WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma trace element

  1. Mapping Fifteen Trace Elements in Human Seminal Plasma and Sperm DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sazan; Chaspoul, Florence; Anderson, Loundou; Bergé-Lefranc, David; Achard, Vincent; Perrin, Jeanne; Gallice, Philippe; Guichaoua, Marie

    2017-02-01

    Studies suggest a relationship between semen quality and the concentration of trace elements in serum or seminal plasma. However, trace elements may be linked to DNA and capable of altering the gene expression patterns. Thus, trace element interactions with DNA may contribute to the mechanisms for a trans-generational reproductive effect. We developed an analytical method to determine the amount of trace elements bound to the sperm DNA, and to estimate their affinity for the sperm DNA by the ratio: R = Log [metal concentration in the sperm DNA/metal concentration in seminal plasma]. We then analyzed the concentrations of 15 trace elements (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Ti, V, Zn, As, Sb, and Se) in the seminal plasma and the sperm DNA in 64 normal and 30 abnormal semen specimens with Inductively Coupled Plasma/Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). This study showed all trace elements were detected in the seminal plasma and only metals were detected in the sperm DNA. There was no correlation between the metals' concentrations in the seminal plasma and the sperm DNA. Al had the highest affinity for DNA followed by Pb and Cd. This strong affinity is consistent with the known mutagenic effects of these metals. The lowest affinity was observed for Zn and Ti. We observed a significant increase of Al linked to the sperm DNA of patients with oligozoospermia and teratozoospermia. Al's reproductive toxicity might be due to Al linked to DNA, by altering spermatogenesis and expression patterns of genes involved in the function of reproduction.

  2. Identification of organically associated trace elements in wood and coal by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richaud, R.; Lazaro, M.J.; Lachas, H.; Miller, B.B.; Herod, A.A.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    2000-07-01

    1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was used to extract samples of wood (forest residue) and coal; the extracts were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using two different sample preparation methods, in order to identify trace elements associated with the organic part of the samples. A sample of fly ash was similarly extracted and analysed. Size exclusion chromatograms of the extracts indicated the presence of significant amounts of large molecular mass materials ({gt} 1000 {mu}) in the biomass and coal extracts but not in the ash extract. Trace element analyses were carried out using ICP-MS on the acid digests prepared by 'wet ashing' and microwave extraction. Sixteen elements (As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Mn, Mo, Ni, pH, Sb, Se, V and Zn) were quantified, in the samples before extraction, in the extracts and in the residues. Concentrations of trace elements in the original biomass samples were lower than in the coal sample while the concentrations in the ash sample were the highest. The major trace elements in the NMP extracts were Ba, Cu, Mn and Zn from the forest residue; Ba, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from the coal; Cu and Zn from the ash. These elements are believed to be associated with the organic extracts from the forest residue and coal, and also from the ash.

  3. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy determination of trace element composition of argan oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, A; Ghanjaoui, M E; El Rhazi, M; de la Guardia, M

    2010-02-01

    A methodology based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) after microwave assisted acid digestion has been developed to determine the trace element content of Moroccan argan oil. Limit of detection values equal or lower than few mg/kg were obtained for all elements under study. To assure the accuracy of the whole procedure, recovery studies were carried out on argan oil samples spiked at different concentration levels from 10 to 200 µg/L. Quantitative average recovery values were obtained for all elements evaluated, demonstrating the suitability of this methodology for the determination of trace elements in argan oil samples. Aluminum, calcium, chromium, iron, potassium, lithium, magnesium, sodium, vanadium and zinc were quantitatively determined in Moroccan argan oils being found that their concentration is different of that found in other edible oils thus offering a way for authentication and for the evaluation of possible adulterations.

  4. Trace Elements Analysis of Geological Samples by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes recent work applying a taser ablation system (LSX-200) hyphenated with POEMS Ⅲ inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for the in situ analysis of 22 trace elements of solid geological materials. It demonstrates the potential of LA-ICP-MS for the determination of geochemically important trace and ultra-trace elements following XRF routine sample preparation. Signal drift, difference in transport efficiency and sampling yield are well corrected with NIST SRM 612 as external calibration standard and Ca as internal standard. The obtained results agree to the recommended values with relative error better than 15 % and RSD less than 15 % for most determined trace elemems. LOD ranges from 0.021 × 10-6 to 0. 23 × 10-6 and less than 0.10 × 10-6 for majority trace elements determined. In addition, home-made macro functions including filter and calculator compiled by VBA language under Excel software greatly enhanced off-line data reduction efficiency.``

  5. Determination of Trace Elements in High Purity Gold by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hualin; HUANG Kelong; NIE Xidu; FU Liang

    2009-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in high purity gold by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(HR-ICP-MS).Sample were decomposed by aqua regia.To overcome some potentially problematic spectral interference,measurements were acquired in both medium and high resolution modes.The matrix effects due to the presence of excessive HCl and Au were evaluated.The optimum conditions for the determination was tested and discussed.The standard addition method was employed for quantitative analysis.The detection limits range from 0.01 μg/g to 0.28 μg/g depending on the elements.The method is accurate,quick and convenient.It has been applied to the determination of trace elements in high purity gold with satisfactory results.

  6. Identification of organically associated trace elements in wood and coal by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richaud, R; Lazaro, M J; Lachas, H; Miller, B B; Herod, A A; Dugwell, D R; Kandiyoti, R

    2000-01-01

    1-Methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) was used to extract samples of wood (forest residue) and coal; the extracts were analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) using two different sample preparation methods, in order to identify trace elements associated with the organic part of the samples. A sample of fly ash was similarly extracted and analysed in order to assess the behaviour of the mineral matter contained within the wood and coal samples. 32% of the biomass was extracted at the higher temperature and 12% at room temperature while only 12% of the coal was extracted at the higher temperature and 3% at room temperature. Less than 2% of the ash dissolved at the higher temperature. Size exclusion chromatograms of the extracts indicated the presence of significant amounts of large molecular mass materials (>1000 mu) in the biomass and coal extracts but not in the ash extract. Trace element analyses were carried out using ICP-MS on the acid digests prepared by 'wet ashing' and microwave extraction. Sixteen elements (As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V and Zn) were quantified, in the samples before extraction, in the extracts and in the residues. Concentrations of trace elements in the original biomass sample were lower than in the coal sample while the concentrations in the ash sample were the highest. The major trace elements in the NMP extracts were Ba, Cu, Mn and Zn from the forest residue; Ba, Cu, Mn, Pb and Zn from the coal; Cu and Zn from the ash. These elements are believed to be associated with the organic extracts from the forest residue and coal, and also from the ash. Be and Sb were not quantified in the extracts because they were present at too low concentrations; up to 40% of Mn was extracted from the biomass sample at 202 degrees C, while Se was totally extracted from the ash sample. For the forest residue, approximately 7% (at room temperature) and 45% (at 202 degrees C) of the total trace elements studied were

  7. Trace elemental composition of curry by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzálvez, A; Armenta, S; De La Guardia, M

    2008-01-01

    A methodology based on inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) after microwave-assisted acid digestion was developed to determine the content of traces elements in curry samples from the Spanish market. The methodology was validated in terms of accuracy by the analysis of citrus and tomato leaf reference materials achieving comparable results with the certified values. The trace metal content of curry samples was compared with data available from previously published reports concerning Indian samples, especially in terms of heavy metal composition, in order to guarantee the quality of the commercially available spices in the European countries. Values found for the analysis of arsenic, lead and cadmium were significantly lower than the maximum limit allowed by European Union statutory limits for heavy metals and lower than those obtained for Indian curry leaves reported by Indian research teams by using neutron activation and γ-ray analysis.

  8. Inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectrometry: trace elements in oil matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, C. A.

    1977-12-01

    The simultaneous determination of up to 20 trace elements in various oil matrices by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry is reported. The oil matrices investigated were lubricating oils (for wear metals), fuel oil, centrifuged coal liquefaction product, crude soybean oil, and commercial edible oils. The samples were diluted with appropriate organic solvents and injected into the plasma as an aerosol generated by a pneumatic nebulization technique. Detection limits of the 28 elements studied ranged from 0.0006 to 9 ..mu..g/g with the majority falling in the 0.01 to 0.1 ..mu..g/g range. Analytical calibration curves were linear over at least two orders of magnitude and for some elements this linearity extended over 4.5 orders of magnitude. Relevant data on precision and accuracy are included. Because metals often occur as particles in lubricating oil and coal liquefaction products, the effect of particles on the analytical results was examined. Wear metal particles in used oil did not appear to affect the analytical results. However, incomplete recovery relative to organometallic reference solutions was obtained for iron particles with a nominal mean diameter of 3.0 ..mu..m suspended in oil. It was shown that the following factors contributed to incomplete recovery for the particles: settling of the suspended particles in the flask, a difference in nebulization efficiency between particle suspensions and organometallic solutions, and indications of incomplete vaporization of the larger particles in the plasma.

  9. A Preliminary Study of Trace Elements in Plasma Protein by Gel Chromatography Combined with SXRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIANQINGLIU; DEFUCHEN; 等

    1999-01-01

    Fractions of plasma protein of male Kunming mice (body weight 24.2±0.3g),treated with Cisplatin i.p.injection in dose of 10mg/kg,were obtained by separation on Sephadex-G-50 columns,buffered with ammonium acetate to pH5.7,The XSRF experiments were performed at the BEPC(Beijing Electron Positron Collider)synchrotron radiation facility.The elements(Pt,S,Ca,Fe,Ni,Cu,Zn,Se,Br and Sr)in the fraction of the plasma proteins(>22KD) were assayed using highly sensitive SXRF.The relative concentrations of elements were calculated by a normalization of COmpton scattering intensity around 22 KeV,after the normalization for collecting time of X-ray spectrum and the counting of the ion chamber,and subracting the contribution of the polycarbonate film used for supporting the samples.The determination could prove that the element Pt in plasma was bound with macro-molecularprotein.Cu and S were present in the fraction of the protein in mice treated with Cisplatin and exhibited an increase,the ration of treated/control were 1.66±0.06 and 1.78±0.33 repectively,whereas Zn decreased to a ratio of 0.78±0.09,Our results are in agreement with others which showed that Cisplatin exposure leads to a marked loss of kidney copper,and a moderate rise in didney zinc.However,this work mainly focussed on the implementation of this analytical procedure,but not on the results of the investigations of the effect of Cisplatin on trace elements in plasma protein.

  10. Determination of plasma trace elements in tumor-bearing animals by proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogle, M; Daly, B; Evans, M; Justiniano, E L; Kovacs, C J; Shinpaugh, J L; Toburen, L H

    2001-11-01

    Although altered levels of circulating essential trace elements are known to accompany malignant disease, the lack of sensitivity of conventional detection methods has generally limited their study to clinical conditions involving extensive disease (i.e., significant tumor burden). As such, the application of altered trace element levels as potential prognostic guides or as response indicators subsequent to treatment has been of limited use. During this study, proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy was evaluated as a tool to determine trace element imbalances in a murine tumor model. Using plasma from C57B1/6 mice bearing the syngeneic Lewis lung carcinoma (LLCa), levels of Fe, Cu, and Zn, as well as changes in the Cu /Zn ratio, were measured in animals carrying an increasing primary tumor burden. The plasma levels of Fe, Cu, and Zn were found to decrease significantly 7 d following implants of LLCa cells with no significant change observed in the Cu/Zn ratio. By d 21, however, an increase in the Cu/Zn ratio was found to accompany increased growth of the LLCa tumor; the plasma levels of Cu had returned to normal levels, whereas both the Fe and Zn plasma levels remained lowered. Collectively, the results suggest that although a net change in individual plasma trace element concentrations might not be accurately associated with tumor growth, a clear relationship was established between the Cu/Zn ratio and tumor size.

  11. Visualizing trace element distribution in quartz using cathodoluminescence, electron microprobe, and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusk, Brian; Koenig, Alan; Lowers, Heather

    2011-01-01

    Cathodoluminescent (CL) textures in quartz reveal successive histories of the physical and chemical fluctuations that accompany crystal growth. Such CL textures reflect trace element concentration variations that can be mapped by electron microprobe or laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Trace element maps in hydrothermal quartz from four different ore deposit types (Carlin-type Au, epithermal Ag, porphyry-Cu, and MVT Pb-Zn) reveal correlations among trace elements and between trace element concentrations and CL textures. The distributions of trace elements reflect variations in the physical and chemical conditions of quartz precipitation. These maps show that Al is the most abundant trace element in hydrothermal quartz. In crystals grown at temperatures below 300 °C, Al concentrations may vary by up to two orders of magnitude between adjacent growth zones, with no evidence for diffusion. The monovalent cations Li, Na, and K, where detectable, always correlate with Al, with Li being the most abundant of the three. In most samples, Al is more abundant than the combined total of the monovalent cations; however, in the MVT sample, molar Al/Li ratios are ~0.8. Antimony is present in concentrations up to ~120 ppm in epithermal quartz (~200–300 °C), but is not detectable in MVT, Carlin, or porphyry-Cu quartz. Concentrations of Sb do not correlate consistently with those of other trace elements or with CL textures. Titanium is only abundant enough to be mapped in quartz from porphyry-type ore deposits that precipitate at temperatures above ~400 °C. In such quartz, Ti concentration correlates positively with CL intensity, suggesting a causative relationship. In contrast, in quartz from other deposit types, there is no consistent correlation between concentrations of any trace element and CL intensity fluctuations.

  12. Determination of trace elements in refined gold samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steharnik Mirjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method for determination the trace contents of silver, copper, iron, palladium, zinc and platinum in refined gold samples. Simultaneous inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer with radial torch position and cross flow nebulizer was used for determination. In order to compare the different calibration strategies, two sets of calibration standards were prepared. The first set was based on matrix matched calibration standards and the second was prepared without the addition of matrix material. Detection limits for matrix matching calibrations were higher for some elements than those without matrix matching. In addition, the internal standardization method was applied and experiments indicated that indium was the best option as internal standard. The obtained results for gold sample by matrix matching and matrix free calibrations were compared with the obtained results by standard addition method. The accuracy of the methods was tested performing recovery test. Recoveries for spiked sample were in the range of 90-115 %. The accuracy of the methods was also tested by analysis of certified reference material of high pure goldAuGHP1. The best results were achieved by matrix free calibration and standard addition method using indium as internal standard at wavelength of 230 nm. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 34024: Development of Technologies for Recycling of Precious, Rare and Associated Metals from Solid Waste in Serbia to High Purity Products

  13. Trace elemental imaging of coralline hydroxyapatite by laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, J; Austin, C; Doble, P; Ben-Nissan, B; Milthorpe, B

    2014-07-01

    The determination of trace element concentrations, as well as their distribution in different biomaterials aimed for clinical applications, is a challenging task in both the areas of biological and materials research. In this research, LA-ICP-MS was employed for image mapping of the trace element distribution in a hydrothermally converted coralline hydroxyapatite material aimed for tissue-scaffolding applications. Quantification using synthetic matrix-matched standards was successfully applied for the determination and distribution of elements of interest, Sr and Mg, that influences the mechanical and biological properties of hydroxyapatite-based bone graft materials. The results showed that the instrument can successfully analyse trace elements and a relatively good image can be produced that identifies their distribution. The LA-ICP-MS method can provide an easy and effective tool, in the field of biomaterials with respect to distribution of trace elements, to better understand tissue-implant interactions, and will open up a new window for in vitro and in vivo analysis and imaging of different tissues and structures.

  14. TRACE ELEMENTS IN PLASMA AND NUTRITIONAL ASSESSMENT IN PATIENTS WITH COMPENSATED CIRRHOSIS ON A LIVER TRANSPLANT LIST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thays Santana GUERRA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background - In chronic liver disease, trace element levels in plasma are usually low. However, the specific cause and functional implications of this abnormality are yet not well understood. These element levels may decrease as a result of abnormal liver function in patients with cirrhosis and/or malnutrition. Objective - To evaluate the nutritional status and the profile of trace elements in plasma of patients with cirrhosis on a liver transplant list and to correlate them with disease severity. Methods - This cross-sectional study evaluated 31 male patients diagnosed with compensated liver cirrhosis on a waiting list for liver transplant. Nutritional status was objectively evaluated through anthropometry using Mendenhall score and Blackburn classification, subjectively through the Detsky questionnaire and severity of the disease by MELD and CTP score. Trace elements (Zn, Se, Cu, Ca, Fe, Mg and Mn in plasma were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Statistical analysis was performed using Mann-Whitney test. Results - According to the nutritional assessment 19 (61.3% were malnourished and 12 (38.7% were overweight. Regarding disease severity 12 (39% were classified as Child A, 17 (55%, Child B and 2 (6% Child C, with 46.9% of patients with MELD score >17. The trace element analysis indicated that 31 (100% had Mn levels above the reference range, 23 (74.2% low levels of Cu, 29 (93.5% with deficiency of Se, and 31 (100% low levels of Ca and Mg. Disease severity did not show statistical difference between the studied trace elements, in contrast to the nutritional status, in which the malnourished group showed higher levels of Mn (P=0.01 and Fe (P=0.01 and low levels of Zn (P=0.03 when compared to the overweight group. Conclusion - The results showed that the trace elements in plasma are altered in chronic liver disease; without significant correlation to disease severity, but correlated to nutritional status

  15. Reduction of acid effects on trace element determination in food samples by CH4 mixed plasma-DRC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Hu, Shenghong; Zhang, Jiangyi; Hu, Zhaochu; Zhang, Hongfei; Wang, Yanxin

    2012-03-15

    A robust method for trace element determination in food samples by addition of methane to the plasma of a dynamic reaction cell mass spectrometer (CH(4) mixed plasma-DRC-MS) was developed. Addition of 3 mL min(-1) methane to Ar-plasma eliminates the signal suppressions of various elements (As, Se, Hg, etc.) due to the high concentration of nitric acid (10%, v/v). The CH(4)-Ar mixed plasma may compensate for the plasma cooling effects due to the highly concentrated nitric acid. The interfering polyatomic ions (40)Ar(12)C(+), (40)Ar(35)Cl(+) and (40)Ar(40)Ar(+) on (52)Cr(+), (75)As(+) and (80)Se(+) determination were removed effectively using the DRC with CH(4) as the reaction gas. The limits of quantification (LOQ, 10σ) were 0.35 ng g(-1), 0.07 ng g(-1), 0.35 ng g(-1), 0.07 ng g(-1), 0.15 ng g(-1), and 0.07 ng g(-1) for As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, respectively. The proposed method was applied to the determination of these trace elements in four food standard reference materials (NIST1577b, GBW10018, NIST1570a and GBW10016), and the results were in good agreement with the certified values.

  16. Plasma trace elements levels are not altered by submaximal exercise intensities in well-trained endurance euhydrated athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Haro, Carlos; Soria, Marisol; López-Colón, José L; Llorente, María T; Escanero, Jesús F

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of relative exercise intensity on various plasma trace elements in euhydrated endurance athletes. Twenty-seven well-trained endurance athletes performed a cycloergometer test: after a warm-up of 10 min at 2.0 W kg⁻¹, workload increased by 0.5 W kg⁻¹ every 10 min until exhaustion. Oxygen uptake, blood lactate concentration ([La⁻](b)), and plasma ions (Zn, Se, Mn and Co) were measured at rest, at the end of each stage, and 3, 5 and 7 min post-exercise. Urine specific gravity (U(SG)) was measured before and after the test, and subjects drank water ad libitum. Fat oxidation (FAT(OXR)), carbohydrate oxidation (CHO(OXR)), energy expenditure from fat (EE(FAT)), from carbohydrates (EE(CHO)) and total EE (EE(T)) were estimated using stoichiometric equations. A repeated measure (ANOVA) was used to compare plasma ion levels at each exercise intensity level. The significance level was set at Pathletes does not provoke a change in plasma trace element levels, suggesting that plasma volume plays an important role in the homeostasis of these elements during exercise.

  17. Trace elements in dialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filler, Guido; Felder, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    In end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), pediatric nephrologists must consider the homeostasis of the multiple water-soluble ions that are influenced by renal replacement therapy (RRT). While certain ions such as potassium and calcium are closely monitored, little is known about the handling of trace elements in pediatric dialysis. RRT may lead to accumulation of toxic trace elements, either due to insufficient elimination or due to contamination, or to excessive removal of essential trace elements. However, trace elements are not routinely monitored in dialysis patients and no mechanism for these deficits or toxicities has been established. This review summarizes the handling of trace elements, with particular attention to pediatric data. The best data describe lead and indicate that there is a higher prevalence of elevated lead (Pb, atomic number 82) levels in children on RRT when compared to adults. Lead is particularly toxic in neurodevelopment and lead levels should therefore be monitored. Monitoring of zinc (Zn, atomic number 30) and selenium (Se, atomic number 34) may be indicated in the monitoring of all pediatric dialysis patients to reduce morbidity from deficiency. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of abnormal trace elements and the possible therapeutic value of intervention are required.

  18. The determination of low level trace elements in coals by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booth, C.A.; Spears, D.A.; Krause, P.; Cox, A.G. [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences

    1999-11-01

    The rapid determination of elements present in low level concentrations in bituminous coals is possible using laser abalation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (l.a.-i.c.p.-m.s.). A wide range of trace elements can routinely be determined using this technique but it is for environmentally sensitive elements, such as As, Cd, Mo, Sb, Se and Hg, that it is of most use due to the low levels of detection. Calibration of the i.c.p.-m.s. was achieved using a series of uncertified coals and the method evaluated using the South African certified coals, Sarm 18, 19 and 20. A critical evaluation of the data obtained shows that for many of the elements studied the results obtained are both accurate and precise, even at very low concentrations, with the limits of detection for all of the elements being in the {mu}g/kg (parts per billion) range. 6 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: a new tool for trace element analysis in ice cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, H; Kriews, M; Miller, H; Schrems, O; Lüdke, C; Hoffmann, E; Skole, J

    2001-07-01

    A new method for the detection of trace elements in polar ice cores using laser ablation with subsequent inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis is described. To enable direct analysis of frozen ice samples a special laser ablation chamber was constructed. Direct analysis reduces the risk of contamination. The defined removal of material from the ice surface by means of a laser beam leads to higher spatial resolution (300-1000 microm) in comparison to investigations with molten ice samples. This is helpful for the detection of element signatures in annual layers of ice cores. The method was applied to the successful determination of traces for the elements Mg, Al, Fe, Zn, Cd, Pb, some rare-earth elements (REE) and minor constituents such as Ca and Na in ice cores. These selected elements serve as tracer elements for certain sources and their element signatures detected in polar ice cores can give hints to climate changes in the past. We report results from measurements of frozen ice samples, the achievable signal intensities, standard deviations and calibration graphs as well as the first signal progression of 205Pb in an 8,000-year-old ice core sample from Greenland. In addition, the first picture of a crater on an ice surface burnt by an IR laser made by cryogenic scanning electron microscopy is presented.

  20. Trace element biomonitoring in hair of school children from a polluted area by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobyshev, Evgenii J; Solovyev, Nikolay D; Ivanenko, Natalya B; Kombarova, Maria Yu; Ganeev, Alexander A

    2017-01-01

    In the current study, a biomonitoring of 18 hair trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, Zn, Ca, Na and P) in school children from Leningradskaya Oblast' is reported. A case group, residing in a proximity to the toxic waste disposal grounds (Krasniy Bor), has been assessed vs. controls from a non-urban settlement Seltso. In total, 166 hair samples were analysed using double focusing sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after microwave-assisted sample digestion with nitric acid. For the determination of Ca, Na and P inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was employed. For the validation, a reference material and spiked hair samples were analysed. The data obtained was processed using parametric statistics and factor analysis. Determined concentrations of trace elements were in agreement with the previously published results on chemically polluted areas. In the case group, linear correlations between Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni and V were observed. Also, these metals correlated to selenium hair content in the case group. Additionally, a correlation between hair Se and P was observed in the case subjects. Several gender differences in trace content were observed within each group. However, no age- or body index-related difference was found. The obtained results show that closely located waste disposal grounds intensifies trace element exposure in school children of Krasniy Bor. However, judging from rather high values for the controls, total environmental status of the region seems to be unstable, so additional monitoring and chemical safety measures are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. [Analysis of Trace Inorganic Elements in Castor Oil by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tan-ping; Xie, Hua-lin; Nie, Xi-du

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Si, P, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Mo, Cd, Hg and Pb in castor oil after direct dilution with ethanol by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was established. The sample was diluted by ethanol before ICP-MS determination. The condensation and deposition of high concentrations of carbon in mass cone interface and ion lens, which will decrease the sensitivity of element analysis, were avoided effectively by introducing O2 to plasma. The mass spectral interferences were eliminated by octopole reaction system (ORS). The matrix effects were calibrated to using Sc, Ge, Rh and Ir as internal standard elements. Au standard solution, which could form amalgam alloy with Hg, was dropped to eliminate the memory effect of Hg. The results show that the correlation coefficient for analyte is no less than 0.999 5, the detection limits is in the range of 0.06 - 20.1 ng x L(-1), the recovery is in the range of 990.4% - 110.2%, and the RSD is less than 4.8%. This method was very fast, simple and accurate to simultaneously analyze multi-elements in castor oil.

  2. Determination of trace rare earth elements in gadolinium aluminate by inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Abhijit; Deb, S. B.; Nagar, B. K.; Saxena, M. K.

    An analytical methodology was developed for the precise quantification of ten trace rare earth elements (REEs), namely, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Tm, in gadolinium aluminate (GdAlO3) employing an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN)-desolvating device based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A microwave digestion procedure was optimized for digesting 100 mg of the refractory oxide using a mixture of sulphuric acid (H2SO4), phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and water (H2O) with 1400 W power, 10 min ramp and 60 min hold time. An USN-desolvating sample introduction system was employed to enhance analyte sensitivities by minimizing their oxide ion formation in the plasma. Studies on the effect of various matrix concentrations on the analyte intensities revealed that precise quantification of the analytes was possible with matrix level of 250 mg L- 1. The possibility of using indium as an internal standard was explored and applied to correct for matrix effect and variation in analyte sensitivity under plasma operating conditions. Individual oxide ion formation yields were determined in matrix matched solution and employed for correcting polyatomic interferences of light REE (LREE) oxide ions on the intensities of middle and heavy rare earth elements (MREEs and HREEs). Recoveries of ≥ 90% were achieved for the analytes employing standard addition technique. Three real samples were analyzed for traces of REEs by the proposed method and cross validated for Eu and Nd by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). The results show no significant difference in the values at 95% confidence level. The expanded uncertainty (coverage factor 1σ) in the determination of trace REEs in the samples were found to be between 3 and 8%. The instrument detection limits (IDLs) and the method detection limits (MDLs) for the ten REEs lie in the ranges 1-5 ng L- 1 and 7-64 μg kg- 1 respectively.

  3. Possibilities of High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry in the Determination of Trace Elements in Environmental Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaya Velitchkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new quantitative data for the spectral interferences obtained by high resolution 40.68 MHz radial viewing inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (HR-ICP-OES in the determination of Zn, Cd, Sb, Cu, Mn, Pb, Sn, Cr, U, and Ba in environmental materials in the presence of a complex matrix, containing Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti. The -concept for quantification of spectral interferences was used. The optimum line selection for trace analysis of a variety of multicomponent matrices requires the choice of prominent lines, which are free or negligibly influenced by line interference problems. The versatility of -concept as basic methodology was experimentally demonstrated in the determination of trace of elements in soil and drinking water. The detection limits are lower in comparison with corresponding threshold concentration levels for soil and drinking water in accordance with environmental regulations. This paper shows the possibilities of present day ICP-OES equipment in the direct determination of trace elements (without preconcentration of impurities in environmental samples.

  4. Trace elements and rat pouchitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drzymała-Czyż, Sławomira; Banasiewicz, Tomasz; Walas, Stanisław; Kościński, Tomasz; Wenska-Chyży, Ewa; Drews, Michał; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2012-01-01

    The procedure of restorative proctocolectomy is associated with a complete removal of the colon and slight reduction of ileum length, which together can lead to systemic shortages of trace elements. Inflammatory changes in the pouch mucosa may also have some impact. However, there is no data on trace elements in pouchitis. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to assess the effect of acute pouchitis on the status of selected trace elements in rats. Restorative proctocolectomy with the construction of intestinal J-pouch was performed in twenty-four Wistar rats. Three weeks after the surgery, pouchitis was induced. Eight untreated rats created the control group. Liver concentrations of selected micronutrients (Zn, Cu, Co, Mn, Se) were measured in both groups six weeks later, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Liver concentrations of trace elements did not differ between the study and the control groups. However, copper, cobalt and selenium concentrations [μg/g] were statistically lower (p<0.02, p<0.05 and p<0.04, respectively) in rats with severe pouchitis (n=9) as compared with rats with mild pouchitis (n=7) [median (range): Cu--7.05 (3.02-14.57) vs 10.47 (5.16-14.97); Co--0.55 (0.37-0.96) vs 0.61 (0.52-0.86); Se--1.17 (0.69-1.54) vs 1.18 (0.29-1.91)]. In conclusion, it seems that acute pouchitis can lead to a significant deficiency of trace elements.

  5. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine...... in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified...

  6. Visualizing fossilization using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry maps of trace elements in Late Cretaceous bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, A.E.; Rogers, R.R.; Trueman, C.N.

    2009-01-01

    Elemental maps generated by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provide a previously unavailable high-resolution visualization of the complex physicochemical conditions operating within individual bones during the early stages of diagenesis and fossilization. A selection of LA-ICP-MS maps of bones collected from the Late Cretaceous of Montana (United States) and Madagascar graphically illustrate diverse paths to recrystallization, and reveal unique insights into geochemical aspects of taphonomic history. Some bones show distinct gradients in concentrations of rare earth elements and uranium, with highest concentrations at external bone margins. Others exhibit more intricate patterns of trace element uptake related to bone histology and its control on the flow paths of pore waters. Patterns of element uptake as revealed by LA-ICP-MS maps can be used to guide sampling strategies, and call into question previous studies that hinge upon localized bulk samples of fossilized bone tissue. LA-ICP-MS maps also allow for comparison of recrystallization rates among fossil bones, and afford a novel approach to identifying bones or regions of bones potentially suitable for extracting intact biogeochemical signals. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  7. Trace elements content in cheese, cream and butter

    OpenAIRE

    Nina Bilandžić; Marija Sedak; Maja Đokić; Đurđica Božić; Božica Solomun Kolanović; Ivana Varenina

    2014-01-01

    Trace elements were determined in five types of cheese, cream and butter using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In cheese samples trace elements were measured as follows (mg/kg): Al 0.01-3.93, Co

  8. Simultaneous determination of macronutrients, micronutrients and trace elements in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Souza, Sidnei; da Costa, Silvânio Silvério Lopes; Santos, Dayane Melo; dos Santos Pinto, Jéssica; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges; Alves, José do Patrocínio Hora; Araujo, Rennan Geovanny Oliveira

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method for simultaneous determination of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, Na and P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Pb and V) in mineral fertilizers was optimized. Two-level full factorial design was applied to evaluate the optimal proportions of reagents used in the sample digestion on hot plate. A Doehlert design for two variables was used to evaluate the operating conditions of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer in order to accomplish the simultaneous determination of the analyte concentrations. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2.0 mg kg- 1 for Mn to 77.3 mg kg- 1 for P. The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were evaluated by analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs) of Western phosphate rock (NIST 694), Florida phosphate rock (NIST 120C) and Trace elements in multi-nutrient fertilizer (NIST 695), considered to be adequate for simultaneous determination. Twenty-one samples of mineral fertilizers collected in Sergipe State, Brazil, were analyzed. For all samples, the As, Ca, Cd and Pb concentrations were below the LOQ values of the analytical method. For As, Cd and Pb the obtained LOQ values were below the maximum limit allowed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento - MAPA). The optimized method presented good accuracy and was effectively applied to quantitative simultaneous determination of the analytes in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES).

  9. Determination of trace rare earth elements in gadolinium aluminate by inductively coupled plasma time of flight mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Abhijit; Deb, S.B.; Nagar, B.K.; Saxena, M.K., E-mail: saxenamk@barc.gov.in

    2014-04-01

    An analytical methodology was developed for the precise quantification of ten trace rare earth elements (REEs), namely, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Tm, in gadolinium aluminate (GdAlO{sub 3}) employing an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN)-desolvating device based inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A microwave digestion procedure was optimized for digesting 100 mg of the refractory oxide using a mixture of sulphuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), phosphoric acid (H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) and water (H{sub 2}O) with 1400 W power, 10 min ramp and 60 min hold time. An USN-desolvating sample introduction system was employed to enhance analyte sensitivities by minimizing their oxide ion formation in the plasma. Studies on the effect of various matrix concentrations on the analyte intensities revealed that precise quantification of the analytes was possible with matrix level of 250 mg L{sup −1}. The possibility of using indium as an internal standard was explored and applied to correct for matrix effect and variation in analyte sensitivity under plasma operating conditions. Individual oxide ion formation yields were determined in matrix matched solution and employed for correcting polyatomic interferences of light REE (LREE) oxide ions on the intensities of middle and heavy rare earth elements (MREEs and HREEs). Recoveries of ≥ 90% were achieved for the analytes employing standard addition technique. Three real samples were analyzed for traces of REEs by the proposed method and cross validated for Eu and Nd by isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS). The results show no significant difference in the values at 95% confidence level. The expanded uncertainty (coverage factor 1σ) in the determination of trace REEs in the samples were found to be between 3 and 8%. The instrument detection limits (IDLs) and the method detection limits (MDLs) for the ten REEs lie in the ranges 1–5 ng L{sup −1} and 7–64 μg kg{sup −1} respectively. - Highlights: • A

  10. Trace Elements in Ovaries: Measurement and Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceko, Melanie J; O'Leary, Sean; Harris, Hugh H; Hummitzsch, Katja; Rodgers, Raymond J

    2016-04-01

    Traditionally, research in the field of trace element biology and human and animal health has largely depended on epidemiological methods to demonstrate involvement in biological processes. These studies were typically followed by trace element supplementation trials or attempts at identification of the biochemical pathways involved. With the discovery of biological molecules that contain the trace elements, such as matrix metalloproteinases containing zinc (Zn), cytochrome P450 enzymes containing iron (Fe), and selenoproteins containing selenium (Se), much of the current research focuses on these molecules, and, hence, only indirectly on trace elements themselves. This review focuses largely on two synchrotron-based x-ray techniques: X-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray fluorescence imaging that can be used to identify the in situ speciation and distribution of trace elements in tissues, using our recent studies of bovine ovaries, where the distribution of Fe, Se, Zn, and bromine were determined. It also discusses the value of other techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, used to garner information about the concentrations and elemental state of the trace elements. These applications to measure trace elemental distributions in bovine ovaries at high resolutions provide new insights into possible roles for trace elements in the ovary.

  11. Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometric determination of trace elements in sediments after sequential selective extraction: effects of reagents and major elements on the analytical signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grotti, Marco; Ianni, Carmela; Frache, Roberto

    2002-07-19

    The interfering effects due to the reagents and matrix elements associated with a four step sequential extraction procedure on ICPOES determination of trace elements were investigated in a systematic way. The emission lines were selected in order to include the most interesting elements for environmental studies (Zn, Pb, Ni, Cr, V and Cu) and the concentrations ranged according with the values occurring in the real samples. In order to distinguish between chemical and physical interfering effects, the Mg 280.270-Mg 285.213 line intensity ratio was measured, in each condition. Both pneumatic and ultrasonic nebulization were considered for comparison. It was found that both the elements which constitute the sample and the reagents which are added during the sample preparation steps significantly influence the emission intensity of all the analytes, depending on the analytical concentration and the nebulization system. Generally, the signal variations were higher with ultrasonic nebulization. Concerning the interference mechanism, it was found that the effect of the major elements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Al and Fe) is essentially related to a change of the aerosol generation and transport processes. Differently, acetic acid, ammonium acetate and hydroxylamine hydrochloride significantly improved the plasma excitation conditions, depending on their concentration. A change of the sample introduction efficiency due to the presence of these reagents was also evident. On the contrary, the effect of hydrochloric and nitric acid emerged to be related only to the processes occurring in the sample introduction system.

  12. Simultaneous determination of macronutrients, micronutrients and trace elements in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Souza, Sidnei de [Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental (LQA), Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), 49100-000, São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); Silvério Lopes da Costa, Silvânio [Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental (LQA), Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), 49100-000, São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); Coordenação de Química, Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL), Campus Arapiraca, 57309-005, Arapiraca, AL (Brazil); Santos, Dayane Melo; Santos Pinto, Jéssica dos; Garcia, Carlos Alexandre Borges [Laboratório de Química Analítica Ambiental (LQA), Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnologia, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), 49100-000, São Cristovão, SE (Brazil); and others

    2014-06-01

    An analytical method for simultaneous determination of macronutrients (Ca, Mg, Na and P), micronutrients (Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn) and trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Pb and V) in mineral fertilizers was optimized. Two-level full factorial design was applied to evaluate the optimal proportions of reagents used in the sample digestion on hot plate. A Doehlert design for two variables was used to evaluate the operating conditions of the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer in order to accomplish the simultaneous determination of the analyte concentrations. The limits of quantification (LOQs) ranged from 2.0 mg kg{sup −1} for Mn to 77.3 mg kg{sup −1} for P. The accuracy and precision of the proposed method were evaluated by analysis of standard reference materials (SRMs) of Western phosphate rock (NIST 694), Florida phosphate rock (NIST 120C) and Trace elements in multi-nutrient fertilizer (NIST 695), considered to be adequate for simultaneous determination. Twenty-one samples of mineral fertilizers collected in Sergipe State, Brazil, were analyzed. For all samples, the As, Ca, Cd and Pb concentrations were below the LOQ values of the analytical method. For As, Cd and Pb the obtained LOQ values were below the maximum limit allowed by the Brazilian Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food Supply (Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento — MAPA). The optimized method presented good accuracy and was effectively applied to quantitative simultaneous determination of the analytes in mineral fertilizers by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES). - Highlights: • Determination of inorganic constituents in mineral fertilizers was proposed. • Experimental design methodology was used to optimize analytical method. • The sample preparation procedure using diluted reagents (HNO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) was employed. • The analytical method was satisfactorily to the determination of thirteen elements. • The

  13. Determination of trace elements in petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, Raquel [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, P.O. Box 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Todolí, José Luis, E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, P.O. Box 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Lienemann, Charles-Philippe [IFP Energies Nouvelles, Rond-point de l' échangeur de Solaize, BP 3, F-69360 Solaize (France); Mermet, Jean-Michel [Spectroscopy Forever, 01390 Tramoyes (France)

    2013-10-01

    The fundamentals, applications and latter developments of petroleum products analysis through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are revisited in the present bibliographic survey. Sample preparation procedures for the direct analysis of fuels by using liquid sample introduction systems are critically reviewed and compared. The most employed methods are sample dilution, emulsion or micro-emulsion preparation and sample decomposition. The first one is the most widely employed due to its simplicity. Once the sample has been prepared, an organic matrix is usually present. The performance of the sample introduction system (i.e., nebulizer and spray chamber) depends strongly upon the nature and properties of the solution finally obtained. Many different devices have been assayed and the obtained results are shown. Additionally, samples can be introduced into the plasma by using an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) device or a laser ablation system (LA). The recent results published in the literature showing the feasibility, advantages and drawbacks of latter alternatives are also described. Therefore, the main goal of the review is the discussion of the different approaches developed for the analysis of crude oil and its derivates by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques. - Highlights: • Analysis of petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques is revisited. • Fundamental studies are included together with reports dealing with applications. • Conventional and non-conventional sample introduction methods are considered. • Sample preparation methods are critically compared and described.

  14. Sequential cloud point extraction of trace elements from biological samples and determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gine, Maria Fernanda; Patreze, Aparecida F.; Silva, Edson L. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA-USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: mfgine@cena.usp.br; Sarkis, Jorge E.S.; Kakazu, Mauricio H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    A two-step sequential cloud point extraction (CPE) of trace elements from small sample volumes of human serum, animal blood, and food diet is proposed to gain analytical information in the analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The first CPE was attained by adding O,O-diethyldithiophosphate, the non ionic surfactant Triton{sup R} X-114 followed by heating at 40 deg C, centrifugation and cooling at 0 deg C. The resulting surfactant-rich phase was separated to determine Cd, Pb and Cu by isotope dilution. Isotope ratio measurements presented RSD < 0.7%. The residual surfactant-poor phase solution had the pH adjusted in the range 4 to 5 before the chelating reagent, 4-(2-pyridylazo) resorcinol plus surfactant Triton{sup R} X-114 were added followed by the sequence to attain the CPE. Co and Ni were quantified in the second extracted surfactant-rich phases by standard additions method with RSD < 2%. Recoveries from 85 to 96% were obtained for all elements. Analyzing reference materials with certified and recommended values assessed accuracy. (author)

  15. The determination of trace element concentrations in fly ash samples using ultrasound-assisted digestion followed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ilander, Aki; Väisänen, Ari

    2009-01-01

    A method of ultrasound-assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) used for the determination of trace element (chromium, copper, lead, nickel, vanadium and zinc) concentrations in fly ash samples was developed. All the measurements were performed in robust plasma conditions. Ultrasound-assisted digestion procedures using digestion solutions of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid (HF) resulted in recovery rates of over 80% for all the analyte...

  16. Determination of trace multi-elements in coal fly ash by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Hua-lin; TANG You-gen; LI Yu-jie; LI Li-bo

    2007-01-01

    The contents of Cr,Cu, Ni, As, Cd and Pb in coal fly ash were determined by a high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method.The sample digestions were performed in closed microwave vessels with HN03, HClO4 and HF.The optimum conditions for the determination were obtained.The applicability of the proposed method was validated by the analysis of coal fly ash reference material (NIST SRM 1633a). The results show that most of the spectral interferences can be avoided by measuring in the high resolution mode(maximum mass resolution R=9 000).The detection limit is from 0.05 to 0.21μg/g,and the precision is fine with relative standard deviation less than 4.3%.

  17. Trace Element Analysis of Minerals in Magmatic-Hydrothermal Ores by Laser Ablation Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry: Approaches and Opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Cook

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS has rapidly established itself as the method of choice for generation of multi-element datasets for specific minerals, with broad applications in Earth science. Variation in absolute concentrations of different trace elements within common, widely distributed phases, such as pyrite, iron-oxides (magnetite and hematite, and key accessory minerals, such as apatite and titanite, can be particularly valuable for understanding processes of ore formation, and when trace element distributions vary systematically within a mineral system, for a vector approach in mineral exploration. LA-ICP-MS trace element data can assist in element deportment and geometallurgical studies, providing proof of which minerals host key elements of economic relevance, or elements that are deleterious to various metallurgical processes. This contribution reviews recent advances in LA-ICP-MS methodology, reference standards, the application of the method to new mineral matrices, outstanding analytical uncertainties that impact on the quality and usefulness of trace element data, and future applications of the technique. We illustrate how data interpretation is highly dependent on an adequate understanding of prevailing mineral textures, geological history, and in some cases, crystal structure.

  18. Determination of trace elements in heroin by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry using ultrasonic nebulization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budič, Bojan; Klemenc, Sonja

    2000-06-01

    A method for the determination of Al, Ba, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, P, S, Sr and Zn in heroin samples by ICP-AES using ultrasonic nebulization is described. The samples were microwave digested with HNO 3. To improve the detection limits and minimise the matrix interferences the experimental parameters were optimised by variation of the operating power, carrier gas flow rate and observation height above the load coil. Optimum operating conditions for most of the analytes were at operating power 1550 W, carrier gas flow rate between 0.8 and 1.0 l min -1 and observation height between 10 and 12 mm above load coil. The limits of detection were below 0.5 μg g -1 (dry mass) for most of the elements investigated. The analytical recoveries of spiked samples were in the range between 94 and 103% and precision was on average better than 6%. The analysis of heroin samples shows that the method is simple, rapid and capable of providing accurate results for all the analytes investigated with the exception of nickel which was below the limit of detection in the analyzed samples.

  19. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.

  20. Modern sampling and analytical methods for the determination of trace elements in marine particulate material using magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowie, Andrew R; Townsend, Ashley T; Lannuzel, Delphine; Remenyi, Tomas A; van der Merwe, Pier

    2010-08-31

    Trace elements often limit phytoplankton growth in the ocean, and the quantification of particulate forms is essential to fully understand their biogeochemical cycling. There is presently a lack of reliable measurements on the trace elemental content of marine particles, in part due to the inadequacies of the sampling and analytical methods employed. Here we report on the development of a series of state-of-the-art trace metal clean methods to collect and process oceanic particulate material in open-ocean and sea ice environments, including sampling, size-fractionated filtration, particle digestions and analysis by magnetic sector inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Particular attention was paid to the analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs) and field blanks, which are typically the limiting factor for the accurate analysis of low concentrations of trace metals in marine particulate samples. Theoretical detection limits (3 s of the blank) were low for all 17 elements considered, and varied according to filter material and porosity (sub-microg L(-1) for polycarbonate filters and 1-2 microg L(-1) for quartz and polyester filters). Analytical accuracy was verified using fresh water CRMs, with excellent recoveries noted (93-103%). Digestion efficiencies for various acid combinations were assessed using sediment and plankton CRMs. Using nitric acid only, good recoveries (79-90%) were achieved for Mo, Cd, Ba, Pb, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ga. The addition of HF was necessary for the quantitative recovery of the more refractory trace elements such as U, Al, V and Cr. Bioactive elements such as P can also be analysed and used as a biomass normaliser. Our developed sampling and analytical methods proved reliable when applied during two major field programs in both the open Southern Ocean and Antarctic sea ice environments during the International Polar Year in 2007. Trace elemental data are presented for particulate samples collected in both

  1. Determination of minor and trace elements in aromatic spices by micro-wave assisted digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Naeem; Choi, Ji Yeon; Nho, Eun Yeong; Jamila, Nargis; Habte, Girum; Hong, Joon Ho; Hwang, In Min; Kim, Kyong Su

    2014-09-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the concentrations of 23 minor and trace elements in aromatic spices by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), after wet digestion by microwave system. The analytical method was validated by linearity, detection limits, precision, accuracy and recovery experiments, obtaining satisfactory values in all cases. Results indicated the presence of variable amounts of both minor and trace elements in the selected aromatic spices. Manganese was high in cinnamon (879.8 μg/g) followed by cardamom (758.1 μg/g) and clove (649.9 μg/g), strontium and zinc were high in ajwain (489.9 μg/g and 84.95 μg/g, respectively), while copper was high in mango powder (77.68 μg/g). On the whole some of the minor and essential trace elements were found to have good nutritional contribution in accordance to RDA. The levels of toxic trace elements, including As, Cd, and Pb were very low and did not found to pose any threat to consumers.

  2. Trace elements: implications for nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayter, J

    1980-01-01

    Although most were unknown a few years ago, present evidence indicates that at least 25 trace elements have some pertinence to health. Unlike vitamins, they cannot be synthesized. Some trace elements are now considered important only because of their harmful effects but traces of them may be essential. Zinc is especially important during puberty, pregnancy and menopause and is related to protein metabolism. Both fluoride and cadmium accumulate in the body year after year. Cadmium is positively correlated with several chronic diseases, especially hypertension. It is obtained from smoking and drinking soft water. Silicon, generally associated with silicosis, may be necessary for healthy bone and connective tissue. Chromium, believed to be the glucose tolerance factor, is obtained from brewer's yeast, spices, and whole wheat products. Copper deficiency may be implicated in a wide range of cardiovascular and blood related disorders. Either marginal deficiencies or slight excesses of most trace elements are harmful. Nurses should instruct patients to avoid highly refined foods, fad diets, or synthetic and fabricated foods. A well balanced and varied diet is the best safeguard against trace element excesses or deficiencies.

  3. Trace element geochemistry of CR chondrite metal

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Alard, Olivier; Kearsley, Anton T; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    We report trace element analyses by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry of metal grains from 9 different CR chondrites, distinguishing grains from chondrule interior ("interior grains"), chondrule surficial shells ("margin grains") and the matrix ("isolated grains"). Save for a few anomalous grains, Ni-normalized trace element patterns are similar for all three petrographical settings, with largely unfractionated refractory siderophile elements and depleted volatile Au, Cu, Ag, S. All types of grains are interpreted to derive from a common precursor approximated by the least melted, fine-grained objects in CR chondrites. This also excludes recondensation of metal vapor as the origin of the bulk of margin grains. The metal precursors presumably formed by incomplete condensation, with evidence for high-temperature isolation of refractory platinum-group-element (PGE)-rich condensates before mixing with lower temperature PGE-depleted condensates. The rounded shape of the Ni-rich, interior ...

  4. Trace elements and chronic liver diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loguercio, C.; De Girolamo, V.; Federico A., A.; Del Vecchio Blanco, C. [Seconda Universita di Napoli, Naples (Italy). Cattedra di Gastroenterologia; Feng, S.L.; Gialanella, G. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze Fisiche; Cataldi, V. [Naples Univ. (Italy). Prima Medicina Ospedale Ascalesi

    1997-12-31

    The relationships between chronic liver diseases and trace element (TE) contents are debated. Particularly, no defined data are available about the TE levels in viral liver disease patients with or without malnutrition. In this study we evaluated blood and plasma levels of various trace elements in patients with HCV-related chronic liver disease, at different stages of liver damage (8 patients with chronic hepatitis and 32 with liver cirrhosis) with or without malnutrition. We also studied 10 healthy volunteers as control group. We found that cirrhotic subjects had a significant decrease of blood levels of Zn and Se, independently on the nutritional status, whereas plasma levels of Fe were significantly reduced only in malnourished cirrhotic patients. Our data indicate that liver impairment is the main cause of the blood decrease of Se and Zn levels in patients with non alcoholic liver disease, whereas the malnutrition affects Fe levels only. (orig.)

  5. The effect of various copper sources on the trace elements profile in the hair, plasma and faeces and copper activity in the organism of horses

    OpenAIRE

    Petra Jančíková; Pavel Horký; Ladislav Zeman

    2012-01-01

    In our experiment with 20 mares (3.6–19.8 years old) divided into 3 groups we evaluated the effect of supplementation with various sources of copper on the trace elements profile in the hair, blood plasma and faeces and copper activity in the organism of horses. The horses were stabled in box stalls (similar dimension) with feeding pump, with the access to a paddock or walker. All mares received the same basic feed ration that was supplemented with various form of copper (Cu in the organic fo...

  6. Determination of sulfur and selected trace elements in metallothionein-like proteins using capillary electrophoresis hyphenated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with an octopole reaction cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proefrock, Daniel; Leonhard, Peter; Prange, Andreas [GKSS Research Centre Geesthacht, Institute for Coastal Research, Max Planck Strasse, 21502, Geesthacht (Germany)

    2003-09-01

    The determination of sulfur in biologically relevant samples such as metalloproteins is described. The analytical methodology used is based on robust on-line coupling between capillary electrophoresis (CE) and octopole reaction cell inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ORC-ICP-MS). Polyatomic ions that form in the plasma and interfere with the determination of S at mass 32 are minimised by addition of xenon to the collision cell. The method has been applied to the separation and simultaneous element-specific detection of sulfur, cadmium, copper, and zinc in commercially available metallothionein preparations (MT) and metallothionein-like proteins (MLP) extracted from liver samples of bream (Abramis brama L.) caught in the river Elbe, Germany. Instrumental detection limits have been calculated according to the German standard procedure DIN 32645 for the determination of sulfur and some simultaneously measured trace elements in aqueous solution. For sulfur detection limits down to 1.3 {mu}g L{sup -1} ({sup 34}S) and 3.2 {mu}g L{sup -1} ({sup 32}S) were derived. For the other trace elements determined simultaneously detection limits ranging from 300 ng L{sup -1} ({sup 58}Ni) to 500 ng L{sup -1} ({sup 66}Zn, {sup 55}Mn) were achieved. For quantification of sulfur and cadmium in a commercially available MT preparation under hyphenated conditions the use of external calibration is suggested. Finally, the need for proper sample-preparation technique will be discussed. (orig.)

  7. The effect of various copper sources on the trace elements profile in the hair, plasma and faeces and copper activity in the organism of horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Jančíková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In our experiment with 20 mares (3.6–19.8 years old divided into 3 groups we evaluated the effect of supplementation with various sources of copper on the trace elements profile in the hair, blood plasma and faeces and copper activity in the organism of horses. The horses were stabled in box stalls (similar dimension with feeding pump, with the access to a paddock or walker. All mares received the same basic feed ration that was supplemented with various form of copper (Cu in the organic form – proteinate - Bioplex Cu vs. Cu in the inorganic form – CuSO4.5H2O in amount of 120 mg per day for the mares in experimental groups. The contents of trace elements in hair and faeces were established using the atomic absorption spectrometry; in the plasma using direct colorimetric determination.Significant difference between mares receiving copper in organic and inorganic form (P The mares receiving Bioplex-Cu excreted lower amount of copper in the faeces. These had well-balanced levels of Cu in the plasma and deposited less Cu in the hair than the mares with addition of copper sulphate. In our experiment, it seems to be better available copper in the organic form than in the inorganic form for the organism of horses.Nevertheless, interpretation of these results is very difficult. Evaluation the impact of various sources of copper on the elements profile; assessed using skin derivates, plasma or other parameters should be subjected to further observation.

  8. Natural wetland emissions of methylated trace elements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriens, B.; Lenz, M.; Charlet, L.; Berg, M.; Winkel, L.H.E.

    2014-01-01

    Natural wetlands are well known for their significant methane emissions. However, trace element emissions via biomethylation and subsequent volatilization from pristine wetlands are virtually unstudied, even though wetlands constitute large reservoirs for trace elements. Here we show that the averag

  9. Trace amounts of rare earth elements in high purity samarium oxide by sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after separation by HPLC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira, W.R. [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil) and Fundacao Jorge Duprat Figueiredo de Seguranca e Medicina do Trabalho (FUNDACENTRO), 05409-002 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: walter.pedreira@fundacentro.gov.br; Queiroz, C.A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Abrao, A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Rocha, S.M. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.E. de [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Boaventura, G.R. [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Pimentel, M.M. [Instituto de Geociencias, Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2006-07-20

    Today there is an increasing need for high purity rare earth compounds in various fields, the optical, the electronics, the ceramic, the nuclear and geochemistry. Samarium oxide has special uses in glass, phosphors, lasers and thermoelectric devices. Calcium chloride crystals treated with samarium have been employed in lasers, which produce light beams intense enough to burn metal. In general, the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) presents some advantages for trace element analysis, due to high sensitivity and resolution, when compared with other analytical techniques such as ICP optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). In this work, sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used. Sixteen elements (Sc, Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the ICP-MS system using a concentration gradient method. The detection limits with the ICP-MS system were about 0.2 (La) pg mL{sup -1} to 8 (Gd) pg mL{sup -1}. The %R.S.D. of the methods varying between 0.9 and 1.5% for a set of five (n = 5) replicates was found for the IPEN's material and for the certificate reference sample. Determination of trace REEs in two high pure samarium oxides samples (IPEN and JMC) was performed. IPEN's material is highly pure (>99.99%) and was successfully analyzed without spectral interference (MO{sup +} and MOH{sup +})

  10. The determination of trace element concentrations in fly ash samples using ultrasound-assisted digestion followed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilander, Aki; Väisänen, Ari

    2009-08-01

    A method of ultrasound-assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) used for the determination of trace element (chromium, copper, lead, nickel, vanadium and zinc) concentrations in fly ash samples was developed. All the measurements were performed in robust plasma conditions. Ultrasound-assisted digestion procedures using digestion solutions of aqua regia and hydrofluoric acid (HF) resulted in recovery rates of over 80% for all the analyte elements. Ultrasound-assisted two-step digestion with digestion solutions of 6mL of HNO(3) (Step 1) and 3mL of HNO(3)+3mL of HF (Step 2) resulted in recovery rates of over 92% for all the analyte elements with one exception, chromium, which had a recovery of about 85%. The analysis of SRM 1633b showed that the two-step ultrasound-assisted digestion method developed resulted in chromium, copper, nickel and zinc concentrations higher than the microwave digestion method standardized by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA method 3052). This is the very first time when a digestion method using ultrasound resulted in higher efficiency than microwave (USEPA method 3052) for chromium and nickel in very hard to dissolve samples. The major advantages of the ultrasound-assisted digestion over microwave digestion is the high treatment rate (about 30 samples simultaneously with a sonication time of 18min) and the possibility to use new sample vessels without a significant increase in costs.

  11. Quantitative analysis of major and trace elements in NH4HF2-modified silicate rock powders by laser ablation - inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Hu, Zhaochu; Liu, Yongsheng; Yang, Wenwu; Chen, Haihong; Hu, Shenghong; Xiao, Hongyan

    2017-08-29

    In this paper, we described a NH4HF2 digestion method as sample preparation for the rapid determination of major and trace elements in silicate rocks using laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Sample powders digested by NH4HF2 at 230 °C for 3 h form ultrafine powders with a typical grain size d80 rocks have a consistent grain morphology and size, allowing us to produce pressed powder pellets that have excellent cohesion and homogeneity suitable for laser ablation micro-analysis without the addition of binder. The influences of the digestion parameters were investigated and optimized, including the evaporation stage of removing residual NH4HF2, sample homogenization, selection of the digestion vessel and calibration strategy of quantitative analysis. The optimized NH4HF2 digestion method was applied to dissolve six silicate rock reference materials (BCR-2, BHVO-2, AGV-2, RGM-2, GSP-2, GSR-1) covering a wide range of rock types. Ten major elements and thirty-five trace elements were simultaneously analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. The analytical results of the six reference materials generally agreed with the recommended values, with discrepancies of less than 10% for most elements. The analytical precision is within 5% for most major elements and within 10% for most trace elements. Compared with previous methods of LA-ICP-MS bulk analysis, our method enables the complete dissolution of refractory minerals, such as zircon, in intermediate-acidic intrusive rocks and limits contamination as well as the loss of volatile elements. Moreover, there are many advantages for the new technique, including reducing matrix effects between reference materials and samples, spiking the internal standard simply and feasibly and sample batch processing. The applicability filed of the new technique in this study was focused on the whole-rock analysis of igneous rock samples, which are from basic rocks to acid rocks (45% rock analysis. Copyright © 2017

  12. Fast preconcentration of trace rare earth elements from environmental samples by di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid grafted magnetic nanoparticles followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ping; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Hu, Bin

    2017-10-01

    In this work, di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphoric acid (P204) grafted magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized by fabricating P204 onto Fe3O4@TiO2 nanoparticles based on Lewis acid-base interaction between Ti and phosphate group under weakly acidic condition. The prepared Fe3O4@TiO2@P204 nanoparticles exhibited excellent selectivity for rare earth elements, and good anti-interference ability. Based on it, a method of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for fast preconcentration and determination of trace rare earth elements in environmental samples. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits of rare earth elements were in the range of 0.01 (Tm)-0.12 (Nd) ng L- 1 with an enrichment factor of 100-fold, and the relative standard deviations ranged from 4.9 (Pr) to 10.7% (Er). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of rare earth elements in environmental samples, including river water, lake water, seawater and sediment.

  13. Gold nanoparticles as intermediate ligands for polymer monolithic capillary microextraction of trace rare earth elements followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yabing; Chen, Beibei; He, Man; Liu, Xiaolan; Bin, Hu

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a novel method of Au nanoparticles (NPs) modified polymer monolithic capillary microextraction (CME) on-line coupling with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was developed for the determination of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in environmental and biological samples. The poly(glycidyl methacrylate-ethylene dimethacrylate) monolithic capillary was prepared, functionalized with thiol ligands for the attaching of Au NPs, and then modified with mercaptosuccinic acid to provide massive carboxyl groups which have high affinity to REEs. With the modification of Au NPs, the adsorption capacity of the monolith towards target REEs has been improved by 3 to 6.5 times. Under the optimized conditions, the limits of detection of the developed method for REEs were in the range of 0.16 (Tb)-0.85 (Gd) ng L- 1. The enrichment factor was 25-fold with the sample throughput of 10 h- 1. And the relative standard deviations were between 2.7 (Lu) and 9.8% (Dy) (c = 10 ng L- 1, n = 9). The accuracy of the method was validated by the analysis of a standard stock solution of GSB04-1789-2004 and a Certified Reference Material of GBW07301a stream sediment. The proposed method was applied for the analysis of trace REEs in seawater samples as well as human whole blood with good recoveries. The prepared monolith is featured with strong anti-interference ability, superior adsorption capacity as well as long lifespan, and the developed monolithic CME-ICP-MS is sensitive, simple and rapid for the analysis of trace/ultra-trace REEs in environmental and biological samples with complex matrix.

  14. Determination of trace elements in water samples by ultrasonic nebulization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after cloud point extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita da Silva, Márcia Andreia; Azzolin Frescura, Vera Lúcia; Curtius, Adilson José

    2000-07-01

    A preconcentration method for low concentrations of Ag, As, Au, Cd, Cu, Pb and Se in water, using cloud point extraction is proposed. The analytes in the initial aqueous solution, acidified with hydrochloric acid, are complexed with ammonium O, O-diethyl-dithiophosphate, and 0.05% m/v Triton X-114 is added as surfactant. The complexation allows the separation of the analytes from alkali, alkaline earth and other elements, which are not complexed. After phase separation, by increasing the temperature above 20°C, depending on the cloud point of the mixture, and dilution of the surfactant-rich phase with a mixture of 60% v/v methanol and 40% v/v of 1% v/v aqueous nitric acid solution, the enriched analytes are determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, using ultrasonic nebulization, injecting 100 μl of the enriched phase with a flow injection (FI) system. Since the initial volume is 40 ml and the final volume is 1 ml, good enrichment factors are obtained. After optimization of the complexation (pH and DDTP concentration), of extraction conditions, sample introduction (FI and ultrasonic nebulizer parameters) and spectrometer conditions, the method was applied to the analysis of riverine water, sea water and enriched water reference materials, and good agreement with the certified values was obtained. By introducing the organic extract with the FI system and using ultrasonic nebulization, no carbon deposits on the interface cones and lens were observed, allowing extensive use of the spectrometer without cleaning and re-optimization.

  15. A methodology for quantifying trace elements in the exoskeletons of Florida stone crab (Menippe mercenaria) larvae using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP–OES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravinese, Philip M.; Flannery, Jennifer A.; Toth, Lauren T.

    2016-11-23

    The larvae of the Florida stone crab, Menippe mercenaria, migrate through a variety of habitats as they develop and, therefore, experience a broad range of environmental conditions through ontogeny. Environmental variability experienced by the larvae may result in distinct elemental signatures within the exoskeletons, which could provide a tool for tracking the environmental history of larval stone crab populations. A method was developed to examine trace-element ratios, specifically magnesium-to-calcium (Mg/Ca) and strontium-to-calcium (Sr/Ca) ratios, in the exoskeletons of M. mercenaria larvae. Two developmental stages of stone crab larvae were analyzed—stage III and stage V. Specimens were reared in a laboratory environment under stable conditions to quantify the average ratios of Mg/Ca and Sr/Ca of larval stone crab exoskeletons and to determine if the ratios differed through ontogeny. The elemental compositions (Ca, Mg, and Sr) in samples of stage III larvae (n = 50 per sample) from 11 different broods (mean Sr/Ca = 5.916 ± 0.161 millimole per mole [mmol mol−1]; mean Mg/Ca = 218.275 ± 59.957 mmol mol−1) and stage V larvae (n = 10 per sample) from 12 different broods (mean Sr/Ca = 6.110 ± 0.300 mmol mol−1; mean Mg/Ca = 267.081 ± 67.211 mmol mol–1) were measured using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP–OES). The ratio of Sr/Ca significantly increased from stage III to stage V larvae, suggesting an ontogenic shift in Sr/Ca ratios between larval stages. The ratio of Mg/Ca did not change significantly between larval stages, but variability among broods was high. The method used to examine the trace-element ratios provided robust, highly reproducible estimates of Sr/Ca and Mg/Ca ratios in the larvae of M. mercenaria, demonstrating that ICP–OES can be used to determine the trace-element composition of chitinous organisms like the Florida stone crab.

  16. Major and trace elemental analysis in milk powder by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and instrumental neutron activation analysis(INAA)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Major and trace element in seven different kinds of milk powder were studied. The concentration of 24 elements were determined byICP-OES method, from these elements 9 elements determined by INAA. The determination of trace element contents of foodstuffs, especiallymilk as daily drink for all peoples age which being a complex food has great importance. The elemental analysis of milk is important both as anindicator of environmental contamination and because milk is a significant pathway for toxic metal intake and a source of essential nutrients forhumans. The major elements are Ca, K, Mg, Na, P and S. While trace element are B, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Sb, Se,Sn, Sr, V, W and Zn.ICP-OES technique is shown to be a powerful tool for trace determinations in powder samples. This is shown by its use for analysis of aseries of the milk powders mentioned and comparative results of other direct technique such as instrumental neutron activation analysis.Analysis of both standard reference material A-11 milk powder and NBS Orchard leaves for quality accurance had been completed, andused for a relative method calculate. The importance of the major and trace elements to human health was discussed.

  17. A Comparative Study of Selected Trace Element Content in Malay and Chinese Traditional Herbal Medicine (THM Using an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifah Mohamad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 60 products of traditional herbal medicine (THM in various dosage forms of herbal preparation were analyzed to determine selected trace elements (i.e., Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd, and Se using ICP-MS. Thirty types of both Chinese and Malay THMs were chosen to represent each population. The closed vessel acid microwave digestion method, using CEM MARS 5, was employed for the extraction of the selected trace elements. The digestion method applied was validated by using certified reference material from the Trace Element in Spinach Leaves (SRM1570a. The recoveries of all elements were found to be in the range of 85.3%–98.9%. The results indicated that Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Se have their own trends of concentrations in all samples studied. The daily intake concentrations of the elements were in the following order: Mn > Zn > Cu > Se > Cd. Concentrations of all five elements were found to be dominant in Chinese THMs. The essentiality of the selected trace elements was also assessed, based on the recommended daily allowance (RDA, adequate intake (AI and the United States Pharmacopeia (USP for trace elements as reference. The concentrations of all elements studied were below the RDA, AI and USP values, which fall within the essential concentration range, except for cadmium.

  18. Extraction of trace elements in coal for determination by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry using N,N-dimethylformamide and ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujuru, Munyaradzi; Moyo, Stanley; McCrindle, Robert I.; Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng

    2012-10-01

    Coal usage continues to increase due to global energy demands. Increasing environmental monitoring and concern means that better methods of trace element determination are always required. This study investigated the use of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), Triton X-100, HNO3 and ultrasound to extract trace elements (Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and V) from coal prior to analysis using ICP-OES and ICP-MS. It was found that the proportion extracted was lowest for V (17%) and highest for Pb (100%). Partial dissolution of the coal particles used in the slurries was demonstrated using scanning electron microscopy studies. Trace element determination of two reference material coal samples demonstrated that this method of extraction is effective. Trace elements in three bituminous coals from different seams being mined in South Africa were determined.

  19. Trace Element Management in Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abin Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements (TEs are vital for the operation of metabolic pathways that promote growth and structural integrity. Paddy soils are often prone to TE limitation due to intensive cultivation and irrigation practices. Apart from this, rice paddies are potentially contaminated with transition metals such as Cd, which are often referred to as toxic TEs. Deficiency of TEs in the soil not only delays plant growth but also causes exposure of plant roots to toxic TEs. Fine-tuning of nutrient cycling in the rice field is a practical solution to cope with TEs deficiency. Adjustment of soil physicochemical properties, biological process such as microbial activities, and fertilization helps to control TEs mobilization in soil. Modifications in root architecture, metal transporters activity, and physiological processes are also promising approaches to enhance TEs accumulation in grains. Through genetic manipulation, these modifications help to increase TE mining capacity of rice plants as well as transport and trafficking of TEs into the grains. The present review summarizes that regulation of TE mobilization in soil, and the genetic improvement of TE acquisition traits help to boost essential TE content in rice grain.

  20. Remediation using trace element humate surfactant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riddle, Catherine Lynn; Taylor, Steven Cheney; Bruhn, Debra Fox

    2016-08-30

    A method of remediation at a remediation site having one or more undesirable conditions in which one or more soil characteristics, preferably soil pH and/or elemental concentrations, are measured at a remediation site. A trace element humate surfactant composition is prepared comprising a humate solution, element solution and at least one surfactant. The prepared trace element humate surfactant composition is then dispensed onto the remediation site whereby the trace element humate surfactant composition will reduce the amount of undesirable compounds by promoting growth of native species activity. By promoting native species activity, remediation occurs quickly and environmental impact is minimal.

  1. Direct trace-elemental analysis of urine samples by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after sample deposition on clinical filter papers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramendía, Maite; Rello, Luis; Vanhaecke, Frank; Resano, Martín

    2012-10-16

    Collection of biological fluids on clinical filter papers shows important advantages from a logistic point of view, although analysis of these specimens is far from straightforward. Concerning urine analysis, and particularly when direct trace elemental analysis by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) is aimed at, several problems arise, such as lack of sensitivity or different distribution of the analytes on the filter paper, rendering obtaining reliable quantitative results quite difficult. In this paper, a novel approach for urine collection is proposed, which circumvents many of these problems. This methodology consists on the use of precut filter paper discs where large amounts of sample can be retained upon a single deposition. This provides higher amounts of the target analytes and, thus, sufficient sensitivity, and allows addition of an adequate internal standard at the clinical lab prior to analysis, therefore making it suitable for a strategy based on unsupervised sample collection and ulterior analysis at referral centers. On the basis of this sampling methodology, an analytical method was developed for the direct determination of several elements in urine (Be, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Sb, Sn, Tl, Pb, and V) at the low μg L(-1) level by means of LA-ICPMS. The method developed provides good results in terms of accuracy and LODs (≤1 μg L(-1) for most of the analytes tested), with a precision in the range of 15%, fit-for-purpose for clinical control analysis.

  2. Direct current plasma emission spectrometric determination of major, minor and trace elements in microwave oven acid leachates of powdered whole coal samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadda, S. [CNR, Cagliari (Italy)

    2005-07-01

    Major concentrations of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, CaO, Na{sub 2}O and K{sub 2}O, minor levels of TiO{sub 2}, P{sub 2}O{sub 5} and thirty petrologically, geochemically and environmentally significant trace elements have been determined in microwave oven acid leachates of whole powdered coal samples by direct current plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES). A single sample preparation procedure was suitable for all the determinations with no additional dilution step for major elements solution. Dried samples (0.5 g) were treated in low-pressure PFA digestion vessels with HF/HCl/HNO{sub 3}/HClO{sub 4} acids to quantitatively extract the analytes from the bulk material, while leaving the major part of organic matrix as a residue. To evaluate the accuracy of the microwave oven-DCP method a suite of eight certified coal reference materials of differing rank, were analysed with good agreement with the certified and/or available published data. Results are presented for the uncertified major oxides in the AR series reference materials.

  3. Trace elements in animal production systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlegel, P.; Durosoy, S.; Jongbloed, A.W.

    2008-01-01

    This book deals with trace elements, such as cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, selenium and zinc which are essential to modern animal nutrition, but are increasingly detrimental to soil and water quality in today's globalized production. The goal in finding a sustainable balance between trace element

  4. Extraction of trace elements in coal for determination by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry using N,N-dimethylformamide and ultrasound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mujuru, Munyaradzi [Department of Earth, Environmental and Water Sciences, Tshwane University of Technology, P/B X680, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Moyo, Stanley [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P/B X680, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); McCrindle, Robert I., E-mail: mccrindleri@tut.ac.za [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P/B X680, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa); Mokgalaka-Matlala, Ntebogeng [Department of Chemistry, Tshwane University of Technology, P/B X680, Pretoria, 0001 (South Africa)

    2012-10-15

    Coal usage continues to increase due to global energy demands. Increasing environmental monitoring and concern means that better methods of trace element determination are always required. This study investigated the use of N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), Triton X-100, HNO{sub 3} and ultrasound to extract trace elements (Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and V) from coal prior to analysis using ICP-OES and ICP-MS. It was found that the proportion extracted was lowest for V (17%) and highest for Pb (100%). Partial dissolution of the coal particles used in the slurries was demonstrated using scanning electron microscopy studies. Trace element determination of two reference material coal samples demonstrated that this method of extraction is effective. Trace elements in three bituminous coals from different seams being mined in South Africa were determined. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The use of ultrasound proved successful in creating a stable coal slurry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The solvent mixture was shown to partially dissolve the coal particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrasonification was an important factor in the slurry development. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Complete determination of minor, trace and ultra-trace elements was possible.

  5. Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Avicennia marina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandasamy Kathiresan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To analyze the concentrations of 12 micro-nutrients (Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in different plant parts of Avicennia marina and its rhizosphere soil of the south east coast of India. Methods: The samples were acid digested, then analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma system (ICP-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer. Results: Levels of metals were found in the decreasing order: Cd>Co>Ni>Pb>B >Cr>Zn>Mg>Mn>Cu>Fe>Al. The soil held more levels of metals than plant parts, but within the permissible limits of concentration. Bark and root accumulated higher levels of trace elements in a magnitude of 10-80 folds than other plant parts. The overall bioaccumulation factor in the sampling sites of Vellar, Pichavaram and Cuddalore was 2.88, 1.42 0.47 respectively. Essential elements accumulate high in mature mangroves forest while non-essential elements accumulate high in the industrially polluted mangroves. Conclusions: The ratio between essential and non-essential elements was found higher in young mangrove forest than that in mature mangrove forest and polluted mangrove areas. Thus, the ratio of accumulation can be used as an index of the growth and pollution status of mangroves.

  6. Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Avicennia marina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kandasamy Kathiresan; Kandasamy Saravanakumar; Pandiyan Mullai

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the concentrations of 12 micro-nutrients (Al, B, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in different plant parts of Avicennia marina and its rhizosphere soil of the south east coast of India. Methods: The samples were acid digested, then analyzed by using inductively coupled plasma system (ICP-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer). Results: Levels of metals were found in the decreasing order: Cd>Co>Ni>Pb>B>Cr>Zn>Mg>Mn>Cu>Fe>Al. The soil held more levels of metals than plant parts, but within the permissible limits of concentration. Bark and root accumulated higher levels of trace elements in a magnitude of 10-80 folds than other plant parts. The overall bioaccumulation factor in the sampling sites of Vellar, Pichavaram and Cuddalore was 2.88, 1.42 0.47 respectively. Essential elements accumulate high in mature mangroves forest while non-essential elements accumulate high in the industrially polluted mangroves. Conclusions:The ratio between essential and non-essential elements was found higher in young mangrove forest than that in mature mangrove forest and polluted mangrove areas. Thus, the ratio of accumulation can be used as an index of the growth and pollution status of mangroves.

  7. Measurement of trace elements in liver biopsy samples from cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouweltjes, W.; Zeeuw, de A.C.; Moen, A.; Counotte, G.H.M.

    2007-01-01

    Serum, plasma, or urine samples are usually used for the measurement of the trace elements copper, zinc, iron, selenium, because these samples are easy to obtain; however, these samples are not always appropriate. For example, it is not possible to measure molybdenum, the major antagonist of copper,

  8. Trace elements in coals of eastern Donbas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taranushich, F.F. [All Russian Research & Geological Prospecting Institute for Coal Deposits, Rostov Na Donu (Russian Federation)

    2003-02-01

    Peculiarities of trace element (TE) distribution in coals of the eastern Donets Basin (Donbas) are discussed. The correlation of TE distribution with specific features of the geological setting of the region can testify to the hydrothermal introduction of trace elements or their redistribution in fluid-active zones. The geochemical regionalization of eastern Donbas is based on TE distribution. Strontium-gold-base metal, tungsten, and selenium geochemical belts and a rare metal geochemical block are outlined.

  9. A simple and practical control of the authenticity of organic sugarcane samples based on the use of machine-learning algorithms and trace elements determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Rommel M; Batista, Bruno L; Barião, Camila V; Varrique, Renan M; Coelho, Vinicius A; Campiglia, Andres D; Barbosa, Fernando

    2015-10-01

    A practical and easy control of the authenticity of organic sugarcane samples based on the use of machine-learning algorithms and trace elements determination by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry is proposed. Reference ranges for 32 chemical elements in 22 samples of sugarcane (13 organic and 9 non organic) were established and then two algorithms, Naive Bayes (NB) and Random Forest (RF), were evaluated to classify the samples. Accurate results (>90%) were obtained when using all variables (i.e., 32 elements). However, accuracy was improved (95.4% for NB) when only eight minerals (Rb, U, Al, Sr, Dy, Nb, Ta, Mo), chosen by a feature selection algorithm, were employed. Thus, the use of a fingerprint based on trace element levels associated with classification machine learning algorithms may be used as a simple alternative for authenticity evaluation of organic sugarcane samples.

  10. Determination of 20 trace elements and arsenic species for a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine Niuhuang Jiedu tablets by direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Pengfei; Liang, Xiaoli; Xia, Lufeng; Jahouh, Farid; Wang, Rong; Kuang, Yongmei; Hu, Xin

    2016-01-01

    Niuhuang Jiedu tablet (NHJDT) is a realgar-containing traditional Chinese medicine. A direct inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) method for the simultaneous determination of 20 trace elements (Mg, K, Ca, Na, Fe, As, Zn, Sr, Ba, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Cr, Se, Co, Mo, Cd, Hg) in NHJDT, as well as in water, gastric fluid and intestinal fluid was established. Meanwhile, a high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS) method was developed for the determination of arsenite (As(III)), arsenate (As(V)), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA), dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) and for the identification of arsenobetaine (AsB) and arsenocholine (AsC) in these extracts. Both methods were fully validated in the respect of linearity, sensitivity, precision, stability and accuracy. The reliability of the ICP-MS method was further evaluated using a certified standard reference material prepared from dried tomato leaves (NIST, SRM 1572a). The analysis showed that some manufacturers formulated lower amount of realgar than required in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) in their preparations. In addition, almost same extraction profiles for total As and inorganic As were found in water and in gastrointestinal fluids, while higher extraction rates for other 19 elements were observed in gastrointestinal fluids. Our findings show that the toxicities of Hg, Cu, Cd and Pb in NHJDP are low, while the real As toxicity in NHJDT should be deeply investigated.

  11. Risk of human exposure to arsenic and other toxic elements from geophagy: trace element analysis of baked clay using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watts Michael J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geophagy or earth-eating is common amongst some Bangladeshi women, especially those who are pregnant, both in Bangladesh and in the United Kingdom. A large proportion of the population in Bangladesh is already exposed to high concentrations of arsenic (As and other toxic elements from drinking contaminated groundwater. Additional exposure to As and other toxic elements from non-food sources has not been adequately addressed and here we present the first study to monitor As levels in baked clay (known as sikor. Methods Sikor samples originating from Bangladesh were digested using a microwave digester and analysed for their As, Pb, Cd, Mn, Fe and Zn levels using ICP-MS. Detailed As speciation analysis was performed using HPLC-ICP-MS. Results Of particular concern were the levels of As (3.8-13.1 mg kg-1, Cd (0.09-0.4 mg kg-1 and Pb (21-26.7 mg kg-1 present in the sikor samples and their possible impact on human health. Speciation analysis revealed that sikor samples contained mainly inorganic As. Modest consumption of 50 g of sikor is equivalent to ingesting 370 μg of As and 1235 μg of Pb per day, based on median concentration values. This level of sikor consumption exceeds the permitted maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI of inorganic As by almost 2-fold. Conclusion We conclude that sikor can be a significant source of As, Cd and Pb exposure for the Bangladeshi population consuming large quantities of this material. Of particular concern in this regard is geophagy practiced by pregnant women concurrently exposed to As contaminated drinking water. Future studies needs to evaluate the bioavailability of As and other elements from sikor and their impact on human health.

  12. Analytical evaluation of nebulizers for the introduction of acetic acid extracts aiming at the determination of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gois, Jefferson S. de; Maranhao, Tatiane de A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, Fernando J.S. [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A., Gerencia de Meio Ambiente, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Frescura, Vera L.A.; Curtius, Adilson J. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G., E-mail: daniel.borges@ufsc.br [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-970, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2012-11-15

    Most of the official procedures aiming at classification of solid waste toxicity take into account metal solubility and bioavailability by means of extraction experiments using acetic acid solutions. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate and optimize conditions to suppress the effect of acetic acid on the determination of trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The performance of four nebulizers (cross-flow (CFN), ultrasonic (USN), Meinhard (MN) and MicroMist (MMN)) were compared as to their efficiency in minimizing spectral and non-spectral effects on the determination of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, with the ultimate goal to analyze acetic acid extracts obtained from solid waste residues. Operating conditions (desolvation temperatures for USN, RF power and nebulizer gas flow rates) were optimized individually for each nebulizer and for all analytes maintained in 0.14 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} solutions and in solutions prepared with acetic acid and acetic acid + NaOH, adjusted to pH 2.88 and 4.93, respectively. Pronounced non-spectral interferences for {sup 75}As and {sup 82}Se were observed in the presence of acetic acid for CF and MN, although to a less extent also for MMN and USN. Signal increase for blank solutions measured at m/z 208 ({sup 208}Pb) for CFN and MN, 107 ({sup 107}Ag) for USN and MN coupled to a cyclonic chamber and, m/z 82 ({sup 82}Se) for USN was observed, indicating an increased risk of spectral interference upon an increase in the concentration of acetic acid. Signal increase at specific m/z ratios, however, was not significant when the MMN was used, with the exception of m/z 52 ({sup 52}Cr) in acetic acid solutions, arising from the formation of {sup 40}Ar{sup 12}C{sup +}. This same effect was noticed for all nebulizers, although at noticeably different intensities. A signal stability study was performed, demonstrating that variations in the analytical signal were within a 20% range for all analytes

  13. Fractionation of phosphorus and trace elements species in soybean flour and common white bean seeds by size exclusion chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplík, Richard; Pavelková, Hana; Cincibuchová, Jana; Mestek, Oto; Kvasnicka, Frantisek; Suchánek, Miloslav

    2002-04-25

    Soluble species of phosphorus, sulfur, selenium and eight metals (Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo and Cd) in soybean flour and common white bean seeds were investigated by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Samples were extracted by 0.02 mol l(-1) Tris-HCI buffer solution (pH 7.5). Fractionation of sample extracts by preparative scale SEC was accomplished using a Fractogel EMD BioSEC column (600 x 16 mm) and 0.02 mol l(-1) Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH 7.5) as mobile phase (flow rate: 2 ml min(-1)). A 2-ml sample was injected. Contents of elements in chromatographic fractions were determined by AAS, ICP-AES and ICP-MS. The elution profiles of P, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo in both samples were similar. Main species of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Mo were found in the low molecular weight region (2-5 kDa), whereas Fe is predominantly bound to high molecular weight compounds (180 kDa). The dominant phosphorus fraction was detected in the medium molecular weight region (10-30 kDa) and the other fraction in the low molecular weight region. Isotachophoretic analysis of chromatographic fractions revealed that the main phosphorus compound in the medium molecular weight region is phytic acid. SEC on Superdex 75 and Superdex Peptide columns (300 x 10 mm) was performed in on-line hyphenation with ICP-MS. The same mobile phase was used with a flow rate of 0.5 ml min(-1); volume of injected sample was 200 microl. Element specific chromatograms were obtained by continuous nebulization of effluent into ICP-mass spectrometer measuring intensities of 47(PO)+ and 48(SO)+ oxide ions and 55Mn, 57Fe, 59Co, 62Ni, 65Cu, 66Zn, 82Se, 95Mo and 114Cd nuclides. Chromatographic profiles of elements are generally analogous to those obtained with a Fractogel column, but better chromatographic resolution of separated species was achieved so that slight differences between samples were revealed. Estimated molecular weights of major phosphorus species in

  14. Influence of trace elements levels in seminal plasma on sperm morphology%精浆各微量元素含量对精子形态的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘富新; 苏大林; 郝爱军; 李沛

    2012-01-01

    目的 通过观察分析精子形态,检测其精浆微量元素,探讨精浆各微量元素含量对精子形态的影响.方法 采集136例男性不育症患者的新鲜精液,置37 ℃温箱待液化后,先用计算机辅助精液分析系统进行分析,再取有精子的精液涂片做改良巴氏法染色镜检分析,然后精液离心取上清液检测各微量元素含量.结果 精子畸形率随精浆中钙、铜、铅、镉含量的增多及镁、锌含量减少而增高,相关分析显示呈不同程度的正负相关,与健康对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 精浆微量元素的含量增多或减少均影响精子的形态质量,而且有害元素铅、镉对精子损伤更大,应引起临床的高度重视.%Objective To investigate the influence of trace elements levels on sperm morphous by observing and analyzing sperm morphous and testing seminal plasma levels of trace elements. Methods Fresh semen samples of 136 male infertility patients, after liquefaction in 37 °C incubator, were analyzed by using computer aided semen analysis system, microscopic analysis of sperm smear and detection of seminal plasma levels of trace elements. Results Sperm deformity rate increased with the increasing of calcium,conner lead and cadmium levels and decreasing of magnesium and zinc levels with various degree of positive and negative correla tion, demonstrated by correlation analysis. There was statistical difference of seminal plasma levels of trace elements between pa tients and healthy controls(P<0. 01). Conclusion Seminal plasma levels of trace elements could influence sperm morhous quality, and harmful elements of lead and cadmium caused more serious damage, which should be paid more attention.

  15. Trace elements in glucometabolic disorders: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiernsperger Nicolas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many trace elements, among which metals, are indispensable for proper functioning of a myriad of biochemical reactions, more particularly as enzyme cofactors. This is particularly true for the vast set of processes involved in regulation of glucose homeostasis, being it in glucose metabolism itself or in hormonal control, especially insulin. The role and importance of trace elements such as chromium, zinc, selenium, lithium and vanadium are much less evident and subjected to chronic debate. This review updates our actual knowledge concerning these five trace elements. A careful survey of the literature shows that while theoretical postulates from some key roles of these elements had led to real hopes for therapy of insulin resistance and diabetes, the limited experience based on available data indicates that beneficial effects and use of most of them are subjected to caution, given the narrow window between safe and unsafe doses. Clear therapeutic benefit in these pathologies is presently doubtful but some data indicate that these metals may have a clinical interest in patients presenting deficiencies in individual metal levels. The same holds true for an association of some trace elements such as chromium or zinc with oral antidiabetics. However, this area is essentially unexplored in adequate clinical trials, which are worth being performed.

  16. Analytical evaluation of nebulizers for the introduction of acetic acid extracts aiming at the determination of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gois, Jefferson S.; Maranhão, Tatiane de A.; Oliveira, Fernando J. S.; Frescura, Vera L. A.; Curtius, Adilson J.; Borges, Daniel L. G.

    2012-11-01

    Most of the official procedures aiming at classification of solid waste toxicity take into account metal solubility and bioavailability by means of extraction experiments using acetic acid solutions. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate and optimize conditions to suppress the effect of acetic acid on the determination of trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The performance of four nebulizers (cross-flow (CFN), ultrasonic (USN), Meinhard (MN) and MicroMist (MMN)) were compared as to their efficiency in minimizing spectral and non-spectral effects on the determination of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, with the ultimate goal to analyze acetic acid extracts obtained from solid waste residues. Operating conditions (desolvation temperatures for USN, RF power and nebulizer gas flow rates) were optimized individually for each nebulizer and for all analytes maintained in 0.14 mol L- 1 HNO3 solutions and in solutions prepared with acetic acid and acetic acid + NaOH, adjusted to pH 2.88 and 4.93, respectively. Pronounced non-spectral interferences for 75As and 82Se were observed in the presence of acetic acid for CF and MN, although to a less extent also for MMN and USN. Signal increase for blank solutions measured at m/z 208 (208Pb) for CFN and MN, 107 (107Ag) for USN and MN coupled to a cyclonic chamber and, m/z 82 (82Se) for USN was observed, indicating an increased risk of spectral interference upon an increase in the concentration of acetic acid. Signal increase at specific m/z ratios, however, was not significant when the MMN was used, with the exception of m/z 52 (52Cr) in acetic acid solutions, arising from the formation of 40Ar12C+. This same effect was noticed for all nebulizers, although at noticeably different intensities. A signal stability study was performed, demonstrating that variations in the analytical signal were within a 20% range for all analytes, with the exception of Hg, after continuous aspiration for 70 min

  17. Determination of trace rare earth elements in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with slurry sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Yuefei [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072 (China); Jiang Zucheng [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072 (China); He Man [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072 (China); Hu Bin [Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan, Hubei Province 430072 (China)]. E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn

    2007-07-15

    A method of fluorination assisted electrothermal vaporization (FETV)-ICP-MS with polytetrafluoroethylene as fluorinating reagent was developed for the direct determination of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits for REEs were 0.1 pg m{sup -3}(Eu) to 6.7 pg m{sup -3}(Nd) with the precisions of 4.1%(Yb) to 10%(La) (c = 1 {mu}g L{sup -1}, n = 9). The proposed method was applied to determine trace REEs in coal fly ash, airborne particulates and NIES SRM No. 8 Vehicle Exhaust Particulates. It was found that the determined values for Y, La, Pr and Nd obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration coincided with that obtained by pneumatic nebulization (PN)-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition. However, the determined values for Ce and Sm obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration were lower than that obtained by PN-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition. - A new method for direct determination of trace rare earth elements in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates by fluorination ETV-ICP-MS with slurry sampling.

  18. Trace Elements: The Little Things that Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Gary W.

    1977-01-01

    Examines recent findings regarding the importance of trace elements to good health. Copper, chromium, and zinc are discussed. Described also are multi-disciplinary experiments in progress at the Human Nutrition Laboratory, a federal facility in Grand Forks, North Dakota. (CS)

  19. Elements of plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Chiow San

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some fundamental aspects of plasma technology that are important for beginners interested to start research in the area of plasma technology . These include the properties of plasma, methods of plasma generation and basic plasma diagnostic techniques. It also discusses several low cost plasma devices, including pulsed plasma sources such as plasma focus, pulsed capillary discharge, vacuum spark and exploding wire; as well as low temperature plasmas such as glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge which the authors believe may have potential applications in industry. The treatments are experimental rather than theoretical, although some theoretical background is provided where appropriate. The principles of operation of these devices are also reviewed and discussed.

  20. TRACE ELEMENTS IN FRUIT AND VEGETABLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Papa

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of six different trace metals [vanadium (V, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr,  lead (Pb, copper (Cu and cadmium (Cd] were determined in various fruit and vegetables [peach (Prunus persica L., plum (Prunus domestica L., tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., courgette or marrow (Cucurbita pepo L. and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.] provided by diverse farms. Metal distribution was also separately evaluated, in skin and pulp, where it was possible. Their contributions to human daily intake of trace metals were investigated. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these metals in the fruit and vegetables. All traces of elements tested in peaches and tomatoes were higher in the skin than in the pulp except for Cd in the peaches; all traces of elements tested in plums and marrows were higher in the pulp than in the skin. The concentrations of Pb and Cd in lettuce were 1.3 and 2.7 times above the permissible levels, respectively. It is concluded that the regular monitoring of food trace metals is very important to prevent diseases that depend on their excessive accumulation in the human food chain.

  1. Trace elements in groundwater as indicators of anthropogenic impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levins, Igors; Gosk, Edmund

    2008-07-01

    The distribution of several minor and trace elements mainly in fresh (dominating TDS 160 400 mg/l) groundwater of Latvia have been investigated by the Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) technique. An evaluation of results of about 700 analyses leads to the conclusion that concentrations of these elements is influenced by: pH Eh conditions, groundwater residence time and diffuse contamination, whereas the role of water-bearing sediments is of secondary importance. Most trace elements are characterised by low mobility under alkaline and reducing conditions; concentrations in confined aquifers are much smaller than the Maximum Permissible Values for drinking water. The strongest anomalies of REE, Al and P were found in shallow groundwater around the former agrochemical storehouses.

  2. Trace element distribution in geological crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Besten, J.L.; Jamieson, D.N.; Weiser, P.S. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1996-12-31

    Channelling is a useful microprobe technique for determining the structure of crystals, but until now has not been performed on geological crystals. The composition has been investigated rather than the structure, which can further explain the origin of the crystal and provide useful information on the substitutionality of trace elements. This may then lead to applications of extraction of valuable metals and semiconductor electronics. Natural crystals of pyrite, FeS{sub 2}, which contains a substantial concentration of gold were channeled and examined to identify the channel axis orientation. Rutherford Backscattering (RBS) and Particle Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) spectra using MeV ions were obtained in the experiment to provide a comparison of lattice and non-lattice trace elements. 3 figs.

  3. Trace-element contamination of the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D.

    1985-01-01

    In treating the problems of metal contamination of the environmental pollution involving metals and the problem of exhaustion of finite reserves of ores of metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel and zinc, as aspects of a single global problem. A broad picture is presented of the overall process of dispersal of trace elements in the environment and the biological consequences of this process are documented.

  4. Role of Trace Elements In Diabetes And Hypertension | Odusan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Role of Trace Elements In Diabetes And Hypertension. ... Disease states relate to deficiency or excess of certain trace metals. There is ... When people consume a diet derived from depleted crops, the intake of essential trace minerals ...

  5. The Role of Trace Elements in Tinnitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar, Mehmet; Şahin, Mehmet İlhan; Karakükçü, Çiğdem; Güneri, Erhan; Doğan, Murat; Sağıt, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of three trace elements, namely, zinc, copper, and lead, in tinnitus by analyzing the serum level of copper and lead and both the serum and tissue level of zinc. Eighty patients, who applied to outpatient otolaryngology clinic with the complaints of having tinnitus, and 28 healthy volunteers were included. High-frequency audiometry was performed, and participants who had hearing loss according to the pure tone average were excluded; tinnitus frequency and loudness were determined and tinnitus reaction questionnaire scores were obtained from the patients. Of all the participants, serum zinc, copper, and lead values were measured; moreover, zinc levels were examined in hair samples. The levels of trace elements were compared between tinnitus and control groups. The level of copper was found to be significantly lower in the tinnitus group (p = 0.02), but there was no significant difference between the groups in terms of the levels of zinc, neither in serum nor in hair, and lead in serum (p > 0.05). The lack of trace elements, especially that of "zinc," have been doubted for the etiopathogenesis of tinnitus in the literature; however, we only found copper levels to be low in patients having tinnitus.

  6. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, T.; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S.

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 μg/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 μg/g). A block of wood ( Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 μg/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 μg/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  7. Trace elements in termites by PIXE analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, T. E-mail: tsuyoshi@termite.kuwri.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Kagemori, N.; Kawai, S.; Sera, K.; Futatsugawa, S

    2002-04-01

    Trace elements in a Japanese subterranean xylophagous termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were analyzed by the PIXE method. The total amount of the 14 predominant elements out of 27 detected in an intact termite was higher in a soldier termite (23 000 {mu}g/g) than in a worker termite (10 000 {mu}g/g). A block of wood (Pinus densiflora Sieb. et Zucc.) for termite feed had a much lower concentration (3600 {mu}g/g) compared with that in an intact termite. This probably relates the functional bio-condensation and/or bio-recycling of trace elements in C. formosanus. When a termite was separated into three anatomical parts, head, degutted body and gut, the worker gut contained the highest total amount of the 14 predominant measured elements (31 000 {mu}g/g). This might be correlated with the higher activity of food digestion and energy production in the worker gut. Moreover, the mandible of the soldier head, with an exoskeleton that is intensely hardened, showed a preferential distribution of Mn and Fe. These results suggest that the characteristic localization of elements will be closely related to the functional role of the individual anatomical part of C. formosanus.

  8. Trace element determination in different milk slurries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E M; Lorenzo, M L; Cabrera, C; López, M C; Sánchez, J

    1999-11-01

    We have studied the contents of trace elements of nutritional or toxicological interest in 90 samples of whole, low-fat, skim, condensed, evaporated and powdered milks. Slurries of the samples were prepared with Triton X-100 and analysed using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. The temperature-time programme of the graphite oven was optimized for each element, and the accuracy, precision, selectivity and sensitivity of the method were verified. Concentrations of the trace elements we investigated were: Pb 0-0.211 microgram/g, Cd 0-28.985 ng/g, Al 0.528-4.025 micrograms/g, Cu 0.041-0.370 microgram/g, Cr 0-0.177 microgram/g, Mn 0.024-0.145 microgram/g, Se 0-23.333 ng/g, Zn 0.297-0.827 microgram/g and Ni 0.058-1.750 micrograms/g. (A value of zero indicates that the element was undetectable by our methods.) Concentrations of the pairs of elements Cu-Cd, Mn-Cd, Mn-Cu, Zn-Mn, Ni-Cu, Ni-Mn and Ni-Zn were significantly correlated (P milk analyzed.

  9. Determination of trace rare earth elements in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with slurry sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.F.; Jiang, Z.C.; He, M.; Hu, B. [Wuhan University, Wuhan (China). Dept. of Chemistry

    2007-07-15

    A method of fluorination assisted electrothermal vaporization (FETV)-ICP-MS with polytetrafluoroethylene as fluorinating reagent was developed for the direct determination of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits for REEs were 0.1 pg m{sup -3} (Eu) to 6.7 Pg m{sup -3} (Nd) with the precisions of 4.1% (Yb) to 10% (La) = 1 {mu} g L{sup -1}, n = 9). The proposed method was applied to determine trace REEs in coal fly ash, airborne particulates and NIES SRM No. 8 Vehicle Exhaust Particulates. It was found that the determined values for Y, La, Pr and Nd obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration coincided with that obtained by pneumatic nebulization (PN)-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition. However, the determined values for Ce and Sm obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration were lower than that obtained by PN-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition.

  10. Determination of trace rare earth elements in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates by electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with slurry sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuefei; Jiang, Zucheng; He, Man; Hu, Bin

    2007-07-01

    A method of fluorination assisted electrothermal vaporization (FETV)-ICP-MS with polytetrafluoroethylene as fluorinating reagent was developed for the direct determination of trace rare earth elements (REEs) in coal fly ash and atmospheric particulates. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits for REEs were 0.1 pg m(-3)(Eu) to 6.7 pg m(-3)(Nd) with the precisions of 4.1%(Yb) to 10%(La) (c=1 microg L(-1), n=9). The proposed method was applied to determine trace REEs in coal fly ash, airborne particulates and NIES SRM No. 8 Vehicle Exhaust Particulates. It was found that the determined values for Y, La, Pr and Nd obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration coincided with that obtained by pneumatic nebulization (PN)-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition. However, the determined values for Ce and Sm obtained by slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with external calibration were lower than that obtained by PN-ICP-MS and slurry sampling FETV-ICP-MS with standard addition.

  11. Trace element inhibition of phytase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, T; Connolly, C; Murphy, R

    2015-02-01

    Nowadays, 70 % of global monogastric feeds contains an exogenous phytase. Phytase supplementation has enabled a more efficient utilisation of phytate phosphorous (P) and reduction of P pollution. Trace minerals, such as iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and manganese (Mn) are essential for maintaining health and immunity as well as being involved in animal growth, production and reproduction. Exogenous sources of phytase and trace elements are regularly supplemented to monogastric diets and usually combined in a premix. However, the possibility for negative interaction between individual components within the premix is high and is often overlooked. Therefore, this initial study focused on assessing the potential in vitro interaction between inorganic and organic chelated sources of Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn with three commercially available phytase preparations. Additionally, this study has investigated if the degree of enzyme inhibition was dependent of the type of chelated sources. A highly significant relationship between phytase inhibition, trace mineral type as well as mineral source and concentration, p phytases for Fe and Zn, as well as for Cu with E. coli and Aspergillus niger phytases. Different chelate trace mineral sources demonstrated diversifying abilities to inhibit exogenous phytase activity.

  12. Continuous, real time microwave plasma element sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Smatlak, Donna L.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Wittle, J. Kenneth; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1995-01-01

    Microwave-induced plasma for continuous, real time trace element monitoring under harsh and variable conditions. The sensor includes a source of high power microwave energy and a shorted waveguide made of a microwave conductive, refractory material communicating with the source of the microwave energy to generate a plasma. The high power waveguide is constructed to be robust in a hot, hostile environment. It includes an aperture for the passage of gases to be analyzed and a spectrometer is connected to receive light from the plasma. Provision is made for real time in situ calibration. The spectrometer disperses the light, which is then analyzed by a computer. The sensor is capable of making continuous, real time quantitative measurements of desired elements, such as the heavy metals lead and mercury.

  13. Effects of 85 dB noise exposure on macro and trace element levels in plasma and brain areas of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakoc, Yunus; Orum, Mehmet Hamdi; Kilic, Muhammed; Dursun, Mehmet Fatih; Erdogan, Selim

    2013-07-01

    In this study, our hypothesis was that workplace noise can alter brain element levels like immobilization and light-dark cycle shift, and we aimed to investigate the effects of workplace noise on element levels of brain areas as well as changes in blood of chronically noise-exposed rats. Twenty-four rats were randomly divided into three groups. The first group was the control. The second group (noise exposed) was subjected to daily 8 h 85 dB workplace noise for 15 days, and the third group (noise exposed plus normal condition) was also subjected to the same noise exposure and then returned to normal condition for 15 days. In noise-exposed group, Na, K, Ca, Mg , Fe, Cu, and Zn levels in plasma significantly increased when compared with controls (p = 0.03 for Na; p = 0.005 for K and Mg; p = 0.002 for Ca and Fe; p = 0.01 for Cu and Zn). In this group, Fe level of temporal lobe significantly increased (p = 0.021) while Mg level significantly increased in frontal (p = 0.021) and temporal (p = 0.001) lobes when compared with controls. In the noise-exposed plus normal condition group, plasma Na, K, Fe, Cu, and Zn levels were greatly similar to controls. But, plasma Ca and Mg levels significantly decreased when compared with controls (p = 0.002 and p = 0.007) and noise-exposed group (p = 0.002 and p = 0.001). Fe level of temporal lobe significantly increased when compared with controls (p = 0.001) and noise exposed group (p = 0.001). These alterations may be attributed to impaired intake of water and micronutrients or their excretions, emerging by acoustic stress.

  14. Predatory aquatic beetles, suitable trace elements bioindicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burghelea, Carmen I; Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2011-05-01

    Predatory aquatic beetles are common colonizers of natural and managed aquatic environments. While as important components of the aquatic food webs they are prone to accumulate trace elements, they have been largely neglected from metal uptake studies. We aim to test the suitability of three dytiscid species, i.e.Hydroglyphus pusillus, Laccophilus minutus and Rhantus suturalis, as trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn) bioindicators. The work was carried out in a case area representing rice paddies and control sites (reservoirs) from an arid region known for its land degradation (Monegros, NE Spain). Categorical principal component analysis (CATPCA) was tested as a nonlinear approach to identify significant relationships between metals, species and habitat conditions so as to examine the ability of these species to reflect differences in metal uptake. Except Se and As, the average concentrations of all other elements in the beetles were higher in the rice fields than in the control habitats. The CATPCA determined that H. pusillus had high capacity to accumulate Fe, Ni and Mn regardless of the habitat type, and hence may not be capable of distinguishing habitat conditions with regards to these metals. On the other hand, L. minutus was found less sensitive for Se in non-managed habitats (i.e. reservoirs), while R. suturalis was good in accumulating Al, Mo and Pb in rice fields. The latter seems to be a promising bioindicator of metal enrichment in rice fields. We conclude that predatory aquatic beetles are good candidates for trace elements bioindication in impacted and non-impacted environments and can be used in environmental monitoring studies. CATPCA proved to be a reliable approach to unveil trends in metal accumulation in aquatic invertebrates according to their habitat status.

  15. The trace elements selenium, copper and zinc in pediatric practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Caillie-Bertrand (Micheline)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the studies presented in this thesis was to investigate some pediatric aspects of trace element metabolism .The effects are described of 1) inadequate trace element intake , 2) trace element malabsorption mine and 4) sulphate.Within ,3) urinary losses during therapy with D-Pen

  16. Sequential-injection on-line preconcentration using chitosan resin functionalized with 2-amino-5-hydroxy benzoic acid for the determination of trace elements in environmental water samples by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarudin, Akhmad; Lenghor, Narong; Oshima, Mitsuko; Hakim, Lukman; Takayanagi, Toshio; Gao, Yun-Hua; Motomizu, Shoji

    2007-07-31

    A new chelating resin using chitosan as a base material was synthesized. Functional moiety of 2-amino-5-hydroxy benzoic acid (AHBA) was chemically bonded to the amino group of cross-linked chitosan (CCTS) through the arm of chloromethyloxirane (CCTS-AHBA resin). Several elements, such as Ag, Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, U, V, and rare earth elements (REEs), could be adsorbed on the resin. To use the resin for on-line pretreatment, the resin was packed in a mini-column and installed into a sequential-injection/automated pretreatment system (Auto-Pret System) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The sequential-injection/automated pretreatment system was a laboratory-assembled, and the program was written using Visual Basic software. This system can provide easy operation procedures, less reagent consumption, as well as less waste production. Experimental variables considered as effective factors in the improvement sensitivity, such as an eluent concentration, a sample and an eluent flow rate, pH of samples, and air-sandwiched eluent were carefully optimized. The proposed system provides excellent on-line collection efficiency, as well as high concentration factors of analytes in water samples, which results in highly sensitive detection of ultra-trace and trace analysis. Under the optimal conditions, the detection limits of 24 elements examined are in the range from ppt to sub-ppb levels. The proposed method was validated by using the standard reference material of a river water, SLRS-4, and the applicability was further demonstrated to the on-line collection/concentration of trace elements, such as Ag, Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, U, V, and REEs in water samples.

  17. Bloodletting therapy in hemochromatosis: Does it affect trace element homeostasis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolann, Bjørn J; Distante, Sonia; Mørkrid, Lars; Ulvik, Rune J

    2015-01-01

    Hemochromatosis is the most common hereditary disorder in the Nordic population, if left untreated it can result in severe parenchymal iron accumulation. Bloodletting is mainstay treatment. Iron and trace elements partially share cellular uptake and transport mechanisms, and the aim of the present study was to see if bloodletting for hemochromatosis affects trace elements homeostasis. We recruited patients referred for diagnosis and treatment of hemochromatosis, four women and 22 men 23-68 years of age. Thirteen were C282Y homozygote, one was C282Y heterozygote, three were H63D homozygote, seven were compound heterozygote and two had none of the mutations above. Iron and liver function tests were performed; serum levels of trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results before the start of treatment and after normalization of iron parameters were compared. On completion of the bloodlettings the following average serum concentrations increased: Co from 5.6 to 11.5 nmol/L, serum Cu 16.2-17.6 μmol/L, Ni increased from 50.0 to 52.6 nmol/L and Sb from 13.2 to 16.3 nmol/L. Average serum Mn concentration declined from 30.2 to 28.3 nmol/L. All changes were statistically significant (by paired t-test). B, Ba, Cs, Mo, Se, Sr and Zn were not significantly changed. We conclude that bloodlettings in hemochromatosis lead to changes in trace element metabolism, including increased absorption of potentially toxic elements.

  18. Determination of major, minor and trace elements in rock samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Progress in the utilization of borate glasses as targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Tácito Dantas F.; Escalfoni, Rainério, Jr.; da Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O.; Miekeley, Norbert

    2011-05-01

    The present work is a continuation of a research study performed at our laboratory aiming at the multielement analysis of rock samples (basalts and shale) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in combination with laser ablation using borate glasses as analytical targets. Argon, nitrogen-argon mixtures and helium were evaluated as cell gases, the latter confirming its better performance. Different operational parameters of the laser, such as gas flow, energy, focus, scanning speed and sampling frequency were optimized. External calibration was made with standards prepared by fusion of geological reference materials (basalts 688 and BCR-2, obsidian SRM 278, and shale SGR-1) of different mass fractions in the meta-tetra borate matrix. Coefficients of determination ( R2) were > 0.99 for 30 elements from o total of 40 determined. Method validation was then performed using additional certified reference materials (BHVO-2, BIR-1, SCo-1) produced as borate targets in a similar way. Accuracies were better than 10% for most of the elements studied and analytical precisions, calculated from the residual standard deviations of calibration curves were, typically, between 6% and 10%. Additionally, the semiquantitative TotalQuant® technique was applied, which gave, within the expected uncertainty for this calibration technique, concordant results when compared to the quantitative external calibration procedure. Both methods were then used for the analysis of marine shale samples, which are of great geological interest in petroleum prospecting.

  19. Determination of major, minor and trace elements in rock samples by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: Progress in the utilization of borate glasses as targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leite, Tacito Dantas F. [Departmento de Quimica da Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Universidade Estadual de Goias (UEG) (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia de Brasilia (IFB) (Brazil); Escalfoni, Rainerio [Departmento de Quimica da Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Centro de Pesquisas Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello da Petrobras (CENPES) (Brazil); Fonseca, Teresa Cristina O. da [Centro de Pesquisas Leopoldo A. Miguez de Mello da Petrobras (CENPES) (Brazil); Miekeley, Norbert, E-mail: miekeley@puc-rio.br [Departmento de Quimica da Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Marques de Sao Vicente 225, 22451-900 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The present work is a continuation of a research study performed at our laboratory aiming at the multielement analysis of rock samples (basalts and shale) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in combination with laser ablation using borate glasses as analytical targets. Argon, nitrogen-argon mixtures and helium were evaluated as cell gases, the latter confirming its better performance. Different operational parameters of the laser, such as gas flow, energy, focus, scanning speed and sampling frequency were optimized. External calibration was made with standards prepared by fusion of geological reference materials (basalts 688 and BCR-2, obsidian SRM 278, and shale SGR-1) of different mass fractions in the meta-tetra borate matrix. Coefficients of determination (R{sup 2}) were > 0.99 for 30 elements from o total of 40 determined. Method validation was then performed using additional certified reference materials (BHVO-2, BIR-1, SCo-1) produced as borate targets in a similar way. Accuracies were better than 10% for most of the elements studied and analytical precisions, calculated from the residual standard deviations of calibration curves were, typically, between 6% and 10%. Additionally, the semiquantitative TotalQuant (registered) technique was applied, which gave, within the expected uncertainty for this calibration technique, concordant results when compared to the quantitative external calibration procedure. Both methods were then used for the analysis of marine shale samples, which are of great geological interest in petroleum prospecting.

  20. Microwave dissolution of plant tissue and the subsequent determination of trace lanthanide and actinide elements by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, J.S.; Neal, T.J.; Smith, L.L.; Erickson, M.D.

    1997-08-01

    Recently there has been much concern with the ability of plants to uptake heavy metals from their surroundings. With the development of instrumental techniques with low detection limits such as inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), attention is shifting toward achieving faster and more elegant ways of oxidizing the organic material inherent in environmental samples. Closed-vessel microwave dissolution was compared with conventional methods for the determination of concentrations of cerium, samarium, europium, terbium, uranium and thorium in a series of samples from the National Institute of Standards and Technology and from fields in Idaho. The ICP-MS technique exhibited detection limits in parts-per-trillion and linear calibration plots over three orders of magnitude for the elements under study. The results obtained by using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide in a microwave digestion system for the analysis of reference materials showed close agreement with the accepted values. These values were compared with results obtained from dry- and wet-ashing procedures. The findings from an experiment comparing radiometric techniques for the determination of actinide elements to ICP-MS are reported.

  1. Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koekkoek, W A C Kristine; van Zanten, Arthur R H

    2016-08-01

    This comprehensive narrative review summarizes relevant antioxidant mechanisms, the antioxidant status, and effects of supplementation in critically ill patients for the most studied antioxidant vitamins A, C, and E and the enzyme cofactor trace elements selenium and zinc. Over the past 15 years, oxidative stress-mediated cell damage has been recognized to be fundamental to the pathophysiology of various critical illnesses such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and multiorgan dysfunction in sepsis. Related to these conditions, low plasma levels of antioxidant enzymes, vitamins, and trace elements have been frequently reported, and thus supplementation seems logical. However, low antioxidant plasma levels per se may not indicate low total body stores as critical illness may induce redistribution of antioxidants. Furthermore, low antioxidant levels may even be beneficial as pro-oxidants are essential in bacterial killing. The reviewed studies in critically ill patients show conflicting results. This may be due to different patient populations, study designs, timing, dosing regimens, and duration of the intervention and outcome measures evaluated. Therefore, at present, it remains unclear whether supplementation of antioxidant micronutrients has any clinical benefit in critically ill patients as some studies show clear benefits, whereas others demonstrate neutral outcomes and even harm. Combination therapy of antioxidants seems logical as they work in synergy and function as elements of the human antioxidant network. Further research should focus on defining the normal antioxidant status for critically ill patients and to study optimal supplement combinations either by nutrition enrichment or by enteral or parenteral pharmacological interventions.

  2. Exploiting dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) for sequential determination of trace elements in blood using a dilute-and-shoot procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Bruno Lemos; Rodrigues, Jairo Lisboa; Nunes, Juliana Andrade; Souza, Vanessa Cristina de Oliveira; Barbosa, Fernando

    2009-04-20

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with quadrupole (q-ICP-MS) and dynamic reaction cell (DRC-ICP-MS) were evaluated for sequential determination of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Pb, Se, Tl, V and Zn in blood. The method requires as little as 100 microL of blood. Prior to analysis, samples (100 microL) were diluted 1:50 in a solution containing 0.01% (v/v) Triton X-100 and 0.5% (v/v) nitric acid. The use of the DRC was only mandatory for Cr, Cu, V and Zn. For the other elements the equipment may be operated in a standard mode (q-ICP-MS). Ammonia was used as reaction gas. Selection of best flow rate of ammonium gas and optimization of the quadrupole dynamic band-pass tuning parameter (RPq) were carried out, using a ovine base blood for Cr and V and a synthetic matrix solution (SMS) for Zn and Cu diluted 1:50 and spiked to contain 1 microg L(-1) of each element. Method detection limits (3 s) for (75)As, (114)Cd, (59)Co, (51)Cr, (63)Cu (55)Mn, (208)Pb, (82)Se, (205)Tl, (51)V, and (64)Zn were 14.0, 3.0, 11.0, 7.0, 280, 9.0, 3.0, 264, 0.7, 6.0 and 800 ng L(-1), respectively. Method validation was accomplished by the analysis of blood Reference Materials produced by the L'Institut National de Santé Publique du Quebec (Canada).

  3. Determination of trace elements in medicinal activated charcoal using slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with low vaporization temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chien-Chou; Jiang, Shiuh-Jen; Sahayam, A C

    2015-01-01

    The determination of Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb in medicinal activated charcoal by ultrasonic slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (USS-ETV-ICP-MS) was described. EDTA was used as the modifier to enhance the volatility of elements studied. The influences of instrument operating conditions and slurry preparation on the ion signals were studied. A relatively low vaporization temperature of 1000°C was used, which separated the analyte from the major matrix components that improved ion signals. The method has been applied to determine Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb in an NIST SRM 1633b Coal Fly Ash reference material and three brands of medicinal activated charcoal capsules using isotope dilution and standard addition calibration methods. The concentrations that are in ng g(-1) levels were in good agreement between different calibration methods. The precision between sample replicates was better than 7% with USS-ETV-ICP-MS technique. The method detection limit estimated from standard addition curves was 0.4, 0.3, 0.3, 0.3, 0.04 and 0.9 ng g(-1) for Cd, Sb, Te, Hg, Tl and Pb, respectively, in original medicinal activated charcoal.

  4. Studies on Concentrations of Trace Elements in Organs and Tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Trace elements are important parts of human body compositions, and some of them are essential for life activities. To provide bases for parameters of the Chinese Reference Man and current data in China for research on relationship between trace elements and health, 30 trace elements in 10 kinds of organs and tissues are determined by neutron activation analysis.Neutron activation analysis is one of the most effective methods for trace elements. I and Br are determined by epithermal neutron activation analysis , and other 28 elements such as Al, Ca, Fe, Zn are determined by instrumentation neutron activation analysis. The analytical conditions are

  5. Trace elements and antioxidant enzymes in extremely low birthweight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loui, Andrea; Raab, Andrea; Maier, Rolf F; Brätter, Peter; Obladen, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Oxygen radicals are believed to contribute to typical diseases of prematurity, such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and necrotising enterocolitis (NEC). Our aim was to investigate whether these disorders are associated with disturbances in antioxidant enzyme activities and with low trace elements, which are co-factors of antioxidant enzymes. 209 infants with birthweight less than 1000g were enrolled into a European multicentre randomised erythropoietin (rhEPO) trial; 155 developed one or more of the above mentioned diseases. We analysed Zn, Cu, Fe, Se in plasma and red blood cells (RBCs), superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and catalase (CAT) in RBCs on the 3rd and 68th day of life. Zn, Fe, Se in plasma, and Se in RBCs decreased (p<0.01), and Zn in RBC (p<0.001), CuZn-SOD (p<0.01) and CAT increased (p<0.05), whereas GSH-Px remained unchanged. No differences were observed between the rhEPO and control groups. Antioxidant enzyme activities did not correlate with gestational age. In infants with BPD, IVH, ROP, or NEC, CuZn-SOD and CAT (p<0.05) were higher at day 68 than in infants without these diseases. CuZn-SOD and GSH-Px at 3 days and CuZn-SOD at 68 days correlated positively (p<0.05) with the duration of oxygen treatment. In conclusion, in ELBW infants, trace element concentrations decreased over the first 10 weeks of life. Lower trace element concentrations, did not affect the activities of CuZn-SOD, GSH-Px, and CAT. Typical diseases of prematurity were not associated with decreased antioxidant enzyme activities.

  6. Analysis of biogenic carbonates by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow injection on-line solid-phase preconcentration for trace element determination in fish otoliths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Z; Paulson, A J

    2002-04-01

    The aragonite deposits within the ear bones (otoliths) of teleost fish retain a chemical signal reflecting the life history of fish (similar to rings of trees) and the nature of fish habitats. Otoliths dissolved in acid solutions contain high concentrations of calcium and a variety of proteins. Elimination of matrix salts and organic interferences during preconcentration is essential for accurate determination of trace elements in otolith solutions by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. An iminodiacetate-based chelating resin (Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650 M) has been used for on-line preconcentration and matrix separation for the determination of 31 transition and rare elements. Successful preconcentration of the elements was achieved at pH 5 by on-line buffering, except Mn which required pH 8.8. Sample solutions were loaded on to the column for 1 min at 3.2 mL min(-1), and then eluted directly into the mass spectrometer with 4% v/v nitric acid. This procedure enabled up to 25-fold preconcentration with successful removal of the calcium matrix. The effect of heat-assisted oxidation with concentrated nitric acid was investigated to eliminate the organic matrix. It was found that heating to dryness after dissolution and further mineralization with the acid significantly improved the retention of the transition elements. The method was validated by analysis of a certified reference material produced from saggittal otoliths of emperor snapper ( Lutjanus sebae), and then applied to the determination of trace metal concentrations in juvenile bluefin tuna ( Thunnus thynnus) from the Western Pacific Ocean.

  7. Analysis of biogenic carbonates by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Flow injection on-line solid-phase preconcentration for trace element determination in fish otoliths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arslan, Z.; Paulson, A.J. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Northeast Fisheries Science Center (NFSC), James J. Howard Marine Sciences Laboratory, Highlands, NJ (United States)

    2002-04-01

    The aragonite deposits within the ear bones (otoliths) of teleost fish retain a chemical signal reflecting the life history of fish (similar to rings of trees) and the nature of fish habitats. Otoliths dissolved in acid solutions contain high concentrations of calcium and a variety of proteins. Elimination of matrix salts and organic interferences during preconcentration is essential for accurate determination of trace elements in otolith solutions by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupole mass spectrometry. An iminodiacetate-based chelating resin (Toyopearl AF-Chelate 650 M) has been used for on-line preconcentration and matrix separation for the determination of 31 transition and rare elements. Successful preconcentration of the elements was achieved at pH 5 by on-line buffering, except Mn which required pH 8.8. Sample solutions were loaded on to the column for 1 min at 3.2 mL min{sup -1}, and then eluted directly into the mass spectrometer with 4% v/v nitric acid. This procedure enabled up to 25-fold preconcentration with successful removal of the calcium matrix. The effect of heat-assisted oxidation with concentrated nitric acid was investigated to eliminate the organic matrix. It was found that heating to dryness after dissolution and further mineralization with the acid significantly improved the retention of the transition elements. The method was validated by analysis of a certified reference material produced from saggittal otoliths of emperor snapper (Lutjanus sebae), and then applied to the determination of trace metal concentrations in juvenile bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) from the Western Pacific Ocean. (orig.)

  8. Composition and Trace Element Content of Coal in Taiwan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡龙贻

    2002-01-01

    Researches on trace elements in coal and their influence on environment and human health were introduced. Some 4 coal samples were taken from Taiwan to test the content of trace elements. The author holds that a further study is needed for understanding the modes of occurrence of elements during the deposition and coalification stage in the studying area.

  9. Interactions of trace elements: clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, G J; Hill, G M; Dick, R D; Prasad, A S; Cossack, Z T

    1985-01-01

    We examined interaction of the trace element zinc with copper and lead. In sickle cell anemia, the usual situation is one of mild to moderate zinc deficiency owing to renal loss of zinc. Zinc deficiency seems to produce a mild overburden of copper and an increased ceruloplasmin level, probably by enhancing copper absorption. With zinc therapy, this process is reversed. Pharmacological doses of zinc, when administered in a way to ensure effectiveness (without food) will usually lead to copper deficiency. We have taken advantage of the copper-depleting effect of zinc to design a new therapy for Wilson's disease. Zinc, by inducing intestinal metallothionein, inhibits absorption of copper from food, and inhibits reabsorption of endogenously secreted copper, thereby producing a negative copper balance in Wilson's disease. Once we are certain that zinc blocks accumulation of copper in the liver of Wilson's disease patients, zinc therapy will be available as one approach for treating this fatal disease. The animal literature indicates that zinc protects against lead toxicity when both elements are given orally, no doubt through the intestinal metallothionein mechanism. In preliminary experiments in rats, we have not been able to show that toxicity from lead that arrives into the body through a nonoral route is affected by oral zinc supplements.

  10. Trace elements content in cheese, cream and butter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Bilandžić

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements were determined in five types of cheese, cream and butter using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. In cheese samples trace elements were measured as follows (mg/kg: Al 0.01-3.93, Co<0.005, Cr 0.005-1.66, Li 0.008-0.056, Mn 0.068-5.37, Mo 0.003-0.225, Ni 0.01-0.163 and Sr 0.085-3.49. There were significant differences considering the concentrations of Mn, Cr and Al (p<0.01, all among the analysed dairy products. There were no significant differences in Sr, Mo, Ni and Li levels among products. The highest levels were found in following products (mg/kg: 4.23 Mn in semi-hard fat cheese, 2.43 Sr in cream cheese, 0.18 Mo in cream, 0.14 Ni and 0.028 Li in melted cheese, 1.13 Cr and 3.87 Al in butter. The trace element con¬centrations measured in cheeses and butter varied compared to the literature data. Concentrations of Al, Cr, Mn and Mo found in cheeses and Mn and Ni in butter were in line with contents reported in other countries. These results may demonstrate differences in production processes between countries. The estimated daily intakes (EDIs calculated for Cr, Mn, Mo and Ni in cheeses showed a low contribution (0.59-3.38 % to the reference values for the permitted daily exposure (PDE for these elements. However, the high contribution of Al concentrations (56 and 124 % to PTWI (provisional maximum tolerable daily intake calculated in fresh and melted cheese may pose a health risk to consumers.

  11. Trace elements in sera from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, R.; Bhattacharya, A. [Department of Zoology, Calcutta University, Calcutta (India); Chakraborty, A.; Sudarshan, M.; Jal, P.K.; Chintalapudi, S.N. [Inter University Consortium for DAE Facilities, Calcutta Centre 3/LB-8, Bidhan Nagar, Calcutta (India); Dutta, R.K. [Schonland Research Centre for Nuclear Sciences, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa)

    2000-07-01

    Trace elements are known to have pivotal role in human health and disease. Present investigation employed PIXE analysis to probe into the elemental profile of patients suffering from visceral Leishmaniasis. Remarkable alternations were observed in concentration of elements like Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn. The pattern of enhancement of elemental concentration corresponds to the progression of the disease. Additionally, our present data reflect probable correlation between alteration in trace elemental status and other pathological syndromes associated with Leishmaniasis. The possibility of considering trace elements as a diagnostic marker for a better understanding of the disease is discussed. (author)

  12. Study on trace elements in gangue in Huainan mining area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, F.; Liu, Z.; Lin, B.; Li, W.; Lu, Z. [Anhui University of Science and Technology, Huainan (China)

    2008-08-15

    46 samples were gathered from coal seams and rocks of various lithological types. In these samples, trace elements were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (IAP-MS)and instrumental neutron activation analysis (IAA). Hg was analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (KVASS), F by ion-selective electrode (IS) and major elements by chemical methods. Eleven trace elements (Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn, Hg, Mn, As, Cr, Pb, Zn, F) were selected for study, and five of them, Cd, Cu, Ni, Sn, Hg, were above the background soil level (B.L.) of Huainan City, China and world averages. Respectively: Cd is 40 and 7 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Cu is about 2 and 1.5 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Ni is 8 and 7 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; Sn is 3 and 2 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world; and Hg is 3,602 and 1,381 times the B.L. of Huainan City and the world. Their hazards caused to the environment of the mining area are explored primarily. It is thought that their hazards may be cumulative. 15 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

  13. Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Lingyun; Jiang, D.

    2011-01-01

    To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  14. INAA Application for Trace Element Determination in Biological Reference Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmodjo, D. P. D.; Kurniawati, S.; Lestiani, D. D.; Adventini, N.

    2017-06-01

    Trace element determination in biological samples is often used in the study of health and toxicology. Determination change to its essentiality and toxicity of trace element require an accurate determination method, which implies that a good Quality Control (QC) procedure should be performed. In this study, QC for trace element determination in biological samples was applied by analyzing the Standard Reference Material (SRM) Bovine muscle 8414 NIST using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA). Three selected trace element such as Fe, Zn, and Se were determined. Accuracy of the elements showed as %recovery and precision as %coefficient of variance (%CV). The result showed that %recovery of Fe, Zn, and Se were in the range between 99.4-107%, 92.7-103%, and 91.9-112%, respectively, whereas %CV were 2.92, 3.70, and 5.37%, respectively. These results showed that INAA method is precise and accurate for trace element determination in biological matrices.

  15. Study of atmospheric pollution levels by trace elements analysis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study of atmospheric pollution levels by trace elements analysis of tree bark and leaves. ... Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... The high-pollution automobile parking lots showed higher levels of these elements (p < 0.05).

  16. Determination of 49 Trace Elements in Coal by High Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry%高分辨电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定煤质样品中49种痕量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦辉; 武朝晖; 郭虹; 薛丽丽

    2005-01-01

    Various trace elements, especially potential toxic trace elements such as As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Pb, Ni, Se, Tl, Zn, would be concentrated in processing of coal. Determination of these elements in coal is very important for identification of coal quality. A method is developed for determination of 49 trace elements in coal by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HR-ICPMS). Microwave acid digestion and low-temperature airproof acid digestion for sample preparation were investigated. It is shown that the low-temperature airproof acid digestion method is of lower blank, and more suitalbe for the coal sample preparation. The on-line internal standard (Rh) sample introduction is applied to compensate matrix effects in measurement by ICPMS. The method gives low detection limits (0.002-1.60 μg/g) and better relative standard deviations (0.60%-4.78%) for the determined 49 elements in coal.

  17. Atmospheric transport of trace elements and nutrients to the oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jickells, T. D.; Baker, A. R.; Chance, R.

    2016-11-01

    This paper reviews atmospheric inputs of trace elements and nutrients to the oceans in the context of the GEOTRACES programme and provides new data from two Atlantic GEOTRACES cruises. We consider the deposition of nitrogen to the oceans, which is now dominated by anthropogenic emissions, the deposition of mineral dust and related trace elements, and the deposition of other trace elements which have a mixture of anthropogenic and dust sources. We then consider the solubility (as a surrogate for bioavailability) of the various elements. We consider briefly the sources, atmospheric transport and transformations of these elements and how this results in strong spatial deposition gradients. Solubility of the trace elements also varies systematically between elements, reflecting their sources and cycling, and for some trace elements there are also systematic gradients in solubility related to dust loading. Together, these effects create strong spatial gradients in the inputs of bioavailable trace elements to the oceans, and we are only just beginning to understand how these affect ocean biogeochemistry. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  18. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to esti

  19. Relationship between epiphytic lichens, trace elements and gaseous atmospheric pollutants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobben, van H.F.; Wamelink, G.W.W.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the joint effect of gaseous atmospheric pollutants and trace elements on epiphytic lichens. We used our data to test the hypothesis that lichens are generally insensitive to toxic effects of trace elements, and can therefore be used as accumulator organisms to esti

  20. Health Effects of Airborne Particulate Matter Trace Elements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG GAO; QI YU; LI-MIN CHEN

    2005-01-01

    The effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) trace elements on health are widely concerned nowadays. Many achievements have been made while many unknowns exist. This article reports the recent research progresses, describes the effects of exposure to PM trace elements on health epidemiological evidence, toxicology findings, and raises some questions for future studies.

  1. Serum Concentrations of Trace Elements in Patients with Tuberculosis and Its Association with Treatment Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihwa Choi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Deficiencies in essential trace elements are associated with impaired immunity in tuberculosis infection. However, the trace element concentrations in the serum of Korean patients with tuberculosis have not yet been investigated. This study aimed to compare the serum trace element concentrations of Korean adult patients with tuberculosis with noninfected controls and to assess the impact of serum trace element concentration on clinical outcome after antituberculosis treatment. The serum concentrations of four trace elements in 141 consecutively recruited patients with tuberculosis and 79 controls were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Demographic characteristics were also analyzed. Serum cobalt and copper concentrations were significantly higher in patients with tuberculosis compared with controls, while zinc and selenium concentrations were significantly lower (p < 0.01. Moreover, serum selenium and zinc concentrations were positively correlated (ρ = 0.41, p < 0.05. A high serum copper concentration was associated with a worse clinical outcome, as assessed after one month of antituberculosis therapy. Specifically, culture-positive patients had higher serum copper concentrations than culture-negative patients (p < 0.05. Patients with tuberculosis had altered serum trace element concentrations. Further research is needed to elucidate the roles of individual trace elements and to determine their clinical impact on patients with tuberculosis.

  2. [Analysis of trace elements in the deaf-muted children among ethnic minorities in Urumchi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youledusi, Abudurusuli; Jian-ping, Liu

    2010-04-01

    To explore the relationship between trace elements and auditory function in the deafness children among ethnic minorities in Urumchi. There were 27 deaf-muted children in this study and 30 children with normal hearing as control. Sample of serum and hair from two groups were collected, and we tested 17 kinds of trace elements by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer. The content of trace elements in serum including Zn, Cu, Fe, Cd, Se, V and Pb from deaf-muted group was more higher than that of control group (P elements including Mn, Sr, Sn, and Bi was much lower than that of control group (P content of those trace elements including Ba, Cr, Ag, Co, Ti, and Ni in serum from both testing and control groups was found no significant difference with each other (P > 0.05). On the other hand, the content of the trace elements including Sn and Se in hairs from deaf-muted group was more higher than that of control group (P content of the trace elements including Zn, Fe, Co, Mn, Sr, V, Pb, Ni, Cr, Ti and Ba in hairs from deaf-muted group was much lower than that of control group (P content of the trace element including Cu, Ag, Cd, and Bi in hairs from deaf-muted group was found no significant difference between each other (P > 0.05). The content of some trace elements in serum and hairs of deaf-muted children is found a significant difference compared with children with normal hearing. This study indicates that some trace elements may relate to auditory function among ethnic minorities in Urumchi.

  3. Determination of rare earth, major and trace elements in authigenic fraction of Andaman Sea (Northeastern Indian Ocean) sediments by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.; You, C.-F.; Nath, B.N.; SijinKumar, A.V.

    Downcore variation of rare earth elements (REEs) in the authigenic Fe-Mn oxides of a sediment core (covering a record of last approx. 40 kyr) from the Andaman Sea, a part of the Indian Ocean shows distinctive positive Ce and Eu anomalies...

  4. Trace elements in agroecosystems and impacts on the environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhenli L; Yang, Xiaoe E; Stoffella, Peter J

    2005-01-01

    Trace elements mean elements present at low concentrations (mg kg-1 or less) in agroecosystems. Some trace elements, including copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), molybdenum (Mo), and boron (B) are essential to plant growth and are called micronutrients. Except for B, these elements are also heavy metals, and are toxic to plants at high concentrations. Some trace elements, such as cobalt (Co) and selenium (Se), are not essential to plant growth but are required by animals and human beings. Other trace elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As) have toxic effects on living organisms and are often considered as contaminants. Trace elements in an agroecosystem are either inherited from soil parent materials or inputs through human activities. Soil contamination with heavy metals and toxic elements due to parent materials or point sources often occurs in a limited area and is easy to identify. Repeated use of metal-enriched chemicals, fertilizers, and organic amendments such as sewage sludge as well as wastewater may cause contamination at a large scale. A good example is the increased concentration of Cu and Zn in soils under long-term production of citrus and other fruit crops. Many chemical processes are involved in the transformation of trace elements in soils, but precipitation-dissolution, adsorption-desorption, and complexation are the most important processes controlling bioavailability and mobility of trace elements in soils. Both deficiency and toxicity of trace elements occur in agroecosystems. Application of trace elements in fertilizers is effective in correcting micronutrient deficiencies for crop production, whereas remediation of soils contaminated with metals is still costly and difficult although phytoremediation appears promising as a cost-effective approach. Soil microorganisms are the first living organisms subjected to the impacts of metal contamination. Being responsive and

  5. Simultaneous Determination of Large Amount of Uranium and Trace Fission Elements by DRC-ICP-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Lei; LI; Hui-bo; LIU; Fang; HE; Hui; CONG; Hai-feng

    2013-01-01

    Large amount of uranium and trace fission product elements are widely exist in reprocessing process.Since the difference of elements concentration,chemical separation and various dilution ratios should be used to obtain all the values.Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS)can be used to determination of more than 75%elements in the periodic table and meet the needs for analysis of fission

  6. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Dean E.; Lindell, Angela H.; Stillings, Garrett K.; Blas, Susan A.; McArthur, J. Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  7. Trace element accumulation in lotic dragonfly nymphs: Genus matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Blas, Susan A; McArthur, J Vaun

    2017-01-01

    Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form. Sixteen trace element (Be, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) were analyzed and trophic position and basal carbon sources assessed with stable isotope analyses (C and N). Trophic positions varied within relatively narrow ranges. Size did not appear to influence trophic position. Trophic position rarely influenced trace element accumulation within genera and did not consistently correlate with accumulation among genera. Patterns between δ13C and trace element accumulation were generally driven by differences between sites. An increase in trace element accumulation was associated with a divergence of carbon sources between sites in two genera. Higher trace element concentrations tended to accumulate in nymphs from the upstream site, closer to contaminant sources. Influences of factors such as body form and habitat use appeared more influential on trace element accumulation than phylogeny for several elements (Ni, Ba, Sr, V, Be, Cd, and Cr) as higher concentrations accumulated in sprawler and the climber-sprawler genera, irrespective of family. In contrast, As and Se accumulated variably higher in burrowers, but accumulation in sprawlers differed between sites. Greater variation between genera than within genera suggests genus as an acceptable unit of comparison in dragonfly nymphs. Overall, taxonomic differences in trace element accumulation can be substantial, often exceeding variation

  8. Mare basalt genesis - Modeling trace elements and isotopic ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, A. B.

    1985-11-01

    Various types of mare basalt data have been synthesized, leading to the production of an internally consistent model of the mare basalt source region and mare basalt genesis. The model accounts for the mineralogical, major oxide, compatible siderophile trace element, incompatible trace element, and isotopic characteristics of most of the mare basalt units and of all the pyroclastic glass units for which reliable data are available. Initial tests of the model show that it also reproduces the mineralogy and incompatible trace element characteristics of the complementary highland anorthosite suite of rocks and, in a general way, those of the lunar granite suite of rocks.

  9. The EU network on trace element speciation in full swing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornelis, R.; Camara, C.; Ebdon, L.;

    2000-01-01

    The EC-funded thematic network 'Speciation 21' links scientists in analytical chemistry working in method development for the chemical speciation of trace elements, and potential users from industry and representatives of legislative agencies, in the field of environment, food and occupational...... as the influence of packing materials. Once the analytical methodology for the measurement of the trace element species has been optimised, the importance of trace element speciation will grow enormously. Food sciences, material sciences, medicine and occupational health, environmental sciences and related fields...

  10. Factors influencing trace element composition in human teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tandon, L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Iyengar, G.V. [Biomineral Sciences International, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-12-01

    The authors recently compiled and reviewed the literature published in or after 1978 for 45 major, minor, and trace elements in human teeth as a part of an International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) study. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the various factors that influence the concentration levels of certain trace elements in human teeth. The sampling practices and analytical techniques that are applicable for trace element analysis are also discussed. It is also our intention to identify reference range of values, where data permit such conclusions. The scrutiny was designed to identify only the healthy permanent teeth, and values from teeth with fillings, caries, or periodontal diseases were eliminated.

  11. Trace elements induce predominance among methanogenic activity in anaerobic digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babett Wintsche

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements play an essential role in all organisms due to their functions in enzyme complexes. In anaerobic digesters, control and supplementation of trace elements lead to stable and more efficient methane production processes while trace element deficits cause process imbalances. However, the underlying metabolic mechanisms and the adaptation of the affected microbial communities to such deficits are not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the microbial community dynamics and resulting process changes induced by trace element deprivation. Two identical lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors fed with distiller’s grains and supplemented with trace elements (cobalt, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten and a commercial iron additive were operated in parallel. After 72 weeks of identical operation, the feeding regime of one reactor was changed by omitting trace element supplements and reducing the amount of iron additive. Both reactors were operated for further 21 weeks. Various process parameters (biogas production and composition, total solids and volatile solids, trace element concentration, volatile fatty acids, total ammonium nitrogen, total organic acids/alkalinity ratio, and pH and the composition and activity of the microbial communities were monitored over the total experimental time. While the methane yield remained stable, the concentrations of hydrogen sulfide, total ammonia nitrogen, and acetate increased in the trace element-depleted reactor compared to the well-supplied control reactor. Methanosarcina and Methanoculleus dominated the methanogenic communities in both reactors. However, the activity ratio of these two genera was shown to depend on trace element supplementation explainable by different trace element requirements of their energy conservation systems. Methanosarcina dominated the well-supplied anaerobic digester, pointing to acetoclastic methanogenesis as the dominant methanogenic pathway. Under trace element

  12. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1979-1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W R

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this research program is to understand the potential impact of an oil shale industry on environmental levels of trace contaminants in the region. The program involves a comprehensive study of the sources, release mechanisms, transport, fate, and effects of toxic trace chemicals, principally the trace elements, in an oil shale industry. The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements by shale and oil production and use. The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, and Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements are not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. Many of the so-called standard methods for analyzing trace elements in oil shale-related materials are inadequate. A sampling manual is being written for the environmental scientist and practicing engineer. A new combination of methods is developed for separating the minerals in oil shale into different density fractions. Microbial investigations have tentatively identified the existence of thiobacilli in oil shale materials such as leachates. (DC)

  13. Cloud point extraction with/without chelating agent on-line coupled with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for the determination of trace rare earth elements in biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Yingjie [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Hu Bin, E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Biology and Medicine (Ministry of Education), Department of Chemistry, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

    2010-02-15

    The on-line incorporation of cloud point extraction (CPE) with/without 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-Ox) as chelating agent into flow injection analysis associated with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) for determining trace rare earth elements (REEs) is presented and evaluated. The significant parameters affecting on-line cloud point extraction of REEs such as sample pH, flow rate, 8-Ox concentration, Triton X-114 concentration were systematically studied. Under the optimized conditions, with the consumption of 3.0 mL sample solution, the limits of detection (3{sigma}) were ranged from 41.4 pg mL{sup -1} (Yb) to 448 pg mL{sup -1} (Gd) with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 1.0% (Eu)-5.9% (Sm) for on-line CPE-ICP-OES with 8-Ox as chelating agent, and 69.0 pg mL{sup -1} (Sc) to 509.5 pg mL{sup -1} (Sm) with RSDs of 2.9% (Yb)-7.5% (Ho) for on-line CPE-ICP-OES without 8-Ox as chelating agent, respectively. The sample throughput of 17 samples h{sup -1} was obtained for both systems. The developed methods of on-line CPE-ICP-OES were validated by the analysis of certified reference material (GBW07605, tea leaves) and real biological samples of pig liver, Auricularia auricula and mushroom.

  14. Assessing oral bioaccessibility of trace elements in soils under worst-case scenarios by automated in-line dynamic extraction as a front end to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosende, María [FI-TRACE group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa, km 7.5, Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears E-07122 (Spain); Magalhães, Luis M.; Segundo, Marcela A. [REQUIMTE, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, R. de Jorge Viterbo Ferreira, 228, Porto 4050-313 (Portugal); Miró, Manuel, E-mail: manuel.miro@uib.es [FI-TRACE group, Department of Chemistry, University of the Balearic Islands, Carretera de Valldemossa, km 7.5, Palma de Mallorca, Illes Balears E-07122 (Spain)

    2014-09-09

    Highlights: • Automatic oral bioaccessibility tests of trace metals under worst-case scenarios. • Use of intricate and realistic digestive fluids (UBM method). • Analysis of large amounts of soils (≥400 mg) in a flow-based configuration. • Smart interface to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. • Comparison of distinct flow systems mimicking physiological conditions. - Abstract: A novel biomimetic extraction procedure that allows for the in-line handing of ≥400 mg solid substrates is herein proposed for automatic ascertainment of trace element (TE) bioaccessibility in soils under worst-case conditions as per recommendations of ISO norms. A unified bioaccessibility/BARGE method (UBM)-like physiological-based extraction test is evaluated for the first time in a dynamic format for accurate assessment of in-vitro bioaccessibility of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in forest and residential-garden soils by on-line coupling of a hybrid flow set-up to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Three biologically relevant operational extraction modes mimicking: (i) gastric juice extraction alone; (ii) saliva and gastric juice composite in unidirectional flow extraction format and (iii) saliva and gastric juice composite in a recirculation mode were thoroughly investigated. The extraction profiles of the three configurations using digestive fluids were proven to fit a first order reaction kinetic model for estimating the maximum TE bioaccessibility, that is, the actual worst-case scenario in human risk assessment protocols. A full factorial design, in which the sample amount (400–800 mg), the extractant flow rate (0.5–1.5 mL min{sup −1}) and the extraction temperature (27–37 °C) were selected as variables for the multivariate optimization studies in order to obtain the maximum TE extractability. Two soils of varied physicochemical properties were analysed and no significant differences were found at the 0.05 significance level

  15. Trends in trace element emission legislation - an international overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloss, L.L.

    2003-07-01

    Emissions of trace elements have decreased for a variety of reasons in many developed countries. However, the application of more successful control strategies in other industry sectors means that coal combustion is still a relatively important source of some trace elements, especially mercury. International and national legislation is increasingly being applied to trace element emissions. International programmes for trace element reduction are generally in the form of voluntary action plans with recommendations and targets for reduction. National legislation in Europe is commonly in the form of emission limits for specific sources. New legislation in the USA may take the form of best available technology or a minimum emission reduction requirement. It is also possible that mercury could be included in multi-pollutant emissions trading schemes. 52 refs., 4 tabs.

  16. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) for trace element detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Noll, K. [Bern Univ. (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Ion beam induced nuclear reactions can be used to analyse trace element concentrations in materials. The method is especially suited for the detection of light contaminants in heavy matrices. (author) 3 figs., 2 refs.

  17. trace elements determination in municipal water supply in damaturu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    Key words: Contamination, Trace elements, Toxic, underground water. INTRODUCTION ... prevent rot and increase longevity, such as penta- ... often contains arsenic that was in drugs administered to chickens .... could cause toxicity. Iron was ...

  18. effect of soil moisture on trace elements concentrations using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    H. Sahraoui and M. Hachicha

    2017-01-01

    Jan 1, 2017 ... produced by the water influence moisture content and corrected ... Previous studies indicated that PXRF analysis was capable of detecting soil trace elements ..... determination of some heavy metals in soil using an x-ray ...

  19. Geochemical characterisation of major and trace elements in the coastal sediments of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alagarsamy, R.; Zhang, J.

    and west coasts were analysed using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy for selected major (i.e. Al, Ca, Fe, K, Ti, Mg and Na) and trace elements (e.g. Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Ga, Ni, P and V), after total dissolution. The main objectives...

  20. ETAAS Determination of Some Trace Elements in Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Stafilov, T.; Cvetković, J.; Arpadjan, S.; Karadjova, I.

    2002-01-01

    Methods for trace elements determination in wine by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) directly in untreated wines and in previously decomposed wines are given. The investigations on the atomization behaviour of the microelements in wine, on the reasons for strong wine matrix interferences, on the accuracy of the calibration procedures are presented. Appropriate procedures for preliminary separation and preconcentration of ultra trace elements from wine matrix are compared ...

  1. Chondrule trace element geochemistry at the mineral scale

    CERN Document Server

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Gounelle, Matthieu

    2015-01-01

    We report trace element analyses from mineral phases in chondrules from carbonaceous chondrites (Vigarano, Renazzo and Acfer 187), carried out by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results are similar in all three meteorites. Mesostasis has Rare Earth Element (REE) concentrations of 10-20 x CI. Low-Ca pyroxene has light REE (LREE) concentrations near 0.1 x CI and heavy REE (HREE) near 1 x CI respectively. Olivine has HREE concentrations at 0.1-1 x CI and LREE around 10-2 x CI. The coarsest olivine crystals tend to have the most fractionated REE patterns, indicative of equilibrium partitioning. Low-Ca pyroxene in the most pyroxene-rich chondrules tends to have the lowest REE concentrations. Type I chondrules seem to have undergone a significant degree of batch crystallization (as opposed to fractional crystallization), which requires cooling rates slower than 1-100 K/h. This would fill the gap between igneous CAIs and type II chondrules. The anticorrelation between REE abundances and ...

  2. Concepts of trace, determinant and inverse of Clifford algebra elements

    OpenAIRE

    Shirokov, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    In our paper we consider the notion of determinant of Clifford algebra elements. We present some new formulas for determinant of Clifford algebra elements for the cases of dimension 4 and 5. Also we consider the notion of trace of Clifford algebra elements. We use the generalization of the Pauli's theorem for 2 sets of elements that satisfy the main anticommutation conditions of Clifford algebra.

  3. Concentrations of selected trace elements in mineral and spring bottled waters on the Serbian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, M; Popović, I; Pocajt, V; Antanasijević, D; Perić-Grujić, A

    2011-01-01

    Eight selected trace elements, which are generally included in regulations, were analyzed in 23 types of bottled waters. Ten mineral and seven spring bottled waters were from the Serbian market and six mineral bottled waters were obtained in different EU countries. For the purpose of comparison, selected tap waters were also analyzed. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the analysis of trace elements (arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, nickel, lead and antimony). Results were compared with the Serbian regulations for bottled water, EU regulations and guideline values set by the World Health Organization for drinking water. With few exceptions, the trace element levels of most bottled waters were below the guideline values. However, a higher content of antimony was observed in waters from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers, indicating a potential leaching of this element from the plastic packaging.

  4. Assessment of trace elements levels in patients with Type 2 diabetes using multivariate statistical analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, M; Morsy, R; Soliman, H; Elnimr, T

    2016-01-01

    The trace elements metabolism has been reported to possess specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of diabetes mellitus. Due to the continuous increase in the population of patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D), this study aims to assess the levels and inter-relationships of fast blood glucose (FBG) and serum trace elements in Type 2 diabetic patients. This study was conducted on 40 Egyptian Type 2 diabetic patients and 36 healthy volunteers (Hospital of Tanta University, Tanta, Egypt). The blood serum was digested and then used to determine the levels of 24 trace elements using an inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Multivariate statistical analysis depended on correlation coefficient, cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA), were used to analysis the data. The results exhibited significant changes in FBG and eight of trace elements, Zn, Cu, Se, Fe, Mn, Cr, Mg, and As, levels in the blood serum of Type 2 diabetic patients relative to those of healthy controls. The statistical analyses using multivariate statistical techniques were obvious in the reduction of the experimental variables, and grouping the trace elements in patients into three clusters. The application of PCA revealed a distinct difference in associations of trace elements and their clustering patterns in control and patients group in particular for Mg, Fe, Cu, and Zn that appeared to be the most crucial factors which related with Type 2 diabetes. Therefore, on the basis of this study, the contributors of trace elements content in Type 2 diabetic patients can be determine and specify with correlation relationship and multivariate statistical analysis, which confirm that the alteration of some essential trace metals may play a role in the development of diabetes mellitus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Diffusive fractionation of trace elements in basaltic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holycross, Megan E.; Bruce Watson, E.

    2016-10-01

    The chemical diffusivities of 25 trace elements (Sc, V, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th, and U) in basaltic melt were measured in diffusion couple experiments performed at 1 GPa pressure and temperatures from 1250 to 1500 °C. Trace element concentration gradients developed in the glasses were simultaneously characterized using laser ablation ICP/MS to create an internally consistent data set. A ratio-fitting technique was employed to accurately determine the relative diffusivities of the rare earth elements (REE). All diffusion coefficients conform to the expected Arrhenius relation D = D 0exp(- E a /RT), where the constant log( D 0, m2/s) ranges from -3.81 to -5.11 and E a ranges from 161.73 to 223.81 kJ/mol. The slowest diffusivities are obtained for the high-field-strength elements; the fastest diffusivities are obtained for the low-field-strength elements. Trace element diffusion in MORB follows the compensation law, where log D 0 is linearly correlated with E a. Arrhenius parameters for diffusion of trivalent REE monotonically increase from La to Lu and are near-linear functions of bond strength (the variation in Arrhenius parameters means that the diffusivities decrease monotonically from La to Lu at a given T). The new data for trace element diffusion in basaltic melt can be used to explore the potential for diffusive fractionation of trace elements using kinetic models. Concentrations of the slower-diffusing heavy REE may be altered relative to those of the faster-diffusing light REE as a diffusive boundary layer develops in melt-melt and crystal-melt systems. The results indicate that diffusion in basalt can be an effective mechanism to fractionate trace elements from one another.

  6. Trace elements in coloured opals using neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McOrist, G.D.; Smallwood, A. [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is a technique particularly suited to analysing opals since it is non-destructive and the silica matrix of opals is not prone to significant activation. It was used to determine the concentration of trace elements in 50 samples of orange, yellow, green, blue and pink opals as well as 18 samples of colourless opals taken from a number of recognised fields in Australia, Peru, Mexico and USA. The results were then evaluated to determine if a relationship existed between trace element content and opal colour. The mean concentration of most of the elements found in orange, yellow and colourless opals were similar with few exceptions. This indicated that, for these samples, colour is not related to the trace elements present. However, the trace element profile of the green, pink and blue opals was found to be significantly different with each colour having a much higher concentration of certain trace elements when compared with all other opals analysed. 7 refs.

  7. Determination of trace elements in body fluids by XRF spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nadj, M.; Injuk, J.; Valcovic, V.; Lakatos, J.

    1987-04-01

    X-ray emission spectroscopy is used for trace element analysis of body fluids. Analytical procedures that include sample preparation and XRF setup are described for the analysis of blood serum and amniotic fluid samples for different gravidity stages. The comparison between the distribution of these elements in amniotic fluid and serum is presented and discussed.

  8. Trace element analysis in silicon by accelerator SIMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ender, R.M.; Suter, M. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland); Doebeli, M.; Synal, H.A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The accelerator SIMS technique has been applied to Si samples implanted with different elements. It has been shown that concentrations of several trace elements can be analysed down to about 1 ppb in depth profiling mode. (author) 2 figs., 1 ref.

  9. Influence of trace elements on dental enamel properties: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Zeeshan; Haji Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Binti; Chew, Hooi Pin; Fatima, Tayyaba

    2017-01-01

    Dental enamel, an avascular, irreparable, outermost and protective layer of the human clinical crown has a potential to withstand the physico-chemical effects and forces. These properties are being regulated by a unique association among elements occurring in the crystallites setup of human dental enamel. Calcium and phosphate are the major components (hydroxyapatite) in addition to some trace elements which have a profound effect on enamel. The current review was planned to determine the aptitude of various trace elements to substitute and their influence on human dental enamel in terms of physical and chemical properties.

  10. Mixing Formal and Informal Model Elements for Tracing Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jastram, Michael; Hallerstede, Stefan; Ladenberger, Lukas

    2011-01-01

    a system for traceability with a state-based formal method that supports refinement. We do not require all specification elements to be modelled formally and support incremental incorporation of new specification elements into the formal model. Refinement is used to deal with larger amounts of requirements......Tracing between informal requirements and formal models is challenging. A method for such tracing should permit to deal efficiently with changes to both the requirements and the model. A particular challenge is posed by the persisting interplay of formal and informal elements. In this paper, we...

  11. Analysis of trace elements in opal using PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinrichs, Ruth, E-mail: ruth.hinrichs@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Geociências, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Bertol, A.P.L. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Vasconcellos, M.A.Z. [Programa de Pós-graduação em Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2015-11-15

    Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is particularly important for the analysis of trace elements of precious samples, being one of the few methods to determine elements with ppm concentration that does not affect sample integrity. A PIXE methodology for trace element analysis in opal was developed. To avoid detector count saturation due to the high number of Si-Kα X-rays generated in the sample, several filters were employed to optimize the reduction of the Si-Kα signal, while maintaining acceptable intensities of the other relevant X-ray lines. Two proton beam energies were tested, to establish the signal to noise ratio in different X-ray energies. Spectra were fitted with the software GUPIX, using a matrix composition determined with electron beam excited energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Above the energy of the silicon X-ray, several trace elements were quantified.

  12. Trace elements in coal. Environmental and health significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelman, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Trace elements can have profound adverse effects on the health of people burning coal in homes or living near coal deposits, coal mines, and coal- burning power plants. Trace elements such as arsenic emitted from coal- burning power plants in Europe and Asia have been shown to cause severe health problems. Perhaps the most widespread health problems are caused by domestic coal combustion in developing countries where millions of people suffer from fluorosis and thousands from arsenism. Better knowledge of coal quality characteristics may help to reduce some of these health problems. For example, information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal may help delineate areas of a coal deposit to be avoided. Information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the textural relations of the minerals in coal may help to predict the behavior of the potentially toxic trace metals during coal cleaning, combustion, weathering, and leaching.

  13. Modeling fluid- and trace element-fluxes in subducted slabs utilising two-dimensional thermodynamic and trace element models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konrad-Schmolke, M.; Jahn, S.

    2012-12-01

    The subduction of oceanic lithosphere induces one of the major element cycles on Earth. Devolatilisation reactions in the subducted plate, the associated major and trace element transport as well as fluid-rock interaction within the slab and the mantle wedge control the flux of matter from the down-going plate into the upper plate and the atmosphere. Prediction and quantification of these fluxes is therefore a fundamental task in geosciences. The amount and composition of liberated fluids in a subducted slab is controlled by thermodynamic constraints, the fluid-rock element distribution as well as reaction kinetics in the affected rocks. Consequently, prediction of the element transfer within the slab and into the overlying rocks must consider these processes and their complex interactions. In this contribution we focus on the thermodynamic constraints on devolatilisation reactions in slab-crust and -mantle, the associated fluid migration and the chemical aspect of fluid-rock interaction within a hydrated subducted plate. Based on numerically modeled isotherm patterns of contrasting subduction settings we calculate phase relations in different layers of the subducted slabs. We use incremental Gibbs energy minimisation models and consider upward migration of liberated fluids during subduction. Moreover, modeled phase relations, fluid amounts and trace element partition coefficients, are used to calculate mass balanced distribution of fluid-mobile trace elements among the stable phases within the slab. Trace element transport occurs within the migrating fluid phase that equilibrates with the wall rock during ascent. This process controls element depletion and/or enrichment of fluid and wall rock and enables detailed prediction of the trace element transfer along the slab mantle interface. Our results show that fluid fluxes at the slab surface are clearly bimodal: at fore-arc depths water is continuously released predominantly from the MORB layer whereas at sub- and

  14. Assessing oral bioaccessibility of trace elements in soils under worst-case scenarios by automated in-line dynamic extraction as a front end to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosende, María; Magalhães, Luis M; Segundo, Marcela A; Miró, Manuel

    2014-09-01

    A novel biomimetic extraction procedure that allows for the in-line handing of ≥400 mg solid substrates is herein proposed for automatic ascertainment of trace element (TE) bioaccessibility in soils under worst-case conditions as per recommendations of ISO norms. A unified bioaccessibility/BARGE method (UBM)-like physiological-based extraction test is evaluated for the first time in a dynamic format for accurate assessment of in-vitro bioaccessibility of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in forest and residential-garden soils by on-line coupling of a hybrid flow set-up to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Three biologically relevant operational extraction modes mimicking: (i) gastric juice extraction alone; (ii) saliva and gastric juice composite in unidirectional flow extraction format and (iii) saliva and gastric juice composite in a recirculation mode were thoroughly investigated. The extraction profiles of the three configurations using digestive fluids were proven to fit a first order reaction kinetic model for estimating the maximum TE bioaccessibility, that is, the actual worst-case scenario in human risk assessment protocols. A full factorial design, in which the sample amount (400-800 mg), the extractant flow rate (0.5-1.5 mL min(-1)) and the extraction temperature (27-37°C) were selected as variables for the multivariate optimization studies in order to obtain the maximum TE extractability. Two soils of varied physicochemical properties were analysed and no significant differences were found at the 0.05 significance level between the summation of leached concentrations of TE in gastric juice plus the residual fraction and the total concentration of the overall assayed metals determined by microwave digestion. These results showed the reliability and lack of bias (trueness) of the automatic biomimetic extraction approach using digestive juices.

  15. Iodine, selenium, and other trace elements in urine of pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szybiński, Zbigniew; Walas, Stanisław; Zagrodzki, Paweł; Sokołowski, Grzegorz; Gołkowski, Filip; Mrowiec, Halina

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine trace element levels in urine and evaluate possible associations between urinary iodine concentration (UIC), other trace elements (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Se, Zn), toxic elements (Cd, Pb), anthropometrical measures (body weight and height), glycemic indices (serum insulin and glucose), and several parameters related to thyroid function (thyroid stimulating hormone, free thyroxine, antithyroid peroxidase antibodies, thyroid volume, and thyroid echogenicity) in pregnant women. One hundred sixty-nine participants were recruited. The whole study group, originating from Krakow region, comprised three subgroups belonging to three trimesters: I trimester (n = 28), II trimester (n = 83), and III trimester (n = 58). Trace elements were determined using inductively coupled plasma mass/(atomic emission) spectrometry. Partial least square model was used to reveal correlation structure between parameters investigated, as well as a possible causal relationship between dependent parameters and potentially explanatory parameters. Results obtained for trace and toxic elements in urine were comparable with results of other authors, although the study group was not homogenous. We confirmed (1) low iodine excretion in pregnant women, (2) the existence of statistically significant correlation between UIC and urinary selenium, and (3) lack of correlation between latter parameter and typical indices of thyroid function. Urinary selenium correlated with other urinary trace elements, but physiological significance of this finding remains uncertain. The fact that a large number of pregnant women fail to meet dietary recommendations for iodine is the major reason for concern.

  16. Trace Element Geochemistry of Cenozoic Volcanic Rocks in Shandong Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈道公; 李彬贤; 等

    1989-01-01

    The Cenozoic volcanic rock of Shandong Province are mainly alkalic and strongly alkalic basaltic rocks.The Contents of major and trace elements including transitional,incompatible and rare-earth elements were determined.The chemical characterisitics of major and trace elements indicate that these basaltic rocks were derived from a mantle source and probably represent a primary magma,I,e.,unmodifiecd partical melts of mantle peridotite in terms of Mg values,correlatione between P2O5 and Ce,Sr,Ni and Rb concentrations,mantle xenoliths,etc.The abundances of trace elements vary systematically from west to east.The compatible transition elements such as Co,Ni,and Cr show a remarkable depletion,whereas the incompatible and rare-earth elements are abundant as viewed from the chondrite-nor-malized patterns.The chemical composition and correlation are consistent with the tectonic setting.According to the batch and fractional partial melting theory,the trace element contents of Shandong volcanic rocks can be calculated from the two-component mixing model.

  17. Posterior Cord Syndrome and Trace Elements Deficiency as an Uncommon Presentation of Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Silva Macedo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diarrhea is one of the most common symptoms in common variable immunodeficiency, but neurologic manifestations are rare. We presented a 50-year-old woman with recurrent diarrhea and severe weight loss that developed a posterior cord syndrome. Endoscopy found a duodenal villous blunting, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, and lack of plasma cells and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine was normal. Laboratory assays confirmed common variable immunodeficiency syndrome and showed low levels of trace elements (copper and zinc. Treatment was initiated with parenteral replacement of trace elements and intravenous human immunoglobulin and the patient improved clinically. In conclusion, physicians must be aware that gastrointestinal and neurologic disorders may be related to each other and remember to request trace elements laboratory assessment.

  18. [Determination of trace elements in Mongolian medicine Susi-12 curing cholecystitis and gallstone disease by ICP-AES].

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Er-Deng-sang; Hang, Gai-ba-te-re; Ba, Tu; Duan, Yi-wen

    2009-04-01

    Trace elements in Mongolian medicine Susi-12 for cholecystitis and gallstones were analyzed in order to discuss the relation between Susi-12's drug action and the trace elements. The analysis was carried out using the pressure seal microwave digestion and inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It was found that the medicine contained great amount of trace elements, especially human-body-needed trace elements, such as Ca, Al, Mg, Fe, Sr, Mn, Zn, Cu etc., whereas heavy metals are very little, e.g. the contents of Pb, Cb, As etc are below the country's limit. The recoveries of standard addition are in the range of 94.63%-106.40%. The relative standard deviation RSDSusi-12 can effectively control and cure cholecystitis and gallstones, and the effective rate reaches 91.2% to 100%. So the trace elements in Susi-12 must have a close connection with the drug action.

  19. Profiles of non-essential trace elements in ewe and goat milk and their yoghurt, Torba yoghurt and whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanal, Hasan; Güler, Zehra; Park, Young W

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the profiles of non-essential trace elements in ewes' and goats' milk and manufactured products, such as yoghurt, torba yoghurt and whey, as well as changes in trace element content during Torba yoghurt-making processes. Concentrations of non-essential trace elements in ewe (Awassi) and goat (Damascus) milk and their yoghurt, torba yoghurt and whey were quantitatively determined by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES), after microwave digestion. Aluminium, antimony, arsenic, boron, beryllium, cadmium, nickel, lead, silver, titanium, thallium and vanadium were determined for both types of milk and their products. Barium was not detected in goats' milk or their products. Among all trace elements, boron was the most abundant and beryllium was least present in milk and the manufactured products. The results showed that goats' and ewes' milk and their manufactured products may be a source of 13 non-essential trace elements.

  20. Postpartum Depression and Role of Serum Trace Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zarrindast

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available "nPostpartum depression (PPD is a major depressive disorder that most often emerges within 6 to 12 weeks of delivery, but can happen any time up to 1 year after birth. In developed countries, the incidence of postnatal depression about 10-15% in adult women depending upon the diagnostic criteria, timing of screening and screening instruments used. Mothers with depressive symptoms have been found to have more complex behavioral contacts with their children; this situation can damage family relationships, and even leads to infanticide. Various pathophysiologies are proposed for postpartum depression: Nutritional deficiencies, iron deficiency anemia, rapid decrease in the levels of reproductive hormones following delivery, alterations in hypothalamic-pituitary-adernocortical mechanism and alterations in neurotransmitter levels. Among pathophysiologies of postpartum depression, the role of trace elements is highlighted. The purpose of this review is to assess the role of trace elements including zinc, magnesium, iron and copper PPD. Zinc as a trace element has the second highest concentration of all transition metals in the brain, and its deficiency is associated with behavioral disturbances. Lower zinc blood concentration was found in women with postpartum depression. Another trace element, magnesium, also influences the nervous system via its actions on the release and metabolism of neurotransmitters. Various studies have focused on antidepressant-like effects of magnesium and its deficiency has been reported in depression. Depletion of magnesium stores during pregnancy is hypothesized to be the cause of postpartum depression. Iron deficiency is the most common single nutrient deficiency in the world. There is an association between anemia and depressive disorders. Copper has been recognized as an essential element for many years. Iron also plays a vital role in neurological disorders and its levels are relevant to postpartum depression

  1. Macro-Elements and Trace Elements in Cereal Grains Cultivated in Latvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jākobsone Ida

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based foods have great importance in the compensation of micro- and trace element deficiency, because 50% of the foods produced worldwide are made up of cereal grains. The aim of the research was to determine the concentration of macro-elements and trace elements in different cereals cultivated in Latvia. Various cereals were used in the research: rye (n = 45, barley (n = 54, spring wheat (n = 27, winter wheat (n = 53, triticale (n = 45 and oats (n = 42. Thirteen macro- and trace elements (Cd, Pb, Ni, Cr, Al, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Fe, Zn, Mg, Ca were determined in cereal grain samples (n = 266. Macro-elements and trace elements varied significantly (p < 0.01 or p < 0.001. The highest concentrations of macro- and trace elements were found in oats and the lowest in rye. The obtained data will expand the opportunity for food and nutrition scientists to evaluate content of the examined elements in grain products, and dietary consumption (bioavailability of the examined macro-elements and trace elements.

  2. Quality reference values of trace elements in Brazilian organosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Erica Souto Abreu; do Amaral Sobrinho, Nelson Moura Brasil; de Paiva, Filipe Soares Diniz; Coutinho, Izabella Bezerra; Pereira, Marcos Gervasio; Zonta, Everaldo

    2016-07-01

    Determination of the natural background levels of trace elements in organosols and the proposal of quality reference values (QRVs) for these elements are essential for monitoring these soils because they are fragile and subject to change more intensely and rapidly than other soil classes. Given the above information, the objectives of this study were to determine the QRVs of trace elements for organosols and to correlate some soil properties with the occurrence of these elements. Forty organic soil horizon samples from different regions of Brazil were selected to determine the pseudo-total content of trace elements. The samples were separated into three groups according to a cluster analysis. The soil variable Fe and C contents had the strongest influence on the trace element contents in the organosols and were therefore used in the group classification functions. QRVs were proposed according to the 75th percentiles of the groups. The classification functions are a suitable tool for the allocation of new samples into previously established groups and may potentially be used to estimate the degree of organosol degradation.

  3. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 1012 n cm-2 s-1. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO).

  4. Concentration of trace elements on branded cigarette in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd [Blok 18, Makmal Kimia Analisis (ACA/BAS), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia); Yasir, Muhamad Samudi; Rahman, Irman Abdul [Bangunan Sains Nuklear, Fakulti Sains & Teknologi, UKM Bangi, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Tobacco is a plant that is used as a recreational drug since the beginning of its use by the Native Americans. Now with the development of the tobacco industry, smoking has become a norm for the public in Malaysia. Trace elements in plants are mostly due to the uptake processes from the soils into the roots of the plants. The concentration of the elements may also be influenced by the elements contained in the water and also fertilizers. This paper aim to analyze the concentration of the trace elements contained in the branded cigarettes sold in Malaysia by utilizing the neutron activation analysis. The tobaccos were taken out from the cigarettes. The collected samples were air dried and passed through 2 mm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia Triga Mark II reactor with a neutron flux of 2.0 x 10{sup 12} n cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. The samples then were analyzed using ORTEC Gamma Spectrometer a co-axial n-type HPGe detector with resolution of 2.0 keV at 1332 keV and relative efficiency of 20%. The data obtained could help in assessing the concentration of the trace elements that complying with the standard limitation dose proposed by World Health Organization (WHO)

  5. Trace element determination in vitamin E using ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce De León, Claudia A; Montes Bayón, Maria; Caruso, Joseph A

    2002-09-01

    Vitamin E supplements are either isolated from plants sources or prepared synthetically. Isolation from plants includes eight different tocopherol structures. Vitamin E synthesis includes seven different stereoisomers, which involves the use of several catalysts that may lead to trace element contamination in the vitamin. The use of ICP-MS is an ideal technique for detecting these trace elements. However, the oily nature of the samples requires the development of a sample preparation methodology. This study was done upon the request of synthetic vitamin E manufacturers to test the trace metal purity of their samples. In this work, the comparison of an acid microwave digestion and emulsion preparation is discussed. Cromium, nickel, tin and lead were found in the synthetic vitamin E analyzed and 200, 60, 9 and 45 ppb were the concentrations found respectively for these elements. Digesting the samples gives slightly lower detection limits compared to the emulsion preparation.

  6. Liquid phase microextraction for the analysis of trace elements and their speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xia, Linbo

    2013-08-01

    Trace/ultra-trace elements and their speciation analysis in complex matrices usually require sample preparation procedures to achieve sample clean-up and analyte preconcentration. Sample preparation is often the bottleneck in trace elements and their speciation analysis which has a direct impact on accuracy, precision and limits of detection and is often the rate-determining step of the analytical process. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance and reduction in solvent/sample consumption and operation time. Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) technique as a novel and promising alternative in sample preparation can meet these requirements and has become a very efficient sample preparation technique. This review updates the state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis and discusses its promising prospects. The major thrust of the article highlights the applications of LPME including single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) and solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) to the fields of elemental and their speciation analysis by atomic spectrometry-based methods, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. General and specific concepts, different extraction formats and characteristics of LPME are described and compared, along with examples of recent innovations and applications presented to demonstrate its potential for trace elements and their speciation analysis in biological and environmental fields. Moreover, the application potential and an outlook on the combination of LPME and atomic spectrometry-based techniques for inorganic analysis are commentated.

  7. Comparative Analysis of the Trace Element Content of the Leaves and Roots of Three Plantago Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Nemereshina, Olga N; Suliburska, Joanna; Gatiatulina, Evgenia R; Regula, Julita; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2016-09-01

    The primary objective of this study is to perform a comparative analysis of the trace element content of the leaves and roots of three Plantago species (P. maxima Juss. ex Jacq., P. major L., and P. lanceolata L.). Trace element levels were assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The data indicate that the leaves of P. lanceolata are characterized by the highest Co, Cr, and Se content, whereas P. maxima leaves contained the greatest levels of Si and Zn. In contrast, the highest concentrations of Co, Cr, Fe, I, Mn, Si, and V were detected in the roots of P. major. Zn content was also higher in P. maxima roots than in the other species analyzed. The toxic trace elements were differentially distributed across the studied species. In particular, P. lanceolata leaves contained significantly higher Al, As, Li, Ni, Pb, and Sr levels, whereas the B and Cd content was elevated in P. major as compared to the other species. Surprisingly, the leaf Hg level was the lowest in P. major, whose levels of Al, As, B, Cd, Ni, Li, and Sr were significantly higher than the other two species. The data indicate that the concentration of most of the essential trace elements was higher in the leaves and roots of P. major and P. lanceolata than in P. maxima, while P. maxima had less toxic metals. The obtained data on trace elements content in Plantago tissues may be taken into account while using plant preparations in practical medicine.

  8. Effect of Calcined Temperature on the Solubility of Trace Elements from Manifanshi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Hanlie; TIE Liyun; BIAN Qiujuan; ZHOU Yong

    2006-01-01

    A medical stone manifanshi were researched by using polarized light microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) methods. The XRD pattern of the raw Manifanshi indicates that it is dominantly composed of plagioclase, orthoclase, quartz, and that of the calcined Manifanshi at 1000 ℃ shows that the distortion of crystal structure in both plagioclase and orthoclase takes place at the calcined temperature. The polarized light microscopy observation suggests that the Manifanshi is naturally weathered monzo-granite porphyry. Chemical analyses reveal that the Manifanshi contains a number of healthful trace elements and rare toxic trace elements, therefore, it is a high quality Manifanshi. The solubility of trace elements was determined by measuring the concentration of trace elements from Manifanshi calcined under varying temperature conditions by ICP method, the results suggest that the calcined product at 1000 ℃ shows the ideal result in ionic concentrations and dissolution rate of trace elements in water, which is contributed to the distortion of the crystal structure of feldspar at the calcined temperature.

  9. Trace element contamination in feather and tissue samples from Anna’s hummingbirds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikoni, Nicole A.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Foley, Janet E.; Hazlehurst, Jenny; Purdin, Güthrum; Aston, Linda; Hargrave, Sabine; Jelks, Karen; Tell, Lisa A.

    2017-01-01

    Trace element contamination (17 elements; Be, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) of live (feather samples only) and deceased (feather and tissue samples) Anna's hummingbirds (Calypte anna) was evaluated. Samples were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS; 17 elements) and atomic absorption spectrophotometry (Hg only). Mean plus one standard deviation (SD) was considered the benchmark, and concentrations above the mean + 1 SD were considered elevated above normal. Contour feathers were sampled from live birds of varying age, sex, and California locations. In order to reduce thermal impacts, minimal feathers were taken from live birds, therefore a novel method was developed for preparation of low mass feather samples for ICP-MS analysis. The study found that the novel feather preparation method enabled small mass feather samples to be analyzed for trace elements using ICP-MS. For feather samples from live birds, all trace elements, with the exception of beryllium, had concentrations above the mean + 1 SD. Important risk factors for elevated trace element concentrations in feathers of live birds were age for iron, zinc, and arsenic, and location for iron, manganese, zinc, and selenium. For samples from deceased birds, ICP-MS results from body and tail feathers were correlated for Fe, Zn, and Pb, and feather concentrations were correlated with renal (Fe, Zn, Pb) or hepatic (Hg) tissue concentrations. Results for AA spectrophotometry analyzed samples from deceased birds further supported the ICP-MS findings where a strong correlation between mercury concentrations in feather and tissue (pectoral muscle) samples was found. These study results support that sampling feathers from live free-ranging hummingbirds might be a useful, non-lethal sampling method for evaluating trace element exposure and provides a sampling alternative since their small body size limits traditional sampling of blood and tissues. The

  10. Trace element analysis in rheumatoid arthritis under chrysotheraphy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, R.; Paradis, P.; Monaro, S.; Barrette, M.; Lamoureux, G.; Menard, H.-A.

    1981-03-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis is used to measure trace element concentrations in blood serum from patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Initially trace element contaminations in blood-collecting and storing devices are determined. Then mean values and nyctemeral cycles are measured both in normal subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis and other similar pathologies. Abnormal concentrations of Cu and Zn and anomalies in the nyctemeral cycle are found in the patients. In the second phase of the project, the special case of chrysotherapeutically treated (gold salt treatment) rheumatoid arthritis patients is studied for extended periods of time (up to 53 weeks).

  11. Covariance biplot analysis of trace element concentrations in urinary stones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandt, M A; Underhill, L G

    1988-06-01

    The covariance biplot, a relatively new technique for displaying multivariate data, was applied to trace element contents and compound concentrations of urinary stones. The biplot is demonstrated to give a compact graphical representation of the multivariate data with interpretations in terms of familiar statistical concepts such as correlations and standard deviations. It displays strong correlations between various trace elements like Zn and Sr, and Sr and Na. The biplot also suggests concentration relationships which could play a hitherto unknown role in the genesis of calculi. It is shown to help in the interpretation of analytical results as well as in exposing erroneous or incomplete analyses.

  12. Effect of trace elements on growth of Pinus tabulaeformis seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The stimulative effect of trace elements on seed germination and seedling growth of Pinus tabulaeformis was tested. The experiments were carried out on seed soak and topdressing with different trace elements and varied concentrat ions at the nursery of Gardens Research Institute, Harbin, in 2000-2001. The experimental results showed that soaking seed with 1% and 0.2% concentrations of Mn element produced best result for seed germination, and the germination rate was increased by 9%~19% for the seeds treated with 1% concentration and 12%~14% for the seeds treated with 0.2% concentration compared with the control group. The seeds treated with boron element had lowest germination rate. For trace element topdressing, Mn and Mo elements presented good result for seedling growth and th e treatment with low concentration was even better. The height or chlorophyll co ntent of the seedlings with spray of low-concentration Mn and Mo element was muc h higher than that of untreated ones. In the contrast to the treating method of seed soak, topdressing (application of spraying on foliage) had evident effect o n seedling growth.

  13. Distribution of trace elements in spinel and garnet peridotites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of trace elements in the upper mantle has been discussed on the basis of the trace element abundances in bulk rocks and constituent minerals of two spinel and garnet facies peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts from eastern China.The data presented are consistent with the suggestion that highly incompatible elements (Rb,Ba,Th,U,Sr,Nb,Ta) mainly reside in intergranular components,and to a lesser extent in fluid inclusions in minerals.The LILE composition in olivine and orthopyroxene can be seriously affected by the presence of fluid inclusions.Consequently the subsolidus partitioning of the LILE cannot be used to infer the olivine-melt and orthopyroxene-melt partition coefficients for these elements.There is a significant difference in (Opx/Cpx)HREE ratios for spinel and garnet peridotites,suggesting a P-T control on equilibrium partition coefficients.

  14. Distribution of trace elements in spinel and garnet peridotites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐义刚

    2000-01-01

    The distribution of trace elements in the upper mantle has been discussed on the basis of the trace element abundances in bulk rocks and constituent minerals of two spinel and garnet facies peridotite xenoliths in alkali basalts from eastern China. The data presented are consistent with the suggestion that highly incompatible elements (Rb, Ba, Th, U, Sr, Nb, Ta) mainly reside in intergranular components, and to a lesser extent in fluid inclusions in minerals. The LILE composition in olivine and orthopyroxene can be seriously affected by the presence of fluid inclusions. Consequently the subsolidus partitioning of the LILE cannot be used to infer the olivine-melt and orthopyroxene-melt partition coefficients for these elements. There is a significant difference in (Opx/Cpx)HREE ratios for spinel and garnet peridotites, suggesting a P-T control on equilibrium partition coefficients.

  15. Trace elements in oil shale. Progress report, 1976--1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chappell, W.R.

    1979-01-01

    The overall objective of the program is to evaluate the environmental and health consequences of the release of toxic trace elements (As, B, F, Mo, Se) by shale oil production and use. Some of the particularly significant results are: The baseline geochemical survey shows that stable trace elements maps can be constructed for numerous elements and that the trends observed are related to geologic and climatic factors. Shale retorted by above-ground processes tends to be very homogeneous (both in space and in time) in trace element content. This implies that the number of analytical determinations required of processed shales is not large. Leachate studies show that significant amounts of B, F, And Mo are released from retorted shales and while B and Mo are rapidly flushed out, F is not. On the other hand, As, Se, and most other trace elements ae not present in significant quantities. Significant amounts of F and B are also found in leachates of raw shales. Very large concentrations of reduced sulfur species are found in leachates of processed shale. Upon oxidation a drastic lowering in pH is observed. Preliminary data indicates that this oxidation is catalyzed by bacteria. Very high levels of B and Mo are taken up in some plants growing on processed shale with and without soil cover. These amounts depend upon the process and various site specific characteristics. In general, the amounts taken up decrease with increasing soil cover. On the other hand, we have not observed significant uptake of As, Se, and F into plants. There is a tendency for some trace elements to associate with specific organic fractions, indicating that organic chelation or complexation may play an important role. In particular, most of the Cd, Se, and Cr in shale oil is associated with the organic fraction containing most of the nitrogen-containing compounds.

  16. [Blood trace elements content in adolescents in an industrial town].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namazbaeva, Z I; Amanzhol, I A; Shibuchikova, Zh B; Sabirov, Zh B; Zhumabekova, S Zh

    2013-01-01

    A cohort blind study of blood trace elements content in children-adolescents aged 14-16 years old, residing in an industrial town, where large industrial enterprises of ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy have been functioning for long periods, has been performed There was established a lack of vital important element selenium in the blood, that causes the accumulation of toxic metals, cadmium and mercury.

  17. Trace elements in brazilian soils; Micronutrientes nos solos do Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, Geraldo Cesar [Juiz de Fora Univ., MG (Brazil). Dept. de Geociencias

    1995-03-01

    A literature revision on trace elements (Zn, B, Mn, Mo, Cu, Fe, and Cl) in Brazilian soils was prepared, with special attention to the chemical form and range in the soil, extraction methods and correlation of the amount in soils with soil properties. 76 refs.

  18. Serum levels of selected vitamins and trace elements in Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... vitamins and trace elements in Nigerian consumers of alcoholic beverage: a ... role in DNA methylation but alcohol consumption is known to affect the levels of these ... zinc (Zn) were determined using High Performance Liquid Chromatography ... Independent Student t-test was used to compare the mean values between ...

  19. Improved electron probe microanalysis of trace elements in quartz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, John J.; Lowers, Heather; Rusk, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    Quartz occurs in a wide range of geologic environments throughout the Earth's crust. The concentration and distribution of trace elements in quartz provide information such as temperature and other physical conditions of formation. Trace element analyses with modern electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) instruments can achieve 99% confidence detection of ~100 ppm with fairly minimal effort for many elements in samples of low to moderate average atomic number such as many common oxides and silicates. However, trace element measurements below 100 ppm in many materials are limited, not only by the precision of the background measurement, but also by the accuracy with which background levels are determined. A new "blank" correction algorithm has been developed and tested on both Cameca and JEOL instruments, which applies a quantitative correction to the emitted X-ray intensities during the iteration of the sample matrix correction based on a zero level (or known trace) abundance calibration standard. This iterated blank correction, when combined with improved background fit models, and an "aggregate" intensity calculation utilizing multiple spectrometer intensities in software for greater geometric efficiency, yields a detection limit of 2 to 3 ppm for Ti and 6 to 7 ppm for Al in quartz at 99% t-test confidence with similar levels for absolute accuracy.

  20. Trace elements contamination of soils around gold mine tailings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISHIOMA

    Average concentrations of As, Cu, Pb and Zn in soils around the active tailings ... regarding presence of trace elements in water sources, soils and foodstuffs at .... in the Obuasi region is reportedly among the highest in the world, and has been.

  1. An inventory of trace elements inputs to French agricultural soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belon, E; Boisson, M; Deportes, I Z; Eglin, T K; Feix, I; Bispo, A O; Galsomies, L; Leblond, S; Guellier, C R

    2012-11-15

    The inputs of ten trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) to French agricultural soils have been assessed. The six main sources considered were: pesticides, mineral fertilizers, animal manure, liming materials, sludge and composts and atmospheric deposition. Data were collected to compute inputs at both national and regional (departmental) scales. The inventory methodology is based on two principles: data are traceable and easy to update. At a national scale, the inventory showed that trace elements inputs can be ranked: Zn≫Cu≫Cr>Pb>Ni>As=Mo>Se>Cd>Hg. Animal manure, mineral fertilizers and pesticides are the predominant sources of TEs. These results are globally in agreement with literature data though atmospheric deposition is shown to be lower than in more industrial countries such as China and United Kingdom where similar surveys were conducted. The inputs of trace elements vary strongly between regions in relation with agricultural activities. This inventory (and the related database) provides basis for developing and monitoring policies to control and reduce trace elements contamination of agricultural soils at both national and regional (departmental) scales.

  2. Relationship between trace elements, immune indexes and recurrent oral ulcer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ju-Wu Li; Xiao-Ming Rao

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between the trace elements, immune indexes and recurrent oral ulcer. Methods:Sixty-five patients with recurrent oral ulcer who had been treated in our hospital from January 2013 to April 2014 and all met the criteria for our study subjects were selected and regarded as the observation group and meanwhile 65 healthy persons were selected as the control group. Then, the serum trace elements, cellular immunity and erythrocyte immunity states of the two groups were compared and the relationship between the trace elements and immune indexes were studied. Results:The serum Zn,Se and Fe of the observation group were all lower than those of the control group;while its Cu/Zn was higher than that of the control group;and the related indexes of cellular immunity and erythrocyte immunity state were all worse than those of the control group;the detection results of patients with severe recurrent oral ulcer were all worse than those of patients with mild recurrent oral ulcer and herpes, and the results of patients with herpes were worse than those of patients with mild recurrent oral ulcer. After logistic analysis, the research indexes had close relationship with recurrent oral ulcer. Conclusions:Patients with recurrent oral ulcer show obvious abnormity of trace elements and immune indexes, and the disease have close relationship with the above indexes.

  3. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors cau...

  4. Phytoaccumulation of trace elements by wetland plants: 3. Uptake and accumulation of ten trace elements by twelve plant species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, J.H.; Zayed, A.; Zhu, Y.L.; Yu, M.; Terry, N.

    1999-10-01

    Interest is increasing in using wetland plants in constructed wetlands to remove toxic elements from polluted wastewater. To identify those wetland plants that hyperaccumulate trace elements, 12 plant species were tested for their efficiency to bioconcentrate 10 potentially toxic trace elements including As, b, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mn, Hg, Ni, and Se. Individual plants were grown under carefully controlled conditions and supplied with 1 mg L{sup {minus}1} of each trace element individually for 10 d. Except B, all elements accumulated to much higher concentrations in roots than in shoots. Highest shoot tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW) of the various trace elements were attained by the following species: umbrella plant (Cyperus alternifolius L.) for Mn (198) and Cr (44); water zinnia (Wedelia trilobata Hitchc.) for Cd (148) and Ni (80); smartweed (Polygonum hydropiperoides Michx.) for Cu (95) and Pb (64); water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes L.) for Hg (92), As (34), and Se (39); and mare's tail (hippuris vulgaris L.) for B (1132). Whereas, the following species attained the highest root tissue concentrations (mg kg{sup {minus}1} DW); stripped rush (Baumia rubiginosa) for Mn (1683); parrot's feather (Myriophyllum brasiliense Camb.) for Cd (1426) and Ni (1077); water lettuce for Cu (1038), Hg (1217), and As (177); smartweed for Cr (2980) and Pb (1882); mare's tail for B (1277); and monkey flower (Mimulus guttatus Fisch.) for Se (384). From a phytoremediation perspective, smartweed was probably the best plant species for trace element removal from wastewater due to its faster growth and higher plant density.

  5. Use of seaweeds for monitoring trace elements in coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasekera, R; Rossbach, M

    1996-06-01

    Concentrations of a wide range of trace elements: arsenic, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, hafnium, nickel, thorium, uranium, zinc and the rare earth elements, cerium, europium, samarium, terbium and ytterbium were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis in the brown alga,Fucus vesiculosus from Eckwarder Hörne, North Sea and from Rügen, Baltic Sea. Another brown alga,Sargassum filipendula from Sri Lanka, Indian ocean (representing an unpolluted control station) was similarly investigated. Cobalt, chromium and nickel concentrations were highest inF. vesiculosus from the North Sea while zinc was highest in samples from the Baltic Sea, reflecting high levels of these elements in coastal waters of the North and the Baltic sea. Cadmium, cobalt, nickel and zinc levels were lowest inS. filipendula from Sri Lanka, probably demonstrating lower levels of those elements in coastal waters. Concentration levels of hafnium, thorium, uranium, and the rare earth elements were highest inS. filipendula. Two years later in 1994,S. filipendula along withUlva sp. (green alga) was resampled from the same sampling site, and in addition to the above elements, six other trace elements (Ag, Ba, Br, Rb, Se and Sr) were determined.Sargassium filipendula showed a particular affinity for Ag, As, Br and Sr. For the other elements, marginal concentration differences were observed betweenS. filipendula andUlva sp., probably reflecting the regional background levels. Substantially higher concentrations of Hf, Th, U, and the rare earths were found again in the 1994Sargassum andUlva samples, reflecting the effect of a substrate rich in rare earth elements. The brown algae used in this study may be used to monitor trace elements in coastal waters.

  6. Chemometric methods for studying the relationships between trace elements in laryngeal cancer and healthy tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolski, R; Klatka, J; Brodnjak-Voncina, D; Trojanowska, A; Myśliwiec, D; Ostrowski, J; Remer, M

    2014-06-01

    A quick and reliable method for the evaluation and classification of two types of tissues is presented. Several chemometric methods were applied to evaluate multivariate data of the tissue samples with respect to the content of trace elements. The content of Pb, Al, Zn, Cd, Cu, Ni and Co was determined in samples of healthy and cancerous tissue obtained from 26 patients. Determination was done at milligram/kilogram level with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) techniques. Contents of trace metals in studied tissues are not normally distributed; however, normal distribution was confirmed for log values. There is a statistically significant difference in the content of Zn, Cd, Cu and Al (pcontents of trace elements for studied tissues was positive; the highest was found between Zn and Cu. A chemometric methodology seems to be a promising tool for classifications of the tissue samples.

  7. Simultaneous determination of Se, trace elements and major elements in Se-rich rice by dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) after microwave digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yi Hua; Zhang, Jin Yan; Zhang, Da Wen; Luo, Lin Guang; Tu, Tian Hua

    2014-09-15

    A quick and accurate method was devised to determine Se, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr and Zn in Se-rich rice samples by microwave digestion and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Spectral interferences on Se were eliminated using methane as a reaction gas in the dynamic reaction cell (DRC). Rhodium was used as an internal standard to compensate for sample matrix effects. A rice-certified reference material (CRM) (GBW 10010) was used to verify the accuracy of the method. The method detection limits were 0.001-0.03 mg/kg, analyte recoveries were 85-108% and precisions (RSDs) ranged from 2.1% to 5.8%. Correlation analysis showed that the Se concentrations in the Se-rich rice samples correlated well with the Cu concentrations (r=0.53, p<0.05).

  8. Calcite saturation state effects on cultured benthic foraminiferal trace-element distribution coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintz, C. J.; Shaw, T. J.; Chandler, G. T.; McCorkle, D. C.; Bernhard, J. M.; Blanks, J. K.

    2006-12-01

    Field studies have suggested that calcite saturation states (Ømega) near and below saturation alter trace element distribution coefficients in benthic foraminifera. Recent benthic foraminiferal culture experiments at the University of South Carolina investigated the response of trace element signatures to three different calcite saturation seawater environments by manipulating total alkalinity (TA). Starting with near-surface Gulf Stream water (Ømega = 3, TA=2380 μeq kg-1), two seawater reservoirs were titrated with HCl to lower their calcite saturation states (Ømega = 2, TA = 1910 μeq kg-1; Ømega = 1.1, TA = 1320 μeq kg-1). Mixed-species foraminiferal assemblages, with the calcite-specific fluorescent label calcein, were inoculated into 13 total culture chambers evenly distributed among the control and 2 treatment seawater reservoirs. These cultures were maintained at 7.2 ± 0.1 °C temperature and 36.6 ± 0.4 ‰ salinity for 8 months. Total alkalinity and dissolved inorganic carbon, measured biweekly, characterized the carbonate system and verified that the calcite saturation state remained stable over the culture duration. Trace element concentrations were also measured biweekly. Foraminiferal reproduction ( Bulimina marginata) was observed in each seawater chemistry. These individuals were utilized for trace element and stable isotope (data not presented here) analysis. Additionally, terminal chambers precipitated in alkalinity-adjusted cultures were identified by the absence of the pre-culture calcein label used on all inoculated foraminifera. These cultured chambers were separated by laser microdissection and analyzed for trace element content by isotope dilution inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We present the initial results of these trace element distribution coefficients measured in cultured benthic foraminifera from three different Ømega. This research was funded by National Science Foundation grants OCE-0351029 and OCE-0437366.

  9. Liquid phase microextraction for the analysis of trace elements and their speciation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Bin, E-mail: binhu@whu.edu.cn; He, Man; Chen, Beibei; Xia, Linbo

    2013-08-01

    Trace/ultra-trace elements and their speciation analysis in complex matrices usually require sample preparation procedures to achieve sample clean-up and analyte preconcentration. Sample preparation is often the bottleneck in trace elements and their speciation analysis which has a direct impact on accuracy, precision and limits of detection and is often the rate-determining step of the analytical process. Recent trends in sample preparation include miniaturization, automation, high-throughput performance and reduction in solvent/sample consumption and operation time. Liquid-phase microextraction (LPME) technique as a novel and promising alternative in sample preparation can meet these requirements and has become a very efficient sample preparation technique. This review updates the state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis and discusses its promising prospects. The major thrust of the article highlights the applications of LPME including single-drop microextraction (SDME), hollow fiber-liquid phase microextraction (HF-LPME), dispersive liquid liquid microextraction (DLLME) and solidified floating organic drop microextraction (SFODME) to the fields of elemental and their speciation analysis by atomic spectrometry-based methods, especially inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. General and specific concepts, different extraction formats and characteristics of LPME are described and compared, along with examples of recent innovations and applications presented to demonstrate its potential for trace elements and their speciation analysis in biological and environmental fields. Moreover, the application potential and an outlook on the combination of LPME and atomic spectrometry-based techniques for inorganic analysis are commentated. - Highlights: • The state of art of LPME for trace elements and their speciation analysis is updated. • Different extraction formats of LPME are described. • The application potential and future

  10. Trace-element abundances in several new ureilites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boynton, William V.; Hill, Dolores H.

    1993-01-01

    Four new ureilites are analyzed for trace-element abundances. Frontier Mountain (FRO) 90054 is an augite-rich ureilite and has high rare earth element (REE) abundances with a pattern expected of augite. FRO 90036 and Acfer 277 have REE patterns similar to the V-shape pattern of other ureilites. Nuevo Mercurio (b) has very high REE abundances, but they look like they are due to terrestrial alteration. The siderophile-element pattern of these ureilites are similar to those of known ureilites.

  11. Consequences of trace-element contamination of soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purves, D.

    1972-01-01

    The chemical composition of the bulk of the food eaten has been profoundly modified by the intensification of the means of food production and as a result of the general contamination of the environment. Contamination of the soil in urban and industrial areas with potentially toxic trace elements is an important aspect of environmental pollution which can affect the composition of food. Contamination of soils with elements such as copper, lead and zinc appears to be largely irreversible and sources of this kind of contamination are discussed. Evidence is presented that the trace-element content (B, Cu, Pb, Mo, Ni, Zn) of plants grown on contaminated soils can be enhanced and that deleterious effects on plant growth are possible.

  12. Biological application of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy technique for determination of trace elements in hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Elshaimaa M; Imam, Hisham; Hassan, Mouyed A; Elnaby, Salah H

    2013-12-15

    Analysis of trace elements in mammalian hair has the potential to reveal retrospective information about an individual's nutritional status and exposure. As trace elements are incorporated into the hair during the growth process, longitudinal segments of the hair may reflect the body burden during growth. Using LIBS technique, Na, K, Ca, Mg, Si, Fe, Pb and Zn were detected in a single strand of horse hair. The results obtained through LIBS technique on hair samples were compared with the traditional technique (AAS) on digested acidified solution of the same samples. The effects of the experimental parameters on the emission lines were studied and the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) in produced plasma was investigated. The transient plasma condition was verified at specific time region (1500-2000 ns) in the plasma evolution corresponding to its dynamic expanding characteristic. The relative mass concentrations of Fe and Zn were calculated by setting the concentration of C as the calibration. The information obtained from the trace elements' spectra of horse hair in this study substantiates the potential of hair as a biomarker. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Trace element structure of the most widespread plants of genus PulmonariaFNx01

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Kruglov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was a comparative research of trace element structure of various organs of three Pulmonaria species. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the most widespread plants of genus Pulmonaria such as Pulmonaria officinalis L., Pulmonaria obscura Dumort. and Pulmonaria mollis Wulf. ex Hornem., which were collected in ending of flowering and were used as the research objects. The amount of trace elements (B, K, P, V, Ca, Co, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Si, Zn, Ag, Al, Ba, Br, Cr, I, Ni, Se, Sr, and Ti was determined by means of mass spectroscopy with inductively coupled plasma. Results: The data clustering has shown that floral shoots and rosellate leaves possess essentially various trace element status. At the same time, the trace elements′ status of organs of researched plants poorly depends on a taxonomic position of the plant. Thereupon, it is obvious that pharmacological activity is defined by organs of plants from which medicines were made, but not by a species of the used plant. Conclusions: The significant distinction in pharmacological activity of preparations depends on the trace elements′ status of used medicinal vegetative raw materials.

  14. Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiv, Yoav; Austin, Jotham R.; Lai, Barry; Rose, Volker; Vogt, Stefan; El-Muayed, Malek

    2016-02-01

    The distributions of chemical elements within cells are of prime importance in a wide range of basic and applied biochemical research. An example is the role of the subcellular Zn distribution in Zn homeostasis in insulin producing pancreatic beta cells and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. We combined transmission electron microscopy with micro- and nano-synchrotron X-ray fluorescence to image unequivocally for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the natural elemental distributions, including those of trace elements, in single organelles and other subcellular features. Detected elements include Cl, K, Ca, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Cd (which some cells were supplemented with). Cell samples were prepared by a technique that minimally affects the natural elemental concentrations and distributions, and without using fluorescent indicators. It could likely be applied to all cell types and provide new biochemical insights at the single organelle level not available from organelle population level studies.

  15. Technical and clinical aspects of spectrometric analysis of trace elements in clinical samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S; Gerson, B; Reitz, R E; Sadjadi, S A

    1998-12-01

    The capabilities of ICP-MS far exceed the slow, single-element analysis of GFAAS for determination of multiple trace elements. Additionally, its sensitivity is superior to that of DCP, ICP, and FAAS. The analytic procedure for ICP-MS is relatively straightforward and bypasses the need for digestion in many cases. It enables the physician to identify the target trace element(s) in intoxication cases, nutritional deficiency, or disease, thus eliminating the treatment delays experienced with sequential testing methods. This technology has its limitations as well. The ICP-MS cannot be used in the positive ion mode to analyze with sufficient sensitivity highly electronegative elements such as fluorine, because F+ is unstable and forms only by very high ionization energy. The ICP mass spectrometers used in most commercial laboratories utilize the quadrupole mass selector, which is limited by low resolution and, thus, by the various interferences previously discussed. For example, when an argon plasma is used, selenium (m/e 80) and chromium (m/e 52) in serum, plasma, and blood specimens are subject to polyatomic and molecular ion interferences. Low-resolution ICP mass spectrometers can therefore be used to analyze many trace elements, but they are not universal analyzers. High-resolution ICP-MS can resolve these interferences, but with greater expense. With the advent of more research and development of new techniques, some of these difficulties may be overcome, making this technique even more versatile. Contamination during sample collection and analysis causes falsely elevated results. Attention and care must be given to avoid contamination. Proper collection devices containing negligible amounts of trace elements should be used. Labware, preferably plastic and not glass, must be decontaminated prior to use by acid-washing and rinsed with [table: see text] de-ionized water. A complete description of sample collection and contamination has been written by Aitio and

  16. Urinary Concentrations of Toxic and Essential Trace Elements among Rural Residents in Hainan Island, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Inoue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Toxic element exposure and essential trace element consumption may have changed after the Chinese economy transformed to a market-oriented system. The objectives of this study were to measure urinary concentrations of toxic (arsenic, cadmium, lead and essential trace (selenium, zinc, copper elements among rural residents in Hainan, China and to examine if variations in economic development are linked to differences in toxic and trace element exposure. Methods: We conducted a questionnaire-based survey and undertook anthropometric measurements of residents aged ≥20 years (n = 599. Urinary samples were collected and analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results: The median (μg/g creatinine element concentrations were: arsenic, 73.2; cadmium, 1.8; lead, 3.1; selenium, 36.5; zinc, 371; and copper, 11.0. Intra-community variation in element concentrations was explained by age (arsenic, cadmium, zinc and copper, sex (arsenic, cadmium and selenium: higher in females; zinc: higher in males, body mass index (cadmium and individual involvement in the market economy as indexed by agrochemical use (lead and selenium. The degree of community-level economic development, which was determined by the proportion of people living in better housing among the study communities, was positively associated with cadmium concentration. Conclusions: The degree of community-level economic development was positively associated with urinary cadmium concentration while individual involvement in the market economy was positively associated with lead and selenium.

  17. Limit of detection in the presence of instrumental and non-instrumental errors: study of the possible sources of error and application to the analysis of 41 elements at trace levels by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badocco, Denis; Lavagnini, Irma; Mondin, Andrea; Tapparo, Andrea; Pastore, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.pastore@unipd.it

    2015-05-01

    In this paper the detection limit was estimated when signals were affected by two error contributions, namely instrumental errors and operational-non-instrumental errors. The detection limit was theoretically obtained following the hypothesis testing schema implemented with the calibration curve methodology. The experimental calibration design was based on J standards measured I times with non-instrumental errors affecting each standard systematically but randomly among the J levels. A two-component variance regression was performed to determine the calibration curve and to define the detection limit in these conditions. The detection limit values obtained from the calibration at trace levels of 41 elements by ICP-MS resulted larger than those obtainable from a one component variance regression. The role of the reagent impurities on the instrumental errors was ascertained and taken into account. Environmental pollution was studied as source of non-instrumental errors. The environmental pollution role was evaluated by Principal Component Analysis technique (PCA) applied to a series of nine calibrations performed in fourteen months. The influence of the seasonality of the environmental pollution on the detection limit was evidenced for many elements usually present in the urban air particulate. The obtained results clearly indicated the need of using the two-component variance regression approach for the calibration of all the elements usually present in the environment at significant concentration levels. - Highlights: • Limit of detection was obtained considering a two variance component regression. • Calibration data may be affected by instrumental and operational conditions errors. • Calibration model was applied to determine 41 elements at trace level by ICP-MS. • Non instrumental errors were evidenced by PCA analysis.

  18. Effects of Imbalance in Trace Element on Thyroid Gland from Moroccan Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Fadeli, Sana; Bouhouch, Sabir; Skalny, Anatoly V; Barkouch, Yassir; Pineau, Alain; Cherkaoui, Mohamed; Sedki, Azeddine

    2016-04-01

    The major environmental factor that determines goiter prevalence is iodine status. However, other trace elements like selenium and zinc can influence the thyroid function. Hair samples (n = 68) were collected from goitrous and non-goitrous children aged 8-12 years living in the area of Al Haouz Marrakech-(Morocco). Trace element concentrations (Cr, Fe, Mg, Zn, Se, I) in hair were measured using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Difference in the mean concentration of each trace element between groups was determined by ANOVA test. The mean concentration levels of I, Se, and Zn for goitrous children were lower and were similar to the mean concentrations reported in the literature for subjects with goiter. The regression results gave us a better model that revealed significant positive relations between thyroid volume and Zn contents and significant negative relation with I and Se. The overall findings of the present study revealed that the actual factors of thyroid gland volume increase are I and Se deficiency. This work could shed some light on the effects of trace elements-other than iodine-on the thyroid disorders.

  19. Sequential trace element changes in serum and blood during a common viral infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisk, Peter; Ola Darnerud, Per; Friman, Göran; Blomberg, Jonas; Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    When trace elements are used as diagnostic tools during disease, it is important to know whether the balance is changed in free or bound elements. Although acute infections are associated with changed trace element balance in serum/plasma, it is not known whether changes occur concomitantly in serum and blood. In the present study the human coxsackievirus B3 (CB3), here adapted to Balb/c mice, was used to study whether infection alters the normal physiological trace element balance in blood and serum. Virus was quantitatively measured in two target organs (pancreas and liver) of this infection by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), showing high concentrations of virus proving ongoing infection. Concentrations of 14 elements were measured in whole blood and serum using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) on days 3, 6 and 9 of the infection. Free and total thyroxine were measured in serum to prove metabolic changes associated with the infection. The thyroxine decreased, while iron and the Cu/Zn ratio in serum increased as a response to the infection. No clear changes in these elements were observed in blood. Cd and Hg tended to decrease in serum but to increase in blood, indicating accumulation in blood cells. Moreover, Al showed a similar decreasing trend in both serum and blood. A correlation between serum and blood levels was observed at different time points of the disease for 9 of the elements. However, As was the only element indicating correlations between serum and blood during the entire course of the disease.

  20. Speciation analysis and bioaccessibility evaluation of trace elements in goji berries (Lycium Barbarum, L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszek, Justyna; Kwiatkowski, Piotr; Ruzik, Lena

    2017-04-07

    Goji berries (Lycium Barbarum, L.) are known for their nutritional potential as a great source of trace metals (e.g., copper, zinc and manganese) which are present in the form of highly bioaccessible compounds. In order to assess the bioaccessibility of trace elements and to identify compounds responsible for better bioaccessibility of copper and zinc, an in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion was used in this study. The total content of trace metals was evaluated using sample digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Bioaccessibility of trace elements was estimated by size exclusion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. These analytical methods were used to analyse samples of goji berries to determine the highest amount of elements. For total trace metal content in goji berries, Zn had the highest level of the three studied (10.6μgg(-1)), while the total content of manganese and copper was 9.9μgg(-1) and 6.1μgg(-1), respectively. Additionally, the analysed metals were found to be highly bioaccessible to the human body (about 56% for Mn, 72% for Cu and 64% for Zn in the gastric extract and approximately 35% for Mn, 23% for Cu and 31% for Zn in the case of gastrointestinal extract). To obtain information about metal complexes present in goji berries, extraction treatment using different solutions (ionic liquid, HEPES, SDS, Tris-HCl, ammonium acetate, water) was performed. Enzymatic treatment using pectinase and hemicellulase was also checked. Extracts of berries were analysed by SEC-ICP-MS and μHPLC-ESI-MS/MS techniques. The ionic liquid and pectinase extraction helped efficiently extract copper (seven compounds) and zinc (four compounds) complexes. Compounds identified in goji berries are most likely to be responsible for better bioaccessibility of those elements to the human organism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Trace Element Signatures of Particles in the Fraser River Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snauffer, A. M.; Menard, O.; Kieffer, B.; Francois, R. H.; Weis, D. A.; Pcigr

    2010-12-01

    Characterization of trace element transport via particles at the estuarine boundary is critical to understanding the processes involved in translating these signatures to the ocean. The Fraser River in British Columbia, Canada, is the largest river by volume flowing from the Pacific coast and dumps 20 million tons of sediment into the ocean per year, yet its trace elements have not been studied extensively. The aim of this study is to determine the Sr, Nd, Hf and Pb signatures of suspended matter in the Fraser River estuary. We collected 20L water samples at 3m depth at 12 locations along the north arm of the Fraser River, along the salinity gradient from freshwater to saline water approaching open straight values of ~25 per mil. Samples were allowed to settle and then filtered. Settled particulate matter was taken from each sample and digested in high-pressure vessels. Sr, Nd, Hf, and Pb were separated using ion exchange chromatography columns. Sr and Nd isotopes were analyzed on a TIMS (Thermo Finnigan Triton-TI); Hf and Pb were measured with a MC-ICP-MS (Nu Plasma). The measured ratios were 87Sr/86Sr = 0.71051 to 0.71289, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51203 to 0.51221 and 176Hf/177Hf = 0.28253 to 0.28267 in the river and 0.70961, 0.51220 and 0.28273 respectively in the open straight. They reflect the local terrane compositions [2.3]. The collected particles have relatively radiogenic signatures compared with those obtained by Cameron and Hattori [1] between Lillooet and Hope but similar to those from higher in the river, i.e. they have a signature similar to older terranes drained by the Fraser headwaters. Between Hope and Vancouver, the Fraser River drains younger mantle-derived batholiths (Coast Belt). Therefore a more juvenile signature was expected for the particles collected at the mouth of the river. A possible explanation for this unexpected radiogenic signature is a difference in flow rate between the 1993 sampling (~3000m3/s) and ours in 2010 (~5500m3/s). The

  2. Multivariate cluster analysis of some major and trace elements ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UFUOMA

    physical properties of texture and colour. Key words: ... Ca and trace elements Mn, Zn, Cu, Zr, Sr, Y, Pb, V, Cr,. Ga, Ni and Rb ... 5.0 g of each of the homogenized soil samples and adding 25.0ml of de-ionized .... 425 cm depth and decreases to 16.00 mg/kg at 500 cm. .... However, pH affects the dissolution, precipitation and.

  3. Estimating Trace Element Emissions Using USGS Coal Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tumati, Prasad R; Bilonick, Richard A

    1996-01-01

    The COALQUAL data base1 was assembled by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) from publicly available coal deposit samples. The USGS collected the data without the benefit of a carefully considered sampling plan aimed at specific coal quality estimates. Therefore, the analysis of the collected data is problematical. This does not necessarily mean that the data set cannot provide useful estimates, only that the statistical techniques used would ordinarily be more complex. Spatially weighted average trace element concentrations estimated for the entire coal field within western Pennsylvania differed substantially from simple equally weighted average concentrations. The percentage differences ranged from -36% (where the spatially weighted average exceeds the equally weighted average) to +42%. Regression models were constructed to predict the effects of coal washing (i.e., the removal of ash and sulfur) on trace element concentrations. The percent of trace element variance accounted for by ash and sulfur ranged as high as 89%. The predictions based on these models for the only two CONSOL mines in the region tended to be significantly closer to the actual values than those produced by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)2 using equally weighted averages. Finally, the paper discusses the advantages of providing accurate estimates of trace element concentrations for coal burned at power plants which are part of a relatively small sample set. An accurate and reliable estimate of total national emissions from all power plants can be achieved by using stratified random sampling, where power plant boiler size is used to define the boundaries for each of a small number of strata.

  4. Trace elements based classification on clinkers. Application to Spanish clinkers

    OpenAIRE

    Tamás, F. D.; Abonyi, J.; Puertas, F.

    2001-01-01

    The qualitative identification to determine the origin (i.e. manufacturing factory) of Spanish clinkers is described. The classification of clinkers produced in different factories can be based on their trace element content. Approximately fifteen clinker sorts are analysed, collected from 11 Spanish cement factories to determine their Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content. An expert system formulated by a binary decision tree is designed based on the collected data. The performance of the...

  5. Analytical techniques and quality control in biomedical trace element research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heydorn, K.

    1994-01-01

    The small number of analytical results in trace element research calls for special methods of quality control. It is shown that when the analytical methods are in statistical control, only small numbers of duplicate or replicate results are needed to ascertain the absence of systematic errors cau....../kg. Measurement compatibility is obtained by control of traceability to certified reference materials, (C) 1994 Wiley-Liss, Inc....

  6. X-Ray fluorescence analysis of trace elements in fruit juice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Sheng-Xiang; Wang, Zhi-Hong; Liu, Jing-Song

    1999-12-01

    X-Ray fluorescence spectrometry is applied to the determination of trace elements in fruit juice characterized by a high content of sugar and other soluble solid substances. Samples are prepared by evaporation, carbonization and pressing into discs. The synthesis of standards is described in detail. All element concentrations are directly estimated from linear calibration curves obtained without any matrix correction. The results of the analysis are in good agreement with those given by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry techniques.

  7. Toxic trace elements in maternal and cord blood and social determinants in a Bolivian mining city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Flavia L; Gardon, Jacques; Ruiz-Castell, María; Paco V, Pamela; Muckelbauer, Rebecca; Casiot, Corinne; Freydier, Rémi; Duprey, Jean-Louis; Chen, Chih-Mei; Müller-Nordhorn, Jacqueline; Keil, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed lead, arsenic, and antimony in maternal and cord blood, and associations between maternal concentrations and social determinants in the Bolivian mining city of Oruro using the baseline assessment of the ToxBol/Mine-Niño birth cohort. We recruited 467 pregnant women, collecting venous blood and sociodemographic information as well as placental cord blood at birth. Metallic/semimetallic trace elements were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Lead medians in maternal and cord blood were significantly correlated (Spearman coefficient = 0.59; p toxic elements in maternal blood were associated with maternal smoking, low educational level, and partner involved in mining.

  8. Content and bioavailability of trace elements in vegetarian diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, R S

    1994-05-01

    This review compares the content and major food sources of copper, manganese, selenium, and zinc in vegetarian and omnivorous diets. Interactions affecting trace element bioavailability and their impact on the trace element status of vegetarians are discussed. Adult vegetarian diets often have a lower zinc and selenium content but a higher copper and manganese content compared with omnivorous diets. Cereals are the primary sources of copper, manganese, and selenium in most diets and the major source of zinc in many vegetarian diets; flesh floods are the primary source of zinc and secondary source of selenium in omnivorous diets. Despite the apparent lower bioavailability of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in vegetarian diets because of the high contents of phytic acid and/or dietary fiber and the low content of flesh foods in the diet, the trace element status of most adult vegetarians appears to be adequate. Children, however, appear to be more vulnerable to suboptimal zinc status, presumably because of their high zinc requirements for growth and their bodies' failure to adapt to a vegetarian diet by increased absorption of dietary zinc.

  9. Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: an ICPMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanus, Rinat Levi; Sela, Hagit; Borojovich, Eitan J C; Zakon, Yevgeni; Saphier, Magal; Nikolski, Andrey; Gutflais, Efi; Lorber, Avraham; Karpas, Zeev

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of eight trace elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi) and molybdenum (Mo), in chocolate, cocoa beans and products were studied by ICPMS. The study examined chocolate samples from different brands and countries with different concentrations of cocoa solids from each brand. The samples were digested and filtered to remove lipids and indium was used as an internal standard to correct matrix effects. A linear correlation was found between the level of several trace elements in chocolate and the cocoa solids content. Significant levels of Bi and As were found in the cocoa bean shells but not in the cocoa bean and chocolate. This may be attributed to environmental contamination. The presence of other elements was attributed to the manufacturing processes of cocoa and chocolate products. Children, who are big consumers of chocolates, may be at risk of exceeding the daily limit of lead; whereas one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Moreover chocolate may not be the only source of lead in their nutrition. For adults there is almost no risk of exceeding daily limits for trace metals ingestion because their digestive absorption of metals is very poor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. The effect of social stress on salivary trace elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibaninia, Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Social stress can alter the saliva in favor of metabolism of trace elements. This study aimed to assess the effect of social stress on salivary copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) contents in dental students before and after a comprehensive English test. Twelve students with an average age of 27 years were selected from three dental schools. The students were carries-free, and salivary samples were collected 1 week before the test day and right before the comprehensive English test. Unstimulated saliva was collected from the participants. The pH of the saliva samples was measured using a portable pH meter, and the salivary trace element contents were determined using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. After checking data to be normally distributed, Student's paired t test was used for statistical analysis. Salivary pH significantly increased right before the English test. Salivary Cu concentration decreased in students after the test (P > 0.05). The level of Zn, Mn, and Fe increased, while only Mn change was statistically significant (P stress led to a significant increase in Mn concentration in the saliva. The salivary Cu, Zn, and Fe contents, however, did not exhibit significant changes. Changes in salivary inorganic trace element content, as a result of physiological stress, might influence health of teeth, enamel, and oral mucosal tissues.

  11. Trace elements as an activator of antioxidant enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wołonciej

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a state of impaired balance between the formation of free radicals and antioxidant capacity of the body. It causes many defects of the body, e.g. lipid peroxidation, DNA and protein damage. In order to prevent the effects of oxidative stress, the organism has developed defence mechanisms. These mechanisms capture and inhibit the formation of free radicals and also chelate ion metals that catalyse free radical reactions. Trace elements are components of antioxidant enzymes involved in antioxidant mechanisms. Selenium, as a selenocysteine, is a component of the active site of glutathione peroxidase (GPx. The main function of GPx is neutralization of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and organic peroxide (LOOH. Furthermore, selenium is a structural part of a large group of selenoproteins that are necessary for proper functioning of the body. Manganese, copper and zinc are a part of the group of superoxide dismutase enzymes (MnSOD, Cu/ZnSOD, which catalyse the superoxide anion dismutation into hydrogen peroxide and oxygen. Formed hydrogen peroxide is decomposed into water and oxygen by catalase or glutathione peroxidase. An integral component of catalase (CAT is iron ions. The concentration of these trace elements has a significant influence on the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and thus on defence against oxidative stress. Even a small change in the level of trace elements in the tissue causes a disturbance in their metabolism, leading to the occurrence of many diseases.

  12. Effect of Trace Elements on Retinopathy of Prematurity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Hong; DING Yi; CHEN Ling

    2007-01-01

    The effect of the trace elements on retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) were studied. Thirty preterm infants who had potential high risk factors Of ROP were selected as observation group and 18 normal infants as control groups. By using atom spectrophotometer, the contents of serum trace ele-ments (Mg, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se) were measured and analyzed statistically. The contents of serum Zn, Cu and Se in observation group were 0.75±0.22, 0.41±0.20 and (134.07±71.57)×10-3 mg/L respectively,and 0.55±0.12, 0.65±0.194 and (202.92±44.71)×10-3 mg/L in control group respectively (P0.05). It was concluded that the contents of serum Cu and Se in preterm infants who had high risk factors of ROP were obviously lower than in the controls. The contents of serum Cu and Se in the ROP infants were also much lower while contents of Zn much higher. Attention should be paid to the detection of the trace elements in preterm infants in order to prevent the deficiencies of Cu and Se. Only in this way can we prevent the deficiencies of Cu and Se, so as to decrease the ROP risk factors and prevent the disease.

  13. Tracing the pressure of the gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, G

    2016-01-01

    Being interested in how a strongly coupled system approaches asymptotic freedom, we re-examine existing precision lattice QCD results for thermodynamic properties of the gluon plasma in a large temperature range. We discuss and thoroughly test the applicability of perturbative results, on which grounds we then infer that the pressure and other bulk properties approach the free limit somewhat slower than previously thought. We also revise the value of the first non-perturbative coefficient in the weak-coupling expansion.

  14. Antioxidant trace elements in serum of draft horses with acute and chronic lower airway disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mohamed Ahmed; El-Khodery, Sabry Ahmed; Ibrahim, Hussam Mohamed Mohamed

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the oxidative stress level and antioxidant trace elements status associated with lower airway disease in draft horses. For this purpose, venous blood samples were obtained from draft horses exhibiting signs of lower respiratory tract disorders (n = 83) and from control group (n = 20). Serum trace elements including selenium (Se), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and iron (Fe) were assayed. Serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels as well as plasma hydrogen peroxides (H₂O₂) concentration and activity of plasma glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and catalase (CAT) were measured. There was a significant (p horses compared with healthy ones, but the Cu/Zn ratio and Mn were increased (p horses compared with acute cases, but Mn was increased (p horses. However, there was a significant (p horses with chronic respiratory disease compared to acute cases, but CAT activity was decreased (p horses with acute lower airway disease, there was a negative correlation between GR and H₂O₂ (r = -0.458), and LDL and CAT (r = -0.816). However, in chronic disease, a negative correlation was recorded between Se and MDA (r = -0.590). The results of the present study indicate that oxidative stress, with alteration of antioxidant trace element levels, is a feature of respiratory disease in draft horses.

  15. Serum trace elements in obese women with or without diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Hümeyra Yerlikaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Relationship of trace elements with obesity and diabetes is complex, alterations in their metabolism can be induced by the diseases and their complications. To study the role of the trace elements in diabetes and obesity, serum trace elements levels (Cr, Se, Fe, Zn, Cu and Mn were measured in obese women with or without diabetes as well as healthy women. Further, correlation between serum trace elements levels and glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR, glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1 c, body mass index (BMI, waist circumferences, waist -to -hip ratio and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein(hsCRP were also determined in these women. Methods: This study was performed with morbidly obese (BMI >40 kg/m 2 women with diabetes (n=41, without diabetes (n=45 and 50 healthly non obese women. Anthropometric measurements were taken and levels of serum Zn, Cr, Fe Cu and Mn were determined. Biochemical parameters included serum glucose, insulin, lipids, haemoglobin, hsCRP and HbA1C. Results: The levels of Zn (P<0.001, Mn (P<0.05, Fe (P<0.05 were significantly lower and the level of Cu (P<0.001 and Cu / Zn ratio (P<0.05 were significantly higher in the diabetic obese women than those of the healthy women. Also, the levels of Zn and Fe were significantly lower and the levels of Cu were significantly higher in the non diabetic obese women than those of the healthy group. Serum Zn levels negatively and serum Cu levels positively correlated with anthropometric values in diabetic and non diabetic obese women. Further, serum Zn, Mn and Cr levels negatively correlated and serum Se levels positively correlated glycaemia control parameters in diabetic obese women. In addition, serum Zn levels negatively correlated with hsCRP in diabetic and nondiabetic obese females. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant association between Zn and Fe deficiencies and obesity. Also, obese women with diabetes may be at a

  16. Trace elements in the aquatic bird food chain at the North Ponds, Texaco Refinery, Casper, Wyoming

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The objectives of this study were to determine nesting success of aquatic birds, trace element concentrations in the aquatic food chain, and whether trace elements...

  17. The Survey of Serum Trace Element Profiles in Down's Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Farzin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Immunological, endocrinological, haematological and neurological abnormalities are relatively common in people with Down's syndrome (DS. Zinc (Zn, copper (Cu, selenium (Se and manganese (Mn are elements that act in the maintenance of normal function of these systems. The present study aimed to evaluate the concentration of these elements on DS symptoms. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was done from April to October 2011. Serum trace elements including Zn, Cu, Se and Mn were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in 56 patients with DS and 60 healthy subjects. Results: There was no significant difference in the values of Cu and Se between two groups (p>0.05. While, Zn and Mn levels were found to be significantly decreased in patients with DS compared to the control group (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively. Conclusion: Results of this study indicate zinc and manganese deficiency in more than 60% of DS patients. Some of the problems experienced by people with DS may be due to changed level of these trace elements.

  18. The level of toxic and essential trace elements in hair of petrochemical workers involved in different technological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Kaminskaya, Galina A; Krekesheva, Tatyana I; Abikenova, Sholpan K; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Berezkina, Elena S; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the investigation is comparative analysis of hair trace element content in workers of different departments of petrochemical plant. A total of 75 men working in office (engineers), and departments 1 (D1), 3 (D3), and 4 (D4) of the petrochemical plant, as well as occupationally non-exposed persons, were examined. Hair trace element levels were analyzed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The office workers were characterized by the highest hair As, Hg, Sn, I, and Si content as compared to the workers of other departments, whereas the level of those elements did not differ significantly from the control values. It is notable that hair Be levels in all employees of petrochemical plant were significantly lower, whereas Se content was significantly higher than that in unexposed controls. Hair toxic trace element content in workers directly involved in industrial processes did not differ significantly or was lower than that in the control group. At the same time, the highest levels of essential trace elements (Cr, Fe, and I) were observed in employees working in primary oil refining (D1). Hair levels of Co, I, and Li were maximal in persons of sulfur and bitumen-producing division (D4). The lowest levels of both essential and toxic trace elements in hair were detected in employees involved in production of liquefied gas, kerosene, and diesel fuel (D3). The obtained data demonstrate that involvement in different technological processes in petrochemical complex differentially affect hair trace element content in workers.

  19. Spatial distribution and source identification of trace elements in topsoil from heavily industrialized region, Aliaga, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Melik; Dumanoğlu, Yetkin; Altıok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Odabası, Mustafa; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2014-10-01

    Topsoil samples (n = 40) were collected from a heavily industrialized region in Turkey. The region includes several scrap processing iron-steel plants with electric arc furnaces (EAFs), a petroleum refinery, a petrochemical complex, steel rolling mills, a natural gas-fired power plant, ship-breaking yards and very dense transportation activities. The region has undergone a rapid transition from an agricultural region to a heavily industrialized region in the last three decades. Collected soil samples were analyzed for 48 trace elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The elemental distribution pattern in the region indicated that Nemrut area with dense iron-steel production activities was a hotspot for elemental pollution. In addition to crustal elements, concentrations of anthropogenic trace elements (i.e., Fe, Zn, Pb, Mn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Mo) were very high in the area influencing many parts of the region. Elemental compositions of fugitive sources polluting the soil (i.e., paved and unpaved roads, slag piles, EAFs filter dust piles and coal piles) were also determined. The methods (enrichment factors [EFs] and the index of geoaccumulation [Igeo]) used for determination of pollution status of soil showed that Cr, Ag, Zn, As and Pb were the strongly contaminating elements for the region. Principal component analysis (PCA) clearly indicated that anthropogenic sources (steel production, refinery and petrochemical processes and traffic) were important sources in this region.

  20. Nutritional and toxicological importance of macro, trace, and ultra-trace elements in algae food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawczynski, Christine; Schäfer, Ulrich; Leiterer, Matthias; Jahreis, Gerhard

    2007-12-12

    The content of 5 macro elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, and P), 6 trace elements (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Se, and I), and 4 ultra-trace elements (As, Pb, Cd, and Hg) in 34 edible dried seaweed products of brown algae (Laminaria sp., Undaria pinnatifida, and Hizikia fusiforme) and red algae (Porphyra sp.) originated from China, Japan, and Korea and bought by retail in Germany was determined. The content of these elements was analyzed by spectrometric methods (ICP-AES, ICP-MS, HGAAS, and CVAAS). Assuming a daily intake with 5 g FM of algae, the contribution of the essential elements to the diet is low, with the exception of I. Brown algae contained as much as 1316 +/- 1669 mg of I/kg FM. More than 4000 mg of I/kg FM were found in several Laminaria sp. Moreover, some brown algae, such as Hizikia fusiforme, had high contents of total As (87.7 +/- 8.2 mg/kg FM).

  1. Geochemical Peculiarities of the Distribution of Trace Elements in Caustobioliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punanova, Svetlana

    2016-04-01

    This research covers the latest data on the quantitative and qualitative contents of trace elements (TE) in naphtides. This work is based on the analysis and generalization of the large volume of scientific literature as well as on the author's analytical research covering oils and organic matter of rocks of different fascial composition and thermal maturity, collected from the wide range of depths in the fields of Volgo-Ural, Western Siberia, Timan-Pechiora, South Caspian, North Caucasian-Mangyshlak, and other oil and gas-bearing basins (OGB). Analysis of TE contents of oils, coals, oil-and-black shales - caustobioliths of the single genetic series - has been undertaken. The scientific and practical interest in the information on shale formations is connected with the prospects that they offer for extraction and industrial utilization of the trace elements. It is shown that the ontogenesis of naphtides is accompanied by the functional transformation of both the organic components (hydrocarbons) and non-organic components (various metal and non-metal compositions). Possible origins of accumulation of trace elements in oils were evaluated. Classification of oils of oil-and-gas bearing basins of different tectonic structure based on their physical and chemical properties as well as the contents and ratios of their "biogenesis" elements (V, Ni, Fe) were performed. It was shown that the differentiation of naphtides is due to lithophascial conditions of deposition of the original organic matter and also due to diagenic, cathagenic and hypergenic processes of the evolution of the hydrocarbons. The most significant redistribution in the concentrations of some of the metals occur during the hypergenic transformations of oils. Existence of oils with different metallogeny is related to the contents of the original organic matter and the processes of the transformation of hydrocarbon fluids during the course of geological development of the OGB.

  2. Effects of particle size on the leachability of trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Zandi; N.V. Russell; R.G.J. Edyvean; R. Hand; P. Ward [University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom). Department of Chemical and Process Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Leaching tests are widely used as indicators to estimate the release potential of hazardous elements from solid materials under laboratory conditions in order to assess environmental impacts of utilisation or deposition of the examined material. Several institutes and agencies have introduced standard leaching tests for estimating the mobility of trace elements from a solid material under specific conditions. These tests are often criticised on the grounds that the results obtained are neither reliable nor able to be extrapolated to the application. The lack of agreement between the estimates by standard leaching tests and measurements in the field may be the result of inadequate specification of the physical and chemical conditions used in the test. For example, in BS EN 12457 the particle size distribution of the sample is not well defined. This can lead to different interpretations by different laboratories resulting in different leaching rates being reported. The lack of understanding of the leaching mechanism leads to the design of poorly defined leaching tests. Therefore, there is a need to have a good understanding of all parameters involved in the leaching process and the factors that affect it. It is known that particle surface area has a great impact on the leachability of trace elements from solid matter. This paper investigates effects of particle size on the leaching process using BS EN 12457-2 conditions. A slag sample from a metal refiner has been crushed and sieved to obtain different fractions with different particle sizes from 4 to 0.5 mm. The leaching rate of trace elements from each fraction has been determined using deionised water as the leachant. It was found that sample preparation procedure is a critical step in leaching analysis and effects of particle size on the leachability should be taken into account. 9 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Enrichment of trace elements in bottom ash from coal oxy-combustion: Effect of coal types

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the enrichment of trace elements in two coals under air and oxy-combustion conditions was studied. Twenty-one trace elements were evaluated. The two coal samples had a different concentration for the 21 trace elements, which was due...

  4. Evaluation of trace element concentration in cancerous and non-cancerous tissues of human stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohzadi, Shadi; Sheikhesmaili, Farshad; Rahehagh, Ramesh; Parhizkar, Baran; Ghaderi, Ebrahim; Loqmani, Hozan; Shahmoradi, Behzad; Mohammadi, Ebrahim; Maleki, Afshin

    2017-10-01

    Gastric cancer has a high mortality rate in west of Iran. Various environmental elements are proposed as cancer risk factors including trace elements. Trace elements can induce initiation or progression of carcinogenesis via oxidative stress and DNA injury. The aim of this study was to measure and compare some trace element concentration (Ca, Cu, Fe, As, Mg, Ni, Cd and Cr) in gastric cancer tissues and normal tissues. For this purpose, 35 patients with gastric cancer and 30 without any cancer were biopsied. Biopsies were taken from cancerous tissue and non-cancerous tissue of gastric cancer patients and gastric tissue of normal patients. The analysis of trace elements was performed using Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Data analysis was carried out using SPSS and STATA 12 software. The research found that the concentrations of Fe, Mg, and As were higher in cancerous tissues compared with non-cancerous tissues whereas Cr, Cu, Ca, and Ni concentrations were higher in non-cancerous tissues of cancerous patients. When comparisons were made for cancer and normal samples, copper was the only metal, which was significantly higher in cancerous samples (p tissues was significantly higher compared with cancerous tissues (P = 0.02). Chi-Square test showed that there was no significant relationship in the demographic information between cancerous and normal patients except for location with K(2) = 7.604. Increased Cu and As concentration in gastric patients (both tissues) propose that these elements may have carcinogenic effects, although further study is suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Improvements in discrimination of bulk and trace elements in long-wavelength double pulse LIBS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, J.R., E-mail: freeman.justinr@gmail.com; Diwakar, P.K., E-mail: pdiwakar@purdue.edu; Harilal, S.S., E-mail: hari@pnnl.gov; Hassanein, A., E-mail: hassanein@purdue.edu

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study the effectiveness of long-wavelength heating in double pulse (DP) LIBS, quantitatively comparing figures of merit with those from traditional single pulse (SP) LIBS. The first laser pulse serves as the source of sample ablation, creating an aerosol-like plume that is subsequently reheated by the second laser pulse. At power densities used, the long-wavelength CO{sub 2} laser pulse does not ablate any of the solid sample in the atmospheric conditions investigated, meaning plasma emission and enhanced signal can be entirely attributed to the reheated plume rather than increased sample ablation. The signal discrimination was improved significantly using long-wavelength DP-LIBS. For bulk elemental analysis, DP-LIBS provided maximum enhancements of about 14 and 15 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, compared to SP-LIBS using the same quantity of ablated sample. For trace elemental analysis, maximum enhancements of about 7 and 4 times for S/N and S/B, respectively, were observed. These improvements are attributed to effective coupling between the second heating pulse and expanding plume and more efficient excitation of plume species than from the single pulse alone. Most significant improvements were observed in the case of low prepulse energy and minimal sample ablation. While bulk elemental analysis observed improvements for all prepulse energies studied, trace element discrimination only significantly improved for the lowest prepulse energy studied. - Highlights: • Enhancement by improved coupling and excitation efficiency, not increased ablated mass • S/N enhancements of 14 and 7 times for bulk and trace elements, respectively • S/B enhancements of 15 and 4 times for bulk and trace elements, respectively • Max enhancement observed for smaller quantities of ablated sample • Significant conclusions for delicate, mass-limited samples.

  6. State of the art in the determination of trace elements in seawater: a worldwide proficiency test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehouck, Pieter; Cordeiro, Fernando; Snell, James; de la Calle, Beatriz

    2016-05-01

    This manuscript presents the results of the International Measurement Evaluation Programme 40 (IMEP-40) study, a proficiency test (PT) which was organised to assess the worldwide performance of laboratories for the determination of trace elements in seawater. This PT supports the implementation of the European Union Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which aims at achieving a long-term high level protection of the aquatic environment, covering lakes, ground water and coastal waters. Forty-six participants reported results. The test item was seawater containing the trace elements As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se and Zn. The trace elements in the test item were present in very low concentrations to mimic natural levels. The results of the participants were rated with z and zeta (ζ) scores in accordance with ISO 13528 and ISO 17043. The standard deviation for proficiency assessment, σ̂, was set at 25% of the respective assigned values for the 12 measured elements based on previous experience with similar PTs. The low levels of the trace elements combined with the high salt concentration of the seawater made the measurements challenging. Many laboratories were unable to detect or quantify the elements and reported "lower than X" values. The percentage of satisfactory performances (expressed as z scores) ranged from 41% (Cr, Fe) to 86% (Mo). The PT study showed that the use of proper standard methods, like ISO 17294-2, and sensitive techniques, like inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), contributed to performing well in this PT round.

  7. Whale baleen trace element signatures: a predictor of environmental life history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox Freeburg, E.; Brault, S.; Mayo, C.; Oktay, S.; Hannigan, R.

    2009-12-01

    The analysis of trace element composition of biogenic structures (e.g., otoliths, feathers) by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) provides unique insights into the environmental life history of individuals. We studied the trace element chemistry of right whale baleens in an attempt to reconstruct migration patterns. Though much is known about the feeding and breeding habitats of these whales, little is known about the location in which they spend most of their adult years. Baleens, made of keratin, grow continuously and are metabolically inactive. Previous work showed that the stable isotope chemistry along the length of a baleen records changes in diet, such as weaning. Baleen chemistry should, therefore, also record the environmental life history of the individual. Trace metal chemistry along a single baleen plate from a right whale were analyzed by LA-ICP-MS. Semi-quantitative elemental signatures were obtained using NIST 612 (glass standard) and MACS-3 (calcium carbonate standard). These concentrations were then compared for accuracy to acid digested baleen laterally adjacent to the laser ablation site via aqueous ICP-MS. Elemental chemistry was compared to known feeding/breeding locations of the individual (water chemistry). Using these comparisons as well as principal components analysis, life history of the individual was reconstructed. Development of an in-house keratin standard is in progress and is expected to strengthen the confidence in results. Future work is expected to bring a more complete knowledge of right whale wintering habits.

  8. Nuclear microscopy of rubies: Trace elements and inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipowicz, T.; Tay, T. S.; Orlic, I.; Tang, S. M.; Watt, F.

    1995-09-01

    The concentrations of trace elements (e.g. Ti, V, Cr, Fe and Cu) in ornamental rubies have been linked to the country of origin for natural stones [1,2]. These broad-beam PIXE results show relatively large variations between stones from one country, which might indicate that they stem from different geological environments in a country, or that there are inclusions or surface contaminations present in individual stones. PIXE elemental maps were used to find contamination and inclusion free regions on rubies from Mong Hsu, Burma, and from Thailand. Trace element concentrations were determined in these surface areas. The results indicate that the Fe-concentrations in Mong Hsu rubies have previously been overestimated due to the presence of surface contaminations. Cu is consistently present at a few hundred ppm level in these stones and not observed in any of the four Thai rubies, while it was observed sporadically in broad-beam measurements. The depth profiling capabilities of the proton microprobe were employed for the analysis of liquid and mineral inclusions in rubies, and some preliminary results are reported.

  9. Investigating the Microscopic Location of Trace Elements in High-Alpine Glacier Ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avak, Sven Erik; Birrer, Mario; Laurent, Oscar; Guillong, Marcel; Wälle, Markus; Jenk, Theo Manuel; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten; Schwikowski, Margit; Eichler, Anja

    2017-04-01

    Past changes in atmospheric pollution can be reconstructed from high-alpine ice core trace element records (Schwikowski et al., 2004). Percolation of meltwater alters the information originally stored in these environmental archives. Eichler et al. (2001) suggested that the preservation of major ions with respect to meltwater percolation depends on their location in the crystal ice lattice, i.e. grain boundaries versus grain interiors. Other studies have also focused on the effect of meltwater on organic pollutant concentrations as well as on stable isotope profiles in ice cores, whereas no information exists about trace elements. Here, we investigate for the first time the effect of the microscopic location of anthropogenic, dust and volcanic related trace elements on the behavior during meltwater percolation by using two different approaches. On the one hand we assess the microscopic location of trace elements indirectly by analyzing trace element concentrations in a high-alpine ice core, which has been shown to be affected by an inflow of meltwater, using discrete inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Impurities located at grain boundaries are prone to be removed by meltwater and tend to be depleted in the affected section of the record whereas those incorporated into the ice interior are preserved and not disturbed in the record. In the second approach we work towards a direct quantification of differences in concentrations of trace elements between ice grain boundaries and grain interiors in samples both from unaffected and affected sections of this ice core. Therefore we use cryocell laser ablation (LA) ICP-MS, which is the method of choice for the direct in situ chemical analysis of trace elements at a sub-millimeter resolution in glacier ice (Reinhardt et al., 2001, Della Lunga et al., 2014, Sneed et al., 2015). We will present first results of both approaches with regard to the evaluation of the potential of trace elements as environmental

  10. Comparison of some newly synthesized chemically modified Amberlite XAD-4 resins for the preconcentration and determination of trace elements by flow injection inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Derya; Fisher, Andrew; Hill, Steve J

    2006-11-01

    XAD copolymer resins may be functionalized with heavy metal ion-selective ligands either by covalent linkage to the polymer backbone or by impregnation. These resins may be tailored to be specific for certain heavy metals by adjusting the retention and elution parameters. For the synthesis of immobilized Amberlite XAD-4 copolymer resins that are expected to preconcentrate a number of transition and heavy metals, the Schiff base method was chosen. For this purpose the copolymer was nitrated, reduced to the corresponding amine and converted to the imine compounds via a Schiff base reaction using different organic aldehyde compounds. The interactions of 8 elements (Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, U and Zn) with the resins were qualitatively investigated. Optimal pH for retention was typically 6-8 for most resins although one could be used at pH 5 and elution was achieved using 0.1 M HNO3. The resins were characterized by FTIR, SEM and elemental analysis. It was demonstrated that the resins could be used to preconcentrate ultra-trace analytes from natural waters, and analysis of environmental certified reference materials using FI-ICP-MS showed good agreement with the certified values. Metal retention capacities were also calculated using a batch system and were found to compare favorably with other resins reported in the literature.

  11. Concentrations and bioaccessibilities of trace elements in barbecue charcoals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Annabel; Turner, Andrew

    2013-11-15

    Total and bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements (Al, As, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) have been measured in charcoals from 15 barbecue products available from UK retailers. Total concentrations (available to boiling aqua regia) were greater in briquetted products (with mean concentrations ranging from 0.16 μg g(-1) for Cd to 3240 μg g(-1) for Al) than in lumpwoods (0.007 μg g(-1) for Cd to 28 μg g(-1) for Fe), presumably because of the use of additives and secondary constituents (e.g. coal) in the former. On ashing, and with the exception of Hg, elemental concentrations increased by factors ranging from about 1.5 to 50, an effect attributed to the combustion of organic components and offset to varying extents by the different volatilities of the elements. Concentrations in the ashed products that were bioaccessible, or available to a physiologically based extraction test (PBET) that simulates, successively, the chemical conditions in the human stomach and intestine, exhibited considerable variation among the elements studied. Overall, however, bioaccessible concentrations relative to corresponding total concentrations were greatest for As, Cu and Ni (attaining 100% in either or both simulated PBET phases in some cases) and lowest for Pb (generally <1% in both phases). A comparison of bioaccessible concentrations in ashed charcoals with estimates of daily dietary intake suggest that Al and As are the trace elements of greatest concern to human health from barbecuing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Environmental lichenology: Biomonitoring trace-element air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloof, J.E.

    1993-09-27

    Chapter 1 describes the possibilities to study trace-element air pollution in order to get insight in the character and element levels of such pollution. Chapter 2 describes two monitoring surveys using Parmelia sulcata Taylor on a national scale, in which spatial and temporal patterns of heavy metals were investigated. The surveys were carried out in 1982-1983 at 110 sampling sites and in 1986-1987 at 210 sampling sites. From these studies it was concluded that lichens are at least good qualitative biomonitors for atmospheric trace-element levels. Chapter 3 describes the response of lichens to the cesium-137 activity as a result of the Chernobyl accident, deposited by rainfall in the Netherlands. From this study it was concluded that lichens are good biomonitors for atmospheric cesium-137 activity too. Chapter 4 describes the application of factor analysis to a lichen data set from a monitoring survey on a national scale (1986-1987), for source apportionment. In Chapter 5 a field study is described on the contribution of a possible influence from the soil to element concentrations in Parmelia sulcata Taylor growing on trees in a an area with polluted soil. Chapter 6 describes a field study on the interchangeability of two tolerant lichen species (Parmelia sulcata Taylor and Lecanora conizaeoides Nyl.) in a polluted area. In Chapter 7 a field study is described in which the quantitative relationships between concentrations of cobalt, scandium and zinc in lichens and concentrations in air particulate matter and total deposition (wet and dry) were investigated. Chapter 8 describes a laboratory study on the kinetics of the uptake-and release of cadmium in a green algae species (Selenastrum capricornutum Printz), which is regarded to be representative for the algal symboint in the lichens used in this thesis. Chapter 9 presents the central conclusions of this thesis for the lichen species, elements and conditions under study. (orig./MG).

  13. Investigation of trace elements in Guangxi ancient pottery by INAA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PengZi-Cheng; Yun-Lan; 等

    1997-01-01

    Guangxi Zhuang Nationality Autonomous Region is an original place for manufacture of ancient pottery in China since Zenpiyan site.dated 9240-10370 years ago,was excavated.Contents of trace elements La,Ce,Nd,Sm,Eu,Tb,Yb,Lu,U,Th,Sc,Ta,Ba,Cs,Rb,Sr and Zr in 44 porttery shards from Guangxi sites,dated from 1450B.C. to 200A.D.,were dtermined by INAA and XRF.The proveniences of the 44 samples are postulated by the analyses of geochemical parameters.

  14. Potential sources of analytical bias and error in selected trace element data-quality analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Garbarino, John R.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Rosen, Michael R.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Struzeski, Tedmund M.

    2016-09-28

    Potential sources of analytical bias and error associated with laboratory analyses for selected trace elements where concentrations were greater in filtered samples than in paired unfiltered samples were evaluated by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Quality Specialists in collaboration with the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) and the Branch of Quality Systems (BQS).Causes for trace-element concentrations in filtered samples to exceed those in associated unfiltered samples have been attributed to variability in analytical measurements, analytical bias, sample contamination either in the field or laboratory, and (or) sample-matrix chemistry. These issues have not only been attributed to data generated by the USGS NWQL but have been observed in data generated by other laboratories. This study continues the evaluation of potential analytical bias and error resulting from matrix chemistry and instrument variability by evaluating the performance of seven selected trace elements in paired filtered and unfiltered surface-water and groundwater samples collected from 23 sampling sites of varying chemistries from six States, matrix spike recoveries, and standard reference materials.Filtered and unfiltered samples have been routinely analyzed on separate inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry instruments. Unfiltered samples are treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) during an in-bottle digestion procedure; filtered samples are not routinely treated with HCl as part of the laboratory analytical procedure. To evaluate the influence of HCl on different sample matrices, an aliquot of the filtered samples was treated with HCl. The addition of HCl did little to differentiate the analytical results between filtered samples treated with HCl from those samples left untreated; however, there was a small, but noticeable, decrease in the number of instances where a particular trace-element concentration was greater in a filtered sample than in the associated

  15. Trace elements and mercury levels in Indian coals used for thermal power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selva Kumaran, P.; Sivasubramanian, R.; Lawrence, A.; Reddy, M.K. [DGM/Coal Research, BHEL, Tiruchi (India)

    2008-03-15

    In this paper the emphasis is on the trace elements, as they exist in Indian coal. Emissions of trace elements to the atmosphere, their concentrations in the environment and their effects, are of concern now, as the environmental importance of the trace elements in coal remains high for the future goal of zero emissions. The US Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identified eleven trace elements and their compounds commonly found in coals, the potentially 'hazardous air pollutants'. Values of seven trace elements out of these elements in the input coals in India are listed. Over 53 samples were analysed for 24 trace elements in Indian coals. The database is available for the scientific analysis. Reduction of mercury in washed coals compared to corresponding ROM coals is deduced from direct lab analysis. Future needs of R & D in trace elements are identified. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Trace element measurement for assessment of dog food safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nadai Fernandes, Elisabete A; Elias, Camila; Bacchi, Márcio Arruda; Bode, Peter

    2017-02-12

    The quality of dog diets depends on adequate ingredients capable of providing optimal nutrition and free of contaminants, for promoting long-term health. Trace elements in 95 samples of dry food for dog puppies (n = 32) and adults (n = 63) of various brands were measured using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The mass fractions of most elements were within the permissible limits for dogs. Aluminum, antimony, and uranium presented fairly high levels in some samples, which may imply health risks. Aluminum mass fractions ranged from dog food. Antimony mass fractions ranged up to 5.14 mg/kg, with the highest values measured in six samples of dog food from the same producer. The mass fractions of uranium was found up to 4 mg/kg in commercial brands from five different producers.

  17. Australis: AMS for ultra sensitive trace element and isotopic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sie, S.H.; Suter, G.F. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), North Ryde, NSW (Australia). Div. of Exploration Geoscience

    1993-12-31

    The accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) at the CSIRO HIAF laboratory is being upgraded to enable in-situ measurements of ultratraces and isotopic-ratios in mineralogical applications. The upgraded system will include a microbeam Cs ion source which is designed to produce better than 50 micrometre diameter Cs beam to enable analyses of monomineralic grains. The Cs primary beam will be mass analysed in order to minimize contamination of the sample. The detection system will be upgraded to enable analyses of elements up to U, at 2 MV terminal voltage for charge states 4 and 5. The system will be known as AUSTRALIS: A.M.S. for Ultra Sensitive TRAce eLement and Isotopic Studies. An overview of the system and the anticipated applications in minerals exploration and mining research are presented. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Biodiversity of mineral nutrient and trace element accumulation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Baxter

    Full Text Available In order to grow on soils that vary widely in chemical composition, plants have evolved mechanisms for regulating the elemental composition of their tissues to balance the mineral nutrient and trace element bioavailability in the soil with the requirements of the plant for growth and development. The biodiversity that exists within a species can be utilized to investigate how regulatory mechanisms of individual elements interact and to identify genes important for these processes. We analyzed the elemental composition (ionome of a set of 96 wild accessions of the genetic model plant Arabidopsis thaliana grown in hydroponic culture and soil using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The concentrations of 17-19 elements were analyzed in roots and leaves from plants grown hydroponically, and leaves and seeds from plants grown in artificial soil. Significant genetic effects were detected for almost every element analyzed. We observed very few correlations between the elemental composition of the leaves and either the roots or seeds. There were many pairs of elements that were significantly correlated with each other within a tissue, but almost none of these pairs were consistently correlated across tissues and growth conditions, a phenomenon observed in several previous studies. These results suggest that the ionome of a plant tissue is variable, yet tightly controlled by genes and gene × environment interactions. The dataset provides a valuable resource for mapping studies to identify genes regulating elemental accumulation. All of the ionomic data is available at www.ionomicshub.org.

  19. Inductively coupled plasma – Tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS): A powerful and universal tool for the interference-free determination of (ultra)trace elements – A tutorial review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcaen, Lieve; Bolea-Fernandez, Eduardo [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281-S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Resano, Martín [University of Zaragoza, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Pedro Cerbuna 12, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Vanhaecke, Frank, E-mail: Frank.Vanhaecke@UGent.be [Ghent University, Department of Analytical Chemistry, Krijgslaan 281-S12, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2015-09-24

    This paper is intended as a tutorial review on the use of inductively coupled plasma – tandem mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS) for the interference-free quantitative determination and isotope ratio analysis of metals and metalloids in different sample types. Attention is devoted both to the instrumentation and to some specific tools and procedures available for advanced method development. Next to the more typical reaction gases, e.g., H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3}, also the use of promising alternative gases, such as CH{sub 3}F, is covered, and the possible reaction pathways with those reactive gases are discussed. A variety of published applications relying on the use of ICP-MS/MS are described, to illustrate the added value of tandem mass spectrometry in (ultra)trace analysis. - Highlights: • First review on tandem ICP-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS/MS). • Clear description of operating principles of ICP-MS/MS. • Description on how to make use of product ion scans, precursor ion scans and neutral gain scans in method development. • Overview of applications published so far.

  20. Determination of Trace Elements in Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry%电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定水中痕量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王霞; 陈素兰; 王经顺

    2012-01-01

    应用电感耦合等离子体质谱法对水样(地表水、饮用水等)中铜、锌、硒、砷、镉、铬、铅、铁、锰等痕量元素进行分析测定。结果表明,方法检出限为0.01~0.78μg/L,平行测定的相对标准偏差为0.6%~7.9%,实际水样加标回收率为90.5%~103%。该方法快速、简便、线性范围大,具有良好的检出限和准确度。%The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for water samples (surface water, drinking water, etc. ) , copper, zinc, selenium, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, lead, iron, manganese and other trace dements were analyzed. The results showed that the detection limit was 0.01-0.78μg/L, the relative standard deviation of parallel samples was 0.6% to 7.9%, and the recovery of added standards in water samples ranged from 90.5% to 103%. The method was rapid, simple, linear range and good detection limits and accuracy.

  1. Studies in the compartmentalization of trace elements in the blood of patients with sickle cell anaemia using PIXE technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ojo, J. O.; Oluwole, A. F.; Durosinmi, M. A.; Arsed, W.; Akanle, O. A.; Spyrou, N. M.

    1993-06-01

    Concentrations of trace elements in the whole blood, plasma and erythrocytes of 77 individuals (20 carrying the HbSS genotype, 21 with HbAS and 36 with HbAA) were determined using a PIXE facility employing a 2 MeV proton beam. Up to 16 elements were detected in some or all of the samples. The skewness of elemental distribution was measured for each element in the three bloodflow compartments. Most of the essential elements, apart from selenium were distinctly packed in either the erythrocytes or the plasma. Results of the t-test employed to compare elemental values between sickle cell subjects and matched controls show similar patterns in the three compartments for some of the elements. The results are compared with previous work using INAA.

  2. Impact of seminal trace element and glutathione levels on semen quality of Tunisian infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atig Fatma

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growing evidence indicates that oxidative stress can be a primary cause of male infertility. Non-enzymatic antioxidants play an important protective role against oxidative damages and lipid peroxidation. Human seminal plasma is a natural reservoir of antioxidants. The aim of this study was to determine glutathione (GSH concentrations, trace element levels (zinc and selenium and the lipid peroxidation end product, malondialdehyde (MDA, in the seminal plasma of men with different fertility potentials. Methods Semen samples from 60 fertile men (normozoospermics and 190 infertile patients (74 asthenozoospermics, 56 oligozoospermics, and 60 teratozoospermics were analyzed for physical and biochemical parameters. Zinc (Zn and selenium (Se levels were estimated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Total GSH (GSHt, oxidized GSH (GSSG, reduced GSH (GSHr and MDA concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Results Zn and Se concentrations in seminal plasma of normozoospermics were more elevated than the three abnormal groups. Nevertheless, only the Zn showed significant differences. On the other hand, Zn showed positive and significant correlations with sperm motility (P = 0.03, r = 0.29 and count (P Conclusions This report revealed that decreased seminal GSH and trace element deficiencies are implicated in low sperm quality and may be an important indirect biomarker of idiopathic male infertility. Our results sustain that the evaluation of seminal antioxidant status in infertile men is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment from early stages.

  3. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Ehmann, W.D. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Robinson, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) afflicts 2 of every 100,000 people in the United States each year. A well-known example of ALS today is Stephen Hawking. He is a theoretical physicist, the author of A Brief History of Time, and is virtually immobilized by ALS. Diseases that cause progressive paralysis because of motor neuron degeneration in the central nervous system are termed motor neuron disorders (MND). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a common form of MND. Pain-free, progressive muscular weakness is the most common clinical symptom. There is chronic weakness with atrophy of the affected muscles by the time the disease is diagnosed. Atrophy eventually results in wheelchair confinement and then only bed without the ability to speak or swallow. Death often occurs as a result of respiratory problems. Unlike other neurodegenerative diseases, in ALS the patient`s bladder and bowel control, eye movement, and mental faculties are preserved. The question today is whether or not certain trace elements are involved in the etiology or pathogenesis of ALS. A collaborative study was undertaken by the University of Kentucky and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) using neutron activation analysis (NAA) to study trace element concentrations in ALS patients fingernails to determine if there existed statistically significant imbalances.

  4. Trace elements in quartz shed light on sediment provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerson, Michael R.; Tailby, Nicholas D.; Watson, E. Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Quartz is one of the most common minerals on the surface of the earth, and is a primary rock-forming mineral across the rock cycle. These two factors make quartz an obvious target for sediment provenance studies. Observations from experimental and natural samples demonstrate that the trace element content of quartz often reflects the conditions of quartz formation. When quartz is weathered from its primary crystallization setting (i.e., quartz from a granitoid) it can retain many chemical signatures of formation throughout the sedimentation processes. These geochemical signatures can be used to understand the primary source of individual quartz grains within a sediment. Here we present a case study from the Bega River catchment to demonstrate that quartz grains in sediments at the mouth of the Bega River are sourced from granitoids within the drainage basin. Data presented here also indicate that a portion of the beach sediment is also derived from either (i) sedimentary rocks within the basin or; (ii) mixing with sediments at the mouth of the river. The Bega River catchment was selected for this study because it is both small and has a well-constrained bedrock lithology, making it an ideal location to test the utility of this provenance technique. However, quartz trace element provenance has broad applications to modern and ancient sediments and can be used in lieu of, or in conjunction with, other provenance techniques to elucidate sediment transport through time.

  5. Effect of membrane filtration artifacts on dissolved trace element concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, Arthur J.; Elrick, Kent A.; Colberg, Mark R.

    1992-01-01

    Among environment scientists, the current and almost universally accepted definition of dissolved constituents is an operational one; only those materials which pass through a 0.45-??m membrane filter are considered to be dissolved. Detailed laboratory and field studies on Fe and Al indicate that a number of factors associated with filtration, other than just pore size, can substantially alter 'dissolved' trace element concentrations; these include: filter type, filter diameter, filtration method, volume of sample processed, suspended sediment concentration, suspended sediment grain-size distribution, concentration of colloids and colloidally associated trace elements and concentration of organic matter. As such, reported filtered-water concentrations employing the same pore size filter may not be equal. Filtration artifacts may lead to the production of chemical data that indicate seasonal or annual 'dissolved' chemical trends which do not reflect actual environmental conditions. Further, the development of worldwide averages for various dissolved chemical constituents, the quantification of geochemical cycles, and the determination of short- or long-term environmental chemical trends may be subject to substantial errors, due to filtration artifacts, when data from the same or multiple sources are combined. Finally, filtration effects could have a substantial impact on various regulatory requirements.

  6. Trace elements in sera from patients with renal disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Yoshinori; Nakai, Keiko; Sera, Kouichiro; Sato, Michirou

    1999-04-01

    In hemodialysis (HD) patients, an accumulation of trace elements such as aluminum, copper, silicon and vanadium has been reported. Aluminum-caused encephalopathy and aluminum-related bone diseases are important trace element-related complications. Using particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) we determined concentrations of aluminum, silicon, copper, zinc, selenium and bromine in sera of 29 patients with HD, 14 nondialysis patients with renal disease (RD) and 27 normal controls. The concentration of serum silicon of the patients with HD was 107.4 ± 61.3 μmol/l, which is markedly higher than that of normal controls (48.3 ± 25.8 μmol/l, p < 0.0001). The serum concentrations of zinc and bromine in patients with HD were 11.9 ± 1.7 and 21.3 ± 3.0 μmol/l, respectively. Both were markedly lower than those of normal controls (15.6 ± 2.6, 69.2 ± 8.3 μmol/l, p < 0.0001). The concentrations of aluminium and bromine in the serum of patients with RD were 171.9 ± 64.3 and 81.9 ± 11.6 μmol/l, which were markedly higher than those of normal controls ( p < 0.0001, p < 0.001). No significant differences were observed in the concentration of copper and selenium among three groups.

  7. Trace element characteristics of a Gorham-Stout Syndrome sufferer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Ming; CAO XiaoJuan; Loumouamou MAYOUMA; LU XiaoFeng; Jacques YVON; FENG Liu

    2008-01-01

    Gotham-Stout Syndrome (GSS) is an infrequent and mysterious bone disease characterized by massive bone dissolving or even disappearing due to an unknown pathogeny. It is quite different from the Itai-itai disease and osteoporosis. In 2001, an 8-year-old boy from a small town in Xinjiang was found to get GSS disease. Some parts of his bones vanished without any external force. Results showed that the concentrations of Cd and Cu, especially Na and K in his hair were far higher than those of the healthy people, and the concentration of Cd was 2 times that of the reference while those of Cr and Zn were insufficient for health. The ratio of K/Na was also higher than that of healthy group. Four different ratios revealed weak bone growth potential and strong bone breakage occurred simultaneously in the GSS sufferer's skeletal system. It might be the synergistic effect of the trace elements leading to the baffling syndrome. Further investigation demonstrated that the trace elements can cause a series of diseases, including GSS disease and a typical rheumatoid arthritis (ARA). Epidemiological investigation also proved that there were about 25% of the inhabitants in the town suffered from an ALIA. All of these data implied there was significant relationship among Gorham-Stout Syndrome, ARA and prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc.

  8. Assessment of intermittent trace element pollution by moss bags

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cesa, M. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)]. E-mail: mcesa@units.it; Bizzotto, A. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Ferraro, C. [ARPAV Dipartimento di Vicenza, Servizio Territoriale di Bassano del Grappa, Via Cereria 15, I-36061 Bassano del Grappa (VI) (Italy); Fumagalli, F. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy); Nimis, P.L. [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita di Trieste, Via Giorgieri 10, I-34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    Moss bags of the aquatic bryophyte Rhynchostegium riparioides (Hedw.) C. Jens. were transplanted into an irrigation ditch in the Province of Vicenza (NE Italy), affected by intermittent trace element contamination due to galvanics. The study aimed at: (a) testing the ability of mosses to detect different patterns of pollution (b) providing information about intensity and temporal extension of pollution events, and (c) localising the main sources. Moss bags were collected after 20, 34, 48 and 62 days of exposure. The concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the desiccated apical shoots of mosses were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The mean concentrations measured in non-contaminated stations of a previous work were adopted as background values, to calculate the contamination factor (CF). Transplants were able to: (a) detect spatial patterns of bioaccumulation (b) reveal chronic contamination by Pb and Cu, intermittent contamination by Cr, Zn, and Ni, and a release of Cd by moss bags, and (c) localise the main emission sources. - Transplanted bryophytes are able to detect accidental trace element pollution in freshwaters of industrial areas.

  9. Environmental impact of trace element emissions from geothermal power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargagli, R; Cateni, D; Nelli, L; Olmastroni, S; Zagarese, B

    1997-08-01

    Concentrations of several trace elements were determined in mosses, higher plants and organs of small mammals from a geothermal area in Tuscany (central Italy). Increased deposition of Hg, As, B, and Sb was detected in biological samples collected within a few hundred meters of geothermal power plants. Among the species considered, the moss Hypnum cupressiforme was the most efficient accumulator of trace elements. Contamination levels in a fodder-plant (Hedysarum coronarium) and vegetables grown in the geothermal field did not seem to pose health risks for consumers. However, a statistically significant increase in Hg, B, and As concentrations was found in the kidney and muscle of small mammals living close to geothermal installations. Biological effects of B pollution were detected in two sensitive plant species. In view of plans to increase the exploitation of geothermal resources in the area, adequate measures to monitor the environment should be taken. Mosses are the most suitable accumulative biomonitors for a surveillance network, and studies on small mammal populations should be intensified. Available technologies should be used to diminish atmospheric emissions from geothermal power plants.

  10. Seasonal dynamics of trace elements in tidal salt marsh soils as affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhong Bai

    Full Text Available Soil profiles were collected in three salt marshes with different plant species (i.e. Phragmites australis, Tamarix chinensis and Suaeda salsa in the Yellow River Delta (YRD of China during three seasons (summer and fall of 2007 and the following spring of 2008 after the flow-sediment regulation regime. Total elemental contents of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn were determined using inductively coupled plasma atomic absorption spectrometry to investigate temporal variations in trace elements in soil profiles of the three salt marshes, assess the enrichment levels and ecological risks of these trace elements in three sampling seasons and identify their influencing factors. Trace elements did not change significantly along soil profiles at each site in each sampling season. The highest value for each sampling site was observed in summer and the lowest one in fall. Soils in both P. australis and S. salsa wetlands tended to have higher trace element levels than those in T. chinensis wetland. Compared to other elements, both Cd and As had higher enrichment factors exceeding moderate enrichment levels. However, the toxic unit (TU values of these trace elements did not exceed probable effect levels. Correlation analysis showed that these trace elements were closely linked to soil properties such as moisture, sulfur, salinity, soil organic matter, soil texture and pH values. Principal component analysis showed that the sampling season affected by the flow-sediment regulation regime was the dominant factor influencing the distribution patterns of these trace elements in soils, and plant community type was another important factor. The findings of this study could contribute to wetland conservation and management in coastal regions affected by the hydrological engineering.

  11. 电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法测定新疆洋葱籽中常量/微量元素%Determination of Major/Trace Elements in the Xinjiang Allium cepa L.Seeds by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙凤; 邓丽霜; 童红; 王强

    2013-01-01

    Six samples were pretreated by microwave digestion method and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). And 18 kinds of major/trace elements in Xinjiang Allium cepa L. seeds were determined including Co, Cr, Ca, K, Mg, P, Fe, Mn, Na, Ni, Sn, Zn, Cd, As,Se, Cu, Mo and V. Results indicated that Allium cepa L. seeds were riched in major elements such as K,Mg,P,Ca and Na, besides, the trace elements Fe, Mn,Zn,Cr,Ni,and Cu were also relatively abundant. Allium cepa L. seeds contain a lot of major and trace elements which are beneficial to human body and have high medicinal value.%采用微波消解法处理样品,以电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法(ICP AES)测定新疆洋葱籽样品中Co、Cr、Ca、K、Mg、P、Fe、Mn、Na、Ni、Sn、Zn、Cd、As、Se、Cu、Mo和V 18种常量/微量元素.结果显示,新疆洋葱籽中含有丰富的K、Mg、P、Ca和Na等常量元素,此外微量元素Fe、Mn、Zn、Cr、Ni、Cu的含量也较丰富.新疆洋葱籽中含有很多对人体有益的常量及微量元素,有较高的药用价值.

  12. Simultaneous quantification of 17 trace elements in blood by dynamic reaction cell inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (DRC-ICP-MS) equipped with a high-efficiency sample introduction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ilio, S; Violante, N; Di Gregorio, M; Senofonte, O; Petrucci, F

    2006-10-10

    A quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (Q-ICP-MS) equipped with a dynamic reaction cell (DRC) and coupled with a desolvating nebulization system (APEX-IR) was employed to determine 17 elements (Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, V, and Zr) in blood samples. Ammonia (for Al, Cr, Mn, and V) and O2 (for As and Se) were used as reacting gases. Selection of the best flow rate of the gases and optimization of the quadrupole dynamic bandpass tuning parameter (RPq) were carried out, using digested blood diluted 1+9 with deionized water and spiked with 1 microg L(-1) of Al, Cr, Mn, V and 5 microgL(-1) of As and Se. Detection limits were determined in digested blood using the 3sigma criterion. The desolvating system allowed a sufficient sensitivity to be achieved to determine elements at levels of ng L(-1) without detriment of signal stability. The accuracy of the method was tested with the whole blood certified reference material (CRM), certified for Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V, and with indicative values for Ba, Li, Sn, Sr, and Zr. The addition calibration approach was chosen for analysis. In order to confirm the DRC data, samples were also analyzed by means of sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS), operating in medium (m/Deltam=4000) and high (m/Deltam=10,000) resolution mode and achieving a good agreement between the two techniques.

  13. Interaction between essential trace and toxic elements in the scalp hair samples of smokers and alcohol user diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Gul Kazi, Tasneem; Brabazon, Dermot; Naher, Sumsun

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, trace and toxic elements were determined in the Scalp Hair (SH) samples of patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM) who were smokers and habitual alcohol drinkers living in Dublin, Ireland. The concentrations of elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology was checked using Certified Reference Material (CRM) (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conv...

  14. The Reference Intervals of Hair Trace Element Content in Hereford Cows and Heifers (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miroshnikov, Sergey A; Zavyalov, Oleg A; Frolov, Alexey N; Bolodurina, Irina P; Kalashnikov, Valery V; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Tinkov, Alexey A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-03-17

    The objective of the present study was to assess hair trace element content in Hereford heifers and cows (Bos taurus) living in South Ural region and calculate the site-specific reference intervals. Hair trace element content in 150 cows and heifers farmed in the Southern Urals of Russia was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass-spectrometry. Dietary trace element content corresponded to the adequate values as estimated by recommendations of USSR State Agriculture Committee and U.S. National Research Council. Comparative analysis demonstrated that heifers are characterized by significantly higher hair Se (3-fold), Hg (4-fold), and Sn (46%) content, whereas cows had significantly higher levels of hair Co (56%), I (33%), Si (2-fold), V (27%), B (55%), Cd (19%), Pb (47%), and Sr (23%). At the same time, no significant group difference in hair Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Zn, As, and Ni was detected between Hereford cows and heifers. The reference intervals and 90% confidence intervals for the lower and upper limits were calculated in agreement with the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology Quality Assurance and Laboratory Standard Guidelines.

  15. Olivine Major and Trace Element Compositions in Southern Payenia Basalts, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Portnyagin, Maxim; Hoernle, Kaj;

    2015-01-01

    Olivine major and trace element compositions from 12 basalts from the southern Payenia volcanic province in Argentina have been analyzed by electron microprobe and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The olivines have high Fe/Mn and low Ca/Fe and many fall at the end...... by subduction-zone fluids and/or melts. The increasing contributions from the pyroxene-rich source in the southern Payenia basalts are correlated with an increasing Fe-enrichment, which caused the olivines to have lower forsterite contents at a given Ni content. Al-in-olivine crystallization temperatures...

  16. Profile of Trace Elements in Selected Medicinal Plants Used for the Treatment of Diabetes in Eritrea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mussie Sium

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the profile of certain trace elements having therapeutic properties related to diabetes mellitus. The investigated plants were Aloe camperi, Meriandra dianthera, Lepidium sativum, Brassica nigra, and Nigella sativa. These plants are traditionally used in the management of diabetes in Eritrea. The elemental analysis was conducted using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES and flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS techniques. The accuracy of the methods was verified using in-house reference materials (CRMs and no significant differences were observed between the measured and certified values. The analysis displayed variable concentrations of the different trace elements including Zn, Cr, V, Mn, and Se in the plants. Moreover, the levels of major elements, such as Mg, Ca, K, Na, and Ba, and heavy metals, such as Fe, Cu, Ni, Co, As, and Pb, were determined and found to be in the permissible limit defined by WHO. Among the plants, Meriandra dianthera showed the highest levels of Mn, Cr, V, and other elements and the values were significantly different (P<0.05.

  17. Trace Level Rare Earth Elements Separation From Gram Scale Uranium by Calcium Fluoride Coprecipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Xiu-feng

    2013-01-01

    In the fission yield measurement of rare earth elements of uranium induced by neutron,and the analysis of rare earth elements in spent fuel,the separation of trace rare earth elements from a large number of uranium has very important significance.We separated trace level rare earth elements from gram scale uranium by calcium fluoride coprecipitation in this paper.

  18. Biogeochemistry of Hot Spring Biofilms: Major and Trace Element Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havig, J. R.; Prapaipong, P.; Zolotova, N.; Moore, G.; Shock, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    Hot spring biofilms are of obvious biological origin, but of surprising composition. Organic carbon makes up a minor percentage of the total mass of chemotrophic and phototrophic biofilms. We have found that the majority of biofilm mass is inorganic material, largely silica, with measurable quantities of dozens of other elements, and that the distribution of major elements mimics that of surrounding rock and soil far more closely than the hot spring fluids. Comparisons of biofilms with the compositions of their geochemical surroundings help identify trace elements that are anomalously enriched or depleted. These anomalies provide insight into the processes of active or passive elemental accumulation by biofilms, which could be used to understand microbial processes of element uptake or to identify evidence for life in hydrothermal deposits in the rock record. Five separate hydrothermal systems in Yellowstone National Park were incorporated into this study: 'Bison Pool' and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 93.2 to 56.2 C, pH = 7.4 to 8.3), Flatcone Geyser and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 94.3 to 44.3 C, pH = 7.9 to 8.8, Boulder Spring and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 92.1 to 64.9 C, pH = 8.2 to 8.7), Octopus Spring and its outflow (siliceous-sinter depositing, temp. = 91.4 to 62.8 C, pH = 7.7 to 8.2), and two unnamed locations in the Obsidian Pool area we have dubbed 'Green Cheese' (temp. = 64.5 to 54.9 C, pH = 5.9 to 6.2) and 'Happy Harfer Pool' (temp. = 59.9 to 48.3 C, pH = 5.5 to 6.3). Analysis of water, biofilm, and contextual samples collected from and around these hot springs offer intriguing patterns of elemental behavior, both similar and dissimilar, among the varying systems. Examples of these patterns include elements that behave the same across all hot spring systems (B, C, Ni, Cu, Ge, Sb, and W), elements with behavior that was consistent throughout most (four of five) of the hot spring systems

  19. Determination of trace elements in plutonium by solvent extraction and ICP-atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, A. B.; Joshi, M. V.; Kulkarni, V. T.; Radhakrishnan; Sumathi, S.; Jacob, Mary

    This report describes the studies carried out for the determination of trace metallic impurities in plutonium solutions. Plutonium is separated from the impurity elements by the selective extraction of plutonium in tri-butyl-phosphate. The aqueous phase containing the impurities is fed to the high temperature source of excitation such as inductively coupled argon plasma and the analysis is carried out employing computer controlled multichannel direct reading spectrometer. Based on the above studies a method has been standardized for the analysis of sixteen elements in plutonium oxide/nitrate samples. The relative standard deviation of the method for various elements is in the range of +/- 1 to 5%. The method offers distinct advantages over the conventional carrier distillation technique in terms of precision, range, and sensitivity.

  20. Siderophile Elements in Tracing Planetary Formation and Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    The siderophile elements have many applications in the Earth and planetary sciences. In primitive meteorites, differences in the relative abundances of these elements are likely due to both nebular and parent body processes. In addition, some siderophile elements are also characterized by isotopically distinctive nucleosynthetic signatures. Thus, the relative abundances and isotopic compositions of these elements can be used to trace the genetics of planetary building blocks. Although the siderophile elements are largely concentrated in the metallic cores of differentiated planetary bodies, their absolute and relative abundances, as well as their isotopic compositions can also reveal important information regarding conditions of core formation and subsequent late stages of accretion. For example, the chondritic 187Os/188Os and 186Os/188Os estimated for the bulk silicate Earth require long-term, precisely chondritic Re/Os and Pt/Os, chemical characteristics that are seemingly most easily imposed by late accretion. The lithophile-siderophile nature of the radiogenic 182Hf-182W system allows it to be used to place chronologic constraints on planetary core formation. The differing incompatibilities of the two elements in the silicate portions of planets also means that the system can also be used to study early differentiation processes and efficiency of subsequent convective mixing. Positive and negative 182W anomalies present in rocks throughout the terrestrial rock record indicate the long-term survivability of mantle domains formed within the first 30 to 100 Ma of Solar System history. When matched with other short- and long-lived isotope systems, tungsten isotopes can potentially be used to identify mantle domains created by early magma ocean processes, as well as possible core-mantle interactions.

  1. Potential sources of analytical bias and error in selected trace element data-quality analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Garbarino, John R.; Olsen, Lisa D.; Rosen, Michael R.; Mebane, Christopher A.; Struzeski, Tedmund M.

    2016-09-28

    Potential sources of analytical bias and error associated with laboratory analyses for selected trace elements where concentrations were greater in filtered samples than in paired unfiltered samples were evaluated by U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Water Quality Specialists in collaboration with the USGS National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) and the Branch of Quality Systems (BQS).Causes for trace-element concentrations in filtered samples to exceed those in associated unfiltered samples have been attributed to variability in analytical measurements, analytical bias, sample contamination either in the field or laboratory, and (or) sample-matrix chemistry. These issues have not only been attributed to data generated by the USGS NWQL but have been observed in data generated by other laboratories. This study continues the evaluation of potential analytical bias and error resulting from matrix chemistry and instrument variability by evaluating the performance of seven selected trace elements in paired filtered and unfiltered surface-water and groundwater samples collected from 23 sampling sites of varying chemistries from six States, matrix spike recoveries, and standard reference materials.Filtered and unfiltered samples have been routinely analyzed on separate inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry instruments. Unfiltered samples are treated with hydrochloric acid (HCl) during an in-bottle digestion procedure; filtered samples are not routinely treated with HCl as part of the laboratory analytical procedure. To evaluate the influence of HCl on different sample matrices, an aliquot of the filtered samples was treated with HCl. The addition of HCl did little to differentiate the analytical results between filtered samples treated with HCl from those samples left untreated; however, there was a small, but noticeable, decrease in the number of instances where a particular trace-element concentration was greater in a filtered sample than in the associated

  2. Modelling of the relationship between trace elements and three species of sulfur in coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Based on the determination of several trace elements in coal particulate of different specific gravity, three-variables regression equations relate the contents of trace elements Be, Cd,Co, Pb, Cu, Ni, As and three species of sulfur in coal were well established. For elements Cd, Co, Pb, Cu and Ni, the regression equations were successfully used for prediction of these trace elements in individual part of coal with different specificgravity. Factor analysis was also used to analyze the data sets.The results showed that a three factor model can interpret the datasets reasonably. Trace elements Cd, Co, Pb, Cu, Ni, inorganic sulfide and total sulfur in coal are high correlated with the first factor. Trace elements Be, sulfate and organic sulfide are high correlated with the second factor and trace elements Cr and As are high correlated with the third factor. The factors can be interpreted by the chemical properties of these elements.

  3. [Supplementation of trace elements in the general medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Satoru

    2016-07-01

    Trace elements are the essential nutrients. Now, 9 elements, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, I, Go, Cr, Mn, Mo, are recognized as essential trace elements. Serum concentration of Fe, Zn and Cu are about 100 μg/dL, and have important physiological roles. Zinc needs special care because over 300 enzymes contain Zn, and zin deficiency cause various disorders. In advancing age serum Zn concentration decrease. Although the daily requirement of zinc is 10-15 mg in adults, it is necessary to supply much more zinc than adult, by the reason of low intake and low absorption in the elderly. In the geriatric ward of the hospital, many zinc deficient patients suffered from decubitus ulcers, dermatitis, alopecia, taste disorders etc. A 86 y.o. female with deep sacral decubitus ulcer was shown in this report. Her decubitus ulcer was completely recovered after daily administration of polaprezinc containing 34 mg Zn for 18 months, A 76 y.o. female brought about severe hypocupuremia. Serum Cu concentration decreased from 112 μg/dL to 7 μg/dL after 5 months daily administration of 34 mg Zn. Serum Zn concentration elevated from 47 μg/dL to 117 μg/dL, and Cu/Zn ratio decreased 2.38 to 0.06. After stopped zinc supplementation, serum Cu rapidly increased in a 2 month period. At the same time, serum Zn decreased quickly. It was the interesting fact that anemia improved associated with the increase of serum Cu. In the geriatric ward of the hospital, it is necessary to supply zinc in order to prevent respiratory infections such as pneumonia.

  4. Hydrothermal impacts on trace element and isotope ocean biogeochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, C. R.; Casciotti, K. A.; Dutay, J.-C.; Heimbürger, L. E.; Jenkins, W. J.; Measures, C. I.; Mills, R. A.; Obata, H.; Schlitzer, R.; Tagliabue, A.; Turner, D. R.; Whitby, H.

    2016-11-01

    Hydrothermal activity occurs in all ocean basins, releasing high concentrations of key trace elements and isotopes (TEIs) into the oceans. Importantly, the calculated rate of entrainment of the entire ocean volume through turbulently mixing buoyant hydrothermal plumes is so vigorous as to be comparable to that of deep-ocean thermohaline circulation. Consequently, biogeochemical processes active within deep-ocean hydrothermal plumes have long been known to have the potential to impact global-scale biogeochemical cycles. More recently, new results from GEOTRACES have revealed that plumes rich in dissolved Fe, an important micronutrient that is limiting to productivity in some areas, are widespread above mid-ocean ridges and extend out into the deep-ocean interior. While Fe is only one element among the full suite of TEIs of interest to GEOTRACES, these preliminary results are important because they illustrate how inputs from seafloor venting might impact the global biogeochemical budgets of many other TEIs. To determine the global impact of seafloor venting, however, requires two key questions to be addressed: (i) What processes are active close to vent sites that regulate the initial high-temperature hydrothermal fluxes for the full suite of TEIs that are dispersed through non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes? (ii) How do those processes vary, globally, in response to changing geologic settings at the seafloor and/or the geochemistry of the overlying ocean water? In this paper, we review key findings from recent work in this realm, highlight a series of key hypotheses arising from that research and propose a series of new GEOTRACES modelling, section and process studies that could be implemented, nationally and internationally, to address these issues. This article is part of the themed issue 'Biological and climatic impacts of ocean trace element chemistry'.

  5. The acid cleaning method of labware for trace element analysis in snow and ice samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Acid cleaning processes were performed on a class 100 laminar flow clean bench assembled inside a class 1000 clean room.The ultrapure water was produced by Millipore RO (Reverse Osmosis) and Milli-Q water purification systems.The three purity grades of nitric acid used for cleaning include Merck reagent grade HNO3,Fisher "TraceMetal" grade HNO3,and the purest Fisher "Optima" grade HNO3.The various bottles,containers and other labware,which are in contact with the samples,are made of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and FEP or PFA Teflon materials.The acid cleaning procedures of the bottles and other containers follow a successive four times cleaning through immersion in increasing purity of nitric acid baths at different concentrations during four weeks.The first acid bath is performed at room temperature,but the following three acid baths are heated on ceramic hotplates with a surface temperature of 45℃.In order to verify the efficiency of the acid cleaning method,cleaned bottles underwent a blank determination procedure using ELAN 6100 inductively coupled plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS).Results show that most measured trace elements are not detected and the elements detected are at very low concentrations.The blank values are comparable with that of bottles cleaned at Korea Polar Research Institute (KOPRI).Although the acid cleaning method is developed mainly for reliable measurements of trace elements in snow and ice samples,it can also be used for investigations of trace elements in other environmental samples.

  6. Prediction of the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements in foods.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, M.G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Minerals and trace elements play essential roles in numerous biochemical and physiological processes in animals and man. A deficiency, an overdose or imbalances between minerals or trace elements will exert a negative effect on health. Generally, it is not the ingested dose of minerals and trace ele

  7. Sources and Contents of Heavy Metals and Other Trace Elements in Animal Manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace elements are natural and added components of livestock and poultry feeds. Appropriate amounts of these trace elements in the diet of livestock and poultry ensures both health and reproduction. Unfortunately, many times trace metals that are added to livestock diets by producers or feed compani...

  8. Determination of 9 Trace Elements in Syngnathus acus linnaeus by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry%电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定尖海龙中9种微量元素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杰; 陈志海; 聂继华; 张舒羽; 黄聪; 张先玉

    2015-01-01

    Objective]A method was established for the stimulataneous determination of trace ele-ments in Syngnathus acus linnaeus by Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.,Mean-while,it apply in determining 9 kinds of trace elements in commercially available Syngnathus acus linnaeus .[Method]Nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide as the digestion system,and determined the concentrations of 9 kinds of trace elements (Cr,Co,Ni,As,Se,Pb,Cs,Cd,Rb)in 5 kinds of Syngnathus acus linnaeus by ICP-MS.[Results]The recovery of 9 kinds of trace elements ranged from 86% to 120%,RSD0.999 4,It had a lower detec-tion limit.Se element in Syngnathus acus linnaeus was a kind of essential trace element,Howev-er,the concentrations of Pb and Cd in 5 kinds of Syngnathus acus linnaeus were more than the limit values,In addition,the concentration of Cd element was lower than the reported values,but the concentrations of Cr and As elements were more than the reported values.[Conclusion]Mi-crowave Digestion-ICP-MS is an effective method for simultaneous determination of trace elements in the Dragon.%【目的】建立电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)同步测定海洋中药尖海龙中多种微量元素的新方法,并用于市售尖海龙中9种微量元素的含量测定。【方法】利用硝酸-过氧化氢的消解体系进行尖海龙样品微波消解,采用电感耦合等离子体质谱仪测定了尖海龙中9种微量元素(Cr、Co、Ni、As、Se、Pb、Cs、Cd、Rb)的含量。【结果】9种微量元素测定方法的回收率在86%~120%范围内,精密度 RSD 值均不超过4.64%,线性相关性系数 r>0.9994,检出限较低。5个市售尖海龙样品检测结果显示,尖海龙中含有丰富的营养元素 Se,而有毒元素 Pb、Cd 的含量均超过水产品中的限量值。【结论】微波消解-电感耦合等离子体质谱法是海龙中多种微量元素同步测定的有效方法。

  9. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  10. Use of trace elements as indicators for underground fluid circulations in karstic environment; Utilisation des elements en trace comme traceurs des circulations souterraines en milieu karstique (site du Lamalou, Herault)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pane-Escribe, M.B.

    1995-06-29

    The geochemical study of the trace element behaviour in karstic groundwaters has been carried out over the experimental site of Lamalou (Herault, France). Routine measurements of the physico-chemical parameters and of the dissolved elements concentrations have been achieved during two hydrological cycles. Radon has been monitored by passive detectors and by automatic electronic probes. Trace elements (Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, As Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Th, U) were analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The first part of this work presents the methodologies employed with in particular the improvement of the analytical performances of ICP-MS for water samples analysis. The detection limit for each considered element has been determined. The short and long term reproducibility for the samples analysis has also been tested. The second part of this study presents the treatment and interpretation of the results. This analysis has pointed our the influence of the aquifer structure on the chemical elements distribution. The trace and major elements concentrations are effectively related to the fracturing state of the reservoir and allow to individualize the high transmissivity zones from zones with a lower transmissivity in this mono-lithological context, trace elements appear to be particularly efficient tracers for determining the water origin and circulation their spatial and temporal behaviour leads to identify three different origins for the water mineralization over the studied area: limestones, clays and external sources (rainfalls and occasional pollutions). (author). 154 refs.

  11. Trace element measurement in Saliva by NAA and PIXE techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamidian, M.R.; Vahid Golpayegani, M.; Shojai, S. (Shahid Beheshti Medical Science Univ., Shemiran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

    1993-01-01

    The activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties of saliva, especially in some illnesses in which the activity of salivary glands and the chemical and physical properties alter, sometimes have severe effects on sedimentation and tooth decay. Long-standing investigations have shown the relationship between salivary gland activity and saliva composition in dental carries. Many modern techniques have been employed to measure important elements in saliva. The major elements in saliva include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, phosphorus, iodine, and fluorine. It should be pointed out that the amount of minerals changes when the diet changes. The major constituent of saliva is water with a density of 1.007 g/cm[sup 3] in which 0.6% is solid, 0.3% organic material and 0.3% inorganic material. In addition to other effects, the acidity (pH) of saliva has a strong effect on tooth sedimentation. Type of work, degree of stress, and mental condition affect salivary gland activity. When the acidity of salivary fluid in the mouth and consequently over the teeth drops, sedimentation increases. In this paper, the results of trace element measurement in saliva are presented.

  12. On the distribution of trace element concentrations in multiple bone elements in 10 Danish medieval and post-medieval individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Rasmussen, Kaare; Skytte, Lilian; D'imporzano, Paolo; Orla Thomsen, Per; Søvsø, Morten; Lier Boldsen, Jesper

    2017-01-01

    The differences in trace element concentrations among 19 different bone elements procured from 10 archaeologically derived human skeletons have been investigated. The 10 individuals are dated archaeologically and some by radiocarbon dating to the medieval and post-medieval period, an interval from ca. AD 1150 to ca. AD 1810. This study is relevant for two reasons. First, most archaeometric studies analyze only one bone sample from each individual; so to what degree are the bones in the human body equal in trace element chemistry? Second, differences in turnover time of the bone elements makes the cortical tissues record the trace element concentrations in equilibrium with the blood stream over a longer time earlier in life than the trabecular. Therefore, any differences in trace element concentrations between the bone elements can yield what can be termed a chemical life history of the individual, revealing changes in diet, provenance, or medication throughout life. Thorough decontamination and strict exclusion of non-viable data has secured a dataset of high quality. The measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (for Fe, Mn, Al, Ca, Mg, Na, Ba, Sr, Zn, Pb and As) and Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (for Hg) on ca. 20 mg samples. Twelve major and trace elements have been measured on 19 bone elements from 10 different individuals interred at five cemeteries widely distributed in medieval and renaissance Denmark. The ranges of the concentrations of elements were: Na (2240-5660 µg g(-1) ), Mg (440-2490 µg g(-1) ), Al (9-2030 µg g(-1) ), Ca (22-36 wt. %), Mn (5-11450 µg g(-1) ), Fe (32-41850 µg g(-1) ), Zn (69-2610 µg g(-1) ), As (0.4-120 µg g(-1) ), Sr (101-815 µg g(-1) ), Ba (8-880 µg g(-1) ), Hg (7-78730 ng g(-1) ), and Pb (0.8-426 µg g(-1) ). It is found that excess As is mainly of diagenetic origin. The results support that Ba and Sr concentrations are effective provenance or dietary indicators

  13. The role of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the cycling of trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz-Lázaro, C.; Malea, P.; Apostolaki, E. T.; Kalantzi, I.; Marín, A.; Karakassis, I.

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the seagrass Posidonia oceanica on the cycling of a wide set of trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Li, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr, Tl, V and Zn). We measured the concentration of these trace elements in different compartments of P. oceanica (leaves, rhizomes, roots and epiphytes) in a non-polluted seagrass meadow representative of the Mediterranean and calculated the annual budget from a mass balance. We provide novel data on accumulation dynamics of many trace elements in P. oceanica compartments and demonstrate that trace element accumulation patterns are mainly determined by plant compartment rather than by temporal variability. Epiphytes were the compartment, which showed the greatest concentrations for most trace elements. Thus, they constitute a key compartment when estimating trace element transfer to higher trophic levels by P. oceanica. Trace element translocation in P. oceanica seemed to be low and acropetal in most cases. Zn, Cd, Sr and Rb were the trace elements that showed the highest release rate through decomposition of plant detritus, while Cs, Tl and Bi showed the lowest. P. oceanica acts as a sink of potentially toxic trace elements (Ni, Cr, As and Ag), which can be sequestered, decreasing their bioavailability. P. oceanica may have a relevant role in the cycling of trace elements in the Mediterranean.

  14. Trace elements and the European skeleton through 5000 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smrčka, V; Jambor, J

    2000-01-01

    For our research, one thousand forty-four samples were taken from the femurs of 522 skeletons from 25 sites in Europe from the Neolithic Age (4000-5000 B.C), from La Téne Period, the Roman Era (500 B.C-400 A.D.), the Middle Ages and from contemporary cadavers. We found the following distribution of elements in the longitudional axis of long bones (the femurs and the tibias). The elements Zn, Fe, Ni, Cr, Pb, Mn, Co and Sn cumulated in the epiphysis. On the other hand, we found that Ca, Sr, Na and K prevailed in the central part of the diaphysis. In the central parts of the cross-section the highest concentration of the metal element Pb was in the external layer from the historical femurs. It was the same with cadavers of the recent population. A specific shift from Neolithic farming to agricultural intensification in the Roman Era was also apparent in the skeletons. Special sources of the above mentioned elements were found both in Celtic and Germanic tribes. Meat is the main source of zinc. Zinc is also important for the growth of the skeleton. When we investigated the development of the human skeleton during the last 5000 years we found the highest concetrations of Zn in communities with a good supply of animal food, whereas the lowest concentrations were paralleled with well-developed agriculturists. We assume the Neolithic gracilization, which is in the background for the increase of agricultural populations, is directly linked with the concentration of Zn and other elements essential for growth (Cu, Fe and others). The individuals most vulnerable to zinc deficiency include infants, adolescents during rapid growth phases and women during pregnancy and lactation. Trace elements in the bones of the La Téne period designate two areas of Celtic diet patterns--a "French one" (Roulier, Mont Trote and Acy Romance) and a "Czech one" (Karlov, Radovesice and Jenisův Ujezd). At Czech sites levels of zinc increased westward towards the Germanic region. Over the Germanic

  15. Assessment of trace element contents of chicken products from Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uluozlu, Ozgur Dogan; Tuzen, Mustafa; Mendil, Durali; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-30

    Due to the consumption of chicken and chicken products in Turkey at high ratio, trace metal content of chicken and chicken products from Turkey were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry after microwave digestion. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analysis of standard reference material (NIST SRM 1577b Bovine liver). Trace element content in various parts of chicken samples and chicken products were to be in the range of 0.10-114 microg/g for copper, 0.25-6.09 microg/kg for cadmium, 0.01-0.40 microg/g for lead, 0.10-0.91 microg/g for selenium, 0.05-3.91 microg/g for manganese, 0.06-0.10 microg/g for arsenic, 0.01-0.72 microg/g for chromium, 0.01-2.08 microg/g for nickel, 0.01-0.02 microg/g for cobalt, 0.10-1.90 microg/g for aluminium, 1.21-24.3 microg/g for zinc, 2.91-155 microg/g for iron. The levels of lead in some analyzed chicken products were higher than the recommended legal limits for human consumption.

  16. Engineering development of selective agglomeration: Trace element removal study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Southern Company Services, Inc., (SCS) was contracted in 1989 by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a commercially acceptable selective agglomeration technology to enhance the use of high-sulfur coals by 1993. The project scope involved development of a bench-scale process and components, as well as the design, testing, and evaluation of a proof-of-concept (POC) facility. To that end, a two-ton-per-hour facility was constructed and tested near Wilsonville, Alabama. Although it was not the primary focus of the test program, SCS also measured the ability of selective agglomeration to remove trace elements from coal. This document describes the results of that program.

  17. Trace elements in human physiology and pathology. Copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapiero, H; Townsend, D M; Tew, K D

    2003-11-01

    Copper is a trace element, important for the function of many cellular enzymes. Copper ions can adopt distinct redox states oxidized Cu(II) or reduced (I), allowing the metal to play a pivotal role in cell physiology as a catalytic cofactor in the redox chemistry of enzymes, mitochondrial respiration, iron absorption, free radical scavenging and elastin cross-linking. If present in excess, free copper ions can cause damage to cellular components and a delicate balance between the uptake and efflux of copper ions determines the amount of cellular copper. In biological systems, copper homeostasis has been characterized at the molecular level. It is coordinated by several proteins such as glutathione, metallothionein, Cu-transporting P-type ATPases, Menkes and Wilson proteins and by cytoplasmic transport proteins called copper chaperones to ensure that it is delivered to specific subcellular compartments and thereby to copper-requiring proteins.

  18. AIR QUALITY: MERCURY, TRACE ELEMENTS, AND PARTICULATE MATTER CONFERENCE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Pavlish; Steven A. Benson

    1999-07-01

    This final report summarizes the planning/preparation, facilitation, and outcome of the conference entitled ''Air Quality: Mercury, Trace Elements, and Particulate Matter'' that was held December 1-4, 1998, in McLean, Virginia (on the outskirts of Washington, DC). The goal of the conference was to bring together industry, government, and the research community to discuss the critical issue of how air quality can impact human health and the ecosystem, specifically hazardous air pollutants and fine airborne particles; available and developing control technologies; strategies and research needs; and an update on federal and state policy and regulations, related implementation issues, and the framework of the future.

  19. Evaluation of Trace Elements in Pancreatic Cancer Patients in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Farzin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pancreatic cancer is a major worldwide health problem. Little is known about the etiology of pancreatic cancer, which is an important cause of cancer mortality in developed countries. This study evaluates the importance of amounts of trace elements in pancreatic cancer etiology and diagnostics.Methods: Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to estimate zinc, selenium, copper, cadmium and lead concentrations in 80 patients with pancreatic cancer admitted to various hospitals in Tehran Province over an 18-month period and in 100 control subjects.Results: There were significantly lower levels (P0.05.Conclusion: In this study and by analyzing data from recent major reported series, we have found that cadmium is a plausible pancreatic carcinogen. This study also suggests a significant relationship between zinc metabolism and pancreatic cancer.

  20. Ordinary chondrites - Multivariate statistical analysis of trace element contents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipschutz, Michael E.; Samuels, Stephen M.

    1991-01-01

    The contents of mobile trace elements (Co, Au, Sb, Ga, Se, Rb, Cs, Te, Bi, Ag, In, Tl, Zn, and Cd) in Antarctic and non-Antarctic populations of H4-6 and L4-6 chondrites, were compared using standard multivariate discriminant functions borrowed from linear discriminant analysis and logistic regression. A nonstandard randomization-simulation method was developed, making it possible to carry out probability assignments on a distribution-free basis. Compositional differences were found both between the Antarctic and non-Antarctic H4-6 chondrite populations and between two L4-6 chondrite populations. It is shown that, for various types of meteorites (in particular, for the H4-6 chondrites), the Antarctic/non-Antarctic compositional difference is due to preterrestrial differences in the genesis of their parent materials.

  1. Trace elements as quantitative probes of differentiation processes in planetary interiors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, M. J.

    1980-01-01

    The characteristic trace element signature that each mineral in the source region imparts on the magma constitutes the conceptual basis for trace element modeling. It is shown that abundances of trace elements in extrusive igneous rocks may be used as petrological and geochemical probes of the source regions of the rocks if differentiation processes, partition coefficients, phase equilibria, and initial concentrations in the source region are known. Although compatible and incompatible trace elements are useful in modeling, the present review focuses primarily on examples involving the rare-earth elements.

  2. Trace elements based classification on clinkers. Application to Spanish clinkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás, F. D.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative identification to determine the origin (i.e. manufacturing factory of Spanish clinkers is described. The classification of clinkers produced in different factories can be based on their trace element content. Approximately fifteen clinker sorts are analysed, collected from 11 Spanish cement factories to determine their Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content. An expert system formulated by a binary decision tree is designed based on the collected data. The performance of the obtained classifier was measured by ten-fold cross validation. The results show that the proposed method is useful to identify an easy-to-use expert system that is able to determine the origin of the clinker based on its trace element content.

    En el presente trabajo se describe el procedimiento de identificación cualitativa de clínkeres españoles con el objeto de determinar su origen (fábrica. Esa clasificación de los clínkeres se basa en el contenido de sus elementos traza. Se analizaron 15 clínkeres diferentes procedentes de 11 fábricas de cemento españolas, determinándose los contenidos en Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn y V. Se ha diseñado un sistema experto mediante un árbol de decisión binario basado en los datos recogidos. La clasificación obtenida fue examinada mediante la validación cruzada de 10 valores. Los resultados obtenidos muestran que el modelo propuesto es válido para identificar, de manera fácil, un sistema experto capaz de determinar el origen de un clínker basándose en el contenido de sus elementos traza.

  3. [Trace elements, cholesterol and ultrastructural alterations of aorta in hypodynamic stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civinskiene, Genuvaite; Kusleikaite, Marija; Stonkus, Sigitas; Lekas, Raimundas; Senikiene, Zibuokle

    2003-01-01

    Hypodynamic stress of 48-day duration was provoked by permanent and periodically recurrent intervention (the hypodynamics periodically exchanged to physically activity) for Chinchilla rabbits (weight 2.5-3.0 kg) (n=19) by placing them in metal hutches according to B. V. Fiodorow. Rabbits (n=10) of the control group which had no intervention were kept in vivarium conditions. The concentration of trace elements (Zn, Mn, Cu) in the blood plasma and thoracic aorta was assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Perkin-Elmer 503, USA). The level of cholesterol was determined by enzymatic analysis. Ultrathin sections of thoracic aorta were examined with electron microscope "Tesla BS-500" (Italy). After 48 days of permanent hypodynamic stress the concentration of Zn and Mn in blood plasma of rabbits was found to be significantly decreased while the cholesterol and Cu level was greater than before the stress. In case of permanent stress significant decrease also was found in the concentration of Cu and Mn in aorta in comparison with that in the case of periodically recurrent stress. The mentioned changes of the trace elements and cholesterol concentration in tissues of rabbits in case of permanent hypodynamic stress were accompanied by ultrastructural alterations in endothelium--desintegration of cells, and winding and fragmentation of internal elastic lamina, accumulation of lipids. In case of periodically recurrent hypodynamic stress of the some duration these changes were less expressed.

  4. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: LY@sinap.ac.cn; Li, Y.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zou, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Normura, M. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan); Zhu, G.Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N{sub {epsilon}} bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO{sub 2} decreases.

  5. [Determination of trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense by ICP-MS after microwave-assisted digestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Xing-Ming; Xu, Min; Gu, Yong-Zuo

    2007-06-01

    An inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for determination of the contents of 8 trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense after microwave-assisted digestion of the sample has been developed. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by the analysis of corresponding trace heavy metal elements in standard reference materials (GBW 07604 and GBW 07605). By applying the proposed method, the contents of 8 trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense cultivated in different areas (in Bazhong, Yibin and Yingjing, respectively) of Sichuan and different growth period (6, 8 and 10 years of samples from Yingjing) were determined. The relative standard deviation (RSD) is in the range of 3.2%-17.8% and the recoveries of standard addition are in the range of 70%-120%. The results of the study indicate that the proposed method has the advantages of simplicity, speediness and sensitivity. It is suitable for the determination of the contents of 8 trace heavy metal elements in cortex Phellodendron chinense. The results also show that the concentrations of 4 harmful trace heavy metal elements As, Cd, Hg and Pb in cortex Phellodendron chinense are all lower than the limits of Chinese Pharmacopoeia and Green Trade Standard for Importing and Exporting Medicinal Plant and Preparation. Therefore, the cortex Phellodendron chinense is fit for use as medicine and export.

  6. Major and trace elements in coal bottom ash at different oxy coal combustion conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed study on the effect of temperature on the concentration of 27 major and trace elements in bottom ash generated from oxy fuel-combustion. The major elements are Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca and Fe and the minor and trace elements...

  7. 电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定多晶硅中18个痕量元素%Determination of eighteen trace elements in multicrystal silicon by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨毅; 刘英波; 王劲榕; 李菁菁

    2009-01-01

    A method was established for simultaneous and quantitative determination of trace B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Mo, W, Cd and Pb in multicrystal silicon by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(ICP-MS).The samples were decomposed with nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid, and the adding amount of reagents was obtained by weighing method.The mass spectral interference was eliminated by introducing ammonia gas as reaction gas in the dynamic reaction cell system(DRC).Under the optimal conditions, the detection limit was 0.8-6.9 pg/g (3σ).The recovery of standard addition was in the range of 83.0%-106%, and the relative standard deviation(RSD)was 0.27%-2.7%(n=11).The proposed method has been used for complete analysis of photovohaic muliticrystal silicon samples, and the results were in good accordance with the reference values.%建立了电感耦合等离子体质谱法(ICP-MS)对光伏用多晶硅中B,Cu,Fe,Al,K,Ca,Cr,Mn,Fe,Co,Ni,Cu,Zn,As,Mo,W,Cd,Pb共计18个可能共存的杂质元素同时定量测定的方法.以硝酸、氢氟酸分解多晶硅试样,称重法确定加入试剂的量.采用动态反应池(DRC)技术,在池内引入氨气(NH_3)作为反应气体来消除质谱干扰.在选定的条件下,被测元素的检出限为0.8~6.9 pg/g(3σ),样品的加标回收率在83.0%~106%之间,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.27%~2.7%(n=11).所建立的分析方法实现了对光伏用多晶硅样品中痕量元素的全分析,实际样品的测定结果与参考值相符.

  8. Comparative bioaccumulation kinetics of trace elements in Mediterranean marine sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genta-Jouve, Grégory; Cachet, Nadja; Oberhänsli, François; Noyer, Charlotte; Teyssié, Jean-Louis; Thomas, Olivier P; Lacoue-Labarthe, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    While marine organisms such as bivalves, seagrasses and macroalgae are commonly used as biomonitors for the environment pollution assessment, widely distributed sponges received little attention as potential helpful species for monitoring programmes. In this study, the trace element and radionuclide bioaccumulation and retention capacities of some marine sponges were estimated in a species-comparative study using radiotracers technique. Six Mediterranean species were exposed to background dissolved concentrations of (110m)Ag, (241)Am, (109)Cd, (60)Co, (134)Cs, (54)Mn, (75)Se and (65)Zn allowing the assessment of the uptake and depuration kinetics for selected elements. Globally, massive demosponges Agelas oroides, Chondrosia reniformis and Ircinia variabilis displayed higher concentration factor (CF) than the erectile ones (Acanthella acuta, Cymbaxinella damicornis, Cymbaxinella verrucosa) at the end of exposure, suggesting that the morphology is a key factor in the metal bioaccumulation efficiency. Considering this observation, two exceptions were noted: (1) A. acuta reached the highest CF for (110m)Ag and strongly retained the accumulated metal without significant Ag loss when placed in depuration conditions and (2) C. reniformis did not accumulate Se as much as A. oroides and I. variabilis. These results suggest that peculiar metal uptake properties in sponges could be driven by specific metabolites or contrasting biosilification processes between species, respectively. This study demonstrated that sponges could be considered as valuable candidate for biomonitoring metal contamination but also that there is a need to experimentally highlight metal-dependant characteristic among species.

  9. Trace elements in particles of motor vehicle exhaust in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe with high spatial resolution and high analyticalsensitivity was applied to analyze trace elements, especially lead, in vehicle exhaust ofShanghai city. The result shows that the chemical composition and its correspondingx-ray relative intensity are different among different vehicle exhausts. There arc manykinds of metal elements in particles of vehicle exhaust, most are harnful to people,such as Ti, Cr, Mn, Pb, etc. We found that the lead concentration was 6820μg/g andthe bromine concentration was 5300 μg/g in the exhaust from Santana using leadedgasoline (SULG), which is higher than any other kinds of vehicle exhausts. We havealso detected the minimum lead in the particles of unleaded gasoline and its contentvaries from one to another. Its mean concentration was 450 μg/g and the highestreached 6210 μg/g. The unleaded gasoline's Pb existed in the whole particle while theleaded gasoline's enriched in the surface of the particle and was more harmful to thehuman beings.

  10. Selected trace and minor elements in sandstones from Paraguay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Facetti-Masulli, J.F.; Gonzalez, E. [Hydroconsult SRL, Asuncion (Paraguay); Kump, P. [J. Stefan Inst., Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2010-07-01

    Selected trace and minor elements analyzed by XRF in sandstone samples were Rb-Sr-Zr-Nb-Ba-La-Ce-Nd as well as Ti-Mn-Fe with which they are often correlated. Refractory elements like REE are considered useful indicators of geochemical processes and, in this case, of provenance. Usually they maintain their original relationships and are transferred almost directly into sediments. The values here found, absolute and normalized, show correlations among the samples, allowing the establishment of their origin. Most of them in the spidergram patterns display positive spikes of Zr, and negative anomalies at Nb, Sr, Ti: differences in their height/depth could be in relation with the different Series or Formations. Strikingly, spidergrams of samples collected from the Patino Formation show marked negative anomalies interalia of Ba, as well as positive spikes of Nb and Zr, very similar to those found in magmatic specimens from Misiones, Carapegua-Acahay and Alto Paraguay Province and quite different from the other analyzed samples. In addition a remarkable presence of Precambrian signatures were found in the analyzed sandstones from the Paleozoic. (orig.)

  11. Zinc: A precious trace element for oral health care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Tayyaba; Haji Abdul Rahim, Zubaidah Binti; Lin, Chai Wen; Qamar, Zeeshan

    2016-08-01

    This review will discuss the importance of Zinc in the maintenance of oral health. Zinc (Zn) is a trace element of valuable importance. In the oral cavity, it is naturally present at various sites such as dental plaque, dental hard tissues and saliva. It is proven to be effective against common prevalent oral health problems such as dental caries, gingivitis, periodontitis and malodour. It is being used in various oral health care products to control the formation of dental plaque and inhibiting the formation of dental calculus. It has the potential to sustain and maintain its elevated concentrations for a longer time particularly in the dental plaque and saliva on delivery from the mouth rinses and toothpastes. It has been reported that low concentrations of zinc have the capability to reduce dissolution and promote remineralization under caries simulating conditions. Most importantly low Zn2+ levels in the serum are useful as a tumour marker. Thus taking a note of its potentials, it can be concluded that zinc is a precious element for the maintenance of oral health.

  12. EH3 matrix mineralogy with major and trace element composition compared to chondrules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, S. W.; McDonough, W. F.; NéMeth, P.

    2014-12-01

    We investigated the matrix mineralogy in primitive EH3 chondrites Sahara 97072, ALH 84170, and LAR 06252 with transmission electron microscopy; measured the trace and major element compositions of Sahara 97072 matrix and ferromagnesian chondrules with laser-ablation, inductively coupled, plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS); and analyzed the bulk composition of Sahara 97072 with LA-ICPMS, solution ICPMS, and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy. The fine-grained matrix of EH3 chondrites is unlike that in other chondrite groups, consisting primarily of enstatite, cristobalite, troilite, and kamacite with a notable absence of olivine. Matrix and pyroxene-rich chondrule compositions differ from one another and are distinct from the bulk meteorite. Refractory lithophile elements are enriched by a factor of 1.5-3 in chondrules relative to matrix, whereas the matrix is enriched in moderately volatile elements. The compositional relation between the chondrules and matrix is reminiscent of the difference between EH3 pyroxene-rich chondrules and EH3 Si-rich, highly sulfidized chondrules. Similar refractory element ratios between the matrix and the pyroxene-rich chondrules suggest the fine-grained material primarily consists of the shattered, sulfidized remains of the formerly pyroxene-rich chondrules with the minor addition of metal clasts. The matrix, chondrule, and metal-sulfide nodule compositions are probably complementary, suggesting all the components of the EH3 chondrites came from the same nebular reservoir.

  13. Prediction of the bioavailability of minerals and trace elements in foods.

    OpenAIRE

    Wolters, M.G.E.

    1992-01-01

    Minerals and trace elements play essential roles in numerous biochemical and physiological processes in animals and man. A deficiency, an overdose or imbalances between minerals or trace elements will exert a negative effect on health. Generally, it is not the ingested dose of minerals and trace elements that is important to maintain balance, but rather the amount that is bioavailable (available for biological and biochemical processes in the organism). Several food components are able to for...

  14. Trace elements in sulfide inclusions from Yakutian diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulanova, G. P.; Griffin, W. L.; Ryan, C. G.; Shestakova, O. Y.; Barnes, S.-J.

    1996-07-01

    Sulfide inclusions in diamonds may provide the only pristine samples of mantle sulfides, and they carry important information on the distribution and abundances of chalcophile elements in the deep lithosphere. Trace-element abundances were measured by proton microprobe in >50 sulfide inclusions (SDI) from Yakutian diamonds; about half of these were measured in situ in polished plates of diamonds, providing information on the spatial distribution of compositional variations. Many of the diamonds were identified as peridotitic or eclogitic from the nature of coexisting silicate or oxide inclusions. Known peridotitic diamonds contain SDIs with Ni contents of 22 36%, consistent with equilibration between olivine, monosulfide solid solution (MSS) and sulfide melt, whereas SDIs in eclogitic diamonds contain 0 12% Ni. A group of diamonds without silicate or oxide inclusions has SDIs with 11 18% Ni, and may be derived from pyroxenitic parageneses. Eclogitic SDIs have lower Ni, Cu and Te than peridotitic SDIs; the ranges of the two parageneses overlap for Se, As and Mo. The Mo and Se contents range up to 700 and 300 ppm, respectively; the highest levels are found in peridotitic diamonds. Among the in-situ SDIs, significant Zn and Pb levels are found in those connected by cracks to diamond surfaces, and these elements reflect interaction with kimberlitic melt. Significant levels of Ru (30 1300 ppm) and Rh (10 170 ppm) are found in many peridotitic SDIs; SDIs in one diamond with wustite and olivine inclusions and complex internal structures have high levels of other platinum-group elements (PGEs) as well, and high chondrite-normalized Ir/Pd. Comparison with experimental data on element partitioning between crystals of monosulfide solid solution (MSS) and sulfide melts suggests that most of the inclusions in both parageneses were trapped as MSS, while some high-Cu SDIs with high Pd±Rh may represent fractionated sulfide melts. Spatial variations of SDI composition within

  15. Analysis of Hair Trace Elements in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Communication Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Simashkova, Natalia V; Klyushnik, Tatiana P; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Radysh, Ivan V; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-06-01

    The primary objective of the present study is analysis of hair trace elements content in children with communication disorder (CD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A total of 99 children from control, CD, and ASD groups (n = 33) were examined. All children were additionally divided into two subgroups according to age. Hair levels of trace elements were assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The difference was considered significant at p content, being higher than the respective control values. In the ASD group, hair copper (Cu), iodine (I), and Be levels tended to be lower than the control values. In turn, the scalp hair content of Se significantly exceeded the control values (33 %; p = 0.004), whereas the level of iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al) tended to increase. After gradation for age, the most prominent differences in children with CD were detected in the elder group (5-8 years), whereas in the case of ASD-in the younger group (3-4 years old). Taking into account the role of hair as excretory mechanism for certain elements including the toxic ones, it can be proposed that children suffering from ASD are characterized by more profound alteration of metal handling and excretion in comparison to CD.

  16. Determination of Trace and Volatile Element Abundance Systematics of Lunar Pyroclastic Glasses 74220 and 15426 Using LA-ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntosh, E. Carrie; Porrachia, Magali; McCubbin, Francis M.; Day, James M. D.

    2017-01-01

    Since their recognition as pyroclastic glasses generated by volcanic fire fountaining on the Moon, 74220 and 15426 have garnered significant scientific interest. Early studies recognized that the glasses were particularly enriched in volatile elements on their surfaces. More recently, detailed analyses of the interiors of the glasses, as well as of melt inclusions within olivine grains associated with the 74220 glass beads, have determined high H2O, F, Cl and S contents. Such elevated volatile contents seem at odds with evidence from moderately volatile elements (MVE), such as Zn and K, for a volatile- depleted Moon. In this study, we present initial results from an analytical campaign to study trace element abundances within the pyroclastic glass beads. We report trace element data determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) for 15426 and 74220.

  17. Trace Element Abundances in Refractory Inclusions from Antarctic Micrometeorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greshake, A.; Hoppe, P.; Bischoff, A.

    1995-09-01

    Refractory inclusions are charcteristic components in carbonaceous chondrites. Therefore, refractory inclusions found in micrometeorites can give important hints about the relationship between micrometeorites and carbonaceous chondrites. So far, only a few inclusions were found in micrometeorites [1-4]. In this study we report the first trace element analysis of perovskite and fassaite found in micrometeorites. We studied two Antarctic micrometeorites by ASEM, EMP, and SIMS. The first particle is 120 micrometers in size mainly consisting of a fine-grained matrix of dehydrated former phyllosilikates that enclose a 5 micrometers sized perovskite [5]. The perovskite is surrounded by a 1 micrometers thick rim of ilmenite and contains up to 1.3 wt% FeO as determined by EMP. The trace element abundances were determined by SIMS following the procedure described by [6]. The REE pattern of the perovskite is shown in Fig. 1. The pattern is closely related to the Group II pattern with its typical depletion of the more refractory REEs [7]. It is also very similar to the REE abundances of perovskite from Murchison (CM) [8] and CH-chondrites [9]. This may indicate a relationship between this micrometeorite and components in carbonaceous chondrites. The second micrometeorite is 100 micrometers in size consisting of a fine-grained (20 micrometers across) and a coarse-grained (80 micrometers across) area. Both areas contain fassaite with different chemical compositions. The particle was previously analyzed by Lindstrom and Kloeck [1] without knowing the mineralogy. We carried out SIMS analysis of each area of the micrometeorite separately. The TEE patterns of these two areas are similar and show in general a Group III pattern (20-30x CI) in which the more refractory REEs are not fractionated. The negative Eu anomaly is much more apparent in the coarse-grained area and no Yb anomaly is apparent in one of the areas. This is the first CAI of a micrometeorite showing a Group III REE

  18. Quantitative elemental analysis of major, minor and trace elements in coal and host rocks by logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Fraser; Craig Smith [CSIRO Exploration & Mining (Australia)

    2008-12-15

    Knowledge of the distribution of major, minor and trace elements in coals and interburden materials is increasingly important. Technological developments now suggest that such elemental distributions may be determined using a downhole logging tool. This study was undertaken to achieve two goals. The first was to survey the industry to determine those elements of interest to the coal industry and their associated detection limits. The second was to use this information as one of the inputs to select the best technique for determining elemental abundances using a downhole logging tool in both production and exploration environments. A questionnaire was circulated widely and received a total of 15 responses. From these responses elements of interest were tabulated for reference to the Australian Coal Industry. Three technologies were evaluated as having potential to be incorporated into a downhole environment: X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), and Prompt Gamma Neutron Activation Analysis (PGNAA) using a neutron generator. Various criteria were used to evaluate these techniques including operator and environmental safety, ease of implementation and operation, and performance with respect to the detection of the elements of interest to the coal industry. After due consideration, we recommend that the most practical way forward is the neutron activation (PGNAA and DGNAA) method using a neutron generator as the neutron source.

  19. Trace elements in scalp hair of leukaemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khuder Ali

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in scalp hair of leukaemia patients and healthy volunteers, using the optimised XRF method. Leukaemia hair samples were classifi ed corresponding to type, growth and age of the participants. The results showed that the studied trace elements (TEs in both of leukaemia and control groups were positively skewed. In comparison with the control group, lower Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb and higher of Ni medians were found in all studied leukaemia patients. The median rank obtained by Mann-Whitney U-test revealed insignifi cant differences between the leukaemia patients subgroups and the controls. An exact probability (α 0.70 in the scalp hair of control group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn, Pb/Fe-Pb, Cu/Ni-Zn/Ni, Cu/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Ni-Pb/Ni, Zn/Fe-Zn/Cu, Pb/Ni-Ni and Ni/Fe-Pb/Ni, whereas only very strong positive ratios in the scalp hair of leukaemia patients group were observed between Ni/Fe-Ni, Cu/Fe-Cu, Zn/Fe-Zn and Pb/Fe-Pb, all correlations were signifi cant at p < 0.05. Other strong and signifi cant correlations were also observed in scalp hair of both groups. Signifi cant differences between grouping of studied TEs in all classifi ed leukaemia groups and controls were found using principal component analysis (PCA. The results of PCA confi rmed that the type and the growth of leukaemia factors were more important in element loading than the age factor.

  20. Seasonal and spatial variations of atmospheric trace elemental deposition in the Aliaga industrial region, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, Melik; Dumanoglu, Yetkin; Altiok, Hasan; Elbir, Tolga; Odabasi, Mustafa; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2014-11-01

    Atmospheric bulk deposition (wet + dry deposition) samples (n = 40) were collected concurrently at ten sites in four seasons between June 2009 and April 2010 in the Aliaga heavily industrialized region, Turkey, containing a number of significant air pollutant sources. Analyses of trace elements were carried out using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). While there were significant differences in the particulate matter (PM) deposition fluxes among the sampling sites, seasonal variations were not statistically significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, p deposition and elemental fluxes were increased at the sampling sites in the vicinity of industrial activities. The crustal elements (i.e., Ca, Mg) and some anthropogenic elements (such as Fe, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, and Cr) were high, and the highest fluxes were mostly measured in summer and winter seasons. The enrichment factor (EF) and principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the data to determine the possible sources in the study area. High EF values were obtained for the anthropogenic elements such as Ag, Cd, Zn, Pb, Cu and Sb. The possible sources were identified as anthropogenic sources (i.e., iron-steel production) (45.4%), crustal and re-suspended dust (27.1%), marine aerosol (7.9%), and coal and wood combustion (8.2%). Thus, the iron-steel production and its related activities were found to be the main pollutant sources for this region.

  1. Seasonal variability of crustal and marine trace elements in the aerosol at Neumayer station, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Rolf; Wöltjen, Janina; Piel, Claudia; Resenberg, Rosa; Wagenbach, Dietmar; König-Langlo, Gert; Kriews, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Atmospheric trace element concentrations were measured from March 1999 to December 2003 at the Air Chemistry Observatory of the German Antarctic station Neumayer, by inductively coupled plasma-quadrupol mass spectrometry (ICP-QMS) and ion chromatography (IC). This continuous five-year long record derived from weekly aerosol sampling revealed a distinct seasonal summer maximum for elements linked with mineral dust entry (Al, La, Ce, Nd) and a winter maximum for the mostly sea salt derived elements Li, Na, K, Mg, Ca and Sr. The relative seasonal amplitude was around 1.7 and 1.4 for mineral dust (La) and sea salt aerosol (Na), respectively. On average, a significant deviation regarding mean ocean water composition was apparent for Li, Mg and Sr, which could hardly be explained by mirabilite precipitation on freshly formed sea ice. In addition, we observed all over the year, a not clarified high variability of element ratios Li/Na, K/Na, Mg/Na, Ca/Na and Sr/Na. We found an intriguing co-variation of Se concentrations with biogenic sulphur aerosols (methane sulphonate and non-sea salt sulphate), indicating a dominant marine biogenic source for this element, linked with the marine biogenic sulphur source.

  2. [Spectrometric determination of trace elements in anticancer new medicine Fagopyrum dibotrys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ji-Yong; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Zeng, Yan; Li, Jin-Tong

    2011-01-01

    The golden buckwheat Fagopyrum dibotrys produced in Yunnan has a unique anti-cancer effects. It is a main raw material of "Wei Mai ning" capsules which is the national second-class anti-cancer drug. The present paper used (5 : 1) mixed acid as digestive juice to process the sample, and determine the twelve elements including K, Ca, Cu, Na, Mg, Mn, Fe, Zn, Pb, Cr, Cd and Co in the Fagopyrum dibotrys by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry(ICP-AES). The detection limits of this method were 0.017-0.084 microg x mL(-1), the RSDs (n = 8) were all 0.09%-1.87%, and the addition standard recoveries(ASR) (n = 8) were 98.2%-107.4% for all elements. The research results showed that there is rich K(1 477.3 microg x g(-1)) in the Fagopyrum dibotrys, there are not harmful elements Cd and Pb, and this result is mainly related to the geochemistry background where the sample lived. The contents of seven remaining kinds of elements ranked as Na (826.1) > Ca (765.2 > Mg (493.4) > Zn (112.7) > Fe (56.5) > Cu (11.4) > Mn (4.49 microg x g(-1)). This result provides some theoretical basis for the study of internal relations between trace elements in Fagopyrum dibotrys and efficacy. It' s also useful for better development and utilization of the resource.

  3. Determination of Trace Elements in Edible Nuts in the Beijing Market by ICP-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Liang Liang; Tian, Qing; Shao, Xian Zhang; Kong, Xiang Yin; Ji, Yan Qin

    2015-06-01

    Nuts have received increased attention from the public in recent years as important sources of some essential elements, and information on the levels of elements in edible nuts is useful to consumers. Determination of the elemental distributions in nuts is not only necessary in evaluating the total dietary intake of the essential elements, but also useful in detecting heavy metal contamination in food. The aim of this study was to determine the mineral contents in edible nuts, and to assess the food safety of nuts in the Beijing market. Levels of Li, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, Cs, Ba, Pb, Th, and U in 11 types of edible nuts and seeds (macadamia nuts, lotus nuts, pistachios, sunflower seeds, pine nuts, almonds, walnuts, chestnuts, hazelnuts, cashews, and ginkgo nuts) as well as raisins were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The accuracy of the method was validated using standard reference materials GBW10014 (cabbage) and GBW10016 (tea). Our results provide useful information for evaluating the levels of trace elements in edible nuts in the Beijing market, will be helpful for improving food safety, and will aid in better protecting consumer interests.

  4. Geochemical behavior of rare earth elements and other trace elements in the Amazon River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merschel, Gila; Bau, Michael; Dantas, Elton Luiz

    2014-05-01

    Rivers transport large amounts of dissolved and suspended particulate material from the catchment area to the oceans and are a major source of trace metals to seawater. The Amazon River is the world's largest river and supplies approximately 20% of the oceans' freshwater (Molinier et al., 1997). However, the behavior of trace elements, especially particle-reactive elements such as the rare earth elements (REE), within the river as well as in the estuary is not well constrained and rather little is known about their transport mechanisms. This study aims at understanding the transport properties of particle-reactive elements in the Amazon River and some of its major tributaries, including the Rio Solimões, Rio Negro, Tapajos, Xingu and Jari Rivers. Samples were taken at 12 stations, seven of which were located in the Amazon mainstream, while the other five stations sampled its tributaries. To account for the effects of variable discharge, the samples were collected during periods of high and low discharge. We present data for major and trace elements, including REE, of the dissolved and suspended load of these samples. First results indicate that the shale-normalized REE pattern of the dissolved load (filtered through 0.2 µm membranes) of the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões confirm earlier studies (Elderfield et al., 1990; Gerard et al., 2003) and show an enrichment of the middle REE relative to the light and heavy REE (LaSN/GdSN: 0.25 - 0.32; GdSN/YbSN: 1.54 - 1.78). In contrast to the Amazon mainstream and the Rio Solimões, which are considered to be whitewater rivers, blackwater rivers, such as the Rio Negro, have a flat REE pattern with higher REE concentrations than whitewater rivers. The third water-type found in the Amazon Basin is clearwater, e.g. Rio Tapajos, with REE patterns in between those of the other two types, i.e. LaSN/GdSN: 0.55 - 0.70; GdSN/YbSN: 1.26 - 1.55. A similar behavior can be identified for other major and trace elements. While

  5. Certified reference materials of trace elements in water

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Agrawal

    2005-07-01

    Measurement of trace elements is playing a vital role in industries and various sectors of science and technology including semiconductors, food, health and environmental sectors. In most of the cases a small error in measurement can vitiate all the measures taken for quality control and management. Many decisions regarding the suitability of material/products are based on the analysis. To reduce or eliminate the rejection rate of the products, accurate and reliable measurements are needed which can be achieved by the use of certified reference materials (CRMs). Their use in calibration of analytical equipments and validation of test methods ensures high quality in measurements and it provides traceability to the measurement data with national/international measurement systems (SI unit) also. In the present scenario of globalization of economy, use of certified reference materials (CRMs) in measurements is essential for global acceptance of products and test reports. Their use fulfil a mandatory requirement of international quality systems (ISO 9000, ISO/IEC standard 17025) including our national accreditation body, National Accreditation Board for Testing and Calibration Laboratories (NABL), World Trade Organization (WTO) etc. International manufacturers of CRMs are meeting most of the requirement of CRMs of the country. To meet the demand of CRMs indigenously, the National Physical Laboratory, India initiated a national programme on preparation and dissemination of certified reference materials.

  6. Hydroponic screening of poplar for trace element tolerance and accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migeon, Aude; Richaud, Pierre; Guinet, Frédéric; Blaudez, Damien; Chalot, Michel

    2012-04-01

    Using the nutrient film technique, we screened 21 clones of poplar for growth in the presence of a mix of trace elements (TE) and for TE accumulation capacities. Poplar cuttings were exposed for four weeks to a multipollution solution consisting in 10 microM Cd, Cu, Ni, and Pb, and 200 microM Zn. Plant biomass and TE accumulation patterns in leaves varied greatly between clones. The highest Cd and Zn concentrations in leaves were detected in P. trichocarpa and P. trichocarpa hybrids, with the clone Skado (P. trichocarpa x P. maximowiczii) accumulating up to 108 mg Cd kg(-1) DW and 1510 mg Zn kg(-1) DW when exposed to a multipollution context. Our data also confirm the importance of pH and multipollution, as these factors greatly affect TE accumulation in above ground biomass. The NFT technique applied here to a large range of poplar clones also revealed the potential of the Rochester, AFO662 and AFO678 poplar clones for use in phytostabilization programs and bioenergy production, where production of less contaminated above ground biomass is suitable.

  7. Chemometric evaluation of trace elements in Brazilian medicinal plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Paulo S.C. da; Francisconi, Lucilaine S.; Goncalves, Rodolfo D.M.R., E-mail: pscsilva@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro do Reator de Pesquisas

    2013-07-01

    The growing interest in herbal medicines has required standardization in order to ensure their safe use, therapeutic efficacy and quality of the products. Despite the vast flora and the extensive use of medicinal plants by the Brazilian population, scientific studies on the subject are still insufficiency In this study, 59 medicinal plans were analyzed for the determination of As, Ba, Br, Ca, Cl, Cs, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Ta, Th, U, Zn and Zr by neutron activation analysis and Cu, Ni, Pb, Cd and Hg by atomic absorption. The results were analyzed by chemometric methods: correlation analysis, principal component analysis and cluster analysis, in order to verify whether or not there is similarity with respect to their mineral and trace metal contents. Results obtained permitted to classify distinct groups among the analyzed plants and extracts so that these data can be useful in future studies, concerning the therapeutic action the elements here determined may exert. (author)

  8. Simultaneous determination of 11 trace elements in coal by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry%ICP-OES法同时测定煤中11种微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕鑫磊

    2015-01-01

    To quickly determine microelements of coal in batch,the coal sample was ashed first at high temperature,then the product was dissolved by the mixture of HCl,HF and HClO4 ,the third step was to extract the microelements with HCl. The microelements which were Ga,Th,V,P,Cu,Co,Ni,Zn,Pb,Cr,Cd were determined with ICP-OES (Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry). With reasonable sample dissolution methods,radio-frequency power,analytical spectral line and experimental data,the influence of spec-tral interference on determination was eliminated by off-peak background deduction method, meanwhile, the 11 kinds of microelements could be determined by ICP-OES at the same time. The detection limits for the elements was 0. 03~1. 17 μg/g. The method was applied to the determination of 11 microelements in Soil National Standard Reference Materials and the results were in agreement with certified val-ues with precision of 0. 32% ~3. 19% RSD (n=11).%为实现煤中多种微量元素的批量快速测定,煤样经高温灰化、盐酸-氢氟酸-高氯酸三元体系溶解、盐酸提取后,使用电感耦合等离子体发射光谱( ICP-OES )同时测定煤中镓钍钒磷铜钴镍锌铅铬镉11种微量元素. 在对样品分解方法、射频功率、分析谱线和积分点数合理选择的基础上,通过离峰扣背景法消除了各种光谱干扰对测定的影响,建立了采用ICP-OES同时测定煤中镓钍钒磷铜钴镍锌铅铬镉 11 种微量元素的实验方法. 方法检出限为 0. 03 ~1. 17 μg/g,方法精密度( n=11 ) 0. 32% ~3. 19%,土壤国家标准物质的分析测定值与标准值吻合较好. 与传统化学方法相比,该方法快速准确,提高了分析效率,满足煤质分析的一般要求.

  9. Trace element quantification of lead based roof sheets of historical monuments by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syvilay, D., E-mail: delphine.syvilay@culture.gouv.fr [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Texier, A. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France); Arles, A.; Gratuze, B. [IRAMAT, 3D, rue de la Férollerie, 45071 Orléans Cedex 2 (France); Wilkie-Chancellier, N.; Martinez, L.; Serfaty, S. [SATIE, UMR CNRS 8029, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, ENS Cachan, 95000 Cergy-Pontoise Cedex (France); Detalle, V. [LRMH USR 3224, 29 rue de Paris, 77420 Champs-sur-Marne (France)

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the different periods of construction or restoration of the lead roof of a historic monument. Trace elements in a lead matrix can be a signature of the metallurgical processes, allowing identification of a specific time period for the production of the lead used to build the roof. The ability of LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) to detect such trace elements in a lead matrix is therefore explored and checked by comparing its results with LA-ICP-MS as a reference method (Laser Ablation-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry). Concentrations of 263 samples were compared between LIBS and LA-ICP-MS data and their correlation was evaluated. Another way to compare their results is also suggested by combining PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and GIS (Geographic Information System). As a result statistical mappings were created, highlighting metallurgical groups of samples across the roof of the building. This innovative approach links concentration and spatial location resulting in an easily interpretable graphical presentation of the data. The results of both spectrometry methods lead to similar conclusions with distinctive areas of different lead compositions and by extension different lead dating across the roof. But since LIBS is portable we can conclude that it is a suitable and reliable instrument for in-situ applications on historic monuments. - Highlights: • Quantification of trace elements (Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn) in a lead matrix by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS • Low limit of detection for Ag, Bi, Cu and Sn by using LIBS portable instrumentation • Set up a specific data processing combining PCA and GIS for cultural heritage application • Comparison of LIBS and LA-ICP-MS results with 263 samples • 488 samples analyzed by LIBS.

  10. Hair toxic and essential trace elements in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Simashkova, Natalia V; Klyushnik, Tatiana P; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Bjørklund, Geir; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Tinkov, Alexey A

    2017-02-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate hair trace elements content in children suffering from autism spectrum disorder (ASD). A total of 74 ASD children and 74 sex- and age-matched controls divided into two age groups (2-4 and 5-9 years) were investigated. Hair trace elements content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. A general cohort of ASD children was characterized by 29 %, 41 %, and 24 % lower hair levels of chromium (Cr), iodine (I), and vanadium (V), respectively, whereas the level of selenium (Se) exceeded the respective control values by 31 %. In ASD children aged 2-4 years hair Cr, I and V content was 68 %, 36 % and 41 % lower than in the controls. Older ASD children were characterized by 45 % increase in hair Se levels. In a general cohort of ASD children hair beryllium (Be) and tin (Sn) levels were 50 % and 34 % lower than the control values. In the first age group (2-4 years) of ASD children 34 %, 42 %, and 73 % lower levels of arsenic (As), boron (B), and Be were detected. In the second age group of ASD children only a nearly significant 25 % decrease in hair lead (Pb) was detected. Surprisingly, no significant group difference in hair mercury (Hg), zinc (Zn), and copper (Cu) content was detected. Generally, the results of the present study demonstrate that children with ASD are characterized by lower values in hair of not only essential but also toxic trace elements.

  11. Serum Trace Element Profiles, Prolactin, and Cortisol in Transient Ischemic Attack Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, Lydmila L; Skalny, Anatoly V; Turna, Aliya A; Tinkov, Alexey A; Budanova, Maria N; Baskakov, Ivan S; Savostina, Marina S; Mazilina, Aksana N; Deev, Anatoly I; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2016-07-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to assess the association between trace element status, brain damage biomarkers, cortisol, and prolactin levels in transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients. Ten male and 10 female TIA patients were involved in this study. Age, gender, and BMI-matched volunteers served as the respective control group. Serum samples were examined for complement components C4 and C3a, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), S100B, NR2 antibodies (NR2Ab), total antioxidant status (TAS), cortisol, and prolactin. Trace element concentration in serum samples was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. The obtained data indicate that both male and female TIA patients were characterized by the increased C4 and prolactin concentrations. At the same time, serum VEGF levels were elevated in only men, whereas TAS values were decreased in women with TIA. Serum cortisol concentrations were significantly increased only in female TIA patients. Men and women with TIA were characterized by a 32 and 44 % decrease in serum Fe content. A two- and threefold increase in serum V content was observed in TIA females and males, respectively. Women with TIA had 60 % higher values of serum B, whereas male patients were characterized by a sevonfold increase in boron content in comparison to the control values. TIA also resulted in decreased serum Cu content in women and elevation of I, Li, Mn, Se, Zn, As, Pb, Ni, and Sr levels in men. Correlation analysis revealed a significant association between trace elements concentration and the studied parameters.

  12. How Trace Element Levels of Public Drinking Water Affect Body Composition in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetin, Ihsan; Nalbantcilar, Mahmut Tahir; Tosun, Kezban; Nazik, Aydan

    2017-02-01

    Since waterborne minerals appear in ionic form and are readily absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract, drinking water could be a crucial source of mineral intake. However, no comprehensive research has yet determined how trace elements in drinking water relate to body composition. We aimed to assess the relationship between clinically important trace elements in public drinking water and body composition in average, overweight and obese individuals in Turkey. The study's population consisted of 423 participants: 143 overweight, 138 obese and 142 healthy control individuals, grouped according to clinical cutoff points of body mass index (BMI). We measured levels of lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), silicon (Si), tin (Sn), strontium (Sr), boron (B), aluminium (Al), barium (Ba) and rubidium (Rb) in samples from wells of municipal water by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We gauged all the participants' body composition measurements with a BC-418 body composition analyser. In all the participants, body weight values showed significant positive correlations with Ni levels in drinking water, as did BMI values with Al levels and percentage of obesity with Ni, Si and B levels. In particular, Ni levels showed significant positive correlations with the basal metabolic rate, activity calories, and total activity of participants. Giving findings showing correlations between obesity-related parameters and Al, Si, B and Ni content in drinking water, we hope that these associations will be clarified with further studies including cellular, experimental and clinical studies. Hence, medical practitioners must be aware of trace element levels in drinking water for overweight and obese patients.

  13. Concentrations of trace element in human dentin by sex and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Akiko; Fujita, Yuji; Endo, Shigeatsu; Itai, Kazuyoshi

    2012-06-10

    Teeth are recently drawing attention for their potential as biological modeling investigation samples due to their ability to be collected and their slow substance metabolism. There is no active metabolism of elements after the completion of dentin. Dentin is surrounded by enamel and cementum, and is not affected by the oral environment. Therefore, the amount of trace elements in dentin may change with age, and this is considered to be a reliable biological load index. The objectives in this study are to demonstrate concentrations of elements in the dentin of healthy Japanese subjects by sex and age, and to reveal the relationship between element levels and age. 121 healthy teeth samples were extracted due to periodontal disease or orthodontic treatment. Each tooth was sliced from the crown to the root apex into 0.5-1mm thickness, then enamel, cementum, and the pulp were removed; the dentins were used as samples. The concentration of 10 trace elements (B, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb) in the dentin was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). The differences Co and Pb in the dentin between men and women were significant (p<0.01). Significant positive correlation was observed between B, Co, Cu, Zn, Sr and Pb concentrations in the dentin and age (p<0.001). The results of the present study suggest that human dentin is an appropriate substance for relativity with sex and age at further future research. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Zinc asparaginate supplementation induces redistribution of toxic trace elements in rat tissues and organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skalny Andrey A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of the current study was the investigation of the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation for 7 and 14 days on toxic metal and metalloid content in rat organs and tissues. Rats obtained zinc asparaginate in doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg/day for 7 and 14 days. At the end of the experiment rat tissues and organs (liver, kidney, heart, m. gastrocnemius, serum, and hair were collected for subsequent analysis. Estimation of Zn, Al, As, Li, Ni, Sn, Sr content in the harvested organs was performed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry at NexION 300D. The obtained data showed that intragastric administration of zinc significantly increased liver, kidney and serum zinc concentrations. Seven-day zinc treatment significantly affected the toxic trace element content in the animals’ organs. Zinc supplementation significantly decreased particularly liver aluminium, nickel, and tin content, whereas lead tended to increase. Zinc-induced changes in kidney metal content were characterized by elevated lithium and decreased nickel concentration. Zinc-induced alteration of myocardical toxic element content was multidirectional. Muscle aluminium and lead concentration were reduced in response to zinc supplementation. At the same time, serum and hair toxic element concentrations remained relatively stable after 7-day zinc treatment. Zinc asparaginate treatment of 14 days significantly depressed liver and elevated kidney lithium content, whereas a significant zinc-associated decrease was detected in kidney strontium content. Zinc supplementation for 14 days resulted also in multidirectional changes in the content of heart toxic elements. At the same time, significant zinc-associated decrease in muscle lithium and nickel levels was observed. Fourteen-day zinc treatment resulted in significantly increased serum arsenic and tin concentrations, whereas hair trace element content remained relatively stable. Generally, the obtained data

  15. Trace element concentrations in freshwater mussels and macrophytes as related to those in their environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gian Maria BEONE

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was primarily designed to contribute to the debate "Do accumulator species reflect the element contamination level of their environment?" This research was carried out: 1 to know the distribution of 15 trace elements and calcium in shell and soft tissues of three species of freshwater mussels and macrophytes; 2 to compare the accumulation capacity of each trace element by mussels and by eight species of macrophytes and 3 to test the relationships between the metal concentrations in the mussels and macrophytes and those in water and sediments. The variability of element residues in the mussels is the major limit to accumulator monitoring. The most important causes are: seasonal cycle, physical environment and biological factors such as the size, age and growth rate. This research was designed to eliminate the consequence of variability deriving from the season and the environment. To this end the mussels and macrophytes were collected at the same time from the same habitat: Ranco Bay, Lago Maggiore, Northern Italy. In addition, the element concentrations in more size-classes of the most abundant mussel species (Unio pictorum and Dreissena polymorpha were measured. Trace elements were analyzed by Inductive Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS. By arranging the data in sequences of decreasing element concentrations in the organisms as well as in water and sediments, we were able to compare the accumulating ability of the tested species and evaluate their capacity to reflect environmental availability. Neither the sequences in the shell nor those in the tissues were similar to the sequence in the water. The differences between the sequences of the mussel tissues and those of the sediments were less striking than those between shells and sediments. Similar results were obtained by macrophytes. In conclusion, the results of this study (which mimics the monitoring practice prove that bioaccumulators cannot be used to evaluate the

  16. Using column experiments to examine transport of As and other trace elements released from poultry litter: Implications for trace element mobility in agricultural watersheds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewumi, Oluyinka; Schreiber, Madeline E

    2017-08-01

    Trace elements are added to poultry feed to control infection and improve weight gain. However, the fate of these trace elements in poultry litter is poorly understood. Because poultry litter is applied as fertilizer in many agricultural regions, evaluation of the environmental processes that influence the mobility of litter-derived trace elements is critical for predicting if trace elements are retained in soil or released to water. This study examined the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in poultry litter leachate on the fate and transport of litter-derived elements (As, Cu, P and Zn) using laboratory column experiments with soil collected from the Delmarva Peninsula (Mid-Atlantic, USA), a region of intense poultry production. Results of the experiments showed that DOC enhanced the mobility of all of the studied elements. However, despite the increased mobility, 60-70% of Zn, As and P mass was retained within the soil. In contrast, almost all of the Cu was mobilized in the litter leachate experiments, with very little retention in soil. Overall, our results demonstrate that the mobility of As, Cu, Zn and P in soils which receive poultry litter application is strongly influenced by both litter leachate composition, specifically organic acids, and adsorption to soil. Results have implications for understanding fate and transport of trace elements released from litter application to soil water and groundwater, which can affect both human health and the environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Background levels of trace elements in rain and river waters in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumura, Akito [National Inst. of Agro-Environmental Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Yamasaki, Shin-ichi

    1998-01-01

    It is important to know the concentrations of trace elements such as uranium, thorium and lanthanoids in river and rain waters for evaluation of various environmental radioactive contaminations and of safety of those elements. Analysis in combination of high resolution-induction combination plasma-mass spectrometry (HR-ICP-MS) and ultrasound nebulizer (USN) has made it possible to detect those element at ng/l levels. A preliminary study on concentrations of those elements was performed to know their natural abundance in those waters. Water samples of 82 rivers in Japan collected from 1989-1991 and of rain collected in Kohtoh district, Tokyo and in Tsukuba city, Ibaraki Prefecture from October, 1991-March, 1993 were filtered and subjected to analyses by HR-ICP-MS and USN with SPEX mix standard. Accuracy was 2-5% (low resolution) and 5-10% (high resolution) and detection limit, 0.0007 ng/l (U)-2 ng/l (Fe). From the upper to down stream of the river, a gradual increase in the concentration of those elements as Li, V, Rb, Cs, Ba, Tl and U was observed, a rapid increase, as NO3-N, NH4-N, Na, K, Ca, Mg, PO4-P, SO4-S, Cl, Co, Zn and heavy rare earth elements, and an unaltered concentration, as Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Cd, Pb, Ga, Bi, Y and middle and light rare earth elements. A great variety in element concentrations was observed in the rain. For lanthanoids, Oddo-Harkins law was observed in both river and rain waters. (K.H.)

  18. Design of an expert system for mitigating trace element toxicity in cancer risk management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, P T; Vinod, P T; Phoha, Vir V; Iyengar, S S; Iyengar, Puneeth

    2013-01-01

    Cancer risk management involves obliterating excess concentration of cancer causing trace elements by the natural immune system and hence intake of nutritious diet is of paramount importance. Human diet should consist of essential macronutrients that have to be consumed in large quantities and trace elements are to be consumed in very little amount. As some of these trace elements are causative factors for various types of cancer and build up at the expense of macronutrients, cancer risk management of these trace elements should be based on their initial concentration in the blood of each individual and not on their tolerable upper intake level. We propose an information theory based Expert System (ES) for estimating the lowest limit of toxicity association between the trace elements and the macronutrients. Such an estimate would enable the physician to prescribe required medication containing the macronutrients to annul the toxicity of cancer risk trace elements. The lowest limit of toxicity association is achieved by minimizing the correlated information of the concentration correlation matrix using the concept of Mutual Information (MI) and an algorithm based on a Technique of Determinant Inequalities (TDI) developed by the authors. The novelty of our ES is that it provides the lowest limit of toxicity profile for all trace elements in the blood not restricted to a group of compounds having similar structure. We demonstrate the superiority our algorithm over Principal Component Analysis in mitigating trace element toxicity in blood samples.

  19. Trace-Element Analyses of Carbonate Minerals in the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Aurora; Papike, James J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the petrography, mineralogy and trace-element abundances of individual carbonate grains in the Early Proterozoic Gunflint BIF (Banded Iron Formation). Trace-element data may be used as environmental recorders of the fluid evolution from which the various carbonate phases precipitated. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Trace-Element Analyses of Carbonate Minerals in the Gunflint Banded Iron Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pun, Aurora; Papike, James J.; Shearer, C. K.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the petrography, mineralogy and trace-element abundances of individual carbonate grains in the Early Proterozoic Gunflint BIF (Banded Iron Formation). Trace-element data may be used as environmental recorders of the fluid evolution from which the various carbonate phases precipitated. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Trace Element Compositions of Pallasite Olivine Grains and Pallasite Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Herrin, J. S.

    2010-01-01

    Pallasites are mixtures of metal with magnesian olivine. Most have similar metal compositions and olivine oxygen isotopic compositions; these are the main-group pallasites (PMG). The Eagle Station grouplet of pallasites (PES) have distinctive metal and olivine compositions and oxygen isotopic compositions. Pallasites are thought to have formed at the core-mantle boundary of their parent asteroids by mixing molten metal with solid olivine of either cumulatic or restitic origin. We have continued our investigation of pallasite olivines by doing in situ trace element analyses in order to further constrain their origin. We determined Al, P, Ca, Ga and first row transition element contents of olivine grains from suite of PMG and PES by LA-ICP-MS at JSC. Included in the PMG suite are some that have anomalous metal compositions (PMG-am) and atypically ferroan olivines (PMG-as). Our EMPA work has shown that there are unanticipated variations in olivine Fe/Mn, even within those PMG that have uni-form Fe/Mg. Manganese is homologous with Fe2+, and thus can be used the same way to investigate magmatic fractionation processes. It has an advantage for pallasite studies in that it is unaffected by redox exchange with the metal. PMG can be divided into three clusters on the basis of Mn/Mg; low, medium and high that can be thought of as less, typically and more fractionated in an igneous sense. The majority of PMG have medium Mn/Mg ratios. PMG-am occur in all three clusters; there does not seem to be any relationship between putative olivine igneous fractionation and metal composition. The PMG-as and one PMG-am make up the high Mn/Mg cluster; no PMG are in this cluster. The high Mn/Mg cluster ought to be the most fractionated (equivalent to the most Fe-rich in igneous suites), yet they have among the lowest contents of incompatible lithophile elements Al and Ti and the two PMG-as in this cluster also have low Ca and Sc contents. This is inconsistent with simple igneous

  2. Evaluation of Trace Elements and Their Relationship with Growth and Development of Young Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jia; Gao, Zhenyan; Yan, Jin; Li, Minming; Su, Jia; Xu, Jian; Yan, Chong-Huai

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to assess the levels of trace elements and their relationship with growth and development of children in Shanghai, China, to offer scientific evidence for supplementing trace elements in children. A stratified, clustered, random sampling method was used in the study. Blood samples were taken from 2141 Shanghai children from 0 to 6.0 years old, and the concentrations of zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and magnesium (Mg) were measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Nutritional status was determined and Z-scores of anthropometric parameters, such as height for age (HFA), weight for age (WFA), and body mass index (BMI) were calculated, indicated by HAZ, WAZ, and BMIZ, respectively. The overall median blood levels of Zn, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Mg were 8.83, 79.02, 9.49, 1.04, and 15.45 mg/L, respectively. Fe, Cu, and Mg increased with age and Zn, Fe, and Cu differed by sex. HAZ and WAZ were positively correlated with Zn (r (2) = 0.072 and 0.053, respectively; P children's growth and development. Dietary supplementation and screening of nutritional states are potential solutions to improve children's growth and development.

  3. Variation in Macro and Trace Elements in Progression of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Siddiqui

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Macro elements are the minerals of which the body needs more amounts and are more important than any other elements. Trace elements constitute a minute part of the living tissues and have various metabolic characteristics and functions. Trace elements participate in tissue and cellular and subcellular functions; these include immune regulation by humoral and cellular mechanisms, nerve conduction, muscle contractions, membrane potential regulations, and mitochondrial activity and enzyme reactions. The status of micronutrients such as iron and vanadium is higher in type 2 diabetes. The calcium, magnesium, sodium, chromium, cobalt, iodine, iron, selenium, manganese, and zinc seem to be low in type 2 diabetes while elements such as potassium and copper have no effect. In this review, we emphasized the status of macro and trace elements in type 2 diabetes and its advantages or disadvantages; this helps to understand the mechanism, progression, and prevention of type 2 diabetes due to the lack and deficiency of different macro and trace elements.

  4. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jaial [Dept. of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  5. Zinc is an essential trace element for spermatogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Sonoko; Miura, Chiemi; Kikuchi, Kazuya; Celino, Fritzie T; Agusa, Tetsuro; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Miura, Takeshi

    2009-06-30

    Zinc (Zn) plays important roles in various biological activities but there is little available information regarding its functions in spermatogenesis. In our current study, we further examined the role of Zn during spermatogenesis in the Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica). Human CG (hCG) was injected into the animals to induce spermatogenesis, after which the concentration of Zn in the testis increased in tandem with the progression of spermatogenesis. Staining of testicular cells with a Zn-specific fluorescent probe revealed that Zn accumulates in germ cells, particularly in the mitochondria of spermatogonia and spermatozoa. Using an in vitro testicular organ culture system for the Japanese eel, production of a Zn deficiency by chelation with N,N,N',N'-tetrakis (2-pyridylemethyl)ethylenediamine (TPEN) caused apoptosis of the germ cells. However, this cell death was rescued by the addition of Zn to the cultures. Furthermore, an induced deficiency of Zn by TPEN chelation was found to inhibit the germ cell proliferation induced by 11-ketotestosterone (KT), a fish specific androgen, 17alpha,20beta-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (DHP), the initiator of meiosis in fish, and estradiol-17beta (E2), an inducer of spermatogonial stem-cell renewal. We also investigated the effects of Zn deficiency on sperm motility and observed that TPEN treatment of eel sperm suppressed the rate and duration of their motility but that co-treatment with Zn blocked the effects of TPEN. Our present results thus suggest that Zn is an essential trace element for the maintenance of germ cells, the progression spermatogenesis, and the regulation of sperm motility.

  6. Preliminary study of trace element emissions and control during coal combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Junying; ZHAO Yongchun; DING Feng; ZENG Hancai; ZHENG Chuguang

    2007-01-01

    Hazardous trace element emissions have caused serious harm to human health in China.Several typical high-toxic trace element coals were collected from different districts and were used to investigate the emission characteristics of toxic trace elements (As,Se,Cr,Hg) and to explore preliminary control methods.Coal combustion tests were conducted in several bench-scale furnaces including drop tube furnace (DTF),circulating fluidized bed (CFB) combustion furnace,and fixed-bed combustion furnace.Calcium oxide was used to control the emission of arsenic and selenium.The granular activated carbons (AC) and activatedcarbon fibers (ACF) were used to remove mercury in the flue gas from coal combustion.The chemical composition and trace element contents of ash and particulate matter (PM)were determined by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES),respectively.The speciation and concentration of mercury were investigated using the Ontario-Hydro method.X-ray diffraction spectrometry (XRD) was used to determine the mineral composition of production during combustion experiments.With the addition of a calciumbased sorbent,arsenic concentration in PM1 sharply decreased from 0.25-0.11 mg/m3.In fixed-bed combustion of coal,the retention rates of selenium volatiles were between 11.6% and 50.7% using lime.In the circulating fluidized-bed combustion of coal,the content of selenium in ash from the chimney was reduced to one-fourth of its original value and that in leaching water from the chimney decreased by two orders of magnitude using lime.Calcium-based sorbent is an effective additive to control the emission of As and Se during coal combustion.The emission of chromium is influenced by the occurrence mode of Cr in coal.Chromium emission in PM2.5 during coal combustion is 55.5 and 34.7 μg/m3 for Shenbei coal and mixed Pingdingshan coal,respectively.The adsorptive capacity of granular activated carbon for Hg0 is

  7. Trace elements partitioning during co-firing biomass with lignite in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogebakan, Zuhal [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: zuhalgogebakan@hotmail.com; Selcuk, Nevin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara (Turkey)], E-mail: selcuk@metu.edu.tr

    2009-03-15

    This study describes the partitioning of 18 trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, Zn) and 9 major and minor elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S, Si, Ti) during co-firing of olive residue, hazelnut shell and cotton residue with high sulfur and ash content lignite in 0.3 MW{sub t} Middle East Technical University (METU) Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustor (ABFBC) test rig with limestone addition. Concentrations of trace elements in coal, biomass, limestone, bottom ash, cyclone ash and filter ash were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission and mass spectroscopy (ICP-OES and ICP-MS). Partitioning of major and minor elements are influenced by the ash split between the bottom ash and fly ash and that the major proportion of most of the trace elements (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Tl, V and Zn) are recovered in fly ash when firing lignite only. Co-firing lignite with biomass enhances partitioning of these elements to fly ash. Co-firing also shifts the partitioning of Cd, P, Sb and Sn from bottom to fly ash.

  8. 微波消解-电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定湿基草莓中 15 种微量稀土元素%Determination of 15 Trace Rare Earth Elements in the Fresh Strawberries by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry With Microwave Digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨威

    2016-01-01

    The microwave digestion method was used to decompose the sample, and then 15 trace rare earth elements in the fresh strawberries were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The results show that correlation coefficient (r) of the method is between 0.999 5 ~ 1.000 0, recoveries of the method are between 94.2%~106.4%, the precision (RSD%) is less than 6.92%. The method has simple process, high accuracy and precision, the detection limit can meet the requirements, so it is suitable for the determination of trace determination of rare earth elements in the fresh strawberries.%应用微波消解进行样品前处理,电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定湿基草莓中的 15 种微量稀土元素.试验结果表明,该方法相关系数(r)在 0.999 5~1.000 0 之间,方法回收率在 94.2%~106.4%之间,方法精密度(RSD%)低于 6.92%.该方法具有前处理过程简单、引入干扰少、准确度、精密度、检出限满足要求,同时具有线性范围广、测试速度快等特点,适合湿基草莓样品中微量稀土元素的测定.

  9. Determination of the correlation between elemental and organic carbons to trace elemental substances and anions in DPM samples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mahlangu, Vusi J

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available improvements and analysis techniques. Samples investigated were received from different mine commodities and were initially characterised for their diesel particulate matter content and trace elemental substances on a thermo-optical analyser and an inductively...

  10. LA-ICP-MS trace element mapping: insights into the crystallisation history of a metamorphic garnet population

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Freya; Gaidies, Fred

    2017-04-01

    In comparison to our understanding of major element zoning, relatively little is known about the incorporation of trace elements into metamorphic garnet. Given their extremely slow diffusivities and sensitivity to changing mineral assemblages, the analysis of the distribution of trace elements in garnet has the potential to yield a wealth of information pertaining to interfacial attachment mechanisms during garnet crystallisation, the mobility of trace elements in both garnet and the matrix, and trace element geochronology. Due to advances in the spatial resolution and analytical precision of modern microbeam techniques, small-scale trace element variations can increasingly be documented and used to inform models of metamorphic crystallisation. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) in particular, can be used to rapidly quantify a wide range of elemental masses as a series of laser rasters, producing large volumes of spatially constrained trace element data. In this study, we present LA-ICP-MS maps of trace element concentrations from numerous centrally-sectioned garnets representative of the crystal size-distribution of a single sample's population. The study sample originates from the garnet-grade Barrovian zone of the Lesser Himalayan Sequence in Sikkim, northeast India, and has been shown to have crystallised garnet within a single assemblage between 515 ˚C and 565˚C, with no evidence for accessory phase reaction over the duration of garnet growth. Previous models have indicated that the duration of garnet crystallisation was extremely rapid (documents the primary zonation generated during garnet growth. In spite of straightforward (i.e. concentrically-zoned) major element garnet zonation, trace elements maps are characterised by significant complexity and variability. Y and the heavy rare earth elements are strongly enriched in crystal cores, where there is overprinting of the observed internal fabric, and exhibit numerous

  11. Trace elements in early phase type 2 diabetes mellitus-A population-based study. The HUNT study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ailin Falkmo; Simić, Anica; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Midthjell, Kristian; Syversen, Tore; Flaten, Trond Peder

    2017-03-01

    Differences in trace elements levels between individuals with type 2 diabetes and controls have been reported in several studies in various body fluids and tissues, but results have been inconsistent. In order to examine trace element levels in the early phase of type 2 diabetes, we investigated the association between whole blood levels of 26 trace elements and the prevalence of previously undiagnosed, screening-detected type 2 diabetes. The study was conducted as a case-control study nested within the third survey of the population-based Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT3 Survey). Among participants without previously known diabetes, 128 cases of type 2 diabetes were diagnosed in people with a high diabetes risk score (FINDRISC≥15), and frequency-matched for age and sex with 755 controls. Blood samples were analyzed by high resolution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between trace element levels and the prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes were evaluated with multivariable conditional logistic regression controlling for age, sex, body mass index, waist-to-hip ratio, education, income, smoking and family history of diabetes. The prevalence of previously undiagnosed type 2 diabetes increased across tertiles/quartiles for cadmium, chromium, iron, nickel, silver and zinc, and decreased with increasing quartiles of bromine (Ptrendzinc in the development of type 2 diabetes.

  12. Do consumption of Kargi Tulum cheese meet daily requirements for minerals and trace elements?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seval Sevgi Kirdar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The mineral and trace elements of Kargı Tulum cheese are investigated during the ripening period of 90 days. Calcium, potassium, phosphorus, sodium, magnesium, manganese, copper, zinc and iron quantities were determined by simultaneous inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES. The effect of maturation time on the sodium, phosphor and potassium content of cheese samples has been found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. Magnesium and calcium levels during ripening period showed significant statistical difference (p<0.01. Copper values of cheese samples demonstrated an increase throughout 90-day maturation time. The effect of maturation time on manganese and zinc value has been found to be statistically significant (p<0.05. According to obtained data, by consuming 100 g Kargı Tulum cheese in daily period, an adult can provide a remarkable portion of his/her minerals needs.

  13. Trace Elements in Fluid Inclusions in the Carlin-Type Gold Deposits, Southwestern Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏文超; 胡瑞忠; 漆亮; 方维萱

    2001-01-01

    Fluid inclusions in quartz from the Lannigou and Yata Carlin-type gold deposits in southwestern Guizhou were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry for their trace elements (Co, Ni, Cu, Pb, Zn, Pt, etc. ). The results show that quartz fluid inclusions entrapped at different ore-forming stages contain higher Co, Ni, Cu, Pb and Zn. It has been found for the first time that the ore-forming fluids responsible for the Carlin-type gold deposits are rich in Pt. From this it can be concluded that basic volcanic rocks seem to be one of the im portant sources of ore-forming materials for the Carlin-type gold deposits.

  14. Determination of Trace Elements in Pomegranate Peel and Pomegranate Seed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry with Microwave Digestion%微波消解-等离子体原子发射光谱法测定石榴皮和石榴籽中微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴佳; 解成喜

    2012-01-01

    采用微波消解样品,电感耦合等离子体原子发射光谱法(ICP-AES)测定了石榴皮和石榴籽中K、Ca、Mg、Fe、A1、Cu、Zn、Mn、Na、Li、P、S12种微量元素的含量.在最佳仪器工作条件下,各元素的加标回收率为91.8%~103.1%,相对标准偏差(RSD)为0.70%~2.68%.实验结果可为石榴皮和石榴籽中微量元素与其药效的相关性提供科学依据.%The trace elements of K,Ca,Mg,Fe, Al,Cu,Zn,Mn,Na,Li,P and S in the pomegranate peel and pomegranate seed were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with microwave digestion. Under the optimal working conditions of the equipment, the element recoveries of standard addition are 91. 8% ~ 103. l%,and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) are 0. 70%~2. 68%.

  15. Determination of Twelve Trace Elements in Children`s hair by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry%电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法测定儿童发样中十二种微量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代建强; 杨诗佳

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses the nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide sample digestionarticle, Determination of aluminum, calcium, chromium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, manganese, lead, nickel, zinc and other trace elements in children's hair by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry.The recovery rate of 95%~105%,The detection limit of element (ug/ml) in 0.0010-0.011,The relative standard deviation (RSD, n=9) is less than 4%,After verification of human hair in national standard reference samples, The measured value had no significant difference with standard value.%采用硝酸-过氧化氢消解试样,电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法测定儿童发样中铝、钙、铬、铜、铁、钾、镁、锰、钠、铅、镍、锌等十二种微量元素。方法回收率95%~105%,各元素检出限(ug/mL)在0.0010~0.011之间,相对标准偏差(RSD,n=9)小于4%,经人发国家一级标准物质验证,测定值与标准认定值无明显差异。

  16. Impact of Maternal Helicobacter pylori Infection on Trace Elements (Copper, Iron and Zinc and Pregnancy Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel I Akubugwo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: H. pylori infection has been suggested to interfere with micronutrient metabolism and influence pregnancy outcomes. Objectives: This study therefore seeks to document the prevalence of H. pylori seroposivity among pregnant women and to determine its impact on some trace element status and pregnancy outcomes. Materials and methods: Three hundred and forty nine consenting pregnant women aged 15-40 years (mean; 27. 04 ± 4. 75 years and gestational age ≤ 25 weeks (mean 21.77 ± 3.14 wks attending antenatal clinic at Federal Medical Centre, Abakaliki, between July 2007 and September 2008 participated in the study. H. Pylori antibody (IgG was determined by a new generation ELISA method. Plasma copper, iron and zinc were analysed using flame atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Bulk Scientific AVG 210 Model while haemoglobin and albumin were analysed using standard haematological and biochemical techniques. Both maternal sociodemographic and anthropometric parameters were recorded at recruitment. The women were followed-up till delivery after which neonatal anthropometrics and other birth outcomes were recorded. Results: H. pylori seroprevalence of 24.1% (84/349 was recorded with higher prevalence in multiparous and older women. H. pylori infected women had significantly higher BMI (29.00 ± 3.89 vs. 26.86 ± 4.10, p = 0.020 and lower (p > 0.05 plasma levels of Cu, Fe, Zn, albumin, and haemoglobin when compared to non-infected women. Also H. pylori infected women had significantly (p < 0.05 higher rates of convulsion and concomitant illnesses than their non-infected counterparts, although there was no difference in the two groups for other pregnancy outcomes. Conclusion: H. pylori infection during pregnancy seems to interfere with trace element metabolism and contribute significantly to increased maternal morbidity. Prior to confirmation of these findings in a well controlled randomised trial, it is suggested that pregnant women be

  17. Trace element profiles of the sea anemone Anemonia viridis living nearby a natural CO2 vent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rael Horwitz

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification (OA is not an isolated threat, but acts in concert with other impacts on ecosystems and species. Coastal marine invertebrates will have to face the synergistic interactions of OA with other global and local stressors. One local factor, common in coastal environments, is trace element contamination. CO2 vent sites are extensively studied in the context of OA and are often considered analogous to the oceans in the next few decades. The CO2 vent found at Levante Bay (Vulcano, NE Sicily, Italy also releases high concentrations of trace elements to its surrounding seawater, and is therefore a unique site to examine the effects of long-term exposure of nearby organisms to high pCO2 and trace element enrichment in situ. The sea anemone Anemonia viridis is prevalent next to the Vulcano vent and does not show signs of trace element poisoning/stress. The aim of our study was to compare A. viridis trace element profiles and compartmentalization between high pCO2 and control environments. Rather than examining whole anemone tissue, we analyzed two different body compartments—the pedal disc and the tentacles, and also examined the distribution of trace elements in the tentacles between the animal and the symbiotic algae. We found dramatic changes in trace element tissue concentrations between the high pCO2/high trace element and control sites, with strong accumulation of iron, lead, copper and cobalt, but decreased concentrations of cadmium, zinc and arsenic proximate to the vent. The pedal disc contained substantially more trace elements than the anemone’s tentacles, suggesting the pedal disc may serve as a detoxification/storage site for excess trace elements. Within the tentacles, the various trace elements displayed different partitioning patterns between animal tissue and algal symbionts. At both sites iron was found primarily in the algae, whereas cadmium, zinc and arsenic were primarily found in the animal tissue. Our data

  18. Geochemistry and Modes of Occurrence of Hazardous Trace Elements in the No.11 Coal Seam, Antaibao Surface Mine, Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Dangyu; QIN Yong; WANG Wenfeng; ZHANG Junying; ZHENG Chuguang

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations of seventeen hazardous trace elements including As, Pb, Hg, Se, Cd, Cr, Co,Mo, Mn, Ni, U, V, Th, Be, Sb, Br and Zn in the No.11 coal seam, Antaibao surface mine, Shanxi Province were determined using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES), Cold-Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (CV-AAS) and Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (GF-AAS).Comparisons with average concentrations of trace elements in Chinese coal show that the concentrations of Hg and Cd in the No. 11 coal seam, Antaibao surface mine are much higher. They may be harmful to the environment in the process of utilization. The variations of the trace elements contents and pyritic sulfur in vertical section indicated that: (a) the concentrations of As, Pb, Mn, and pyritic sulfur decrease from roof to floor; (b) the concentrations of Cr, Zn and Mo are higher in roof,floor and lower in coal seam; (c) the concentration of Br, Sb, and Hg are higher in coal seam and lower in roof and floor; (d) the concentrations of Mo, V, Th and Al vary consistently with the ash yield.Cluster analysis of trace elements, pyritic sulfur, ash yield and major elements, such as Al, Fe, P, Ca shows that: (a) pyritic sulfur, Fe, As, Mn, Ni, Be are closely associated and reflect the influence of pyrite; (b) Mo, Se, Pb, Cr, Th, Co, Ca and Al are related to clay mineral, which is the main source of ash; (c) U, Zn, V, Na, P maybe controlled by phosphate or halite; (d) Hg, Br, Sb and Cd may be mainly organic-associated elements which fall outside the three main groups. The concentration distribution characteristics of trace elements in coal seam and the cluster analysis of major and trace elements showed that the contents of trace elements in the No. 11 coal seam, Antaibao surface mine, are mainly controlled by detrital input and migration from roof and floor.

  19. Relationship between microstructures and grain-scale trace element distribution in komatiite-hosted magmatic sulphide ores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukmanovic, Zoja; Reddy, Steven M.; Godel, Bélinda; Barnes, Stephen J.; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Barnes, Sarah-Jane; Kilburn, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Komatiite-hosted nickel sulphides from the Yilgarn Craton (Australia) consist of two main sulphide phases: pyrrhotite (Fe7S8) and pentlandite ((Fe,Ni)9S8); two minor sulphide phases: chalcopyrite (CuFeS2) and pyrite (FeS2) and trace arsenides. Samples of massive sulphides from three deposits with diverse deformation and metamorphic histories (the Silver Swan, Perseverance and Flying Fox deposits) have been studied by electron backscatter diffraction and laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry. These ore bodies were selected to investigate the relationship between microstructures and mineral trace element chemistry in three dominant sulphide species in each deposit. In all three samples, pyrrhotite preserves a strong evidence of crystal plasticity relative to both pentlandite and pyrite. The trace element composition of pyrrhotite shows significant variation in specific elements (Pb, Bi and Ag). This variation correlates spatially with intragrain pyrrhotite microstructures, such as low angle and twin boundaries. Minor signatures of crystal plasticity in pyrite and pentlandite occur in the form of rare low angle boundaries (pentlandite) and mild lattice misorientation (pyrite). Trace element compositions of pentlandite and pyrite show no correlation with microstructures. Variations in pyrrhotite are interpreted as a result of intragrain diffusion during the syn- and post-deformation history of the deposit. Intragrain diffusion can occur either due to bulk diffusion, dislocation-impurity pair diffusion, or by "pipe diffusion", i.e. along fast diffusion pathways at high and low angle, and twin boundaries. This contribution examines three different diffusion models and suggests that dislocation-impurity pair diffusion and pipe diffusion are the most likely processes behind increased trace element concentration along the microstructures in pyrrhotite. The same phenomenon is observed in samples from three

  20. Evaluation of effect of selected trace elements on dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowiak, Artur; Bakalczuk, Grzegorz; Bakalczuk, Szymon

    2015-12-31

    Lead and cadmium can lead to negative effects on sperm chromatin DNA integrity. Copper, zinc and selenium are essential components of many enzymes which are important for reproduction. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and selenium on the dynamics of semen DNA fragmentation. The present study concerned 85 fertile and 131 infertile men aged 25-35. DNA fragmentation in the samples was determined after 3 h, 6 h and 12 h. The Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Se measurements were performed by the electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry method. We found that sperm DNA fragmentation was a dynamic process which was intensified with an increase in the level of lead in seminal plasma. The levels of lead and cadmium were higher in seminal plasma of infertile men, compared to fertile men. The levels of zinc, copper and selenium in seminal plasma were higher in men with proven fertility, compared to infertile men, and did not exert a significant effect on the dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation. The level of cadmium had no significant effect on intensification of sperm DNA fragmentation in time. Reports in the literature which concern the effect of trace elements on human reproduction are equivocal. The present study confirmed an unfavourable effect, especially that of lead, on the dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation; however, these studies need to be expanded and continued in the future.

  1. Trace elements have limited utility for studying migratory connectivity in shorebirds that winter in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Dowdall, J.; Farmer, A.H.; Abril, M.; Bucher, E.H.; Ridley, I.

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element analysis has been suggested as a tool for the study of migratory connectivity because (1) trace-element abundance varies spatially in the environment, (2) trace elements are assimilated into animals' tissues through the diet, and (3) current technology permits the analysis of multiple trace elements in a small tissue sample, allowing the simultaneous exploration of several elements. We explored the potential of trace elements (B, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Sr, Cs, Hg, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, and U) to clarify the migratory connectivity of shorebirds that breed in North America and winter in southern South America. We collected 66 recently replaced secondary feathers from Red Knots (Calidris canutus) at three sites in Patagonia and 76 from White-rumped Sandpipers (C. fuscicollis) at nine sites across Argentina. There were significant differences in trace-element abundance in shorebird feathers grown at different nonbreeding sites, and annual variability within a site was small compared to variability among sites. Across Argentina, there was no large-scale gradient in trace elements. The lack of such a gradient restricts the application of this technique to questions concerning the origin of shorebirds to a small number of discrete sites. Furthermore, our results including three additional species, the Pectoral Sandpiper (C. melanotos), Wilson's Phalarope (Phalaropus tricolor), and Collared Plover (Charadrius collaris), suggest that trace-element profiles change as feathers age. Temporal instability of trace-element values could undermine their application to the study of migratory connectivity in shorebirds. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2010.

  2. [Determination of trace elements in waste beer yeasts by ICP-MS with microwave digestion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xian-zhong; Jin, Can; Zhang, Kai-cheng

    2008-10-01

    The waste beer yeast has rich nutritional compositions and is widely used in food, medical and forage industries. The security of the yeast plays an important role in everyone's daily life. But the yeast contanining microamount of lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic and other harmful metals is endangering human health. A new method was developed for the direct determination of eight elements, namely copper, lead, zinc, iron, manganese, cadmium, chromium and arsenic in waste beer yeast by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with microwave digestion. The parameters of plasma system, mass system, vacuum system and spectrometer system were optimized. The spectral interferences were eliminated by selecting alternation analytical isotopes of 65Cu, 208Pb, 66Zn, 57Fe, 55Mn, 114Cd, 52Cr and 5As, and the internal standards of Rh was selected to compensate the drift of analytical signals. The samples were digested with concentrated nitric acid-hydrogen peroxide (2:1) mixed solution more rapidly and more effectively. The effects of the type of mixed acid , the volume of digesting solution, heating time, and heating power were investigated in detail. In the closed system, the complete digestion was performed using 4 mL HNO3 and 2mL H2O2 for 2.0 min at 0.5 MPa, 3 min at 1.0 MPa and 5 min at 1.5 MPa. The detection limits of these eight elements were 0.013-0.122 microg x L(-1). The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 0.94%-3.26% (n=9), and the addition standard recovery was 98.4%-102.6% for all elements. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of trace elements of Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cd, Cr and As in waste beer yeast samples with satisfactory results. The determination results indicated that the content of trace elements of Cu, Pb, Cd and As in waste beer yeast samples are significantly low.

  3. Trace elements in Zn Pb Ag deposits and related stream sediments, Brooks Range Alaska, with implications for Tl as a pathfinder element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, G.E.; Kelley, K.D.; Slack, J.F.; Koenig, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    The Zn-Pb-Ag metallogenic province of the western and central Brooks Range, Alaska, contains two distinct but mineralogically similar deposit types: shale-hosted massive sulphide (SHMS) and smaller vein-breccia occurrences. Recent investigations of the Red Dog and Anarraaq SHMS deposits demonstrated that these deposits are characterized by high trace-element concentrations of As, Ge, Sb and Tl. This paper examines geochemistry of additional SHMS deposits (Drenchwater and Su-Lik) to determine which trace elements are ubiquitously elevated in all SHMS deposits. Data from several vein-breccia occurrences are also presented to see if trace-element concentrations can distinguish SHMS deposits from vein-breccia occurrences. Whole-rock geochemical data indicate that Tl is the most consistently and highly concentrated characteristic trace element in SHMS deposits relative to regional unmineralized rock samples. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) analyses of pyrite and sphalerite indicate that Tl is concentrated in pyrite in SHMS. Stream sediment data from the Drenchwater and Su-Lik SHMS show that high Tl concentrations are more broadly distributed proximal to known or suspected mineralization than As, Sb, Zn and Pb anomalies. This broader distribution of Tl in whole-rock and particularly stream sediment samples increases the footprint of exposed and shallowly buried SHMS mineralization. High Tl concentrations also distinguish SHMS mineralization from the vein-breccia deposits, as the latter lack high concentrations of Tl but can otherwise have similar trace-element signatures to SHMS deposits. ?? 2009 AAG/Geological Society of London.

  4. Sequential-injection on-line preconcentration using chitosan resin functionalized with 2-amino-5-hydroxy benzoic acid for the determination of trace elements in environmental water samples by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    A new chelating resin using chitosan as a base material was synthesized. Functional moiety of 2-amino-5-hydroxy benzoic acid (AHBA) was chemically bonded to the amino group of cross-linked chitosan (CCTS) through the arm of chloromethyloxirane (CCTS-AHBA resin). Several elements, such as Ag, Be, Cd, Co, Cu, Ni, Ph, U, V, and rare earth elements (REEs), could be adsorbed on the resin. To use the resin for on-line pretreatment, the resin was packed in a mini-column and installed into a sequenti...

  5. Determination of trace elements in steel, nickel-base alloy and zircaloy using time of flight inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry%飞行时间-电感耦合等离子体质谱法测定钢、镍基合金及锆锡合金中痕量元素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUSTAVSSON Ingemar; GRANFORS Michael

    2007-01-01

    Time of flight inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry(TOF-ICP-MS)was used for determination of nine trace and ultra-trace elements in the steel,nickel-base alloyand zircaloy.The chips samples were wet-digested using a microwave assisted system.Linear calibration curves were obtained for a range of several orders of magnitude of ten.Someodd elements like Ga,Ta,Ir,Pt and U were determined along with the more common ones like Sn,Sb,Pb and Bi.The contents found were in the range from 0.046 μg/g(for U in zircaloy)to 45μg/g(Sn in low alloy steel).One micro-element(Sn in nickel-base alloy)were determined as well.Good precision and accuracy was obtained for elements at μg/g and subμg/g levels in the samples analysed.%在微波辅助系统中对屑状的样品进行湿法消解,采用飞行时间电感耦合等离子体质谱测定钢、镍基合金及锆锡合金中9种痕量和超痕量元素元素.所建立的工作曲线的线性跨度达多个数量级.对一些稀有元素如Ga,Ta,Ir,Pt和,U和较常见的元素如Sn,Sb,Pb和Bi一起进行测定,检测的含量范围从0.046μg/g(锆锡合金中的U)至45μg/g(低合金钢中的Sn),并测定了镍基合金中的微量元素Sn.对于所分析的样品中μg/g级和次-μg/g级的元素,获得了较好的精密度和准确度.

  6. Lead poisoning and trace elements in common eiders from Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmén, Tuula E.; Franson, J.C.; Poppenga, R.H.; Hario, Martti; Kilpi, Mikael

    1998-01-01

    We collected carcasses of 52 common eider Somateria mollissima adults and ducklings and blood samples from 11 nesting eider hens in the Gulf of Finland near Helsinki in 1994, 1995 and 1996. Samples of liver tissue were analysed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Blood was analysed for lead, mercury and selenium. Most of the 21 adults examined at necropsy were emaciated with empty gizzards, and no ingested shotgun pellets or other metal were found in any of the birds. Three adult females had a combination of lesions and tissue lead residues characteristic of lead poisoning. Two of these birds had acid-fast intranuclear inclusion bodies in renal epithelial cells and high concentrations of lead (73.4 and 73.3 ppm; all liver residues reported on dry weight basis) in their livers. The third was emaciated with a liver lead concentration of 47.9 ppm. An adult male had a liver lead concentration of 81.7 ppm, which is consistent with severe clinical poisoning. Two other adults, one male and one female, had liver lead concentrations of 14.2 and 8.03 ppm, respectively. Lead concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 0.11 to 0.63 ppm wet weight. Selenium residues of A?60 ppm were found in the livers of five adult males. Selenium concentrations in the blood of hens ranged from 1.18 to 3.39 ppm wet weight. Arsenic concentrations of 27.5-38.5 ppm were detected in the livers of four adult females. Detectable concentrations of selenium, mercury and molybdenum were found more frequently in the livers of adult males arriving on the breeding grounds than in incubating females, while the reverse was true for arsenic, lead and chromium. Mean concentrations of selenium, copper and molybdenum were higher in the livers of arriving males than in the livers of incubating hens, but hens had greater concentrations of iron and magnesium. Concentrations of trace elements were lower in the livers of ducklings than

  7. DETERMINATION of the TRACE ELEMENT LEVELS in HAIR of SMOKERS and NON-SMOKERS by ICP-MS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Varhan Oral

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For at least 50 years, determination of the trace element levels in human hair has been used to assess environmental and vocational exposure to toxic elements . As compared to other biological matrices (e.g. blood, urine, human hair is stable and therefore useful as a matrice. In this study, analyses of toxic and essential trace elements, such as Cd, Pb, Cu and Fe, were done in hair samples which we collected from male smokers (10 people and non-smokers (10 people who live in Diyarbakır, Turkey and concentrations in hair samples were compared. Hair samples were washed by a standard procedure proposed by the International Atomic Energy Agency. Then the samples were dried for 16 h at 110°C in an oven. Solubilization procedure was carried out by nitric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (3:1 in closed vessels in a microwave oven. Trace element analyses were carried out by using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS  technique. In our study, while concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Fe elements were found to be considerably higher in smokers than non-smokers, similar results were observed in Cu concentrations. The precision and accuracy of the method was evaluated by applying spike method to samples. Analytical recovery results were found between 91.2% and 104.6%.

  8. Study of mineral and essential trace elements in milk and dairy products by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and neutron activation analysis; Estudo da composicao mineral e dos elementos-traco essenciais em amostras de leite e produtos lacteos por espectrometria de emissao atomica com plasma induzido e analise por ativacao com neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, Carmen Silvia

    2002-07-01

    The importance of food composition related to nutritional and toxicological contents has been emphasized in recent years. Some chemical elements are needed for cell metabolism, while excess or deficiency may be responsible for disorders. Milk is considered the most important food during the first months of life, nutritional needs of children being satisfied by milk and dairy products. These foods provide the main trace elements for the good growth of different tissues as well as the functioning of several enzymatic systems. Important deficiencies in mineral during this period can interfere with children's development. Determination of mineral and trace elements by using spectroscopic techniques generally involves a pretreatment of sample. Sample preparation is the most critical part of the analysis because of the long preparation time and the possibilities for contamination and losses of the analyte associated with this step. Different procedures of sample preparation (dry ashing digestion, wet digestion using an open focused microwave and a hot plate) were evaluated for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk and dairy products by the ICP OES technique. In this work the concentrations obtained for the elements determined by the ICP OES technique after using the different treatments of sample were compared to the results obtained by the INAA technique, that does not require dissolution of sample. The partial digestion with diluted hydrochloric acid was found to be suitable for determining Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in milk samples and dairy products. (author)

  9. Factors affecting trace element content in periurban market garden subsoil in Yunnan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqun Zu; Laurent Bock; Christian Schvartz; Gilles Colinet; Yuan Lit

    2011-01-01

    Field investigations were conducted to measure subsoil trace element content and factors influencing content in an intensive periurban market garden in Cbenggong County, Yunnan Province, South-West China. The area was divided into three different geomorphological units: specifically, mountain (M), transition (T) and lacustrine (L). Mean trace element content in subsoil were determined for Pb (58.2 rog/kg), Cd (0.89 mg/kg), Cu (129.2 mg/kg), and Zn (97.0 mg/kg). Strong significant relationships between trace element content in topsoil and subsoil were observed. Both Pb and Zn were accumulated in topsoil (RTS (ratio of mean trace element in topsoil to subsoil)of Pb and Zn ≥1.0) and Cd and Cu in subsoil (RTS of Cd and Cu ≤1.0). Subsoil trace element content was related to relief, stoniness,soil color, clay content, and cation exchange capacity. Except for 7.5 YR (yellow-red) color, trace element content increased with color intensity from brown to reddish brown. Significant positive relationships were observed between Fe content and that of Pb and Cu.Trace element content in mountain unit subsoil was higher than in transition and lacustrine units (M > T > L), except for Cu (T > M >L). Mean trace element content in calcareous subsoil was higher than in sandstone and shale. Mean trace element content in clay texture subsoil was higher than in sandy and sandy loam subsoil, and higher Cu and Zn content in subsoil with few mottles. It is possible to model Pb, Cd, Cu, and Zn distribution in subsoil physico-chemical characteristics to help improve agricultural practice.

  10. Trace elements at the intersection of marine biological and geochemical evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Leslie J.; Lalonde, Stefan V.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Partin, Camille A.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Kendall, Brian; Scott, Clinton T.; Hardisty, Dalton S.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Alessi, Daniel S.; Dupont, Christopher L.; Saito, Mak A.; Crowe, Sean A.; Poulton, Simon W.; Bekker, Andrey; Lyons, Timothy W.; Konhauser, Kurt O.

    2016-01-01

    Life requires a wide variety of bioessential trace elements to act as structural components and reactive centers in metalloenzymes. These requirements differ between organisms and have evolved over geological time, likely guided in some part by environmental conditions. Until recently, most of what was understood regarding trace element concentrations in the Precambrian oceans was inferred by extrapolation, geochemical modeling, and/or genomic studies. However, in the past decade, the increasing availability of trace element and isotopic data for sedimentary rocks of all ages has yielded new, and potentially more direct, insights into secular changes in seawater composition – and ultimately the evolution of the marine biosphere. Compiled records of many bioessential trace elements (including Ni, Mo, P, Zn, Co, Cr, Se, and I) provide new insight into how trace element abundance in Earth's ancient oceans may have been linked to biological evolution. Several of these trace elements display redox-sensitive behavior, while others are redox-sensitive but not bioessential (e.g., Cr, U). Their temporal trends in sedimentary archives provide useful constraints on changes in atmosphere-ocean redox conditions that are linked to biological evolution, for example, the activity of oxygen-producing, photosynthetic cyanobacteria. In this review, we summarize available Precambrian trace element proxy data, and discuss how temporal trends in the seawater concentrations of specific trace elements may be linked to the evolution of both simple and complex life. We also examine several biologically relevant and/or redox-sensitive trace elements that have yet to be fully examined in the sedimentary rock record (e.g., Cu, Cd, W) and suggest several directions for future studies.

  11. [Determination of the contents of trace elements in chinese herbal medicines for treating respiratory system diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Li-Qin; Dong, Shun-Fu; Liu, Jian-Hua

    2008-02-01

    There is an intimate connection between trace elements and body healthiness, trace elements and organism depend on each other, and each trace element exists with certain proportion, which preserve physio-function. If the balance is of maladjustment, diseases may occur or develop. The trace elements were determined in 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines by atomic absorption spectrometry. The medicines include lilium brownii, herba houttuyniae, licorice root, radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi, Beimu, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Lithospermum officinalel, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi, Pinellia ternate Breit, Salisburia adiantifolia, Lonicera japonica, Radices puerarire, Bupleurum falcatum and Ligusticum wallichii, all of which could be bought on the market. Sixteen kinds of Chinese herbal medicines commonly used to treat respiratroy system diseases in clinic were selected, dried and powdered, completely mixed, 1.000 0 g was weighed accurately with analytical balance, and 3 portions were used for each kind of sample. The atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the contents of trace elements (Cu, Zn, Fe, Cr, Ni and Mn), and the content discrepancy of the trace elements in different medicines was observed the results shows that the contents of the trace elements were rich in the 16 kinds of Chinese herbal medicines, there were more contents of Fe, Zn and Mn, but they were different in different medicines. And there were more trace elements in Salisburia adiantifolia, Polygonum multiflorum Thunb, Bupleurum falcatum, Sehizandra sinensis Bail, Pinellia ternate Breit and Lithospermum officinalel, and lower trace elements in Radices puerarire, Rhizoma acori gramjnoi and Radices isatidis seu baphicacanthi. The analytic results provided useful data for using Chinese herbal medicines and provided theoretical basis for studying Chinese herbal medicines theory.

  12. Trace element emissions when firing pulverized coal in a pilot-scale combustion facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, S.F.; Wincek, R.T.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

    1998-04-01

    Title Ed of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 designates 189 hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). Fourteen of the 189 substances identified are: antimony (Sb), beryllium (Be), chlorine (0), cobalt (Co), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), selenium (Se), fluorine (F), arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and phosphorous (P). Eleven of these elements have been detected in the flue gas of pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Currently there are no regulations that limit the emissions of these elements during coal combustion in utility- or industrial-scale boilers. Given the growing body of risk assessment data on these elements and their impact on the environment and human health, it is possible that regulations on emission levels for certain elements will be imposed. A knowledge of the occurrence of trace elements in coal and their behavior during combustion is essential to predict emissions and to develop control technologies for remediation. The partitioning of trace elements during combustion can be traced to their volatility within the system. For purposes of this paper, the classification of trace elements summarized by Clarke and Sloss will be used: Group I elements, i.e., elements that are not easily volatilized and form larger bottom ash and fly ash particles; Group H elements, i.e., elements that are partially or completely volatilization followed by condensation as small particles or on the surface of small particles; and Group III elements, i.e., elements that are readily volatilized and usually remain in the gas phase system.

  13. Micro—PIXE analysis of trace element composition and their distribution in minerals of mantle peridotite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈友红; 张旗; 等

    1996-01-01

    The proton microprobe and the quantitative micro-PIXE analysis technique are used to determine trace element composition and distribution in minerals of mantle peridotite,therefore,additional useful information is provided on the study of upper mantle mineral phase transformation.An example reported here is the study on the geochemical behavior of trace elements in minerals of Suoluoshu mantle peridotite from Shandong province,which was in the process of mineral phase transformation from spinel to garnet.The study shows that trace element composition and distribution display obvious change in minerals while the mineral phase is transformed from spinel to garnet.Most of the trace elements analyzed reside in clinopyroxene and spinel.However,garnet is nearly poor in all of these elements.This phenomenon is associated with the infiltration of soultion and the existence of micropgrained inclusions in minerals in the process of mantle metasomatism.

  14. 2D mapping of LA-ICPMS trace element distributions using R

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittner, Martin; Müller, Wolfgang

    2012-05-01

    A new add-on package (LAICPMS) for the R language for statistical computing is presented, which greatly facilitates data reduction and visualisation (single tracks and 2D element maps) of laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS) data. The package determines many input parameters automatically and is easy to use. We present major and trace element distribution maps of natural calcite samples, processed using LAICPMS. Data processing from raw data to presented graphics takes only a few minutes. The empirical cumulative density function (ECDF) is used for optimised colour coding of the maps rather than linear or logarithmic scale, making a maximum of element-specific detail visible. For preprocessing, several different smoothing algorithms were evaluated and can be chosen by the user; for the presented data, a simple running median/running average was chosen. Typical data analysis is performed via short, easy-to-understand script files, and results can be used for further analyses within R. Owing to other R add-on packages utilised, the results can be output either numerically or as high-quality graphics in a wide range of file formats. Inheriting from its host environment R, the package is open-source software and freely available for all major computer platforms.

  15. Profiles of trace elements in toenails of Arab-Americans in the Detroit area, Michigan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slotnick, Melissa J; Nriagu, Jerome O; Johnson, Mary M; Linder, Aaron M; Savoie, Kathryn L; Jamil, Hikmet J; Hammad, Adnan S

    2005-11-01

    Exposure to environmental contaminants is complicated by factors related to socioeconomic status, diet, and other culturally conditioned risk behaviors. Determination of a trace element profile in toenails can be used as a tool in biomonitoring the exposure history or assessing the deficiency of a particular element in a study population, which can lead to a better understanding of environmental and disease risks. Toenail clippings from 259 Arab Americans (163 adults, 96 children) residing in a highly industrialized area were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Ba, Tl, and Pb using an inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. Mean concentrations were compared with published values, and the influence of age, gender, and other demographic factors were explored. Elevated levels of Ni in this population warrant further investigation. Significant differences in the mean concentration of Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cd, Pb, and Se exist between toenails of adults and children. Pearson correlation coefficients reveal strong significant associations among Cd, Cr, and Tl (p<0.05), in addition to other elements. These investigations provide insight into exposures and factors influencing exposures in this population while adding to the growing fund of knowledge surrounding use of toenails as a marker of exposure.

  16. Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) process: trace elements. Volume III. Pilot plant development work. Part 6. Fate of trace elements in the SRC process. [Ph. D. Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, C.S.

    1980-09-01

    A study of the forms of trace elements occurring in Solvent Refined Coal has been performed by chemical separation of the Solvent Refined Coal based on differences in the functionality and molecular weight of the organic matrix. Analysis of the fractions separated for various trace elements has revealed associations of certain elements with other elements as well as with certain fractions. The analysis of Solvent Refined Coal I by these methods provided data on the distribution of Ti, V, Ca, S, Al, Mn, As, Se, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sc, and Ga in the fractions generated. Because of the low trace element content of Solvent Refined Coal II only As, Se, and Cr could be detected in the silica fractions. Based on the distributions three different groups of elements have been based on the association of elements with each other and with certain fractions. The first group is composed of As, Se, and Cr associated with silica fractions of relatively low functionality; these elements have a high percent solubility in the starting Solvent Refined Coal II oil. The second group composed of Ti, V, and to a lesser extent a second form of Cr, is associated with fractions that have a high concentration of phenolic material and is probably present as phenoxide complexes. The third group composed of Fe, Ca, K, Al, and Mg is associated with the most functional fractions and is possibly present as humic acid type complexes or as submicron size particulates. The integration of chromatographic methods with trace element analysis of the fractions generated is capable of discerning the presence of different forms of the elements. The methods used are applicable to other important geologically occurring organic matter.

  17. Study on trace element of Yue ware unearthed at different kiln sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴隽; 李家治; 郭景坤; 徐锴; 陈宝林

    1999-01-01

    The contents of trace element of Yue ware excavated in Shaoxing, Shanglinhu, Shangyu kiln sites and Hangzhou palace were analyzed by NAA technique. The data of trace element compositions were treated by statistical analysis. It is found that the sources of raw materials used in Shaoxing, Shanglinhu, Shangyu kiln sites are different and stable. Especially the discriminant function predicted for porcelain bodies provides high discriminatory power according to production site. It shows that Yue ware specimens excavated in Hangzhou palace were fired in Shanglinhu. It indicates the special function of trace element in the studies on site identification.

  18. Femtosecond Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy for Detection of Trace Elements in Sophora Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Myriam Bossu; HAO Zuo-Qiang; Matthieu Baudelet; YU Jia; ZHANG Zhe; ZHANG Jie

    2007-01-01

    Sophora leaves from several areas in Beijing are analysed by femtoeecond laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (femto-LIBS).AIthough the used spectral detection systemis not time-resolved,thespectral lines of trace mineral elements are detected and anallyed.It is proven that the femto-LIBS can be an effcient method to detect mineral trace elements contained in tree leaves which is a biomonitor for atmospheric pollution assessment or botanic studies.An interesting case of correlation between trace elements detected in tree leaves and the pollution of the concerned area is presented,for the first time to our knowledge.

  19. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  20. Characterization and mass balance of trace elements in an iron ore sinter plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Ladeira Lau

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is becoming more restrictive in several industrial sectors, especially in the steel industry, which is well known for its large pollution potential. With the recent growth of interest in effects of trace elements on the environment and health, the inclusion of emission limits on these elements in this legislation has become increasingly popular. This article aims to describe the partitioning of trace elements between the products (sinter and plant emissions in an iron ore sinter plant, aiming to better understand the behavior of these elements in the sintering process to eventually support interventions to modify these partitions. Chemical characterization of several sintering inputs was initially performed, revealing that the steel-making residues contained large concentrations of trace elements, whereas low concentrations were observed in the flux. Based on the trace element concentrations, we analyzed the injection of trace elements in a sintering pilot using a sintering mixture. Mass balance was then used to determine the theoretical partitioning of trace elements in the sinter and emissions; cadmium, nickel, lead, mercury, and copper exhibited greater tendencies to concentrate in atmospheric emissions.

  1. Occurrence and volatility of several trace elements in pulverized coal boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ya-ji; JIN Bao-sheng; ZHONG Zhao-ping; XIAO Rui; TANG Zhi-yong; REN Hui-feng

    2004-01-01

    The contents of eight trace elements(Mn, Cr, Pb, As, Se, Zn, Cd, Hg) in raw coal, bottom ash and flyash were measured in a 220 t/h pulverized coal boiler. Factors affecting distribution of trace elements wereinvestigated, including fly ash diameter, furnace temperature, oxygen content and trace elements' characters. Onecoefficient of Meij was also improved to more directly show element enrichment in combustion products. Theseelements may be classified into three groups according to their distribution: Group 1: Hg, which is very volatile.Group 2: Pb, Zn, Cd, which are partially volatile. Group 3: Mn, which is hardly volatile. Se may be locatedbetween groups 1 and 2. Cr has properties of both group 1 and 3. In addition, the smaller diameter of fly ash, themore relative enrichment of trace elements( except Mn). The fly ash showed different adsorption mechanisms oftrace elements and the volatilization of trace elements rises with furnace temperature. Relative enrichments of traceelements(except Mn and Cr) in fly ash are larger than that in bottom ash. Low oxygen content can not alwaysimprove the volatilization of trace elements. Pb is easier to form chloride than Cd during coal combustion. Traceelements should be classified in accordance with factors.

  2. Early High-Fat Feeding Induces Alteration of Trace Element Content in Tissues of Juvenile Male Wistar Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Gatiatulina, Eugenia R; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Agletdinov, Eduard F; Nikonorov, Alexandr A; Skalny, Anatoly V

    2017-02-01

    The primary objective of the current study was to assess the influence of early high-fat feeding on tissue trace element content in young male Wistar rats. Twenty weanling male Wistar rats were divided into two groups fed standard (STD) or high-fat diet (HFD) containing 10 and 31.6 % of total calories from fat, respectively, for 1 month. Serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were assessed. The level of trace elements was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. High-fat feeding significantly increased epidydimal (EDAT) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT), as well as total adipose tissue mass by 34, 103, and 59 %, respectively. Serum leptin levels in HFD animals were twofold higher than those in the control rats. No significant difference in serum lipid spectrum, apolipoproteins, glucose, adiponectin, and insulin was detected between the groups. HFD significantly altered tissue trace element content. In particular, HFD-fed animals were characterized by significantly lower levels of Cu, I, Mn, Se, and Zn in the liver; Cr, V, Co, Cu, Fe, and I content of EDAT; Co, Cu, I, Cr, V, Fe, and Zn concentration in RPAT samples. At the same time, only serum Cu was significantly depressed in HFD-fed animals as compared to the control ones. Hair Co, Mn, Si, and V levels were significantly increased in comparison to the control values, whereas Se and I content was decreased. HFD feeding induced excessive adiposity and altered tissue trace element content in rats without insulin resistance, adiponectin deficiency, and proatherogenic state. Hypothetically, trace element disbalance may precede obesity-associated metabolic disturbances.

  3. TRACE ELEMENTS HOMEOSTATIC IMBALANCE IN MILD AND SEVERE PSORIASIS: A NEW INSIGHT IN BIOMARKER DIAGNOSTIC VALUE FOR PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagat Sobhy Mohamad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pathogenesis of psoriasis remains elusive and is a subject of interest to clinicians and scientists. Many studies have thrown light on the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis at both molecular and tissue concentrations. Of these, the role of trace metals has been of interest. Objective: To evaluate the possible role of trace elements in mild and severe psoriasis. Patients: Sixty patients suffering from psoriasis were included in the study and 30 healthy subject served as a control. Methods: Serum sample analysis for some trace elements namely Na, K, Ca, P, Cu, Zn, and Fe using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. In psoriatic patients and control, the severity of psoriasis was assessed by psoriasis area severity score (PASI score. Results: In psoriatic patients the level of serum calcium and zinc were diminished while the level of serum copper, iron and organic phosphorous were increased. These changes were significantly evident in severe psoriasis compared to control and mild psoriasis (P<0.05. Conclusions: There may be a role for trace elements in the etiopathogenesis of psoriasis.

  4. On Applicability of a Miniaturised Laser Ablation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer for Trace Elements Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Tulej

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present results from mass spectrometric analysis of NIST standard materials and meteoritic samples conducted by a miniaturised laser ablation mass spectrometer designed for space research. The mass analyser supports investigation with a mass resolution (/Δ ≈ 500–600 and dynamic range within seven decades. Nevertheless, to maintain an optimal spectral quality laser irradiances lower than ~1 GW/cm2 are applied so far which results in a spread of RSC values. To achieve the quantitative performance of mass analyser, various effects influencing RSC factors have to be investigated. In this paper we investigate influence of laser irradiance, sampling procedure and plasma chemistry on the quantitative elemental and isotopic analysis. The studies indicate necessity for accurate control of laser characteristics and acquisition procedure. A relatively low irradiance applied causes a negligible sample damage and allows for accumulation of large number of waveforms from one sample location. The procedure yields statistically well averaged data and allows a sensitive in-depth analysis. The quantitative analyses of isotopic composition can be performed with accuracy and precision better as 1% and 2%, for isotopic patterns of elements and clusters, respectively. The numerical integration methods would be preferred to achieve more accurate results. The measurements of Allende sample yield detection of Pb isotopic pattern, nevertheless cluster species are readily observed in spectrum and make the elemental analysis of other trace elements difficult due to isobaric interferences. These detections are of a considerable interest because of possible application of the instrument for in situ elemental and isotopic analysis and radiometric dating of solids.

  5. Quantitative analysis of trace element concentrations in some gem-quality diamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, J.; Pearson, D. G.; Klein-Ben David, O.; Nowell, G. M.; Ottley, C. J.; Chinn, I.

    2009-09-01

    The geochemical signature of diamond-forming fluids can be used to unravel diamond-forming processes and is of potential use in the detection of so-called 'conflict' diamonds. While fluid-rich fibrous diamonds can be analyzed by a variety of techniques, very few data have been published for fluid-poor, gem-quality diamonds because of their very low impurity levels. Here we present a new ICPMS-based (ICPMS: inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry) method for the analysis of trace element concentrations within fluid-poor, gem-quality diamonds. The method employs a closed-system laser ablation cell. Diamonds are ablated and the products trapped for later pre-concentration into solutions that are analyzed by sector-field ICPMS. We show that our limits of quantification for a wide range of elements are at the sub-pg to low pg level. The method is applied to a suite of 10 diamonds from the Cullinan Mine (previously known as Premier), South Africa, along with other diamonds from Siberia (Mir and Udachnaya) and Venezuela. The concentrations of a wide range of elements for all the samples (expressed by weight in the solid) are very low, with rare earth elements along with Y, Nb, Cs ranging from 0.01 to 2 ppb. Large ion lithophile elements (LILE) such as Rb and Ba vary from 1 to 30 ppb. Ti ranges from ppb levels up to 2 ppm. From the combined, currently small data set we observe two kinds of diamond-forming fluids within gem diamonds. One group has enrichments in LILE over Nb, whereas a second group has normalized LILE abundances more similar to those of Nb. These two groups bear some similarity to different groups of fluid-rich diamonds, providing some supporting evidence of a link between the parental fluids for both fluid-inclusion-rich and gem diamonds.

  6. Responses of trace elements to aerobic maximal exercise in elite sportsmen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otag, Aynur; Hazar, Muhsin; Otag, Ilhan; Gürkan, Alper Cenk; Okan, Ilyas

    2014-02-21

    Trace elements are chemical elements needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of the organism. In biochemistry, a trace element is also referred to as a micronutrient. Trace elements, such as nickel, cadmium, aluminum, silver, chromium, molybdenum, germanium, tin, titanium, tungsten, scandium, are found naturally in the environment and human exposure derives from a variety of sources, including air, drinking water and food. The Purpose of this study was investigated the effect of aerobic maximal intensity endurance exercise on serum trace elements as well-trained individuals of 28 wrestlers (age (year) 19.64±1.13, weight (Kg) 70.07 ± 15.69, height (cm) 176.97 ± 6.69) during and after a 2000 meter Ergometer test protocol was used to perform aerobic (75 %) maximal endurance exercise. Trace element serum levels were analyzed from blood samples taken before, immediately after and one hour after the exercise. While an increase was detected in Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), Molybdenum (Mo) and Titanium (Ti) serum levels immediately after the exercise, a decrease was detected in Aluminum (Al), Scandium (Sc) and Tungsten (W) serum levels. Except for aluminum, the trace elements we worked on showed statistically meaningful responses (P sportsman performance but also in terms of future healthy life plans and clinically.

  7. Statistical Study of Trace Elemental Concentrations in Major Types of Organisms from Typical Chinese Coastal Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭卫东; 胡明辉; 石谦; 杨逸萍

    2004-01-01

    Frequency distribution characteristics of trace elements Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu. Sr and Ba are studied for the marine organisms collected from typical Chinese coastal waters and compared with those of major elements Ca and Mg. Nearly all the distributions for trace elements in macroalgae, benthic molluscs, crustaceans, cephalopods and different tissues of fish ( muscle, liver and bone ) are found to show some degree of positive skewness, indicating a relatively large number of marine organisms with low concentrations for a particular element and only a few organisms with disproportionately high concentrations. Their distribution types are generally logarithmic normal distribution or nearly logarithmic normal distribution. Distribution of Ca is similar to that of trace elements, while Mg shows normal distribution. Average elemental concentrations of major types of organisms are calculated based on their frequency distributions.

  8. Geochemistry of trace elements and Sr- Nd isotopes of foraminifera shell from the Okinawa Trough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Trace elemental associations and Sr - Nd isotopic compositions are of important to recognition of biogenic material from mixed marine sediments. The foraminifera shell from the Okinawa Trough strongly enrichesSr, P, Mn andBa, enriches Li, U, Th, Sc, Co, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Rb, Y, Sb and light rare earth elements, slightly enriches V, Ga, Zr, Nb, Cd and middle rare earth elements,is short of Mo, In, Sn, Cs, Hf, Ta, W, Ti, Bi and heavy rare earth elements. The mechanism of elemental enrichment in forminifera is the concentrations of trace elements in sea water and selective absorption of trace elements during foraminifera living, as well as the geochemical affinity between major elements and trace elements. The REE (rare earth elements) partition pattern of foraminifera shell of the Okinawa Trough shows enrichment of middle rare earth elements with slightly negative Ce anomaly,which are different from those of foraminifera of the Pacific Ocean. The Sr, Nd isotopic ratios of the Okinawa Trough foraminifera are 0.709 769 and 0.512 162, respectively, which are different not only from those of oceanic water, but also from those of river water of China's Mainland, the former is slightly higher than those of oceanic water, but much lower than those of river water; the latter is slightly lower than those of oceanic water, but higher than those of river water, demonstrating that the Okinawa Trough sea water has been influenced by river water of China's Mainland.

  9. Gull-derived trace elements trigger small-scale contamination in a remote Mediterranean nature reserve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signa, Geraldina; Mazzola, Antonio; Tramati, Cecilia Doriana; Vizzini, Salvatrice

    2013-09-15

    The role of a yellow-legged gull (Larus michahellis) small colony in conveying trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, THg, V, Zn) was assessed in a Mediterranean nature reserve (Marinello ponds) at various spatial and temporal scales. Trace element concentrations in guano were high and seasonally variable. In contrast, contamination in the ponds was not influenced by season but showed strong spatial variability among ponds, according to the different guano input. Biogenic enrichment factor B confirmed the role of gulls in the release of trace elements through guano subsidies. In addition, comparing trace element pond concentrations to the US NOAA's SQGs, As, Cu and Ni showed contamination levels associated with possible negative biological effects. Thus, this study reflects the need to take seabirds into account as key factors influencing ecological processes and contamination levels even in remote areas, especially around the Mediterranean, where these birds are abundant but overlooked.

  10. TRACE ELEMENT CHEMISTRY IN RESIDUAL-TREATED SOIL: KEY CONCEPTS AND METAL BIOAVAILABILITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace element solubility and availability in land-applied residuals is governed by fundamental chemical reactions between metal constituents, soil, and residual components. Iron, aluminum, and manganese oxides; organic matter; and phosphates, carbonates, and sulfides are importan...

  11. Trace Element Composition of Metal and Sulphides in Iron Meteorites Determined Using ICP-MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giscard, M. D.; Hammond, S. J.; Bland, P. A.; Benedix, G. K.; Rogers, N. W.; Russell, S. S.; Genge, M. J.; Rehkamper, M.

    2012-09-01

    We measured trace element concentrations in Nantan, Toluca, Cape York, Carthage, Gibeon and Dronino. Poikiloblastic daubreelite in Gibeon indicates shock metamorphism. There is a volatile depletion in metal and sulphides.

  12. Evaluation of selected trace elements in male type 2 diabetic patients in Nnewi, south eastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Ejike Onah

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Consequently, the decrease in levels of trace elements may play a role in pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus considering their roles in glucose metabolism. Therefore, proper dietary control and mineral supplementation is advised.

  13. Minerals and trace elements in the soil-plant-animal continuum in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minerals and trace elements in the soil-plant-animal continuum in Ethiopia: a review. ... The prevention and control of micronutrient deficiency disorders require a ... tailored solutions in areas such as nutrition education, improved methods of ...

  14. Trace Element Concentrations in Human Tissues of Death Cases Associated With Secondary Infection and MOF After Severe Trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guangtao; Su, Ruibing; Li, Bo; Lv, Junyao; Sun, Weiqi; Hu, Bo; Li, Xianxian; Gu, Jiang; Yu, Xiaojun

    2015-12-01

    Proper trace element level is crucial for the organs in maintaining normal physiological functions. Multiple organ failure (MOF) might be added to critically ill patients due to a lack of trace elements. Alterations of trace element levels in brain, heart, liver, and kidney after severe trauma, however, have been little studied so far. In this study, tissue samples of the frontal cortex of the brain, interventricular septum of the heart, right lobe of the liver, and upper pole of the kidney were obtained from forensic autopsies, of which 120 cases died during the 5th to 15th day of hospitalization, whereas the trauma death group and 43 cases immediately died due to severe craniocerebral trauma as the control group. Copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) were quantified by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry (ICP-AES). Cu, Fe, Zn, and Se concentrations in the brain, heart, liver, and kidney in the trauma group decreased dramatically (pMOF) in the trauma death group were 78.33 and 29.17%, respectively. The concentrations of all elements exhibited a significant correlation with secondary infection and MOF (pMOF after severe trauma, which to some extent results in death.

  15. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unal, Burcu; Perry, Verlin Ryan; Sheth, Mili; Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Chin, Kuk-Jeong; Nüsslein, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients) are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper) on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane (CBM) well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After 7 days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R(2) = 0.95). Metabolically active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of CBM production and alter the composition of the active methanogenic community.

  16. Trace elements affect methanogenic activity and diversity in enrichments from subsurface coal bed produced water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu eÜnal

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Microbial methane from coal beds accounts for a significant and growing percentage of natural gas worldwide. Our knowledge of physical and geochemical factors regulating methanogenesis is still in its infancy. We hypothesized that in these closed systems, trace elements (as micronutrients are a limiting factor for methanogenic growth and activity. Trace elements are essential components of enzymes or cofactors of metabolic pathways associated with methanogenesis. This study examined the effects of eight trace elements (iron, nickel, cobalt, molybdenum, zinc, manganese, boron, and copper on methane production, on mcrA transcript levels, and on methanogenic community structure in enrichment cultures obtained from coal bed methane well produced water samples from the Powder River Basin, Wyoming. Methane production was shown to be limited both by a lack of additional trace elements as well as by the addition of an overly concentrated trace element mixture. Addition of trace elements at concentrations optimized for standard media enhanced methane production by 37%. After seven days of incubation, the levels of mcrA transcripts in enrichment cultures with trace element amendment were much higher than in cultures without amendment. Transcript levels of mcrA correlated positively with elevated rates of methane production in supplemented enrichments (R2=0.95. Metabolically-active methanogens, identified by clone sequences of mcrA mRNA retrieved from enrichment cultures, were closely related to Methanobacterium subterraneum and Methanobacterium formicicum. Enrichment cultures were dominated by M. subterraneum and had slightly higher predicted methanogenic richness, but less diversity than enrichment cultures without amendments. These results suggest that varying concentrations of trace elements in produced water from different subsurface coal wells may cause changing levels of coal bed methane production and alter the composition of the active

  17. Change in field turbidity and trace element concentrations during well purging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, J.; Szabo, Z.; Ivahnenko, T.; Wilde, F.D.

    2000-01-01

    Various physical and chemical properties were monitored sequentially in the field during well purging as indicators of stabilization of the composition of the water in the well. Turbidity was monitored on site during purging of oxic water from three wells with screened intervals open to an unconfined aquifer system in the Coastal Plain of southern New Jersey to determine if stabilization of turbidity is a reliable indicator of the optimum purge time required to collect unbiased trace element samples. Concurrent split (one filtered, one unfiltered) samples collected during purging of the wells were analyzed for concentrations of trace elements so that the relationships between trace element concentrations and turbidity could be compared. Turbidity correlated with the whole water recoverable (WWR) concentration of trace element species, such as iron (Fe), aluminum (Al), and manganese (Mn) in the oxic ground water. Turbidity appeared to be independent of other field-measured characteristics of water such as conductivity, pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. The WWR concentrations of lead and copper, considered to be hydrophobic, correlated significantly with the sum of the WWR concentration of Fe, Al, and Mn. High values of field-measured turbidity were a key indicator of an overestimate of ambient hydrophobic trace element WWR concentrations. Stabilization of turbidity was a better indicator of stable, unfiltered trace element concentrations than were the other commonly measured field characteristics. At one well, turbidity was a better indicator of stable, filtered trace element concentrations than the other commonly measured field characteristics. As analytical methods for trace elements improve resulting in smaller MRLs (method reporting levels) and better precision, turbidity of ground water at values of less than 10 NTU (nepheiometric turbidity units) will become important in interpreting the significance of both unfiltered and filtered sample results.

  18. Hair concentration of essential trace elements in adult non-exposed Russian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalny, Anatoly V; Skalnaya, Margarita G; Tinkov, Alexey A; Serebryansky, Eugeny P; Demidov, Vasily A; Lobanova, Yulia N; Grabeklis, Andrei R; Berezkina, Elena S; Gryazeva, Irina V; Skalny, Andrey A; Skalnaya, Oksana A; Zhivaev, Nikolay G; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-11-01

    Appropriate reference values of hair trace element content are required for correct interpretation of biomonitoring data. The primary objective of the current study was to estimate the reference values of selected essential trace elements in hair of adult Russian population. Involved in current investigation were 7256 occupationally non-exposed adults aged from 20 to 60 years and living in the European part of Russia. Occipital hair essential metal and metalloid (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, V, Zn) content was estimated using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The reference ranges were calculated in accordance with the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC) recommendations. Women were characterized by 55, 18, 58, and 7% higher values of hair Co, Cu, Mn, and Zn content as compared to the values observed in men. At the same time, hair Cr, Fe, Se, and V concentration in men significantly exceeded the respective female values by 65, 13, 20, and 56%. Consequently, the reference ranges of essential hair trace elements content should be separately calculated for both men and women. The obtained reference ranges for hair Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, V, and Zn in men were 0.11-0.67, 0.007-0.045, 10.4-22.6, 11.1-40.5, 0.24-1.05, 0.089-0.480, 0.014-0.083, and 125.7-262.8 μg/g, respectively. The respective values estimated for women were 0.06-0.40, 0.011-0.085, 12.1-44.5, 8.9-25.6, 0.32-2.05, 0.094-0.504, 0.010-0.056, and 140.0-315.1 μg/g. The reference ranges for hair Co (0.07-0.50), Cr (0.009-0.073), Cu (11.8-29.2), Fe (9.6-31.5), Mn (0.29-1.76), Se (0.093-0.482), V (0.011-0.069), and Zn (134.7-301.9) content (μg/g) in the general cohort were also calculated.

  19. Selenoenzymes, laboratory parameters, and trace elements in different types of thyroid tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagrodzki, Paweł; Nicol, Fergus; Arthur, John R; Słowiaczek, Marian; Walas, Stanisław; Mrowiec, Halina; Wietecha-Posłuszny, Renata

    2010-04-01

    This study was performed to investigate selenoenzyme activities and trace element concentrations in thyroid tissues, with reference to other parameters routinely used to characterize thyroid function. This was to reveal relevant parameters as possible additional markers of tumor grade, clinical course, and prognosis of thyroid disorders. The tissue samples were obtained during surgical treatment (total or near total thyroidectomy) of 122 patients with different types of thyroid tumor. For most of the investigated parameters in different groups of patients, we did not find statistically significant differences. In the majority of cases, thyroid benign or malignant tumors were not accompanied by significant derangement of the gland selenoenzymes and of either intrathyroidal or plasma concentration of selenium. Nevertheless, types I and II iodothyronine deiodinases were the most promising (among selenoenzymes) targets for diagnoses and possibly therapy of thyroid tumors. Higher activities of both enzymes in cases with Graves' disease, as compared with other thyroid lesions, suggest their involvement in the pathogenesis of this condition. Patients with struna nodosa had higher levels of thyroid Zn, Cu, and Pb as compared with papillary carcinoma subjects and also a higher level of Cu than follicular carcinoma cases. The above diagnostics may play a similar role to some of the general thyroid function indices, TSH, anti-TG, anti-TPO, and calcitonin, which can partially distinguish between various thyroid tumors. In conclusion, some of selenium status markers, when accompanied with general parameters, and trace elements can serve as factors with pathophysiologic relevance and be helpful in the identification of malignant disease. Multivariate statistical methods should be employed to tackle a broad array of thyroid tumor diagnostic data in a short time. Partial least squares model and other pattern recognition methods seem to be the most appropriate methods for that task

  20. Source Attribution of Cyanides Using Anionic Impurity Profiling, Stable Isotope Ratios, Trace Elemental Analysis and Chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjankar, Nikhil S; Fraga, Carlos G; Carman, April J; Moran, James J

    2016-02-02

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) for chemical threat agents (CTAs), such as cyanides, are being investigated to provide an evidentiary link between CTAs and specific sources to support criminal investigations and prosecutions. Herein, stocks of KCN and NaCN were analyzed for trace anions by high performance ion chromatography (HPIC), carbon stable isotope ratio (δ(13)C) by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), and trace elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). The collected analytical data were evaluated using hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), Fisher-ratio (F-ratio), interval partial least-squares (iPLS), genetic algorithm-based partial least-squares (GAPLS), partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA), K nearest neighbors (KNN), and support vector machines discriminant analysis (SVMDA). HCA of anion impurity profiles from multiple cyanide stocks from six reported countries of origin resulted in cyanide samples clustering into three groups, independent of the associated alkali metal (K or Na). The three groups were independently corroborated by HCA of cyanide elemental profiles and corresponded to countries each having one known solid cyanide factory: Czech Republic, Germany, and United States. Carbon stable isotope measurements resulted in two clusters: Germany and United States (the single Czech stock grouped with United States stocks). Classification errors for two validation studies using anion impurity profiles collected over five years on different instruments were as low as zero for KNN and SVMDA, demonstrating the excellent reliability associated with using anion impurities for matching a cyanide sample to its factory using our current cyanide stocks. Variable selection methods reduced errors for those classification methods having errors greater than zero; iPLS-forward selection and F-ratio typically provided the lowest errors. Finally, using anion profiles to classify cyanides to a specific stock

  1. Determination of trace elements in maifanite by outer cover electrode atomic emission spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianqiang; LU Yiqiang; JIANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    Maifanite is a nature medicinal stone used in many fields for long time. The research on it showed that there are many trace elements in maifanite. In this paper, 36 trace elements in maifanite were determined by outer cover electrode atomic emission spectrometry, and the determination conditions were studied systematically. The results show that the concentrafions of elements, which are beneficial to human health, are higher, and the elements harmful to people health such as As, Cd, Hg, Cr, and Pb are tiny in maifanite. The precision and the accuracy were also discussed.

  2. Trace elements in end-stage renal disease – unfamiliar territory to be revealed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusbeth-Tatomir Paul

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although associated with unfavorable outcomes in the general population, abnormal blood levels of various trace elements have not been consistently studied in the end-stage renal disease population (with the notable exception of aluminum. This is surprising, as the uremic patient treated by chronic dialysis loses one major route of trace element excretion and is exposed systematically to a foreign environment (the dialysis fluid possibly contaminated with significant amounts of potential deleterious trace elements. Moreover, some biological important trace elements may be lost through the dialysis membrane. Most studies to date demonstrated significantly altered blood levels of trace elements in ESRD patients compared to healthy controls. However, the biological impact of these abnormalities in renal disease is largely unknown and should be clarified by future studies. A further step would be the design of well-controlled randomized interventional studies, examining the potential therapeutic benefit of supplementing one or more trace elements in ESRD patients, a population characterized by an impressive mortality due to cardiovascular, infectious and neoplasic disease.

  3. Interaction of chemical species with biological regulation of the metabolism of essential trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Windisch, W. [Center of Life and Food Sciences, Technische Univ. Muenchen, Freising (Germany)

    2002-02-01

    Variations in the chemical speciation of dietary trace elements can result in the provision of different amounts of these micronutrients to the organism and might thus induce interactions with trace-element metabolism. The chemical species of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn can interact with other components of the diet even before reaching the site of absorption, e.g. by formation of poorly soluble complexes with phytic acid. This might considerably modify the amount of metabolically available trace elements; differences between absorptive capacity per se toward dietary species seems to be less important. Homeostasis usually limits the quantities of Zn, Fe, Cu, and Mn transported from the gut into the organism, and differences between dietary species are largely eliminated at this step. There is no homeostatic control of absorption of Se and I, and organisms seem to be passively exposed to influx of these micronutrients irrespective of dietary speciation. Inside the organism the trace elements are usually converted into a metabolically recognizable form, channeled into their biological functions, or submitted to homeostatically controlled excretion. Some dietary species can, however, be absorbed as intact compounds. As long as the respective quantities of trace elements are not released from their carriers, they are not recognized properly by trace element metabolism and might induce tissue accumulation, irrespective of homeostatic control. (orig.)

  4. Co-digestion of manure and industrial waste--The effects of trace element addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordell, Erik; Nilsson, Britt; Nilsson Påledal, Sören; Karisalmi, Kaisa; Moestedt, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Manure is one of the most common substrates for biogas production. Manure from dairy- and swine animals are often considered to stabilize the biogas process by contributing nutrients and trace elements needed for the biogas process. In this study two lab-scale reactors were used to evaluate the effects of trace element addition during co-digestion of manure from swine- and dairy animals with industrial waste. The substrate used contained high background concentrations of both cobalt and nickel, which are considered to be the most important trace elements. In the reactor receiving additional trace elements, the volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration was 89% lower than in the control reactor. The lower VFA concentration contributed to a more digested digestate, and thus lower methane emissions in the subsequent storage. Also, the biogas production rate increased with 24% and the biogas production yield with 10%, both as a result of the additional trace elements at high organic loading rates. All in all, even though 50% of the feedstock consisted of manure, trace element addition resulted in multiple positive effects and a more reliable process with stable and high yield.

  5. Accidental surface contamination - The effect on trace element analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franklyn, C.B. E-mail: franklyn@aec.co.za; Ueckermann, H.; Merkle, R.K.W

    2001-07-01

    We discuss the accidental contamination of samples during a micro-PIXE study of Rh, Pd and Pt partition coefficients in the Fe-S and Ni-S systems. Trace amounts of Ni and Cu, mounted separately in epoxy as markers, were found to be present in various phases in the sections, sometimes selectively in specific mineral phases. This contamination is believed to result from polishing during preparation. Further surface contamination from conductive Ag paste was also observed.

  6. Trace-element composition of Chicxulub crater melt rock, K/T tektites and Yucatan basement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, A. R.; Gregoire, D. C.; Attrep, M., Jr.; Claeys, P.; Thompson, C. M.; Boynton, W. V.

    1993-01-01

    The Cretaceous/Tertiary (K/T) boundary Chicxulub impact is the best preserved large impact in the geologic record. The Chicxulub crater has been buried with no apparent erosion of its intracrater deposits, and its ejecta blanket is known and is well preserved at hundreds of localities globally. Although most of the molten material ejected from the crater has been largely altered, a few localities still preserve tektite glass. Availability of intra- and extracrater impact products as well as plausible matches to the targeted rocks allows the comparison of compositions of the different classes of impact products to those of the impacted lithologies. Determination of trace-element compositions of the K/T tektites, Chicxulub melt rock, and the targeted Yucatan silicate basement and carbonate/evaporite lithologies have been made using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Some sample splits were studied with both techniques to ensure that inter-laboratory variation was not significant or could be corrected. The concentration of a few major and minor elements was also checked against microprobe results. Radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) was used to determine Ir abundances in some samples.

  7. Effect of Feeding Habits of Cows on Trace Element Contents of Some Dairy Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirezen Yılmaz

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Concentrations of selenium, copper, nickel, zinc, cadmium and lead contents of several typical Turkish dairy products were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma -Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES. The order of the elements in the dairy products was determined to be Zn > Se >Ni >Pb > Cu > Cd. Additionally, the concentration ranges in these samples were found to be 0.003-79.7, 4.32-59.8, 0.1-31.53, 0.58-30.9, 0.22-9.89 and 0.008-1.89 µg 100g –1, respectively. In determination of the selenium content in selected dairy product, the highest values were found in the milk and white cheese, but lower values are observed in yogurt. In addition, the results show two kinds of dairy products (milk and white cheese have as foods with high levels of nutritionally important trace elements such as Se and Zn. The results identify composition of these dairy products were within safety baseline levels for human consumption. Results obtained from this study also provided important information on safety and quality standards of local milk and milk products; cheese and yoghurts.

  8. Trace elements and electrolytes in human resting mixed saliva after exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chicharro, J. L.; Serrano, V.; Urena, R.; Gutierrez, A. M.; Carvajal, A.; Fernandez-, H; Lucia, A.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exercise is known to cause changes in the concentration of salivary components such as amylase, Na, and Cl. The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of physical exercise on the levels of trace elements and electrolytes in whole (mixed) saliva. METHODS: Forty subjects performed a maximal exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Samples of saliva were obtained before and immediately after the exercise test. Sample concentrations of Fe, Mg, Sc, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Ag, Sb, Cs, and Hg were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and concentrations of Ca and Na by atomic absorption spectrometry. RESULTS: After exercise, Mg and Na levels showed a significant increase (p < 0.05) while Mn levels fell (p < 0.05). Zn/Cu molar ratios were unaffected by exercise. CONCLUSIONS: Intense physical exercise induced changes in the concentrations of only three (Na, Mg, and Mn) of the 16 elements analysed in the saliva samples. Further research is needed to assess the clinical implications of these findings. 


 PMID:10378074

  9. Atmospheric trace elements in aerosols observed over the Southern Ocean and coastal East Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guojie Xu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol samples were collected over the Southern Ocean (SO and coastal East Antarctica (CEA during the austral summer of 2010/11. Samples were analysed for trace elements, including Na, Mg, K, Al, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cd and Se, by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. The mean atmospheric concentrations over the SO were 1100 ng m−3 for Na, 190 ng m−3 for Mg, 150 ng m−3 for Al, 14 ng m−3 for Fe, 0.46 ng m−3 for Mn and 0.25 ng m−3 for Se. Over CEA, the mean concentrations were 990 ng m−3 for Na, 180 ng m−3 for Mg, 190 ng m−3 for Al, 26 ng m−3 for Fe, 0.70 ng m−3 for Mn and 0.29 ng m−3 for Se. Particle size distributions, enrichment factors (EFs and correlation analysis indicate that Na, Mg and K mainly came from the marine source, while Al, Fe and Mn were mainly from the crustal source, which also contributed to Mg and K over CEA. High EFs were associated with Ni, Cd and Se, suggesting likely contributions from mixed sources from the Antarctic continent, long-range transport, marine biogenic emissions and anthropogenic emissions. Sea-salt elements (Na, Mg, K were mainly accumulated in the coarse mode, and crustal elements (Al, Fe, Mn presented a bimodal size distribution pattern. Bioactive elements (Fe, Ni, Cd were enriched in the fine mode, especially with samples collected over the SO, possibly affecting biogeochemical cycles in this oceanic region.

  10. Content of trace elements and chromium speciation in Neem powder and tea infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novotnik, Breda; Zuliani, Tea; Ščančar, Janez; Milačič, Radmila

    2015-01-01

    Total concentrations of selected trace elements in Neem powder and in Neem tea were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The data revealed that despite high total concentrations of the potentially toxic elements Al and Ni in Neem powder, their amounts dissolved in Neem tea were low. Total concentrations of the other toxic elements Pb, As and Cd were also very low and do not represent a health hazard. In contrast, total concentrations of the essential elements Fe, Cu, Zn, Se Mo and Cr in Neem powder were high and also considerable in Neem tea. Consuming one cup of Neem tea (2g per 200 mL of water) covers the recommended daily intakes for Cr and Se and represents an important source of Mo and Cu. Speciation analysis of Cr by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to ICP-MS with the use of enriched Cr isotopic tracers to follow species interconversions during the analytical procedure demonstrated that toxic Cr(VI) was not present either in Neem powder or in Neem tea. Its concentrations were below the limits of detection of the HPLC-ICP-MS procedure applied. The speciation analysis data confirmed that even Cr(VI) was added, it was rapidly reduced by the presence of antioxidants in Neem leaves. By the use of enriched Cr isotopic spike solutions it was also demonstrated that for obtaining reliable analytical data it is essential to apply the extraction procedures which prevent Cr species interconversions, or to correct for species transformation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Chemical studies of L chondrites. II - Shock-induced trace element mobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, T. M.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1982-01-01

    Data for 13 trace elements in 14 L4-6 chondrites of established shock history are reported and discussed. These data are combined with data for an additional 13 L4-6 chondrites to delineate the full extent of losses by shock. Trace element contents vary with petrologic type, S/Fe subgroup, and shock history, the last dominating strongly. Absolute abundances and interelement relationships for the six or seven most mobile elements vary with degree of shock-loading established from mineralogic and petrologic study. Shock-heating, previously known to have affected radiogenic Ar-40 and/or He-4 in meteorites but not other elements, apparently was at least as effective as other open-system processes in establishing mobile trace element contents of L chondrites and probably others.

  12. Assessment of contamination based on trace element concentrations in Gomphus flavipes (Odonata: Insect) larvae of the Upper Tisza Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, E; Kis, O; Jakab, T; Kolozsvári, I; Málnás, K; Harangi, S; Baranyai, E; Miskolczi, M; Tóthmérész, B; Dévai, Gy

    2017-02-01

    Odonata larvae are frequently used to assess the contamination of aquatic systems, because they tolerate a wide range of chemical and biological conditions in freshwater systems. In early 2000, the sediments of the Hungarian section of the River Tisza and the River Szamos were strongly enriched with heavy metals by an accidental mining spill. Earlier studies demonstrated higher contamination levels in the Szamos than in the Tisza, based on sediment analysis. The aim of our study was to assess the contamination in the Upper Tisza Region, along the upper reach of the Tisza, and the lower reach of the Szamos, based on the trace element concentrations of the Gomphus flavipes larvae. We collected 269 dragonfly specimens for the analyses. The Al, Ba, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn element contents were analysed in the dragonfly larvae by microwave plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MP-AES). Significantly higher Ba and Cu concentrations were found in the dragonfly larvae of the Tisza than the Szamos. In spite of this, the Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn concentration was significantly lower in the dragonfly larvae of the Tisza than the Szamos. For all trace elements significant differences were found along the Tisza. Significant differences were also found in all trace element concentrations of dragonfly larvae among studied localities in the Szamos, except in the cases of Al and Ba. Our results demonstrated that the Szamos was more contaminated with Cr, Mn, Pb, Sr and Zn than the Tisza, but that the Tisza was more contaminated with Ba and Cu than the Szamos, based on the trace element concentrations in Gomphus flavipes larvae, which was likely to have been caused by the tributaries of the Tisza. In summary, our results indicated a continuous pollution of the Tisza and the Szamos and their tributaries.

  13. Phytostabilization of semiarid soils residually contaminated with trace elements using by-products: Sustainability and risks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-de-Mora, Alfredo, E-mail: perezdemora@gmail.com [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Madejon, Paula; Burgos, Pilar; Cabrera, Francisco [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Lepp, Nicholas W. [35, Victoria Road, Formby, Liverpool L37 7DH (United Kingdom); Madejon, Engracia [Instituto de Recursos Naturales y Agrobiologia de Sevilla (IRNAS), CSIC, PO Box 1052, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    We investigated the efficiency of various by-products (sugarbeet lime, biosolid compost and leonardite), based on single or repeated applications to field plots, on the establishment of a vegetation cover compatible with a stabilization strategy on a multi-element (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) contaminated soil 4-6 years after initial amendment applications. Results indicate that the need for re-treatment is amendment- and element-dependent; in some cases, a single application may reduce trace element concentrations in above-ground biomass and enhance the establishment of a healthy vegetation cover. Amendment performance as evaluated by % cover, biomass and number of colonizing taxa differs; however, changes in plant community composition are not necessarily amendment-specific. Although the translocation of trace elements to the plant biotic compartment is greater in re-vegetated areas, overall loss of trace elements due to soil erosion and plant uptake is usually smaller compared to that in bare soil. - Highlights: > By-products enhance vegetation dynamics in contaminated semiarid soils. > Depending on the situation single or repeated incorporations may be required. > The structure of the plant community established is not amendment-dependent. > Phytostabilization reduces overall loss of trace elements in semiarid soils. - Phytostabilization using by-products as amendments is a suitable approach for long-term immobilization of various trace elements in semiarid contaminated soils.

  14. Trace element analysis of soil type collected from the Manjung and central Perak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azman, Muhammad Azfar, E-mail: m-azfar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Suhaimi; Rahman, Shamsiah Abdul; Elias, Md Suhaimi; Abdullah, Nazaratul Ashifa; Hashim, Azian; Shukor, Shakirah Abd; Kamaruddin, Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che [Blok 18, Makmal Analisis Kimia (Aca/Bas), Agensi Nuklear Malaysia, 43000 Kajang, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2015-04-29

    Trace elements in soils primarily originated from their parent materials. Parents’ material is the underlying geological material that has been undergone different types of chemical weathering and leaching processes. Soil trace elements concentrations may be increases as a result of continuous input from various human activities, including power generation, agriculture, mining and manufacturing. This paper describes the Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) method used for the determination of trace elements concentrations in part per million (ppm) present in the terrestrial environment soil in Perak. The data may indicate any contamination of trace elements contributed from human activities in the area. The enrichment factors were used to check if there any contamination due to the human activities (power plants, agricultural, mining, etc.) otherwise the values would serve as a baseline data for future study. The samples were collected from 27 locations of different soil series in the area at two different depths: the top soil (0-15cm) and the sub soil (15-30cm). The collected soil samples were air dried at 60°C and passed through 2 µm sieve. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) has been used for the determination of trace elements. Samples were activated in the Nuclear Malaysia TRIGA Mark II reactor followed by gamma spectrometric analysis. By activating the stable elements in the samples, the elements can be determined from the intensities of gamma energies emitted by the respected radionuclides.

  15. Characteristics of trace elements in aerosols collected in Northern Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellouz, F.; Masmoudi, M.; Quisefit, J. P.; Medhioub, K.

    In order to investigate the chemical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols, the sources and variability of atmospheric inputs, aerosols samples were collected during April 2006 and June 2007 in the coastal area of Boumhel, Tunisia. The samples were analysed for thirteen elements including Ca, Fe, Al, Si, Ti, Mg, Mn, K, Na, Cl, S, Zn and Pb using a wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry. All elements measured in the aerosols of Boumhel revealed differences between the two seasons: the concentrations of all elements were the highest in June and the lowest in April due to the importance of meteorological conditions. The cascade impactor provided mass distributions indicate that Al, Fe, Si, Ti, Na, Cl and S are concentrated in coarse particles. The enrichment factors (EFs) of all elements indicate that Al, Fe, Si, Ca and Ti are mainly derived from soil sources. Na, S and Cl are mostly due to sea salts.

  16. The distributions of colloidal and dissolved organic carbon, major elements, and trace elements in small tropical catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyrolle, F.; Benedetti, M. F.; Benaim, J. Y.; Février, D.

    1996-10-01

    In tropical surface waters, ultrafiltration, differential pulse anodic stripping voltametry, and atomic absorption spectrometry were used to determine the distribution and association of major and trace elements with different size fractions of dissolved organic carbon (DOC Complexation capacities are in the range of 1-11 μM in bulk solution. In podzolization areas the higher molecular weight fractions control the speciation of Ca, Mg, and Fe. In the other tropical environments major elements are present as free ions and the low molecular weight fraction of DOC controls the speciation of trace metals (Cu).

  17. Impacts of Elevated Prenatal Blood Lead on Trace Element Status and Pregnancy Outcomes in Occupationally Non-exposed Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Obuna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background:Lead toxicity has been reported to affect hematopoietic, nervous, reproductive, cardiovascular and urinary tract systems. Many investigators have so far studied the effects of high blood lead levels on pregnancy outcomes.Objective: To investigate the effects of elevated maternal blood lead during pregnancy on some trace elements and pregnancy outcomes.Methods: Blood lead and plasma copper, iron and zinc were measured in 349 pregnant women with a mean±SD age of 27.0±4.8 years, and gestational age of 21.8±3.1 weeks, at recruitment using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Maternal and fetal outcomes were recorded during follow-up and at delivery, respectively. A blood lead level of ≥10 µg/dL was considered high.Results: Women with elevated blood lead had significantly higher plasma copper and iron and lower plasma zinc than women with low blood lead level (Conclusion: Complications of pregnancy may be induced by a high blood lead level possibly through the alterations in trace element metabolism.

  18. Trace element concentrations in surface estuarine and marine sediments along the Mississippi Gulf Coast following Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Crystal; Duzgoren-Aydin, Nurdan S; Weston, James; Willett, Kristine L

    2012-01-01

    Hurricanes are relatively frequent ecological disturbances that may cause potentially long-term impacts to the coastal environment. Hurricane Katrina hit the Mississippi Gulf Coast in August 2005, and caused a storm surge with the potential to change the trace element content of coastal surface sediments. In this study, surface estuarine and marine sediments were collected monthly following the storm from ten sites along the Mississippi Gulf Coast (Mobile Bay, Grand Bay Bayous Heron and Cumbest, Pascagoula, Ocean Springs, Biloxi Gulf, Back Biloxi Bay, Gulfport Gulf, Gulfport Courthouse Rd, and Gulfport Marina). Concentrations of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Cd, and Pb were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to evaluate their temporal and spatial variations in the year following Hurricane Katrina. Sediments were characterized by pH, particle size distribution and total carbon and nitrogen content. Trace element contents of the sediments were determined in both Hurricane Katrina would not cause an adverse impact on resident organisms. Instead, the concentrations of trace elements were site-dependent, with specific contaminants relating to the use of the area prior to Hurricane Katrina.

  19. Evaluation of essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers and alcohol user hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brabazon, Dermot; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Naher, Sumsun

    2011-12-01

    The incidence of hypertension has been associated to cigarette smoking and consumption of alcohol. In the present study, trace and toxic elements were determined in scalp hair of patients diagnosed with hypertension who are smokers and habitual alcohol drinkers living in Dublin, Ireland. These results were compared with age- and sex-matched healthy, nonsmokers, nondrinking controls. The concentrations of trace and toxic elements were measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer after microwave-assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of the methodology were checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The recovery of all the studied elements was found to be in the range of 97.5%-99.7% in certified reference material. The results of this study showed that the mean values of cadmium, copper, iron, nickel and lead were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of both smoker and nonsmoker hypertensive patients than referents (P < 0.001); whereas, the concentration of zinc was lower in the scalp hair samples of hypertensive patients of both genders. The deficiency of zinc and the high exposure of trace and toxic metals as a result of cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption may be synergistic with risk factors associated with hypertension.

  20. The use of biotite trace element compositions for fingerprinting magma batches at Las Cañadas volcano, Tenerife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinski, J. T.; Ellis, B. S.; Dávila-Harris, P.; Wolff, J. A.; Olin, P. H.; Bachmann, O.

    2017-01-01

    Accurate identification of individual volcanic events in the field is crucial for constraining eruption volumes and calculating recurrence intervals between eruptive episodes. Due to complexities of pyroclastic transport and deposition and intra-unit textural variability, such identification can be challenging. We present a novel method for fingerprinting ignimbrites via trace element chemistry (V, Co, Nb) in biotite by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). Using samples from the alkaline magmatic series of Tenerife, we are able to demonstrate (1) clustering of previously characterized units into distinct, homogeneous groups based on V, Co, and Nb concentrations in biotite, despite the presence of extreme variation and zonation in other trace elements (Ba, Sr, Rb) that indicate complex petrogenetic processes, and (2) biotite compositions are similar throughout a deposit and relatively independent of stratigraphic height or juvenile clast texture (crystal-rich vs crystal-poor). Our results show that trace elements in biotite can be used to fingerprint eruptions and correlate geographically separated volcanic deposits, including those preserved in offshore turbidite records.

  1. Atmospheric Deposition of Trace Elements in Ombrotrophic Peat as a Result of Anthropic Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabio Lourençato, Lucio; Cabral Teixeira, Daniel; Vieira Silva-Filho, Emmanoel

    2014-05-01

    Ombrotrophic peat can be defined as a soil rich in organic matter, formed from the partial decomposition of vegetable organic material in a humid and anoxic environment, where the accumulation of material is necessarily faster than the decomposition. From the physical-chemical point of view, it is a porous and highly polar material with high adsorption capacity and cation exchange. The high ability of trace elements to undergo complexation by humic substances happens due to the presence of large amounts of oxygenated functional groups in these substances. Since the beginning of industrialization human activities have scattered a large amount of trace elements in the environment. Soil contamination by atmospheric deposition can be expressed as a sum of site contamination by past/present human activities and atmospheric long-range transport of trace elements. Ombrotrophic peat records can provide valuable information about the entries of trace metals into the atmosphere and that are subsequently deposited on the soil. These trace elements are toxic, non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain, even in relatively low quantities. Thus studies on the increase of trace elements in the environment due to human activities are necessary, particularly in the southern hemisphere, where these data are scarce. The aims of this study is to evaluate the concentrations of mercury in ombrotrophic peat altomontanas coming from atmospheric deposition. The study is conducted in the Itatiaia National Park, Brazilian conservation unit, situated between the southeastern state of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Minas Gerais. An ombrotrophic peat core is being sampled in altitude (1980m), to measure the trace elements concentrations of this material. As it is conservation area, the trace elements found in the samples is mainly from atmospheric deposition, since in Brazil don't exist significant lithology of trace elements. The samples are characterized by organic matter content which

  2. The role of sample preparation in interpretation of trace element concentration variability in moss bioindication studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migaszewski, Z.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Crock, J.G.; Galuszka, A.; Dolegowska, S.

    2011-01-01

    Trace element concentrations in plant bioindicators are often determined to assess the quality of the environment. Instrumental methods used for trace element determination require digestion of samples. There are different methods of sample preparation for trace element analysis, and the selection of the best method should be fitted for the purpose of a study. Our hypothesis is that the method of sample preparation is important for interpretation of the results. Here we compare the results of 36 element determinations performed by ICP-MS on ashed and on acid-digested (HNO3, H2O2) samples of two moss species (Hylocomium splendens and Pleurozium schreberi) collected in Alaska and in south-central Poland. We found that dry ashing of the moss samples prior to analysis resulted in considerably lower detection limits of all the elements examined. We also show that this sample preparation technique facilitated the determination of interregional and interspecies differences in the chemistry of trace elements. Compared to the Polish mosses, the Alaskan mosses displayed more positive correlations of the major rock-forming elements with ash content, reflecting those elements' geogenic origin. Of the two moss species, P. schreberi from both Alaska and Poland was also highlighted by a larger number of positive element pair correlations. The cluster analysis suggests that the more uniform element distribution pattern of the Polish mosses primarily reflects regional air pollution sources. Our study has shown that the method of sample preparation is an important factor in statistical interpretation of the results of trace element determinations. ?? 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Tendency and Fractal Pattern of Migration of Trace Elements in Source Rocks During Thermal Event

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永章; Edward H. Chown; Jayanta Guha; 卢焕章

    1994-01-01

    The reactivation of trace elements in source rocks is fundamental in the formation of many economic deposits. Although transport by fluid flow and infiltration is very effective along visible fractures, the migration of trace elements from the inner part of solid cells to the weaknesses is much less efficient, and so becomes the bottleneck in the migration of these elements from their initial positions in the source rock to the final deposition site in an ore body. Diffusion may play a key role in the reactivation of trace elements. The overall migration pattern of trace elements in source rocks is characterized by an embedded sink mosaic structure, which possesses the self-similarity of a fractal. There are two general migration tendencies of trace elements. One is from within solid cells, such as mineral grains, toward the sink, consisting of weaknesses in the source rock. The other is from high-temperature fields toward low-temperature ones. High temperature favors the realization of these two tenden

  4. Nutritional Aspects of Essential Trace Elements in Oral Health and Disease: An Extensive Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Tomar Bhattacharya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human body requires certain essential elements in small quantities and their absence or excess may result in severe malfunctioning of the body and even death in extreme cases because these essential trace elements directly influence the metabolic and physiologic processes of the organism. Rapid urbanization and economic development have resulted in drastic changes in diets with developing preference towards refined diet and nutritionally deprived junk food. Poor nutrition can lead to reduced immunity, augmented vulnerability to various oral and systemic diseases, impaired physical and mental growth, and reduced efficiency. Diet and nutrition affect oral health in a variety of ways with influence on craniofacial development and growth and maintenance of dental and oral soft tissues. Oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD are treated with antioxidants containing essential trace elements like selenium but even increased dietary intake of trace elements like copper could lead to oral submucous fibrosis. The deficiency or excess of other trace elements like iodine, iron, zinc, and so forth has a profound effect on the body and such conditions are often diagnosed through their early oral manifestations. This review appraises the biological functions of significant trace elements and their role in preservation of oral health and progression of various oral diseases.

  5. The geographic distribution of trace elements in the environment: the REGARDS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembert, Nicole; He, Ka; Judd, Suzanne E; McClure, Leslie A

    2017-02-01

    Research on trace elements and the effects of their ingestion on human health is often seen in scientific literature. However, little research has been done on the distribution of trace elements in the environment and their impact on health. This paper examines what characteristics among participants in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study are associated with levels of environmental exposure to arsenic, magnesium, mercury, and selenium. Demographic information from REGARDS participants was combined with trace element concentration data from the US Geochemical Survey (USGS). Each trace element was characterized as either low (magnesium and selenium) or high (arsenic and mercury) exposure. Associations between demographic characteristics and trace element concentrations were analyzed with unadjusted and adjusted logistic regression models. Individuals who reside in the Stroke Belt have lower odds of high exposure (4th quartile) to arsenic (OR 0.33, CI 0.31, 0.35) and increased exposure to mercury (OR 0.65, CI 0.62, 0.70) than those living outside of these areas, while the odds of low exposure to trace element concentrations were increased for magnesium (OR 5.48, CI 5.05, 5.95) and selenium (OR 2.37, CI 2.22, 2.54). We found an association between levels of trace elements in the environment and geographic region of residence, among other factors. Future studies are needed to further examine this association and determine whether or not these differences may be related to geographic variation in disease.

  6. Trace Elements in Stormflow, Ash, and Burned Soil following the 2009 Station Fire in Southern California.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen A Burton

    Full Text Available Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1 to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2 compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life.

  7. Analytical methods and validation for determining trace elements in red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Susana; Lapa, Nuno; Alves, Andreia; Morais, João; Mendes, Benilde

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify As, Hg, Cd, Ni and Pb in Portuguese red wines. First, the methods for the quantification of trace elements in red wines were validated. Several pre-treatments were compared, namely a pre-digestion process with HNO(3), a pre-oxidation step with H(2)O(2), and a spiking step of wine samples with a known concentration of the trace elements analyzed. Except for As, it was determined that the quantification of the trace elements does not require a pre-digestion process with HNO(3). For all of the trace elements analyzed, a pre-oxidation step with H(2)O(2) may enable an accurate quantification. The techniques chosen for the quantification of trace elements were hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) for As and Hg, electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) for Cd, and flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) for Ni and Pb. In the second stage of this work, 25 Portuguese red wines spanning all of the red wine-producing regions were analyzed for all of the five trace elements referred to above. Only Cd and Pb have shown concentrations above the limit values defined by the "Organization Internationale de la Vigne et du Vin." The Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) equation was used to determine in which wine-producing regions that wine consumption can be a problem for public health in terms of the concentrations of the five trace elements analyzed. THQ values have indicated that for the universe of the 25 red wines analyzed no region produces wines that can pose problems for public health, when the Portuguese red wine standard consumption is considered.

  8. Trace elements in stormflow, ash, and burned soil following the 2009 station fire in southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Carmen; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Baumberger, Katherine L.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2) compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life.

  9. Apparatus comprising trace element dosage and method for treating raw water in biofilter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    : - the filter comprises a filter material (4) including a porous filter material and a microbial biomass, the filter material is either stationary relative to the volume or comprises a particulate material, the filter material (4) is inserted in a fluid flow path generated by water flowing in direction from...... the inlet (2) to the outlet (3) or in the reverse direction, - the trace element dosage device (13) is positioned upstream of the porous filter material and microbial biomass and is configured to dose trace element(s) to the water flowing through the filter. A method for treating raw water by microbial...

  10. The Potential Impacts on Aquatic Ecosystems from the Release of Trace Elements in Geothermal Fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.

    2000-03-14

    Geothermal energy will likely constitute an increasing percentage of our nation's future energy ''mix,'' both for electrical and nonelectrical uses. Associated with the exploitation of geothermal resources is the handling and disposal of fluids which contain a wide variety of potentially toxic trace elements. We present analyses of 14 trace elements found in hydrothermal fluids from various geothermal reservoirs in the western United States. The concentrations of these elements vary over orders of magnitude between reservoirs. Potential impacts are conservatively assessed on the basis of (1) toxicity to freshwater biota, and (2) bioaccumulation in food fish to the point where consumption might be hazardous to human health. Trace element concentrations generally range from benign levels to levels which might prove toxic to freshwater biota and contaminate food fisheries. We stress the need for site-specific analyses and careful handling of geothermal fluids in order to minimize potential impacts.

  11. Association between essential trace and toxic elements in scalp hair samples of smokers rheumatoid arthritis subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro (Pakistan); Brabazon, Dermot, E-mail: dermot.brabazon@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland); Naher, Sumsun, E-mail: sumsun.naher@dcu.ie [Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland. (Ireland)

    2011-12-15

    The incidence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) has been increased among people who possess habit of tobacco smoking. In the present study, zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) were determined in scalp hair samples of smokers and nonsmokers RA patients, residents of Dublin, Ireland. For comparison purposes scalp hair samples of age and sex matched healthy smokers and nonsmokers were also analyzed. The concentrations of understudied elements were measured by inductive coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometer, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The validity and accuracy of methodology was checked using certified reference material (NCS ZC 81002b) and by the conventional wet acid digestion method on the same certified reference material and on real samples. The mean hair Zn, Cu and Mn contents were significantly lower in smokers and nonsmokers RA patients as compared to healthy individuals (p = 0.01-0.001). Whereas the concentrations of Cd and Pb were significantly higher in scalp hair samples of RA patients of both group (p < 0.001). The referent smokers have high level of Cd and Pb in their scalp hair samples as compared to those had not smoking tobacco (p < 0.01). The ratio of Cd and Pb to Zn, Cu and Mn in scalp hair samples was also calculated. The Cd/Zn ratio was higher in smoker RA patients with related to nonsmoker RA and referents. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between toxic elements, cigarette smoking, deficiency of essential trace elements and risk of arthritis.

  12. Distribution of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) from Bahia, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, E; Viana, Z C V; Onofre, C R E; Korn, M G A; Santos, V L C S

    2016-02-01

    In this study, concentrations of trace elements in tissues of shrimp species (Litopenaeus vannamei) from farming and zone natural coastal located in the northeastern Brazil were investigated. The elements determination was performed by optical emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma (ICP OES). The following ranges of concentrations in the tissues were obtained in µg g-1 dry weight: Al: 13.4-886.5, Cd: 0.93-1.80; Cu: 24.8-152; Fe: 3.2-410.9; Mn: 0.36-24.4; Se: 0.094-9.81 and Zn: 20.3-109.4. The shrimp muscle can be a good iron source (about 88.9 mg-1g dry weight). The distribution of Se concentration in tissues showed much variation between locations, and the concentration levels found in shrimp muscles of wild samples were high, where its levels in 67% of muscle and 50% of others tissues samples exceeded the ANVISA limit, indicating evidence of selenium bioaccumulation. Significant correlation was observed between the following pairs of elements: Fe-Zn (r= -0.70), Mn-Cu (r= -0.74), Se-Cu (r= -0.68), Se-Mn (r= 0.82) in the muscles; Fe-Al (r= 0.99), Mn-Al (r= 0.62), Mn-Fe (r= 0.62), Se-Al (r = 0.88), Se-Fe (r= 0.87), Se-Mn (r= 0.58) in the exoskeleton and Cu-Zn (r = 0.68), Al-Cu (r= 0.88), Fe-Cu (r= 0.95) and Fe-Al (r= 0.97) in the viscera.

  13. Preliminary results of trace elements mobility in soils and plants from the active hydrothermal area of Nisyros island (Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; Calabrese, Sergio; Milazzo, Silvia; Brusca, Lorenzo; D'Alessandro, Walter; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos; Tassi, Franco; Parello, Francesco

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements, i.e. chemical constituents of rocks with concentration Cistus Creticus and Salvifolius and Erica Arborea and Manipuliflora) were collected in the caldera area, with the aim to investigate the distribution of concentrations of trace elements related to the contribution of deep originated fluids. Moreover, one sample of plant and soil was collected outside the caldera as local background, for comparison. All the soil samples were powdered avoiding metal contamination and they were extracted twice, using HNO3 + HCl for one extraction (closed microwave digestion) and ultrapure de- ionized water for the other one (leaching extraction). The leaves of plants were gently isolated, dried and powdered for acid microwave extraction (HNO3 + H2O2). All the solutions were analysed for major and trace elements contents by using ionic chromatography (IC) and inductively plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The preliminary results showed high enrichment of many trace elements both in plant and soils respect to the local background, in particular for Tl, Rb, Zn, Mn, As, Pb, Se, Bi, Al. The highest concentrations were found both in soils and plants close to the most active fumarolic areas of Stefanos, Kaminakia and Polyvotes and also close to the Geothermal Drill (exploration well). Moreover, both soils and plants showed a good correlation between Cu-Zn, Cu-Pb, Bi-Pb, Ba-Sr, Bi-Tl, Ti-Al, Ni-Al, Tl-As, Te-Tl, Te-Se as well as REE's. From the comparison between Cistus sp. and Erica sp. we found a significant enrichment in the former respect to the latter, making Cistus sp. the most suitable plant for biomonitoring studies at Nisyros.

  14. Determination of trace elements in Ethiopian, Vietnamese, and Japanese women using high-resolution IC-PMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekeste, Zinaye; Amare, Bemnet; Asfaw, Fanaye; Fantahun, Bereket; van Nguyen, Nhien; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Yabutani, Tomoki; Okayasu, Takako; Ota, Fusao; Kassu, Afework

    2015-10-01

    Humans and other living organisms require small quantities of trace elements throughout life. Both insufficient and excessive intakes of trace elements can have negative consequences. However, there is little information on serum level of trace elements in different populations. This study examines serum levels of trace elements in Ethiopian, Japanese, and Vietnamese women. Random samples of healthy women who were referred for routine hospital laboratory examinations in the cities of Hanoi, Sapporo, and Gondar were invited to participate in the study. Serum levels of magnesium, zinc, copper, iron, selenium, and calcium were determined using an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Furthermore, body mass index of each study participant was determined. The mean ± SD serum concentrations of zinc (μg/dL), copper (μg/dL), iron (μg/dL), selenium (μg/dL) and calcium (mg/dL), respectively, were 76.51 ± 39.16, 152.20 ± 55.37, 385.68 ± 217.95, 9.15 ± 4.21, and 14.18 ± 3.91 in Ethiopian women; 111.49 ± 52.92, 105.86 ± 26.02, 155.09 ± 94.83, 14.11 ± 3.41, and 11.66 ± 2.51 in Vietnamese women; and 60.69 ± 9.76, 107 ± 156, 268 ± 128, 8.33 ± 3.65, and 11.18 ± 0.68 in Japanese participants. Ethiopian women had significantly higher level of serum calcium than Vietnamese and Japanese women (both P 0.05). Furthermore, compared with Japanese women, Ethiopian women had significantly high iron and copper concentrations (P food or soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. On Linear Relationships between Trace Elements in Oceanic Basalts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万渝生

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of the batch melting model*,the author explains the linear relationships between the elements which are often recognized in oceanic basalts,has established mathematic models,discusses some relevant questions,and finally gives an example to show how to apply the method to research on basalts.

  16. New trace element determinations in the fingernails of ALS patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dalsem, D.J.; Robinson, L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ehmann, W.D. [Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1996-02-01

    ORNL`s High Flux Isotope Reactor was used in a neutron activation analysis experiment to determine selected elemental composition of fingernails from patients afflicted with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (AL). While no statistical difference were found in aluminium a suggestive difference was observed for copper concentrations.

  17. The status of trace elements in lymphoma and esophageal cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-12-26

    Dec 26, 2011 ... aim of this study was to determine the concentration of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni), iron (Fe) and ... urine, saliva and nails, these elements are stored and have been ..... Biomarkers, Preven. 2(4): 305-312.

  18. Determination of trace elements in the human substantia nigra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morawski, M. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany)]. E-mail: morm@medizin.uni-leipzig.de; Meinecke, Ch. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany); Reinert, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany); Doerffel, A.C. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Riederer, P. [Klin. Neurochemie, Abt. Psychiatrie, Universitaet Wuerzburg, Fuechsleinstrasse 15, 97080 Wuerzburg (Germany); Arendt, T. [Paul-Flechsig-Institut fuer Hirnforschung, Universitaet Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, 04109 Leipzig (Germany); Butz, T. [Fakultaet fuer Physik und Geowissenschaften, Universitaet Leipzig, Linnestrasse 5, 04105 Leipzig (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    'The gain in brain is mainly in the stain' was long time a key sentence for research in neurodegenerative disease. However, for a quantification of the element concentrations (especially iron) in brain tissue, standard staining methods are insufficient. Advanced physical methods allow a quantitative elemental analysis of brain tissue. The sophisticated ion beam analysis provides a quantitative determination of elemental concentrations with a subcellular spatial resolution using a scanning proton beam focussed down to below 1 {mu}m that induces characteristic X-rays in the specimen (PIXE - particle induced X-ray emission). Histochemical and biochemical determinations of total iron content in brain regions from idiopathic Parkinson's disease have demonstrated an increase of iron in parkinsonian substantia nigra pars compacta but not in the pars reticulata, however without a clear cellular classification. For the first time, we have differentially investigated the intra- and extraneuronal elemental concentrations (especially iron) of the human substantia nigra pars compacta versus pars reticulata with detection limits in the range of 50 {mu}mol/l. Thus, we could compare the neuronal iron concentration in human brain sections of healthy and parkinsonian brain tissue. Clear differences in the iron concentration and distribution could be disclosed. Additionally, we could show in situ that the increased intraneuronal iron content is linked to neuromelanin.

  19. Assessment of Trace Element Daily Intake Based on Consumption Rate of Foodstuffs in Bandung City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Damastuti

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Trace elements are required by human body and have a variety role in biochemical functions mostly as catalyst for enzymatic activity in human body. Some trace elements are essential since they are inadequately or not synthesized by human body. The deficiency or excess of those essential trace element may cause disease and be deleterious to health. Since food is the primary source of essential elements for humans and it is an important source of exposure to toxic elements either, the levels of trace elements in consumed food products must be determined. The determination of trace elements content in foodstuffs widely consumed in Bandung city were conducted to assess their daily intake and contribution to the recommended dietary allowance (RDA values. Food samples were collected from traditional markets spread across five regions of the Bandung city and analyzed using neutron activation analysis (NAA. Quality control of data analysis was assessed using SRM NIST 1567a Wheat Flour and 1568a Rice Flour and gave good results with % recovery, 93.2 – 104.8%; and %CV, 3.8-11.6%. A large variability of essential trace elements concentration in all types of foods analyzed were observed. The daily intake of Cr, Co, Mn, Se and Zn were supplied enough by the diet, except for Fe which found that almost all the foods analyzed were not give a satisfying contribution to the RDA value of Fe. These result were expected could provide information of nutritional status of the society and can be a reference for government and related institution to effectively making policies and solution for public health improvement

  20. Nanoscale measurement of trace element distributions in Spartina alterniflora root tissue during dormancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Qian, Yu; Cochran, J. Kirk; Zhu, Qingzhi; Hu, Wen; Yan, Hanfei; Li, Li; Huang, Xiaojing; Chu, Yong S.; Liu, Houjun; Yoo, Shinjae; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports a nanometer-scale investigation of trace element (As, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, S and Zn) distributions in the root system Spartina alterniflora during dormancy. The sample was collected on a salt marsh island in Jamaica Bay, New York, in April 2015 and the root was cross-sectioned with 10 μm resolution. Synchrotron X-ray nanofluorescence was applied to map the trace element distributions in selected areas of the root epidermis and endodermis. The sampling resolution was 60 nm to increase the measurement accuracy and reduce the uncertainty. The results indicate that the elemental concentrations in the epidermis, outer endodermis and inner endodermis are significantly (p Pearson correlation analysis on the average concentrations of each element in the selected areas shows that most of the elements are significantly (p correlated, which suggests that these elements may share the same transport pathways.

  1. Multi-elemental analysis of aqueous geological samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Todor I.; Wolf, Ruth E.; Adams, Monique

    2014-01-01

    Typically, 27 major, minor, and trace elements are determined in natural waters, acid mine drainage, extraction fluids, and leachates of geological and environmental samples by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). At the discretion of the analyst, additional elements may be determined after suitable method modifications and performance data are established. Samples are preserved in 1–2 percent nitric acid (HNO3) at sample collection or as soon as possible after collection. The aqueous samples are aspirated into the ICP-OES discharge, where the elemental emission signals are measured simultaneously for 27 elements. Calibration is performed with a series of matrix-matched, multi-element solution standards.

  2. A Synopsis of Technical Issues of Concern for Monitoring Trace Elements in Highway and Urban Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breault, Robert F.; Granato, Gregory E.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements, which are regulated for aquatic life protection, are a primary concern in highway- and urban-runoff studies because stormwater runoff may transport these constituents from the land surface to receiving waters. Many of these trace elements are essential for biological activity and become detrimental only when geologic or anthropogenic sources exceed concentrations beyond ranges typical of the natural environment. The Federal Highway Administration and State Transportation Agencies are concerned about the potential effects of highway runoff on the watershed scale and for the management and protection of watersheds. Transportation agencies need information that is documented as valid, current, and scientifically defensible to support planning and management decisions. There are many technical issues of concern for monitoring trace elements; therefore, trace-element data commonly are considered suspect, and the responsibility to provide data-quality information to support the validity of reported results rests with the data-collection agency. Paved surfaces are fundamentally different physically, hydraulically, and chemically from the natural surfaces typical of most freshwater systems that have been the focus of many traceelement- monitoring studies. Existing scientific conceptions of the behavior of trace elements in the environment are based largely upon research on natural systems, rather than on systems typical of pavement runoff. Additionally, the logistics of stormwater sampling are difficult because of the great uncertainty in the occurrence and magnitude of storm events. Therefore, trace-element monitoring programs may be enhanced if monitoring and sampling programs are automated. Automation would standardize the process and provide a continuous record of the variations in flow and water-quality characteristics. Great care is required to collect and process samples in a manner that will minimize potential contamination or attenuation of trace

  3. Trace element emissions from spontaneous combustion of gob piles in coal mines, Shanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Li, Y.; Wang, Z.; Ge, Y.; Zheng, C.

    2008-01-01

    The emissions of potentially hazardous trace elements from spontaneous combustion of gob piles from coal mining in Shanxi Province, China, have been studied. More than ninety samples of solid waste from gob piles in Shanxi were collected and the contents of twenty potentially hazardous trace elements (Be, F, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Mo, Cd, Sn, Sb, Hg, Tl, Pb, Th, and U) in these samples were determined. Trace element contents in solid waste samples showed wide ranges. As compared with the upper continental crust, the solid waste samples are significantly enriched in Se (20x) and Tl (12x) and are moderately enriched in F, As, Mo, Sn, Sb, Hg, Th, and U (2-5x). The solid waste samples are depleted in V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn. The solid waste samples are enriched in F, V, Mn, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Sb, Th, and U as compared with the Shanxi coals. Most trace elements are higher in the clinker than in the unburnt solid waste except F, Sn, and Hg. Trace element abundances are related to the ash content and composition of the samples. The content of F is negatively correlated with the ash content, while Pb is positively correlated with the ash. The concentrations of As, Mn, Zn, and Cd are highly positively correlated with Fe2O3 in the solid waste. The As content increases with increasing sulfur content in the solid waste. The trace element emissions are calculated for mass balance. The emission factors of trace elements during the spontaneous combustion of the gobs are determined and the trace element concentrations in the flue gas from the spontaneous combustion of solid waste are calculated. More than a half of F, Se, Hg and Pb are released to the atmosphere during spontaneous combustion. Some trace element concentrations in flue gas are higher than the national emission standards. Thus, gob piles from coal mining pose a serious environmental problem. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Trace elements geochemistry of fractured basement aquifer in southern Malawi: A case of Blantyre rural

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapoma, Harold Wilson Tumwitike; Xie, Xianjun; Nyirenda, Mathews Tananga; Zhang, Liping; Kaonga, Chikumbusko Chiziwa; Mbewe, Rex

    2017-07-01

    In this study, twenty one (21) trace elements in the basement complex groundwater of Blantyre district, Malawi were analyzed. The majority of the analyzed trace elements in the water were within the standards set by World Health Organization (WHO) and Malawi Standards Board (MSB). But, iron (Fe) (BH16 and 21), manganese (Mn) (BH01) and selenium (Se) (BH02, 13, 18, 19 and 20) were higher than the WHO and MSB standards. Factor analysis (FA) revealed up to five significant factors which accounted for 87.4% of the variance. Factor 1, 2 and 3 suggest evaporite dissolution and silicate weathering processes while the fourth factor may explain carbonate dissolution and pH influence on trace element geochemistry of the studied groundwater samples. According to PHREEQC computed saturation indices, dissolution, precipitation and rock-water-interaction control the levels of trace elements in this aquifer. Elevated concentrations of Fe, Mn and Se in certain boreholes are due to the geology of the aquifer and probable redox status of groundwater. From PHREEQC speciation results, variations in trace element species were observed. Based on this study, boreholes need constant monitoring and assessment for human consumption to avoid health related issues.

  5. Trace-element concentrations in streambed sediment across the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.

    1999-01-01

    Trace-element concentrations in 541 streambed-sediment samples collected from 20 study areas across the conterminous United States were examined as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Sediment samples were sieved and the iron, titanium, and organic carbon were weakly or not at all correlated with the nine trace elements examined:  arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Four different methods of accounting for background/baseline concentrations were examined; however, normalization was not required because field sieving removed most of the background differences between samples. The sum of concentrations of trace elements characteristic of urban settings - copper, mercury, lead, and zinc - was well correlated with population density, nationwide. Median concentrations of seven trace elements (all nine examined except arsenic and selenium) were enriched in samples collected from urban settings relative to agricultural or forested settings. Forty-nine percent of the sites sampled in urban settings had concentrations of one or more trace elements that exceeded levels at which adverse biological effects could occur in aquatic biota.

  6. Sedimentary cycles of trace elements in Salawusu River Valley since 150 ka BP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The paper makes some analyses on 11 trace elements in the Milanggouwan stratigraphical section in the Salawusu River valley, which is regarded as a prototype geology-palaeoclimate record since 150 ka BP. The results show that the content and variation of trace elements has experienced remarkably regular changes in the pace with coarse and fine sedimentary cycles of palaeo-aeolian sands to its overlying fluvio-lacustrine facies or/and palaeosols. The trace elements with chemical properties of relatively active (V, Sr, Cu, Ni, As) and relatively stable (P, Pb, Rb, Mn, Nb, Zr) are a manifestation of the corresponding 27 changeable cycles between peak and valley values, appearing a multi-fluctuational process line of relative gathering and migration since then. The low numerical value distribution of these two types of trace elements in the aeolian sand facies represents erosion and accumulation under wind force during the cold-dry climate. Whereas their enrichments in both fluvio-lacustrine facies and palaeosols are related to the valley's special low-lying physiognomic position between the Ordos Plateau and the Loess Plateau under the warm and humid climate conditions. The above relatively migrated and gathered change of the trace elements is the result of 27 climatic cycles of cold-dry and warm-humid, which is probably caused by repeated alternations of winter monsoon and summer monsoon in the Mu Us Sandy Land influenced by the climate vicissitudes in northern hemisphere during glacial and interglacial periods since 150 ka BP.

  7. Relationship between serum adhesion molecules, trace elements and delayed union of tibial and fibula fractures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-Yu Yan; Zhi-Bang Zhao; Wen-Liang Fan; Qing-Bo Zhu; Ya-Chang Xing

    2017-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between serum adhesion molecules, trace elements and delayed union of tibial and fibula fractures.Methods:A total of 46 patients with delayed union of tibial and fibula fractures in our hospital from May 2014 to June 2016 were selected as the observation group, 46 patients with normal healing of tibial and fibula fractures were selected as the control group, then the serum adhesion molecules and trace elements levels of two groups at forth, eighth and sixteenth week after the surgery were compared.Results:The serum dhesion molecules levels of observation group at forth, eighth and sixteenth week after the surgery were all higher than those of control group, the serum trace elements levels were all lower than those of control group, and the serum adhesion molecules levels of two groups at eighth week after the surgery were all higher than those at other time, the trace elements levels were all lower than those at other time (allP<0.05).Conclusions:The serum adhesion molecules and trace elements of patients with delayed union of tibial and fibula fractures show obviously abnormal state, so those indexes of those patients should be paid to more monitoring and improvement.

  8. Discrimination of trait-based characteristics by trace element bioaccumulation in riverine fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, T.M.; DeWeese, L.R.; Dubrovsky, N.M.

    2008-01-01

    Relations between tissue trace element concentrations and species traits were examined for 45 fish species to determine the extent to which trait-based characteristics accounted for relative differences among species in trace element bioaccumulation. Percentages of fish species correctly classified by discriminant analysis according to traits predicted by tissue trace element concentrations ranged from 72% to 87%. Tissue concentrations of copper, mercury, selenium, and zinc appeared to have the greatest overall influence on differentiating species according to trait characteristics. Discrimination of trait characteristics did not appear to be strongly influenced by local sources of trace elements in the streambed sediment. Bioaccumulation was greatest for those species classified as primarily detritivores, having relatively large adult body size, considered nonmigratory with respect to reproductive strategy, occurring mostly in large or variable size streams and rivers, preferring depositional areas within the stream channel, and preferring benthic rather than open-water habitats. Our findings provide evidence of the strong relationship between bioaccumulation of environmental trace elements and trait-based factors that influence contaminant exposure. ?? 2008 NRC.

  9. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  10. Trace elements in a North Sea drill core

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunzendorf, Helmar; Gwozdz, R.; Svendsen, N.

    1986-01-01

    space is filled mainly by hydrocarbons. A significant decrease of Mn with depth probably suggests diagenesis of chalk prior to, or with, hydrocarbon emplacement. Investigations of drilling fluids and cuttings reveal a strong contamination of the latter, mainly by Ba. Chalk data from comparable onshore......Chalk samples, systematically taken along a drill core from one of the hydrocarbon producing fields of the North Sea (Tyra field), were analysed by a neutron activation technique involving measurement of radioisotopes with relatively short half-lives. Elements determined include Na, Al, Cl, Ca, Mn......, V, Sr, Dy, Mg, Ti, Ba and Eu. The major elements Ca and Al could be related to petrophysical parameters, particularly Al which shows a correlation with the silicification/argillaceous content. Na (and Cl) has a low content in the hydrocarbon-bearing section of the drill core suggesting that the pore...

  11. Trace element analysis of Cretan wines and wine products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galani-Nikolakaki, S; Kallithrakas-Kontos, N; Katsanos, A A

    2002-02-21

    The object of this research is to investigate the ways and the degree of contamination of Cretan grapes from the area of Chania and their alcoholic products, with the elements aluminium, arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, iron, lead, manganese, nickel and zinc. Fifteen samples of grapes were collected and used for the production of experimental wines from rinsed and unrinsed grapes. A microwave furnace was used for the digestion and dissolution of the experimental wines, the precipitates that originated in these wines, as well as the wines of the corresponding producers. The analyses of all mentioned samples as well as 34 local alcoholic distillates were performed using total reflection X-ray fluorescence and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. The concentrations for all the elements that were determined were almost in all cases, well below the maximum permissible levels by the Greek and the European Union legislation.

  12. Geochemical study of trace elements in micrograin minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Shinozuka, Yoshitsugu; Imai, Shiho; Baba, Naoho; Machii, Tami; Shimada, Mitsuo; Hasebe, Kiyoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan)

    1998-01-01

    Abstract of five papers are contained in this paper. 1. Neutron activation analysis of iridium in Japan P/T boundary layer sample. Iridium of Permian/Triassic (P/T) boundary layer samples in Japan are determined. A collision of materials outside of the earth was not proved. 2. Adsorbability of rare earth elements by biogenic phosphate salt particles. Phosphate minerals are very strong adsorbent of rare earth elements, so that they can use as the removal materials of them in radioactive waste. 3. Analysis of undecomposed minerals and irresoluble compounds in acid decomposed residue. In order to investigate the past global changes, a micro wave heat method was studied and good results were obtained. 4. Determination of iridium in tsunami deposits in Cuba. Very small amount of iridium was discovered in the samples. 5. Activation analysis of iridium in the sample of 300 m core of Baikal lake. (Plan). (S.Y.)

  13. Determinação de elementos essenciais maiores e traço em queijos por espectrometria de emissão atômica com plasma de argônio induzido após digestão parcial Determination of minerals and trace elements in cheese by inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry after partial digestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Silvia Kira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Concentrações de Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P e Zn foram determinadas em amostras de quatro tipos de queijo (mussarela, minas, prato e parmesão por espectrometria de emissão atômica com plasma de argônio acoplado indutivamente após dissolução parcial (hidrólise com HCl e total da matéria orgânica (digestão por via seca. As concentrações da maioria dos elementos essenciais maiores e traço, usando o método de dissolução parcial, foram consideradas estatisticamente iguais às obtidas com o método de dissolução total da matéria orgânica, demonstrando a potencialidade da digestão parcial em análises de rotina.Concentrations of Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P and Zn in four different types of cheese (mozzarella, white cheese, prato and parmesan were analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES after partial digestion (HCl hydrolysis and total digestion of organic matter (dry ashing. The results obtained for most of the elements analyzed here by the partial digestion (HCl hydrolysis and dry ashing methods were found to be statistically congruent, demonstrating the promising potential of the partial digestion method in routine analyses.

  14. Trace elements in solid waste products from coal burning at some Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilev, S.V. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy

    1994-03-01

    The content, concentration trend and mode of occurrence of 40 trace elements in coal mixtures (coals and host rocks), fly ash, bottom ash and lagooned ash at four Bulgarian thermoelectric power stations (TPS) have been characterized. A complex of methods: separation, atomic emission and ICP spectroscopy, neutron activation, XRF, SEM, TEM, XRD, etc., was used. Trace elements in coal mixtures are concentrated mainly in the heavy fractions (above 2.9 g cm{sup -3}), authigenic minerals and organic matter; and to a lesser extent are present in the major detrital minerals and host rocks. A number of elements in the waste products, like coal mixtures (ash), exceed known Clarke contents. These are mostly the siderophilic, some lithophilic (Rb, Nb, Mo, Ba, REE, Hf) and chalcophilic (Cu, Zn, As) elements and U. The trace elements show different concentration trends in fly ash, but are more typical for non-magnetic, heavy and fine-grained fractions. They are commonly present as impurities in the glass phases, and are included in the structure of mineral phases. The accessory crystalline phases, element-organic compounds, liquid and gas forms, are of subordinate importance. Some elements, mostly from the chalcophilic (Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Sn, Sb) and lithophilic (Be, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo) groups, plus Co and U, show scattering trends into the atmosphere. For others, the combustion process appears to be a powerful factor causing relative increase in the fly ash. Considerable amounts of trace elments from stack emissions (Hf, As, Tl, Pb, etc.) have probably entered the soil near TPS. Trace elements can also occur in watersoluble forms (Li, Mo, Cs, halogen elements, V, As, Bi, etc.) in waste products and accumulate (Sr, Ba, Pb, etc.) in dump vegetation. 35 refs., 5 tabs.

  15. Chronic exposure of ecosystems and public to elements in trace contributions; L'exposition chronique des ecosystemes et du public aux elements en traces contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The needs in radiation protection come towards the question of chronic contaminations by trace elements or radioactive compounds. The chronicity induces to take into account a whole of redistribution mechanisms more important than the only ways of the most direct transfer. In the case of environment, that is going to become one of the way of public contamination is a target to protect, the important work is to link the contamination situation to eventual consequences on the ecosystems situation. (N.C.)0.

  16. Biomonitoring of 29 trace elements in whole blood from inhabitants of Cotonou (Benin) by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yedomon, Brice; Menudier, Alain; Etangs, Florence Lecavelier Des; Anani, Ludovic; Fayomi, Benjamin; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Moesch, Christian

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the blood concentration of 29 trace elements, metals or metalloids, in a healthy population of Cotonou not directly exposed to metals in order to propose reference values. Blood samples from 70 blood donors were collected in K2 EDTA tubes for trace elements during September 2015 and a questionnaire was used to assess lifestyle exposure. Blood metal concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) equipped with a quadrupole-based reaction cell. Among the selected blood donors 51.4% were aged from 18 to 36 years and 49.6% from 37 to 65 years. Among the 29 elements analyzed As, Pb, Mn, Pd, Sb, Co, Se, Sr showed blood concentrations higher than the reference values found in the literature for non-exposed healthy European populations and their geometric means were respectively 5.81; 47.39; 19.71; 1.91; 7.50; 0.66; 163.01; 30.53μg/L. This study provides the first reference value (5th-95th percentiles) for each element in Cotonou, which enables us to carry out further investigations on environmental and occupational exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Trace Elements in Potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) from a Suburban Area of Naples, Italy: The "Triangle of Death".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roma, Antonella De; Abete, Maria Cesarina; Brizio, Paola; Picazio, Giuseppe; Caiazzo, Marcello; D'auria, Jacopo Luigi; Esposito, Mauro

    2017-07-01

    Human exposure to contaminated food is a general health concern worldwide; it is necessary to evaluate food safety with respect to contaminants present in the edible parts of major food crops. This study evaluated the concentrations of 17 trace elements (As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Tl, V, and Zn) from 51 potato plantations in the Campania region, inside the area known as the "Triangle of Death," with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analysis. Results confirm that the potatoes collected from the suburban area of Naples contained concentrations of trace elements below the safe limits prescribed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization. The concentrations of elements were similar to those reported for potatoes grown in other countries. Monitoring the content of toxic and potentially toxic elements is one of the most important aspects of food quality assurance. The environmental persistence of metals may result in the accumulation of significant levels of these contaminants in plants. They are absorbed to different extents, depending on their source, soil and climatic factors, plant genotype, and agrotechnical conditions, thereby entering the food chain and representing a risk to human health.

  18. Hydrochemistry (major and trace elements) of Lake Malawi (Nyasa), Tanzanian Northern Basin: local versus global considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Branchu, P.; L. Bergonzini; Ambrosi, J.-P.; Cardinal, D.; Delalande, M.; E. Pons-Branchu; Benedetti, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the first inventory of dissolved minor and trace element (F, Al, Fe, Mn, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, Mo, Bi, Sr, Zn) concentrations in Lake Malawi, the second largest African lake. Sampling was carried out during 1993 dry season in the northern part of the lake. Trace metal concentrations were measured, together with Ca, Mg, Na, K, Cl, SO4, Alkalinity and Si, along three profiles in the lake northern extremity, in five tributar...

  19. Explicit Trace Inequalities for Isogeometric Analysis and Parametric Hexahedral Finite Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    trace inequalities for NURBS -mapped domains. In addition to Sobolev-type inequalities, we derive discrete trace inequalities for use in NURBS -based...isogeometric analysis. All dependencies on shape, size, polynomial order, and the NURBS weighting function are precisely speci ed in our analysis, and...explicit values are provided for all bounding constants appearing in our estimates. As hexahedral nite elements are special cases of NURBS our results

  20. Trace element contents in hair of residents from Harbin (China), Medan (Indonesia), and Tokushima (Japan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Q; Suzuki, Y; Hisashige, A

    1997-01-01

    The concentrations of 19 trace element in hair samples from 1273 residents of Harbin (China), Medan (Indonesia), and Tokushima (Japan) were measured by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. The mean concentrations of Ba, Ca, and Se were significantly higher in the Harbin hair samples when compared to those from Medan, but Al, B, Cu, Fe, Mn, Na, Pb, Ti, Zn, and K were significantly higher in Medan than in Harbin hair samples. The differences in the mean concentrations of As, Cr, Mg, P, Sn, and Sr between the Medan and Harbin lots were not significant. In the Tokushima hair samples, Na and K were significantly higher, but As, B, Ba, Ca, Cr, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sn, Sr, and Se were significantly lower than in the Harbin hair samples. The differences in the mean concentrations of Al, Cu, Fe, P, Ti, and Zn between Harbin and Tokushima were not significant. In the Medan hair samples, Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Pb, Sn, Sr, Ti, and Zn were significantly higher, but P and Se were significantly lower than in Tokushima hair samples. Differences in mean concentrations of Na and K between Tokushima and Medan were not significant.

  1. [Estimates of trace elements requirements of children receiving total parenteral nutrition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricour, C; Duhamel, J F; Gros, J; Mazière, B; Comar, D

    1977-01-01

    Ten children on total parenteral nutrition were studied. Plasma copper, zinc, manganese and selenium levels were determined by neutron activation and gamma spectrometry, every 10 days. With a copper intake of 20 microgram/kg/24 h, the average level 120 microgram% (94-144) was normal (N: 118 microgram +/- 11%). With a manganese intake of 40 microgram/kg/24 h, the level increased to 2.6 microgram% (1.3-4.5) (N: 1.1 microgram +/- 0.2%). With a zinc intake of 30 microgram/kg/24 h, the level decreased to 45.9 microgram % (20-63) (N: 83 microgram +/- 28%); with an intake of 50 microgram/kg/24 h the level remained under normal. With a selenium intake of 1 microgram/kg/24 h, the level decreased to 10.6 ng/ml (3.6-21.6) (N: 38.2 ng/ml +/- 11.9), but was normalized with an intake of 3 microgram/kg/24 h. From these results, with all reserves that estimation implies, the authors suggest that the disorders due to deficit or excess of trace elements could be avoided by daily intakes per kg of body weight: copper 20 microgram, zinc 100 microgram, manganese 10 microgram and selenium 3 microgram, with supplementation of iron, iodine and fluoride.

  2. Ascertaining serum levels of trace elements in melanoma patients using PIXE and HR-ICPMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardes, S., E-mail: suene@if.usp.br [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Tabacniks, M.H. [Physics Institute, University of São Paulo (Brazil); Santos, I.D.A.O.; Oliveira, A.F.; Shie, J.N. [São Paulo Federal University (UNIFESP), São Paulo (Brazil); Sarkis, J.E.S.; Oliveira, T. [Institute of Energy and Nuclear Research (IPEN), Laboratory of Chemical Characterization (LCQ), Center for Chemistry and the Environment - CQMA, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a serious and deadly form of skin cancer. However, patients’ chances of survival and recovery are considerably increased when it is diagnosed and treated in its early stages. In this study, trace element concentrations in serum samples from patients with melanoma were measured using PIXE (Proton Induced X-ray Emission) and HR-ICPMS (High-Resolution Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry), with the purpose of correlating these concentrations with the disease. Blood samples from 30 melanoma patients and 116 healthy donors were collected at São Paulo Hospital (protocol CEP 1036/08 UNIFESP). Relevant clinical information on the patients has also been included in the statistical analysis. Analysis of the control group showed different P and Mg concentrations in individuals above and below 40 years of age. P, S, Ca, Cu and Zn concentrations in healthy individuals differed according to gender, highlighting the necessity to include age and gender variables in the case-control analysis. There were also differences in K, S, Ca and Se concentrations between the control and melanoma groups.

  3. Bioaccessibility of trace elements in soils in Northern Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsby, Amy; McKinley, Jennifer M; Ofterdinger, Ulrich; Young, Mike; Cave, Mark R; Wragg, Joanna

    2012-09-01

    Assessment of elevated concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) in soils and the association with specific soil parent material have been the focus of research for a number of years. Risk-based assessment of potential exposure scenarios to identified elevated PTE concentrations has led to the derivation of site- and contaminant-specific soil guideline values (SGVs), which represent generic assessment criteria (GACs) to identify exceeded levels that may reflect an unacceptable risk to human health. A better understanding of the 'bioavailable' or 'bioaccessible' contaminant concentrations offers an opportunity to better refine contaminant exposure assessments. Utilizing a comprehensive soil geochemical dataset for Northern Ireland provided by the Tellus Survey (GSNI) in conjunction with supplementary bioaccessibility testing of selected soil samples following the Unified BARGE Method, this paper uses exploratory data analysis and geostatistical analysis to investigate the spatial variability of pseudo-total and bioaccessible concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr. Cu, Ni, Pb, U, V and Zn. The paper investigates variations in individual element concentrations as well as cross-element correlations and observed lithological/pedological associations. The analysis of PTE concentrations highlighted exceeded levels of GAC values for V and Cr and exceeded SGV/GAC values for Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn. UBM testing showed that for some soil parent materials associated with elevated PTE concentrations e.g. the Antrim Lava Group with high Ni concentrations, the measured oral bioaccessible fraction was relatively low. For other soil parent materials with relatively moderate PTE concentrations, measured oral bioaccessible fraction was relatively high (e.g. the Gala Sandstone Group of the Southern Uplands-Down Longford Terrain). These findings have implications for regional human health risk assessments for specific PTEs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Trace Element Abundance Measurements on Cosmic Dust Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, George

    1996-01-01

    The X-Ray Microprobe on beamline X-26A at the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) at Brookhaven National Laboratory was used to determine the abundances of elements from Cr through Sr in individual interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected from the Earth's stratosphere and the Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscope (STXM) on beamline X-1A at the NSLS was used to determine the carbon abundances and spatial distributions in IDPs. In addition, modeling was performed in an attempt to associate particular types of IDPs with specific types of parent bodies, and thus to infer the chemistry, mineralogy, and structural properties of those parent bodies.

  5. Trace element content of fish feed and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) from aquaculture and wild source in Missouri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikem, Abua; Egilla, Jonathan

    2008-09-15

    Trace element content of fish feed and bluegill sunfish muscles (Lepomis macrochirus) from aquaculture and natural pond in Missouri were determined using the inductively coupled-plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and the direct mercury analyzer (DMA). Dietary intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Dogfish muscle (DORM-2) and lobster hepatopancreas (TORT-2) reference standards were used in trace element recovery and method validations. The average elemental concentrations (mg/kg diet, dry wt.) of fish feed were: As 1.81, Cd 2.37, Co 0.10, Cr 1.42, Cu 8.0, Fe 404, Mn 35.9, Ni 0.51, Pb 9.16, Se 1.71, Sn 20.7, V 0.09, Zn 118 and Hg 0.07. The mean elemental concentrations (μg/kg wet wt.) in bluegill muscles from both aquaculture and wild (in parenthesis) sources were: As 0.36 (0.06), Cd 0.28 (0.01), Co 0.0 (0.0), Cr 0.52 (0.05), Cu 0.38 (0.18), Fe 17.5 (2.43), Mn 0.18 (0.24), Ni 0.18 (0.04), Pb 1.03 (0.04), Se 0.34 (0.30), Sn 0.66 (0.42), V 0.02 (0.01), Zn 6.97 (9.13) and Hg 0.06 (0.24). Kruskal-Wallis chi square indicated significant differences in As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, Sn, V, Zn and Hg (Paquaculture and wild bluegills, posed no health risks for approximately 85% of all samples.

  6. Optimizing detector geometry for trace element mapping by X-ray fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yue; Gleber, Sophie-Charlotte; Jacobsen, Chris; Kirz, Janos; Vogt, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Trace metals play critical roles in a variety of systems, ranging from cells to photovoltaics. X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) microscopy using X-ray excitation provides one of the highest sensitivities available for imaging the distribution of trace metals at sub-100 nm resolution. With the growing availability and increasing performance of synchrotron light source based instruments and X-ray nanofocusing optics, and with improvements in energy-dispersive XRF detectors, what are the factors that limit trace element detectability? To address this question, we describe an analytical model for the total signal incident on XRF detectors with various geometries, including the spectral response of energy dispersive detectors. This model agrees well with experimentally recorded X-ray fluorescence spectra, and involves much shorter calculation times than with Monte Carlo simulations. With such a model, one can estimate the signal when a trace element is illuminated with an X-ray beam, and when just the surrounding non-fluorescent material is illuminated. From this signal difference, a contrast parameter can be calculated and this can in turn be used to calculate the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) for detecting a certain elemental concentration. We apply this model to the detection of trace amounts of zinc in biological materials, and to the detection of small quantities of arsenic in semiconductors. We conclude that increased detector collection solid angle is (nearly) always advantageous even when considering the scattered signal. However, given the choice between a smaller detector at 90° to the beam versus a larger detector at 180° (in a backscatter-like geometry), the 90° detector is better for trace element detection in thick samples, while the larger detector in 180° geometry is better suited to trace element detection in thin samples.

  7. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, S.; Clochiatti, R.; Carrot, F.; Daudin, L.; Bennett, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7????m. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayrault, Sophie [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA-CNRS-UVSQ, F-91198 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)]. E-mail: sophie.ayrault@lsce.cnrs-gif.fr; Clochiatti, Roberto [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Carrot, Francine [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Daudin, Laurent [Laboratoire Pierre Suee, CEA-CNRS, CEA Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Bennett, James P. [U. S. Geological Survey and Institute for Environmental Studies, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7 {mu}m. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented.

  9. Factors to consider for trace element deposition biomonitoring surveys with lichen transplants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayrault, Sophie; Clochiatti, Roberto; Carrot, Francine; Daudin, Laurent; Bennett, James P

    2007-01-01

    A trace element deposition biomonitoring experiment with transplants of the fruticose lichen Evernia prunastri was developed, aimed at monitoring the effects of different exposure parameters (exposure orientation and direct rain) and to the elements Ti, V, Cr, Co, Cu, Zn, Rb, Cd, Sb and Pb. Accumulations were observed for most of the elements, confirming the ability of Evernia transplants for atmospheric metal deposition monitoring. The accumulation trends were mainly affected by the exposure orientation and slightly less so by the protection from rain. The zonation of the trace elements inside the thallus was also studied. It was concluded that trace element concentrations were not homogeneous in Evernia, thus imposing some cautions on the sampling approach. A nuclear microprobe analysis of an E. prunastri transplanted thallus in thin cross-sections concluded that the trace elements were mainly concentrated on the cortex of the thallus, except Zn, Ca and K which were also present in the internal layers. The size of the particles deposited or entrapped on the cortex surface averaged 7 microm. A list of key parameters to ensure the comparability of surveys aiming at observing temporal or spatial deposition variation is presented.

  10. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky: II. Redistribution of minor and trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W., E-mail: mtuttle@usgs.gov [US Geological Survey, MS 964D, Box 25046, Denver, CO 80215 (United States); Breit, George N.; Goldhaber, Martin B. [US Geological Survey, MS 964D, Box 25046, Denver, CO 80215 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    During weathering, elements enriched in black shale are dispersed in the environment by aqueous and mechanical transport. Here a unique evaluation of the differential release, transport, and fate of Fe and 15 trace elements during progressive weathering of the Devonian New Albany Shale in Kentucky is presented. Results of chemical analyses along a weathering profile (unweathered through progressively weathered shale to soil) describe the chemically distinct pathways of the trace elements and the rate that elements are transferred into the broader, local environment. Trace elements enriched in the unweathered shale are in massive or framboidal pyrite, minor sphalerite, CuS and NiS phases, organic matter and clay minerals. These phases are subject to varying degrees and rates of alteration along the profile. Cadmium, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn are removed from weathered shale during sulfide-mineral oxidation and transported primarily in aqueous solution. The aqueous fluxes for these trace elements range from 0.1 g/ha/a (Cd) to 44 g/ha/a (Mn). When hydrologic and climatic conditions are favorable, solutions seep to surface exposures, evaporate, and form Fe-sulfate efflorescent salts rich in these elements. Elements that remain dissolved in the low pH (<4) streams and groundwater draining New Albany Shale watersheds become fixed by reactions that increase pH. Neutralization of the weathering solution in local streams results in elements being adsorbed and precipitated onto sediment surfaces, resulting in trace element anomalies. Other elements are strongly adsorbed or structurally bound to solid phases during weathering. Copper and U initially are concentrated in weathering solutions, but become fixed to modern plant litter in soil formed on New Albany Shale. Molybdenum, Pb, Sb, and Se are released from sulfide minerals and organic matter by oxidation and accumulate in Fe-oxyhydroxide clay coatings that concentrate in surface soil during illuviation. Chromium, Ti, and V are

  11. Weathering of the New Albany Shale, Kentucky: II. Redistribution of minor and trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, M.L.W.; Breit, G.N.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    During weathering, elements enriched in black shale are dispersed in the environment by aqueous and mechanical transport. Here a unique evaluation of the differential release, transport, and fate of Fe and 15 trace elements during progressive weathering of the Devonian New Albany Shale in Kentucky is presented. Results of chemical analyses along a weathering profile (unweathered through progressively weathered shale to soil) describe the chemically distinct pathways of the trace elements and the rate that elements are transferred into the broader, local environment. Trace elements enriched in the unweathered shale are in massive or framboidal pyrite, minor sphalerite, CuS and NiS phases, organic matter and clay minerals. These phases are subject to varying degrees and rates of alteration along the profile. Cadmium, Co, Mn, Ni, and Zn are removed from weathered shale during sulfide-mineral oxidation and transported primarily in aqueous solution. The aqueous fluxes for these trace elements range from 0.1 g/ha/a (Cd) to 44 g/ha/a (Mn). When hydrologic and climatic conditions are favorable, solutions seep to surface exposures, evaporate, and form Fe-sulfate efflorescent salts rich in these elements. Elements that remain dissolved in the low pH (reactions that increase pH. Neutralization of the weathering solution in local streams results in elements being adsorbed and precipitated onto sediment surfaces, resulting in trace element anomalies. Other elements are strongly adsorbed or structurally bound to solid phases during weathering. Copper and U initially are concentrated in weathering solutions, but become fixed to modern plant litter in soil formed on New Albany Shale. Molybdenum, Pb, Sb, and Se are released from sulfide minerals and organic matter by oxidation and accumulate in Fe-oxyhydroxide clay coatings that concentrate in surface soil during illuviation. Chromium, Ti, and V are strongly correlated with clay abundance and considered to be in the structure of

  12. Essential trace elements in edible mushrooms by Neutron Activation Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Patricia L.C.; Maihara, Vera A.; Castro, Lilian P. de [Instituto de Pesquisa e Energetica e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: patricialandim@ig.com.br; vmaihara@ipen.br; lilian.Pavanelli@terra.com.br; Figueira, Rubens C.L. [Universidade Cruzeiro do Sul, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: figueiraru@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    Mushrooms are excellent nutritional sources since they provide proteins, fibers and mineral, such as K, P, Fe. They have also been the focus of medical research. In Brazil mushrooms are not consumed in large quantities by the general population since people know little about the nutritional and medicinal benefits that mushrooms offer. Hence, this study intends to contribute to a better understanding of the essential element content in edible mushrooms, which are currently commercialized in Sao Paulo state. Br Fe, K, Na and Zn concentrations were determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis in the following mushroom species: Shitake (Lentinus edodes), Shimeji (Pleurotus ssp), Paris Champignon (Agaricus bisporus), Hiratake ( Pleurotus ssp) and Eringue (Pleurotus Eryngu. The mushroom samples were acquired from commercial establishments in the city of Sao Paulo and directly from the producers. Essential element contents in mushrooms varied between Br 0.03 to 4.1 mg/kg; Fe 20 to 267 mg/kg; K 1.2 to 5.3 g/kg, Na 10 to 582 mg/kg and Zn 60 to 120 mg/kg. The results confirm that mushrooms can be considered a good source of K, Fe and Zn. The low Na level is a good nutritional benefit for the consumer. (author)

  13. Uptake of trace elements and PAHs by fruit and vegetables from contaminated soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samsøe-Petersen, L.; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Larsen, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    The aims of this study were to investigate the uptake of seven trace elements and five PAHs in crop plants in order to establish advice regarding consumption of fruit and vegetables grown in soils contaminated by trace elements and PAHs. In a field experiment, vegetables were grown in two...... contaminated soils and in a reference soil, whereas fruits were collected from uncontaminated and contaminated private gardens. The results showed elevated levels of several trace elements and PAHs in the vegetables from contaminated soil. Bioconcentration factors (BCF values), based on dry weight, were below.......05, respectively, and those for benzo[a]pyrene were 0.004, 0.002, and 0.002, respectively. For most metals in most vegetables, linear regression showed good correlation between soil and crop concentrations. For PAHs, such good correlation was generally not found. The contents of contaminants in fruits were...

  14. Does intake of trace elements through urban gardening in Copenhagen pose a risk to human health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Marlies; Hansen, Mette G.; Holm, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured. Concentra......This study investigates the potential health risk from urban gardening. The concentrations of the trace elements arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in five common garden crops from three garden sites in Copenhagen were measured...... soil ingestion, vegetable consumption, measured trace element concentrations and tolerable intake levels. The HQs for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn do not indicate a health risk through urban gardening in Copenhagen. Exposure to Pb contaminated sites may lead to unacceptable risk not caused by vegetable...

  15. Comparison of serum trace element levels in patients with or without pre-eclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Farzin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In developing countries, nutritional deficiency of essential trace elements is a common health problem, particularly among pregnant women because of increased requirements of various nutrients. Accordingly, this study was initiated to compare trace elements status in women with or without pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods: In this study, serum trace elements including zinc (Zn, selenium (Se, copper (Cu, calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS in 60 patients and 60 healthy subjects. Results: There was no significant difference in the values of Cu between two groups (P > 0.05. A significant difference in Zn, Se, Ca and Mg levels were observed between patients with pre-eclampsia and control group (P 0.05. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that the levels of Zn, Se, Ca and Mg are significantly altered in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia. This research shows that these deficiencies can not due to hemodilution.

  16. Trace element content in marine algae species from the Black Sea, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Verep, Bulent; Ogretmen, A Omur; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-04-01

    Trace element content of marine algae species collected from the Black Sea coasts were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy after microwave digestion. Trace element content in marine algae species were 1.70-17.1 microg/g for copper, 3.64-64.8 microg/g for zinc, 9.98-285 microg/g for manganese, 99-3,949 microg/g for iron, 0.50-11.6 microg/g for chromium, 0.27-36.2 microg/g for nickel, 11-694 microg/kg for selenium, 0.50-44.6 microg/kg for cadmium, 1.54-3,969 microg/kg for lead, 1.56-81.9 microg/kg for cobalt. While iron was the highest trace element concentration, cadmium was the lowest in samples. Most of the analyzed samples were edible. The samples are consumed for human diet in several countries.

  17. Study of trace elements in coal and mining wastes and its significance in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Wen-hui(黄文辉); CHE Yao(车遥); TANG Xiu-yi(唐修义)

    2003-01-01

    In the world energy about 26% of all was derived from coal combustion. Nearly 80% of the electricity produced in China is generated from coal. Coal will play the most important role in the coming 50 years as the past century in China. However one consequentially of the mining and combustion of coal is the mobilization of trace elements, especially trace metals, which have environmental and human health significance. Information on concentrations and distributions of potentially toxic elements in coal, and information on the modes of occurrence of these elements and the relations of the minerals in coal can help to predict the behavior of the potentially toxic trace metals during cleaning, combustion, weathering, and leaching.

  18. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agusa, Tetsuro; Kunito, Takashi; Sudaryanto, Agus; Monirith, In; Kan-Atireklap, Supawat; Iwata, Hisato; Ismail, Ahmad; Sanguansin, Joompol; Muchtar, Muswerry; Tana, Touch Seang; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-02-01

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). This suggests that consumption of these fish may be hazardous to the people.

  19. Exposure assessment for trace elements from consumption of marine fish in Southeast Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agusa, Tetsuro [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kunito, Takashi [Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Science, Shinshu University, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sudaryanto, Agus [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Monirith, In [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Kan-Atireklap, Supawat [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Iwata, Hisato [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan); Ismail, Ahmad [Department of Biology, Faculty of Science and Environmental Studies, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor (Malaysia); Sanguansin, Joompol [Eastern Marine Fisheries Development Center, Ban Phe, Muang, Rayong 21160 (Thailand); Muchtar, Muswerry [Research and Development Center for Oceanology Indonesia Institute of Sciences, Jl. Pasir Putih 1, Ancol Timur, Jakarta 11048 (Indonesia); Tana, Touch Seang [Social and Cultural Observation Unit (OBSES), Office of the Council of Ministers, Phnom Penh (Cambodia); Tanabe, Shinsuke [Center for Marine Environmental Studies (CMES), Ehime University, Bunkyo-cho 2-5, Matsuyama 790-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: shinsuke@agr.ehime-u.ac.jp

    2007-02-15

    Concentrations of 20 trace elements were determined in muscle and liver of 34 species of marine fish collected from coastal areas of Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand. Large regional difference was observed in the levels of trace elements in liver of one fish family (Carangidae): the highest mean concentration was observed in fish from the Malaysian coastal waters for V, Cr, Zn, Pb and Bi and those from the Java Sea side of Indonesia for Sn and Hg. To assess the health risk to the Southeast Asian populations from consumption of fish, intake rates of trace elements were estimated. Some marine fish showed Hg levels higher than the guideline values by U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Joint FAO/