. On the other hand, malaria patients produced lower levels of TNF-α, IL-12p70, and IL-2 than healthy individuals. While the levels of IL-10 and IL-6 were found independent on the number of malaria episodes, higher levels of these cytokines were seen in patients with higher parasite load. Conclusion. A mixed pattern of proinflammatory and regulatory biomarkers is produced in P. vivax malaria. Analysis of biomarker network suggests that IL-10 and IL-6 are a robust axis in malaria patients and that this interaction seems to be associated with the parasite load.

  19. Eficacia de una prueba rápida para el diagnóstico de Plasmodium vivax en pacientes sintomáticos de Chiapas, México Eficacia de una prueba rápida para el diagnóstico de Plasmodium vivax en pacientes sintomáticos de Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia González-Cerón

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Evaluar en condiciones de laboratorio la sensibilidad y especificidad de una prueba rápida de diagnóstico (OptiMAL, basada en tiras inmunorreactivas para detectar Plasmodium vivax en pacientes febriles del sur de Chiapas, México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Entre diciembre de 2000 a abril de 2002 se investigó la presencia de parásitos en muestras sanguíneas de 893 pacientes por examen microscópico de gotas gruesas teñidas con Giemsa (prueba de referencia. Otra gota de sangre de la misma punción fue empleada en las tiras inmunorreactivas para investigar la presencia de pLDH del parásito. Los resultados discordantes se resolvieron por PCR del gen de la subunidad ribosomal 18S del parásito para descartar infección. RESULTADOS: OptiMAL mostró una sensibilidad de 93.3% y especificidad de 99.5%, con valores predictivo positivo y negativo de 96.5 y 98.9%, respectivamente. La intensidad de las reacciones en las tiras OptiMAL correlacionaron con la densidad parasitaria (r=0.601, p=0.0001. CONCLUSIONES: La prueba rápida presentó sensibilidad y especificidad aceptables para detectar P. vivax en condiciones de laboratorio y podría ser útil para el diagnóstico de paludismo en operaciones de campo en México.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, under laboratory conditions, the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid diagnostic test (OptiMAL, based on immunoreactive strips, to detect Plasmodium vivax infection in febrile patients in Southern Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The presence of parasites in blood samples of 893 patients was investigated by Giemsa-stained thick blood smear microscopic examination (gold standard. A blood drop from the same sample was smeared on immunoreactive strips to investigate the presence of the parasite pLDH. Discordant results were resolved by PCR amplification of the parasite's 18S SSU rRNA, to discard infection. RESULTS: OptiMAL had an overall sensitivity of 93.3% and its specificity was 99.5%. Its positive and

  20. Elimination of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in central part of the People’s Republic of China: analysis and prediction based on modelling

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    Zhao Chen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Five provinces in central People’s Republic of China (P.R. China have successfully reduced the burden of malaria due to Plasmodium vivax in the last 7 years. The results of the Action Plan of China Malaria Elimination (APCME that com- menced in 2010 are analysed against the background of the progress reached by the national malaria control programme (NMEP that was launched in 2006. We examined the epidemiological changes in the number of autochthonous cases over time and discuss the feasibility of achieving the goal of malaria elimination by 2020. There was a total decline of 34,320 malaria cases between 2006 and 2012 arriving at an average annual incidence of 0.04 per 10,000 people by 2012. At the same time, the number of counties reporting autochthonous cases declined from 290 to 19. Spatial autocorrelation and Bayesian modelling were used to evaluate the datasets and predict the spatio-temporal pattern in the near future. The former approach showed that spatial clusters of P. vivax malaria existed in the study region during the study period, while the risk prediction map generated by the Bayesian model indicates that only sporadic malaria cases will appear during in the future. The results suggest that the initial NMEP approach and the follow-up APCME strategy have played a key role in reducing the threat of malaria in central P.R. China. However, to achieve the goal of malaria elimination by the end of the current decade, interven- tion plans must be adjusted with attention paid to those endemic counties still at risk according to the prediction map.

  1. Dispensing and determinants of non-adherence to treatment for non complicated malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum in high-risk municipalities in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia G S; Suárez-Mutis, Martha C; Miranda, Elaine S; Luz, Tatiana C B

    2015-11-26

    In Brazil, 99.7 % of malaria cases occur in the Amazon region. Although the number of cases is decreasing, the country accounted for almost 60 % of cases in the Americas Region, in 2013. Novel approaches for malaria treatment open the possibility of eliminating the disease, but suboptimal dispensing and lack of adherence influence treatment outcomes. The aim of this paper is to show the results on dispensing practices, non-adherence and determinants of non-adherence to treatment of non-complicated malaria. The study was conducted in six high-risk municipalities with Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum transmission in the Brazilian Amazon and based on the theoretical framework of the Mafalda Project, which included investigation of dispensing and adherence. The World Health Organization Rapid Evaluation Method has been used to estimate sample size. Individuals over 15 years of age with malaria were approached at health facilities and invited to participate through informed consent. Data was collected in chart review forms focusing on diagnosis, Plasmodium type, prescribing, and dispensing (kind, quantity, labelling and procedures). Follow-up household interviews complemented data collection at health facility. Non-adherence was measured during the implementation phase, by self-reports and pill-counts. Analysis was descriptive and statistical tests were carried out. Determinants of non-adherence and quality of dispensing were assessed according to the literature. The study involved 165 patients. Dispensing was done according to the national guidelines. Labelling was adequate for P. vivax but inadequate for P. falciparum medicines. Non-adherent patients were 12.1 % according to self-reports and 21.8 % according to pill-counts. Results point to greater non-adherence among all P. falciparum patients and among malaria non-naîve patients. More patients informed understanding adverse effects than 'how to use' anti-malarials. Non-adherent patients were mostly those

  2. Primaquine double dose for 7 days is inferior to single-dose treatment for 14 days in preventing Plasmodium vivax recurrent episodes in Suriname

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    Mac Donald-Ottevanger MS

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available M Sigrid Mac Donald-Ottevanger,1 Malti R Adhin,2 Jeetendra Kumar Jitan,3 Gustavo Bretas,4 Stephen GS Vreden1 1Foundation for Scientific Research Suriname (SWOS, 2Department of Biochemistry, Anton de Kom University of Suriname, 3Department of Public Health, Ministry of Health, Paramaribo, Suriname; 4Independent consultant, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Background: Recurrent episodes of Plasmodium vivax are caused by dormant liver stages of the parasite, which are not eradicated by choloroquine. Therefore, effective treatment also includes the use of primaquine (PQ. However, this secondary preventive therapy is often not effective, mostly due to poor adherence to the relatively long treatment course, justifying a comparative study of the efficacy of different durations of PQ treatment. Materials and methods: We included patients presenting with an acute and documented P. vivax infection from January 2006 to February 2008. All patients received chloroquine 25 mg/kg over a 3-day period. Subsequently, patients in group 7D received PQ 30 mg/day for 7 days, and patients in group 14D received standard PQ 15 mg/day for 14 days. All doses were given under supervision and patients were followed up for at least 6 months. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate cumulative probability of recurrence up to 12 months after treatment initiation stratified by treatment group. Cox regression was used to assess possible determinants for recurrent parasitemia. Results: Forty-seven of the 79 included patients (59.5% were allocated to group 7D and 32 patients (40.5% were allocated to group 14D. Recurrent parasitemia was detected in 31.9% of the cases in group 7D compared to 12.5% of the cases in group 14D (hazard ratio [HR] =3.36, 95% CI 1.11–10.16. Cumulative probability for recurrent parasitemia at 3, 6, and 12 months was 0.201 (95% CI 0.106–0.362, 0.312 (95% CI 0.190–0.485, and 0.424 (95% CI 0.274– 0.615 for group 7D and 0.100 (95% CI 0.033–0.279, 0

  3. Synthesis of 9-phosphonoalkyl and 9-phosphonoalkoxyalkyl purines: Evaluation of their ability to act as inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and human hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Česnek, Michal; Hocková, Dana; Holý, Antonín; Dračínský, Martin; Baszczyňski, Ondřej; de Jersey, J.; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 20, č. 2 (2012), s. 1076-1089 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0508; GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Plasmodium * malaria * acyclic nucleoside phosphonates Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.903, year: 2012

  4. Variation in Complexity of Infection and Transmission Stability between Neighbouring Populations of Plasmodium vivax in Southern Ethiopia.

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    Sisay Getachew

    Full Text Available P. vivax is an important public health burden in Ethiopia, accounting for almost half of all malaria cases. Owing to heterogeneous transmission across the country, a stronger evidence base on local transmission dynamics is needed to optimise allocation of resources and improve malaria interventions.In a pilot evaluation of local level P. vivax molecular surveillance in southern Ethiopia, the diversity and population structure of isolates collected between May and November 2013 were investigated. Blood samples were collected from microscopy positive P. vivax patients recruited to clinical and cross-sectional surveys from four sites: Arbaminch, Halaba, Badawacho and Hawassa. Parasite genotyping was undertaken at nine tandem repeat markers. Eight loci were successfully genotyped in 197 samples (between 36 and 59 per site. Heterogeneity was observed in parasite diversity and structure amongst the sites. Badawacho displayed evidence of unstable transmission, with clusters of identical clonal infections. Linkage disequilibrium in Badawacho was higher (IAS = 0.32, P = 0.010 than in the other populations (IAS range = 0.01-0.02 and declined markedly after adjusting for identical infections (IAS = 0.06, P = 0.010. Other than Badawacho (HE = 0.70, population diversity was equivalently high across the sites (HE = 0.83. Polyclonal infections were more frequent in Hawassa (67% than the other populations (range: 8-44%. Despite the variable diversity, differentiation between the sites was low (FST range: 5 x 10-3-0.03.Marked variation in parasite population structure likely reflects differing local transmission dynamics. Parasite genotyping in these heterogeneous settings has potential to provide important complementary information with which to optimise malaria control interventions.

  5. Sequence polymorphisms in Pvs48/45 and Pvs47 gametocyte and gamete surface proteins in Plasmodium vivax isolated in Korea

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    Mi Kyung Woo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Nucleotide sequence analyses of the Pvs48/45 and Pvs47 genes were conducted in 46 malaria patients from the Republic of Korea (ROK (n = 40 and returning travellers from India (n = 3 and Indonesia (n = 3. The domain structures, which were based on cysteine residue position and secondary protein structure, were similar between Plasmodium vivax (Pvs48/45 and Pvs47 and Plasmodium falciparum (Pfs48/45 and Pfs47. In comparison to the Sal-1 reference strain (Pvs48/45, PVX_083235 and Pvs47, PVX_083240, Korean isolates revealed seven polymorphisms (E35K, H211N, K250N, D335Y, A376T, I380T and K418R in Pvs48/45. These isolates could be divided into five haplotypes with the two major types having frequencies of 47.5% and 20%, respectivelfy. In Pvs47, 10 polymorphisms (F22L, F24L, K27E, D31N, V230I, M233I, E240D, I262T, I273M and A373V were found and they could be divided into four haplotypes with one major type having a frequency of 75%. The Pvs48/45 isolates from India showed a unique amino acid substitution site (K26R. Compared to the Sal-1 and ROK isolates, the Pvs47 isolates from travellers returning from India and Indonesia had amino acid substitutions (S57T and I262K. The current data may contribute to the development of the malaria transmission-blocking vaccine in future clinical trials.

  6. Sequence polymorphisms in Pvs48/45 and Pvs47 gametocyte and gamete surface proteins in Plasmodium vivax isolated in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Mi Kyung; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Kim, JuYeon; Oh, Jun Seo; Han, Eun Taek; An, Seong Soo A; Lim, Chae Seung

    2013-05-01

    Nucleotide sequence analyses of the Pvs48/45 and Pvs47 genes were conducted in 46 malaria patients from the Republic of Korea (ROK) (n = 40) and returning travellers from India (n = 3) and Indonesia (n = 3). The domain structures, which were based on cysteine residue position and secondary protein structure, were similar between Plasmodium vivax (Pvs48/45 and Pvs47) and Plasmodium falciparum (Pfs48/45 and Pfs47). In comparison to the Sal-1 reference strain (Pvs48/45, PVX_083235 and Pvs47, PVX_083240), Korean isolates revealed seven polymorphisms (E35K, H211N, K250N, D335Y, A376T, I380T and K418R) in Pvs48/45. These isolates could be divided into five haplotypes with the two major types having frequencies of 47.5% and 20%, respectivelfy. In Pvs47, 10 polymorphisms (F22L, F24L, K27E, D31N, V230I, M233I, E240D, I262T, I273M and A373V) were found and they could be divided into four haplotypes with one major type having a frequency of 75%. The Pvs48/45 isolates from India showed a unique amino acid substitution site (K26R). Compared to the Sal-1 and ROK isolates, the Pvs47 isolates from travellers returning from India and Indonesia had amino acid substitutions (S57T and I262K). The current data may contribute to the development of the malaria transmission-blocking vaccine in future clinical trials.

  7. Primaquine double dose for 7 days is inferior to single-dose treatment for 14 days in preventing Plasmodium vivax recurrent episodes in Suriname

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Donald-Ottevanger, M Sigrid; Adhin, Malti R; Jitan, Jeetendra Kumar; Bretas, Gustavo; Vreden, Stephen GS

    2018-01-01

    Background Recurrent episodes of Plasmodium vivax are caused by dormant liver stages of the parasite, which are not eradicated by choloroquine. Therefore, effective treatment also includes the use of primaquine (PQ). However, this secondary preventive therapy is often not effective, mostly due to poor adherence to the relatively long treatment course, justifying a comparative study of the efficacy of different durations of PQ treatment. Materials and methods We included patients presenting with an acute and documented P. vivax infection from January 2006 to February 2008. All patients received chloroquine 25 mg/kg over a 3-day period. Subsequently, patients in group 7D received PQ 30 mg/day for 7 days, and patients in group 14D received standard PQ 15 mg/day for 14 days. All doses were given under supervision and patients were followed up for at least 6 months. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate cumulative probability of recurrence up to 12 months after treatment initiation stratified by treatment group. Cox regression was used to assess possible determinants for recurrent parasitemia. Results Forty-seven of the 79 included patients (59.5%) were allocated to group 7D and 32 patients (40.5%) were allocated to group 14D. Recurrent parasitemia was detected in 31.9% of the cases in group 7D compared to 12.5% of the cases in group 14D (hazard ratio [HR] =3.36, 95% CI 1.11–10.16). Cumulative probability for recurrent parasitemia at 3, 6, and 12 months was 0.201 (95% CI 0.106–0.362), 0.312 (95% CI 0.190–0.485), and 0.424 (95% CI 0.274–0.615) for group 7D and 0.100 (95% CI 0.033–0.279), 0.100 (95% CI 0.033–0.279), and 0.138 (95% CI 0.054–0.327) for group 14D, respectively. When adjusted for possible confounders, differences in recurrent parasitemia remained significant between the two regimens in Cox regression analysis. Conclusion More than 30% of the patients receiving shorter treatment course had recurrent parasitemia, suggesting that the

  8. A Reduced Risk of Infection with Plasmodium vivax and Clinical Protection against Malaria Are Associated with Antibodies against the N Terminus but Not the C Terminus of Merozoite Surface Protein 1†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Paulo Afonso; Piovesan Alves, Fabiana; Fernandez-Becerra, Carmen; Pein, Oliver; Rodrigues Santos, Neida; Pereira da Silva, Luiz Hildebrando; Plessman Camargo, Erney; del Portillo, Hernando A.

    2006-01-01

    Progress towards the development of a malaria vaccine against Plasmodium vivax, the most widely distributed human malaria parasite, will require a better understanding of the immune responses that confer clinical protection to patients in regions where malaria is endemic. The occurrence of clinical protection in P. vivax malaria in Brazil was first reported among residents of the riverine community of Portuchuelo, in Rondônia, western Amazon. We thus analyzed immune sera from this same human population to determine if naturally acquired humoral immune responses against the merozoite surface protein 1 of P. vivax, PvMSP1, could be associated with reduced risk of infection and/or clinical protection. Our results demonstrated that this association could be established with anti-PvMSP1 antibodies predominantly of the immunoglobulin G3 subclass directed against the N terminus but not against the C terminus, in spite of the latter being more immunogenic and capable of natural boosting. This is the first report of a prospective study of P. vivax malaria demonstrating an association of reduced risk of infection and clinical protection with antibodies against an antigen of this parasite. PMID:16622209

  9. Plasmodium vivax Tryptophan Rich Antigen PvTRAg36.6 Interacts with PvETRAMP and PvTRAg56.6 Interacts with PvMSP7 during Erythrocytic Stages of the Parasite.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriti Tyagi

    Full Text Available Plasmodium vivax is most wide spread and a neglected malaria parasite. There is a lack of information on parasite biology of this species. Genome of this parasite encodes for the largest number of tryptophan-rich proteins belonging to 'Pv-fam-a' family and some of them are potential drug/vaccine targets but their functional role(s largely remains unexplored. Using bacterial and yeast two hybrid systems, we have identified the interacting partners for two of the P. vivax tryptophan-rich antigens called PvTRAg36.6 and PvTRAg56.2. The PvTRAg36.6 interacts with early transcribed membrane protein (ETRAMP of P.vivax. It is apically localized in merozoites but in early stages it is seen in parasite periphery suggesting its likely involvement in parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM development or maintenance. On the other hand, PvTRAg56.2 interacts with P.vivax merozoite surface protein7 (PvMSP7 and is localized on merozoite surface. Co-localization of PvTRAg56.2 with PvMSP1 and its molecular interaction with PvMSP7 probably suggest that, PvTRAg56.2 is part of MSP-complex, and might assist or stabilize the protein complex at the merozoite surface. In conclusion, the PvTRAg proteins have different sub cellular localizations and specific associated functions during intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle.

  10. Plasmodium vivax Tryptophan Rich Antigen PvTRAg36.6 Interacts with PvETRAMP and PvTRAg56.6 Interacts with PvMSP7 during Erythrocytic Stages of the Parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyagi, Kriti; Hossain, Mohammad Enayet; Thakur, Vandana; Aggarwal, Praveen; Malhotra, Pawan; Mohmmed, Asif; Sharma, Yagya Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is most wide spread and a neglected malaria parasite. There is a lack of information on parasite biology of this species. Genome of this parasite encodes for the largest number of tryptophan-rich proteins belonging to ‘Pv-fam-a’ family and some of them are potential drug/vaccine targets but their functional role(s) largely remains unexplored. Using bacterial and yeast two hybrid systems, we have identified the interacting partners for two of the P. vivax tryptophan-rich antigens called PvTRAg36.6 and PvTRAg56.2. The PvTRAg36.6 interacts with early transcribed membrane protein (ETRAMP) of P.vivax. It is apically localized in merozoites but in early stages it is seen in parasite periphery suggesting its likely involvement in parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) development or maintenance. On the other hand, PvTRAg56.2 interacts with P.vivax merozoite surface protein7 (PvMSP7) and is localized on merozoite surface. Co-localization of PvTRAg56.2 with PvMSP1 and its molecular interaction with PvMSP7 probably suggest that, PvTRAg56.2 is part of MSP-complex, and might assist or stabilize the protein complex at the merozoite surface. In conclusion, the PvTRAg proteins have different sub cellular localizations and specific associated functions during intra-erythrocytic developmental cycle. PMID:26954579

  11. Prevalence and molecular characterization of G6PD deficiency in two Plasmodium vivax endemic areas in Venezuela: predominance of the African A-(202A/376G) variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizzi, Esmeralda; Bastidas, Gilberto; Hidalgo, Mariana; Colman, Laura; Pérez, Hilda A

    2016-01-11

    Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency causes acute haemolytic anaemia triggered by oxidative drugs such as primaquine (PQ), used for Plasmodium vivax malaria radical cure. However, in many endemic areas of vivax malaria, patients are treated with PQ without any evaluation of their G6PD status. G6PD deficiency and its genetic heterogeneity were evaluated in northeastern and southeastern areas from Venezuela, Cajigal (Sucre state) and Sifontes (Bolívar state) municipalities, respectively. Blood samples from 664 randomly recruited unrelated individuals were screened for G6PD activity by a quantitative method. Mutation analysis for exons 4-8 of G6PD gen was performed on DNA isolated from G6PD-deficient (G6PDd) subjects through PCR-RFLP and direct DNA sequencing. Quantitative biochemical characterization revealed that overall 24 (3.6%) subjects were G6PDd (average G6PD enzyme activity 4.5 ± 1.2 U/g Hb, moderately deficient, class III), while DNA analysis showed one or two mutated alleles in 19 of them (79.2%). The G6PD A-(202A/376G) variant was the only detected in 17 (70.8%) individuals, 13 of them hemizygous males and four heterozygous females. Two males carried only the 376A → G mutation. No other mutation was found in the analysed exons. The G6PDd prevalence was as low as that one shown by nearby countries. This study contributes to the knowledge of the genetic background of Venezuelan population, especially of those living in malaria-endemic areas. Despite the high degree of genetic mixing described for Venezuelan population, a net predominance of the mild African G6PD A-(202A/376G) variant was observed among G6PDd subjects, suggesting a significant flow of G6PD genes from Africa to Americas, almost certainly introduced through African and/or Spanish immigrants during and after the colonization. The data suggest that 1:27 individuals of the studied population could be G6PDd and therefore at risk of haemolysis under precipitating factors

  12. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals a functional heparin binding motif involved in binding to the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines

    OpenAIRE

    Bolton, Michael J; Garry, Robert F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The HIV surface glycoprotein gp120 (SU, gp120) and the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP) bind to chemokine receptors during infection and have a site of amino acid sequence similarity in their binding domains that often includes a heparin binding motif (HBM). Infection by either pathogen has been found to be inhibited by polyanions. Results Specific polyanions that inhibit HIV infection and bind to the V3 loop of X4 strains also inhibited DBP-mediated infectio...

  13. Primaquina y recurrencias de malaria por Plasmodium vivax. Metanálisis de estudios clínicos controlados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Carmona Fonseca

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ANTECEDENTES: La primaquina (PQ se usa contra recurrencias del paludismo vivax (RPV, pero se desconocen varios aspectos posológicos, como la dosis total (DT eficaz en determinado número de días. OBJETIVO: Comparar regímenes de PQ contra RPV en estudios clínicos controlados (ECC aleatorios o no aleatorios. METODOLOGÍA: Metanálisis. Se buscó información hasta el 31 de diciembre de 2012 en Lilacs, SciELO, PubMed (Medline, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group, Embase. Se usaron estudios experimentales o ECC, siempre con grupo control concurrente. Se incluyeron estudios con o sin asignación aleatoria, "close label" o "open label", con tratamiento supervisado o no supervisado No se exigió que el estudio estableciera diferencia entre recaída y reinfección mediante pruebas moleculares. Se aplicaron criterios de inclusión y exclusión a los artículos y satisfacer los de inclusión constituyó calidad adecuada para dejarlos en el metanálisis. RESULTADOS: Se completaron 23 ECC, que reunieron los criterios de selección. Evaluamos 4 esquemas de dosis total (DT dada en determinados días (DT mg número de días: 210 14 = 210 mg en 14 días; 210 7 = 210 mg en 7 días; 45 a 150 mg en 3 a 10 días; 0 (no PQ. La ausencia de PQ llevó a la recurrencia de 34,48% frente a 19,66% con PQ 210 14 (diferencia significativa; 210 14 mostró eficacia igual a la de 210 7. Cada esquema 210 7 y 210 14 es mejor estadísticamente que 45 a 150. CONCLUSIONES: El uso de PQ es necesario para reducir las recurrencias y la DT 210 mg dada en 7 ó en 14 días es la que mejor eficacia tiene pero se requieren más estudios con el esquema 210 7.

  14. Hematological changes in complete blood picture in paedriatric patients of malaria caused by plasmodium vivax and falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, I.; Jamal, A.

    2015-01-01

    Malaria is a major health problem and one of the major killers in paediatric population particularly in the developing world. High mortality is usually compounded by various haematological complications if left untreated. Their identification as risk factors for progression to severe disease may make the basis for optimal management of malaria. This study was conducted to determine various changes in the complete blood picture caused by malaria and to compare the severity of these changes among the prevalent species of plasmodia. Methods: It was cross sectional study conducted in paediatric ward of Civil Hospital, Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi over a period of six months. Children aged >2 months to 15 years, of either sex, with fever above 101 degree F in the preceding 72 hours with positive malaria parasite on peripheral blood smear were included in the study. Children already on anti-malarial treatment and long standing antibiotics, having co-morbidities like immune-compromised states, haemolytic disease or with any other haematological disorder were excluded from the study. Blood was tested for anaemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, and thrombocytopenia. Data analysis was done via SPSS-15.0. Results: Out of 374 children half were under 5 years of age with mean age of 66.7 ± 46.8 months, 50.8% were female with male to female ratio of 1:1.03. Overall 364 (97.3%) children had anaemia with mean haemoglobin level of 11.7 ± 6 g/dl. Overall mean WBC count was 10443 ± 154 per cubic millimetre. Leukopenia was found in 39% cases. Mean platelets count of enrolled children was 69451 ± 648 cubic millimetre and 51.3% cases had mild thrombocytopenia. Anaemia (p=0.012), leukopenia (p=0.001) and thrombocytopenia (p=0.004) were significantly more common in falciparum as compared to vivax malaria. Conclusion: We concluded that malaria frequently causes severe anaemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in children. P. falciparum is the species more responsible for these

  15. Naturally-acquired humoral immune responses against the N- and C-termini of the Plasmodium vivax MSP1 protein in endemic regions of Brazil and Papua New Guinea using a multiplex assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Pedro L

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Progress towards the development of a malaria vaccine against Plasmodium vivax, the most widely distributed human malaria parasite, will require a better understanding of the immune responses that confer clinical protection to patients in regions where malaria is endemic. Methods Glutathione S-transferase (GST and GST-fusion proteins representing the N- terminus of the merozoite surface protein 1 of P. vivax, PvMSP1-N, and the C-terminus, PvMSP1-C, were covalently coupled to BioPlex carboxylated beads. Recombinant proteins and coupled beads were used, respectively, in ELISA and Bioplex assays using immune sera of P. vivax patients from Brazil and PNG to determine IgG and subclass responses. Concordances between the two methods in the seropositivity responses were evaluated using the Kappa statistic and the Spearman's rank correlation. Results The results using this methodology were compared with the classical microtitre enzyme-linked immnosorbent assay (ELISA, showing that the assay was sensitive, reproducible and had good concordance with ELISA; yet, further research into different statistical analyses seems desirable before claiming conclusive results exclusively based on multiplex assays. As expected, results demonstrated that PvMSP1 was immunogenic in natural infections of patients from different endemic regions of Brazil and Papua New Guinea (PNG, and that age correlated only with antibodies against the C-terminus part of the molecule. Furthermore, the IgG subclass profiles were different in these endemic regions having IgG3 predominantly recognizing PvMSP1 in Brazil and IgG1 predominantly recognizing PvMSP1 in PNG. Conclusions This study validates the use of the multiplex assay to measure naturally-acquired IgG antibodies against the merozoite surface protein 1 of P. vivax.

  16. In-Silico detection of chokepoints enzymes in four plasmodium species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the over 156 species of Plasmodium that infect vertebrates, only four infect man: Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae. Other species infect other animals including birds, reptiles and rodents. The rodent malaria parasites are Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium yoelii, ...

  17. Role of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α cytokines and TNF-α promoter variability in Plasmodium vivax infection during pregnancy in endemic population of Jharkhand, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Krishn Pratap; Shakeel, Shayan; Naskar, Namrata; Bharti, Aakanksha; Kaul, Asha; Anwar, Shadab; Kumari, Shweta; Kumar, Amod; Singh, Jiv Kant; Kumari, Nutan; Gupta, Birendra Kumar; Manna, Purwa; Roy, Vishwaprakash; Lata, Sneh; Singh, Om P; Sinha, Manoranjan Prasad; Sharma, Ajay Kumar; Sohail, Mohammad

    2018-05-01

    The combinatorial effects of Plasmodium infection, perturbation of inflammatory responses and the dichotomic role of TNF promoter polymorphism has potential clinical and physiological relevance during pregnancy. This coordinated orchestration instigated us to investigate the circulating level of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) employing ELISA in a stratified group of samples and the plausible genetic association of TNF-α -308 G/A using PCR-RFLP/sequencing during Plasmodium vivax infection in pregnancy. We observed significantly elevated concentrations of IL-1β were observed, followed by IL-6 and TNF-α in women with malaria (WWM) and in malaria in pregnancy (MIP). Further, elevated IL-1β, followed by TNF-α and IL-6 were detected in the non-infected pregnancy group. The differential dynamics of inflammatory cytokine concentration during each trimester of pregnancy with and without P. vivax infection were detected. For the first time, a high level of IL-6 was observed in the first trimester of MIP and high IL-1β in healthy pregnancies. In the second trimester, however, we observed a high level of IL-1β in the MIP group compared to a sustained high level of IL-1β in the healthy pregnancy group. In the third trimester, high IL-1β was sustained in the MIP group and healthy pregnancies acquired a high TNF-α level. The genotypic distribution for the TNF-α promoter -308 G/A position was observed to be nonsignificant and mildly associated during MIP (OR = 1.4) and in WWM (OR = 1.2). Moreover, based on genotypic distribution, we observed a well-correlated and significantly elevated TNF-α concentration in the mutant homozygote genotype (AA; p = 0.001) followed by heterozygotes (GA; p = 0.0001) and ancestral genotypes (GG; p = 0.0001) in both MIP and WWM subjects. The observation of elevated IL-1β and IL-6 in MIP and TNF-α in WWM may be regarded as a prognostic inflammatory marker of infection and pregnancy. Most particularly

  18. Individual risk factors for Plasmodium vivax infection in the residual malaria transmission focus of Oaxaca, Mexico Factores individuales de riesgo para la infección con Plasmodium vivax en el foco residual de transmisión de paludismo de Oaxaca, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio Danis-Lozano

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify individual risk factors for malaria infection of inhabitants in the residual transmission focus on the Pacific coast of Oaxaca, Mexico. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A population-based, matched case-control study was conducted from January 2002 to July 2003 comparing the frequency of exposure to individual risk factors in subjects presenting clinical malaria and uninfected controls. A malaria case was defined as an individual living in the study area presenting malaria symptoms and a Plasmodium vivax-positive thick blood smear; controls were individuals negative to P. vivax parasites and antibodies of the same gender and with ± five years as the case. A standardized questionnaire was used to record information about the individual risk factors associated with malaria episodes in cases and two controls for each case. RESULTS: In a multiple conditional logistic regression model analysis of data from 119 cases and 238 controls, 18 out of 99 variables were significantly associated (pOBJETIVO: Identificar los factores de riesgo individuales determinantes para contraer paludismo en habitantes del foco residual de transmisión de paludismo localizado en la costa del Pacífico de Oaxaca. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se realizó un estudio pareado de casos y controles, con base poblacional de enero de 2002 a julio de 2003, comparando la frecuencia de exposición a diversos factores de riesgo individuales en sujetos que presentaron un cuadro clínico de paludismo y controles no infectados. Un caso de paludismo fue definido como un individuo que vive en el área de estudio que presentó síntomas de paludismo y diagnosticado positivo a P. vivax en examen de gota gruesa de sangre, los controles fueron individuos negativos a parásitos y anticuerpos anti-P. vivax del mismo sexo y ± cinco años la edad del caso. Se usó un cuestionario estandarizado para registrar información de factores de riesgo individuales asociados a episodios de paludismo en

  19. Diez años de eficacia terapéutica de la cloroquina en malaria no complicada por Plasmodium vivax, Turbo, Antioquia, años 2002 y 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Ríos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. La eficacia terapéutica de los antipalúdicos debe ser vigilada permanentemente debido al problema de resistencia. En Colombia existen pocos estudios que evalúen la eficacia de la cloroquina en la malaria no complicada por Plasmodium vivax. Objetivo. Evaluar la respuesta terapéutica de la cloroquina en el tratamiento del paludismo no complicado por P. vivax en el año 2011 en Turbo, Antioquia, y comparar estos resultados con los del estudio realizado en el año 2002 en el mismo municipio. Materiales y métodos. Se llevaron a cabo dos estudios en los que se incluyeron 152 participantes (50 en el año 2002 y 102 en el año 2011, todos mayores de cinco años, con malaria no complicada e infección simple por P. vivax, según los criterios de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS. Se evaluó la eficacia terapéutica de la cloroquina, según los protocolos vigentes de la Organización anamericana de la Salud (1998 y la OMS (2009; se dio tratamiento estándar supervisado con 1.500 mg de cloroquina en tres días y se hizo seguimiento clínico y parasitológico los días 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, 14 y 21 en el año 2002 y, además, el día 28 en el año 2011. Al finalizar el seguimiento se suministró primaquinaa una dosis diaria de 0,25 mg/kg durante 14 días en todos los participantes. Resultados. Los resultados clínico y parasitológicos fueron adecuados en el 100 % de los participantes de ambos estudios. Conclusiones. La cloroquina continúa siendo eficaz para el tratamiento de la malaria no complicada por P. vivax en Turbo, Antioquia.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i3.1631

  20. Polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax Circumsporozoite Protein (CSP) Influence Parasite Burden and Cytokine Balance in a Pre-Amazon Endemic Area from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Bruno de Paulo; Cassiano, Gustavo Capatti; de Souza, Rodrigo Medeiros; Cysne, Dalila Nunes; Grisotto, Marcos Augusto Grigolin; de Azevedo dos Santos, Ana Paula Silva; Marinho, Cláudio Romero Farias; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Nascimento, Flávia Raquel Fernandes

    2016-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in severe P. vivax malaria remain unclear. Parasite polymorphisms, parasite load and host cytokine profile may influence the course of infection. In this study, we investigated the influence of circumsporozoite protein (CSP) polymorphisms on parasite load and cytokine profile in patients with vivax malaria. A cross-sectional study was carried out in three cities: São Luís, Cedral and Buriticupu, Maranhão state, Brazil, areas of high prevalence of P. vivax. Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-6, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, interferon gamma (IFN-γ and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β were quantified in blood plasma of patients and in supernatants from peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) cultures. Furthermore, the levels of cytokines and parasite load were correlated with VK210, VK247 and P. vivax-like CSP variants. Patients infected with P. vivax showed increased IL-10 and IL-6 levels, which correlated with the parasite load, however, in multiple comparisons, only IL-10 kept this association. A regulatory cytokine profile prevailed in plasma, while an inflammatory profile prevailed in PBMC culture supernatants and these patterns were related to CSP polymorphisms. VK247 infected patients showed higher parasitaemia and IL-6 concentrations, which were not associated to IL-10 anti-inflammatory effect. By contrast, in VK210 patients, these two cytokines showed a strong positive correlation and the parasite load was lower. Patients with the VK210 variant showed a regulatory cytokine profile in plasma, while those infected with the VK247 variant have a predominantly inflammatory cytokine profile and higher parasite loads, which altogether may result in more complications in infection. In conclusion, we propose that CSP polymorphisms is associated to the increase of non-regulated inflammatory immune responses, which in turn may be associated with the outcome of infection. PMID:26943639

  1. Plasmodium vivax VIR Proteins Are Targets of Naturally-Acquired Antibody and T Cell Immune Responses to Malaria in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena, Pilar; Rui, Edmilson; Padilla, Norma; Martínez-Espinosa, Flor E; Castellanos, Maria Eugenia; Bôtto-Menezes, Camila; Malheiro, Adriana; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Kochar, Swati; Kochar, Sanjay K; Kochar, Dhanpat K; Umbers, Alexandra J; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Wangnapi, Regina; Hans, Dhiraj; Menegon, Michela; Mateo, Francesca; Sanz, Sergi; Desai, Meghna; Mayor, Alfredo; Chitnis, Chetan C; Bardají, Azucena; Mueller, Ivo; Rogerson, Stephen; Severini, Carlo; Fernández-Becerra, Carmen; Menéndez, Clara; Del Portillo, Hernando; Dobaño, Carlota

    2016-10-01

    P. vivax infection during pregnancy has been associated with poor outcomes such as anemia, low birth weight and congenital malaria, thus representing an important global health problem. However, no vaccine is currently available for its prevention. Vir genes were the first putative virulent factors associated with P. vivax infections, yet very few studies have examined their potential role as targets of immunity. We investigated the immunogenic properties of five VIR proteins and two long synthetic peptides containing conserved VIR sequences (PvLP1 and PvLP2) in the context of the PregVax cohort study including women from five malaria endemic countries: Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, India and Papua New Guinea (PNG) at different timepoints during and after pregnancy. Antibody responses against all antigens were detected in all populations, with PNG women presenting the highest levels overall. P. vivax infection at sample collection time was positively associated with antibody levels against PvLP1 (fold-increase: 1.60 at recruitment -first antenatal visit-) and PvLP2 (fold-increase: 1.63 at delivery), and P. falciparum co-infection was found to increase those responses (for PvLP1 at recruitment, fold-increase: 2.25). Levels of IgG against two VIR proteins at delivery were associated with higher birth weight (27 g increase per duplicating antibody levels, ppregnant women had significantly higher antigen-specific IFN-γ TH1 responses (p=0.006) and secreted less pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF and IL-6 after PvLP2 stimulation than P. vivax-infected women (p<0.05). These data demonstrate that VIR antigens induce the natural acquisition of antibody and T cell memory responses that might be important in immunity to P. vivax during pregnancy in very diverse geographical settings.

  2. Cryo scanning electron microscopy of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hempel, Casper

    2017-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum invades erythrocytes as an essential part of their life cycle. While living inside erythrocytes, the parasite remodels the cell's intracellular organization as well as its outer surface. Late trophozoite-stage parasites and schizonts introduce numerous small protrusions...

  3. Caracterización de la transmisión de la malaria por Plasmodium vivax en la región fronteriza de Panamá con Costa Rica en el municipio de Barú, Panamá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Cáceres

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Pocos estudios describen los factores asociados con la dinámica de transmisión de lamalaria, o paludismo, por Plasmodium vivax en las regiones endémicas de Panamá. Objetivo. Caracterizar la dinámica de transmisión de la malaria producida por P. vivax en la región fronteriza de Panamá con Costa Rica. Materiales y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal. Se evaluaron la incidencia parasitaria anual, el índice de láminas positivas y el índice anual de exámenes de sangre. Se identificaron los anofelinos vectores, y se caracterizaron sus criaderos preferenciales, densidad larvaria e índice de picada/hombre/noche. Se hizo búsqueda pasiva y activa de casos sospechosos mediante examen de gota gruesa. Resultados. De 10.401 muestras de gota gruesa, 83 resultaron positivas para P. vivax. El 84 % de los casos provenía de zonas rurales, el 79 % constituía una población económicamente activa, la mediana de edad fue de 36 años y, la media, de 30 años. El 58,5 % de los casos fueron de sexo masculino. La incidencia parasitaria anual fue de 4,1 por 1.000 habitantes; el índice de láminas positivas fue de 0,8 % y el índice anual de exámenes de sangre fue de 51,9 %. El 65,0 % de los casos diagnosticados registró entre 100 y 2.000 parásitos/μl de sangre. Se identificaron los mosquitos vectores Anopheles albimanus y An. punctimacula. Conclusión. Es necesario el seguimiento de estudios entomológicos, el fortalecimiento de la vigilancia epidemiológica, la consideración de los factores de riesgo y la realización de un trabajo en coordinación con las autoridades de salud de Costa Rica, para controlar la malaria en esta región.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v32i4.773

  4. An analytical method for assessing stage-specific drug activity in Plasmodium vivax malaria: implications for ex vivo drug susceptibility testing.

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    Douglas H Kerlin

    Full Text Available The emergence of highly chloroquine (CQ resistant P. vivax in Southeast Asia has created an urgent need for an improved understanding of the mechanisms of drug resistance in these parasites, the development of robust tools for defining the spread of resistance, and the discovery of new antimalarial agents. The ex vivo Schizont Maturation Test (SMT, originally developed for the study of P. falciparum, has been modified for P. vivax. We retrospectively analysed the results from 760 parasite isolates assessed by the modified SMT to investigate the relationship between parasite growth dynamics and parasite susceptibility to antimalarial drugs. Previous observations of the stage-specific activity of CQ against P. vivax were confirmed, and shown to have profound consequences for interpretation of the assay. Using a nonlinear model we show increased duration of the assay and a higher proportion of ring stages in the initial blood sample were associated with decreased effective concentration (EC(50 values of CQ, and identify a threshold where these associations no longer hold. Thus, starting composition of parasites in the SMT and duration of the assay can have a profound effect on the calculated EC(50 for CQ. Our findings indicate that EC(50 values from assays with a duration less than 34 hours do not truly reflect the sensitivity of the parasite to CQ, nor an assay where the proportion of ring stage parasites at the start of the assay does not exceed 66%. Application of this threshold modelling approach suggests that similar issues may occur for susceptibility testing of amodiaquine and mefloquine. The statistical methodology which has been developed also provides a novel means of detecting stage-specific drug activity for new antimalarials.

  5. Seasonal variations of vivax and falciparum malaria: an observation at a tertiary care hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jamil, S.; Khan, M.N.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Malaria is a major public health problem in the malaria endemic zones of the world. Various factors influence the prevalence of malaria. This study was conducted to determine the variation in frequency of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in different seasons of the year in Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Methods: A total of 411 patients were included in the study. All these febrile patients were reported to have trophozoites of either Plasmodium vivax or Plasmodium falciparum malaria on Giemsa stained thick and thin smears. The frequency of vivax and falciparum malaria was worked out and statistically analysed for different season of the year. The study was carried out from 2nd Jan 2004 till 31st December 2008. Results: Out of total 411 diagnosed malaria cases, total 134 (32.60%) presented in the autumn season (vivax=33.58%, and falciparum=66.42%), 37 (9%) in winter season (vivax=32.4%, and falciparum=67.6%), 76 (18.49%) in spring season (vivax=93.4% and falciparum 6.6%) and 164 (39.90%) in summer season (vivax=89.6, and falciparum=10.4%). The malaria showed a highly significant pattern in different seasons of the year (p=0.00) in a way that Plasmodium falciparum malaria reached its highest frequency in autumn and winter seasons while Plasmodium vivax malaria reached its peak frequency in spring and summer seasons. Conclusion: There was highly significant seasonal variation of vivax and falciparum malaria. There is arrival of Plasmodium falciparum in autumn which peaks in winter followed by arrival of Plasmodium vivax in spring till the end of summer. (author)

  6. Aza-acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates Containing a Second Phosphonate Group As Inhibitors of the Human, Plasmodium falciparum and vivax 6-Oxopurine Phosphoribosyltransferases and Their Prodrugs As Antimalarial Agents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Keough, D. T.; Hocková, Dana; Janeba, Zlatko; Wang, T. H.; Naesens, L.; Edstein, M. D.; Chavchich, M.; Guddat, L. W.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 2 (2015), s. 827-846 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : enzyme inhibitors * ANPs * Plasmodium * malaria Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.589, year: 2015

  7. Sequence similarity between the erythrocyte binding domain of the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein and the V3 loop of HIV-1 strain MN reveals a functional heparin binding motif involved in binding to the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolton Michael J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The HIV surface glycoprotein gp120 (SU, gp120 and the Plasmodium vivax Duffy binding protein (PvDBP bind to chemokine receptors during infection and have a site of amino acid sequence similarity in their binding domains that often includes a heparin binding motif (HBM. Infection by either pathogen has been found to be inhibited by polyanions. Results Specific polyanions that inhibit HIV infection and bind to the V3 loop of X4 strains also inhibited DBP-mediated infection of erythrocytes and DBP binding to the Duffy Antigen Receptor for Chemokines (DARC. A peptide including the HBM of PvDBP had similar affinity for heparin as RANTES and V3 loop peptides, and could be specifically inhibited from heparin binding by the same polyanions that inhibit DBP binding to DARC. However, some V3 peptides can competitively inhibit RANTES binding to heparin, but not the PvDBP HBM peptide. Three other members of the DBP family have an HBM sequence that is necessary for erythrocyte binding, however only the protein which binds to DARC, the P. knowlesi alpha protein, is inhibited by heparin from binding to erythrocytes. Heparitinase digestion does not affect the binding of DBP to erythrocytes. Conclusion The HBMs of DBPs that bind to DARC have similar heparin binding affinities as some V3 loop peptides and chemokines, are responsible for specific sulfated polysaccharide inhibition of parasite binding and invasion of red blood cells, and are more likely to bind to negative charges on the receptor than cell surface glycosaminoglycans.

  8. Cluster of Imported Vivax Malaria in Travelers Returning From Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzel, Thomas; Labarca, Jaime; Cortes, Claudia P; Rosas, Reinaldo; Balcells, M Elvira; Perret, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    We report a cluster of imported vivax malaria in three of five Chilean travelers returning from Peru in March 2015. The cluster highlights the high risk of malaria in the Loreto region in northern Peru, which includes popular destinations for international nature and adventure tourism. According to local surveillance data, Plasmodium vivax is predominating, but Plasmodium falciparum is also present, and the incidence of both species has increased during recent years. Travelers visiting this region should be counseled about the prevention of malaria and the options for chemoprophylaxis. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  9. Multiple Origins of Mutations in the mdr1 Gene—A Putative Marker of Chloroquine Resistance in P. vivax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Mette L; Ranjitkar, Samir; Rajakaruna, Rupika S

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chloroquine combined with primaquine has been the recommended antimalarial treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria infections for six decades but the efficacy of this treatment regimen is threatened by chloroquine resistance (CQR). Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the multidrug...

  10. Generation and analysis of the immunogenicity of recombinant proteins based on different forms of the circumsporozoite antigen of Plasmodium vivax for the development of a universal vaccine against malaria.

    OpenAIRE

    Lais Helena Teixeira

    2014-01-01

    O P. vivax é a segunda espécie mais prevalente causadora de malária no mundo. Medidas de controle ineficientes exigem o desenvolvimento de novas estratégias de prevenção, como vacinas, novas drogas e novos inseticidas. O objetivo geral do trabalho foi gerar uma formulação vacinal universal com proteínas e adenovírus recombinantes capazes de induzir anticorpos contra as diferentes formas alélicas da proteína circumsporozoíta (CSP) do P. vivax. As proteínas foram produzidas em E. coli e purific...

  11. Avaliação dos níveis das transaminases dos pacientes com infecção pelo Plasmodium vivax atendidos em um centro de referência para tratamento da malária no Estado de Mato Grosso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisane de Freitas Pereira

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Analisar os marcadores hepáticos (transaminases em pacientes com malária causada pelo Plasmodium vivax. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo transversal retrospectivo, incluindo pacientes que apresentaram monoinfecção pelo P. vivax. O teste de Mann-Whitney U ou o teste t de Student foram utilizados para comparar a atividade média das transaminases de acordo com a classificação clínica e epidemiológica do paciente infectado. O teste de Kruskal-Wallis foi utilizado para comparar a média da atividade das transaminases de acordo com a classificação da infecção. Valores de p<0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados: Indivíduos menores de 7 anos apresentaram maior atividade da transaminase glutâmico oxalacética (TGO e da transaminase glutâmico pirúvica (TGP — respectivamente, 68,7 U/L e 79,8 U/L — em relação a pacientes com idade de 8 a 59 anos (TGO 29,8 U/L e TGP 39,2 U/L e acima de 60 anos (TGO 32,5 U/L e TGP 34 U/L. A média da dosagem sérica de TGO de todos os pacientes incluídos no estudo foi de 31,99 U/L e de TGP foi de 41,1 U/L. A atividade de TGP nos pacientes primoinfectados foi maior que nos reinfectados ou com recaída, sendo 65,6 U/L contra 36,2 U/L e 32,7 U/L, respectivamente. Conclusão: Crianças apresentam maior atividade de transaminases que os indivíduos maiores de sete anos de idade. Pacientes com infecção prévia pelo P. vivax apresentam menores valores séricos da atividade das transaminases do que os primoinfectados. Indivíduos com episódios de recaída apresentam menores valores das enzimas avaliadas do que aqueles com reinfecção ou primoinfecção.

  12. Severe malaria vivax with sepsis bacterial: a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarigan, P.; Ginting, F.

    2018-03-01

    Malaria cases are often misdiagnosis by clinicians in tropical areas like Indonesia. Some cases show overlapping signs and symptoms of another infection that are common in the tropical areas such as typhoid, dengue, and leptospirosis. It can be misdiagnosed in practice and led to a wrong management that can end fatally. Severe malaria is usually caused by Plasmodium falciparum. P. vivax can also cause severe malaria but the cases reported are uncommon. Since infections with severe P. vivax that generally results in serious disease is quite uncommon in Indonesia, their identification and management are important. We report a case of severe malaria with sepsis, renal injury and hepatic impairment associated with malaria in a 70-year-old male. Clinical manifestations included anemia, sepsis, and elevated serum creatinine, urea, total bilirubin, and procalcitonin. The rapid diagnostic test for malaria and microscopic examination of blood smears were positive for P. vivax. The patient was treated as severe malaria with intravenous artesunate for six days, followed by oral treatment of primaquine for 14 days. Intravenous fluid therapy, antipyretic, anti-malaria and antibiotic treatment were administered. The patient was stable and then discharged from the hospital. The prognosis depends much on early diagnosis and appropriate supportive treatment.

  13. Species-specific escape of Plasmodium sporozoites from oocysts of avian, rodent, and human malarial parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfano, Alessandra S; Nacif-Pimenta, Rafael; Duarte, Ana P M; Villegas, Luis M; Rodrigues, Nilton B; Pinto, Luciana C; Campos, Keillen M M; Pinilla, Yudi T; Chaves, Bárbara; Barbosa Guerra, Maria G V; Monteiro, Wuelton M; Smith, Ryan C; Molina-Cruz, Alvaro; Lacerda, Marcus V G; Secundino, Nágila F C; Jacobs-Lorena, Marcelo; Barillas-Mury, Carolina; Pimenta, Paulo F P

    2016-08-02

    Malaria is transmitted when an infected mosquito delivers Plasmodium sporozoites into a vertebrate host. There are many species of Plasmodium and, in general, the infection is host-specific. For example, Plasmodium gallinaceum is an avian parasite, while Plasmodium berghei infects mice. These two parasites have been extensively used as experimental models of malaria transmission. Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax are the most important agents of human malaria, a life-threatening disease of global importance. To complete their life cycle, Plasmodium parasites must traverse the mosquito midgut and form an oocyst that will divide continuously. Mature oocysts release thousands of sporozoites into the mosquito haemolymph that must reach the salivary gland to infect a new vertebrate host. The current understanding of the biology of oocyst formation and sporozoite release is mostly based on experimental infections with P. berghei, and the conclusions are generalized to other Plasmodium species that infect humans without further morphological analyses. Here, it is described the microanatomy of sporozoite escape from oocysts of four Plasmodium species: the two laboratory models, P. gallinaceum and P. berghei, and the two main species that cause malaria in humans, P. vivax and P. falciparum. It was found that sporozoites have species-specific mechanisms of escape from the oocyst. The two model species of Plasmodium had a common mechanism, in which the oocyst wall breaks down before sporozoites emerge. In contrast, P. vivax and P. falciparum sporozoites show a dynamic escape mechanism from the oocyst via polarized propulsion. This study demonstrated that Plasmodium species do not share a common mechanism of sporozoite escape, as previously thought, but show complex and species-specific mechanisms. In addition, the knowledge of this phenomenon in human Plasmodium can facilitate transmission-blocking studies and not those ones only based on the murine and avian models.

  14. frequency and seasonal variation of plasmodium species in southern districts of Khyber pakhtunkhwa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.U.

    2014-01-01

    To determine the frequency of malaria and seasonal variation of Plasmodium species in southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of study: Department of Pathology Combined Military Hospital (CMH), Bannu, from 1st January 2010 to 31st December 2011. Patients and Methods: Five thousand eight hundred and seventy eight (5878) patients with symptoms of fever, nausea, malaise and body aches irrespective of age and gender were included in the study. Samples were collected, thin and thick smears of the samples were prepared and stained with Giemsa's stain. Thick film was used for screening for malaria parasites and species identification was done on thin smears. Results: Out of 5878 patients, 1962 (28.8%) were found to be positive for malaria. Of them 1524 (90%) had plasmodium vivax infection, while 119 (7.0%) patients were infected with plasmodium falciparum, 49 (3.0%) of the patients were infected with both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. Plasmodium vivax was most common in the months of August 203 (12.3%) patients, September 235 (14.3%) patients and October 317 (20%), whereas plasmodium falciparum infection was most common in the months of October 34 (28.6%) patients, November 19 (16%) patients and December 30 (25.2%) patients. Conclusion: Malaria is an endemic infectious disease in Pakistan, in the Southern districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhaw and tribal areas of North and South Waziristan. It is prevalent throughout the year and most noticeably from May to November. (author)

  15. Micro-epidemiology and spatial heterogeneity of P. vivax parasitaemia in riverine communities of the Peruvian Amazon: A multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Escobar, Gabriel; Gamboa, Dionicia; Castro, Marcia C; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Rodriguez, Hugo; Contreras-Mancilla, Juan; Alava, Freddy; Speybroeck, Niko; Lescano, Andres G; Vinetz, Joseph M; Rosas-Aguirre, Angel; Llanos-Cuentas, Alejandro

    2017-08-14

    Malaria has steadily increased in the Peruvian Amazon over the last five years. This study aimed to determine the parasite prevalence and micro-geographical heterogeneity of Plasmodium vivax parasitaemia in communities of the Peruvian Amazon. Four cross-sectional active case detection surveys were conducted between May and July 2015 in four riverine communities in Mazan district. Analysis of 2785 samples of 820 individuals nested within 154 households for Plasmodium parasitaemia was carried out using light microscopy and qPCR. The spatio-temporal distribution of Plasmodium parasitaemia, dominated by P. vivax, was shown to cluster at both household and community levels. Of enrolled individuals, 47% had at least one P. vivax parasitaemia and 10% P. falciparum, by qPCR, both of which were predominantly sub-microscopic and asymptomatic. Spatial analysis detected significant clustering in three communities. Our findings showed that communities at small-to-moderate spatial scales differed in P. vivax parasite prevalence, and multilevel Poisson regression models showed that such differences were influenced by factors such as age, education, and location of households within high-risk clusters, as well as factors linked to a local micro-geographic context, such as travel and occupation. Complex transmission patterns were found to be related to human mobility among communities in the same micro-basin.

  16. Plasmodium falciparum in the southeastern Atlantic forest: a challenge to the bromeliad-malaria paradigm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporta, Gabriel Zorello; Burattini, Marcelo Nascimento; Levy, Debora; Fukuya, Linah Akemi; de Oliveira, Tatiane Marques Porangaba; Maselli, Luciana Morganti Ferreira; Conn, Jan Evelyn; Massad, Eduardo; Bydlowski, Sergio Paulo; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb

    2015-04-25

    Recently an unexpectedly high prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum was found in asymptomatic blood donors living in the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest. The bromeliad-malaria paradigm assumes that transmission of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae involves species of the subgenus Kerteszia of Anopheles and only a few cases of P. vivax malaria are reported annually in this region. The expectations of this paradigm are a low prevalence of P. vivax and a null prevalence of P. falciparum. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify if P. falciparum is actively circulating in the southeastern Brazilian Atlantic forest remains. In this study, anophelines were collected with Shannon and CDC-light traps in seven distinct Atlantic forest landscapes over a 4-month period. Field-collected Anopheles mosquitoes were tested by real-time PCR assay in pools of ten, and then each mosquito from every positive pool, separately for P. falciparum and P. vivax. Genomic DNA of P. falciparum or P. vivax from positive anophelines was then amplified by traditional PCR for sequencing of the 18S ribosomal DNA to confirm Plasmodium species. Binomial probabilities were calculated to identify non-random results of the P. falciparum-infected anopheline findings. The overall proportion of anophelines naturally infected with P. falciparum was 4.4% (21/480) and only 0.8% (4/480) with P. vivax. All of the infected mosquitoes were found in intermixed natural and human-modified environments and most were Anopheles cruzii (22/25 = 88%, 18 P. falciparum plus 4 P. vivax). Plasmodium falciparum was confirmed by sequencing in 76% (16/21) of positive mosquitoes, whereas P. vivax was confirmed in only 25% (1/4). Binomial probabilities suggest that P. falciparum actively circulates throughout the region and that there may be a threshold of the forested over human-modified environment ratio upon which the proportion of P. falciparum-infected anophelines increases significantly. These results

  17. Antirelapse Efficacy of Various Primaquine Regimens for Plasmodium vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Rajgor

    2014-01-01

    respectively P=0.004. The relapse rate was 6.89%, 1.55%, 4%, and 3.85% as per the month of recurrence; 8.2%, 2%, 4.58%, and 3.68% P=0.007 as per PCR-RFLP; and 2.73%, 1.47%, 1.55%, and 1.53% as per PCR sequencing for groups A, B, C, and D, respectively. The concordance between methods was low, 45%. Conclusion. The higher recurrence rate in no PQ as compared to PQ groups documents PQ antirelapse activity. Regimens tested were safe. However, probable resistance to PQ warrants continuous monitoring and low concordance and limitations in the methods warrant caution in interpreting.

  18. Monoclonal antibodies AC-43 and AC-29 disrupt Plasmodium vivax ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    malaria vaccines that block the transmission of parasites by mosquito vectors ... A repertoire of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) was generated against the midgut proteins of Anopheles culicifacies ... from the midgut protein extract, as indicated by western blot analysis. Similarly .... 2.2 Antigen preparation and immunization.

  19. Towards an in vitro model of Plasmodium hypnozoites suitable for drug discovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dembele, L.; Gego, A.; Zeeman, A.M.; Franetich, J.F.; Silvie, O.; Rametti, A.; Grand, R. Le; Dereuddre-Bosquet, N.; Sauerwein, R.W.; Gemert, G.J. van; Vaillant, J.C.; Thomas, A.W.; Snounou, G.; Kocken, C.H.; Mazier, D.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amongst the Plasmodium species in humans, only P. vivax and P. ovale produce latent hepatic stages called hypnozoites, which are responsible for malaria episodes long after a mosquito bite. Relapses contribute to increased morbidity, and complicate malaria elimination programs. A single

  20. Case report: spontaneous rupture of spleen in patient with Plasmodium ovale malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemmerer, Raphael; Unger, Manuel; Voßen, Matthias; Forstner, Christina; Jalili, Ahmad; Starzengruber, Peter; Werzowa, Johannes; Ramharter, Michael; Winkler, Stefan; Thalhammer, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Malaria may lead to spontaneous splenic rupture as a rare but potentially lethal complication. Most frequently, this has been reported in patients infected with Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, while other parasitic agents are less likely to be the cause.We report a 29-year-old British Caucasian, who after returning from a business trip in Democratic Republic Congo was diagnosed with tertian malaria caused by Plasmodium ovale.During his in-patient stay, the patient suffered a splenic rupture requiring immediate surgical intervention and splenectomy. Following this surgical intervention, there was an uneventful recovery, and the patient was discharged in a good general condition.

  1. Antimalarial Activity of KAF156 in Falciparum and Vivax Malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Nicholas J; Duong, Tran T; Uthaisin, Chirapong; Nosten, François; Phyo, Aung P; Hanboonkunupakarn, Borimas; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Jittamala, Podjanee; Chuthasmit, Kittiphum; Cheung, Ming S; Feng, Yiyan; Li, Ruobing; Magnusson, Baldur; Sultan, Marc; Wieser, Daniela; Xun, Xiaolei; Zhao, Rong; Diagana, Thierry T; Pertel, Peter; Leong, F Joel

    2016-09-22

    KAF156 belongs to a new class of antimalarial agents (imidazolopiperazines), with activity against asexual and sexual blood stages and the preerythrocytic liver stages of malarial parasites. We conducted a phase 2, open-label, two-part study at five centers in Thailand and Vietnam to assess the antimalarial efficacy, safety, and pharmacokinetic profile of KAF156 in adults with acute Plasmodium vivax or P. falciparum malaria. Assessment of parasite clearance rates in cohorts of patients with vivax or falciparum malaria who were treated with multiple doses (400 mg once daily for 3 days) was followed by assessment of the cure rate at 28 days in a separate cohort of patients with falciparum malaria who received a single dose (800 mg). Median parasite clearance times were 45 hours (interquartile range, 42 to 48) in 10 patients with falciparum malaria and 24 hours (interquartile range, 20 to 30) in 10 patients with vivax malaria after treatment with the multiple-dose regimen and 49 hours (interquartile range, 42 to 54) in 21 patients with falciparum malaria after treatment with the single dose. Among the 21 patients who received the single dose and were followed for 28 days, 1 had reinfection and 7 had recrudescent infections (cure rate, 67%; 95% credible interval, 46 to 84). The mean (±SD) KAF156 terminal elimination half-life was 44.1±8.9 hours. There were no serious adverse events in this small study. The most common adverse events included sinus bradycardia, thrombocytopenia, hypokalemia, anemia, and hyperbilirubinemia. Vomiting of grade 2 or higher occurred in 2 patients, 1 of whom discontinued treatment because of repeated vomiting after receiving the single 800-mg dose. More adverse events were reported in the single-dose cohort, which had longer follow-up, than in the multiple-dose cohorts. KAF156 showed antimalarial activity without evident safety concerns in a small number of adults with uncomplicated P. vivax or P. falciparum malaria. (Funded by Novartis and

  2. Plasmodium immunomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolan, Denise L

    2011-01-01

    The Plasmodium parasite, the causative agent of malaria, is an excellent model for immunomic-based approaches to vaccine development. The Plasmodium parasite has a complex life cycle with multiple stages and stage-specific expression of ∼5300 putative proteins. No malaria vaccine has yet been licensed. Many believe that an effective vaccine will need to target several antigens and multiple stages, and will require the generation of both antibody and cellular immune responses. Vaccine efforts to date have been stage-specific and based on only a very limited number of proteins representing Plasmodium parasite life cycle with immune responses implicated in parasite elimination and control. Immunomic approaches which enable the selection of the best possible targets by prioritising antigens according to clinically relevant criteria may overcome the problem of poorly immunogenic, poorly protective vaccines that has plagued malaria vaccine developers for the past 25 years. Herein, current progress and perspectives regarding Plasmodium immunomics are reviewed. Copyright © 2010 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. soma vivax in Tselemti woreda , Tigray, Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    field. Material and Methods. Study Area. The study was carried out at Mekelle Regional Laboratory from November 2002 to April 2003. T. vivax isolate was collected from ... the order of 5-10 trypanosomes per high power microscope field (40X). ..... their studies of the infectivity for mice of Nigerian isolates of T. vivax, that.

  4. Molecular characterization of misidentified Plasmodium ovale imported cases in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavatte, Jean-Marc; Tan, Sarah Bee Hui; Snounou, Georges; Lin, Raymond Tzer Pin Valentine

    2015-11-14

    Plasmodium ovale, considered the rarest of the malaria parasites of humans, consists of two morphologically identical but genetically distinct sympatric species, Plasmodium ovale curtisi and Plasmodium ovale wallikeri. These parasites resemble morphologically to Plasmodium vivax with which they also share a tertian periodicity and the ability to cause relapses, making them easily misidentified as P. vivax. Plasmodium ovale infections are rarely reported, but given the likelihood of misidentification, their prevalence might be underestimated. Morphological and molecular analysis of confirmed malaria cases admitted in Singapore in 2012-2014 detected nine imported P. ovale cases that had been misidentified as P. vivax. Since P. ovale had not been previously officially reported in Singapore, a retrospective analysis of available, frozen, archival blood samples was performed and returned two additional misidentified P. ovale cases in 2003 and 2006. These eleven P. ovale samples were characterized with respect to seven molecular markers (ssrRNA, Potra, Porbp2, Pog3p, dhfr-ts, cytb, cox1) used in recent studies to distinguish between the two sympatric species, and to a further three genes (tufa, clpC and asl). The morphological features of P. ovale and the differential diagnosis with P. vivax were reviewed and illustrated by microphotographs. The genetic dimorphism between P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri was assessed by ten molecular markers distributed across the three genomes of the parasite (Genbank KP050361-KP050470). The data obtained for seven of these markers were compared with those published and confirmed that both P. ovale species were present. This dimorphism was also confirmed for the first time on: (1) two genes from the apicoplast genome (tufA and clpC genes); and, (2) the asl gene that was used for phylogenetic analyses of other Plasmodium species, and that was found to harbour the highest number of dimorphic loci between the two P. ovale species

  5. Chloroquine-Primaquine versus Chloroquine Alone to Treat Vivax Malaria in Afghanistan: An Open Randomized Superiority Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awab, Ghulam Rahim; Imwong, Mallika; Bancone, Germana; Jeeyapant, Atthanee; Day, Nicholas P J; White, Nicholas J; Woodrow, Charles J

    2017-12-01

    Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend primaquine (PQ) for radical treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria, but this is rarely implemented because of concerns over potential hemolysis in patients who have G6PD deficiency. Between August 2009 and February 2014, we conducted an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine (CQ) alone versus chloroquine plus primaquine (0.25 mg base/kg/day for 14 days) (CQ+PQ) in patients aged 6 months and older with microscopy confirmed P. vivax infection. In the CQ+PQ group, G6PD deficiency was excluded by fluorescent spot testing. The primary outcome was P. vivax recurrence assessed by survival analysis over one year follow-up. Of 593 patients enrolled, 570 attended at or after 14 days of follow-up. Plasmodium vivax recurrences occurred in 37 (13.1%) of 282 patients in the CQ+PQ arm versus 86 (29.9%) of 288 in the CQ arm (Cox proportional hazard ratio [HR] 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.25-0.54) (intention-to-treat analysis). Protection against recurrence was greater in the first 6 months of follow-up (HR 0.082; 95% CI 0.029-0.23) than later (HR 0.65, 95% CI 0.41-1.03). Five of seven patients requiring hospital admission were considered possible cases of PQ-related hemolysis, and PQ was stopped in a further six; however, in none of these cases did hemoglobin fall by ≥ 2 g/dL or to below 7 g/dL, and genotyping did not detect any cases of Mediterranean variant G6PD deficiency. PQ 0.25 mg/kg/day for 14 days prevents relapse of P. vivax in Afghanistan. Patient visits during the first week may improve adherence. Implementation will require deployment of point-of-care phenotypic tests for G6PD deficiency.

  6. Genetic Variability in Platelet Integrin α2β1 Density: Possible Contributor to Plasmodium vivax–induced Severe Thrombocytopenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Fernanda M. F.; Santos, Marina L. S.; Kano, Flora S.; Fontes, Cor J. F.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Brito, Cristiana F. A.; Carvalho, Luzia H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the pathogenesis of Plasmodium vivax malaria is challenging. We hypothesized that susceptibility to P. vivax-induced thrombocytopenia could be associated with polymorphisms on relevant platelet membrane integrins: integrin α2 (C807T), and integrin β3 (T1565C). Although β3 polymorphism was not related with P. vivax malaria, α2 807T carriers, which show high levels of integrin α2β1, had a higher probability for severe thrombocytopenia than wild-type carriers. This evidence of the association of integrin polymorphism and P. vivax morbidity was further demonstrated by a moderate but significant correlation between clinical disease and surface levels of the integrin α2β1. PMID:23249684

  7. Plasmodium species differentiation by non-expert on-line volunteers for remote malaria field diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Ruiz, Alejandra; Postigo, María; Gil-Casanova, Sara; Cuadrado, Daniel; Bautista, José M; Rubio, José Miguel; Luengo-Oroz, Miguel; Linares, María

    2018-01-30

    Routine field diagnosis of malaria is a considerable challenge in rural and low resources endemic areas mainly due to lack of personnel, training and sample processing capacity. In addition, differential diagnosis of Plasmodium species has a high level of misdiagnosis. Real time remote microscopical diagnosis through on-line crowdsourcing platforms could be converted into an agile network to support diagnosis-based treatment and malaria control in low resources areas. This study explores whether accurate Plasmodium species identification-a critical step during the diagnosis protocol in order to choose the appropriate medication-is possible through the information provided by non-trained on-line volunteers. 88 volunteers have performed a series of questionnaires over 110 images to differentiate species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium knowlesi) and parasite staging from thin blood smear images digitalized with a smartphone camera adapted to the ocular of a conventional light microscope. Visual cues evaluated in the surveys include texture and colour, parasite shape and red blood size. On-line volunteers are able to discriminate Plasmodium species (P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. knowlesi) and stages in thin-blood smears according to visual cues observed on digitalized images of parasitized red blood cells. Friendly textual descriptions of the visual cues and specialized malaria terminology is key for volunteers learning and efficiency. On-line volunteers with short-training are able to differentiate malaria parasite species and parasite stages from digitalized thin smears based on simple visual cues (shape, size, texture and colour). While the accuracy of a single on-line expert is far from perfect, a single parasite classification obtained by combining the opinions of multiple on-line volunteers over the same smear, could improve accuracy and reliability of Plasmodium species

  8. Small Molecule Screen for Candidate Antimalarials Targeting Plasmodium Kinesin-5*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqiong; Richard, Jessica; Kim, Sunyoung; Wojcik, Edward J.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum and vivax are responsible for the majority of malaria infections worldwide, resulting in over a million deaths annually. Malaria parasites now show measured resistance to all currently utilized drugs. Novel antimalarial drugs are urgently needed. The Plasmodium Kinesin-5 mechanoenzyme is a suitable “next generation” target. Discovered via small molecule screen experiments, the human Kinesin-5 has multiple allosteric sites that are “druggable.” One site in particular, unique in its sequence divergence across all homologs in the superfamily and even within the same family, exhibits exquisite drug specificity. We propose that Plasmodium Kinesin-5 shares this allosteric site and likewise can be targeted to uncover inhibitors with high specificity. To test this idea, we performed a screen for inhibitors selective for Plasmodium Kinesin-5 ATPase activity in parallel with human Kinesin-5. Our screen of nearly 2000 compounds successfully identified compounds that selectively inhibit both P. vivax and falciparum Kinesin-5 motor domains but, as anticipated, do not impact human Kinesin-5 activity. Of note is a candidate drug that did not biochemically compete with the ATP substrate for the conserved active site or disrupt the microtubule-binding site. Together, our experiments identified MMV666693 as a selective allosteric inhibitor of Plasmodium Kinesin-5; this is the first identified protein target for the Medicines of Malaria Venture validated collection of parasite proliferation inhibitors. This work demonstrates that chemical screens against human kinesins are adaptable to homologs in disease organisms and, as such, extendable to strategies to combat infectious disease. PMID:24737313

  9. Elimination of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashin, Anatoly V; Sharipov, Azizullo S; Kadamov, Dilshod S; Karimov, Saifuddin S; Gasimov, Elkhan; Baranova, Alla M; Morozova, Lola F; Stepanova, Ekaterina V; Turbabina, Natalia A; Maksimova, Maria S; Morozov, Evgeny N

    2017-05-30

    Malaria was eliminated in Tajikistan by the beginning of the 1960s. However, sporadic introduced cases of malaria occurred subsequently probably as a result of transmission from infected mosquito Anopheles flying over river the Punj from the border areas of Afghanistan. During the 1970s and 1980s local outbreaks of malaria were reported in the southern districts bordering Afghanistan. The malaria situation dramatically changed during the 1990s following armed conflict and civil unrest in the newly independent Tajikistan, which paralyzed health services including the malaria control activities and a large-scale malaria epidemic occurred with more than 400,000 malaria cases. The malaria epidemic was contained by 1999 as a result of considerable financial input from the Government and the international community. Although Plasmodium falciparum constituted only about 5% of total malaria cases, reduction of its incidence was slower than that of Plasmodium vivax. To prevent increase in P. falciparum malaria both in terms of incidence and territory, a P. falciparum elimination programme in the Republic was launched in 200, jointly supported by the Government and the Global Fund for control of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria. The main activities included the use of pyrethroids for the IRS with determined periodicity, deployment of mosquito nets, impregnated with insecticides, use of larvivorous fishes as a biological larvicide, implementation of small-scale environmental management, and use of personal protection methods by population under malaria risk. The malaria surveillance system was strengthened by the use of ACD, PCD, RCD and selective use of mass blood surveys. All detected cases were timely epidemiologically investigated and treated based on the results of laboratory diagnosis. As a result, by 2009, P. falciparum malaria was eliminated from all of Tajikistan, one year ahead of the originally targeted date. Elimination of P. falciparum also contributed towards

  10. Plasmodium ovale infection in Malaysia: first imported case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Thiruventhiran

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium ovale infection is rarely reported in Malaysia. This is the first imported case of P. ovale infection in Malaysia which was initially misdiagnosed as Plasmodium vivax. Methods Peripheral blood sample was first examined by Giemsa-stained microscopy examination and further confirmed using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing. Results and Discussion Initial results from peripheral blood smear examination diagnosed P. vivax infection. However further analysis using a patented in-house multiplex PCR followed by sequencing confirmed the presence of P. ovale. Given that Anopheles maculatus and Anopheles dirus, vectors of P. ovale are found in Malaysia, this finding has significant implication on Malaysia's public health sector. Conclusions The current finding should serve as an alert to epidemiologists, clinicians and laboratory technicians in the possibility of finding P. ovale in Malaysia. P. ovale should be considered in the differential diagnosis of imported malaria cases in Malaysia due to the exponential increase in the number of visitors from P. ovale endemic regions and the long latent period of P. ovale. It is also timely that conventional diagnosis of malaria via microscopy should be coupled with more advanced molecular tools for effective diagnosis.

  11. Anopheles moucheti and Anopheles vinckei are candidate vectors of ape Plasmodium parasites, including Plasmodium praefalciparum in Gabon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Paupy

    Full Text Available During the last four years, knowledge about the diversity of Plasmodium species in African great apes has considerably increased. Several new species were described in chimpanzees and gorillas, and some species that were previously considered as strictly of human interest were found to be infecting African apes. The description in gorillas of P. praefalciparum, the closest relative of P. falciparum which is the main malignant agent of human malaria, definitively changed the way we understand the evolution and origin of P. falciparum. This parasite is now considered to have appeared recently, following a cross-species transfer from gorillas to humans. However, the Plasmodium vector mosquito species that have served as bridge between these two host species remain unknown. In order to identify the vectors that ensure ape Plasmodium transmission and evaluate the risk of transfer of these parasites to humans, we carried out a field study in Gabon to capture Anopheles in areas where wild and semi-wild ape populations live. We collected 1070 Anopheles females belonging to 15 species, among which An. carnevalei, An. moucheti and An. marshallii were the most common species. Using mtDNA-based PCR tools, we discovered that An. moucheti, a major human malaria vector in Central Africa, could also ensure the natural transmission of P. praefalciparum among great apes. We also showed that, together with An. vinckei, An. moucheti was infected with P. vivax-like parasites. An. moucheti constitutes, therefore, a major candidate for the transfer of Plasmodium parasites from apes to humans.

  12. The genome of the simian and human malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pain, A; Böhme, U; Berry, A E

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium knowlesi is an intracellular malaria parasite whose natural vertebrate host is Macaca fascicularis (the 'kra' monkey); however, it is now increasingly recognized as a significant cause of human malaria, particularly in southeast Asia. Plasmodium knowlesi was the first malaria parasite...... species in which antigenic variation was demonstrated, and it has a close phylogenetic relationship to Plasmodium vivax, the second most important species of human malaria parasite (reviewed in ref. 4). Despite their relatedness, there are important phenotypic differences between them, such as host blood...... cell preference, absence of a dormant liver stage or 'hypnozoite' in P. knowlesi, and length of the asexual cycle (reviewed in ref. 4). Here we present an analysis of the P. knowlesi (H strain, Pk1(A+) clone) nuclear genome sequence. This is the first monkey malaria parasite genome to be described...

  13. High Plasmodium malariae Prevalence in an Endemic Area of the Colombian Amazon Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargo-Ayala, Paola Andrea; Cubides, Juan Ricardo; Niño, Carlos Hernando; Camargo, Milena; Rodríguez-Celis, Carlos Arturo; Quiñones, Teódulo; Sánchez-Suárez, Lizeth; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium are the aetiological agent for this disease. The parasites are mostly diagnosed by conventional microscopy-based techniques; however, their limitations have led to under-registering the reported prevalence of Plasmodium species. This study has thus been aimed at evaluating the infection and coinfection prevalence of 3 species of Plasmodium spp., in an area of the Colombian Amazon region. Blood samples were taken from 671 symptomatic patients by skin puncture; a nested PCR amplifying the 18S ssRNA region was used on all samples to determine the presence of P. vivax, P. malariae and P. falciparum. Statistical analysis determined infection and coinfection frequency; the association between infection and different factors was established. The results showed that P. vivax was the species having the greatest frequency in the study population (61.4%), followed by P. malariae (43.8%) and P. falciparum (11.8%). The study revealed that 35.8% of the population had coinfection, the P. vivax/P. malariae combination occurring most frequently (28.3%); factors such as age, geographical origin and clinical manifestations were found to be associated with triple-infection. The prevalence reported in this study differed from previous studies in Colombia; the results suggest that diagnosis using conventional techniques could be giving rise to underestimating some Plasmodium spp. species having high circulation rates in Colombia (particularly in the Colombian Amazon region). The present study's results revealed a high prevalence of P. malariae and mixed infections in the population being studied. The results provide relevant information which should facilitate updating the epidemiological panorama and species' distribution so as to include control, prevention and follow-up measures.

  14. Local population structure of Plasmodium: impact on malaria control and elimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenet Stella M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regardless of the growing interest in detecting population structures in malarial parasites, there have been limited discussions on how to use this concept in control programmes. In such context, the effects of the parasite population structures will depend on interventions’ spatial or temporal scales. This investigation explores the problem of identifying genetic markers, in this case microsatellites, to unveil Plasmodium genetic structures that could affect decisions in the context of elimination. The study was performed in a low-transmission area, which offers a good proxy to better understand problems associated with surveillance at the final stages of malaria elimination. Methods Plasmodium vivax samples collected in Tumeremo, Venezuela, between March 2003 and November 2004 were analysed. Since Plasmodium falciparum also circulates in many low endemic areas, P. falciparum samples from the same locality and time period were included for comparison. Plasmodium vivax samples were assayed for an original set of 25 microsatellites and P. falciparum samples were assayed for 12 microsatellites. Results Not all microsatellite loci assayed offered reliable local data. A complex temporal-cluster dynamics is found in both P. vivax and P. falciparum. Such dynamics affect the numbers and the type of microsatellites required for identifying individual parasites or parasite clusters when performing cross-sectional studies. The minimum number of microsatellites required to differentiate circulating P. vivax clusters differs from the minimum number of hyper-variable microsatellites required to distinguish individuals within these clusters. Regardless the extended number of microsatellites used in P. vivax, it was not possible to separate all individual infections. Conclusions Molecular surveillance has great potential; however, it requires preliminary local studies in order to properly interpret the emerging patterns in the context of

  15. Targeting Plasmodium PI(4)K to eliminate malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Case W.; Lee, Marcus C. S.; Lim, Chek Shik; Lim, Siau Hoi; Roland, Jason; Nagle, Advait; Simon, Oliver; Yeung, Bryan K. S.; Chatterjee, Arnab K.; McCormack, Susan L.; Manary, Micah J.; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Dechering, Koen J.; Kumar, T. R. Santha; Henrich, Philipp P.; Gagaring, Kerstin; Ibanez, Maureen; Kato, Nobutaka; Kuhen, Kelli L.; Fischli, Christoph; Rottmann, Matthias; Plouffe, David M.; Bursulaya, Badry; Meister, Stephan; Rameh, Lucia; Trappe, Joerg; Haasen, Dorothea; Timmerman, Martijn; Sauerwein, Robert W.; Suwanarusk, Rossarin; Russell, Bruce; Renia, Laurent; Nosten, Francois; Tully, David C.; Kocken, Clemens H. M.; Glynne, Richard J.; Bodenreider, Christophe; Fidock, David A.; Diagana, Thierry T.; Winzeler, Elizabeth A.

    2013-12-01

    Achieving the goal of malaria elimination will depend on targeting Plasmodium pathways essential across all life stages. Here we identify a lipid kinase, phosphatidylinositol-4-OH kinase (PI(4)K), as the target of imidazopyrazines, a new antimalarial compound class that inhibits the intracellular development of multiple Plasmodium species at each stage of infection in the vertebrate host. Imidazopyrazines demonstrate potent preventive, therapeutic, and transmission-blocking activity in rodent malaria models, are active against blood-stage field isolates of the major human pathogens P. falciparum and P. vivax, and inhibit liver-stage hypnozoites in the simian parasite P. cynomolgi. We show that imidazopyrazines exert their effect through inhibitory interaction with the ATP-binding pocket of PI(4)K, altering the intracellular distribution of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate. Collectively, our data define PI(4)K as a key Plasmodium vulnerability, opening up new avenues of target-based discovery to identify drugs with an ideal activity profile for the prevention, treatment and elimination of malaria.

  16. Simplified Pan-species Real-time PCR-based Detection of Plasmodium Spp. in Blood Smear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanpour, Gholamreza; Mirhendi, Hossein; Mohebali, Mehdi; Raeisi, Ahmad; Zeraati, Hojjat; Keshavarz, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to quicken and simplify the detection of Plasmodium in blood samples by developing and testing a pan- Plasmodium real-time PCR for accurate screening of individuals suspected of malaria. A single primer/probe set for pan-species Plasmodium -specific real time PCR targeting a conserved region of the small subunit 18S ribosomal DNA was designed and evaluated for rapid diagnosis and screening of malaria infections using dried blood smears. FTA cards were used for rapid and simple DNA extraction. The primers and probes showed a positive response with the DNA extracted from bloods infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax but not with DNA extracted from various smears from uninfected blood samples. Seven positive cases positive by both microscopy and nested PCR were found among 280 blood samples taken from in South and Southeast Iran. Five samples were identified as positive for P. vivax and two as positive for P. falciparum . All positive samples were positive by real-time PCR. Furthermore, all 38-blood samples positive by microscopy were positive by real-time PCR. No microscopy-negative samples were positive by real-time PCR. By using a simple FTA card for DNA extraction and by application of the real-time PCR developed in this study, sensitivity similar to nested-PCR and microscopy was achieved. This format simplifies the detection of Plasmodium in large numbers of samples.

  17. Simplified Pan-species Real-time PCR-based Detection of Plasmodium Spp. in Blood Smear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza HASSANPOUR

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: We aimed to quicken and simplify the detection of Plasmodium in blood samples by developing and testing a pan-Plasmodium real-time PCR for accurate screening of individuals suspected of malaria.Methods: A single primer/probe set for pan-species Plasmodium-specific real time PCR targeting a conserved region of the small subunit 18S ribosomal DNA was designed and evaluated for rapid diagnosis and screening of malaria infections using dried blood smears. FTA cards were used for rapid and simple DNA extraction.Results: The primers and probes showed a positive response with the DNA extracted from bloods infected with P. falciparum and P. vivax but not with DNA extracted from various smears from uninfected blood samples. Seven positive cases positive by both microscopy and nested PCR were found among 280 blood samples taken from in South and Southeast Iran. Five samples were identified as positive for P. vivax and two as positive for P. falciparum. All positive samples were positive by real-time PCR. Furthermore, all 38-blood samples positive by microscopy were positive by real-time PCR. No microscopy-negative samples were positive by real-time PCR.Conclusion: By using a simple FTA card for DNA extraction and by application of the real-time PCR developed in this study, sensitivity similar to nested-PCR and microscopy was achieved. This format simplifies the detection of Plasmodium in large numbers of samples.

  18. of Plasmodium cynomolgi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-11-19

    Nov 19, 2007 ... AMA-1 sequences implies a conserved function for this molecule across different species of. Plasmodium. ... knowledge of detailed structural organization is crucial in ... sional (3D) structure of a protein are of great assistance.

  19. Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus chloroquine to treat vivax malaria in Afghanistan: an open randomized, non-inferiority, trial

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    Woodrow Charles J

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Afghanistan's national guidelines recommend chloroquine for the treatment of Plasmodium vivax infection, the parasite responsible for the majority of its malaria burden. Chloroquine resistance in P. vivax is emerging in Asia. Therapeutic responses across Afghanistan have not been evaluated in detail. Methods Between July 2007 and February 2009, an open-label, randomized controlled trial of chloroquine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in patients aged three months and over with slide-confirmed P. vivax mono-infections was conducted. Consistent with current national guidelines, primaquine was not administered. Subjects were followed up daily during the acute phase of illness (days 0-3 and weekly until day 56. The primary endpoint was the overall cumulative parasitological failure rate at day 56 after the start of treatment, with the hypothesis being that dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine was non-inferior compared to chloroquine (Δ = 5% difference in proportion of failures. Results Of 2,182 individuals with positive blood films for P. vivax, 536 were enrolled in the trial. The day 28 cure rate was 100% in both treatment groups. Parasite clearance was more rapid with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine than chloroquine. At day 56, there were more recurrent infections in the chloroquine arm (8.9%, 95% CI 6.0-13.1% than the dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine arm (2.8%, 95% CI 1.4-5.8%, a difference in cumulative recurrence rate of 6.1% (2-sided 90%CI +2.6 to +9.7%. The log-rank test comparing the survival curves confirmed the superiority of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine over chloroquine (p = 0.003. Multivariate analysis showed that a lower initial haemoglobin concentration was also independently associated with recurrence. Both regimens were well tolerated and no serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions Chloroquine remains an efficacious treatment for the treatment of vivax malaria in Afghanistan. In a setting where radical

  20. Penemuan Baru Plasmodium Knowlesi pada Manusia di Kalimantan Tengah

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    Sahat Ompusunggu

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstractUntil 2012, four Plasmodium knowlesi malaria cases had been found in South Kalimantan. Objectives of this study were to determine the proporsion of P. knowlesi among microscopically positive malaria cases, clinical symptoms and morphology of P. knowlesi. This study is conductedin Central Kalimantan and South Kalimantan in 2013-2014. Samples were microscopically positive malaria cases obtained by surveys and passive case findings. Finger’s blood absorbed on filter papers or scraping of thick blood films were examined by polymerase chain reaction. Patients were also examined clinically and interviewed to investigate the history of infections. The results showed that among the 287 samples examined, three samples (1.05% positive P. knowlesi. All of the three cases were infected locally, which consist of two in Central Kalimantan and one in South Kalimantan. The cases in Central Kalimantan were the first finding of Plasmodium knowlesi malaria cases in the province. Clinical symptoms in two cases were mild but in another case was rather severe. Morphology of P. knowlesi has a special characteristic although it resembles P. falciparum, P. vivax and P. malariae. Further research is needed in order to find other spreading area of P. knowlesi malaria in Indonesia.Keywords : Plasmodium knowlesi, human, clinical symptoms, morphology, Central Kalimantan.AbstrakSampai tahun 2012, empat kasus malaria Plamodium knowlesi pada manusia yang penularannya di sekitar hutan telah ditemukan di Kalimantan Selatan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui besarnya proporsi P. knowlesi di antara kasus malaria positif mikroskopis, gejala klinis dan morfologi P. knowlesi. Penelitian ini dilakukan di Kalimantan Tengah dan Kalimantan Selatan pada tahun 2013-2014. Sampel adalah kasus malaria positif mikroskopis yang diperoleh melalui survei dan penemuan kasus secara pasif. Serapan darah pada kertas saring atau kerokan sediaan apus darah tebal diperiksa dengan

  1. PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI: DISTRIBUSI, GAMBARAN MIKROSKOPIS, GEJALA PENDERITA DAN VEKTOR POTENSIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasbudi Pertama Ambarita

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMalaria in humans is caused by an infection of genus Plasmodium, especially P. falciparum, P. vivax.P.mulariae and P. ovate. Types of Plasmodium in animals that can inject humans is P. knowlesi. Animalswhich are found parasites in their body are long tailed macaques (Macaca fascicularis and pig-tailedmacaques (Macaca nemestrina. .There have been many cases with positive malaria knowlesi as ithappened in Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Philippines, Myanmar, China, Vietnam and Indonesia. Studyof P. knowlesi aims to give an overview of the • case distribution, microscopic. features, patient characteristic, potential vector, as well as potential spread of malaria knowlesi in Indonesia. The methodused in this study is study literature from various sources. The microscopic features of the parasite inpatient blood films is pretty similar to P. falciparum and P. malariae in certain stadium. Therefore more awareness are needed regarding the spread of this parasite, especially in border areas of malaria endemiccountries and newly arrived immigrants in endemic areas of P. knowlesi.Keywords: Plasmodium knowlesi, malaria, parasite, vector ABSTRAKMalaria pada manusia selama ini disebabkan oleh infeksi genusPlasmodiumkhususnyaP. falciparum, P.vivax, P. malariaedanP. ovate. JenisPlasmodiumpada hewan yang dapat menginfeksi manusia adalahP.knowlesi.Hewan yang banyak ditemukan parasit ini dalam tubuhnya adalah kera ekor panjang(Macacajascicularisdan kera ekor babi(Macaca nemestrina.Sudah banyak kasus penderita malaria yang positif parasit ini seperti yang terjadi di Malaysia, Singapura, Thailand, Filipina, Myanmar, Cina, Vietnam danIndonesia. Kajian tentangP. knowlesiini bertujuan untuk memberikan gambaran tentang penyebarankasus, gambaran mikroskopis, karakteristik penderita, vektor potensial serta potensi penyebaran malaria knowlesidi Indonesia. Metode yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah studi kepustakaan (literatur dariberbagai sumber. Secara

  2. BIOLOGY OF HUMAN MALARIA PLASMODIA INCLUDING PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spinello Antinori

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Malaria is a vector-borne infection caused by unicellular parasite of the genus Plasmodium. Plasmodia are obligate intracellular parasites that in humans after a clinically silent replication phase in the liver are able to infect and replicate within the erythrocytes. Four species (P.falciparum, P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are traditionally recognized as responsible of natural infection in human beings but the recent upsurge of P.knowlesi malaria in South-East Asia has led clinicians to consider it as the fifth human malaria parasite. Recent studies in wild-living apes in Africa have revealed that P.falciparum, the most deadly form of human malaria, is not only human-host restricted as previously believed and its phylogenetic lineage is much more complex with new species identified in gorilla, bonobo and chimpanzee. Although less impressive, new data on biology of P.malariae, P.ovale and P.vivax are also emerging and will be briefly discussed in this review.

  3. Proteomic Investigation of Falciparum and Vivax Malaria for Identification of Surrogate Protein Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Sandipan; Renu, Durairaj; Srivastava, Rajneesh; Gollapalli, Kishore; Taur, Santosh; Jhaveri, Tulip; Dhali, Snigdha; Chennareddy, Srinivasarao; Potla, Ankit; Dikshit, Jyoti Bajpai; Srikanth, Rapole; Gogtay, Nithya; Thatte, Urmila; Patankar, Swati; Srivastava, Sanjeeva

    2012-01-01

    This study was conducted to analyze alterations in the human serum proteome as a consequence of infection by malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax to obtain mechanistic insights about disease pathogenesis, host immune response, and identification of potential protein markers. Serum samples from patients diagnosed with falciparum malaria (FM) (n = 20), vivax malaria (VM) (n = 17) and healthy controls (HC) (n = 20) were investigated using multiple proteomic techniques and results were validated by employing immunoassay-based approaches. Specificity of the identified malaria related serum markers was evaluated by means of analysis of leptospirosis as a febrile control (FC). Compared to HC, 30 and 31 differentially expressed and statistically significant (p<0.05) serum proteins were identified in FM and VM respectively, and almost half (46.2%) of these proteins were commonly modulated due to both of the plasmodial infections. 13 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in FM compared to VM. Functional pathway analysis involving the identified proteins revealed the modulation of different vital physiological pathways, including acute phase response signaling, chemokine and cytokine signaling, complement cascades and blood coagulation in malaria. A panel of identified proteins consists of six candidates; serum amyloid A, hemopexin, apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, retinol-binding protein and apolipoprotein A-I was used to build statistical sample class prediction models. By employing PLS-DA and other classification methods the clinical phenotypic classes (FM, VM, FC and HC) were predicted with over 95% prediction accuracy. Individual performance of three classifier proteins; haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A-I and retinol-binding protein in diagnosis of malaria was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. The discrimination of FM, VM, FC and HC groups on the basis of differentially expressed serum proteins demonstrates

  4. Proteomic investigation of falciparum and vivax malaria for identification of surrogate protein markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandipan Ray

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze alterations in the human serum proteome as a consequence of infection by malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax to obtain mechanistic insights about disease pathogenesis, host immune response, and identification of potential protein markers. Serum samples from patients diagnosed with falciparum malaria (FM (n = 20, vivax malaria (VM (n = 17 and healthy controls (HC (n = 20 were investigated using multiple proteomic techniques and results were validated by employing immunoassay-based approaches. Specificity of the identified malaria related serum markers was evaluated by means of analysis of leptospirosis as a febrile control (FC. Compared to HC, 30 and 31 differentially expressed and statistically significant (p<0.05 serum proteins were identified in FM and VM respectively, and almost half (46.2% of these proteins were commonly modulated due to both of the plasmodial infections. 13 proteins were found to be differentially expressed in FM compared to VM. Functional pathway analysis involving the identified proteins revealed the modulation of different vital physiological pathways, including acute phase response signaling, chemokine and cytokine signaling, complement cascades and blood coagulation in malaria. A panel of identified proteins consists of six candidates; serum amyloid A, hemopexin, apolipoprotein E, haptoglobin, retinol-binding protein and apolipoprotein A-I was used to build statistical sample class prediction models. By employing PLS-DA and other classification methods the clinical phenotypic classes (FM, VM, FC and HC were predicted with over 95% prediction accuracy. Individual performance of three classifier proteins; haptoglobin, apolipoprotein A-I and retinol-binding protein in diagnosis of malaria was analyzed using receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves. The discrimination of FM, VM, FC and HC groups on the basis of differentially expressed serum proteins demonstrates

  5. Active case detection, treatment of falciparum malaria with combined chloroquine and sulphadoxine/pyrimethamine and vivax malaria with chloroquine and molecular markers of anti-malarial resistance in the Republic of Vanuatu

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    Rogers William O

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum was first described in the Republic of Vanuatu in the early 1980s. In 1991, the Vanuatu Ministry of Health instituted new treatment guidelines for uncomplicated P. falciparum infection consisting of chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine combination therapy. Chloroquine remains the recommended treatment for Plasmodium vivax. Methods In 2005, cross-sectional blood surveys at 45 sites on Malo Island were conducted and 4,060 adults and children screened for malaria. Of those screened, 203 volunteer study subjects without malaria at the time of screening were followed for 13 weeks to observe peak seasonal incidence of infection. Another 54 subjects with malaria were followed over a 28-day period to determine efficacy of anti-malarial therapy; chloroquine alone for P. vivax and chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine for P. falciparum infections. Results The overall prevalence of parasitaemia by mass blood screening was 6%, equally divided between P. falciparum and P. vivax. Twenty percent and 23% of participants with patent P. vivax and P. falciparum parasitaemia, respectively, were febrile at the time of screening. In the incidence study cohort, after 2,303 person-weeks of follow-up, the incidence density of malaria was 1.3 cases per person-year with P. vivax predominating. Among individuals participating in the clinical trial, the 28-day chloroquine P. vivax cure rate was 100%. The 28-day chloroquine/sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine P. falciparum cure rate was 97%. The single treatment failure, confirmed by merozoite surface protein-2 genotyping, was classified as a day 28 late parasitological treatment failure. All P. falciparum isolates carried the Thr-76 pfcrt mutant allele and the double Asn-108 + Arg-59 dhfr mutant alleles. Dhps mutant alleles were not detected in the study sample. Conclusion Peak seasonal malaria prevalence on Malo Island reached hypoendemic levels during the study

  6. Sero-epidemiological evaluation of changes in Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax transmission patterns over the rainy season in Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cook, Jackie; Speybroeck, Nico; Sochanta, Tho

    2012-01-01

    In Cambodia, malaria transmission is low and most cases occur in forested areas. Sero-epidemiological techniques can be used to identify both areas of ongoing transmission and high-risk groups to be targeted by control interventions. This study utilizes repeated cross-sectional data to assess...

  7. P. vivax malaria and dengue fever co-infection: a cross-sectional study in the Brazilian Amazon.

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    Belisa M L Magalhães

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Malaria and dengue are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases worldwide and represent major public health problems. Both are endemic in tropical regions, propitiating co-infection. Only few co-infection cases have been reported around the world, with insufficient data so far to enhance the understanding of the effects of co-infection in the clinical presentation and severity.A cross-sectional study was conducted (2009 to 2011 in hospitalized patients with acute febrile syndrome in the Brazilian Amazon. All patients were submitted to thick blood smear and PCR for Plasmodium sp. detection, ELISA, PCR and NS1 tests for dengue, viral hepatitis, HIV and leptospirosis. In total, 1,578 patients were recruited. Among them, 176 (11.1% presented P. vivax malaria mono-infection, 584 (37% dengue fever mono-infection, and 44 (2.8% were co-infected. Co-infected patients had a higher chance of presenting severe disease (vs. dengue mono-infected, deep bleeding (vs. P. vivax mono-infected, hepatomegaly, and jaundice (vs. dengue mono-infected.In endemic areas for dengue and malaria, jaundice (in dengue patients and spontaneous bleeding (in malaria patients should raise the suspicion of co-infection. Besides, whenever co-infection is confirmed, we recommend careful monitoring for bleeding and hepatic complications, which may result in a higher chance of severity, despite of the fact that no increased fatality rate was seen in this group.

  8. P. vivax Malaria and Dengue Fever Co-infection: A Cross-Sectional Study in the Brazilian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Belisa M. L.; Siqueira, André M.; Alexandre, Márcia A. A.; Souza, Marcela S.; Gimaque, João B.; Bastos, Michele S.; Figueiredo, Regina M. P.; Melo, Gisely C.; Lacerda, Marcus V. G.; Mourão, Maria P. G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria and dengue are the most prevalent vector-borne diseases worldwide and represent major public health problems. Both are endemic in tropical regions, propitiating co-infection. Only few co-infection cases have been reported around the world, with insufficient data so far to enhance the understanding of the effects of co-infection in the clinical presentation and severity. Methodology/Principal Findings A cross-sectional study was conducted (2009 to 2011) in hospitalized patients with acute febrile syndrome in the Brazilian Amazon. All patients were submitted to thick blood smear and PCR for Plasmodium sp. detection, ELISA, PCR and NS1 tests for dengue, viral hepatitis, HIV and leptospirosis. In total, 1,578 patients were recruited. Among them, 176 (11.1%) presented P. vivax malaria mono-infection, 584 (37%) dengue fever mono-infection, and 44 (2.8%) were co-infected. Co-infected patients had a higher chance of presenting severe disease (vs. dengue mono-infected), deep bleeding (vs. P. vivax mono-infected), hepatomegaly, and jaundice (vs. dengue mono-infected). Conclusions/Significance In endemic areas for dengue and malaria, jaundice (in dengue patients) and spontaneous bleeding (in malaria patients) should raise the suspicion of co-infection. Besides, whenever co-infection is confirmed, we recommend careful monitoring for bleeding and hepatic complications, which may result in a higher chance of severity, despite of the fact that no increased fatality rate was seen in this group. PMID:25340346

  9. Plasmodium and mononuclear phagocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac-Daniel, Laura; Ménard, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, initially multiplies inside liver cells and then in successive cycles inside erythrocytes, causing the symptoms of the disease. In this review, we discuss interactions between the extracellular and intracellular forms of the Plasmodium parasite and innate immune cells in the mammalian host, with a special emphasis on mononuclear phagocytes. We overview here what is known about the innate immune cells that interact with parasites, mechanisms used by the parasite to evade them, and the protective or detrimental contribution of these interactions on parasite progression through its life cycle and pathology in the host. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Durrheim, Karen Barnes. Objectives. To assess the therapeutic efficacy of sulfadoxine- pyrimethamine (SP) after 5 years of use as first-line treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria, and thus guide the selection of artemisinin-based combination therapy in Mpumalanga, South Africa. Design. An open-label ...

  11. Distribution of Plasmodium species on the island of Grande Comore on the basis of DNA extracted from rapid diagnostic tests

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    Papa Mze Nasserdine

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Union of Comoros, interventions for combating malaria have contributed to a spectacular decrease in the prevalence of the disease. We studied the current distribution of Plasmodium species on the island of Grande Comore using nested PCR. The rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs currently used in the Comoros are able to identify Plasmodium falciparum but no other Plasmodium species. In this study, we tested 211 RDTs (158 positive and 53 negative. Among the 158 positive RDTs, 22 were positive for HRP2, 3 were positive only for pLDH, and 133 were positive for HRP2 and pLDH. DNA was extracted from a proximal part of the nitrocellulose membrane of RDTs. A total of 159 samples were positive by nested PCR. Of those, 156 (98.11% were positive for P. falciparum, 2 (1.25% were positive for P. vivaxI, and 1 (0.62% was positive for P. malariae. None of the samples were positive for P. ovale. Our results show that P. falciparum is still the most dominant species on the island of Grande Comore, but P. vivax and P. malariae are present at a low prevalence.

  12. Adaptation of the genetically tractable malaria pathogen Plasmodium knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Robert

    2012-12-24

    Research into the aetiological agent of the most widespread form of severe malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, has benefitted enormously from the ability to culture and genetically manipulate blood-stage forms of the parasite in vitro. However, most malaria outside Africa is caused by a distinct Plasmodium species, Plasmodium vivax, and it has become increasingly apparent that zoonotic infection by the closely related simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a frequent cause of life-threatening malaria in regions of southeast Asia. Neither of these important malarial species can be cultured in human cells in vitro, requiring access to primates with the associated ethical and practical constraints. We report the successful adaptation of P. knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes. Human-adapted P. knowlesi clones maintain their capacity to replicate in monkey erythrocytes and can be genetically modified with unprecedented efficiency, providing an important and unique model for studying conserved aspects of malarial biology as well as species-specific features of an emerging pathogen.

  13. Adaptation of the genetically tractable malaria pathogen Plasmodium knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes

    KAUST Repository

    Moon, Robert; Hall, Joanna M.; Rangkuti, Farania; Ho, YungShwen; Almond, Neil M.; Mitchell, Graham Howard; Pain, Arnab; Holder, Anthony A.; Blackman, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Research into the aetiological agent of the most widespread form of severe malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, has benefitted enormously from the ability to culture and genetically manipulate blood-stage forms of the parasite in vitro. However, most malaria outside Africa is caused by a distinct Plasmodium species, Plasmodium vivax, and it has become increasingly apparent that zoonotic infection by the closely related simian parasite Plasmodium knowlesi is a frequent cause of life-threatening malaria in regions of southeast Asia. Neither of these important malarial species can be cultured in human cells in vitro, requiring access to primates with the associated ethical and practical constraints. We report the successful adaptation of P. knowlesi to continuous culture in human erythrocytes. Human-adapted P. knowlesi clones maintain their capacity to replicate in monkey erythrocytes and can be genetically modified with unprecedented efficiency, providing an important and unique model for studying conserved aspects of malarial biology as well as species-specific features of an emerging pathogen.

  14. Molecular Epidemiology of Epidemic Severe Malaria Caused by Plasmodium vivax in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Suarez, C.F., Florez, C., del Portillo, H.A.; Andrade, L.E. Direct Submission to NCBI gene bank. Submitted 03-JAN-1997. Laboratorio de Biologia Molecular...Departamento de Biologia , Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Ciudad Universitaria, Santa Fe de Bogota, D.C., Colombia. Nardin, E.H.; Zavala, F

  15. Plasmodium vivax antigen discovery based on alpha-helical coiled coil protein motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Céspedes, Nora; Habel, Catherine; Lopez-Perez, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Protein α-helical coiled coil structures that elicit antibody responses, which block critical functions of medically important microorganisms, represent a means for vaccine development. By using bioinformatics algorithms, a total of 50 antigens with α-helical coiled coil motifs orthologous to Pla...

  16. Developmentally Regulated Ribosomal rDNA Genes in Plasmodium vivax: Biological Implications and Practical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-08-10

    technological advances, especially DNA polymerase chain reaction (peR), molecular cloning and rapid nuc1eotide sequencing. These advances have allowed...containing 0.15% saponin and set on ice for 2· minutes. After washing and centrifugation twice, as described above, the pellets were dissolved in...incubated at 370C for 60 minutes. DNA was further processed by standard procedures [Maniatis et al., 1982]. Briefly, the lysed sample was extracted

  17. Geographic structure of Plasmodium vivax: microsatellite analysis of parasite populations from Sri Lanka, Myanmar, and Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunawardena, Sharmini; Karunaweera, Nadira D; Ferreira, Marcelo U

    2010-01-01

    , Myanmar, and Ethiopia using 12 trinucleotide and tetranucleotide microsatellite markers. All three parasite populations were highly polymorphic with 3-44 alleles per locus. Approximately 65% were multiple-clone infections. Mean genetic diversity (H(E)) was 0.7517 in Ethiopia, 0.8450 in Myanmar, and 0...

  18. Increased prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Honduras, Central America Aumento de la prevalencia de malaria por Plasmodium falciparum en Honduras, Centroamerica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol J. Palmer

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available We report on our investigation of a malaria outbreak in Honduras, Central America, in January 1997. We tested 202 patients with fever and chills using thin and thick blood film microscopy. Sixteen patients lived in the city and the rest lived in rural areas. A total of 95 samples (47% were positive for malaria parasites. Seventy-nine percent (63/80 of the rural patients were infected with Plasmodium vivax and 21% (17/80 were infected with P. falciparum. In the urban area, all 15 infected patients had P. vivax malaria and none showed evidence of P. falciparum. Since previous reports indicate that falciparum malaria accounts for only 2% of the overall malaria infections in Honduras, the results reported here suggest that there is a dramatic increase in falciparum malaria in the area of Honduras investigated in this study.Notificamos los resultados de un estudio de un brote de malaria que se produjo en Honduras, Centroamérica, en enero de 1997. Sometimos a examen microscópico frotis delgados y frotis gruesos de la sangre de 202 pacientes con fiebre y escalofríos. Dieciséis pacientes eran habitantes de la zona urbana y el resto de la zona rural. Un total de 95 especímenes (47% fueron positivos a parásitos de la malaria. Setenta y ocho por ciento (62/80 de los pacientes del área rural estaban infestados con Plasmodium vivax y 22% (17/80 con P. falciparum. En la zona urbana, todos los 15 pacientes que estaban infestados tenían P. vivax y en ninguno se detectó P. falciparum. Ya que según informes previos la malaria de tipo falciparum representa solamente 2% de todos los casos de malaria en Honduras, nuestros resultados sugieren que hay un gran incremento del número de casos de malaria falciparum en la zona de Honduras en que se llevó a cabo esta investigación.

  19. A multi-level spatial analysis of clinical malaria and subclinical Plasmodium infections in Pailin Province, Cambodia

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    Daniel M. Parker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The malaria burden is decreasing throughout the Greater Mekong Subregion, however transmission persists in some areas. Human movement, subclinical infections and complicated transmission patterns contribute to the persistence of malaria. This research describes the micro-geographical epidemiology of both clinical malaria and subclinical Plasmodium infections in three villages in Western Cambodia. Methods: Three villages in Western Cambodia were selected for the study based on high reported Plasmodium falciparum incidence. A census was conducted at the beginning of the study, including demographic information and travel history. The total population was 1766. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted every three months from June 2013 to June 2014. Plasmodium infections were detected using an ultra-sensitive, high-volume, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (uPCR technique. Clinical episodes were recorded by village health workers. The geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude were collected for all houses and all participants were linked to their respective houses using a demographic surveillance system. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants. Results: Most clinical episodes and subclinical infections occurred within a single study village. Clinical Plasmodium vivax episodes clustered spatially in each village but only lasted for a month. In one study village subclinical infections clustered in geographic proximity to clusters of clinical episodes. The largest risk factor for clinical P. falciparum episodes was living in a house where another clinical P. falciparum episode occurred (model adjusted odds ratio (AOR: 6.9; CI: 2.3–19. 8. Subclinical infections of both P. vivax and P. falciparum were associated with clinical episodes of the same species (AOR: 5.8; CI: 1.5–19.7 for P. falciparum and AOR: 14.6; CI: 8.6–25.2 for P. vivax and self-reported overnight visits to forested areas (AOR = 3.8; CI: 1.8

  20. Aotus infulatus monkey is susceptible to Plasmodium falciparum infection and may constitute an alternative experimental model for malaria

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    Carvalho Leonardo JM

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Aotus is one of the WHO-recommended primate models for studies in malaria, and several species can be infected with Plasmodium falciparum or P. vivax. Here we describe the successful infection of the species A. infulatus from eastern Amazon with blood stages of P. falciparum. Both intact and splenectomized animals were susceptible to infection; the intact ones were able to keep parasitemias at lower levels for several days, but developed complications such as severe anemia; splenectomized monkeys developed higher parasitemias but no major complications. We conclude that A. infulatus is susceptible to P. falciparum infection and may represent an alternative model for studies in malaria.

  1. Prevalence of Trypanosoma vivax in cattle in central Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadl, M.; Babiker, H.I.; Bakheit, M.A.; A Rahman, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The study was conducted to validate an antibody-detection ELISA test (Ab-ELISA) using pre-coated ELISA plates with crude antigen preparation of Trypanosoma vivax and to study the prevalence of T. vivax infection in central Sudan. A total of 704 blood samples were collected from cattle in central Sudan, a known endemic area of T. vivax infection. Additionally, 74 blood samples were collected from northern Sudan (Atbra town), an area presumed to be T. vivax-free. Sera were collected during the period September 1998 to May 1999 during three different seasons (summer, autumn and winter). Under the existing laboratory conditions, the test showed a clear distinction between different controls, i.e. strong positive control (C++), weak positive control (C+), negative control (C-) and the conjugate control (Cc). A percent positivity of 25% was taken as a cut-off value to determine the positivity or negativity of the test. The acceptable optical density range of strong positive control (C++) was 0.65-1.22. Lower and upper percent positivity limits for different controls were also determined. The study showed that T. vivax is endemic in central Sudan with 1.4% prevalence based on parasitological examination and 29.26% on Ab-ELISA. The infection rate was significantly higher during the autumn and winter than in summer. Young cattle showed significantly lower infection rates than adults as indicated by both the parasitological and the Ab-ELISA test. In relation to husbandry practice, migratory cattle showed significantly higher rates of prevalence than resident cattle. There was no significant difference in average packed red cell volume (PCV) values between ELISA positive and ELISA negative animals. Calves of less than one year of age showed significantly lower PCV values when belonging to migratory herds than to resident herds. (author)

  2. Plasmodium Sporozoite Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frischknecht, Friedrich; Matuschewski, Kai

    2017-05-01

    Plasmodium sporozoite transmission is a critical population bottleneck in parasite life-cycle progression and, hence, a target for prophylactic drugs and vaccines. The recent progress of a candidate antisporozoite subunit vaccine formulation to licensure highlights the importance of sporozoite transmission intervention in the malaria control portfolio. Sporozoites colonize mosquito salivary glands, migrate through the skin, penetrate blood vessels, breach the liver sinusoid, and invade hepatocytes. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that mediate the remarkable sporozoite journey in the invertebrate vector and the vertebrate host can inform evidence-based next-generation drug development programs and immune intervention strategies. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  3. Mechanisms of invasion from sporozoite and merozoíto of Plasmodium

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    Lilian M. Spencer

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Malaria or paludismo is caused in humans by four species of Plasmodium belonging to phylum Apicomplexa: ovale, malaria, vivax and falciparum, being the last, the responsible of the clinical complication and death in the vertebrate host. Plasmodium parasite possess a specialized secretory organelles called rhoptries, micronemes and dense granules that facilitate invasion of host cells. The sporozoite stage of Plasmodium travels through the different cells of vertebrate host until it reaches the hepatocyte and have been form the parasitophorous vacuole. The infected hepatocytes rupture, results in the releasing thousands of daughter merozoites that invade the erythrocytes with the formation of parasitophorous vacuole too. Several researchers suggest the gliding motility mechanism as the responsible of hepatocyte invasion. While, which the erythrocyte invasion process has been described as the result of tree steps: first contact, re-orientation and invasion. In this review the surface proteins of merozoites and esporozoites are pointed out as the most important factors for the molecular invasion mechanisms until the elaboration of the parasitophorous vacuole. These proteins that take part in these mechanisms are the possible candidates in the design of an anti-malaria vaccine.

  4. Vector Competence of Anopheles kleini and Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) From the Republic of Korea to Vivax Malaria-Infected Blood From Patients From Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubalee, Ratawan; Kim, Heung-Chul; Schuster, Anthony L; McCardle, Patrick W; Phasomkusolsil, Siriporn; Takhampunya, Ratree; Davidson, Silas A; Lee, Won-Ja; Klein, Terry A

    2016-11-01

    In total, 1,300 each of Anopheles kleini Rueda and Anopheles sinensis Wiedemann sensu stricto (s.s.) females (colonized from the Republic of Korea) and Anopheles dirus Peyton & Harrison (Thai strain) were allowed to feed on blood from Thai malaria patients naturally infected with Plasmodium vivax The overall oocyst infection rates for An. dirus, An. kleini, and An. sinensis s.s. were 77.4, 46.1, and 45.9%, respectively. The mean number of oocysts was significantly higher for An. dirus (82.7) compared with An. kleini (6.1) and An. sinensis s.s. (8.6), whereas the mean number of oocysts for An. kleini and An. sinensis s.s. was similar. The overall sporozoite infection rates for An. dirus, An. kleini, and An. sinensis s.s. dissected on days 14-15, 21, and 28 days post-feed were significantly higher for An. dirus (90.0%) than An. kleini (5.4%), whereas An. kleini sporozoite rates were significantly higher than An. sinensis s.s. (1,000 sporozoites) salivary gland indices were significantly higher for An. dirus (85.7%), compared with An. kleini (47.1%). Only one An. sinensis s.s. had sporozoites (+2; >10-100 sporozoites). These results indicate that An. kleini is a competent vector of vivax malaria. Although An. sinensis s.s. develops relatively high numbers of oocysts, it is considered a very poor vector of vivax malaria due to a salivary gland barrier. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America 2016. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  5. Merozoite surface protein-1 genetic diversity in Plasmodium malariae and Plasmodium brasilianum from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Lilian O; Wunderlich, Gerhard; Alves, João M P; Bueno, Marina G; Röhe, Fabio; Catão-Dias, José L; Neves, Amanda; Malafronte, Rosely S; Curado, Izilda; Domingues, Wilson; Kirchgatter, Karin

    2015-11-16

    The merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1) gene encodes the major surface antigen of invasive forms of the Plasmodium erythrocytic stages and is considered a candidate vaccine antigen against malaria. Due to its polymorphisms, MSP1 is also useful for strain discrimination and consists of a good genetic marker. Sequence diversity in MSP1 has been analyzed in field isolates of three human parasites: P. falciparum, P. vivax, and P. ovale. However, the extent of variation in another human parasite, P. malariae, remains unknown. This parasite shows widespread, uneven distribution in tropical and subtropical regions throughout South America, Asia, and Africa. Interestingly, it is genetically indistinguishable from P. brasilianum, a parasite known to infect New World monkeys in Central and South America. Specific fragments (1 to 5) covering 60 % of the MSP1 gene (mainly the putatively polymorphic regions), were amplified by PCR in isolates of P. malariae and P. brasilianum from different geographic origin and hosts. Sequencing of the PCR-amplified products or cloned PCR fragments was performed and the sequences were used to construct a phylogenetic tree by the maximum likelihood method. Data were computed to give insights into the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships of these parasites. Except for fragment 4, sequences from all other fragments consisted of unpublished sequences. The most polymorphic gene region was fragment 2, and in samples where this region lacks polymorphism, all other regions are also identical. The low variability of the P. malariae msp1 sequences of these isolates and the identification of the same haplotype in those collected many years apart at different locations is compatible with a low transmission rate. We also found greater diversity among P. brasilianum isolates compared with P. malariae ones. Lastly, the sequences were segregated according to their geographic origins and hosts, showing a strong genetic and geographic structure. Our data

  6. Primer reporte de un caso importado de Malaria por Plasmodium ovale curtisi en Paraguay, confirmado por diagnóstico molecular

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    Florencia del Puerto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En países donde el Plasmodium ovale no es común, los microscopistas tienden a identificarlo de manera errónea como Plasmodium vivax. En este trabajo reportamos la identificación de la especie P. ovale curtisi por el método de PCR múltiple semianidada (SnM-PCR y la secuenciación de la subunidad pequeña del gen del ARN 18S, en un paciente paraguayo de 44 años de edad que vino en el 2.013 de Guinea Ecuatorial, África Occidental, a quien se le diagnosticó una infección por P. vivax por microscopía convencional. El empleo de métodos moleculares para la identificación de casos importados de infección con especies del género Plasmodium es uno de los objetivos principales en el control y la prevención de la malaria en Paraguay, teniendo en cuenta que el país se encuentra en fase de pre-eliminación de la enfermedad.

  7. Asymptomatic infection in individuals from the municipality of Barcelos (Brazilian Amazon is not associated with the anti-Plasmodium falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol antibody response

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    Larissa Rodrigues Gomes

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Anti-glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI antibodies (Abs may reflect and mediate, at least partially, anti-disease immunity in malaria by neutralising the toxic effect of parasitic GPI. Thus, we assessed the anti-GPI Ab response in asymptomatic individuals living in an area of the Brazilian Amazon that has a high level of malaria transmission. For comparative purposes, we also investigated the Ab response to a crude extract prepared from Plasmodium falciparum, the merozoite surface protein (MSP3 antigen of P. falciparum and the MSP 1 antigen of Plasmodium vivax (PvMSP1-19 in these individuals and in Angolan patients with acute malaria. Our data suggest that the Ab response against P. falciparum GPI is not associated with P. falciparum asymptomatic infection in individuals who have been chronically exposed to malaria in the Brazilian Amazon. However, this Ab response could be related to ongoing parasitaemia (as was previously shown in the Angolan patients. In addition, our data show that PvMSP1-19may be a good marker antigen to reflect previous exposure to Plasmodium in areas that have a high transmission rate of P. vivax.

  8. Enteroparasite and vivax malaria co-infection on the Brazil-French Guiana border: Epidemiological, haematological and immunological aspects.

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    Rubens Alex de Oliveira Menezes

    Full Text Available Malaria-enteroparasitic co-infections are known for their endemicity. Although they are prevalent, little is known about their epidemiology and effect on the immune response. This study evaluated the effect of enteroparasite co-infections with malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax in a border area between Brazil and French Guiana. The cross sectional study took place in Oiapoque, a municipality of Amapá, on the Amazon border. Malaria was diagnosed using thick blood smears, haemoglobin dosage by an automated method and coproparasitology by the Hoffman and Faust methods. The anti-PvMSP-119 IgG antibodies in the plasma were evaluated using ELISA and Th1 (IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-2, and Th2 (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-10 cytokine counts were performed by flow cytometry. The participants were grouped into those that were monoinfected with vivax malaria (M, vivax malaria-enteroparasite co-infected (CI, monoinfected with enteroparasite (E and endemic controls (EC, who were negative for both diseases. 441 individuals were included and grouped according to their infection status: [M 6.9% (30/441], [Cl 26.5% (117/441], [E 32.4% (143/441] and [EC 34.2% (151/441]. Males prevailed among the (M 77% (23/30 and (CI 60% (70/117 groups. There was a difference in haemoglobin levels among the different groups under study for [EC-E], [EC-Cl], [E-M] and [Cl-M], with (p < 0.01. Anaemia was expressed as a percentage between individuals [CI-EC (p < 0.05]. In terms of parasitaemia, there were differences for the groups [CI-M (p < 0.05]. Anti-PvMSP-119 antibodies were detected in 51.2% (226/441 of the population. The level of cytokines evaluation revealed a large variation in TNF-α and IL-10 concentrations in the co-infected group. In this study we did not observe any influence of coinfection on the acquisition of IgG antibodies against PvMSP119, as well as on the profile of the cytokines that characterize the Th1 and Th2 patterns. However, co-infection increased TNF-α and IL-10

  9. Dual RNAseq shows the human mucosal immunity protein, MUC13, is a hallmark of Plasmodium exoerythrocytic infection

    KAUST Repository

    LaMonte, Gregory; Orjuela-Sanchez, Pamela; Wang, Lawrence; Li, Shangzhong; Swann, Justine; Cowell, Annie; Zou, Bing Yu; Abdel- Haleem Mohamed, Alyaa; Villa-Galarce, Zaira; Moreno, Marta; Tong-Rios, Carlos; Vinetz, Joseph; Lewis, Nathan; Winzeler, Elizabeth A

    2017-01-01

    The exoerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium malaria infection is a critical window for prophylactic intervention. Using a genome-wide dual RNA sequencing of flow-sorted infected and uninfected hepatoma cells we identify the human mucosal immunity gene, Mucin13 (MUC13), as strongly upregulated during Plasmodium exoerythrocytic hepatic-stage infection. We confirm that MUC13 expression is upregulated in hepatoma cell lines and primary hepatocytes. In immunofluorescence assays, host MUC13 protein expression distinguishes infected cells from adjacent uninfected cells and shows similar colocalization with parasite biomarkers such as UIS4 and HSP70. We further show that localization patterns are species independent, distinguishing both P. berghei and P. vivax infected cells, and that MUC13 can be used to identify compounds that inhibit parasite replication in hepatocytes across all Human-infecting Plasmodium species. This data presents a novel interface of host-parasite interactions in Plasmodium, in that a component of host mucosal immunity is reprogrammed to assist the progression of infection.

  10. Dual RNAseq shows the human mucosal immunity protein, MUC13, is a hallmark of Plasmodium exoerythrocytic infection

    KAUST Repository

    LaMonte, Gregory

    2017-10-03

    The exoerythrocytic stage of Plasmodium malaria infection is a critical window for prophylactic intervention. Using a genome-wide dual RNA sequencing of flow-sorted infected and uninfected hepatoma cells we identify the human mucosal immunity gene, Mucin13 (MUC13), as strongly upregulated during Plasmodium exoerythrocytic hepatic-stage infection. We confirm that MUC13 expression is upregulated in hepatoma cell lines and primary hepatocytes. In immunofluorescence assays, host MUC13 protein expression distinguishes infected cells from adjacent uninfected cells and shows similar colocalization with parasite biomarkers such as UIS4 and HSP70. We further show that localization patterns are species independent, distinguishing both P. berghei and P. vivax infected cells, and that MUC13 can be used to identify compounds that inhibit parasite replication in hepatocytes across all Human-infecting Plasmodium species. This data presents a novel interface of host-parasite interactions in Plasmodium, in that a component of host mucosal immunity is reprogrammed to assist the progression of infection.

  11. Prevalence of anopheline species and their Plasmodium infection status in epidemic-prone border areas of Bangladesh

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    Nazib Forida

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information related to malaria vectors is very limited in Bangladesh. In the changing environment and various Anopheles species may be incriminated and play role in the transmission cycle. This study was designed with an intention to identify anopheline species and possible malaria vectors in the border belt areas, where the malaria is endemic in Bangladesh. Methods Anopheles mosquitoes were collected from three border belt areas (Lengura, Deorgachh and Matiranga during the peak malaria transmission season (May to August. Three different methods were used: human landing catches, resting collecting by mouth aspirator and CDC light traps. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was done to detect Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax-210 and Plasmodium vivax-247 circumsporozoite proteins (CSP from the collected female species. Results A total of 634 female Anopheles mosquitoes belonging to 17 species were collected. Anopheles vagus (was the dominant species (18.6% followed by Anopheles nigerrimus (14.5% and Anopheles philippinensis (11.0%. Infection rate was found 2.6% within 622 mosquitoes tested with CSP-ELISA. Eight (1.3% mosquitoes belonging to five species were positive for P. falciparum, seven (1.1% mosquitoes belonging to five species were positive for P. vivax -210 and a single mosquito (0.2% identified as Anopheles maculatus was positive for P. vivax-247. No mixed infection was found. Highest infection rate was found in Anopheles karwari (22.2% followed by An. maculatus (14.3% and Anopheles barbirostris (9.5%. Other positive species were An. nigerrimus (4.4%, An. vagus (4.3%, Anopheles subpictus (1.5% and An. philippinensis (1.4%. Anopheles vagus and An. philippinensis were previously incriminated as malaria vector in Bangladesh. In contrast, An. karwari, An. maculatus, An. barbirostris, An. nigerrimus and An. subpictus had never previously been incriminated in Bangladesh. Conclusion Findings of this study suggested

  12. Kinetoplast adaptations in American strains from Trypanosoma vivax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greif, Gonzalo [Unidad de Biología Molecular, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo (Uruguay); Rodriguez, Matías [Sección Biomatemática, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica (Uruguay); Reyna-Bello, Armando [Departamento de Ciencias de la Vida, Carrera en Ingeniería en Biotecnología, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas (Ecuador); Centro de Estudios Biomédicos y Veterinarios, Universidad Nacional Experimental Simón Rodríguez-IDECYT, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Robello, Carlos [Unidad de Biología Molecular, Institut Pasteur de Montevideo (Uruguay); Departamento de Bioquímica, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de la República Uruguay (Uruguay); Alvarez-Valin, Fernando, E-mail: falvarez@fcien.edu.uy [Sección Biomatemática, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica (Uruguay)

    2015-03-15

    Highlights: • American T. vivax strains exhibit a drastic process of mitochondrial genome degradation. • T. vivax mitochondrial genes have among the fastest evolutionary rates in eukaryotes. • High rates of kDNA evolution are associated with relaxation of selective constrains. • Relaxed selective pressures are the result of mechanical transmission. • The evolutionary strategy of T. vivax differs from that of T. brucei-species complex. - Abstract: The mitochondrion role changes during the digenetic life cycle of African trypanosomes. Owing to the low abundance of glucose in the insect vector (tsetse flies) the parasites are dependent upon a fully functional mitochondrion, capable of performing oxidative phosphorylation. Nevertheless, inside the mammalian host (bloodstream forms), which is rich in nutrients, parasite proliferation relies on glycolysis, and the mitochondrion is partially redundant. In this work we perform a comparative study of the mitochondrial genome (kinetoplast) in different strains of Trypanosoma vivax. The comparison was conducted between a West African strain that goes through a complete life cycle and two American strains that are mechanically transmitted (by different vectors) and remain as bloodstream forms only. It was found that while the African strain has a complete and apparently fully functional kinetoplast, the American T. vivax strains have undergone a drastic process of mitochondrial genome degradation, in spite of the recent introduction of these parasites in America. Many of their genes exhibit different types of mutations that are disruptive of function such as major deletions, frameshift causing indels and missense mutations. Moreover, all but three genes (A6-ATPase, RPS12 and MURF2) are not edited in the American strains, whereas editing takes place normally in all (editable) genes from the African strain. Two of these genes, A6-ATPase and RPS12, are known to play an essential function during bloodstream stage

  13. Kinetoplast adaptations in American strains from Trypanosoma vivax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greif, Gonzalo; Rodriguez, Matías; Reyna-Bello, Armando; Robello, Carlos; Alvarez-Valin, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • American T. vivax strains exhibit a drastic process of mitochondrial genome degradation. • T. vivax mitochondrial genes have among the fastest evolutionary rates in eukaryotes. • High rates of kDNA evolution are associated with relaxation of selective constrains. • Relaxed selective pressures are the result of mechanical transmission. • The evolutionary strategy of T. vivax differs from that of T. brucei-species complex. - Abstract: The mitochondrion role changes during the digenetic life cycle of African trypanosomes. Owing to the low abundance of glucose in the insect vector (tsetse flies) the parasites are dependent upon a fully functional mitochondrion, capable of performing oxidative phosphorylation. Nevertheless, inside the mammalian host (bloodstream forms), which is rich in nutrients, parasite proliferation relies on glycolysis, and the mitochondrion is partially redundant. In this work we perform a comparative study of the mitochondrial genome (kinetoplast) in different strains of Trypanosoma vivax. The comparison was conducted between a West African strain that goes through a complete life cycle and two American strains that are mechanically transmitted (by different vectors) and remain as bloodstream forms only. It was found that while the African strain has a complete and apparently fully functional kinetoplast, the American T. vivax strains have undergone a drastic process of mitochondrial genome degradation, in spite of the recent introduction of these parasites in America. Many of their genes exhibit different types of mutations that are disruptive of function such as major deletions, frameshift causing indels and missense mutations. Moreover, all but three genes (A6-ATPase, RPS12 and MURF2) are not edited in the American strains, whereas editing takes place normally in all (editable) genes from the African strain. Two of these genes, A6-ATPase and RPS12, are known to play an essential function during bloodstream stage

  14. Plasmodium malariae in the Colombian Amazon region: you don't diagnose what you don't suspect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño, Carlos Hernando; Cubides, Juan Ricardo; Camargo-Ayala, Paola Andrea; Rodríguez-Celis, Carlos Arturo; Quiñones, Teódulo; Cortés-Castillo, Moisés Tomás; Sánchez-Suárez, Lizeth; Sánchez, Ricardo; Patarroyo, Manuel Elkin; Patarroyo, Manuel Alfonso

    2016-11-29

    Malaria is a worldwide public health problem; parasites from the genus Plasmodium spp. are the aetiological agent of this disease. The parasite is mainly diagnosed by microscope-based techniques. However, these have limited sensitivity. Many asymptomatic infections are sub-microscopic and can only be detected by molecular methods. This study was aimed at comparing nested PCR results to those obtained by microscope for diagnosing malaria and to present epidemiological data regarding malaria in Colombia's Amazon department. A total of 1392 blood samples (taken by venepuncture) from symptomatic patients in Colombia's Amazon department were analysed in parallel by thick blood smear (TBS) test and nested PCR for determining Plasmodium spp. infection and identifying infecting species, such as Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae and/or Plasmodium falciparum. Descriptive statistics were used for comparing the results from both tests regarding detection of the disease, typing infecting species and their prevalence in the study region. Bearing the microscope assay in mind as gold standard, PCR diagnosis performance was evaluated by statistical indicators. The present study revealed great differences between both diagnostic tests, as well as suggesting high P. malariae prevalence from a molecular perspective. This differed profoundly from previous studies in this region of Colombia, usually based on the TBS test, suggesting that diagnosis by conventional techniques could lead to underestimating the prevalence of certain Plasmodium spp. having high circulation in this area. The present results highlight the need for modifying state malaria surveillance schemes for more efficient strategies regarding the detection of this disease in endemic areas. The importance of PCR as a back-up test in cases of low parasitaemia or mixed infection is also highlighted.

  15. Optimized Pan-species and speciation duplex real-time PCR assays for Plasmodium parasites detection in malaria vectors.

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    Maurice Marcel Sandeu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: An accurate method for detecting malaria parasites in the mosquito's vector remains an essential component in the vector control. The Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay specific for circumsporozoite protein (ELISA-CSP is the gold standard method for the detection of malaria parasites in the vector even if it presents some limitations. Here, we optimized multiplex real-time PCR assays to accurately detect minor populations in mixed infection with multiple Plasmodium species in the African malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus. METHODS: Complementary TaqMan-based real-time PCR assays that detect Plasmodium species using specific primers and probes were first evaluated on artificial mixtures of different targets inserted in plasmid constructs. The assays were further validated in comparison with the ELISA-CSP on 200 field caught Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus mosquitoes collected in two localities in southern Benin. RESULTS: The validation of the duplex real-time PCR assays on the plasmid mixtures demonstrated robust specificity and sensitivity for detecting distinct targets. Using a panel of mosquito specimen, the real-time PCR showed a relatively high sensitivity (88.6% and specificity (98%, compared to ELISA-CSP as the referent standard. The agreement between both methods was "excellent" (κ=0.8, P<0.05. The relative quantification of Plasmodium DNA between the two Anopheles species analyzed showed no significant difference (P=0, 2. All infected mosquito samples contained Plasmodium falciparum DNA and mixed infections with P. malariae and/or P. ovale were observed in 18.6% and 13.6% of An. gambiae and An. funestus respectively. Plasmodium vivax was found in none of the mosquito samples analyzed. CONCLUSION: This study presents an optimized method for detecting the four Plasmodium species in the African malaria vectors. The study highlights substantial discordance with traditional ELISA-CSP pointing out the

  16. A proline racemase based PCR for identification of Trypanosoma vivax in cattle blood.

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    Regassa Fikru

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to develop a Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax specific PCR based on the T. vivax proline racemase (TvPRAC gene. Forward and reverse primers were designed that bind at 764-783 bp and 983-1002 bp of the gene. To assess its specificity, TvPRAC PCR was conducted on DNA extracted from different haemotropic pathogens: T. vivax from Nigeria, Ethiopia and Venezuela, T. congolense Savannah type, T. brucei brucei, T. evansi, T. equiperdum, T. theileri, Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and from bovine, goat, mouse, camel and human blood. The analytical sensitivity of the TvPRAC PCR was compared with that of the ITS-1 PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP on a dilution series of T. vivax DNA in water. The diagnostic performance of the three PCRs was compared on 411 Ethiopian bovine blood specimens collected in a former study. TvPRAC PCR proved to be fully specific for T. vivax, irrespective of its geographical origin. Its analytical sensitivity was lower than that of ITS-1 PCR. On these bovine specimens, TvPRAC PCR detected 8.3% T. vivax infections while ITS-1 PCR and 18S PCR-RFLP detected respectively 22.6 and 6.1% T. vivax infections. The study demonstrates that a proline racemase based PCR could be used, preferably in combination with ITS-1 PCR, as a species-specific diagnostic test for T. vivax infections worldwide.

  17. Plasmodium ovale in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J K; Purnomo; Masbar, S

    1990-12-01

    We report 34 infections by Plasmodium ovale found among 15,806 blood film examinations taken between 1973 and 1989 from several sites in Indonesia. Twenty five of the P. ovale infections occurred in a single sample of 514 people living in Owi, Irian Jaya. We detected five additional infections at 3 other sites in Irian Jaya. Other infections by P. ovale occurred at two sites in West Flores. Another infection has already been reported from East Timor. Despite relatively frequent sampling of populations on Sumatra, Kalimantan, Java and Sulawesi, P. ovale has not been found on those islands. It appears that this parasite occurs only on the easternmost islands of the Indonesian archipelago where it is nonetheless a rare finding.

  18. Specific proliferative response of human lymphocytes to purified soluble antigens from Plasmodium falciparum in vitro cultures and to antigens from malaria patients' sera

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bygbjerg, I C; Jepsen, S; Theander, T G

    1985-01-01

    Antigens of Plasmodium falciparum, in supernatants of in vitro cultures of the parasite were affinity purified on columns prepared with the IgG fraction of the serum of an immune individual. The purified antigens induced proliferation of lymphocytes from persons who had recently had malaria....... The responses were strongest with lymphocytes from individuals infected with falciparum and ovale malaria; vivax malaria infections induced a lower level of response and lymphocytes of unsensitized individuals were little affected. Lymphocytes from unsensitized individuals did not respond to the affinity...

  19. The exported chaperone Hsp70-x supports virulence functions for Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah C Charnaud

    Full Text Available Malaria is caused by five different Plasmodium spp. in humans each of which modifies the host erythrocyte to survive and replicate. The two main causes of malaria, P. falciparum and P. vivax, differ in their ability to cause severe disease, mainly due to differences in the cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE in the microvasculature. Cytoadhesion of P. falciparum in the brain leads to a large number of deaths each year and is a consequence of exported parasite proteins, some of which modify the erythrocyte cytoskeleton while others such as PfEMP1 project onto the erythrocyte surface where they bind to endothelial cells. Here we investigate the effects of knocking out an exported Hsp70-type chaperone termed Hsp70-x that is present in P. falciparum but not P. vivax. Although the growth of Δhsp70-x parasites was unaffected, the export of PfEMP1 cytoadherence proteins was delayed and Δhsp70-x IE had reduced adhesion. The Δhsp70-x IE were also more rigid than wild-type controls indicating changes in the way the parasites modified their host erythrocyte. To investigate the cause of this, transcriptional and translational changes in exported and chaperone proteins were monitored and some changes were observed. We propose that PfHsp70-x is not essential for survival in vitro, but may be required for the efficient export and functioning of some P. falciparum exported proteins.

  20. The exported chaperone Hsp70-x supports virulence functions for Plasmodium falciparum blood stage parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnaud, Sarah C.; Dixon, Matthew W. A.; Nie, Catherine Q.; Chappell, Lia; Sanders, Paul R.; Nebl, Thomas; Hanssen, Eric; Berriman, Matthew; Chan, Jo-Anne; Blanch, Adam J.; Beeson, James G.; Rayner, Julian C.; Przyborski, Jude M.; Tilley, Leann; Crabb, Brendan S.

    2017-01-01

    Malaria is caused by five different Plasmodium spp. in humans each of which modifies the host erythrocyte to survive and replicate. The two main causes of malaria, P. falciparum and P. vivax, differ in their ability to cause severe disease, mainly due to differences in the cytoadhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE) in the microvasculature. Cytoadhesion of P. falciparum in the brain leads to a large number of deaths each year and is a consequence of exported parasite proteins, some of which modify the erythrocyte cytoskeleton while others such as PfEMP1 project onto the erythrocyte surface where they bind to endothelial cells. Here we investigate the effects of knocking out an exported Hsp70-type chaperone termed Hsp70-x that is present in P. falciparum but not P. vivax. Although the growth of Δhsp70-x parasites was unaffected, the export of PfEMP1 cytoadherence proteins was delayed and Δhsp70-x IE had reduced adhesion. The Δhsp70-x IE were also more rigid than wild-type controls indicating changes in the way the parasites modified their host erythrocyte. To investigate the cause of this, transcriptional and translational changes in exported and chaperone proteins were monitored and some changes were observed. We propose that PfHsp70-x is not essential for survival in vitro, but may be required for the efficient export and functioning of some P. falciparum exported proteins. PMID:28732045

  1. A large proportion of asymptomatic Plasmodium infections with low and sub-microscopic parasite densities in the low transmission setting of Temotu Province, Solomon Islands: challenges for malaria diagnostics in an elimination setting

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    Harris Ivor

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many countries are scaling up malaria interventions towards elimination. This transition changes demands on malaria diagnostics from diagnosing ill patients to detecting parasites in all carriers including asymptomatic infections and infections with low parasite densities. Detection methods suitable to local malaria epidemiology must be selected prior to transitioning a malaria control programme to elimination. A baseline malaria survey conducted in Temotu Province, Solomon Islands in late 2008, as the first step in a provincial malaria elimination programme, provided malaria epidemiology data and an opportunity to assess how well different diagnostic methods performed in this setting. Methods During the survey, 9,491 blood samples were collected and examined by microscopy for Plasmodium species and density, with a subset also examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs. The performances of these diagnostic methods were compared. Results A total of 256 samples were positive by microscopy, giving a point prevalence of 2.7%. The species distribution was 17.5% Plasmodium falciparum and 82.4% Plasmodium vivax. In this low transmission setting, only 17.8% of the P. falciparum and 2.9% of P. vivax infected subjects were febrile (≥38°C at the time of the survey. A significant proportion of infections detected by microscopy, 40% and 65.6% for P. falciparum and P. vivax respectively, had parasite density below 100/μL. There was an age correlation for the proportion of parasite density below 100/μL for P. vivax infections, but not for P. falciparum infections. PCR detected substantially more infections than microscopy (point prevalence of 8.71%, indicating a large number of subjects had sub-microscopic parasitemia. The concordance between PCR and microscopy in detecting single species was greater for P. vivax (135/162 compared to P. falciparum (36/118. The malaria RDT detected the 12 microscopy and

  2. Molecular Investigation into a Malaria Outbreak in Cusco, Peru: Plasmodium falciparum BV1 Lineage is Linked to a Second Outbreak in Recent Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okoth, Sheila Akinyi; Chenet, Stella M.; Arrospide, Nancy; Gutierrez, Sonia; Cabezas, Cesar; Matta, Jose Antonio; Udhayakumar, Venkatachalam

    2016-01-01

    In November 2013, a Plasmodium falciparum malaria outbreak of 11 cases occurred in Cusco, southern Peru, where falciparum malaria had not been reported since 1946. Although initial microscopic diagnosis reported only Plasmodium vivax infection in each of the specimens, subsequent examination by the national reference laboratory confirmed P. falciparum infection in all samples. Molecular typing of four available isolates revealed identity as the B-variant (BV1) strain that was responsible for a malaria outbreak in Tumbes, northern Peru, between 2010 and 2012. The P. falciparum BV1 strain is multidrug resistant, can escape detection by PfHRP2-based rapid diagnostic tests, and has contributed to two malaria outbreaks in Peru. This investigation highlights the importance of accurate species diagnosis given the potential for P. falciparum to be reintroduced to regions where it may have been absent. Similar molecular epidemiological investigations can track the probable source(s) of outbreak parasite strains for malaria surveillance and control purposes. PMID:26483121

  3. High sensitivity detection of Plasmodium species reveals positive correlations between infections of different species, shifts in age distribution and reduced local variation in Papua New Guinea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Thomas A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When diagnosed by standard light microscopy (LM, malaria prevalence can vary significantly between sites, even at local scale, and mixed species infections are consistently less common than expect in areas co-endemic for Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malariae. The development of a high-throughput molecular species diagnostic assay now enables routine PCR-based surveillance of malaria infections in large field and intervention studies, and improves resolution of species distribution within and between communities. Methods This study reports differences in the prevalence of infections with all four human malarial species and of mixed infections as diagnosed by LM and post-PCR ligase detection reaction – fluorescent microsphere (LDR-FMA assay in 15 villages in the central Sepik area of Papua New Guinea. Results Significantly higher rates of infection by P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. malariae and Plasmodium ovale were observed in LDR-FMA compared to LM diagnosis (p P. malariae (3.9% vs 13.4% and P. ovale (0.0% vs 4.8%. In contrast to LM diagnosis, which suggested a significant deficit of mixed species infections, a significant excess of mixed infections over expectation was detected by LDR-FMA (p P. falciparum (LM: 7–9 yrs 47.5%, LDR-FMA: 10–19 yrs 74.2% and P. vivax (LM: 4–6 yrs 24.2%, LDR-FMA: 7–9 yrs 50.9% but not P. malariae infections (10–19 yrs, LM: 7.7% LDR-FMA: 21.6%. Significant geographical variation in prevalence was found for all species (except for LM-diagnosed P. falciparum, with the extent of this variation greater in LDR-FMA than LM diagnosed infections (overall, 84.4% vs. 37.6%. Insecticide-treated bednet (ITN coverage was also the dominant factor linked to geographical differences in Plasmodium species infection prevalence explaining between 60.6% – 74.5% of this variation for LDR-FMA and 81.8% – 90.0% for LM (except P. falciparum, respectively. Conclusion The present study

  4. Especies de Anopheles presentes en el departamento del Putumayo y su infección natural con Plasmodium

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    Lorena I. Orjuela

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. El departamento del Putumayo es una región endémica para malaria, o paludismo, causada principalmente por Plasmodium vivax. Los vectores en esta región incluyen Anopheles darlingi, el cual se ha encontrado solamente en el municipio de Puerto Leguízamo, y recientemente se incriminaron como vectores en Puerto Asís a las especies An. rangeli y An. oswaldoi. Objetivo. El propósito del trabajo fue determinar el papel de An. benarrochi B en la transmisión de malaria en este departamento, ya que se reporta como la especie más abundante que pica a los humanos. Materiales y métodos. Se recolectaron larvas y adultos de Anopheles spp. entre el 2006 y el 2008 en los municipios Puerto Leguízamo y Puerto Asís, y se obtuvieron secuencias del gen ITS-2 y del gen mitocondrial COI para confirmar las determinaciones taxonómicas por morfología. Se practicó la prueba ELISA para establecer la infección por P. vivax y P. falciparum. Resultados. Se identificaron 6.238 individuos correspondientes a 11 especies: An. albitarsis s.l. (1,83 %, An. benarrochi B (72,35 %, An. braziliensis (0,05 %, An. costai (0,06 %, An. darlingi (19,37 %, An. mattogrossensis (0,08 %, An. neomaculipalpus (0,13 %, An. oswaldoi s.l. (0,64 %, An. punctimacula (0,03 %, An. rangeli (5,12 % y An. triannulatus s.l. (0,34 %. Se evaluaron 5.038 adultos por ELISA y 5 se encontraron positivos para P. vivax 210 y VK 247, todos pertenecientes a la especie An. benarrochi B. Conclusión. Los resultados sugieren que An. benarrochi B juega un papel en la transmisión de P. vivax en el departamento de Putumayo, dada su alta atracción por los humanos y su infección natural con Plasmodium spp.   doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.7705/biomedica.v33i1.619

  5. Rapid changes in transcription profiles of the Plasmodium yoelii yir multigene family in clonal populations: lack of epigenetic memory?

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    Deirdre Cunningham

    Full Text Available The pir multigene family, found in the genomes of Plasmodium vivax, P. knowlesi and the rodent malaria species, encode variant antigens that could be targets of the immune response. Individual parasites of the rodent malaria Plasmodium yoelii, selected by micromanipulation, transcribe only 1 to 3 different pir (yir suggesting tight transcriptional control at the level of individual cells. Using microarray and quantitative RT-PCR, we show that despite this very restricted transcription in a single cell, many yir genes are transcribed throughout the intra-erythrocytic asexual cycle. The timing and level of transcription differs between genes, with some being more highly transcribed in ring and trophozoite stages, whereas others are more highly transcribed in schizonts. Infection of immunodeficient mice with single infected erythrocytes results in populations of parasites each with transcriptional profiles different from that of the parent parasite population and from each other. This drift away from the original 'set' of transcribed genes does not appear to follow a preset pattern and "epigenetic memory" of the yir transcribed in the parent parasite can be rapidly lost. Thus, regulation of pir gene transcription may be different from that of the well-characterised multigene family, var, of Plasmodium falciparum.

  6. [Morphology, biology and life-cycle of Plasmodium parasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hommel, Marcel

    2007-10-01

    Laveran first discovered that an infectious agent was responsible for malaria by using a simple microscope, without the assistance of specific stains. Our knowledge of the Plasmodium life cycle and cellular biology has progressed with each technological advance, from Romanovsky staining and histology to electron microscopy, immunocytochemistry, molecular methods and modern imaging techniques. The use of bird, primate and rodent models also made a major contribution, notably in the development of antimalarial drugs that are still in use today.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum-Derived Uric Acid Precipitates Induce Maturation of Dendritic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Hoef, Diana L.; Coppens, Isabelle; Holowka, Thomas; Ben Mamoun, Choukri; Branch, OraLee; Rodriguez, Ana

    2013-01-01

    Malaria is characterized by cyclical fevers and high levels of inflammation, and while an early inflammatory response contributes to parasite clearance, excessive and persistent inflammation can lead to severe forms of the disease. Here, we show that Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes contain uric acid precipitates in the cytoplasm of the parasitophorous vacuole, which are released when erythrocytes rupture. Uric acid precipitates are highly inflammatory molecules that are considered a danger signal for innate immunity and are the causative agent in gout. We determined that P. falciparum-derived uric acid precipitates induce maturation of human dendritic cells, increasing the expression of cell surface co-stimulatory molecules such as CD80 and CD86, while decreasing human leukocyte antigen-DR expression. In accordance with this, uric acid accounts for a significant proportion of the total stimulatory activity induced by parasite-infected erythrocytes. Moreover, the identification of uric acid precipitates in P. falciparum- and P. vivax-infected erythrocytes obtained directly from malaria patients underscores the in vivo and clinical relevance of our findings. Altogether, our data implicate uric acid precipitates as a potentially important contributor to the innate immune response to Plasmodium infection and may provide a novel target for adjunct therapies. PMID:23405174

  8. Sustained Malaria Control Over an 8-Year Period in Papua New Guinea: The Challenge of Low-Density Asymptomatic Plasmodium Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepfli, Cristian; Ome-Kaius, Maria; Jally, Shadrach; Malau, Elisheba; Maripal, Samuel; Ginny, Jason; Timinao, Lincoln; Kattenberg, Johanna Helena; Obadia, Thomas; White, Michael; Rarau, Patricia; Senn, Nicolas; Barry, Alyssa E; Kazura, James W; Mueller, Ivo; Robinson, Leanne J

    2017-12-12

    The scale-up of effective malaria control in the last decade has resulted in a substantial decline in the incidence of clinical malaria in many countries. The effects on the proportions of asymptomatic and submicroscopic infections and on transmission potential are yet poorly understood. In Papua New Guinea, vector control has been intensified since 2008, and improved diagnosis and treatment was introduced in 2012. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in Madang Province in 2006 (with 1280 survey participants), 2010 (with 2117 participants), and 2014 (with 2516 participants). Infections were quantified by highly sensitive quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis, and gametocytes were quantified by reverse-transcription qPCR analysis. Plasmodium falciparum prevalence determined by qPCR decreased from 42% in 2006 to 9% in 2014. The P. vivax prevalence decreased from 42% in 2006 to 13% in 2010 but then increased to 20% in 2014. Parasite densities decreased 5-fold from 2006 to 2010; 72% of P. falciparum and 87% of P. vivax infections were submicroscopic in 2014. Gametocyte density and positivity correlated closely with parasitemia, and population gametocyte prevalence decreased 3-fold for P. falciparum and 29% for P. vivax from 2010 to 2014. Sustained control has resulted in reduced malaria transmission potential, but an increasing proportion of gametocyte carriers are asymptomatic and submicroscopic and represent a challenge to malaria control. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  9. Reassessment of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium spp. in an endemic area with a very low incidence of malaria in extra-Amazonian Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alencar, Filomena E C; Malafronte, Rosely Dos Santos; Cerutti, Crispim; Natal Fernandes, Lícia; Buery, Julyana Cerqueira; Fux, Blima; Rezende, Helder Ricas; Miranda, Angelica Espinosa

    2017-11-09

    Regions with residual transmission are potential obstacles to the elimination of malaria. It is, therefore, essential to understand the factors associated with the maintenance of endemic malaria in these areas. The objective was to investigate whether the status of asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium spp. DNA is maintained in the long term in an extra-Amazonian region of Brazil with low incidence, residual malaria transmission. Asymptomatic carriers of Plasmodium DNA detected in a survey carried out between 2001 and 2004 were reassessed between 2010 and 2011 using questionnaires, PCR and thick and thin blood smear tests three times at 3-month intervals. Of the 48 carriers detected between 2001 and 2004, 37 were located. Of these, only two had positive PCR results and, as in the first survey, Plasmodium malariae DNA was detected. The findings suggest that untreated dwellers from this extra-Amazonian region, who initially harbour malaria parasites, may become negative without ever developing apparent symptoms of the disease. Although the possibility of re-infection cannot be ruled out, the finding of two individuals harbouring P. malariae, both in the first and in the second survey, may be compatible with a long-term carrier state for this parasite. Since most clinical cases of malaria in the region are a consequence of infection by Plasmodium vivax, the epidemiological impact of such long-term carriage would be limited.

  10. Plasmodium malariae Infection Associated with a High Burden of Anemia: A Hospital-Based Surveillance Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siobhan Langford

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasmodium malariae is a slow-growing parasite with a wide geographic distribution. Although generally regarded as a benign cause of malaria, it has been associated with nephrotic syndrome, particularly in young children, and can persist in the host for years. Morbidity associated with P. malariae infection has received relatively little attention, and the risk of P. malariae-associated nephrotic syndrome is unknown.We used data from a very large hospital-based surveillance system incorporating information on clinical diagnoses, blood cell parameters and treatment to describe the demographic distribution, morbidity and mortality associated with P. malariae infection in southern Papua, Indonesia. Between April 2004 and December 2013 there were 1,054,674 patient presentations to Mitra Masyarakat Hospital of which 196,380 (18.6% were associated with malaria and 5,097 were with P. malariae infection (constituting 2.6% of all malaria cases. The proportion of malaria cases attributable to P. malariae increased with age from 0.9% for patients under one year old to 3.1% for patients older than 15 years. Overall, 8.5% of patients with P. malariae infection required admission to hospital and the median length of stay for these patients was 2.5 days (Interquartile Range: 2.0-4.0 days. Patients with P. malariae infection had a lower mean hemoglobin concentration (9.0 g/dL than patients with P. falciparum (9.5 g/dL, P. vivax (9.6g/dL and mixed species infections (9.3g/dL. There were four cases of nephrotic syndrome recorded in patients with P. malariae infection, three of which were in children younger than 5 years old, giving a risk in this age group of 0.47% (95% Confidence Interval; 0.10% to 1.4%. Overall, 2.4% (n = 16 of patients hospitalized with P. malariae infection subsequently died in hospital, similar to the proportions for the other endemic Plasmodium species (range: 0% for P. ovale to 1.6% for P. falciparum.Plasmodium malariae infection is

  11. Multiple Origins of Mutations in the mdr1 Gene--A Putative Marker of Chloroquine Resistance in P. vivax.

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    Mette L Schousboe

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Chloroquine combined with primaquine has been the recommended antimalarial treatment of Plasmodium vivax malaria infections for six decades but the efficacy of this treatment regimen is threatened by chloroquine resistance (CQR. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the multidrug resistance gene, Pvmdr1 are putative determinants of CQR but the extent of their emergence at population level remains to be explored.In this study we describe the prevalence of SNPs in the Pvmdr1 among samples collected in seven P. vivax endemic countries and we looked for molecular evidence of drug selection by characterising polymorphism at microsatellite (MS loci flanking the Pvmdr1 gene.We examined the prevalence of SNPs in the Pvmdr1 gene among 267 samples collected from Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Nepal, Sudan, São Tomé and Ecuador. We measured and diversity in four microsatellite (MS markers flanking the Pvmdr1 gene to look evidence of selection on mutant alleles.SNP polymorphism in the Pvmdr1 gene was largely confined to codons T958M, Y976F and F1076L. Only 2.4% of samples were wildtype at all three codons (TYF, n = 5, 13.3% (n = 28 of the samples were single mutant MYF, 63.0% of samples (n = 133 were double mutant MYL, and 21.3% (n = 45 were triple mutant MFL. Clear geographic differences in the prevalence of these Pvmdr mutation combinations were observed. Significant linkage disequilibrium (LD between Pvmdr1 and MS alleles was found in populations sampled in Ecuador, Nepal and Sri Lanka, while significant LD between Pvmdr1 and the combined 4 MS locus haplotype was only seen in Ecuador and Sri Lanka. When combining the 5 loci, high level diversity, measured as expected heterozygosity (He, was seen in the complete sample set (He = 0.99, while He estimates for individual loci ranged from 0.00-0.93. Although Pvmdr1 haplotypes were not consistently associated with specific flanking MS alleles, there was significant differentiation between geographic

  12. Marker discovery in Trypanosoma vivax through GSS and comparative analysis. Preliminary data and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davila, A.M.R.; Guerreiro, L.T.A.; Souza, S.S.

    2005-01-01

    Trypanosoma vivax is a haemoparasite affecting the livestock industry in South America and Africa. Despite the high economic relevance of the disease caused by T. vivax, little work has been done on its molecular characterization, in contrast with human trypanosomes, such as T. brucei and T. cruzi. The present study reports the construction of a semi-normalized genomic library and the sequencing of 160 Genome Sequence Survey (GSS) ends of T. vivax. The analyses of this preliminary data show that this simple and rapid approach worked well to generate some potential new markers for this species. (author)

  13. Population genomic structure and adaptation in the zoonotic malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    KAUST Repository

    Assefa, Samuel

    2015-10-06

    Malaria cases caused by the zoonotic parasite Plasmodium knowlesi are being increasingly reported throughout Southeast Asia and in travelers returning from the region. To test for evidence of signatures of selection or unusual population structure in this parasite, we surveyed genome sequence diversity in 48 clinical isolates recently sampled from Malaysian Borneo and in five lines maintained in laboratory rhesus macaques after isolation in the 1960s from Peninsular Malaysia and the Philippines. Overall genomewide nucleotide diversity (π = 6.03 × 10) was much higher than has been seen in worldwide samples of either of the major endemic malaria parasite species Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. A remarkable substructure is revealed within P. knowlesi, consisting of two major sympatric clusters of the clinical isolates and a third cluster comprising the laboratory isolates. There was deep differentiation between the two clusters of clinical isolates [mean genomewide fixation index (F) = 0.21, with 9,293 SNPs having fixed differences of F = 1.0]. This differentiation showed marked heterogeneity across the genome, with mean F values of different chromosomes ranging from 0.08 to 0.34 and with further significant variation across regions within several chromosomes. Analysis of the largest cluster (cluster 1, 38 isolates) indicated long-term population growth, with negatively skewed allele frequency distributions (genomewide average Tajima\\'s D = -1.35). Against this background there was evidence of balancing selection on particular genes, including the circumsporozoite protein (csp) gene, which had the top Tajima\\'s D value (1.57), and scans of haplotype homozygosity implicate several genomic regions as being under recent positive selection.

  14. Minocycline prevents cerebral malaria, confers neuroprotection and increases survivability of mice during Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apoorv, Thittayil Suresh; Babu, Phanithi Prakash

    2017-02-01

    Cerebral malaria (CM) is a neurological complication arising due to Plasmodium falciparum or Plasmodium vivax infection. Minocycline, a semi-synthetic tetracycline, has been earlier reported to have a neuroprotective role in several neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the effect of minocycline treatment on the survivability of mice during experimental cerebral malaria (ECM). The currently accepted mouse model, C57BL/6 mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA, was used for the study. Infected mice were treated with an intra-peritoneal dose of minocycline hydrochloride, 45mg/kg daily for ten days that led to parasite clearance in blood, brain, liver and spleen on 7th day post-infection; and the mice survived until experiment ended (90days) without parasite recrudescence. Evans blue extravasation assay showed that blood-brain barrier integrity was maintained by minocycline. The tumor necrosis factor-alpha protein level and caspase activity, which is related to CM pathogenesis, was significantly reduced in the minocycline-treated group. Fluoro-Jade® C and hematoxylin-eosin staining of the brains of minocycline group revealed a decrease in degenerating neurons and absence of hemorrhages respectively. Minocycline treatment led to decrease in gene expressions of inflammatory mediators like interferon-gamma, CXCL10, CCL5, CCL2; receptors CXCR3 and CCR2; and hence decrease in T-cell-mediated cerebral inflammation. We also proved that this reduction in gene expressions is irrespective of the anti-parasitic property of minocycline. The distinct ability of minocycline to modulate gene expressions of CXCL10 and CXCR3 makes it effective than doxycycline, a tetracycline used as chemoprophylaxis. Our study shows that minocycline is highly effective in conferring neuroprotection during ECM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Population genomic structure and adaptation in the zoonotic malaria parasite Plasmodium knowlesi

    KAUST Repository

    Assefa, Samuel; Lim, Caeul; Preston, Mark D.; Duffy, Craig W.; Nair, Mridul; Adroub, Sabir; Kadir, Khamisah A.; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Divis, Paul; Clark, Taane G.; Duraisingh, Manoj T.; Conway, David J.; Pain, Arnab; Singh, Balbir

    2015-01-01

    Malaria cases caused by the zoonotic parasite Plasmodium knowlesi are being increasingly reported throughout Southeast Asia and in travelers returning from the region. To test for evidence of signatures of selection or unusual population structure in this parasite, we surveyed genome sequence diversity in 48 clinical isolates recently sampled from Malaysian Borneo and in five lines maintained in laboratory rhesus macaques after isolation in the 1960s from Peninsular Malaysia and the Philippines. Overall genomewide nucleotide diversity (π = 6.03 × 10) was much higher than has been seen in worldwide samples of either of the major endemic malaria parasite species Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. A remarkable substructure is revealed within P. knowlesi, consisting of two major sympatric clusters of the clinical isolates and a third cluster comprising the laboratory isolates. There was deep differentiation between the two clusters of clinical isolates [mean genomewide fixation index (F) = 0.21, with 9,293 SNPs having fixed differences of F = 1.0]. This differentiation showed marked heterogeneity across the genome, with mean F values of different chromosomes ranging from 0.08 to 0.34 and with further significant variation across regions within several chromosomes. Analysis of the largest cluster (cluster 1, 38 isolates) indicated long-term population growth, with negatively skewed allele frequency distributions (genomewide average Tajima's D = -1.35). Against this background there was evidence of balancing selection on particular genes, including the circumsporozoite protein (csp) gene, which had the top Tajima's D value (1.57), and scans of haplotype homozygosity implicate several genomic regions as being under recent positive selection.

  16. Rapid diagnostic tests as a source of DNA for Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Esbroeck Marjan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study describes the use of malaria rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs as a source of DNA for Plasmodium species-specific real-time PCR. Methods First, the best method to recover DNA from RDTs was investigated and then the applicability of this DNA extraction method was assessed on 12 different RDT brands. Finally, two RDT brands (OptiMAL Rapid Malaria Test and SDFK60 malaria Ag Plasmodium falciparum/Pan test were comprehensively evaluated on a panel of clinical samples submitted for routine malaria diagnosis at ITM. DNA amplification was done with the 18S rRNA real-time PCR targeting the four Plasmodium species. Results of PCR on RDT were compared to those obtained by PCR on whole blood samples. Results Best results were obtained by isolating DNA from the proximal part of the nitrocellulose component of the RDT strip with a simple DNA elution method. The PCR on RDT showed a detection limit of 0.02 asexual parasites/μl, which was identical to the same PCR on whole blood. For all 12 RDT brands tested, DNA was detected except for one brand when a low parasite density sample was applied. In RDTs with a plastic seal covering the nitrocellulose strip, DNA extraction was hampered. PCR analysis on clinical RDT samples demonstrated correct identification for single species infections for all RDT samples with asexual parasites of P. falciparum (n = 60, Plasmodium vivax (n = 10, Plasmodium ovale (n = 10 and Plasmodium malariae (n = 10. Samples with only gametocytes were detected in all OptiMAL and in 10 of the 11 SDFK60 tests. None of the negative samples (n = 20 gave a signal by PCR on RDT. With PCR on RDT, higher Ct-values were observed than with PCR on whole blood, with a mean difference of 2.68 for OptiMAL and 3.53 for SDFK60. Mixed infections were correctly identified with PCR on RDT in 4/5 OptiMAL tests and 2/5 SDFK60 tests. Conclusions RDTs are a reliable source of DNA for Plasmodium real-time PCR. This study demonstrates the

  17. Outbreak of human malaria caused by Plasmodium simium in the Atlantic Forest in Rio de Janeiro: a molecular epidemiological investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Patrícia; Zalis, Mariano Gustavo; de Pina-Costa, Anielle; Siqueira, Andre Machado; Júnior, Cesare Bianco; Silva, Sidnei; Areas, André Luiz Lisboa; Pelajo-Machado, Marcelo; de Alvarenga, Denise Anete Madureira; da Silva Santelli, Ana Carolina Faria; Albuquerque, Hermano Gomes; Cravo, Pedro; Santos de Abreu, Filipe Vieira; Peterka, Cassio Leonel; Zanini, Graziela Maria; Suárez Mutis, Martha Cecilia; Pissinatti, Alcides; Lourenço-de-Oliveira, Ricardo; de Brito, Cristiana Ferreira Alves; de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz, Maria; Culleton, Richard; Daniel-Ribeiro, Cláudio Tadeu

    2017-10-01

    Malaria was eliminated from southern and southeastern Brazil over 50 years ago. However, an increasing number of autochthonous episodes attributed to Plasmodium vivax have recently been reported from the Atlantic Forest region of Rio de Janeiro state. As the P vivax-like non-human primate malaria parasite species Plasmodium simium is locally enzootic, we performed a molecular epidemiological investigation to determine whether zoonotic malaria transmission is occurring. We examined blood samples from patients presenting with signs or symptoms suggestive of malaria as well as from local howler monkeys by microscopy and PCR. Samples were included from individuals if they had a history of travel to or resided in areas within the Rio de Janeiro Atlantic Forest, but not if they had malaria prophylaxis, blood transfusion or tissue or organ transplantation, or had travelled to known malaria endemic areas in the preceding year. Additionally, we developed a molecular assay based on sequencing of the parasite mitochondrial genome to distinguish between P vivax and P simium, and applied this assay to 33 cases from outbreaks that occurred in 2015, and 2016. A total of 49 autochthonous malaria cases were reported in 2015-16. Most patients were male, with a mean age of 44 years (SD 14·6), and 82% lived in urban areas of Rio de Janeiro state and had visited the Atlantic Forest for leisure or work-related activities. 33 cases were used for mitochondrial DNA sequencing. The assay was successfully performed for 28 samples, and all were shown to be P simium, indicative of zoonotic transmission of this species to human beings in this region. Sequencing of the whole mitochondrial genome of three of these cases showed that P simium is most closely related to P vivax parasites from South America. The malaria outbreaks in this region were caused by P simium, previously considered to be a monkey-specific malaria parasite, related to but distinct from P vivax, and which has never

  18. The effect of novel [3-fluoro-(2-phosphonoethoxy)propyl]purines on the inhibition of Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and human hypoxanthine-guanine-(xanthine) phosphoribosyltransferases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baszczyňski, Ondřej; Hocková, Dana; Janeba, Zlatko; Holý, Antonín; Jansa, Petr; Dračínský, Martin; Keough, D. T.; Guddat, L. W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 67, Sep (2013), s. 81-89 ISSN 0223-5234 R&D Projects: GA MV VG20102015046; GA ČR GAP207/11/0108 Grant - others:National Health and Madical Research Council(AU) 1030353; National Health and Medical Research Council(AU) 569703 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Malaria * nucleoside phosphonates * fluorine * purines * FPMP Subject RIV: FR - Pharmacology ; Medidal Chemistry Impact factor: 3.432, year: 2013

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of symmetric acyclic nucleoside bisphosphonates as inhibitors of the Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and human 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferases and the antimalarial activity of their prodrugs

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špaček, Petr; Keough, D. T.; Chavchich, M.; Dračínský, Martin; Janeba, Zlatko; Naesens, L.; Edstein, M. D.; Guddat, L. W.; Hocková, Dana

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 15 (2017), s. 4008-4030 ISSN 0968-0896 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-06049S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : enzyme inhibitors * nucleotide analogues * malaria Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Organic chemistry Impact factor: 2.930, year: 2016

  20. Synthesis of Novel N-Branched Acyclic Nucleoside Phosphonates As Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Human, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax 6-Oxopurine Phosphoribosyltransferases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hocková, Dana; Keough, D. T.; Janeba, Zlatko; Wang, T.; de Jersey, J.; Guddat, L. W.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 13 (2012), s. 6209-6223 ISSN 0022-2623 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP207/11/0108; GA MŠk 1M0508 Grant - others:NHMRC(AU) 569703; NHMRC(AU) 1030353 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : enzyme inhibitors * aza-ANPs * malaria Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 5.614, year: 2012

  1. The use of Aotus Trivirgatus and Macaca Mulatta as Tools for Studies on Prevention and Therapy of Infections with Plasmodium Falciparum and Plasmodium Vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-08-13

    t U w < s _. H S I § CO o Q I til w w f fe > o §1 En ^ w M Q E-" § CO SS S H 5 ^^ H I < in tu EL4 § w H | u EH "t H...with the continued invasion of hepatic cells . In that setting, cure could be achieved by delivery of an effective blood schizonticide such as

  2. A novel PCR-based system for the detection of four species of human malaria parasites and Plasmodium knowlesi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanako Komaki-Yasuda

    Full Text Available A microscopy-based diagnosis is the gold standard for the detection and identification of malaria parasites in a patient's blood. However, the detection of cases involving a low number of parasites and the differentiation of species sometimes requires a skilled microscopist. Although PCR-based diagnostic methods are already known to be very powerful tools, the time required to apply such methods is still much longer in comparison to traditional microscopic observation. Thus, improvements to PCR systems are sought to facilitate the more rapid and accurate detection of human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae, as well as P. knowlesi, which is a simian malaria parasite that is currently widely distributed in Southeast Asia. A nested PCR that targets the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of malaria parasites was performed using a "fast PCR enzyme". In the first PCR, universal primers for all parasite species were used. In the second PCR, inner-specific primers, which targeted sequences from P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi, were used. The PCR reaction time was reduced with the use of the "fast PCR enzyme", with only 65 minutes required to perform the first and second PCRs. The specific primers only reacted with the sequences of their targeted parasite species and never cross-reacted with sequences from other species under the defined PCR conditions. The diagnoses of 36 clinical samples that were obtained using this new PCR system were highly consistent with the microscopic diagnoses.

  3. Establishment of an In Vitro Assay for Assessing the Effects of Drugs on the Liver Stages of Plasmodium vivax Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    health and economies of the developing world has been dramatically underestimated. Pv has a unique feature in its life cycle . Uninucleate sporozoites (spz...severe symptoms in Pv infection may be due to the infection with multidrug resistant parasites [7,8]. Pv has a unique feature in its life cycle ...a unique feature in its life cycle . Uninucleate sporozoites (spz), after invasion of human hepatocytes, either proceed to develop into tens of

  4. EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION BY Trypanosoma vivax IN GOATS INFECÇÃO EXPERIMENTAL EM CAPRINOS COM Trypanosoma vivax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco David Nascimento Sousa

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Four goats were infected intravenously with 1.0 mL of cattle blood containing about 1.25 x 105 Trypanosoma vivax derived from spontaneous outbreak in cattle at Catolé do Rocha city, Paraíba, Brazil. Other four goats were used as controls. Parasitemia and body temperature were determined daily for 40 days. Animals were weighted each 7 days, and blood samples for blood cells counts were collected each 5 days. It was obtained a sample of liquor from each animal before death; cerebrospinal fluid samples were submitted to biochemical and cytological evaluations, density determination and parasite detection. A positive correlation was found between body temperature and parasitemia in infected animals. These animals presented anemia, leukopenia, hypoglycemia, decreased serum levels of total proteins and cholesterol, and nervous symptoms. Examination of cerebrospinal fluid resulted in decrease of glucose levels and increase in lactate dehydrogenase, cell counts and presence of the parasite. At necropsy it was found pale carcass, generalized infartation of lymphonodes, pulmonary edema, and liquid accumulation of pericardium. Histological changes were characterized by interstitial pneumonia, miocarditis, cardiac fibrosis, meningitis, and encephalitis. All observed changes confirm patogenicity of T. vivax.

    KEY WORDS: Experimental infection, trypanosomiasis, patogenicity.

    Quatro caprinos foram infectados experimentalmente por via intravenosa com 1,0 ml de sangue contendo aproximadamente 1,25 x 105 tripanossomas/ml, utilizando-se um isolado de Trypanosoma vivax de bovinos infectados naturalmente no município de Catolé do Rocha, Paraíba. A parasitemia e a temperatura foram determinadas diariamente durante quarenta dias. A cada cinco dias realizaram-se coletas de sangue para hemograma e análise bioquímica sérica. Antes do

  5. Towards an in vitro model of Plasmodium hypnozoites suitable for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Laurent; Gego, Audrey; Zeeman, Anne-Marie; Franetich, Jean-François; Silvie, Olivier; Rametti, Armelle; Le Grand, Roger; Dereuddre-Bosquet, Nathalie; Sauerwein, Robert; van Gemert, Geert-Jan; Vaillant, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, Alan W; Snounou, Georges; Kocken, Clemens H M; Mazier, Dominique

    2011-03-31

    Amongst the Plasmodium species in humans, only P. vivax and P. ovale produce latent hepatic stages called hypnozoites, which are responsible for malaria episodes long after a mosquito bite. Relapses contribute to increased morbidity, and complicate malaria elimination programs. A single drug effective against hypnozoites, primaquine, is available, but its deployment is curtailed by its haemolytic potential in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient persons. Novel compounds are thus urgently needed to replace primaquine. Discovery of compounds active against hypnozoites is restricted to the in vivo P. cynomolgi-rhesus monkey model. Slow growing hepatic parasites reminiscent of hypnozoites had been noted in cultured P. vivax-infected hepatoma cells, but similar forms are also observed in vitro by other species including P. falciparum that do not produce hypnozoites. P. falciparum or P. cynomolgi sporozoites were used to infect human or Macaca fascicularis primary hepatocytes, respectively. The susceptibility of the slow and normally growing hepatic forms obtained in vitro to three antimalarial drugs, one active against hepatic forms including hypnozoites and two only against the growing forms, was measured. The non-dividing slow growing P. cynomolgi hepatic forms, observed in vitro in primary hepatocytes from the natural host Macaca fascicularis, can be distinguished from similar forms seen in P. falciparum-infected human primary hepatocytes by the differential action of selected anti-malarial drugs. Whereas atovaquone and pyrimethamine are active on all the dividing hepatic forms observed, the P. cynomolgi slow growing forms are highly resistant to treatment by these drugs, but remain susceptible to primaquine. Resistance of the non-dividing P. cynomolgi forms to atovaquone and pyrimethamine, which do not prevent relapses, strongly suggests that these slow growing forms are hypnozoites. This represents a first step towards the development of a practical medium

  6. Towards an in vitro model of Plasmodium hypnozoites suitable for drug discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent Dembele

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Amongst the Plasmodium species in humans, only P. vivax and P. ovale produce latent hepatic stages called hypnozoites, which are responsible for malaria episodes long after a mosquito bite. Relapses contribute to increased morbidity, and complicate malaria elimination programs. A single drug effective against hypnozoites, primaquine, is available, but its deployment is curtailed by its haemolytic potential in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient persons. Novel compounds are thus urgently needed to replace primaquine. Discovery of compounds active against hypnozoites is restricted to the in vivo P. cynomolgi-rhesus monkey model. Slow growing hepatic parasites reminiscent of hypnozoites had been noted in cultured P. vivax-infected hepatoma cells, but similar forms are also observed in vitro by other species including P. falciparum that do not produce hypnozoites.P. falciparum or P. cynomolgi sporozoites were used to infect human or Macaca fascicularis primary hepatocytes, respectively. The susceptibility of the slow and normally growing hepatic forms obtained in vitro to three antimalarial drugs, one active against hepatic forms including hypnozoites and two only against the growing forms, was measured.The non-dividing slow growing P. cynomolgi hepatic forms, observed in vitro in primary hepatocytes from the natural host Macaca fascicularis, can be distinguished from similar forms seen in P. falciparum-infected human primary hepatocytes by the differential action of selected anti-malarial drugs. Whereas atovaquone and pyrimethamine are active on all the dividing hepatic forms observed, the P. cynomolgi slow growing forms are highly resistant to treatment by these drugs, but remain susceptible to primaquine.Resistance of the non-dividing P. cynomolgi forms to atovaquone and pyrimethamine, which do not prevent relapses, strongly suggests that these slow growing forms are hypnozoites. This represents a first step towards the development of a

  7. Plasmodium subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1): insights into the active-site structure, specificity and function of a pan-malaria drug target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers-Martinez, Chrislaine; Suarez, Catherine; Fulle, Simone; Kher, Samir; Penzo, Maria; Ebejer, Jean-Paul; Koussis, Kostas; Hackett, Fiona; Jirgensons, Aigars; Finn, Paul; Blackman, Michael J

    2012-05-15

    Release of the malaria merozoite from its host erythrocyte (egress) and invasion of a fresh cell are crucial steps in the life cycle of the malaria pathogen. Subtilisin-like protease 1 (SUB1) is a parasite serine protease implicated in both processes. In the most dangerous human malarial species, Plasmodium falciparum, SUB1 has previously been shown to have several parasite-derived substrates, proteolytic cleavage of which is important both for egress and maturation of the merozoite surface to enable invasion. Here we have used molecular modelling, existing knowledge of SUB1 substrates, and recombinant expression and characterisation of additional Plasmodium SUB1 orthologues, to examine the active site architecture and substrate specificity of P. falciparum SUB1 and its orthologues from the two other major human malaria pathogens Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, as well as from the rodent malaria species, Plasmodium berghei. Our results reveal a number of unusual features of the SUB1 substrate binding cleft, including a requirement to interact with both prime and non-prime side residues of the substrate recognition motif. Cleavage of conserved parasite substrates is mediated by SUB1 in all parasite species examined, and the importance of this is supported by evidence for species-specific co-evolution of protease and substrates. Two peptidyl alpha-ketoamides based on an authentic PfSUB1 substrate inhibit all SUB1 orthologues examined, with inhibitory potency enhanced by the presence of a carboxyl moiety designed to introduce prime side interactions with the protease. Our findings demonstrate that it should be possible to develop 'pan-reactive' drug-like compounds that inhibit SUB1 in all three major human malaria pathogens, enabling production of broad-spectrum antimalarial drugs targeting SUB1. Copyright © 2012 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Avian Plasmodium in Eastern Austrian mosquitoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoener, Ellen; Uebleis, Sarah Susanne; Butter, Julia; Nawratil, Michaela; Cuk, Claudia; Flechl, Eva; Kothmayer, Michael; Obwaller, Adelheid G; Zechmeister, Thomas; Rubel, Franz; Lebl, Karin; Zittra, Carina; Fuehrer, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-29

    Insect vectors, namely mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae), are compulsory for malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) to complete their life cycle. Despite this, little is known about vector competence of different mosquito species for the transmission of avian malaria parasites. In this study, nested PCR was used to determine Plasmodium spp. occurrence in pools of whole individuals, as well as the diversity of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences in wild-caught mosquitoes sampled across Eastern Austria in 2013-2015. A total of 45,749 mosquitoes in 2628 pools were collected, of which 169 pools (6.43%) comprising 9 mosquito species were positive for avian Plasmodium, with the majority of positives in mosquitoes of Culex pipiens s.l./Culex torrentium. Six different avian Plasmodium lineages were found, the most common were Plasmodium vaughani SYAT05, Plasmodium sp. Linn1 and Plasmodium relictum SGS1. In 2014, mosquitoes of the Culex pipiens complex were genetically identified and Culex pipiens f. pipiens presented with the highest number of avian Plasmodium positives (n = 37; 16.74%). Despite this, the minimum infection rate (MIR) was highest in Culex torrentium (5.36%) and Culex pipiens f. pipiens/f. molestus hybrids (5.26%). During 2014 and 2015, seasonal and annual changes in Plasmodium lineage distribution were also observed. In both years P. vaughani SYAT05 dominated at the beginning of the sampling period to be replaced later in the year by P. relictum SGS1 (2014) and Plasmodium sp. Linn1 (2015). This is the first large-scale study of avian Plasmodium parasites in Austrian mosquitoes. These results are of special interest, because molecular identification of the taxa of the Cx. pipiens complex and Cx. torrentium enabled the determination of Plasmodium prevalence in the different mosquito taxa and hybrids of this complex. Since pools of whole insects were used, it is not possible to assert any vector competence in any of the examined mosquitoes, but the results

  9. [Congenital malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenz, W; Trop, M; Kollaritsch, H; Reinthaler, F

    2000-05-19

    Increasing tourism and growing numbers of immigrants from malaria-endemic countries are leading to a higher importation rate of rare tropical disorders in European countries. We describe, to the best of our knowledge, the first case of connatal malaria in Austria. The patient is the first child of a 24 year old mother who was born in Ghana and immigrated to Austria one and a half years before delivery. She did not stay in an endemic region during this period and did not show fever or any other signs of malaria. The boy was healthy for the first six weeks of his life. In the 8th week of life he was admitted to our hospital due to persistent fever of unknown origin. On physical examination he showed only mild splenomegaly. Routine laboratory testing revealed mild hemolytic anemia with a hemoglobin value of 8.3 g/l. In the blood smear Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium malariae were detected. Oral therapy with quinine hydrochloride was successful and blood smears became negative for Plasmodia within 6 days. This case shows that congenital malaria can occur in children of clinically healthy women who were born in malaria-endemic areas even one and a half year after they have immigrated to non-endemic regions.

  10. Genetic diversity of three surface protein genes in Plasmodium malariae from three Asian countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisutham, Suttipat; Saralamba, Naowarat; Sriprawat, Kanlaya; Mayxay, Mayfong; Smithuis, Frank; Nosten, Francois; Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon; Day, Nicholas P J; Dondorp, Arjen M; Imwong, Mallika

    2018-01-11

    Genetic diversity of the three important antigenic proteins, namely thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP), apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1), and 6-cysteine protein (P48/45), all of which are found in various developmental stages of Plasmodium parasites is crucial for targeted vaccine development. While studies related to the genetic diversity of these proteins are available for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, barely enough information exists regarding Plasmodium malariae. The present study aims to demonstrate the genetic variations existing among these three genes in P. malariae by analysing their diversity at nucleotide and protein levels. Three surface protein genes were isolated from 45 samples collected in Thailand (N = 33), Myanmar (N = 8), and Lao PDR (N = 4), using conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Then, the PCR products were sequenced and analysed using BioEdit, MEGA6, and DnaSP programs. The average pairwise nucleotide diversities (π) of P. malariae trap, ama1, and p48/45 were 0.00169, 0.00413, and 0.00029, respectively. The haplotype diversities (Hd) of P. malariae trap, ama1, and p48/45 were 0.919, 0.946, and 0.130, respectively. Most of the nucleotide substitutions were non-synonymous, which indicated that the genetic variations of these genes were maintained by positive diversifying selection, thus, suggesting their role as a potential target of protective immune response. Amino acid substitutions of P. malariae TRAP, AMA1, and P48/45 could be categorized to 17, 20, and 2 unique amino-acid variants, respectively. For further vaccine development, carboxyl terminal of P48/45 would be a good candidate according to conserved amino acid at low genetic diversity (π = 0.2-0.3). High mutational diversity was observed in P. malariae trap and ama1 as compared to p48/45 in P. malariae samples isolated from Thailand, Myanmar, and Lao PDR. Taken together, these results suggest that P48/45 might be a good vaccine

  11. Development and evaluation of a 28S rRNA gene-based nested PCR assay for P. falciparum and P. vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakalapati, Deepak; Garg, Shilpi; Middha, Sheetal; Acharya, Jyoti; Subudhi, Amit K; Boopathi, Arunachalam P; Saxena, Vishal; Kochar, Sanjay K; Kochar, Dhanpat K; Das, Ashis

    2013-01-01

    The 28S rRNA gene was amplified and sequenced from P. falciparum and P. vivax isolates collected from northwest India. Based upon the sequence diversity of the Plasmodium 28SrRNA gene in comparison with its human counterpart, various nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) primers were designed from the 3R region of the 28SrRNA gene and evaluated on field isolates. This is the first report demonstrating the utility of this gene for species-specific diagnosis of malaria for these two species, prevalent in India. The initial evaluation on 363 clinical isolates indicated that, in comparison with microscopy, which showed sensitivity and specificity of 85.39% and 100% respectively, the sensitivity and specificity of the nested PCR assay was found to be 99.08% and 100% respectively. This assay was also successful in detecting mixed infections that are undetected by microscopy. Our results demonstrate the utility of the 28S rRNA gene as a diagnostic target for the detection of the major plasmodial species infecting humans. PMID:23816509

  12. A comparative in silico linear B-cell epitope prediction and characterization for South American and African Trypanosoma vivax strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Rafael Lucas Muniz; Rodrigues, Carla Monadeli Filgueira; Coatnoan, Nicolas; Cosson, Alain; Cadioli, Fabiano Antonio; Garcia, Herakles Antonio; Gerber, Alexandra Lehmkuhl; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Minoprio, Paola Marcella Camargo; Teixeira, Marta Maria Geraldes; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro

    2018-02-27

    Trypanosoma vivax is a parasite widespread across Africa and South America. Immunological methods using recombinant antigens have been developed aiming at specific and sensitive detection of infections caused by T. vivax. Here, we sequenced for the first time the transcriptome of a virulent T. vivax strain (Lins), isolated from an outbreak of severe disease in South America (Brazil) and performed a computational integrated analysis of genome, transcriptome and in silico predictions to identify and characterize putative linear B-cell epitopes from African and South American T. vivax. A total of 2278, 3936 and 4062 linear B-cell epitopes were respectively characterized for the transcriptomes of T. vivax LIEM-176 (Venezuela), T. vivax IL1392 (Nigeria) and T. vivax Lins (Brazil) and 4684 for the genome of T. vivax Y486 (Nigeria). The results presented are a valuable theoretical source that may pave the way for highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tools. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Combinatorial gene regulation in Plasmodium falciparum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, V. van; Huynen, M.A.

    2006-01-01

    The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum has a complicated life cycle with large variations in its gene expression pattern, but it contains relatively few specific transcriptional regulators. To elucidate this paradox, we identified regulatory sequences, using an approach that integrates the

  14. Immunoglobulin profile of Nigerian children with Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-01-18

    Jan 18, 2008 ... IgG correlated positively with the level of malarial parasitaemia (r = 0.99). We deduce that ... stages of Plasmodium falciparum and attempts have con- sequently been ... analysis using Microsoft Excel package. RESULTS.

  15. Using CF11 cellulose columns to inexpensively and effectively remove human DNA from Plasmodium falciparum-infected whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Meera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome and transcriptome studies of Plasmodium nucleic acids obtained from parasitized whole blood are greatly improved by depletion of human DNA or enrichment of parasite DNA prior to next-generation sequencing and microarray hybridization. The most effective method currently used is a two-step procedure to deplete leukocytes: centrifugation using density gradient media followed by filtration through expensive, commercially available columns. This method is not easily implemented in field studies that collect hundreds of samples and simultaneously process samples for multiple laboratory analyses. Inexpensive syringes, hand-packed with CF11 cellulose powder, were recently shown to improve ex vivo cultivation of Plasmodium vivax obtained from parasitized whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether CF11 columns could be adapted to isolate Plasmodium falciparum DNA from parasitized whole blood and achieve current quantity and purity requirements for Illumina sequencing. Methods The CF11 procedure was compared with the current two-step standard of leukocyte depletion using parasitized red blood cells cultured in vitro and parasitized blood obtained ex vivo from Cambodian patients with malaria. Procedural variations in centrifugation and column size were tested, along with a range of blood volumes and parasite densities. Results CF11 filtration reliably produces 500 nanograms of DNA with less than 50% human DNA contamination, which is comparable to that obtained by the two-step method and falls within the current quality control requirements for Illumina sequencing. In addition, a centrifuge-free version of the CF11 filtration method to isolate P. falciparum DNA at remote and minimally equipped field sites in malaria-endemic areas was validated. Conclusions CF11 filtration is a cost-effective, scalable, one-step approach to remove human DNA from P. falciparum-infected whole blood samples.

  16. Genome-scale comparison of expanded gene families in Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi with Plasmodium malariae and with other Plasmodium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Templeton, Thomas J; Subudhi, Amit Kumar; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Tang, Jianxia; Lu, Feng; Naeem, Raeece; Hashish, Yasmeen; Oguike, Mary C; Benavente, Ernest Diez; Clark, Taane G; Sutherland, Colin J; Barnwell, John W; Culleton, Richard; Cao, Jun; Pain, Arnab

    2016-10-01

    Malaria in humans is caused by six species of Plasmodium parasites, of which the nuclear genome sequences for the two Plasmodium ovale spp., P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium malariae have not yet been analyzed. Here we present an analysis of the nuclear genome sequences of these three parasites, and describe gene family expansions therein. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable and have sympatric ranges through the tropics of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Both P. ovale spp. show expansion of the surfin variant gene family, and an amplification of the Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) superfamily which results in an approximately 30% increase in genome size. For comparison, we have also analyzed the draft nuclear genome of P. malariae, a malaria parasite causing mild malaria symptoms with a quartan life cycle, long-term chronic infections, and wide geographic distribution. Plasmodium malariae shows only a moderate level of expansion of pir genes, and unique expansions of a highly diverged transmembrane protein family with over 550 members and the gamete P25/27 gene family. The observed diversity in the P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi surface antigens, combined with their phylogenetic separation, supports consideration that the two parasites be given species status. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. Genome-scale comparison of expanded gene families in Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi with Plasmodium malariae and with other Plasmodium species

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Hifzur Rahman; Templeton, Thomas J.; Subudhi, Amit; Ramaprasad, Abhinay; Tang, Jianxia; Lu, Feng; Naeem, Raeece; Hashish, Yasmeen; Oguike, Mary C.; Benavente, Ernest Diez; Clark, Taane G.; Sutherland, Colin J.; Barnwell, John W.; Culleton, Richard; Cao, Jun; Pain, Arnab

    2016-01-01

    Malaria in humans is caused by six species of Plasmodium parasites, of which the nuclear genome sequences for the two Plasmodium ovale spp., P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium malariae have not yet been analyzed. Here we present an analysis of the nuclear genome sequences of these three parasites, and describe gene family expansions therein. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable and have sympatric ranges through the tropics of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Both P. ovale spp. show expansion of the surfin variant gene family, and an amplification of the Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) superfamily which results in an approximately 30% increase in genome size. For comparison, we have also analyzed the draft nuclear genome of P. malariae, a malaria parasite causing mild malaria symptoms with a quartan life cycle, long-term chronic infections, and wide geographic distribution. Plasmodium malariae shows only a moderate level of expansion of pir genes, and unique expansions of a highly diverged transmembrane protein family with over 550 members and the gamete P25/27 gene family. The observed diversity in the P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi surface antigens, combined with their phylogenetic separation, supports consideration that the two parasites be given species status.

  18. Genome-scale comparison of expanded gene families in Plasmodium ovale wallikeri and Plasmodium ovale curtisi with Plasmodium malariae and with other Plasmodium species

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Hifzur Rahman

    2016-07-05

    Malaria in humans is caused by six species of Plasmodium parasites, of which the nuclear genome sequences for the two Plasmodium ovale spp., P. ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri, and Plasmodium malariae have not yet been analyzed. Here we present an analysis of the nuclear genome sequences of these three parasites, and describe gene family expansions therein. Plasmodium ovale curtisi and P. ovale wallikeri are genetically distinct but morphologically indistinguishable and have sympatric ranges through the tropics of Africa, Asia and Oceania. Both P. ovale spp. show expansion of the surfin variant gene family, and an amplification of the Plasmodium interspersed repeat (pir) superfamily which results in an approximately 30% increase in genome size. For comparison, we have also analyzed the draft nuclear genome of P. malariae, a malaria parasite causing mild malaria symptoms with a quartan life cycle, long-term chronic infections, and wide geographic distribution. Plasmodium malariae shows only a moderate level of expansion of pir genes, and unique expansions of a highly diverged transmembrane protein family with over 550 members and the gamete P25/27 gene family. The observed diversity in the P. ovale wallikeri and P. ovale curtisi surface antigens, combined with their phylogenetic separation, supports consideration that the two parasites be given species status.

  19. Hepatocyte CD81 is required for Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium yoelii sporozoite infectivity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silvie, O.; Rubinstein, E.; Franetich, J.F.; Prenant, M.; Belnoue, E.; Renia, L.; Hannoun, L.; Eling, W.M.C.; Levy, S.; Boucheix, C.; Mazier, D.

    2003-01-01

    Plasmodium sporozoites are transmitted through the bite of infected mosquitoes and first invade the liver of the mammalian host, as an obligatory step of the life cycle of the malaria parasite. Within hepatocytes, Plasmodium sporozoites reside in a membrane-bound vacuole, where they differentiate

  20. Evaluation of three different DNA extraction methods from blood samples collected in dried filter paper in Plasmodium subpatent infections from the Amazon region in Brazil Avaliação de três métodos de extração de DNA obtidos de amostras de sangue coletadas em papel de filtro em infecções subpatentes de Plasmodium da região Amazônica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection is a new challenge for public health in the American region. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the best method for diagnosing subpatent parasitemias. In endemic areas, blood collection is hampered by geographical distances and deficient transport and storage conditions of the samples. Because DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper is an efficient method for molecular studies in high parasitemic individuals, we investigated whether the technique could be an alternative for Plasmodium diagnosis among asymptomatic and pauciparasitemic subjects. In this report we compared three different methods (Chelex®-saponin, methanol and TRIS-EDTA of DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper from asymptomatic Plasmodium-infected individuals. Polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Plasmodium species showed the best results when the Chelex®-saponin method was used. Even though the sensitivity of detection was approximately 66% and 31% for P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively, this method did not show the effectiveness in DNA extraction required for molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium. The development of better methods for extracting DNA from blood collected on filter paper is important for the diagnosis of subpatent malarial infections in remote areas and would contribute to establishing the epidemiology of this form of infection.Infecção assintomática por Plasmodium é um novo desafio para a saúde pública no Brasil. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR é o melhor método para detectar baixas parasitemias presentes em pacientes com infecção assintomática. Nas áreas endêmicas, a coleta de sangue total é dificultada pela distancia geográfica, transporte e adequada armazenagem das amostras. A coleta de sangue em papel de filtro pode ser uma alternativa nessas áreas de difícil acesso. Neste estudo foram comparados três diferentes métodos de extração de ADN a partir de

  1. Electron Microscopy of Intracellular Protozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    often with disrupted plasma membranes and a matrix which was vacuolated and less electron- dense than normal (figure 7). The merozoites were covered...Plasmodium brasilianum. J. Infect. Dis., 75: 1-32. -~ ~.Clak, .A., Allison, A.C., Cox, F.E., 1976. Protection of mice against Babesia and Plasmodium with BCG ...binding trypanosome were observed in each case (Fig 6). Lack of enhanced uptake by cells of BCG -treated mice. BCG (Mycobacterium bovis) treatment of mice

  2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the rapid detection and characterization of chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria in returned travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcas, Gabriella A; Soeller, Rainer; Zhong, Kathleen; Zahirieh, Alireza; Kain, Kevin C

    2006-03-01

    Imported drug-resistant malaria is a growing problem in industrialized countries. Rapid and accurate diagnosis is essential to prevent malaria-associated mortality in returned travelers. However, outside of a limited number of specialized centers, the microscopic diagnosis of malaria is slow, unreliable, and provides little information about drug resistance. Molecular diagnostics have the potential to overcome these limitations. We developed and evaluated a rapid, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect Plasmodium falciparum malaria and chloroquine (CQ)-resistance determinants in returned travelers who are febrile. A real-time PCR assay based on detection of the K76T mutation in PfCRT (K76T) of P. falciparum was developed on a LightCycler platform (Roche). The performance characteristics of the real-time assay were compared with those of the nested PCR-restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) and the sequence analyses of samples obtained from 200 febrile returned travelers, who included 125 infected with P. falciparum (48 of whom were infected CQ-susceptible [K76] and 77 of whom were CQ-resistant [T76] P. falciparum), 22 infected with Plasmodium vivax, 10 infected with Plasmodium ovale, 3 infected with Plasmodium malariae malaria, and 40 infected with other febrile syndromes. All patient samples were coded, and all analyses were performed blindly. The real-time PCR assay detected multiple pfcrt haplotypes associated with CQ resistance in geographically diverse malaria isolates acquired by travelers. Compared with nested-PCR RFLP (the reference standard), the real-time assay was 100% sensitive and 96.2% specific for detection of the P. falciparum K76T mutation. This assay is rapid, sensitive, and specific for the detection and characterization of CQ-resistant P. falciparum malaria in returned travelers. This assay is automated, standardized, and suitable for routine use in clinical diagnostic laboratories.

  3. Trypanosomosis due to Trypanosoma vivax in ruminants in Latin America: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwinger, R.H.; Hall, M.J.R.

    2000-01-01

    The history and the present situation of T. vivax infections in Latin America are reviewed. Clinical signs, diagnostic aspects, therapy and control of the disease are briefly discussed. In view of the recent emergence of bovine trypanosomosis in areas where it previously never existed, it is advisable to invest in improving the diagnosis and control of the disease in Latin America. (author)

  4. Efficacy of Artemether in Unresolving Plasmodium Falciparum Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The emergence of possible resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria to artemisinin known for its immense benefit in malaria chemotherapy is worrisome. We report a case of unresolving Plasmodium falciparum malaria to Artesunate treatment in a 29- year old man in Enugu Nigeria. Plasmodium falciparum count of Giemsa ...

  5. Helminth parasites alter protection against Plasmodium infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar-Castañon, Víctor H; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    More than one-third of the world's population is infected with one or more helminthic parasites. Helminth infections are prevalent throughout tropical and subtropical regions where malaria pathogens are transmitted. Malaria is the most widespread and deadliest parasitic disease. The severity of the disease is strongly related to parasite density and the host's immune responses. Furthermore, coinfections between both parasites occur frequently. However, little is known regarding how concomitant infection with helminths and Plasmodium affects the host's immune response. Helminthic infections are frequently massive, chronic, and strong inductors of a Th2-type response. This implies that infection by such parasites could alter the host's susceptibility to subsequent infections by Plasmodium. There are a number of reports on the interactions between helminths and Plasmodium; in some, the burden of Plasmodium parasites increased, but others reported a reduction in the parasite. This review focuses on explaining many of these discrepancies regarding helminth-Plasmodium coinfections in terms of the effects that helminths have on the immune system. In particular, it focuses on helminth-induced immunosuppression and the effects of cytokines controlling polarization toward the Th1 or Th2 arms of the immune response.

  6. Clinical and molecular surveillance of drug resistant vivax malaria in Myanmar (2009-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyunt, Myat Htut; Han, Jin-Hee; Wang, Bo; Aye, Khin Myo; Aye, Kyin Hla; Lee, Seong-Kyun; Htut, Ye; Kyaw, Myat Phone; Han, Kay Thwe; Han, Eun-Taek

    2017-03-16

    One of the major challenges for control and elimination of malaria is ongoing spread and emergence of drug resistance. While epidemiology and surveillance of the drug resistance in falciparum malaria is being explored globally, there are few studies on drug resistance vivax malaria. To assess the spread of drug-resistant vivax malaria in Myanmar, a multisite, prospective, longitudinal study with retrospective analysis of previous therapeutic efficacy studies, was conducted. A total of 906 from nine study sites were included in retrospective analysis and 208 from three study sites in prospective study. Uncomplicated vivax mono-infected patients were recruited and monitored with longitudinal follow-up until day 28 after treatment with chloroquine. Amplification and sequence analysis of molecular markers, such as mutations in pvcrt-O, pvmdr1, pvdhps and pvdhfr, were done in day-0 samples in prospective study. Clinical failure cases were found only in Kawthaung, southern Myanmar and western Myanmar sites within 2009-2016. Chloroquine resistance markers, pvcrt-O 'AAG' insertion and pvmdr1 mutation (Y976F) showed higher mutant rate in southern and central Myanmar than western site: 66.7, 72.7 vs 48.3% and 26.7, 17.0 vs 1.7%, respectively. A similar pattern of significantly higher mutant rate of antifolate resistance markers, pvdhps (S382A, K512M, A553G) and pvdhfr (F57L/I, S58R, T61M, S117T/N) were noted. Although clinical failure rate was low, widespread distribution of chloroquine and antifolate resistance molecular makers alert to the emergence and spread of drug resistance vivax malaria in Myanmar. Proper strategy and action plan to eliminate and contain the resistant strain strengthened together with clinical and molecular surveillance on drug resistance vivax is recommended.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum: attenuation by irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waki, S.; Yonome, I.; Suzuki, M.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum was investigated. The cultured malarial parasites at selected stages of development were exposed to gamma rays and the sensitivity of each stage was determined. The stages most sensitive to irradiation were the ring forms and the early trophozoites; late trophozoites were relatively insensitive. The greatest resistance was shown when parasites were irradiated at a time of transition from the late trophozoite and schizont stages to young ring forms. The characteristics of radiosensitive variation in the parasite cycle resembled that of mammalian cells. Growth curves of parasites exposed to doses of irradiation upto 150 gray had the same slope as nonirradiated controls but parasites which were exposed to 200 gray exhibited a growth curve which was less steep than that for parasites in other groups. Less than 10 organisms survived from the 10(6) parasites exposed to this high dose of irradiation; the possibility exists of obtaining radiation-attenuated P. falciparum

  8. Occurrence of Plasmodium in Anatidae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Kocan, R.M.

    1970-01-01

    Until a little over a decade ago reports of Plasrnodium in geese, ducks, and swans were the result of examination of single blood smears from wild birds. One would gather from the earlier studies that Anatidae are infrequently infected. During the past decade we have conducted studies on prevalence of Plasmodium by an isodiagnosis technique, inoculating blood from wild birds into captive young geese, ducks, and other species of birds and determining the status of infection in the donors by examination of repetitive blood smears from the recipients. Examination by this technique of a series of adult Canada geese from the Seney National Wildlife Refuge in northern Michigan uncovered a prevalence of 60% during five successive years. Domestic geese were the primary recipients but we found that several other species of geese, ducks, and gulls were also susceptible. Similar studies on Canada geese from other areas (Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and southern Michigan) uncovered infection rates from zero to 27%. Following isolation of Plasmodlum in a single canvasback duck (Aythya valisineria) in southern Michigan by inoculation into a domestic duck, a series of 88 canvasbacks from Chesapeake Bay in Maryland this winter uncovered an infection rate of 27%. The most common parasite observed in both the geese and was as P. circumflexum.

  9. A novel PCR-based system for the detection of four species of human malaria parasites and Plasmodium knowlesi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaki-Yasuda, Kanako; Vincent, Jeanne Perpétue; Nakatsu, Masami; Kato, Yasuyuki; Ohmagari, Norio

    2018-01-01

    A microscopy-based diagnosis is the gold standard for the detection and identification of malaria parasites in a patient’s blood. However, the detection of cases involving a low number of parasites and the differentiation of species sometimes requires a skilled microscopist. Although PCR-based diagnostic methods are already known to be very powerful tools, the time required to apply such methods is still much longer in comparison to traditional microscopic observation. Thus, improvements to PCR systems are sought to facilitate the more rapid and accurate detection of human malaria parasites Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, and P. malariae, as well as P. knowlesi, which is a simian malaria parasite that is currently widely distributed in Southeast Asia. A nested PCR that targets the small subunit ribosomal RNA genes of malaria parasites was performed using a “fast PCR enzyme”. In the first PCR, universal primers for all parasite species were used. In the second PCR, inner-specific primers, which targeted sequences from P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi, were used. The PCR reaction time was reduced with the use of the “fast PCR enzyme”, with only 65 minutes required to perform the first and second PCRs. The specific primers only reacted with the sequences of their targeted parasite species and never cross-reacted with sequences from other species under the defined PCR conditions. The diagnoses of 36 clinical samples that were obtained using this new PCR system were highly consistent with the microscopic diagnoses. PMID:29370297

  10. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness.Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections.These results could have an

  11. Functional Identification of the Plasmodium Centromere and Generation of a Plasmodium Artificial Chromosome

    OpenAIRE

    Iwanaga, Shiroh; Khan, Shahid M.; Kaneko, Izumi; Christodoulou, Zoe; Newbold, Chris; Yuda, Masao; Janse, Chris J.; Waters, Andrew P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The artificial chromosome represents a useful tool for gene transfer, both as cloning vectors and in chromosome biology research. To generate a Plasmodium artificial chromosome (PAC), we had to first functionally identify and characterize the parasite's centromere. A putative centromere (pbcen5) was cloned from chromosome 5 of the rodent parasite P. berghei based on a Plasmodium gene-synteny map. Plasmids containing pbcen5 were stably maintained in parasites during a blood-stage infec...

  12. Role of Serum Lactate and Malarial Retinopathy in Prognosis and Outcome of Falciparum and Vivax Cerebral Malaria: A Prospective Cohort Study in Adult Assamese Tribes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Kaustubh Suresh; Uttarwar, Sahil Prashant; Tambe, Nikhil Narayan; Sharma, Rohan S; Takalkar, Anant Arunrao

    2016-01-01

    There is no comprehensive data or studies relating to clinical presentation and prognosis of cerebral malaria (CM) in the tribal settlements of Assam. High rates of transmission and deaths from complicated malaria guided us to conduct a prospective observational cohort study to evaluate the factors associated with poor outcome and prognosis in patients of CM. We admitted 112 patients to the Bandarpara and Damodarpur Tribal Health Centers (THCs) between 2011 and 2013 with a strict diagnosis of CM. We assessed the role of clinical, fundoscopy and laboratory findings (mainly lactic acid) in the immediate outcome in terms of death and recovery, duration of hospitalization, neurocognitive impairment, cranial nerve palsies and focal neurological deficit. The case fatality rate of CM was 33.03% and the prevalence of residual neurological sequelae at discharge was 16.07%. These are significantly higher than the previous studies. The mortality rate and neurological complications rate in patients with retinal whitening was 38.46% and 23.07%, with vessel changes was 25% and 18.75%, with retinal hemorrhage was 55.55% and 11.11% and with hyperlactatemia was 53.85% and 18.46%, respectively. Three patients of papilledema alone died. Our study suggests a strong correlation between hyperlactatemia, retinal changes (whitening, vessel changes and hemorrhage) and depth and duration of coma with longer duration of hospitalization, increased mortality, neurological sequelae and death. Plasmodium vivax mono-infection as a cause of CM has been confirmed. Prognostic evaluation of CM is useful for judicious allocation of resources in the THC.

  13. Role of serum lactate and malarial retinopathy in prognosis and outcome of falciparum and vivax cerebral Malaria: A prospective cohort study in adult assamese tribes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaustubh Suresh Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is no comprehensive data or studies relating to clinical presentation and prognosis of cerebral malaria (CM in the tribal settlements of Assam. High rates of transmission and deaths from complicated malaria guided us to conduct a prospective observational cohort study to evaluate the factors associated with poor outcome and prognosis in patients of CM. Materials and Methods: We admitted 112 patients to the Bandarpara and Damodarpur Tribal Health Centers (THCs between 2011 and 2013 with a strict diagnosis of CM. We assessed the role of clinical, fundoscopy and laboratory findings (mainly lactic acid in the immediate outcome in terms of death and recovery, duration of hospitalization, neurocognitive impairment, cranial nerve palsies and focal neurological deficit. Results: The case fatality rate of CM was 33.03% and the prevalence of residual neurological sequelae at discharge was 16.07%. These are significantly higher than the previous studies. The mortality rate and neurological complications rate in patients with retinal whitening was 38.46% and 23.07%, with vessel changes was 25% and 18.75%, with retinal hemorrhage was 55.55% and 11.11% and with hyperlactatemia was 53.85% and 18.46%, respectively. Three patients of papilledema alone died. Conclusion: Our study suggests a strong correlation between hyperlactatemia, retinal changes (whitening, vessel changes and hemorrhage and depth and duration of coma with longer duration of hospitalization, increased mortality, neurological sequelae and death. Plasmodium vivax mono-infection as a cause of CM has been confirmed. Prognostic evaluation of CM is useful for judicious allocation of resources in the THC.

  14. Piperaquine Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Juliana; Silva, Miguel; Fofana, Bakary; Sanogo, Kassim; Mårtensson, Andreas; Sagara, Issaka; Björkman, Anders; Veiga, Maria Isabel; Ferreira, Pedro Eduardo; Djimde, Abdoulaye; Gil, José Pedro

    2018-08-17

    Dihydroartemisinin/piperaquine (DHA/PPQ) is increasingly deployed as antimalaria drug in Africa. We report the detection in Mali of Plasmodium falciparum infections carrying plasmepsin 2 duplications (associated with piperaquine resistance) in 7/65 recurrent infections within 2 months after DHA/PPQ treatment. These findings raise concerns about the long-term efficacy of DHA/PPQ treatment in Africa.

  15. Plasmodium falciparum malaria and antimalarial interventions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmodium falciparum malaria is one of the most important parasitic diseases affecting sub-Saharan Africa, despite the availability of interventions. It exerts tremendous socio-economic and medical burden on the continent, particularly in under five children and pregnant women. In this review, we have attempted to ...

  16. SHORT COMMUNICATION High prevalence of Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dell

    Volume 20, Number 1, January 2018. 1. SHORT COMMUNICATION ... This study was designed to establish the prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum malaria among HIV infected populations. ... The prevalence of P. falciparum was high among HIV seropositive individuals in the Lake Victoria Zone, which calls for additional ...

  17. An impossible journey? The development of Plasmodium falciparum NF54 in Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Knöckel

    Full Text Available Although Anopheles mosquitoes are the vectors for human Plasmodium spp., there are also other mosquito species-among them culicines (Culex spp., Aedes spp.-present in malaria-endemic areas. Culicine mosquitoes transmit arboviruses and filarial worms to humans and are vectors for avian Plasmodium spp., but have never been observed to transmit human Plasmodium spp. When ingested by a culicine mosquito, parasites could either face an environment that does not allow development due to biologic incompatibility or be actively killed by the mosquito's immune system. In the latter case, the molecular mechanism of killing must be sufficiently powerful that Plasmodium is not able to overcome it. To investigate how human malaria parasites develop in culicine mosquitoes, we infected Culex quinquefasciatus with Plasmodium falciparum NF54 and monitored development of parasites in the blood bolus and midgut epithelium at different time points. Our results reveal that ookinetes develop in the midgut lumen of C. quinquefasciatus in slightly lower numbers than in Anopheles gambiae G3. After 30 hours, parasites have invaded the midgut and can be observed on the basal side of the midgut epithelium by confocal and transmission electron microscopy. Very few of the parasites in C. quinquefasciatus are alive, most of them are lysed. Eight days after the mosquito's blood meal, no oocysts can be found in C. quinquefasciatus. Our results suggest that the mosquito immune system could be involved in parasite killing early in development after ookinetes have crossed the midgut epithelium and come in contact with the mosquito hemolymph.

  18. Plasmodium knowlesi in travellers, update 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Mattia; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2014-05-01

    Since the initial discovery of Plasmodium knowlesi in Malaysia, cases have been reported from several neighbouring countries. Tourism has also resulted in an increasing number of cases diagnosed in Europe, America, and Oceania. In this review we focus on the risk of the travel-associated acquisition of P. knowlesi malaria. A search of the literature in PubMed was carried out to identify articles and literature on the distribution of P. knowlesi infections in Southeast Asia and details of its acquisition and importation by travellers to other continents. The cut-off date for the search was December 1, 2013. Search words used were: "Plasmodium knowlesi", "Plasmodium knowlesi infections", "Plasmodium knowlesi travellers", "Plasmodium knowlesi prevalence", "Plasmodium knowlesi host", "Plasmodium knowlesi vector" "Plasmodium knowlesi RDT", and "Plasmodium knowlesi Malaysia". Traveller numbers to Malaysia were obtained from the Tourism Malaysia website. A total of 103 articles were found. Using a selection of these and others identified from the reference lists of the papers, we based our review on a total of 66 articles. P. knowlesi malaria appears to be the most common malaria species in Malaysian Borneo and is also widely distributed on the Malaysian mainland. Furthermore, locally transmitted cases of P. knowlesi malaria have been reported in Thailand, the Philippines, Vietnam, Singapore, Myanmar, Indonesian Borneo, and Cambodia. Two cases have been reported from non-endemic countries in Asia (Japan and Taiwan) in people with a history of travel to Malaysia and the Philippines. Twelve cases were imported to their home countries by travellers from other continents: two from the USA, two from the Netherlands, two from Germany, and one each from Spain, France, Sweden, Finland, Australia, and New Zealand. In most cases, the infection was associated with a trip to or near forested areas. The symptoms were fever (n=12), headache (n=6), chills (n=6), nausea (n=4), myalgia (n

  19. Performance of an immunochromatography test for vivax malaria in the Amazon region, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ferreira Figueiredo Filho

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the ICT malaria Pf/PvTM test for vivax malaria diagnosis in Belém, Amazon region, Brazil. The results of blood malaria parasites examination using an immunochromatography test were compared with thick blood film (TBF examination. It was also evaluated the performance of this test storaged at three different temperatures (25°C, 30°C, and 37°C for 24 hours before use. Overall sensitivity of ICT Pf/PvTM was 61.8% with a specificity of 100%, positive and negative predictive value of 100% and 71.8%, respectively and accuracy of 80.6%. The test sensitivity was independent of the parasite density. This test needs to be further reviewed in order to have better performance for P. vivax malaria diagnosis.

  20. Survey of chloroquine-resistant mutations in the Plasmodium falciparum pfcrt and pfmdr-1 genes in Hadhramout, Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamaga, Omar A A; Mahdy, Mohammed A K; Lim, Yvonne A L

    2015-09-01

    Malaria is still a major public health problem in Yemen. More than 95% of the malaria cases are due to Plasmodium ‎falciparum‎. Recently in Yemen, the antimalarial treatment policy was changed from chloroquine (CQ) to artemisinin combination therapy (ACTs). However, CQ is still available and prescribed in the Yemeni market. The persistence of CQ resistance will be prolonged if the shift to ACT and the simultaneous withdrawal of CQ are not rigorously implemented. The aim of the current survey is to detect chloroquine-resistant mutations in P. falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multi-drug resistance-1 (pfmdr1) genes. These data will be important for future monitoring and assessment of antimalarial drug policy in Yemen. Blood specimens were collected from 735 individuals from different districts of the Hadhramout province, Yemen by house-to-house visit. Mutation-specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods were used to investigate the mutations in the pfmdr1(codons 86 and 1246) and pfcrt (codons 76, 271, 326, 356 and 371) genes. The overall prevalence of pfcrt mutations at codons 76, 271, 326 and 371 were 50.4%, 58.7%, 54.3% and 44.9%, respectively. All isolates had wild-type pfcrt 356 allele. The majority of pfmdr1 86 alleles (83.3%) and all pfmdr1 1246 alleles were wild type. There was no association between pfcrt mutations and symptomatology, gender and age groups. In conclusion, point mutations in codons 76, 271, 326 and 371 of pfcrt of P. falciparum are high suggesting a sustained high CQ resistance even after 4 years of shifting to ACTs. These findings warrant complete withdrawal of CQ use from the Yemeni market for P. falciparum and careful usage of CQ for treating Plasmodium vivax. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Discovering regulatory motifs in the Plasmodium genome using comparative genomics

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Jie; Sieglaff, Douglas H.; Gervin, Joshua; Xie, Xiaohui S.

    2008-01-01

    Motivation: Understanding gene regulation in Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, is an important step in deciphering its complex life cycle as well as leading to possible new targets for therapeutic applications. Very little is known about gene regulation in Plasmodium, and in particular, few regulatory elements have been identified. Such discovery has been significantly hampered by the high A-T content of some of the genomes of Plasmodium species, as well as the challenge in associat...

  2. Low prevalence of Plasmodium and absence of malaria transmission in Conakry, Guinea: prospects for elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouassi, Bernard L; de Souza, Dziedzom K; Goepogui, Andre; Balde, Siradiou M; Diakité, Lamia; Sagno, Arsène; Djameh, Georgina I; Chammartin, Frédérique; Vounatsou, Penelope; Bockarie, Moses J; Utzinger, Jürg; Koudou, Benjamin G

    2016-03-18

    Over the past 15 years, mortality and morbidity due to malaria have been reduced substantially in sub-Saharan Africa and local elimination has been achieved in some settings. This study addresses the bio-ecology of larval and adult stages of malaria vectors, Plasmodium infection in Anopheles gambiae s.l. in the city of Conakry, Guinea, and discusses the prospect for malaria elimination. Water bodies were prospected to identify potential mosquito breeding sites for 6 days each in the dry season (January 2013) and in the rainy season (August 2013), using the dipping method. Adult mosquitoes were collected in 15 communities in the five districts of Conakry using exit traps and indoor spraying catches over a 1-year period (November 2012 to October 2013). Molecular approaches were employed for identification of Anopheles species, including An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s. Individual An. gambiae mosquitoes were tested for Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax sporozoites using the VecTest™ malaria panel assay and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A systematic research of Ministry of Health statistical yearbooks was performed to determine malaria prevalence in children below the age of 5 years. Culex larval breeding sites were observed in large numbers throughout Conakry in both seasons. While Anopheles larval breeding sites were less frequent than Culex breeding sites, there was a high odds of finding An. gambiae mosquito larvae in agricultural sites during the rainy season. Over the 1-year study period, a total of 14,334 adult mosquitoes were collected; 14,135 Culex (98.6%) and 161 (1.1%) from the An. gambiae complex. One-hundred and twelve Anopheles mosquitoes, mainly collected from rice fields and gardens, were subjected to molecular analysis. Most of the mosquitoes were An. gambiae s.s. (n = 102; 91.1%) while the remaining 10 (8.9%) were An. melas. The molecular M form of An. gambiae s.s. was predominant (n = 89; 79.5%). The proportions of kdr genotype in the An

  3. Antimalarial activity of potential inhibitors of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme selected by docking studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Penna-Coutinho

    Full Text Available The Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase enzyme (PfLDH has been considered as a potential molecular target for antimalarials due to this parasite's dependence on glycolysis for energy production. Because the LDH enzymes found in P. vivax, P. malariae and P. ovale (pLDH all exhibit ∼90% identity to PfLDH, it would be desirable to have new anti-pLDH drugs, particularly ones that are effective against P. falciparum, the most virulent species of human malaria. Our present work used docking studies to select potential inhibitors of pLDH, which were then tested for antimalarial activity against P. falciparum in vitro and P. berghei malaria in mice. A virtual screening in DrugBank for analogs of NADH (an essential cofactor to pLDH and computational studies were undertaken, and the potential binding of the selected compounds to the PfLDH active site was analyzed using Molegro Virtual Docker software. Fifty compounds were selected based on their similarity to NADH. The compounds with the best binding energies (itraconazole, atorvastatin and posaconazole were tested against P. falciparum chloroquine-resistant blood parasites. All three compounds proved to be active in two immunoenzymatic assays performed in parallel using monoclonals specific to PfLDH or a histidine rich protein (HRP2. The IC(50 values for each drug in both tests were similar, were lowest for posaconazole (<5 µM and were 40- and 100-fold less active than chloroquine. The compounds reduced P. berghei parasitemia in treated mice, in comparison to untreated controls; itraconazole was the least active compound. The results of these activity trials confirmed that molecular docking studies are an important strategy for discovering new antimalarial drugs. This approach is more practical and less expensive than discovering novel compounds that require studies on human toxicology, since these compounds are already commercially available and thus approved for human use.

  4. Longitudinal and Cross-Sectional Genetic Diversity in the Korean Peninsula Based on the P vivax Merozoite Surface Protein Gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Yeon; Suh, Eun-Jung; Yu, Hyo-Soon; Jung, Hyun-Sik; Park, In-Ho; Choi, Yien-Kyeoug; Choi, Kyoung-Mi; Cho, Shin-Hyeong; Lee, Won-Ja

    2011-12-01

    Vivax malaria has reemerged and become endemic in Korea. Our study aimed to analyze by both longitudinal and cross-sectional genetic diversity of this malaria based on the P vivax Merozoite Surface Protein (PvMSP) gene parasites recently found in the Korean peninsula. PvMSP-1 gene sequence analysis from P vivax isolates (n = 835) during the 1996-2010 period were longitudinally analyzed and the isolates from the Korean peninsula through South Korea, the demilitarized zone and North Korea collected in 2008-2010 were enrolled in an overall analysis of MSP-1 gene diversity. New recombinant subtypes and severe multiple-cloneinfection rates were observed in recent vivax parasites. Regional variation was also observed in the study sites. This study revealed the great complexity of genetic variation and rapid dissemination of genes in P vivax. It also showed interesting patterns of diversity depending, on the region in the Korean Peninsula. Understanding the parasiteninsula. Under genetic variation may help to analyze trends and assess the extent of endemic malaria in Korea.

  5. The sub-genera of Avian Plasmodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landau I.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of the morphology of a species of Plasmodium is difficult because these organisms have relatively few characters. The size of the schizont, for example, which is easy to assess is important at the specific level but is not always of great phylogenetic significance. Factors reflecting the parasite’s metabolism provide more important evidence. Thus the position of the parasite within the host red cell (attachment to the host nucleus or its membrane, at one end or aligned with it has been shown to be constant for a given species. Another structure of essential significance that is often ignored is a globule, usually refringent in nature, that was first described in Plasmodium vaughani Novy & MacNeal, 1904 and that we consider to be characteristic of the sub-genus Novyella. Species without this structure, previously classified in this sub-genus, are now included in the new sub-genus Papernaia n. sg.

  6. Das Selenoproteom des Malariaerregers Plasmodium falciparum

    OpenAIRE

    Röseler, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Die Protozoen des Genus Plasmodium verursachen weltweit rund 247 Millionen Malariafälle jedes Jahr. Da der Malariaparasit schnell und effektiv Resistenzen gegen neue Antimalaria-Medikamente entwickelt, ist es notwendig, stets innovative Wirkstoffe zu finden. Dabei spielen das Verständnis der grundlegenden Stoffwechselfunktionen und die Entdeckung neuer potenzieller drug targets wichtige Rollen in der präklinischen Forschung. Während ihrer Lebensphasen in menschlichen Erythrozyten und dem ...

  7. An alternative method for Plasmodium culture synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelièvre, J; Berry, A; Benoit-Vical, F

    2005-03-01

    Since the synchronization of Plasmodium falciparum has become an essential tool in research, we have investigated the use of a commercial gelatine solution, Plasmion, to replace Plasmagel, which is now difficult to obtain. This method also avoids the use of techniques based on Percoll-glucose gradients. The Plasmion-based technique proved to be a good method and could become an alternative to Plasmagel.

  8. Translational Control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma Parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Bradley R.; Sullivan, William J.; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-01-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis. PMID:23243065

  9. Translational control in Plasmodium and toxoplasma parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Min; Joyce, Bradley R; Sullivan, William J; Nussenzweig, Victor

    2013-02-01

    The life cycles of apicomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium spp. and Toxoplasma gondii are complex, consisting of proliferative and latent stages within multiple hosts. Dramatic transformations take place during the cycles, and they demand precise control of gene expression at all levels, including translation. This review focuses on the mechanisms that regulate translational control in Plasmodium and Toxoplasma, with a particular emphasis on the phosphorylation of the α subunit of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). Phosphorylation of eIF2α (eIF2α∼P) is a conserved mechanism that eukaryotic cells use to repress global protein synthesis while enhancing gene-specific translation of a subset of mRNAs. Elevated levels of eIF2α∼P have been observed during latent stages in both Toxoplasma and Plasmodium, indicating that translational control plays a role in maintaining dormancy. Parasite-specific eIF2α kinases and phosphatases are also required for proper developmental transitions and adaptation to cellular stresses encountered during the life cycle. Identification of small-molecule inhibitors of apicomplexan eIF2α kinases may selectively interfere with parasite translational control and lead to the development of new therapies to treat malaria and toxoplasmosis.

  10. Electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    International Acer Incorporated, Hsin Chu, Taiwan Aerospace Industrial Development Corporation, Taichung, Taiwan American Institute of Taiwan, Taipei, Taiwan...Singapore and Malaysia .5 - 4 - The largest market for semiconductor products is the high technology consumer electronics industry that consumes up...Singapore, and Malaysia . A new semiconductor facility costs around $3 billion to build and takes about two years to become operational

  11. The dangers of accepting a single diagnosis: case report of concurrent Plasmodium knowlesi malaria and dengue infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Soon Eu; Mohamad Zaini, Rhendra Hardy; Suraiya, Siti; Lee, Kok Tong; Lim, Jo Anne

    2017-01-03

    Dengue and malaria are two common, mosquito-borne infections, which may lead to mortality if not managed properly. Concurrent infections of dengue and malaria are rare due to the different habitats of its vectors and activities of different carrier mosquitoes. The first case reported was in 2005. Since then, several concurrent infections have been reported between the dengue virus (DENV) and the malaria protozoans, Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. Symptoms of each infection may be masked by a simultaneous second infection, resulting in late treatment and severe complications. Plasmodium knowlesi is also a common cause of malaria in Malaysia with one of the highest rates of mortality. This report is one of the earliest in literature of concomitant infection between DENV and P. knowlesi in which a delay in diagnosis had placed a patient in a life-threatening situation. A 59-year old man staying near the Belum-Temengor rainforest at the Malaysia-Thailand border was admitted with fever for 6 days, with respiratory distress. His non-structural protein 1 antigen and Anti-DENV Immunoglobulin M tests were positive. He was treated for severe dengue with compensated shock. Treating the dengue had so distracted the clinicians that a blood film for the malaria parasite was not done. Despite aggressive supportive treatment in the intensive care unit (ICU), the patient had unresolved acidosis as well as multi-organ failure involving respiratory, renal, liver, and haematological systems. It was due to the presentation of shivering in the ICU, that a blood film was done on the second day that revealed the presence of P. knowlesi with a parasite count of 520,000/μL. The patient was subsequently treated with artesunate-doxycycline and made a good recovery after nine days in ICU. This case contributes to the body of literature on co-infection between DENV and P. knowlesi and highlights the clinical consequences, which can be severe. Awareness should be raised among

  12. Plasmodium Infection In Man: A Review | Ekpenyong | Animal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasmodium infection in man is caused by the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. This results in the disease, malaria. Malaria has serious debilitating effects on man. It adversely affectsman's health, strength and productivity. Here, a review of Plasmodium infection in man including the life cycle transmisson, ...

  13. Artemisinin resistance marker of Plasmodium falciparum in Osogbo ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Artemisinin derivatives constitute a key component of the present-day treatment for Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Resistance with artemisinins is generally associated with S769N point mutation in the sarco-endoplasmic reticulumdependant ATPase6 (SERCA ATPase6) gene of Plasmodium falciparum, few studies have ...

  14. Population genomics diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in malaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Plasmodium falciparum, the most dangerous malaria parasite species to humans remains an important public health concern in Okelele, a rural community in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. There is however little information about the genetic diversity of Plasmodium falciparum in Nigeria. Objective: To determine ...

  15. Pathogenesis of reproductive failure induced by Trypanosoma vivax in experimentally infected pregnant ewes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed at investigating the effect of experimental infection by Trypanosoma vivax in different stages of pregnancy, determining the pathogenesis of reproductive failure, and confirming transplacental transmission. We used 12 pregnant ewes distributed into four experimental groups: G1, was formed by three ewes infected with T. vivax in the first third of pregnancy (30 days); G2 comprised three infected ewes in the final third of pregnancy (100 days); G3 and G4 were composed of three non-infected ewes with the same gestational period, respectively. Each ewe of G1 and G2 was inoculated with 1.25 × 105 tripomastigotes. Clinical examination, determination of parasitemia, serum biochemistry (albumin, total protein, glucose, cholesterol, and urea), packed cell volume (PCV), serum progesterone, and pathological examination were performed. Placenta, amniotic fluid, blood and tissues from the fetuses and stillbirths were submitted to PCR. Two ewes of G1 (Ewe 1 and 3) presented severe infection and died in the 34th and 35th days post-infection (dpi), respectively; but both fetuses were recovered during necropsy. In G2, Ewe 5 aborted two fetuses on the 130th day (30 dpi) of pregnancy; and Ewe 6 aborted one fetus in the 140th day (40 dpi) of gestation. Ewes 2 and 4 delivered two weak lambs that died five days after birth. Factors possibly involved with the reproductive failure included high parasitemia, fever, low PCV, body score, serum glucose, total protein, cholesterol, and progesterone. Hepatitis, pericarditis, and encephalitis were observed in the aborted fetuses. The presence of T. vivax DNA in the placenta, amniotic fluid, blood, and tissues from the fetuses confirms the transplacental transmission of the parasite. Histological lesion in the fetuses and placenta also suggest the involvement of the parasite in the etiopathogenesis of reproductive failure in ewes. PMID:23289625

  16. Response to various periods of mechanical stimuli in Physarum plasmodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umedachi, Takuya; Ito, Kentaro; Kobayashi, Ryo; Ishiguro, Akio; Nakagaki, Toshiyuki

    2017-01-01

    Response to mechanical stimuli is a fundamental and critical ability for living cells to survive in hazardous conditions or to form adaptive and functional structures against force(s) from the environment. Although this ability has been extensively studied by molecular biology strategies, it is also important to investigate the ability from the viewpoint of biological rhythm phenomena so as to reveal the mechanisms that underlie these phenomena. Here, we use the plasmodium of the true slime mold Physarum polycephalum as the experimental system for investigating this ability. The plasmodium was repetitively stretched for various periods during which its locomotion speed was observed. Since the plasmodium has inherent oscillation cycles of protoplasmic streaming and thickness variation, how the plasmodium responds to various periods of external stretching stimuli can shed light on the other biological rhythm phenomena. The experimental results show that the plasmodium exhibits response to periodic mechanical stimulation and changes its locomotion speed depending on the period of the stretching stimuli. (paper)

  17. Prevalence of Malaria Plasmodium in Abeokuta, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonko, I. O.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the prevalence of malaria caused by plasmodium between genders in Abeokuta, the capital city of Ogun State located in the forest zone of southwestern Nigeria between January 2002 and December 2004. Blood film examination for malaria parasites in 708 patients; 366 males and 342 females. Microscopic examination of thick films techniques was employed for this study. Of the 708 (100% patients examined, 577 (81.5% were Plasmodium-positive. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 81.5% was noted in this study. Female subjects were more infected (42.4% than males (41.9% however, there was no significant difference in the sex of the subjects studied (p=0.05. A high malaria parasite prevalence rate of 86.9% was noted in samples collected in year 2003 than in other years studied. There was significant difference in the years under study (p=0.05. This study shows that a good percentage of people were infested by malaria Plasmodium. This could be attributed to lack of adequate accommodation and poor sanitary conditions in the area under study. Although several efforts have been made to effectively control the high incidence of malaria in Nigeria, these have been largely unsuccessful due to a number of reasons such as irrigated urban agriculture which can be the malaria vector’s breeding ground in the city, stagnant gutters and swamps in our environment where mosquitoes breed in millions, and lack of political will and commitment of the government in its disease management program, low awareness of the magnitude of malaria problem, poor health practices by individuals and communities and resistance to drugs. Therefore, future interventions in Nigeria should be directed toward controlling malaria in the context of a moderate transmission setting; thus, large-scale distribution of insecticide-treated nets or widespread use of indoor residual spraying may be less cost-effective than enhanced surveillance with effective case management or

  18. Relative Abundance and Plasmodium Infection Rates of Malaria Vectors in and around Jabalpur, a Malaria Endemic Region in Madhya Pradesh State, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Neeru; Mishra, Ashok K; Chand, Sunil K; Bharti, Praveen K; Singh, Mrigendra P; Nanda, Nutan; Singh, Om P; Sodagiri, Kranti; Udhyakumar, Venkatachalam

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken in two Primary Health Centers (PHCs) of malaria endemic district Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh (Central India). In this study we had investigated the relative frequencies of the different anopheline species collected within the study areas by using indoor resting catches, CDC light trap and human landing methods. Sibling species of malaria vectors were identified by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The role of each vector and its sibling species in the transmission of the different Plasmodium species was ascertained by using sporozoite ELISA. A total of 52,857 specimens comprising of 17 anopheline species were collected by three different methods (39,964 by indoor resting collections, 1059 by human landing and 11,834 by CDC light trap). Anopheles culicifacies was most predominant species in all collections (55, 71 and 32% in indoor resting, human landing and light trap collections respectively) followed by An. subpictus and An. annularis. All five sibling species of An. culicifacies viz. species A, B, C, D and E were found while only species T and S of An. fluviatilis were collected. The overall sporozoite rate in An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were 0.42% (0.25% for P. falciparum and 0.17% for P. vivax) and 0.90% (0.45% for P. falciparum and 0.45% for P. vivax) respectively. An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were found harbouring both P. vivax variants VK-210 and VK-247, and P. falciparum. An. culicifacies sibling species C and D were incriminated as vectors during most part of the year while sibling species T of An. fluviatilis was identified as potential vector in monsoon and post monsoon season. An. culicifacies species C (59%) was the most abundant species followed by An. culicifacies D (24%), B (8.7%), E (6.7%) and A (1.5%). Among An. fluviatilis sibling species, species T was common (99%) and only few specimens of S were found. Our study provides crucial information on the prevalence of An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis

  19. Relative Abundance and Plasmodium Infection Rates of Malaria Vectors in and around Jabalpur, a Malaria Endemic Region in Madhya Pradesh State, Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neeru Singh

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken in two Primary Health Centers (PHCs of malaria endemic district Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh (Central India.In this study we had investigated the relative frequencies of the different anopheline species collected within the study areas by using indoor resting catches, CDC light trap and human landing methods. Sibling species of malaria vectors were identified by cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The role of each vector and its sibling species in the transmission of the different Plasmodium species was ascertained by using sporozoite ELISA.A total of 52,857 specimens comprising of 17 anopheline species were collected by three different methods (39,964 by indoor resting collections, 1059 by human landing and 11,834 by CDC light trap. Anopheles culicifacies was most predominant species in all collections (55, 71 and 32% in indoor resting, human landing and light trap collections respectively followed by An. subpictus and An. annularis. All five sibling species of An. culicifacies viz. species A, B, C, D and E were found while only species T and S of An. fluviatilis were collected. The overall sporozoite rate in An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were 0.42% (0.25% for P. falciparum and 0.17% for P. vivax and 0.90% (0.45% for P. falciparum and 0.45% for P. vivax respectively. An. culicifacies and An. fluviatilis were found harbouring both P. vivax variants VK-210 and VK-247, and P. falciparum. An. culicifacies sibling species C and D were incriminated as vectors during most part of the year while sibling species T of An. fluviatilis was identified as potential vector in monsoon and post monsoon season.An. culicifacies species C (59% was the most abundant species followed by An. culicifacies D (24%, B (8.7%, E (6.7% and A (1.5%. Among An. fluviatilis sibling species, species T was common (99% and only few specimens of S were found. Our study provides crucial information on the prevalence of An. culicifacies and An

  20. Factors that are associated with the risk of acquiring Plasmodium knowlesi malaria in Sabah, Malaysia: a case-control study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigg, M J; William, T; Drakeley, C J; Jelip, J; von Seidlein, L; Barber, B E; Fornace, K M; Anstey, N M; Yeo, T W; Cox, J

    2014-08-22

    Plasmodium knowlesi has long been present in Malaysia, and is now an emerging cause of zoonotic human malaria. Cases have been confirmed throughout South-East Asia where the ranges of its natural macaque hosts and Anopheles leucosphyrus group vectors overlap. The majority of cases are from Eastern Malaysia, with increasing total public health notifications despite a concurrent reduction in Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax malaria. The public health implications are concerning given P. knowlesi has the highest risk of severe and fatal disease of all Plasmodium spp in Malaysia. Current patterns of risk and disease vary based on vector type and competence, with individual exposure risks related to forest and forest-edge activities still poorly defined. Clustering of cases has not yet been systematically evaluated despite reports of peri-domestic transmission and known vector competence for human-to-human transmission. A population-based case-control study will be conducted over a 2-year period at two adjacent districts in north-west Sabah, Malaysia. Confirmed malaria cases presenting to the district hospital sites meeting relevant inclusion criteria will be requested to enrol. Three community controls matched to the same village as the case will be selected randomly. Study procedures will include blood sampling and administration of household and individual questionnaires to evaluate potential exposure risks associated with acquisition of P. knowlesi malaria. Secondary outcomes will include differences in exposure variables between P. knowlesi and other Plasmodium spp, risk of severe P. knowlesi malaria, and evaluation of P. knowlesi case clustering. Primary analysis will be per protocol, with adjusted ORs for exposure risks between cases and controls calculated using conditional multiple logistic regression models. This study has been approved by the human research ethics committees of Malaysia, the Menzies School of Health Research, Australia, and the London

  1. Validation of pre-coated ELISA tests to detect antibodies against T. congolense and T. vivax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumba, W.

    2000-01-01

    The anti-trypanosomal antibody detecting enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was first described in 1977 and was further developed for use in large scale surveys in Zimbabwe. More recently, the IAEA initiated a programme to improve the robustness and standardisation of the assay. The IAEA supplied plates pre-coated with either a crude T. congolense or T. vivax antigen and the reagents necessary for analysing samples. Parasitologically positive and negative sera were used to validate and determine the cut-off values of the two tests. The samples were tested and results analysed using a variety of cut-off values. The tests provided similar information although the T. congolense pre-coated plates gave significantly higher optical density values than the plates coated with T. vivax. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated using the different cut-off points. Results indicate that the test using T. congolense antigen had the highest specificity and sensitivity for a given cut-off value. Although the test could distinguish positive from negative sera, it was quite difficult to provide a suitable cut-off value, but the value should be dictated by the use of the test. (author)

  2. Molecular diagnosis of cattle trypanosomes in Venezuela: evidences of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Iglesias, J R; Eleizalde, M C; Reyna-Bello, A; Mendoza, M

    2017-06-01

    In South America Trypanosoma evansi has been determined by molecular methods in cattle from Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia and Peru, reason for which the presence of this parasite is not excluded in Venezuelan livestock. Therefore, the aim of this study was to perform parasitological and molecular diagnosis of cattle trypanosomosis in small livestock units from two regions in this country. The parasitological diagnosis was carried out by MHCT and the molecular by PCR using genus-specific ITS1 primers that differentiate T. vivax and T. evansi infections. 47 cattle were evaluated in the "Laguneta de la Montaña" sector, Miranda State, where 3 animals were diagnosed as positive (6.4 %) by MHCT and 14 (30 %) by PCR as Trypanosoma spp., out of which 9 animals resulted positive for T. vivax , 3 for T. evansi and 2 with double infections. Whilst in the "San Casimiro" sector, State of Aragua, out of the 38 cattle evaluated 7 animals were diagnosed as positive (18.4 %) by MHCT and 19 (50 %) by PCR, determining only the presence of T. evansi in this locality. The molecular diagnosis by PCR using ITS1 primers allowed T. evansi detection in cattle field populations, which suggests the possible role of these animals as reservoirs in the epidemiology of the disease caused by T. evansi in Venezuela.

  3. Multi-epitope chimeric antigen used as a serological marker to estimate Plasmodium falciparum transmission intensity in the border area of China-Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Mei-Xue; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Gao, Yu-Hui; Cheng, Zhi-Bin; Deng, Wei-Wei; Zhang, Jia-Jia; Wang, Heng

    2016-09-07

    Following the decline of malaria transmission in many countries and regions, serological parameters have become particularly useful for estimating malaria transmission in low-intensity areas. This study evaluated a novel serological marker, Malaria Random Constructed Antigen-1 (M.RCAg-1), which contains 11 epitopes from eight Plasmodium falciparum antigens, as a tool for assessing malaria transmission intensity along the border area of China-Myanmar. Serum from Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax patients was used to detect the properties of M.RCAg-1 and antibody responses. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted at the China-Myanmar border and in Hainan province in 2012 and 2013 using cluster sampling. Filter blood spot papers were collected from all participants. Antibodies against M.RCAg-1 were detected using indirect ELISA. The Mann-Whitney test and Spearman's rank correlation test were performed to analyze antibody data. P. falciparum malaria transmission intensity was estimated using a catalytic conversion model based on the maximum likelihood of generating a community seroconversion rate (SCR). M.RCAg-1 was well-recognized by the naturally acquired anti-malaria antibodies in P. falciparum patients and had very limited cross-reactivity with P. vivax infection. The total amount of IgG antibodies was decreased with the decrease in parasitemia after taking medication and lasted several weeks. In a population survey, the antibody levels were higher in residents living close to the China-Myanmar border than those living in non-epidemic areas (P < 0.0001), but no significant difference was observed between residents from Hainan and non-epidemic areas. The calculated SCR was 0.0128 for Jieyangka, 0.004 for Susuzhai, 0.0047 for Qiushan, and 0.043 for Kayahe. The estimated exposure rate obtained from the anti-M.RCAg-1 antibody level correlated with traditional measures of transmission intensity derived from altitude. Our study demonstrates that M.RCAg-1 is

  4. Is chloroquine still effective for the treatment of vivax malaria in children in northern punjab of pakistan?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhani, F.A.; Shaheen, S.; Nawaz, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Every year more than one billion persons in the world suffer from malaria. It kills about 1-3 million people in the world per year. In Pakistan estimated burden of malaria is 1.6 million cases each year. As most of people belong to poor socioeconomic group, it is essential that cost effective remedial measures must be taken. Moreover judicious use of antimalarials is required to avoid development of resistance. Objective: To determine the frequency of types of malaria and frequency of cases responding to chloroquine as first line treatment in vivax malaria in children of Northern Punjab of Pakistan. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: From Jun 2011 to Sept 2012 at Combined Military Hospital Gujranwala in children reporting from surrounding areas both rural and urban with clinical suspicion of malaria. Materials and Methods: During the study period, 175 children were admitted with clinical suspicion of malaria. Out of which 102 were smear positive for malarial parasites, 13 cases were excluded from the study as they lost to follow up, leaving a total of 89 children in the study. Patients under study remained admitted till the fever settled and malarial parasites were negative on smear. Chloroquine was used as first line treatment in cases with vivax malaria. On discharge from hospital, parents of children were advised fortnightly follow up for 28 days. Results: Out of 89 children approx 54% were males and 46% were females. Mean age of participants was 5.91 years. The minimum age was 1 year and maximum 11 years (SD +- 3.09) out of the 89 cases, 84 (94.3%) had vivax malaria, 2 (2.24%) had falciparum malaria and 3 (3.37%) had mixed infection. Our study showed that 79 (94%) cases of vivax malaria fully responded to chloroquine, 5 (6%) cases treated with Chloroquine reported with relapse. Conclusion: Chloroquine is still the drug of choice in vivax malaria. (author)

  5. Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi malaria parasites can develop stable resistance to atovaquone with a mutation in the cytochrome b gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alves Ana C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plasmodium falciparum, has developed resistance to many of the drugs in use. The recommended treatment policy is now to use drug combinations. The atovaquone-proguanil (AP drug combination, is one of the treatment and prophylaxis options. Atovaquone (ATQ exerts its action by inhibiting plasmodial mitochondria electron transport at the level of the cytochrome bc1 complex. Plasmodium falciparum in vitro resistance to ATQ has been associated with specific point mutations in the region spanning codons 271-284 of the cytochrome b gene. ATQ -resistant Plasmodium yoelii and Plasmodium berghei lines have been obtained and resistant lines have amino acid mutations in their CYT b protein sequences. Plasmodium chabaudi model for studying drug-responses and drug-resistance selection is a very useful rodent malaria model but no ATQ resistant parasites have been reported so far. The aim of this study was to determine the ATQ sensitivity of the P. chabaudi clones, to select a resistant parasite line and to perform genotypic characterization of the cytb gene of these clones. Methods To select for ATQ resistance, Plasmodium. chabaudi chabaudi clones were exposed to gradually increasing concentrations of ATQ during several consecutive passages in mice. Plasmodium chabaudi cytb gene was amplified and sequenced. Results ATQ resistance was selected from the clone AS-3CQ. In order to confirm whether an heritable genetic mutation underlies the response of AS-ATQ to ATQ, the stability of the drug resistance phenotype in this clone was evaluated by measuring drug responses after (i multiple blood passages in the absence of the drug, (ii freeze/thawing of parasites in liquid nitrogen and (iii transmission through a mosquito host, Anopheles stephensi. ATQ resistance phenotype of the drug-selected parasite clone kept unaltered. Therefore, ATQ resistance in clone AS-ATQ is genetically encoded. The Minimum Curative Dose of AS-ATQ showed a six

  6. Plasmodium falciparum full life cycle and Plasmodium ovale liver stages in humanized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulard, Valérie; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Lorthiois, Audrey; Roucher, Clémentine; Franetich, Jean-François; Zanghi, Gigliola; Bordessoulles, Mallaury; Tefit, Maurel; Thellier, Marc; Morosan, Serban; Le Naour, Gilles; Capron, Frédérique; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Snounou, Georges; Moreno-Sabater, Alicia; Mazier, Dominique

    2015-07-24

    Experimental studies of Plasmodium parasites that infect humans are restricted by their host specificity. Humanized mice offer a means to overcome this and further provide the opportunity to observe the parasites in vivo. Here we improve on previous protocols to achieve efficient double engraftment of TK-NOG mice by human primary hepatocytes and red blood cells. Thus, we obtain the complete hepatic development of P. falciparum, the transition to the erythrocytic stages, their subsequent multiplication, and the appearance of mature gametocytes over an extended period of observation. Furthermore, using sporozoites derived from two P. ovale-infected patients, we show that human hepatocytes engrafted in TK-NOG mice sustain maturation of the liver stages, and the presence of late-developing schizonts indicate the eventual activation of quiescent parasites. Thus, TK-NOG mice are highly suited for in vivo observations on the Plasmodium species of humans.

  7. Mosquito transmission of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spence Philip J

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Serial blood passage of Plasmodium increases virulence, whilst mosquito transmission inherently regulates parasite virulence within the mammalian host. It is, therefore, imperative that all aspects of experimental malaria research are studied in the context of the complete Plasmodium life cycle. Methods Plasmodium chabaudi chabaudi displays many characteristics associated with human Plasmodium infection of natural mosquito vectors and the mammalian host, and thus provides a unique opportunity to study the pathogenesis of malaria in a single infection setting. An optimized protocol that permits efficient and reproducible vector transmission of P. c. chabaudi via Anopheles stephensi was developed. Results and conclusions This protocol was utilized for mosquito transmission of genetically distinct P. c. chabaudi isolates, highlighting differential parasite virulence within the mosquito vector and the spectrum of host susceptibility to infection initiated via the natural route, mosquito bite. An apposite experimental system in which to delineate the pathogenesis of malaria is described in detail.

  8. Seasonal variations in antibody response to a Plasmodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA), employing a recombinant peptide capture antigen (R32tet32) was used to detect antibodies against the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum in 169 ...

  9. Impact of Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm infections on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-01-18

    Saharan Africa and they increase the prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy with resultant poor pregnancy outcomes. This study was carried out to assess the impact of Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm infections on.

  10. Peripheral blood cell signatures of Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibitokou, Samad; Oesterholt, Mayke; Brutus, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    Sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in placental intervillous spaces causes inflammation and pathology. Knowledge of the profiles of immune cells associated with the physiopathology of pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM) is scarce. We conducted a longitudinal, prospective ...

  11. IN-VITRO EVALUATION OF P AGAINST Plasmodium falcipa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    userpc

    researched protective vaccine for the diseas but there are ... o growth of plasmodium falciparum in asexual erythrocyte stage a of fourteen .... different brands specified by W.H.O were purchased ... Preparation of the thin smear was carried out.

  12. Fine-scale genetic characterization of Plasmodium falciparum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RESEARCH ARTICLE. Fine-scale genetic characterization of Plasmodium falciparum .... Materials and methods. The DNA ... the order and location of genes (as per the PlasmoDB data resources, available at ... There is currently an. Figure 5.

  13. Anti-Plasmodium activity of ceramide analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatt Shimon

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingolipids are key molecules regulating many essential functions in eukaryotic cells and ceramide plays a central role in sphingolipid metabolism. A sphingolipid metabolism occurs in the intraerythrocytic stages of Plasmodium falciparum and is associated with essential biological processes. It constitutes an attractive and potential target for the development of new antimalarial drugs. Methods The anti-Plasmodium activity of a series of ceramide analogs containing different linkages (amide, methylene or thiourea linkages between the fatty acid part of ceramide and the sphingoid core was investigated in culture and compared to the sphingolipid analog PPMP (d,1-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol. This analog is known to inhibit the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and block parasite development by preventing the formation of the tubovesicular network that extends from the parasitophorous vacuole to the red cell membrane and delivers essential extracellular nutrients to the parasite. Results Analogs containing methylene linkage showed a considerably higher anti-Plasmodium activity (IC50 in the low nanomolar range than PPMP and their counterparts with a natural amide linkage (IC50 in the micromolar range. The methylene analogs blocked irreversibly P. falciparum development leading to parasite eradication in contrast to PPMP whose effect is cytostatic. A high sensitivity of action towards the parasite was observed when compared to their effect on the human MRC-5 cell growth. The toxicity towards parasites did not correlate with the inhibition by methylene analogs of the parasite sphingomyelin synthase activity and the tubovesicular network formation, indicating that this enzyme is not their primary target. Conclusions It has been shown that ceramide analogs were potent inhibitors of P. falciparum growth in culture. Interestingly, the nature of the linkage between the fatty acid part and the

  14. Mitosis in the Human Malaria Parasite Plasmodium falciparum ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Gerald, Noel; Mahajan, Babita; Kumar, Sanjai

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is caused by intraerythrocytic protozoan parasites belonging to Plasmodium spp. (phylum Apicomplexa) that produce significant morbidity and mortality, mostly in developing countries. Plasmodium parasites have a complex life cycle that includes multiple stages in anopheline mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts. During the life cycle, the parasites undergo several cycles of extreme population growth within a brief span, and this is critical for their continued transmission and a contri...

  15. Gametocytogenesis : the puberty of Plasmodium falciparum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariey Frédéric

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The protozoan Plasmodium falciparum has a complex life cycle in which asexual multiplication in the vertebrate host alternates with an obligate sexual reproduction in the anopheline mosquito. Apart from the apparent recombination advantages conferred by sex, P. falciparum has evolved a remarkable biology and adaptive phenotypes to insure its transmission despite the dangers of sex. This review mainly focuses on the current knowledge on commitment to sexual development, gametocytogenesis and the evolutionary significance of various aspects of gametocyte biology. It goes further than pure biology to look at the strategies used to improve successful transmission. Although gametocytes are inevitable stages for transmission and provide a potential target to fight malaria, they have received less attention than the pathogenic asexual stages. There is a need for research on gametocytes, which are a fascinating stage, responsible to a large extent for the success of P. falciparum.

  16. Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance in Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fançony, Cláudia; Brito, Miguel; Gil, Jose Pedro

    2016-02-09

    Facing chloroquine drug resistance, Angola promptly adopted artemisinin-based combination therapy as the first-line to treat malaria. Currently, the country aims to consolidate malaria control, while preparing for the elimination of the disease, along with others African countries in the region. However, the remarkable capacity of Plasmodium to develop drug resistance represents an alarming threat for those achievements. Herein, the available, but relatively scarce and dispersed, information on malaria drug resistance in Angola, is reviewed and discussed. The review aims to inform but also to encourage future research studies that monitor and update the information on anti-malarial drug efficacy and prevalence of molecular markers of drug resistance, key fields in the context and objectives of elimination.

  17. Wanted Plasmodium falciparum, dead or alive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimata Sow

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of cell death in unicellular parasites have been subjects of debate for the last decade, with studies demonstrating evidence of apoptosis or non-apoptosis like mechanisms, including necrosis, and autophagy. Recent clarifications on the definition of regulated or accidental cell death by The Nomenclature Committee on Cell Death provides an opportunity to reanalyze some data, re-evaluate conclusions in the light of parasite diversity, and to propose alternative arguments in the context of malaria drug resistance, considering lack of really new drugs in the pipeline. Deciphering the mechanisms of death may help in detection of new drug targets and the design of innovative drugs. However, classifications have been evolving rapidly since initial description of “programmed cell death”, leading to some uncertainty as to whether Plasmodium cell death is accidental or regulated.

  18. Selection of drug resistant mutants from random library of Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase in Plasmodium berghei model

    OpenAIRE

    Tipsuwan, Wachiraporn; Srichairatanakool, Somdet; Kamchonwongpaisan, Sumalee; Yuthavong, Yongyuth; Uthaipibull, Chairat

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background The prevalence of drug resistance amongst the human malaria Plasmodium species has most commonly been associated with genomic mutation within the parasites. This phenomenon necessitates evolutionary predictive studies of possible resistance mutations, which may occur when a new drug is introduced. Therefore, identification of possible new Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase (PfDHFR) mutants that confer resistance to antifolate drugs is essential in the process of...

  19. Complementation of essential yeast GPI mannosyltransferase mutations suggests a novel specificity for certain Trypanosoma and Plasmodium PigB proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie K Cortes

    Full Text Available The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI anchor is an essential glycolipid that tethers certain eukaryotic proteins to the cell surface. The core structure of the GPI anchor is remarkably well conserved across evolution and consists of NH2-CH2-CH2-PO4-6Manα1,2Manα1,6Manα1,4-GlcNα1,6-myo-inositol-PO4-lipid. The glycan portion of this structure may be modified with various side-branching sugars or other compounds that are heterogeneous and differ from organism to organism. One such modification is an α(1,2-linked fourth mannose (Man-IV that is side-branched to the third mannose (Man-III of the trimannosyl core. In fungi and mammals, addition of Man-III and Man-IV occurs by two distinct Family 22 α(1,2-mannosyltransferases, Gpi10/PigB and Smp3/PigZ, respectively. However, in the five protozoan parasite genomes we examined, no genes encoding Smp3/PigZ proteins were observed, despite reports of tetramannosyl-GPI structures (Man4-GPIs being produced by some parasites. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the Gpi10/PigB proteins produced by protozoan parasites have the ability to add both Man-III and Man-IV to GPI precursors. We used yeast genetics to test the in vivo specificity of Gpi10/PigB proteins from several Plasmodium and Trypanosoma species by examining their ability to restore viability to Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains harboring lethal defects in Man-III (gpi10Δ or Man-IV (smp3Δ addition to GPI precursor lipids. We demonstrate that genes encoding PigB enzymes from T. cruzi, T. congolense and P. falciparum are each capable of separately complementing essential gpi10Δ and smp3Δ mutations, while PIGB genes from T. vivax and T. brucei only complement gpi10Δ. Additionally, we show the ability of T. cruzi PIGB to robustly complement a gpi10Δ/smp3Δ double mutant. Our data suggest that certain Plasmodium and Trypanosoma PigB mannosyltransferases can transfer more than one mannose to GPI precursors in vivo, and suggest a novel

  20. Curcumin-arteether combination therapy of Plasmodium berghei-infected mice prevents recrudescence through immunomodulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palakkod G Vathsala

    Full Text Available Earlier studies in this laboratory have shown the potential of artemisinin-curcumin combination therapy in experimental malaria. In a parasite recrudescence model in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei (ANKA, a single dose of alpha,beta-arteether (ART with three oral doses of curcumin prevented recrudescence, providing almost 95% protection. The parasites were completely cleared in blood with ART-alone (AE or ART+curcumin (AC treatments in the short-term, although the clearance was faster in the latter case involving increased ROS generation. But, parasites in liver and spleen were not cleared in AE or AC treatments, perhaps, serving as a reservoir for recrudescence. Parasitemia in blood reached up to 60% in AE-treated mice during the recrudescence phase, leading to death of animals. A transient increase of up to 2-3% parasitemia was observed in AC-treatment, leading to protection and reversal of splenomegaly. A striking increase in spleen mRNA levels for TLR2, IL-10 and IgG-subclass antibodies but a decrease in those for INFγ and IL-12 was observed in AC-treatment. There was a striking increase in IL-10 and IgG subclass antibody levels but a decrease in INFγ levels in sera leading to protection against recrudescence. AC-treatment failed to protect against recrudescence in TLR2(-/- and IL-10(-/- animals. IL-10 injection to AE-treated wild type mice and AC-treated TLR2(-/- mice was able to prolong survival. Blood from the recrudescence phase in AE-treatment, but not from AC-treatment, was able to reinfect and kill naïve animals. Sera from the recrudescence phase of AC-treated animals reacted with several parasite proteins compared to that from AE-treated animals. It is proposed that activation of TLR2-mediated innate immune response leading to enhanced IL-10 production and generation of anti-parasite antibodies contribute to protective immunity in AC-treated mice. These results indicate a potential for curcumin-based combination therapy to