WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma source ion

  1. Some plasma aspects and plasma diagnostics of ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesemann, Klaus

    2008-02-01

    We consider plasma properties in the most advanced type of plasma ion sources, electron cyclotron resonance ion sources for highly charged ions. Depending on the operation conditions the plasma in these sources may be highly ionized, which completely changes its transport properties. The most striking difference to weakly ionized plasma is that diffusion will become intrinsically ambipolar. We further discuss means of plasma diagnostics. As noninvasive diagnostic methods we will discuss analysis of the ion beam, optical spectroscopy, and measurement of the x-ray bremsstrahlung continuum. From beam analysis and optical spectroscopy one may deduce ion densities, and electron densities and distribution functions as a mean over the line of sight along the axis (optical spectroscopy) or at the plasma edge (ion beam). From x-ray spectra one obtains information about the population of highly energetic electrons and the energy transfer from the driving electromagnetic waves to the plasma -- basic data for plasma modeling.

  2. Plasma-Based Ion Beam Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loeb, H. W.

    2005-07-01

    Ion beam sources cover a broad spectrum of scientific and technical applications delivering ion currents between less than 1 mA and about 100 A at acceleration voltages between 100 V and 100 kV. The ions are mostly generated by electron collisions in a gas discharge and then extracted from the discharge plasma, focused and post-accelerated by single- or multi-aperture electrode systems. Some important applications require the neutralization of the exhausted beam either by charge exchange or by admixture of electrons. In the first part of the paper, the theory of ionization by electron impact, the energy and carrier balances in the plasma, and the extraction and focusing mechanisms will be outlined. The principles of the preferred gas discharges and of the ion beam sources based on them are discussed; i.e. of the Penning, bombardment, arc, duoplasmatron, radio frequency, and microwave types. In the second part of the paper, the special requirements of the different applications are described together with the related source hardware. One distinguishes: 1. Single-aperture ion sources producing protons, heavy ions, isotope ions, etc. for particle accelerators, ion microprobes, mass spectrometers, isotope separators, etc.; quality determinative quantities are brightness, emittance, energy width, etc. 2. Broad-beam multi-aperture injector sources for fusion machines with positive or negative deuterium ions; very high beam densities, small portions of molecular ions, flat beam profiles with small divergence angles, etc. are required. 3. Broad-beam multi-aperture ion thrusters for space propulsion operated with singly charged xenon ions; high efficiencies, reliable operation, and long lifetimes are most important. Spin-offs are applied in industry for material processing. Referring to these applications, the following sources will be described in some detail: 1. Cold cathode and filament driven sources, capillary arc and plasmatron types, microwave and ECR-sources. 2

  3. Ion transport from plasma ion source at ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Steinsberger, Timo Pascal

    2017-01-01

    In this report, my work as CERN Summer Student at the ISOLTRAP experiment at ISOLDE is described. A new plasma ion source used as oine source for calibration and implemented before my arrival was commissioned and transportation settings for the produced ions to the ion traps were found. The cyclotron frequencies of 40Ar and the xenon isotopes 129-132Xe were measured using time-of-flight and phase-imaging ion-cyclotron-resonance mass spectroscopy.

  4. Magnetic plasma confinement for laser ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, M; Adeyemi, A; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Kondo, K; Dabrowski, R

    2010-02-01

    A laser ion source (LIS) can easily provide a high current beam. However, it has been difficult to obtain a longer beam pulse while keeping a high current. On occasion, longer beam pulses are required by certain applications. For example, more than 10 micros of beam pulse is required for injecting highly charged beams to a large sized synchrotron. To extend beam pulse width, a solenoid field was applied at the drift space of the LIS at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The solenoid field suppressed the diverging angle of the expanding plasma and the beam pulse was widened. Also, it was observed that the plasma state was conserved after passing through a few hundred gauss of the 480 mm length solenoid field.

  5. Ions beams and ferroelectric plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Anton

    Near-perfect space-charge neutralization is required for the transverse compression of high perveance ion beams for ion-beam-driven warm dense matter experiments, such as the Neutralized Drift Compression eXperiment (NDCX). Neutralization can be accomplished by introducing a plasma in the beam path, which provides free electrons that compensate the positive space charge of the ion beam. In this thesis, charge neutralization of a 40 keV, perveance-dominated Ar+ beam by a Ferroelectric Plasma Source (FEPS) is investigated. First, the parameters of the ion beam, such as divergence due to the extraction optics, charge neutralization fraction, and emittance were measured. The ion beam was propagated through the FEPS plasma, and the effects of charge neutralization were inferred from time-resolved measurements of the transverse beam profile. In addition, the dependence of FEPS plasma parameters on the configuration of the driving pulser circuit was studied to optimize pulser design. An ion accelerator was constructed that produced a 30-50 keV Ar + beam with pulse duration angle divergence of 0.87°. The measurements show that near-perfect charge neutralization with FEPS can be attained. No loss of ion beam current was detected, indicating the absence of a neutral cloud in the region of beam propagation, which would cause beam loss to charge exchange collisions. This provides evidence in favor of using FEPS in a future Heavy Ion Fusion accelerator. The FEPS discharge was investigated based on current-voltage measurements in the pulser circuit. Different values of series resistance and storage capacitance in the pulser circuit were used. The charged particle current emitted by the FEPS into vacuum was measured from the difference in forward and return currents in the driving circuit. It was found that FEPS is an emitter of negative charge, and that electron current emission begins approximately 0.5 mus after the fast-rising high voltage pulse is applied and lasts for tens

  6. Design and Construction of a Microwave Plasma Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Çınar, Kamil

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is about the designing and constructing a microwave ion source. The ions are generated in a thermal and dense hydrogen plasma by microwave induction. The plasma is generated by using a microwave source with a frequency of 2.45 GHz and a power of 700 W. The generated microwave is pulsing with a frequency of 50 Hz. The designed and constructed microwave system generates hydrogen plasma in a pyrex plasma chamber. Moreover, an ion extraction unit is designed and constructed in order to extract the ions from the generated hydrogen plasma. The ion beam extraction is achieved and ion currents are measured. The plasma parameters are determined by a double Langmuir probe and the ion current is measured by a Faraday cup. The designed ion extraction unit is simulated by using the dimensions of the designed and constructed ion extraction unit in order to trace out the trajectories of the extracted ions.

  7. A Plasma Ion Source for ISOLTRAP

    CERN Document Server

    Skov, Thomas Guldager

    2016-01-01

    In this report, my work testing the new Penning ion source as a summer student at ISOLTRAP is described. The project was composed of three stages: (1) Setting up a test laboratory in building 275, (2) characterizing the ion source, and (3) implementing and testing the source in the ISOLTRAP setup. After setting up the test laboratory, the ion source was tested in a constant pressure environment with produced ion currents in the range of nA . An extensive scan of the source ion current versus operating parameters (pressure, voltage) was performed. A setup with pulsed gas flow was also tested, allowing a reduction of the gas load on the vacuum system. The behavior of the ion source together with the ISOLTRAP setup was also investigated, allowing to understand current limitations and future directions of improvement.

  8. Plasma ion sources and ion beam technology inmicrofabrications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Lili [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    For over decades, focused ion beam (FIB) has been playing a very important role in microscale technology and research, among which, semiconductor microfabrication is one of its biggest application area. As the dimensions of IC devices are scaled down, it has shown the need for new ion beam tools and new approaches to the fabrication of small-scale devices. In the meanwhile, nanotechnology has also deeply involved in material science research and bioresearch in recent years. The conventional FIB systems which utilize liquid gallium ion sources to achieve nanometer scale resolution can no longer meet the various requirements raised from such a wide application area such as low contamination, high throughput and so on. The drive towards controlling materials properties at nanometer length scales relies on the availability of efficient tools. In this thesis, three novel ion beam tools have been developed and investigated as the alternatives for the conventional FIB systems in some particular applications. An integrated focused ion beam (FIB) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) system has been developed for direct doping or surface modification. This new instrument employs a mini-RF driven plasma source to generate focused ion beam with various ion species, a FEI two-lens electron (2LE) column for SEM imaging, and a five-axis manipulator system for sample positioning. An all-electrostatic two-lens column has been designed to focus the ion beam extracted from the source. Based on the Munro ion optics simulation, beam spot sizes as small as 100 nm can be achieved at beam energies between 5 to 35 keV if a 5 μm-diameter extraction aperture is used. Smaller beam spot sizes can be obtained with smaller apertures at sacrifice of some beam current. The FEI 2LE column, which utilizes Schottky emission, electrostatic focusing optics, and stacked-disk column construction, can provide high-resolution (as small as 20 nm) imaging capability, with fairly long working distance (25

  9. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H; Sakakita, H; Kiyama, S; Shimada, T; Sato, Y; Hirano, Y

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA∕mm(2) at the peak of the pulse.

  10. Shunting arc plasma source for pure carbon ion beama)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koguchi, H.; Sakakita, H.; Kiyama, S.; Shimada, T.; Sato, Y.; Hirano, Y.

    2012-02-01

    A plasma source is developed using a coaxial shunting arc plasma gun to extract a pure carbon ion beam. The pure carbon ion beam is a new type of deposition system for diamond and other carbon materials. Our plasma device generates pure carbon plasma from solid-state carbon material without using a hydrocarbon gas such as methane gas, and the plasma does not contain any hydrogen. The ion saturation current of the discharge measured by a double probe is about 0.2 mA/mm2 at the peak of the pulse.

  11. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veitzer, Seth A., E-mail: veitzer@txcorp.com; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan, E-mail: madhusnk@txcorp.com; Stoltz, Peter H., E-mail: phstoltz@txcorp.com; Beckwith, Kristian R. C., E-mail: beckwith@txcorp.com [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H{sup −} source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H{sup −} ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two

  12. Alternative modeling methods for plasma-based Rf ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2016-02-01

    Rf-driven ion sources for accelerators and many industrial applications benefit from detailed numerical modeling and simulation of plasma characteristics. For instance, modeling of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) internal antenna H- source has indicated that a large plasma velocity is induced near bends in the antenna where structural failures are often observed. This could lead to improved designs and ion source performance based on simulation and modeling. However, there are significant separations of time and spatial scales inherent to Rf-driven plasma ion sources, which makes it difficult to model ion sources with explicit, kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulation codes. In particular, if both electron and ion motions are to be explicitly modeled, then the simulation time step must be very small, and total simulation times must be large enough to capture the evolution of the plasma ions, as well as extending over many Rf periods. Additional physics processes such as plasma chemistry and surface effects such as secondary electron emission increase the computational requirements in such a way that even fully parallel explicit PIC models cannot be used. One alternative method is to develop fluid-based codes coupled with electromagnetics in order to model ion sources. Time-domain fluid models can simulate plasma evolution, plasma chemistry, and surface physics models with reasonable computational resources by not explicitly resolving electron motions, which thereby leads to an increase in the time step. This is achieved by solving fluid motions coupled with electromagnetics using reduced-physics models, such as single-temperature magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), extended, gas dynamic, and Hall MHD, and two-fluid MHD models. We show recent results on modeling the internal antenna H- ion source for the SNS at Oak Ridge National Laboratory using the fluid plasma modeling code USim. We compare demonstrate plasma temperature equilibration in two-temperature MHD models

  13. Ferroelectric Plasma Source for Heavy Ion Beam Charge Neutralization

    CERN Document Server

    Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Erik P; Grisham, Larry; Logan, B G; Waldron, William; Yu, Simon

    2005-01-01

    Plasmas are employed as a medium for charge neutralizing heavy ion beams to allow them to focus to a small spot size. Calculations suggest that plasma at a density of 1-100 times the ion beam density and at a length ~ 0.1-1 m would be suitable. To produce 1 meter plasma, large-volume plasma sources based upon ferroelectric ceramics are being considered. These sources have the advantage of being able to increase the length of the plasma and operate at low neutral pressures. The source will utilize the ferroelectric ceramic BaTiO3 to form metal plasma. The drift tube inner surface of the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX) will be covered with ceramic. High voltage (~ 1-5 kV) is applied between the drift tube and the front surface of the ceramic by placing a wire grid on the front surface. A prototype ferroelectric source 20 cm long produced plasma densities ~ 5x1011 cm-3. The source was integrated into the experiment and successfully charge neutralized the K ion beam. Presently, the 1 meter source ...

  14. Hydrogen Plasma Generation with 200 MHz RF Ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeongtae; Park, Kwangmook; Seo, Dong Hyuk; Kim, Han-Sung; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    The ion source for the system is required to be rugged with 2000 hours maintenance free operation time because it is installed in the vessel filled with SF6 gas at the pressure of 10 bar. A 200 MHz RF ion source is considered as an ion source. It is a simple construction and provides long life operation. The specifications of the ion source are 5 kV extraction voltage and 1 mA beam current referenced to the proton. RF ion source has been developed and undergone a performance test. Results of the test are presented. 200 MHz RF ion source is designated and manufactured. First of all test stand test of ion source are set up for a performance test of ion source. It includes a RF ion source, a 200-MHz RF system, beam extraction system, vacuum system, beam extraction system, and beam diagnostic system. At pressure of 1.2E-5 torr, hydrogen plasma is generated with net RF power 70 W. Pyrex tube surrounded by an inductive coil takes the role of vessel and discharge is enhanced with field of permanent magnets.

  15. The Gridless Plasma Ion Source(GIS)for Plasma Ion Assisted Optical Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尤大伟; 李晓谦; 王宇; 林永昌

    2004-01-01

    High-quality optical coating is a key technology for modern optics. Ion-assisted deposition technology was used to improve the vaporized coating in 1980's. The GIS (gridless ion source), which is an advanced plasma source for producing a high-quality optical coating in large area, can produce a large area uniformity>1000 mm(diameter), a high ion current density ~ 0.5mA/cm2, 20 eV ~ 200 eV energetic plasma ions and can activate reactive gas and film atoms. Now we have developed a GIS system. The GIS and the plasma ion-assisted deposition technology are investigated to achieve a high-quality optical coating. The GIS is a high power and high current source with a power of I kW ~ 7.5 kW, a current of 10 A ~ 70 A and an ion density of 200μA/cm2 ~ 500μA/cm2. Because of the special magnetic structure, the plasma-ion extraction efficiency has been improved to obtain a maximum ion density of 500μA/cm2 in the medium power (~ 4 kW) level. The GIS applied is of a special cathode structure, so that the GIS operation can be maintained under a rather low power and the lifetime of cathode will be extended. The GIS has been installed in the LPSX-1200 type box coating system. The coated TiO2, SiO2 films such as antireflective films with the system have the same performance reported by Leybold Co, 1992, along with a controllable refractive index and film structure.

  16. Modeling of negative ion transport in a plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riz, David; Paméla, Jérôme

    1998-08-01

    A code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ion transport in a plasma source, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The ion trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3-D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collision H-/H+ and of charge exchange H-/H0 are handled at each time step by a Monte-Carlo procedure. This code can be used to calculate the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at any location inside the source. Calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have allowed to explain, either quantitatively or qualitatively, several phenomena observed in negative ion sources, such as the isotopic H-/D- effect, and the influence of the plasma grid bias or of the magnetic filter on the negative ion extraction. The code has also shown that in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, which operate at large arc power densities (>1 W cm-3), negative ions can reach the extraction region provided if they are produced at a distance lower than 2 cm from the plasma grid in the case of «volume production» (dissociative attachment processes), or if they are produced at the plasma grid surface, in the vicinity of the extraction holes.

  17. Modeling of negative ion transport in a plasma source (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riz, David; Paméla, Jérôme

    1998-02-01

    A code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ion transport in a plasma source, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The H-/D- trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collision with H+/D+ and of charge exchange with H0/D0 are handled at each time step by a Monte Carlo procedure. This code can be used to calculate the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at any location inside the source. Calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have been allowed to explain, either quantitatively or qualitatively, several phenomena observed in negative ion sources, such as the isotopic H-/D- effect, and the influence of the plasma grid bias or of the magnetic filter on the negative ion extraction. The code has also shown that, in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, which operate at large arc power densities (>1 W cm-3), negative ions can reach the extraction region provided they are produced at a distance lower than 2 cm from the plasma grid in the case of volume production (dissociative attachment processes), or if they are produced at the plasma grid surface, in the vicinity of the extraction holes.

  18. Droplet-free high-density metal ion source for plasma immersion ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Keiji [Department of Electrical Engineering, College of Engineering, Chubu University, 1200 Matsumoto, Kasugai, Aichi 487-8501 (Japan)]. E-mail: nakamura@solan.chubu.ac.jp; Yoshinaga, Hiroaki [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Yukimura, Ken [Department of Electrical Engineering, Doshisha University, 1-3 Tatara Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan)

    2006-01-15

    This paper reports on plasma parameters and ion composition of droplet-free Zr ion source for plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D). Zirconium (Zr) ions were obtained by ionizing sputtered Zr atoms in inductively-coupled argon discharge. The characteristics of plasma density, plasma potential and electron temperature were typical ones of such a inductive discharge, and the plasma parameters were not significantly influenced by mixing the sputtered Zr atoms into the plasma. Actually, the main ionic component was still Ar{sup +} ions, and the ion density ratio of [Zr{sup +}]/[Ar{sup +}] was as low as {approx}8%. Increase in sputtering rate of the Zr source will be necessary to improve the ion density ratio.

  19. Plasma and Ion Sources in Large Area Coatings: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2005-02-28

    Efficient deposition of high-quality coatings often requires controlled application of excited or ionized particles. These particles are either condensing (film-forming) or assisting by providing energy and momentum to the film growth process, resulting in densification, sputtering/etching, modification of stress, roughness, texture, etc. In this review, the technical means are surveyed enabling large area application of ions and plasmas, with ion energies ranging from a few eV to a few keV. Both semiconductortype large area (single wafer or batch processing with {approx} 1000 cm{sup 2}) and in-line web and glass-coating-type large area (> 10{sup 7} m{sup 2} annually) are considered. Characteristics and differences between plasma and ion sources are explained. The latter include gridded and gridless sources. Many examples are given, including sources based on DC, RF, and microwave discharges, some with special geometries like hollow cathodes and E x B configurations.

  20. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekine, M.; Ikeda, S.; Romanelli, M.; Kumaki, M.; Fuwa, Y.; Kanesue, T.; Hayashizaki, N.; Lambiase, R.; Okamura, M.

    2015-09-01

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  1. Plasma shape control by pulsed solenoid on laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekine, M. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 2-12-1 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Romanelli, M. [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States); Kumaki, M. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-0072 (Japan); Fuwa, Y. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kanesue, T. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hayashizaki, N. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 2-12-1 (Japan); Lambiase, R. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Okamura, M. [RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)

    2015-09-21

    A Laser ion source (LIS) provides high current heavy ion beams with a very simple mechanical structure. Plasma is produced by a pulsed laser ablation of a solid state target and ions are extracted by an electric field. However, it was difficult to manipulate the beam parameters of a LIS, since the plasma condition could only be adjusted by the laser irradiation condition. To enhance flexibility of LIS operation, we employed a pulsed solenoid in the plasma drift section and investigated the effect of the solenoid field on singly charged iron beams. The experimentally obtained current profile was satisfactorily controlled by the pulsed magnetic field. This approach may also be useful to reduce beam emittance of a LIS.

  2. Plasmas in compact traps: From ion sources to multidisciplinary research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascali, D.; Musumarra, A.; Leone, F.; Galatà, A.; Romano, F. P.; Gammino, S.

    2017-09-01

    In linear (minimum-B) magneto-static traps dense and hot plasmas are heated by electromagnetic radiation in the GHz domain via the Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR). The values of plasma density, temperature and confinement times ( n_eτ_i>10^{13} cm ^{-3} s; T_e>10 keV) are similar to the ones of thermonuclear plasmas. The research in this field -devoted to heating and confinement optimization- has been supported by numerical modeling and advanced diagnostics, for probing the plasma especially in a non-invasive way. ECR-based systems are nowadays able to produce extremely intense (tens or hundreds of mA) beams of light ions (p, d, He), and relevant currents of heavier elements (C, O, N) up to heavy ions like Xe, Pb, U. Such beams can be extracted from the trap by a proper electrostatic system. The above-mentioned properties make these plasmas very attractive for interdisciplinary researches also, such as i) nuclear decays rates measurements in stellar-like conditions, ii) energy conversion studies, being exceptional sources of short-wavelength electromagnetic radiation (EUV, X-rays, hard X-rays and gammas, useful in material science and archaeometry), iii) environments allowing precise spectroscopical measurements as benchmarks for magnetized astrophysical plasmas. The talk will give an overview about the state-of-the-art in the field of intense ion sources, and some new perspectives for interdisciplinary research, with a special attention to the developments based at INFN-LNS.

  3. Focused ion beams using a high-brightness plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guharay, Samar

    2002-10-01

    High-brightness ion beams, with low energy spread, have merits for many new applications in microelectronics, materials science, and biology. Negative ions are especially attractive for the applications that involve beam-solid interactions. When negative ions strike a surface, especially an electrically isolated surface, the surface charging voltage is limited to few volts [1]. This property can be effectively utilized to circumvent problems due to surface charging, such as device damage and beam defocusing. A compact plasma source, with the capability to deliver either positive or negative ion beams, has been developed. H- beams from this pulsed source showed brightness within an order of magnitude of the value for beams from liquid-metal ion sources. The beam angular intensity is > 40 mAsr-1 and the corresponding energy spread is 1 Acm-2 and a spot size of 100 nm. Such characteristics of focused beam parameters, using a dc source, will immediately open up a large area of new applications. [1] P. N. Guzdar, A. S. Sharma, S. K. Guharay, "Charging of substrates irradiated by particle beams" Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 3302 (1997). [2] S. K. Guharay, E. Sokolovsky, J. Orloff, "Characteristics of ion beams from a Penning source for focused ion beam applications" J. Vac. Sci Technol. B17, 2779 (1999).

  4. Influence of ion species ratio on grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Jiu-Li; Zhang Gu-Ling; Liu Yuan-Fu; Wang You-Nian; Liu Chi-Zi; Yang Si-Ze

    2004-01-01

    @@ Grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation (GEPSII) is a newly proposed technique to modify the inner-surface properties of a cylindrical bore. In this paper, a two-ion fluid model describing nitrogen molecular ions N2+ and atomic ions N+ is used to investigate the ion sheath dynamics between the grid electrode and the inner surface of a cylindrical bore during the GEPSII process, which is an extension of our previous calculations in which only N2+ was considered.Calculations are concentrated on the results of ion dose and impact energy on the target for different ion species ratios in the core plasma. The calculated results show that more atomic ions N+ in the core plasma can raise the ion impact energy and reduce the ion dose on the target.

  5. Extraction of ions and electrons from audio frequency plasma source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Haleem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Herein, the extraction of high ion / electron current from an audio frequency (AF nitrogen gas discharge (10 – 100 kHz is studied and investigated. This system is featured by its small size (L= 20 cm and inner diameter = 3.4 cm and its capacitive discharge electrodes inside the tube and its high discharge pressure ∼ 0.3 Torr, without the need of high vacuum system or magnetic fields. The extraction system of ion/electron current from the plasma is a very simple electrode that allows self-beam focusing by adjusting its position from the source exit. The working discharge conditions were applied at a frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, power from 50 – 500 W and the gap distance between the plasma meniscus surface and the extractor electrode extending from 3 to 13 mm. The extracted ion/ electron current is found mainly dependent on the discharge power, the extraction gap width and the frequency of the audio supply. SIMION 3D program version 7.0 package is used to generate a simulation of ion trajectories as a reference to compare and to optimize the experimental extraction beam from the present audio frequency plasma source using identical operational conditions. The focal point as well the beam diameter at the collector area is deduced. The simulations showed a respectable agreement with the experimental results all together provide the optimizing basis of the extraction electrode construction and its parameters for beam production.

  6. Overdense plasma generation in a compact ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, G.; Mascali, D.; Gammino, S.; Torrisi, G.; Romano, F. P.; Celona, L.; Altana, C.; Caliri, C.; Gambino, N.; Lanaia, D.; Miracoli, R.; Neri, L.; Sorbello, G.

    2017-05-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) are widely used plasma based machines for the production of intense ion beams in science and industry. The performance of modern devices is limited by the presence of the density cut-off, above which electromagnetic (EM) waves sustaining the plasma are reflected. We hereby discuss the systematic data analysis of electrostatic wave generation in an ECR prototype operating at 3.75 GHz-0.1 THz. In particular, electron Bernstein waves (EBW) have been excited. EBW have already been generated in large-scale plasma devices for thermonuclear fusion purposes. In ion sources where L c ˜ λ RF (L c being the plasma chamber size and λ RF the pumping wave wavelength) the EM field assumes a modal behaviour; thus both plasma and EM field self-organize so that no optical-like wave launching is possible (i.e. the cavity effect dominates on the optical path). The collected data, however, supported by 3D full-wave simulations, actually demonstrate that a Budden-type X-B conversion scenario can be established above some critical RF power thresholds, operating in an off-ECR regime. The generation and absorption of the EBW has been demonstrated by the presence of three peculiar signatures: along with the establishment of an overdense plasma, generation of supra-thermal electrons and modification (non-linear broadening) of the EM spectrum measured within the plasma have been observed. At the threshold establishing such a heating regime, the collected data provide evidence for a fast rotation of the electron fluid.

  7. Efficient cesiation in RF driven surface plasma negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A.; Konstantinov, S.; Sanin, A., E-mail: sanin@inp.nsk.su; Sotnikov, O. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Experiments on hydrogen negative ions production in the large radio-frequency negative ion source with cesium seed are described. The system of directed cesium deposition to the plasma grid periphery was used. The small cesium seed (∼0.5 G) provides an enhanced H{sup −} production during a 2 month long experimental cycle. The gradual increase of negative ion yield during the long-term source runs was observed after cesium addition to the source. The degraded H{sup −} production was recorded after air filling to the source or after the cesium washing away from the driver and plasma chamber walls. The following source conditioning by beam shots produces the gradual recovery of H{sup −} yield to the high value. The effect of H{sup −} yield recovery after cesium coverage passivation by air fill was studied. The concept of cesium coverage replenishment and of H{sup −} yield recovery due to sputtering of cesium from the deteriorated layers is discussed.

  8. RF Plasma modeling of the Linac4 H− ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, S; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Kawamura, Y; Yasumoto, M; Schmitzer, C

    2013-01-01

    This study focuses on the modelling of the ICP RF-plasma in the Linac4 H− ion source currently being constructed at CERN. A self-consistent model of the plasma dynamics with the RF electromagnetic field has been developed by a PIC-MCC method. In this paper, the model is applied to the analysis of a low density plasma discharge initiation, with particular interest on the effect of the external magnetic field on the plasma properties, such as wall loss, electron density and electron energy. The use of a multi-cusp magnetic field effectively limits the wall losses, particularly in the radial direction. Preliminary results however indicate that a reduced heating efficiency results in such a configuration. The effect is possibly due to trapping of electrons in the multi-cusp magnetic field, preventing their continuous acceleration in the azimuthal direction.

  9. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yushi, E-mail: kato@eei.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred.

  10. Ion beam extraction from a matrix ECR plasma source by discrete ion-focusing effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Positive or negative ion beams extracted from plasma are used in a large variety of surface functionalization techniques such as implantation, etching, surface activation, passivation or oxidation. Of particular importance is the surface treatment of materials sensitive to direct plasma exposure...... due to high heath fluxes, the controllability of the ion incidence angle, and charge accumulation when treating insulating materials. Despite of a large variety of plasma sources available for ion beam extraction, there is a clear need for new extraction mechanisms that can make available ion beams...... with high current densities that can treat surfaces placed adjacent to the extraction region. This work introduces a new phenomenology for ion beam extraction using the discrete ion-focusing effect associated with three-dimensional plasma-sheath-lenses [1, 2]. Experiments are performed in a matrix...

  11. Sheath overlap during very large scale plasma source ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cluggish, B. P.; Munson, C. P.

    1998-12-01

    Measurements of plasma source ion implantation have been performed on a large target of complex geometry. The target consists of 1000 aluminum, automotive piston surrogates mounted on four racks; total surface area is over 16 m2. The four racks are positioned parallel to each other, 0.25 m apart, in an 8 m3 vacuum chamber. The racks of pistons are immersed in a capacitive radio frequency plasma, with an argon gas pressure of 20-65 mPa. Langmuir probe measurements indicate that the plasma density profile is highly nonuniform, due to particle losses to the racks of pistons. The plasma ions are implanted into the pistons by pulse biasing the workpiece to negative voltages as low as -18 kV for up to 20 μs. During the voltage pulse, the high-voltage sheaths from adjacent racks of pistons converge towards each other. At plasma densities less than 109 cm-3 the sheaths are observed to overlap. Measurements of the sheath overlap time are compared with standard analytic theory and with simulations run with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code.

  12. Simulation methods of ion sheath dynamics in plasma source ion implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jiuli; ZHANG Guling; WANG Younian; LIU Yuanfu; LIU Chizi; YANG Size

    2004-01-01

    Progress of the theoretical studies on the ion sheath dynamics in plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is reviewed in this paper. Several models for simulating the ion sheath dynamics in PSII are provided. The main problem of nonuniform ion implantation on the target in PSII is discussed by analyzing some calculated results. In addition, based on the relative researches in our laboratory, some calculated results of the ion sheath dynamics in PSII for inner surface modification of a cylindrical bore are presented. Finally, new ideas and tendency for future researches on ion sheath dynamics in PSII are proposed.

  13. Improvement in brightness of multicusp-plasma ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Q.; Jiang, X.; King, T-J.; Leung, K-N.; Standiford, K.; Wilde, S.B.

    2002-05-24

    The beam brightness of a multicusp-plasma ion source has been substantially improved by optimizing the source configuration and extractor geometry. The current density of a 2 keV He{sup +} beam extracted from a 7.5-cm-diameter source operating at 2.5 kW RF power is {approx}100 mA/cm{sup 2}, which is {approx}10 times larger than that of a beam extracted from a 5-cm-diameter source operating at 1 kW RF power. A smaller focused beam spot size is achieved with a counter-bored extractor instead of a conventional (''through-hole'') extractor, resulting another order of magnitude improvement in beam current density. Measured brightness can be as high as 440 A/cm{sup 2}Sr, which represents a 30 times improvement over prior work.

  14. Intense ion beam generation, plasma radiation source and plasma opening switch research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, D. A.; Coleman, M. D.; Qi, N.; Similon, P. L.; Sudan, R. N.

    1989-04-01

    This report describes research on intense ion beam diodes, plasma opening switches and dense z-pinch plasma radiators. Laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy has been used to map the electrostatic potential profile in a plasma-prefilled magnetically insulated ion diode. In a simple planar diode, the measured profile is inconsistent with the electrons being confined in a sheath near the cathode by the magnetic field. Rather, the profile implies the presence of electrons throughout the accelerating gap. A theoretical model of the penetration of current and magnetic field into a plasma, and of the current-driven effective collision frequency has been developed. The snowplow action of the rising magnetic field causes a steep rise in the plasma density at the leading edge. The subsequent multistreaming of the ions caused by ion reflection at the current layer could lead to ion heating through collective effects. The two-dimensional electron flow in the plasma cathode vacuum gap is also treated. Dense z-pinch plasma radiation source experiments have been initiated on the LION accelerator using gas puff and fine wire loads. The x-pinch was found to be a more effective way to generate soft x-rays than a single wire pinch or a gas puff implosion. Plasma opening switch experiments being initiated, and plasma anode ion diode development work being terminated are also briefly described.

  15. Dynamics of Ion Beam Charge Neutralization by Ferroelectric Plasma Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Ji, Qing; Persaud, Arun; Seidl, Peter A.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams. Here we present experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a FEPS plasma. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Near-complete charge neutralization is established 5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS, and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub- μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS suggest that plasma can be generated for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. This is confirmed by fast photography of the plasma in the 1-meter long FEPS on NDCX-II, where effective charge neutralization of the beam was achieved with the optimized FEPS timing. This work was supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under contracts DE-AC0209CH11466 (PPPL) and DE-AC0205CH11231 (LBNL).

  16. Pulsed, Inductively Generated, Streaming Plasma Ion Source for Heavy Ion Fusion Linacs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven C. Glidden; Howard D Sanders; John B. Greenly; Daniel L. Dongwoo

    2006-04-28

    This report describes a compact, high current density, pulsed ion source, based on electrodeless, inductively driven gas breakdown, developed to meet the requirements on normalized emittance, current density, uniformity and pulse duration for an ion injector in a heavy-ion fusion driver. The plasma source produces >10 μs pulse of Argon plasma with ion current densities >100 mA/cm2 at 30 cm from the source and with strongly axially directed ion energy of about 80 eV, and sub-eV transverse temperature. The source has good reproducibility and spatial uniformity. Control of the current density during the pulse has been demonstrated with a novel modulator coil method which allows attenuation of the ion current density without significantly affecting the beam quality. This project was carried out in two phases. Phase 1 used source configurations adapted from light ion sources to demonstrate the feasibility of the concept. In Phase 2 the performance of the source was enhanced and quantified in greater detail, a modulator for controlling the pulse shape was developed, and experiments were conducted with the ions accelerated to >40 kV.

  17. Modeling of plasma transport and negative ion extraction in a magnetized radio-frequency plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fubiani, G.; Garrigues, L.; Hagelaar, G.; Kohen, N.; Boeuf, J. P.

    2017-01-01

    Negative ion sources for fusion are high densities plasma sources in large discharge volumes. There are many challenges in the modeling of these sources, due to numerical constraints associated with the high plasma density, to the coupling between plasma and neutral transport and chemistry, the presence of a magnetic filter, and the extraction of negative ions. In this paper we present recent results concerning these different aspects. Emphasis is put on the modeling approach and on the methods and approximations. The models are not fully predictive and not complete as would be engineering codes but they are used to identify the basic principles and to better understand the physics of the negative ion sources.

  18. Study of negative ion transport phenomena in a plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riz, D.; Pamela, J. [Departement de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee C. E., Cadarache, 13108 St-Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France)

    1996-07-01

    NIETZSCHE (Negative Ions Extraction and Transport ZSimulation Code for HydrogEn species) is a negative ion (NI) transport code developed at Cadarache. This code calculates NI trajectories using a 3D Monte-Carlo technique, taking into account the main destruction processes, as well as elastic collisions (H{sup {minus}}/H{sup +}) and charge exchanges (H{sup {minus}}/H{sup 0}). It determines the extraction probability of a NI created at a given position. According to the simulations, we have seen that in the case of volume production, only NI produced close to the plasma grid (PG) can be extracted. Concerning the surface production, we have studied how NI produced on the PG and accelerated by the plasma sheath backward into the source could be extracted. We demonstrate that elastic collisions and charge exchanges play an important role, which in some conditions dominates the magnetic filter effect, which acts as a magnetic mirror. NI transport in various conditions will be discussed: volume/surface production, high/low plasmas density, tent filter/transverse filter. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Study of negative ion transport phenomena in a plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riz, D.; Paméla, J.

    1996-07-01

    NIETZSCHE (Negative Ions Extraction and Transport ZSimulation Code for HydrogEn species) is a negative ion (NI) transport code developed at Cadarache. This code calculates NI trajectories using a 3D Monte-Carlo technique, taking into account the main destruction processes, as well as elastic collisions (H-/H+) and charge exchanges (H-/H0). It determines the extraction probability of a NI created at a given position. According to the simulations, we have seen that in the case of volume production, only NI produced close to the plasma grid (PG) can be extracted. Concerning the surface production, we have studied how NI produced on the PG and accelerated by the plasma sheath backward into the source could be extracted. We demonstrate that elastic collisions and charge exchanges play an important role, which in some conditions dominates the magnetic filter effect, which acts as a magnetic mirror. NI transport in various conditions will be discussed: volume/surface production, high/low plasmas density, tent filter/transverse filter.

  20. Analysis of plasma distribution near the extraction region in surface produced negative ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukano, A; Hatayama, A

    2014-02-01

    In study of a negative ion source, it is important to understand the plasma characteristics near the extraction region. A recent experiment in the NIFS-R&D ion source has suggested that a "double ion plasma layer" which is a region consisting of hydrogen positive and negative ions exists near the plasma grid (PG). Density distribution of plasma near the extraction region is studied analytically. It is shown that the density distribution depends on an amount of the surface produced negative ions and the double ion plasma layer is formed near the PG surface for the case of strong surface production.

  1. The effect of biasing the plasma electrode on hydrogen ion formations in a multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ego, Hiroyasu; Iwashita, Yoshihisa (Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. for Chemical Research); Takekoshi, Hidekuni

    1992-03-01

    The plasma electrode covered with magnetic cusp fields acting as a magnetic filter was installed in a multicusp ion source. The formation processes of the negative and positive hydrogen ions in this source have been investigated when an electrostatic positive bias is applied to the plasma electrode with respect to the anode chamber. The dominant H[sup -] volume-production process is the recombinational attachment rather than the dissociative attachment when the bias voltage is more than +3V. This recombinational attachment improves the H[sup +] ratio in the extracted positive beam, keeping its current value. (author) 52 refs.

  2. MAGNETIC FIELD GRADIENT EFFECTS ON ION FLUX BEHAVIORS IN ECR PLASMA SOURCES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The available electron cyclotron resonance plasma source has been simulated in two-dimensional configuration space (z, r) and three-dimensional velocity space (Vz, Vr Vθ). The simulation is focused on the magnetic field gradient effects on ion flux behaviors in electron cyclotron resonance plasma sources. The simulation results show that, when the magnetic field gradients increase, electron temperature, plasma density, ionization rate, and ion flux in Zdirection would decrease, while ion energy and plasma potential would increase.

  3. Ion Behavior and Gas Mixing in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas as sources of highly charged ions (concept

    OpenAIRE

    Melin, G.; Drentje, A. G.; Girard, A; Hitz, D.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: An ECR ion source is basically an ECR heated plasma confinement machine, with hot electrons and cold ions. The main parameters of the ion population have been analyzed, including temperature, losses, and confinement time. The "gas mixing" effect has been studied in this context. An expression is derived for determining the ion temperature from the values of all extracted ion currents. One aim is to study the ion temperature behavior in argon plasmas without and with mixing different...

  4. Investigation of helium ion production in constricted direct current plasma ion source with layered-glows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yuna [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Shin [Samsumg Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Generation of helium ions is experimentally investigated with a constricted direct current (DC) plasma ion source operated at layered-glow mode, in which electrons could be accelerated through multiple potential structures so as to generate helium ions including He{sup 2+} by successive ionization collisions in front of an extraction aperture. The helium discharge is sustained with the formation of a couple of stable layers and the plasma ball with high density is created near the extraction aperture at the operational pressure down to 0.6 Torr with concave cathodes. The ion beam current extracted with an extraction voltage of 5 kV is observed to be proportional to the discharge current and inversely proportional to the operating pressure, showing high current density of 130 mA/cm{sup 2} and power density of 0.52 mA/cm{sup 2}/W. He{sup 2+} ions, which were predicted to be able to exist due to multiple-layer potential structure, are not observed. Simple calculation on production of He{sup 2+} ions inside the plasma ball reveals that reduced operating pressure and increased cathode area will help to generate He{sup 2+} ions with the layered-glow DC discharge.

  5. A narrow-band, variable energy ion source derived from a wire plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gueroult, R; Elias, P Q; Packan, D [ONERA Palaiseau, 91761 Palaiseau (France); Rax, J M, E-mail: renaud.gueroult@polytechnique.edu [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    A low pressure wire-induced plasma source (WIPS) operated in its high-pressure mode ({approx}10{sup -2} mbar) exhibits a narrow ion energy distribution function peaked at an energy corresponding to the discharge voltage. In order to take advantage of this peculiar feature, we design an electrode geometry enabling the acceleration of ions extracted from a WIPS. Probing of the obtained ion plume by means of a retarding potential analyser (RPA) demonstrates the capability of such an ion source to generate narrow-band (full width at half maximum of about 20 eV), variable energy (1 to 5 keV) ion beams. Comparison with particle-in-cell simulations of the WIPS shows that the energy spread of these ion beams is actually about 10 eV, the slight broadening being mainly the effect of the limited planar RPA energy resolution. The ion beam spot size measured at 6 cm of the ion source exit is about 3 mm for a 10 {mu}A He{sup +} beam at 2 keV, with a divergence of about one degree. Operating the WIPS in argon and xenon leads to similar properties for Ar{sup +} and Xe{sup +} beams, and in principle other species could also be used.

  6. Characteristics and potential applications of an ORNL microwave ECR multicusp plasma ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    A new microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasma ion source that has two ECR plasma production regions and uses multicusp plasma confinement has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This source has been operated to produce uniform and dense plasma over large areas of 300 to 400 cm{sup 2} and could be scaled up to produce uniform plasma over 700 cm{sup 2} or larger. The plasma source has been operated with continuous argon gas feed and pulsed microwave power. The working gases used were argon, helium, hydrogen, and oxygen. The discharge initiation phenomena and plasma properties have been investigated and studied as functions of the discharge parameters. The discharge characteristics and a hypothetical discharge mechanism for this plasma source are described and discussed. Potential applications, including plasma and ion-beam sources for manufacturing advanced microelectronics, for space electric propulsion, and for fusion research, are discussed. 10 refs., 10 figs.

  7. Optimum plasma grid bias for a negative hydrogen ion source operation with Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacal, Marthe, E-mail: marthe.bacal@lpp.polytechnique.fr [UPMC, LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, UMR CNRS 7648, Palaiseau (France); Sasao, Mamiko [R& D Promotion Organization, Doshisha University, Kamigyoku, Kyoto 602-8580 (Japan); Wada, Motoi [School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotonabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); McAdams, Roy [CCFE, Culham Science Center, Abingdon, Oxfordshire 0X14 3DB (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    The functions of a biased plasma grid of a negative hydrogen (H{sup −}) ion source for both pure volume and Cs seeded operations are reexamined. Proper control of the plasma grid bias in pure volume sources yields: enhancement of the extracted negative ion current, reduction of the co-extracted electron current, flattening of the spatial distribution of plasma potential across the filter magnetic field, change in recycling from hydrogen atomic/molecular ions to atomic/molecular neutrals, and enhanced concentration of H{sup −} ions near the plasma grid. These functions are maintained in the sources seeded with Cs with additional direct emission of negative ions under positive ion and neutral hydrogen bombardment onto the plasma electrode.

  8. Multicusp type Electron Cyclotron Resonance ion source for plasma processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amemiya, Hiroshi; Shigueoka, Yoshyuki (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)); Ishii, Shigeyuki

    1991-02-01

    A multi-cusp type ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) ion source is built with use of SmCo magnets and 2.45 GHz-TE{sub 11} circular mode microwave. The ion source is operated at pressures from 10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3} Torr with the input microwave power from 100 to 400 W. In hydrogen, the current density of H{sup +} is higher than those of H{sub 2}{sup +} and H{sub 3}{sup +}. The dependence of the fraction of each ion species on the power and pressure is measured and explained by rate equations. The source is operated also in other gases. Mass spectra in He, N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, Ar and CH{sub 4} are shown together with the pressure and power dependences. Multicharged state of up to 3 has been obtained. (author).

  9. Ablation plasma transport using multicusp magnetic field for laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Umezawa, M.; Uchino, T.; Ikegami, K.; Sasaki, T.; Kikuchi, T.; Harada, N.

    2016-05-01

    We propose a plasma guiding method using multicusp magnetic field to transport the ablation plasma keeping the density for developing laser ion sources. To investigate the effect of guiding using the magnetic field on the ablation plasma, we demonstrated the transport of the laser ablation plasma in the multicusp magnetic field. The magnetic field was formed with eight permanent magnets and arranged to limit the plasma expansion in the radial direction. We investigated the variation of the plasma ion current density and charge distribution during transport in the magnetic field. The results indicate that the plasma is confined in the radial direction during the transport in the multicusp magnetic field.

  10. Ion angular distribution in plasma of vacuum arc ion source with composite cathode and elevated gas pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, A G; Savkin, K P; Yushkov, G Yu; Oks, E M

    2014-02-01

    The Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MEVVA) ion sources are capable of generating ion beams of almost all metals of the periodic table. For this kind of ion source, a combination of gas feeding with magnetic field allows the simultaneous generation of both metal and gaseous ions. That makes the MEVVA ion source an excellent instrument for science and application. This work presents results of investigation for ion angular distributions in vacuum arc plasma of Mevva-V.Ru ion source for composite cathodes and for elevated gas pressure. It was shown that for all the cathode materials, singly charged ions have wider angular distribution than multiply charged ions. Increasing the working gas pressure leads to a significant change in the angular distribution of gaseous ions, while with the distribution of metal ions gas remains practically unchanged. The reasons for such different influences are discussed.

  11. Potential applications of a new microwave ECR (electron cyclotron resonance) multicusp plasma ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    A new microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasma ion source using two ECR plasma production regions and multicusp plasma confinement has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This source has been operated to produce uniform and dense plasmas over large areas of 300 to 400 cm{sup 2}. The plasma source has been operated with continuous argon gas feed and pulsed microwave power. The discharge initiation phenomena and plasma properties have been investigated and studied as functions of discharge parameters. Together with the discharge characteristics observed, a hypothetical discharge mechanism for this plasma source is reported and discussed. Potential applications, including plasma and ion-beam processing for manufacturing advanced microelectronics and for space electric propulsion, are discussed. 7 refs., 6 figs.

  12. Potential applications of a new microwave ECR multicusp plasma ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.C. (Fusion Energy Div., Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1991-05-01

    A new microwave electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) multicusp plasma ion source using two ECR plasma production regions and multicusp plasma confinement has been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. This source has been operated to produce uniform and dense plasmas over large areas of 300-400 cm{sup 2}. The plasma source has been operated with continuous argon gas feed and pulsed microwave power. The discharge initiation phenomena and plasma properties have been investigated and studied as functions of discharge parameters. Together with the discharge characteristics observed, a hypothetical discharge mechanism for this plasma source is reported and discussed. Potential applications, including plasma and ion-beam processing for manufacturing advanced microelectronics and for space electric propulsion, are discussed. (orig.).

  13. Pulsed ion sheath dynamics in a cylindrical bore for inner surface grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Wang Jiu Li; Fan Song Hua; Yang Wu Bao; Yang Size

    2002-01-01

    Based on authors' recently proposed grid-enhanced plasma source ion implantation (GEPSII) technique for inner surface modification of materials with cylindrical geometry, the authors present the corresponding theoretical studies of the temporal evolution of the plasma ion sheath between the grid electrode and the target in a cylindrical bore. Typical results such as the ion sheath evolution, time-dependent ion density and time-integrated ion energy distribution at the target are calculated by solving Poisson's equation coupled with fluid equations for collisionless ions and Boltzmann assumption for electrons using finite difference methods. The calculated results can further verify the feasibility and superiority of this new technique

  14. Ion Behavior and Gas Mixing in electron cyclotron resonance plasmas as sources of highly charged ions (concept

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melin, G.; Drentje, A. G.; Girard, A.; Hitz, D.

    1999-01-01

    Abstract: An ECR ion source is basically an ECR heated plasma confinement machine, with hot electrons and cold ions. The main parameters of the ion population have been analyzed, including temperature, losses, and confinement time. The "gas mixing" effect has been studied in this context. An express

  15. High electronegativity multi-dipolar electron cyclotron resonance plasma source for etching by negative ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, M.

    2012-01-01

    A large area plasma source based on 12 multi-dipolar ECR plasma cells arranged in a 3 x 4 matrix configuration was built and optimized for silicon etching by negative ions. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons has exceeded 300 in Ar/SF6 gas mixture when a magnetic filter was used...... to reduce the electron temperature to about 1.2 eV. Mass spectrometry and electrostatic probe were used for plasma diagnostics. The new source is free of density jumps and instabilities and shows a very good stability for plasma potential, and the dominant negative ion species is F-. The magnetic field...... in plasma volume is negligible and there is no contamination by filaments. The etching rate by negative ions measured in Ar/SF6/O-2 mixtures was almost similar with that by positive ions reaching 700 nm/min. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics...

  16. Optimization of negative ion current in a compact microwave driven upper hybrid resonance multicusp plasma source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, D; Bhattacharjee, S; Singh, M J; Bandyopadhyay, M; Chakraborty, A

    2012-02-01

    Performance of a microwave driven upper hybrid resonance multicusp plasma source as a volume negative ion source is reported. Microwaves are directly launched into the plasma chamber predominantly in the TE(11) mode. The source is operated at different discharge conditions to obtain the optimized negative H(-) ion current which is ∼33 μA (0.26 mA∕cm(2)). Particle balance equations are solved to estimate the negative ion density, which is compared with the experimental results. Future prospects of the source are discussed.

  17. Diagnostics of plasma decay and afterglow transient of an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, O; Ropponen, T; Toivanen, V; Kalvas, T; Arje, J; Koivisto, H, E-mail: olli.tarvainen@jyu.f [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Accelerator Laboratory PO Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the JYFL (University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics) accelerator laboratory have been operated in pulsed mode to study the decay of bremsstrahlung emission and ion beam currents of different charge states. The purpose of the experiments is to gain understanding on the ion source parameters affecting the afterglow. It was observed that the bremsstrahlung emission characteristics during the afterglow and decay times of extracted ion beam currents are virtually independent of the ion source tuning parameters. The decay time of different charge states was found to be almost inversely proportional to the square of the ion charge. The result is in good agreement with a simple theoretical model based on diffusion of ions from the magnetic field of the ion source. It was observed that the plasma decay time is shorter in the case of the ion source with lower operation frequency and, thus, lower magnetic field strength. The scaling between the ion sources supports a model based on Bohm diffusion, arising from non-linear effects such as instabilities and fluctuating fields in turbulent plasma. The experiments provide information on the mechanisms causing instabilities during the plasma decay.

  18. Diagnostics of a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source helium plasma with the injection of ^{23}Na^{1+} ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Tarvainen

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the utilization of an injected ^{23}Na^{1+} ion beam as a diagnostics of the helium plasma of a charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion source. The obtained data allows estimating the upper limit for the ion-ion collision mean-free path of the incident sodium ions, the lower limit of ion-ion collision frequencies for all charge states of the sodium ions and the lower limit of the helium plasma density. The ion-ion collision frequencies of high charge state ions are shown to be at least on the order of 1–10 MHz and the plasma density is estimated to be on the order of 10^{11}  cm^{-3} or higher. The experimental results are compared to simulations of the ^{23}Na^{1+} capture into the helium plasma. The results indicate that the lower breeding efficiency of light ions in comparison to heavier elements is probably due to different capture efficiencies in which the in-flight ionization of the incident 1+ ions plays a vital role.

  19. Study of the negative ion extraction mechanism from a double-ion plasma in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, I.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate school of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan)

    2015-04-08

    We have developed a 2D3V-PIC model of the extraction region, aiming to clarify the basic extraction mechanism of H{sup −} ions from the double-ion plasma in H{sup −} negative ion sources. The result shows the same tendency of the H{sup −} ion density n{sub H{sup −}} as that observed in the experiments, i.e.,n{sub H{sup −}} in the upstream region away from the plasma meniscus (H{sup −} emitting surface) has been reduced by applying the extraction voltage. At the same time, relatively slow temporal oscillation of the electric potential compared with the electron plasma frequency has been observed in the extraction region. Results of the systematic study using a 1D3V-PIC model with the uniform magnetic field confirm the result that the electrostatic oscillation is identified to be lower hybrid wave. The effect of this oscillation on the H{sup −} transport will be studied in the future.

  20. Nonlinear ion dynamics in Hall thruster plasma source by ion transit-time instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Youbong; Choe, Wonho; Mazouffre, Stéphane; Park, Jae Sun; Kim, Holak; Seon, Jongho; Garrigues, L.

    2017-03-01

    High-energy tail formation in an ion energy distribution function (IEDF) is explained in a Hall thruster plasma with the stationary crossed electric and magnetic fields whose discharge current is oscillated at the ion transit-time scale with a frequency of 360 kHz. Among ions in different charge states, singly charged Xe ions (Xe+) have an IEDF that is significantly broadened and shifted toward the high-energy side, which contributes to tail formation in the entire IEDF. Analytical and numerical investigations confirm that the IEDF tail is due to nonlinear ion dynamics in the ion transit-time oscillation.

  1. Plasma ignition and steady state simulations of the Linac4 H$^{-}$ ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, S; Yasumoto, M; Hatayama, A; Lettry, J; Grudiev, A

    2014-01-01

    The RF heating of the plasma in the Linac4 H- ion source has been simulated using an Particle-in-Cell Monte Carlo Collision method (PIC-MCC). This model is applied to investigate the plasma formation starting from an initial low electron density of 1012 m-3 and its stabilization at 1018 m-3. The plasma discharge at low electron density is driven by the capacitive coupling with the electric field generated by the antenna, and as the electron density increases the capacitive electric field is shielded by the plasma and induction drives the plasma heating process. Plasma properties such as e-/ion densities and energies, sheath formation and shielding effect are presented and provide insight to the plasma properties of the hydrogen plasma.

  2. Ion beam extraction from a matrix ECR plasma source by discrete ion-focusing effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Draghici, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    Positive or negative ion beams extracted from plasma are used in a large variety of surface functionalization techniques such as implantation, etching, surface activation, passivation or oxidation. Of particular importance is the surface treatment of materials sensitive to direct plasma exposure ...

  3. Plasma breakdown diagnostics with the biased disc of electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, O; Ropponen, T; Toivanen, V; Arje, J; Koivisto, H [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Accelerator Laboratory, PO Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)], E-mail: olli.tarvainen@jyu.fi

    2009-08-15

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion sources at the JYFL (University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics) accelerator laboratory have been operated in pulsed mode to study the time-resolved current signal from the biased discs of the ion sources. The purpose of the experiments is to gain an understanding of the ion source parameters affecting the time required for the transition from neutral gas to plasma. It was observed that the plasma breakdown time depends strongly on the neutral gas density, gas species and density of seed electrons. In particular, it was observed that a low power microwave signal at secondary frequency makes the breakdown time virtually independent of the neutral gas density. The results can be utilized for operation of ECR ion sources in the so-called preglow mode. A simple qualitative model, which is in good agreement with the experiments, has been developed to interpret the results.

  4. Application of a pulsed, RF-driven, multicusp source for low energy plasma immersion ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wengrow, A.B.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Pickard, D.S.; Rickard, M.; Williams, M.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Tucker, M. [Spectrum Sciences, Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The multicusp ion source can produce large volumes of uniform, quiescent, high density plasmas. A plasma chamber suited for plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) was readily made. Conventional PIII pulses the bias voltage applied to the substrate which is immersed in a CW mode plasma. Here, a method by which the plasma itself is pulsed was developed. Typically pulse lengths of 500 {mu}s are used and are much shorter than that of the substrate voltage pulse (5-15 ms). This approach, together with low gas pressures and low bias voltages, permits the constant energy implantation of an entire wafer simultaneously without glow discharge. Results show that this process can yield implant currents of up to 2.5 mA/cm{sup 2}; thus very short implant times can be achieved. Uniformity of the ion flux is also discussed. As this method can be scaled to any dimension, it can be made to handle any size wafer.

  5. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikeda, S., E-mail: ikeda.s.ae@m.titech.ac.jp [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan); Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351-0108 (Japan); Takahashi, K. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2137 (Japan); Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Horioka, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Kanagawa 226-8502 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons.

  6. Behavior of moving plasma in solenoidal magnetic field in a laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S.; Takahashi, K.; Okamura, M.; Horioka, K.

    2016-02-01

    In a laser ion source, a solenoidal magnetic field is useful to guide the plasma and to control the extracted beam current. However, the behavior of the plasma drifting in the magnetic field has not been well understood. Therefore, to investigate the behavior, we measured the plasma ion current and the total charge within a single pulse in the solenoid by changing the distance from the entrance of the solenoid to a detector. We observed that the decrease of the total charge along the distance became smaller as the magnetic field became larger and then the charge became almost constant with a certain magnetic flux density. The results indicate that the transverse spreading speed of the plasma decreased with increasing the field and the plasma was confined transversely with the magnetic flux density. We found that the reason of the confinement was not magnetization of ions but an influence induced by electrons.

  7. Fullerene-rare gas mixed plasmas in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Asaji, T; Uchida, T; Minezaki, H; Ishihara, S; Racz, R; Muramatsu, M; Biri, S; Kitagawa, A; Kato, Y; Yoshida, Y

    2015-01-01

    A synthesis technology of endohedral fullerenes such as Fe@C60 has developed with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. The production of N@C60 was reported. However, the yield was quite low, since most fullerene molecules were broken in the ECR plasma. We have adopted gas-mixing techniques in order to cool the plasma and then reduce fullerene dissociation. Mass spectra of ion beams extracted from fullerene-He, Ar or Xe mixed plasmas were observed with a Faraday cup. From the results, the He gas mixing technique is effective against fullerene destruction.

  8. A study on vacuum aspects of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, S.; Taki, G. S.; Mallick, C.; Bhandari, R. K.

    2008-05-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source is special type hot plasma machine where the high temperature electrons co-exist with multiply charge state ions and neutrals. A few years ago 6.4 GHz. ECR ion source (VEC-ECR) was developed indigenously at VECC. This multiply charged ion source is being used continuously to inject heavy ion beams into the cyclotron. Vacuum plays the major role in ECR ion source. The water cooled plasma chamber is made from an oxygen free high conductivity copper billet to meet the suitable surface condition for vacuum purpose. The entire volume of the ion source is pumped by two 900 1/s special type oil diffusion pumps to achieve 5×10-8 Torr. Usually main plasma chamber is pumped by the plasma itself. Moreover a few 1/s additional pumping speed is provided through extraction hole and pumping slot on the extraction electrode. A study has been carried out to understand the role of vacuum on the multiply charged heavy ion production process. Considering the ion production and loss criteria, it is seen that for getting Ar18+ better vacuum is essential for lower frequency operation. So, an ECR ion source can give better charge state current output operating at higher frequency and stronger confining magnetic field under a specific vacuum condition. The low pressure condition is essential to minimize charge exchange loss due to recombination of multiply charged ions with the neutral atoms. A fixed ratio of neutral to electron density must be maintained for optimizing a particular charge state in the steady state condition. As the electron density is proportional to square of the injected microwave frequency (nevpropf2) a particular operating pressure is essential for a specific charge state. From the study, it has been obtained that the production of Ar18+ ions needs a pressure ~ 9.6×10-8 Torr for 6.4 GHz. ECR ion source. It is also obtained that an ECR ion source, works at a particular vacuum level, can give better charge state

  9. Ion Source for Neutral beam injection meant for plasma and magnetic field diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vainionpaa, Jaakko Hannes; Leung, Ka Ngo; Gough, Richard A.; Kwan, Joe W.; Levinton, Fred

    2007-06-01

    At the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) a diagnostic neutral beam injection system for measuring plasma parameters, flow velocity, and local magnetic field is being developed. The systems is designed to have a 90 % proton fraction and small divergence with beam current at 5-6 A and a pulse length of {approx}1 s occurring once every 1-2 min. The ion source needs to generate uniform plasma over a large (8 cm x 5 cm) extraction area. For this application, we have compared RF driven multicusp ion sources operating with either an external or an internal antenna in similar ion source geometry. The ion beam will be made of an array of six sheet-shaped beamlets. The design is optimized using computer simulation programs.

  10. Hydrogen Ionic Plasma and Particle Dynamics in Negative Ion Source for NBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumori, Katsuyoshi

    2013-10-01

    Three negative-ion-based neutral beam injectors (NBIs) have been developed for plasma heating in the Large Helical Device. The NBIs achieve successfully the nominal injection power and beam energy, and understanding of the production and transport mechanisms of H- ion is required to obtain more stable high power beam. In the ion source development, we have found hydrogen ionic plasmas with extremely low electron density are produced in the beam extraction region. The plasma is measured with a combination of an electrostatic probe, millimeter-wave interferometer and cavity ring down (CRD). It has been observed for the first time that the charge neutrality of the ionic plasma is broken with H- extraction and electrons compensate the extracted H- charge. The influence of the extraction field widely affects to the ionic plasma in the extraction region. Two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation (2D-PIC) has been applied to investigate the particle transport and reproduces the production of the ionic plasma and electron compensation due to H- extraction. In particle model, produced H- ions leave from the Cs covered PG surface in opposite direction to beam extraction. The direction can be changed with the electric field and collective effect due to the presence of plasma. A new technique using CCD camera with H α filter applied to measure the two-dimensional distribution of H- density. In the ionic plasma, H α light is emitted via electron-impact excitation and mutual neutralization processes with H- ion and proton. Comparing the results obtained with optical emission spectroscopy, electrostatic probe and CRD, it is shown the H α emission is dominated with the mutual neutralization. By subtracting the CCD images with and without beam extraction, it becomes clear that H- ions are extracted not directly from the PG surface but from the bulk of the ionic plasma. The result suggests the initial energy of H- ion is dumped rapidly in the ionic plasma.

  11. Negative ion beam formation using thermal contact ionization type plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuura, Yoshiyuki; Murakami, Kazutugu; Masuoka, Toshio; Katsumata, Itsuo [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    The small ion sources utilizing thermal ionization have been already developed, and at present, in order to increase ion yield, that being developed to the cylindrical plasma prototype having the inner surface of a Re foil cylinder as the ionization surface, and stably functioning at 3,000 K has been developed, and by using this plasma source, the research on the formation of various ions has been carried out. At present, the research on the formation of Li negative ion beam is carried out. The separation of negative ions from electrons is performed with the locally limited magnetic field using a small iron core electromagnet placed behind the electrostatic accelerating lens system. So for, the formation of about 2 {mu}A at maximum of negative ions was confirmed. It was decided to identify the kinds of ions by time of flight (TOF) process, and the various improvements for this purpose were carried out. The experimental setup, the structure of the plasma source, the circuits for TOF measurement and so on are explained. The experimental results are reported. The problems are the possibility of the formation of alkali metals, the resolution of the time axis of the TOF system and so on. (K.I.)

  12. Study of the general plasma characteristics of a high power multifilament ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenberg, K.F.

    1979-09-01

    A general assessment of the steady state and time dependent plasma properties which characterize a high power multifilament ion source is presented. Steady state measurements, obtained via a pulsed electrostatic probe data acquisition system, are described. Fluctuation measurements, obtained via a broadband digital spectral analysis system, are also given.

  13. Inductively driven surface-plasma negative ion source for N-NBI use (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belchenko, Yu., E-mail: belchenko@inp.nsk.su; Abdrashitov, G.; Deichuli, P.; Ivanov, A.; Gorbovsky, A.; Kondakov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O.; Shikhovtsev, I. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    The long-pulse surface-plasma source prototype is developed at Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics for negative-ion based neutral beam injector use. The essential source features are (1) an active temperature control of the ion-optical system electrodes by circulation of hot thermal fluid through the channels, drilled in the electrode bodies, (2) the concaved transverse magnetic field in the extraction and acceleration gaps, preventing the electrons trapping and avalanching, and (3) the directed cesium deposition via distribution tubes adjacent to the plasma grid periphery. The long term effect of cesium was obtained just with the single cesium deposition. The high voltage strength of ion-optical system electrodes was improved with actively heated electrodes. A stable H{sup −} beam with a current ∼1 A and energy 90 keV was routinely extracted and accelerated.

  14. Interaction of plasmas in laser ion source with double laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuwa, Y., E-mail: yasuhiro.fuwa@riken.jp [Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Riken, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Ikeda, S. [Riken, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama, Tokyo (Japan); Kumaki, M. [Riken, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo (Japan); Sekine, M. [Riken, Wako, Saitama (Japan); Department of Nuclear Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Meguro, Tokyo (Japan); Cinquegrani, D. [Nuclear Engineering and Radiological Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Romanelli, M. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14850 (United States); Kanesue, T.; Okamura, M. [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Iwashita, Y. [Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Multiple laser shots could be used to elongate an ion beam pulse width or to intensify beam current from laser ion sources. In order to confirm the feasibility of the multiple shot scheme, we investigated the properties of plasmas produced by double laser shots. We found that when the interval of the laser shots is shorter than 10 μs, the ion current profile had a prominent peak, which is not observed in single laser experiments. The height of this peak was up to five times larger than that of single laser experiment.

  15. Peristaltic ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, I.G.; Anders, A.; Anders, S.; Dickinson, M.R.; MacGill, R.A.

    1995-08-01

    Conventional ion sources generate energetic ion beams by accelerating the plasma-produced ions through a voltage drop at the extractor, and since it is usual that the ion beam is to propagate in a space which is at ground potential, the plasma source is biased at extractor voltage. For high ion beam energy the plasma source and electrical systems need to be raised to high voltage, a task that adds considerable complexity and expense to the total ion source system. The authors have developed a system which though forming energetic ion beams at ground potential as usual, operates with the plasma source and electronics at ground potential also. Plasma produced by a nearby source streams into a grided chamber that is repetitively pulsed from ground to high positive potential, sequentially accepting plasma into its interior region and ejecting it energetically. They call the device a peristaltic ion source. In preliminary tests they`ve produced nitrogen and titanium ion beams at energies from 1 to 40 keV. Here they describe the philosophy behind the approach, the test embodiment that they have made, and some preliminary results.

  16. Plasma Outages in Pulsed, High-Power RF Hydrogen Ion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockli, Martin; Han, Baoxi; Murray, Syd; Pennisi, Terry; Piller, Chip; Santana, Manuel; Welton, Robert

    2011-04-01

    Pulsed, high-power RF ion sources are needed to produce copious amounts of negative H-ions for high-power accelerators with charge-changing injection schemes. When increasing the RF power, the plasma inductance changes the RF resonance, which drifts away from the low-power resonance. When the RF circuit is tuned to maximize the (pulsed) plasma power, the (off-resonance) power at the beginning of the pulse is reduced. If the induced electric fields fall below the breakdown strength of the hydrogen gas, the plasma fails to develop. This can be avoided with a compromise tune and/or by increasing the inductance of the resonant circuit. However, the breakdown strength of the hydrogen gas increases with time due to the gradual decrease of the electron-rich plasma impurities, which causes plasma outages after weeks of reliable operation. In this paper we discuss the success of different mitigations that were tested and implemented to overcome this fundamental problem of pulsed, high-power RF hydrogen ion sources.

  17. High current multicharged metal ion source using high power gyrotron heating of vacuum arc plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopyanov, A V; Golubev, S V; Khizhnyak, V I; Mansfeld, D A; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu

    2008-02-01

    A high current, multi charged, metal ion source using electron heating of vacuum arc plasma by high power gyrotron radiation has been developed. The plasma is confined in a simple mirror trap with peak magnetic field in the plug up to 2.5 T, mirror ratio of 3-5, and length variable from 15 to 20 cm. Plasma formed by a cathodic vacuum arc is injected into the trap either (i) axially using a compact vacuum arc plasma gun located on axis outside the mirror trap region or (ii) radially using four plasma guns surrounding the trap at midplane. Microwave heating of the mirror-confined, vacuum arc plasma is accomplished by gyrotron microwave radiation of frequency 75 GHz, power up to 200 kW, and pulse duration up to 150 micros, leading to additional stripping of metal ions by electron impact. Pulsed beams of platinum ions with charge state up to 10+, a mean charge state over 6+, and total (all charge states) beam current of a few hundred milliamperes have been formed.

  18. Injection of auxiliary electrons for increasing the plasma density in highly charged and high intensity ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odorici, F.; Malferrari, L.; Montanari, A.; Rizzoli, R.; Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Neri, L.

    2016-02-01

    Different electron guns based on cold- or hot-cathode technologies have been developed since 2009 at INFN for operating within ECR plasma chambers as sources of auxiliary electrons, with the aim of boosting the source performances by means of a higher plasma lifetime and density. Their application to microwave discharge ion sources, where plasma is not confined, has required an improvement of the gun design, in order to "screen" the cathode from the plasma particles. Experimental tests carried out on a plasma reactor show a boost of the plasma density, ranging from 10% to 90% when the electron guns are used, as explained by plasma diffusion models.

  19. Injection of auxiliary electrons for increasing the plasma density in highly charged and high intensity ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odorici, F., E-mail: fabrizio.odorici@bo.infn.it; Malferrari, L.; Montanari, A. [INFN—Bologna, Viale B. Pichat, 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); Rizzoli, R. [INFN—Bologna, Viale B. Pichat, 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy); CNR–Istituto per la Microelettronica ed i Microsistemi, Via Gobetti 101, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Mascali, D.; Castro, G.; Celona, L.; Gammino, S.; Neri, L. [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    Different electron guns based on cold- or hot-cathode technologies have been developed since 2009 at INFN for operating within ECR plasma chambers as sources of auxiliary electrons, with the aim of boosting the source performances by means of a higher plasma lifetime and density. Their application to microwave discharge ion sources, where plasma is not confined, has required an improvement of the gun design, in order to “screen” the cathode from the plasma particles. Experimental tests carried out on a plasma reactor show a boost of the plasma density, ranging from 10% to 90% when the electron guns are used, as explained by plasma diffusion models.

  20. Plasma expansion across a transverse magnetic field in a negative hydrogen ion source for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U.; Schiesko, L.; Wünderlich, D.

    2014-08-01

    High power negative hydrogen ion sources operating at 0.3 Pa are a key component of the neutral beam injection systems for the international fusion experiment ITER. To achieve the required large ion current at a tolerable number of co-extracted electrons the source is equipped with a magnetic filter field (up to 10 mT). The IPP prototype source (1/8 of the area of the ITER source) has been equipped with a flexible magnetic filter frame to perform filter field studies (position, polarity, strength). Axial profiles of the plasma parameters are measured with two Langmuir probes, positioned in the upper and the lower half of the expansion chamber. In addition to the expected decrease in electron temperature and density a vertical drift develops the direction depending on the polarity of the field. Without field no drift is observed. The drift is less pronounced in caesium seeded discharges and almost vanishes in deuterium, indicating an influence of the ion mass on the drift. A comparison with results from a half-size ITER source reveals that the plasma is much more uniform in the large source.

  1. Ion Source DECRIS-3

    CERN Document Server

    Efremov, A; Lebedev, A N; Loginov, V N; Yazvitsky, N Yu

    1999-01-01

    The ECR ion source DECRIS-3 is the copy of the mVINIS ion source which was designed and built in Dubna for the TESLA Accelerator Installation (Belgrade, Yugoslavia) in 1997. The assembly of the source was completely finished in the end of 1998 and then it was installed at the FLNR ECR test bench. The source was successfully tested with some gases and metals by using the MIVOC technique. In nearest future the source will be capable of ECR plasma heating using two different frequencies simultaneously. We are also going to use the DECRIS-3 ion source to design 1+ -> n+ technique for the DRIBs (Dubna Radioactive Ion Beams) project.

  2. Effect of Wall Material on H– Production in a Plasma Sputter-Type Ion Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. M. Ponce

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wall material on negative hydrogen ion (H– production was investigated in a multicusp plasma sputter-type ion source (PSTIS. Steady-state cesium-seeded hydrogen plasma was generated by a tungsten filament, while H– was produced through surface production using a molybdenum sputter target. Plasma parameters and H– yields were determined from Langmuir probe and Faraday cup measurements, respectively. At an input hydrogen pressure of 1.2 mTorr and optimum plasma discharge parameters Vd = –90 V and Id = –2.25 A, the plasma parameters ne was highest and T–e was lowest as determined from Langmuir probe measurements. At these conditions, aluminum generates the highest ion current density of 0.01697 mA/cm2, which is 64% more than the 0.01085 mA/cm2 that stainless steel produces. The yield of copper, meanwhile, falls between the two materials at 0.01164 mA/cm2. The beam is maximum at Vt = –125 V. Focusing is achieved at VL = –70 V for stainless steel, Vt = –60 V for aluminum, and Vt = –50 V for copper. The results demonstrate that proper selection of wall material can greatly enhance the H– production of the PSTIS.

  3. Comparison of different plasma chambers in microwave ion source for the intense neutron tube

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The microwave absorption efficiency, which is relevant to magnet field and its distribution, is a major parameter of the microwave ion source (MWIS) for the intense neutron tube. Based on previous work, the relations between microwave absorption efficiency and plasma chamber structure and thickness of the microwave introduction window are studied. The microwave absorption efficiency reaches to 100% when plasma chamber is 100mm long and the window thickness is 30mm. The microwave absorption efficiency as a function of pressure is also presented.

  4. Microwave frequency sweep interferometer for plasma density measurements in ECR ion sources: Design and preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Giuseppe; Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Leonardi, Ornella; Sorbello, Gino; Celona, Luigi; Castro, Giuseppe; Agnello, Riccardo; Caruso, Antonio; Passarello, Santi; Longhitano, Alberto; Isernia, Tommaso; Gammino, Santo

    2016-02-01

    The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) development is strictly related to the availability of new diagnostic tools, as the existing ones are not adequate to such compact machines and to their plasma characteristics. Microwave interferometry is a non-invasive method for plasma diagnostics and represents the best candidate for plasma density measurement in hostile environment. Interferometry in ECRISs is a challenging task mainly due to their compact size. The typical density of ECR plasmas is in the range 1011-1013 cm-3 and it needs a probing beam wavelength of the order of few centimetres, comparable to the chamber radius. The paper describes the design of a microwave interferometer developed at the LNS-INFN laboratories based on the so-called "frequency sweep" method to filter out the multipath contribution in the detected signals. The measurement technique and the preliminary results (calibration) obtained during the experimental tests will be presented.

  5. Microwave frequency sweep interferometer for plasma density measurements in ECR ion sources: Design and preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria (Italy); Mascali, David; Neri, Lorenzo; Leonardi, Ornella; Celona, Luigi; Castro, Giuseppe; Agnello, Riccardo; Caruso, Antonio; Passarello, Santi; Longhitano, Alberto; Gammino, Santo [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Sorbello, Gino [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); University of Catania, Catania, Italy and INFN-LNS, Catania (Italy); Isernia, Tommaso [University Mediterranea of Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    The Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources (ECRISs) development is strictly related to the availability of new diagnostic tools, as the existing ones are not adequate to such compact machines and to their plasma characteristics. Microwave interferometry is a non-invasive method for plasma diagnostics and represents the best candidate for plasma density measurement in hostile environment. Interferometry in ECRISs is a challenging task mainly due to their compact size. The typical density of ECR plasmas is in the range 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} and it needs a probing beam wavelength of the order of few centimetres, comparable to the chamber radius. The paper describes the design of a microwave interferometer developed at the LNS-INFN laboratories based on the so-called “frequency sweep” method to filter out the multipath contribution in the detected signals. The measurement technique and the preliminary results (calibration) obtained during the experimental tests will be presented.

  6. Limitations of electron cyclotron resonance ion source performances set by kinetic plasma instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, O; Laulainen, J; Komppula, J; Kronholm, R; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Izotov, I; Mansfeld, D; Skalyga, V

    2015-02-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plasmas are prone to kinetic instabilities due to anisotropy of the electron energy distribution function stemming from the resonant nature of the electron heating process. Electron cyclotron plasma instabilities are related to non-linear interaction between plasma waves and energetic electrons resulting to strong microwave emission and a burst of energetic electrons escaping the plasma, and explain the periodic oscillations of the extracted beam currents observed in several laboratories. It is demonstrated with a minimum-B 14 GHz ECRIS operating on helium, oxygen, and argon plasmas that kinetic instabilities restrict the parameter space available for the optimization of high charge state ion currents. The most critical parameter in terms of plasma stability is the strength of the solenoid magnetic field. It is demonstrated that due to the instabilities the optimum Bmin-field in single frequency heating mode is often ≤0.8BECR, which is the value suggested by the semiempirical scaling laws guiding the design of modern ECRISs. It is argued that the effect can be attributed not only to the absolute magnitude of the magnetic field but also to the variation of the average magnetic field gradient on the resonance surface.

  7. Limitations of electron cyclotron resonance ion source performances set by kinetic plasma instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, O., E-mail: olli.tarvainen@jyu.fi; Laulainen, J.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, 40500 Jyväskylä (Finland); Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Skalyga, V. [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ul‘yanova St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    2015-02-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plasmas are prone to kinetic instabilities due to anisotropy of the electron energy distribution function stemming from the resonant nature of the electron heating process. Electron cyclotron plasma instabilities are related to non-linear interaction between plasma waves and energetic electrons resulting to strong microwave emission and a burst of energetic electrons escaping the plasma, and explain the periodic oscillations of the extracted beam currents observed in several laboratories. It is demonstrated with a minimum-B 14 GHz ECRIS operating on helium, oxygen, and argon plasmas that kinetic instabilities restrict the parameter space available for the optimization of high charge state ion currents. The most critical parameter in terms of plasma stability is the strength of the solenoid magnetic field. It is demonstrated that due to the instabilities the optimum B{sub min}-field in single frequency heating mode is often ≤0.8B{sub ECR}, which is the value suggested by the semiempirical scaling laws guiding the design of modern ECRISs. It is argued that the effect can be attributed not only to the absolute magnitude of the magnetic field but also to the variation of the average magnetic field gradient on the resonance surface.

  8. Diamond-like carbon produced by plasma source ion implantation as a corrosion barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Taylor, T.N.; Walter, K.C.; Nastasi, M.

    1998-03-01

    There currently exists a broad range of applications for which the ability to produce an adherent, hard, wear and, corrosion-resistant coating plays a vital role. These applications include engine components, orthopedic devices, textile manufacturing components, hard disk media, optical coatings, and cutting and machining tools (e.g., punches, taps, scoring dies, and extrusion dies). Ion beam processing can play an important role in all of these technologies. Plasma source ion implantation (PSII) is an emerging technology which has the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional ion implantation by: (1) reducing the time and expense for implanting onto complex shapes and large areas and (2) extending the thickness of the modification zone through ion beam enhanced plasma growth of surface coatings. In PSII, targets are placed directly in a plasma source and then pulse biased to produce a non-line-of-sight process for complex-shaped targets without complex fixturing. If the pulse bias is a relatively high negative potential (20 to 100 kV) ion implantation will result. If however, a low voltage (50--1,200 eV) high duty cycle pulse bias is applied, film deposition from the chamber gas will result, thereby increasing the extent of the surface modification into the 1--10 micron regime. To evaluate the potential for DLC to be used as a corrosion barrier, Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and traditional electrochemistry techniques were used to investigate the breakdown mechanism in chloride and nonchloride containing environments. The effect of surface preparation on coating breakdown was also evaluated.

  9. Ion source research and development at University of Jyväskylä: Studies of different plasma processes and towards the higher beam intensities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koivisto, H., E-mail: hannu.koivisto@phys.jyu.fi; Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Laulainen, J.; Kronholm, R.; Ranttila, K.; Tuunanen, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), FI-40014 Jyväskylä (Finland); Thuillier, T. [LPSC, CNRS/IN2P3, Université Grenoble-Alpes1, 53 Rue des Martyrs, 38026 Grenoble Cedex (France); Xie, D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Machicoane, G. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Several ion source related research and development projects are in progress at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The work can be divided into investigation of the ion source plasma and development of ion sources, ion beams, and diagnostics. The investigation covers the Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) plasma instabilities, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and visible light emission, photon induced electron emission, and the development of plasma diagnostics. The ion source development covers the work performed for radiofrequency-driven negative ion source, RADIS, beam line upgrade of the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS, and the development of a new room-temperature-magnet 18 GHz ECRIS, HIISI.

  10. Unstable plasma characteristics in mirror field electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion source

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Angra; Parshant Kumar; R R Dongaonkar; R P Bajpai

    2000-05-01

    Electron cyclotron plasma reactor are prone to instabilities in specific input power [3–7] region (150–450 watts). In this region power absorption by gas molecules in the cavity is very poor and enhanced input power gets reflected substantially without increasing ion density. There are abrupt changes in plasma characteristics when input power was decreased from maximum to minimum, it was observed that reflected power changed from < 2% to ∼ 50%. Minimum two jumps in reflected power were noticed in this specific power region and these appear to be highly sensitive to three stub tuner position in the waveguide for this particular input power zone. Unstable plasma region of this source is found to be dependent upon the magnetic field strength. Some changes in reflected power are also noticed with pressure, flow and bias and they are random in nature.

  11. A New Radio Frequency Plasma Oxygen Primary Ion Source on Nano Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry for Improved Lateral Resolution and Detection of Electropositive Elements at Single Cell Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, Julien; Penen, Florent; Isaure, Marie-Pierre; Frank, Julia; Hause, Gerd; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Gontier, Etienne; Horréard, François; Hillion, François; Schaumlöffel, Dirk

    2016-07-19

    An important application field of secondary ion mass spectrometry at the nanometer scale (NanoSIMS) is the detection of chemical elements and, in particular, metals at the subcellular level in biological samples. The detection of many trace metals requires an oxygen primary ion source to allow the generation of positive secondary ions with high yield in the NanoSIMS. The duoplasmatron oxygen source is commonly used in this ion microprobe but cannot achieve the same quality of images as the cesium primary ion source used to produce negative secondary ions (C(-), CN(-), S(-), P(-)) due to a larger primary ion beam size. In this paper, a new type of an oxygen ion source using a rf plasma is fitted and characterized on a NanoSIMS50L. The performances of this primary ion source in terms of current density and achievable lateral resolution have been characterized and compared to the conventional duoplasmatron and cesium sources. The new rf plasma oxygen source offered a net improvement in terms of primary beam current density compared to the commonly used duoplasmatron source, which resulted in higher ultimate lateral resolutions down to 37 nm and which provided a 5-45 times higher apparent sensitivity for electropositive elements. Other advantages include a better long-term stability and reduced maintenance. This new rf plasma oxygen primary ion source has been applied to the localization of essential macroelements and trace metals at basal levels in two biological models, cells of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Arabidopsis thaliana.

  12. A Proposal for a Novel H- Ion Source Based on Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Heating and Surface Ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarvainen, O.; Kurennoy, S.

    2009-03-01

    A design for a novel H- ion source based on electron cyclotron resonance plasma heating and surface ionization is presented. The plasma chamber of the source is an rf-cavity designed for TE111 eigenmode at 2.45 GHz. The desired mode is excited with a loop antenna. The ionization process takes place on a cesiated surface of a biased converter electrode. The H- ion beam is further "self-extracted" through the plasma region. The magnetic field of the source is optimized for plasma generation by electron cyclotron resonance heating, and beam extraction. The design features of the source are discussed in detail and the attainable H- ion current, beam emittance and duty factor of the novel source are estimated.

  13. Enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} volume production in a double plasma type negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Nishimura, Hideki; Sakiyama, Satoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    H{sup -}/D{sup -} production in a pure volume source has been studied. In our double plasma type negative ion source, both energy and density of fast electrons are well controlled. With the use of this source, the enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} production has been observed. Namely, under the same discharge power, the extracted H{sup -}/D{sup -} current in the double plasma operation is higher than that in the single plasma operation. At the same time, measurements of plasma parameters have been made in the source and the extractor regions for these two cases. (author)

  14. Diamondlike carbon deposition on plastic films by plasma source ion implantation

    CERN Document Server

    Tanaka, T; Shinohara, M; Takagi, T

    2002-01-01

    Application of pulsed high negative voltage (approx 10 mu s pulse width, 300-900 pulses per second) to a substrate is found to induce discharge, thereby increasing ion current with an inductively coupled plasma source. This plasma source ion beam implantation (PSII) technique is investigated for the pretreatment and deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) thin layer on polyethylene terepthalate (PET) film. Pretreatment of PET with N sub 2 and Ar plasma is expected to provide added barrier effects when coupled with DLC deposition, with possible application to fabrication of PET beverage bottles. PSII treatment using N sub 2 and Ar in separate stages is found to change the color of the PET film, effectively increasing near-ultraviolet absorption. The effects of this pretreatment on the chemical bonding of C, H, and O are examined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). DLC thin film was successfully deposited on the PET film. The surface of the DLC thin layer is observed to be smooth by scanning electron mic...

  15. Afterglow of a microwave microstrip plasma as an ion source for mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeuffer, Kevin P.; White, Allen; Broekaert, José A. C.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    A microwave-induced plasma that was previously used for optical emission spectrometry has been repurposed as an afterglow ion source for mass spectrometry. This compact microwave discharge, termed the microstrip plasma (MSP), is operated at 20-50 W and 2.45 GHz in helium at a flow of 300 mL/min. The primary background ions present in the afterglow are ionized and protonated water clusters. An exponential dilution chamber was used to introduce volatile organic compounds into the MSP afterglow and yielded limits of detection in the 40 ppb to 7 ppm range (v/v). A hydride-generation system was also utilized for detection of volatile hydride-forming elements (arsenic, antimony, tin) in the afterglow and produced limits of detection in the 10-100 ppb range in solution. The MSP afterglow was found capable of desorption and ionization of analyte species directly from a solid substrate, suggesting its use as an ion source for ambient desorption/ionization mass spectrometry.

  16. Study of electron current extraction from a radio frequency plasma cathode designed as a neutralizer for ion source applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jahanbakhsh, Sina, E-mail: sinajahanbakhsh@gmail.com; Satir, Mert; Celik, Murat [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bogazici University, Istanbul 34342 (Turkey)

    2016-02-15

    Plasma cathodes are insert free devices that are developed to be employed as electron sources in electric propulsion and ion source applications as practical alternatives to more commonly used hollow cathodes. Inductively coupled plasma cathodes, or Radio Frequency (RF) plasma cathodes, are introduced in recent years. Because of its compact geometry, and simple and efficient plasma generation, RF plasma source is considered to be suitable for plasma cathode applications. In this study, numerous RF plasma cathodes have been designed and manufactured. Experimental measurements have been conducted to study the effects of geometric and operational parameters. Experimental results of this study show that the plasma generation and electron extraction characteristics of the RF plasma cathode device strongly depend on the geometric parameters such as chamber diameter, chamber length, orifice diameter, orifice length, as well as the operational parameters such as RF power and gas mass flow rate.

  17. Neutron generator for BNCT based on high current ECR ion source with gyrotron plasma heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalyga, V; Izotov, I; Golubev, S; Razin, S; Sidorov, A; Maslennikova, A; Volovecky, A; Kalvas, T; Koivisto, H; Tarvainen, O

    2015-12-01

    BNCT development nowadays is constrained by a progress in neutron sources design. Creation of a cheap and compact intense neutron source would significantly simplify trial treatments avoiding use of expensive and complicated nuclear reactors and accelerators. D-D or D-T neutron generator is one of alternative types of such sources for. A so-called high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source with plasma heating by millimeter wave gyrotron radiation is suggested to be used in a scheme of D-D neutron generator in the present work. Ion source of that type was developed in the Institute of Applied Physics of Russian Academy of Sciences (Nizhny Novgorod, Russia). It can produce deuteron ion beams with current density up to 700-800 mA/cm(2). Generation of the neutron flux with density at the level of 7-8·10(10) s(-1) cm(-2) at the target surface could be obtained in case of TiD2 target bombardment with deuteron beam accelerated to 100 keV. Estimations show that it is enough for formation of epithermal neutron flux with density higher than 10(9) s(-1) cm(-2) suitable for BNCT. Important advantage of described approach is absence of Tritium in the scheme. First experiments performed in pulsed regime with 300 mA, 45 kV deuteron beam directed to D2O target demonstrated 10(9) s(-1) neutron flux. This value corresponds to theoretical estimations and proofs prospects of neutron generator development based on high current quasi-gasdynamic ECR ion source.

  18. Diagnosis of Hydrogen Plasma in a Miniature Penning Ion Source by Double Probes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Dazhi; YANG Zhonghai; XIAO Kunxiang; DAI Jingyi

    2009-01-01

    Parameters of hydrogen plasma in a miniature Penning discharge ion source,including the electron temperature and the electron density,were measured by using double probes.The results indicate that the electron density increases and the electron temperature decreases with the increase in gas pressure and the discharge current.The electron temperature is about 5~9 eV and the electron density is 6.0x1013~1.2×1014 m-3 while the discharge current is in a range of 50~12μA.

  19. Large diameter permanent-magnets-expanded plasma source for spontaneous generation of low-energy ion beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Ando, Akira

    2014-02-01

    Diameter of a permanent-magnets-expanded, radiofrequency (rf) plasma source is enlarged up to ∼13 cm for an application to a space propulsion device and tested with being attached to a diffusion chamber. The source is operated at 13.56 MHz 300 W rf power in low-pressure (40 mPa) argon. Measurement of ion energy distribution functions downstream of the source exit shows generation of a supersonic ion beam of about 20 eV. The detailed radial measurements demonstrate that the diameter and energy of the ion beam corresponds to the source tube diameter and the potential difference between the source and downstream plasmas, and that the radial profile of the beam flux is similar to the plasma density profile in the source cavity.

  20. Design of the plasma grid for a short pulse negative ion source experimental setup at HUST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, C.; Li, D.; Chen, D.; Zhao, P.; Xu, Q.; Liao, Z.

    2017-08-01

    An experimental setup of a radio frequency (RF) driven negative hydrogen ion source has been developed at Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST). The setup without cesium oven and an extraction system had been completed and the plasma was ignited in the driver successfully in 2014. An extraction system with small area (5540 mm2) for short pulse (˜ 4 s) was designed to extract the negative hydrogen ions. Generally, the plasma grid temperature is controlled to reach 150 °C by the cooling channels inside the grid. But another method that we could use the PG current to raise the temperature is being considered only for the short pulse condition. An experiment was introduced to prove the feasibility of this method. A magnetic field produced by current flowing through the plasma grid is required to reduce the electron temperature and suppress the co-extraction electrons. The filter field homogeneity has been studied in detail by finite element method. There have been significant improvements regarding the field homogeneity by means of the grid geometry optimization.

  1. Simulation of the Partially Ionized Reacting Plasma Flow in a Negative Hydrogen Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatsonis, Nikolaos; Averkin, Sergey; Olson, Lynn

    2012-10-01

    A High Pressure Discharge Negative Ion Source (HPDNIS) operating on hydrogen is been under investigation. The Negative Ion Production (NIP) section of the HPDNIS attaches to the 10-100 Torr RF-discharge chamber with a micronozzle and ends with a grid that extracts the negative ion beam. The partially ionized and reacting plasma flow in the NIP section is simulated using an unstructured three-dimensional Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (U3DSMC) code. The NIP section contains a low-pressure plasma that includes H2, vibrationally-rotationally excited H2^*, negative hydrogen atoms H^-, and electrons. Primary reactions in the NIP section are dissociate attachment, H2^*+e->H^0+H^-and electron collisional detachment, e+H^-->H+2e. The U3DSMC computational domain includes the entrance to the NIP nozzle and the extraction grid at the exit. The flow parameters at the entrance are based on conditions in the RF-discharge chamber and are implemented in U3DSMC using a Kinetic-Moment subsonic boundary conditions method. The rotational and vibrational degrees of freedom in U3DSMC are implemented using the Larsen-Borgnakke model. Chemical reactions are implemented in U3DSMC using the Quantum-Kinetic model. Simulations cover the regime of operation of the HPDNIS and examine the flow characteristics inside the NIP section.

  2. Studies of plasma breakdown and electron heating on a 14 GHz ECR ion source through measurement of plasma bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ropponen, T; Machicoane, G; Leitner, D [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, MSU, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Tarvainen, O; Toivanen, V; Koivisto, H; Kalvas, T; Peura, P; Jones, P [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, PO Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Izotov, I; Skalyga, V; Zorin, V [Institute of Applied Physics, RAS, 46 Ulyanov St., 603950 Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation); Noland, J, E-mail: tommi.ropponen@gmail.com, E-mail: olli.tarvainen@jyu.fi [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Temporal evolution of plasma bremsstrahlung emitted by a 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) operated in pulsed mode is presented in the energy range 1.5-400 keV with 100 {mu}s resolution. Such a high temporal resolution together with this energy range has never been measured before with an ECRIS. Data are presented as a function of microwave power, neutral gas pressure, magnetic field configuration and seed electron density. The saturation time of the bremsstrahlung count rate is almost independent of the photon energy up to 100 keV and exhibits similar characteristics with the neutral gas balance. The average photon energy during the plasma breakdown is significantly higher than that during the steady state and depends strongly on the density of seed electrons. The results are consistent with a theoretical model describing the evolution of the electron energy distribution function during the preglow transient.

  3. Numerical simulation of the RF plasma discharge in the Linac4 H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattei, S.; Nishida, K.; Onai, M.; Lettry, J.; Tran, M. Q.; Hatayama, A.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collision simulation of the Radio-Frequency (RF) plasma heating in the Linac4 H- ion source at CERN. The model self-consistently takes into account the electromagnetic field generated by the RF coil, the external static magnetic fields and the resulting plasma response, including a kinetic description of the charged species (e-, H+, H2-, H3+, H-), as well as the atomic and molecular (vibrationally resolved) populations. The simulation is performed for the nominal operational condition of 40 kW RF power and 3 Pa H2 pressure. Results show that the plasma spatial distribution is non-uniform in the plasma chamber, with a density peak of ne = 5 . 1019 m-3 in the RF coil region. In the filter field region the electron density drops by two orders of magnitude, with a substantial reduction of the electron energy as well. This results in a ratio e/H- ≈ 1 in the extraction region. The vibrational population is characterized by a two temperature distribution, with the high vibrational states showing a factor 2 higher termperature. A very good agreement is found between the simulation results and optical emission spectroscopy measurement performed on a dedicated test stand at CERN.

  4. A comparison of the plasma characteristics of two multicusp negative ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, W. G.; Steen, P. G.; Courteille, C.; Leroy, R.; Bacal, M.

    1996-07-01

    Electron temperature, electron density and negative ion fraction measurements in two different multicusp negative hydrogen ion sources, operating under similar conditions one at Queen's University and one at Ecole Polytechnique, are compared. Some data from a third source at FOM are also included in the comparisons. The agreement between electron temperature and density measurements is generally good. There are however considerable discrepancies between the negative ion fraction measurements. This illustrates the great sensitivity of negative ion fractions to the exact source conditions.

  5. Thermo-mechanical design of the Plasma Driver Plate for the MITICA ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavei, Mauro, E-mail: mauro.pavei@igi.cnr.it [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Palma, Mauro Dalla; Marcuzzi, Diego [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)

    2010-12-15

    In the framework of the activities for the development of the Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) for ITER, the detailed design of the Radio-Frequency (RF) negative ion source has been carried out. One of the most heated components of the RF source is the rear vertical plate, named Plasma Driver Plate (PDP), where the Back-Streaming positive Ions (BSI+) generated from stripping losses in the accelerator and back scattered on the plasma source impinge on. The heat loads that result are huge and concentrated, with first estimate of the power densities up to 60 MW/m{sup 2}. The breakdowns that occur into the accelerator cause such heat loads to act cyclically, so that the PDP is thermo-mechanically fatigue loaded. Moreover, the surface of the PDP facing the plasma is functionally required to be temperature controlled and to be molybdenum or tungsten coated. The thermo-hydraulic design of the plate has been carried out considering active cooling with ultra-pure water. Different heat sink materials, hydraulic circuit layout and manufacturing processes have been considered. The heat exhaust has been optimized by changing the channels geometry, the path of the heat flux in the heat sink, the thickness of the plate and maximizing the Heat Transfer Coefficient. Such optimization has been carried out by utilizing 3D Finite Element (FE) models. Afterwards all the suitable mechanical (aging, structural monotonic and cyclic) verifications have been carried out post-processing the results of the thermo-mechanical 3D FE analyses in accordance to specific procedures for nuclear components exposed to high temperature. The effect of sputtering phenomenon due to the high energy BSI+ impinging on the plate has been considered and combined with fatigue damage for the mechanical verification of the PDP. Alternative solutions having molybdenum (or tungsten coatings) facing the plasma, aiming to reduce the sputtering rate and the consequent plasma pollution, have been evaluated and related 3D FE

  6. Generation of metal ions in the beam plasma produced by a forevacuum-pressure electron beam source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyunkov, A. V.; Yushkov, Yu. G., E-mail: YuYushkov@sibmail.com; Zolotukhin, D. B.; Klimov, A. S. [Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Savkin, K. P. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-15

    We report on the production of metal ions of magnesium and zinc in the beam plasma formed by a forevacuum-pressure electron source. Magnesium and zinc vapor were generated by electron beam evaporation from a crucible and subsequently ionized by electron impact from the e-beam itself. Both gaseous and metallic plasmas were separately produced and characterized using a modified RGA-100 quadrupole mass-spectrometer. The fractional composition of metal isotopes in the plasma corresponds to their fractional natural abundance.

  7. Experimental study of high current negative ion sources D{sup -} / H{sup -}. Analysis based on the simulation of the negative ion transport in the plasma source; Etude experimentale de sources a fort courant d`ions negatifs D{sup -} / H{sup -}. Analyse fondee sur la simulation du transport des ions dans le plasma de la source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riz, D.

    1996-10-30

    In the frame of the development of a neutral beam injection system able to work the ITER tokamak (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor), two negative ion sources, Dragon and Kamaboko, have been installed on the MANTIS test bed in Cadarache, and studies in order to extract 20 mA/cm{sup 2} of D{sup -}. The two production modes of negative ions have been investigated: volume production; surface production after cesium injection in the discharge. Experiments have shown that cesium seeding is necessary in order to reach the requested performances for ITER. 20 mA/cm{sup 2} have been extracted from the Kamaboko source for an arc power density of 2.5 kW/liter. Simultaneously, a code called NIETZSCHE has been developed to simulate the negative ions transport in the source plasma, from their birth place to the extraction holes. The ion trajectory is calculated by numerically solving the 3D motion equation, while the atomic processes of destruction, of elastic collisions H{sup -}/H{sup +} and of charge exchange H{sup -}/H{sup 0} are handled at each time step by a Monte Carlo procedure. The code allows to obtain the extraction probability of a negative ion produced at a given location. The calculations performed with NIETZSCHE have allowed to explain several phenomena observed on negative ion sources, such as the isotopic effect H{sup -}/D{sup -} and the influence of the polarisation of the plasma grid and of the magnetic filter on the negative ions current. The code has also shown that, in the type of sources contemplated for ITER, working with large arc power densities (> 1 kW/liter), only negative ions produced in volume at a distance lower that 2 cm from the plasma grid and those produced at the grid surface have a chance of being extracted. (author). 122 refs.

  8. Detailed beam and plasma measurements on the vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) Penning H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrie, S. R., E-mail: scott.lawrie@stfc.ac.uk [STFC ISIS Pulsed Spallation Neutron and Muon Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Oxford (United Kingdom); John Adams Institute of Accelerator Science, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Faircloth, D. C.; Letchford, A. P.; Whitehead, M. O.; Wood, T. [STFC ISIS Pulsed Spallation Neutron and Muon Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Harwell, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2016-02-15

    A vessel for extraction and source plasma analyses (VESPA) is operational at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL). This project supports and guides the overall ion source R&D effort for the ISIS spallation neutron and muon facility at RAL. The VESPA produces 100 mA of pulsed H{sup −} beam, but perveance scans indicate that the source is production-limited at extraction voltages above 12 kV unless the arc current is increased. A high resolution optical monochromator is used to measure plasma properties using argon as a diagnostic gas. The atomic hydrogen temperature increases linearly with arc current, up to 2.8 eV for 50 A; whereas the electron temperature has a slight linear decrease toward 2.2 eV. The gas density is 10{sup 21} m{sup −3}, whilst the electron density is two orders of magnitude lower. Densities follow square root relationships with arc current, with gas density decreasing whilst electron (and hence ion) density increases. Stopping and range of ions in matter calculations prove that operating a high current arc with an argon admixture is extremely difficult because cathode-coated cesium is heavily sputtered by argon.

  9. Kilohertz sources of hard x rays and fast ions with femtosecond laser plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoss, A.; Richardson, M.; Korn, G.; Faubel, M.; Stiel, H.; Vogt, U.; Elsaesser, T.

    2003-01-01

    We demonstrate a new, stable, kilohertz femtosecond laser plasma source of hard-x-ray continuum and Kα emission that uses a microscopic liquid jet target that is continuous and debris free. Plasmas produced by ultrashort (50-fs) intense laser pulses from a fine (10-30-μm diameter) liquid Ga jet emit bright 9.3- and 10.3-keV Kα and Kβ lines superimposed on a multikilovolt bremmstrahlung continuum. Kilohertz femtosecond x-ray sources will find many applications in time-resolved x-ray diffraction and microscopy studies. As high-intensity lasers become more compact and operate at increasingly high repetition-rates, they require a target configuration that is both repeatable from shot to shot and debris free. Our target provides a pristine, unperturbed filament surface at rates >100 kHz. A number of liquid metal targets are considered. We show the hard-x-ray spectrum described above. The source was generated by a 50-fs-duration, 1-kHz, 2-W, high-intensity Ti:sapphire laser. Using the same technology, we also generate forward-going sub-mega-electron-volt (sub-MeV) protons from a 10-μm liquid water target at 1-kHz repetition rates. Kilohertz sources of high-energy ions will find many applications in time-resolved particle interaction studies and will lead to efficient generation of short-lived isotopes for use in nuclear medicine and other applications. The protons were detected with CR-39 track detectors in both the forward and the backward directions up to energies of ~500 keV. As the intensity of compact high-repetition-rate lasers sources increases, we can expect improvements in the energy, conversion efficiency, and directionality to occur. The effect of these developments is discussed. As compact, high-repetition-rate femtosecond laser technology reaches focused intensities of ~1019 W/cm2, many new applications of high-repetition-rate hard-x-ray and MeV ion sources will become practical.

  10. High power impulse magnetron sputtering and related discharges: scalable plasma sources for plasma-based ion implantation and deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre

    2009-09-01

    High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) and related self-sputtering techniques are reviewed from a viewpoint of plasma-based ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D). HIPIMS combines the classical, scalable sputtering technology with pulsed power, which is an elegant way of ionizing the sputtered atoms. Related approaches, such as sustained self-sputtering, are also considered. The resulting intense flux of ions to the substrate consists of a mixture of metal and gas ions when using a process gas, or of metal ions only when using `gasless? or pure self-sputtering. In many respects, processing with HIPIMS plasmas is similar to processing with filtered cathodic arc plasmas, though the former is easier to scale to large areas. Both ion implantation and etching (high bias voltage, without deposition) and thin film deposition (low bias, or bias of low duty cycle) have been demonstrated.

  11. Ferroelectric plasma sources for NDCX-II and heavy ion drivers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilson, E.P., E-mail: egilson@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey, 08543 (United States); Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kaganovich, I.D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey, 08543 (United States); Kwan, J.W.; Lidia, S.M.; Ni, P.A.; Roy, P.K.; Seidl, P.A.; Waldron, W.L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California, 94720 (United States); Barnard, J.J.; Friedman, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California, 94550 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A barium titanate ferroelectric cylindrical plasma source has been developed, tested and delivered for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The plasma source design is based on the successful design of the NDCX-I plasma source. A 7 kV pulse applied across the 3.8 mm-thick ceramic cylinder wall produces a large polarization surface charge density that leads to breakdown and plasma formation. The plasma that fills the NDCX-II drift section upstream of the final-focusing solenoid has a plasma number density exceeding 10{sup 10} cm{sup −3} and an electron temperature of several eV. The operating principle of the ferroelectric plasma source are reviewed and a detailed description of the installation plans is presented. The criteria for plasma sources with larger number density will be given, and concepts will be presented for plasma sources for driver applications. Plasma sources for drivers will need to be highly reliable, and operate at several Hz for millions of shots.

  12. Ferroelectric plasma sources for NDCX-II and heavy ion drivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilson, E. P.; Davidson, R. C.; Efthimion, P. C.; Kaganovich, I. D.; Kwan, J. W.; Lidia, S. M.; Ni, P. A.; Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Waldron, W. L.; Barnard, J. J.; Friedman, A.

    2014-01-01

    A barium titanate ferroelectric cylindrical plasma source has been developed, tested and delivered for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-II at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The plasma source design is based on the successful design of the NDCX-I plasma source. A 7 kV pulse applied across the 3.8 mm-thick ceramic cylinder wall produces a large polarization surface charge density that leads to breakdown and plasma formation. The plasma that fills the NDCX-II drift section upstream of the final-focusing solenoid has a plasma number density exceeding 1010 cm-3 and an electron temperature of several eV. The operating principle of the ferroelectric plasma source are reviewed and a detailed description of the installation plans is presented. The criteria for plasma sources with larger number density will be given, and concepts will be presented for plasma sources for driver applications. Plasma sources for drivers will need to be highly reliable, and operate at several Hz for millions of shots.

  13. Modifications in surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass using laser induced Ni plasma as an ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbaz Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Laser induced Ni plasma has been employed as source of ion implantation for surface, structural and mechanical properties of brass. Excimer laser (248 nm, 20 ns, 120mJ and 30 Hz was used for the generation of Ni plasma. Thomson parabola technique was employed to estimate the energy of generated ions using CR39 as a detector. In response to stepwise increase in number of laser pulses from 3000 to 12000, the ion dose varies from 60 × 1013 to 84 × 1016 ions/cm2 with constant energy of 138 KeV. SEM analysis reveals the growth of nano/micro sized cavities, pores, pits, voids and cracks for the ion dose ranging from 60 × 1013 to 70 × 1015 ions/cm2. However, at maximum ion dose of 84 × 1016 ions/cm2 the granular morphology is observed. XRD analysis reveals that new phase of CuZnNi (200 is formed in the brass substrate after ion implantation. However, an anomalous trend in peak intensity, crystallite size, dislocation line density and induced stresses is observed in response to the implantation with various doses. The increase in ion dose causes to decrease the Yield Stress (YS, Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS and hardness. However, for the maximum ion dose the highest values of these mechanical properties are achieved. The variations in the mechanical properties are correlated with surface and crystallographical changes of ion implanted brass.

  14. Numerical study of plasma generation process and internal antenna heat loadings in J-PARC RF negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, T., E-mail: shibat@post.j-parc.jp; Ueno, A.; Oguri, H.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Asano, H.; Naito, F. [J-PARC Center, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan); Nishida, K.; Mochizuki, S.; Hatayama, A. [Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken 223-8522 (Japan); Mattei, S.; Lettry, J. [European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland)

    2016-02-15

    A numerical model of plasma transport and electromagnetic field in the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) radio frequency ion source has been developed to understand the relation between antenna coil heat loadings and plasma production/transport processes. From the calculation, the local plasma density increase is observed in the region close to the antenna coil. Electrons are magnetized by the magnetic field line with absolute magnetic flux density 30–120 Gauss which leads to high local ionization rate. The results suggest that modification of magnetic configuration can be made to reduce plasma heat flux onto the antenna.

  15. submitter Numerical study of plasma generation process and internal antenna heat loadings in J-PARC RF negative ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Shibata, T; Mochizuki, S; Mattei, S; Lettry, J; Hatayama, A; Ueno, A; Oguri, H; Ohkoshi, K; Ikegami, K; Takagi, A; Asano, H; Naito, F

    2016-01-01

    A numerical model of plasma transport and electromagnetic field in the J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex) radio frequency ion source has been developed to understand the relation between antenna coil heat loadings and plasma production/transport processes. From the calculation, the local plasma density increase is observed in the region close to the antenna coil. Electrons are magnetized by the magnetic field line with absolute magnetic flux density 30-120 Gauss which leads to high local ionization rate. The results suggest that modification of magnetic configuration can be made to reduce plasma heat flux onto the antenna.

  16. A comparison of the plasma characteristics of two multicusp negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, W.G.; Steen, P.G. [Department of Pure and Applied Physics, The Queen`s University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (Northern Ireland); Courteille, C.; Leroy, R.; Bacal, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises, Laboratoire du C.N.R.S., Ecole Polytechnique, 91128, Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    1996-07-01

    Electron temperature, electron density and negative ion fraction measurements in two different multicusp negative hydrogen ion sources, operating under similar conditions one at Queen{close_quote}s University and one at Ecole Polytechnique, are compared. Some data from a third source at FOM are also included in the comparisons. The agreement between electron temperature and density measurements is generally good. There are however considerable discrepancies between the negative ion fraction measurements. This illustrates the great sensitivity of negative ion fractions to the exact source conditions. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. kHz femtosecond laser-plasma hard X-ray and fast ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoss, A.; Korn, G.; Richardson, M. C.; Faubel, M.; Stiel, H.; Voigt, U.; Siders, C. W.; Elsaesser, T.

    2002-04-01

    We describe the first demonstration of a new stable, kHz femtosecond laser-plasma source of hard x-ray continuum and Kα emission using a thin liquid metallic jet target. kHz femtosecond x-ray sources will find many applications in time-resolved x-ray diffraction and microscopy studies. As high intensity lasers become more compact and operate at increasingly high repetition-rates, they require a target configuration that is both repeatable from shot-to-shot and is debris-free. We have solved this requirement with the use of a fine (10-30 μm diameter) liquid metal jet target that provides a pristine, unperturbed filament surface at rates >100 kHz. A number of liquid metal targets are considered. We will show hard x-ray spectra recorded from liquid Ga targets that show the generation of the 9.3 keV and 10.3 keV, Kα and Kβ lines superimposed on a multi-keV Bremsstrahlung continuum. This source was generated by a 50fs duration, 1 kHz, 2W, high intensity Ti:Sapphire laser. We will discuss the extension of this source to higher powers and higher repetition rates, providing harder x-ray emission, with the incorporation of pulse-shaping and other techniques to enhance the x-ray conversion efficiency. Using the same liquid target technology, we have also demonstrated the generation of forward-going sub-MeV protons from a 10 μm liquid water target at 1 kHz repetition rates. kHz sources of high energy ions will find many applications in time-resolved particle interaction studies, as well as lead to the efficient generation of short-lived isotopes for use in nuclear medicine and other applications. The protons were detected with CR-39 track detectors both in the forward and backward directions up to energies of ~500 keV. As the intensity of compact high repetition-rate lasers sources increase, we can expect improvements in the energy, conversion efficiency and directionality to occur. The impact of these developments on a number of fields will be discussed. As compact

  18. In vitro corrosion resistance of plasma source ion nitrided austenitic stainless steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, M K; Zhu, X M

    2001-04-01

    Plasma source ion nitriding has emerged as a low-temperature, low-pressure nitriding approach for low-energy implanting nitrogen ions and then diffusing them into steel and alloy. In this work, a single high nitrogen face-centered-cubic (f.c.c.) phase (gammaN) formed on the 1Cr18Ni9Ti and AISI 316L austenitic stainless steels with a high nitrogen concentration of about 32 at % was characterized using Auger electron spectroscopy, electron probe microanalysis, glancing angle X-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion resistance of the gammaN-phase layer was studied by the electrochemical cyclic polarization measurement in Ringer's solutions buffered to pH from 3.5 to 7.2 at a temperature of 37 degrees C. No pitting corrosion in the Ringer's solutions with pH = 7.2 and 5.5 was detected for the gammaN-phase layers on the two stainless steels. The high pitting potential for the gammaN-phase layers is higher, about 500 and 600 mV, above that of the two original stainless steels, respectively, in the Ringer's solution with pH = 3.5. The corroded surface morphologies of the gammaN-phase layers observed by scanning electron microscopy are consistent with the results of the electrochemical polarization measurement.

  19. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from Radio Frequency plasma) experiment: tests in BATMAN (BAvarian Test Machine for Negative ions).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombin, M; Spolaore, M; Serianni, G; Pomaro, N; Taliercio, C; Dalla Palma, M; Pasqualotto, R; Schiesko, L

    2014-11-01

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors' holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  20. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brombin, M., E-mail: matteo.brombin@igi.cnr.it; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Schiesko, L. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-11-15

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors’ holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  1. Langmuir probes for SPIDER (source for the production of ions of deuterium extracted from radio frequency plasma) experiment: Tests in BATMAN (Bavarian test machine for negative ions)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brombin, M.; Spolaore, M.; Serianni, G.; Pomaro, N.; Taliercio, C.; Palma, M. Dalla; Pasqualotto, R.; Schiesko, L.

    2014-11-01

    A prototype system of the Langmuir probes for SPIDER (Source for the production of Ions of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) was manufactured and experimentally qualified. The diagnostic was operated in RF (Radio Frequency) plasmas with cesium evaporation on the BATMAN (BAvarian Test MAchine for Negative ions) test facility, which can provide plasma conditions as expected in the SPIDER source. A RF passive compensation circuit was realised to operate the Langmuir probes in RF plasmas. The sensors' holder, designed to better simulate the bias plate conditions in SPIDER, was exposed to a severe experimental campaign in BATMAN with cesium evaporation. No detrimental effect on the diagnostic due to cesium evaporation was found during the exposure to the BATMAN plasma and in particular the insulation of the electrodes was preserved. The paper presents the system prototype, the RF compensation circuit, the acquisition system (as foreseen in SPIDER), and the results obtained during the experimental campaigns.

  2. The effect of plasma electrode collar structure on the performance of the JYFL 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivanen, V., E-mail: ville.toivanen@jyu.fi; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H.

    2013-10-21

    The influence of a so-called collar structure on the performance of the JYFL 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) has been studied experimentally at the Department of Physics, University of Jyväskylä (JYFL). The collar is a cylindrical structure extruding inwards from the plasma electrode. The collar length was varied between 5 and 60 mm. For some ion species a moderate performance improvement was achieved in terms of extracted beam current and transverse emittance up to 30 mm collar length. Longer collars resulted in a substantial performance decrease. Different collar materials, i.e. nonmagnetic stainless steel, aluminum and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and a wide range of ion species for elements ranging from {sup 14}N to {sup 82}Kr were studied. No clear material or ion species dependent behavior was observed. The experiments suggest that the extracted ions originate from a plasma volume which is at a considerable axial distance from the extraction aperture. Furthermore it is concluded that a substantial space exists surrounding the collar that could be utilized for applying novel techniques to boost the performance of ECR ion sources. -- Highlights: • Effects of a so-called collar structure studied with AECR-U type ion source. • Moderate improvement to source performance when collar is not too long. • No clear collar material or ion species dependent behavior is observed. • Results suggest that the extracted ions originate from plasma volume far from extraction. • Results suggest that the space around extraction aperture could be utilized productively.

  3. V.U.V. plasma spectroscopy diagnostic of electron cyclotron resonance multicharged ion sources; Diagnostic de plasmas crees dans des sources d'ions multicharges a resonance cyclotronique electronique par spectroscopie V.U.V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berreby, R

    1997-12-15

    To characterize the multicharged ions within the plasma of an E.C.R. ion source, the V.U.V. spectroscopy is used as a non invasive diagnostic of excited matter. In E.C.R.I. S. (electron cyclotron resonance ion source) electrons are heated and magnetically confined within the mirror machine to overcome the successive ionization potentials of the desired elements. As the electrons bounce inside the magnetic configuration in their gyration movement, they interact with the microwaves injected into the source at the resonance frequency. To enhance the performances in high charge states and extracted currents delivered by E.C.R.I.S., the fundamental parameters of the plasma created in these machines must be known. The goal of spectroscopic diagnostics in the V.U.V. range installed on the sources is to determine electron density and temperature on one hand, and the ionic densities and confinement time on the other hand. We used microchannel plates as detector on a 3 meter grazing incidence spectrometer equipped with a 600 lines/mm holographic grating. The calibration of the whole grating with detector was performed by two different methods. These are the branching ratio and charge exchange methods. Identification of lines emitted by a plasma, which gather the whole charge states of ions is necessary to make an exhaustive study of the plasma state. And finally, the determination of plasma parameters like electron density and temperature and ion densities and confinement times that uses theoretical models were the aim of this work. (author)

  4. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma chamber studies using a network analyzer as a loaded cavity probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toivanen, V.; Tarvainen, O.; Kauppinen, J.; Komppula, J.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae 40500 (Finland); Lyneis, C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    A method and first results utilizing a network analyzer as a loaded cavity probe to study the resonance properties of a plasma filled electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plasma chamber are presented. The loaded cavity measurements have been performed using a dual port technique, in which two separate waveguides were used simultaneously. One port was used to ignite and sustain the plasma with a microwave source operating around 11 GHz and the other was used to probe the cavity properties with the network analyzer using a frequency range around 14 GHz. The first results obtained with the JYFL 14 GHz ECRIS demonstrate that the presence of plasma has significant effects on the resonance properties of the cavity. With plasma the frequency dependent behavior is strongly damped and this trend strengthens with increasing microwave power.

  5. Expansion of a plasma across a transverse magnetic field in a negative hydrogen ion source for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, Ursel; Schiesko, Loic; Wünderlich, Dirk

    2012-10-01

    Negative ion sources are a key component of the neutral beam injection systems for the international fusion experiment ITER. To achieve the required ion current of 40 A at a tolerable amount of co-extracted electrons (electron to ion ratio below one) the source is separated into a plasma generation region and an expansion chamber equipped with a magnetic filter field (up to 10 mT). The field is needed for: (1) cooling the electrons down and thus minimize the H^- destruction by collisions, (2) to reduce the co-extracted electron current, and (3) to enhance the extraction probability for the surface produced negative ions. The area of the ITER source will be approximately 1m width and 2 m height, the IPP prototype source is a 1/8-size source. The recently installed flexible magnetic filter frame allows for systematic filter field studies (strength, position, polarity). Two Langmuir probes have been used to measure the plasma parameters simultaneously in axial direction. The profiles in the upper and lower part of the expansion chamber show beside the expected electron temperature and density decrease a drop in the plasma potential and a drift depending on the polarity, which vanishes when removing the filter field. The data interpretation is supported by modeling activities.

  6. Ion sources for cyclotron applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.N.; Bachman, D.A.; McDonald, D.S.; Young, A.T.

    1992-07-01

    The use of a multicusp plasma generator as an ion source has many advantages. The development of both positive and negative ion beams based on the multicusp source geometry is presented. It is shown that these sources can be operated at steady state or cw mode. As a result they are very suitable for cyclotron operations.

  7. Electrical-thermal-structural finite element simulation and experimental study of a plasma ion source for the production of radioactive ion beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolaro, M; Meneghetti, G; Andrighetto, A; Vivian, G

    2016-03-01

    The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 10(13) fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the (238)U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed.

  8. Electrical-thermal-structural finite element simulation and experimental study of a plasma ion source for the production of radioactive ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzolaro, M.; Meneghetti, G.; Andrighetto, A.; Vivian, G.

    2016-03-01

    The production target and the ion source constitute the core of the selective production of exotic species (SPES) facility. In this complex experimental apparatus for the production of radioactive ion beams, a 40 MeV, 200 μA proton beam directly impinges a uranium carbide target, generating approximately 1013 fissions per second. The transfer line enables the unstable isotopes generated by the 238U fissions in the target to reach the ion source, where they can be ionized and finally accelerated to the subsequent areas of the facility. In this work, the plasma ion source currently adopted for the SPES facility is analyzed in detail by means of electrical, thermal, and structural numerical models. Next, theoretical results are compared with the electric potential difference, temperature, and displacement measurements. Experimental tests with stable ion beams are also presented and discussed.

  9. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapit, Giovanni M; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S; Poral, Matthew D; Ramos, Henry J

    2012-02-01

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into the data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.

  10. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2013-09-14

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H{sup −} extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases.

  11. Preparation of plastic and biopolymer multilayer films by plasma source ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Gye Hwa; Lee, Yeon Hee; Lee, Jin Sil; Kim, Young Soo; Choi, Won Seok; Park, Hyun Jin

    2002-07-31

    The plasma source ion implantation (PSII) technique was used to improve the adhesion between linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and biopolymer. LLDPE was treated with the PSII using O(2) or CF(4) gas to modify its surface. After modification, chitosan or corn zein was used for coating on LLDPE. Wettability of the LLDPE surface was evaluated with a contact angle meter by the sessile drop method. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to analyze the LLDPE surface. Before and after treatment, in the case of LLDPE treated with O(2) PSII, oxygen-containing functional groups were formed on the implanted surface. In the CF(4) PSII treated LLDPE, it was observed that the fluorine concentration on the surface of LLDPE remarkably increased and hydrophobic groups were formed by chemical reaction. Bilayer films coated with chitosan or corn zein showed 10 times lower oxygen permeability. Tensile strength of multilayer films was decreased a little compared with that of LLDPE. The plastic and biopolymer multilayer films have potential for food packaging application because of their O(2) gas barrier property and easy recyclability of the multilayer film.

  12. First results with a surface conversion H ion source based on helicon wave mode-driven plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, Ollie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Geros, Ernest [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rouleau, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zaugg, Thomas J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The currently employed converter-type negative ion source at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) is based on cesium enhanced surface production of H{sup -} ion beams in a filament-driven discharge. The extracted H{sup -} beam current is limited by the achievable plasma density, which depends primarily on the electron emission current from the filaments. The emission current can be increased by increasing the filament temperature but, unfortunately, this leads not only to shorter filament lifetime but also to an increase in metal evaporation from the filament, which degrades the performance of the H{sup -} conversion surface. In order to overcome these limitations we have designed and tested a prototype of a surface conversion H{sup -} ion source, based on excitation of helicon plasma wave mode with an external antenna. The source has been operated with and without cesium injection. An H{sup -} beam current of over 12 mA has been transported through the low energy beam transport of the LANSCE ion source test stand. The results of these experiments and the effects of different source parameters on the extracted beam current are presented. The limitations of the source prototype are discussed and future improvements are proposed based on the experimental observations.

  13. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Zschornacka, G.; Schmidt, M.; Thorn, A.

    2014-01-01

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviole...

  14. Work function measurements during plasma exposition at conditions relevant in negative ion sources for the ITER neutral beam injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutser, R; Wimmer, C; Fantz, U

    2011-02-01

    Cesium seeded sources for surface generated negative hydrogen ions are major components of neutral beam injection systems in future large-scale fusion experiments such as ITER. The stability and delivered current density depend highly on the work function during vacuum and plasma phases of the ion source. One of the most important quantities that affect the source performance is the work function. A modified photocurrent method was developed to measure the temporal behavior of the work function during and after cesium evaporation. The investigation of cesium exposed Mo and MoLa samples under ITER negative hydrogen ion based neutral beam injection relevant surface and plasma conditions showed the influence of impurities which result in a fast degradation when the plasma exposure or the cesium flux onto the sample is stopped. A minimum work function close to that of bulk cesium was obtained under the influence of the plasma exposition, while a significantly higher work function was observed under ITER-like vacuum conditions.

  15. Ion-acoustic double layers in the presence of plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okuda, H.; Ashour-Abdalla, M.

    1981-11-01

    Steady-state plasma turbulence and formation of negative potential spikes and double layers in the presence of ion acoustic instabilities have been studied by means of one-dimensional particle simulations in which velocities of a small fraction of electrons are replaced by the initial drifting Maxwellian at a constant rate. A steady state is found where negative potential spikes appear randomly in space and time giving rise to an anomalous resistivity much greater than previously found. Comparisons of the simulation results with laboratory and space plasmas are discussed.

  16. Large area plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John (Inventor); Patterson, Michael (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    An all permanent magnet Electron Cyclotron Resonance, large diameter (e.g., 40 cm) plasma source suitable for ion/plasma processing or electric propulsion, is capable of producing uniform ion current densities at its exit plane at very low power (e.g., below 200 W), and is electrodeless to avoid sputtering or contamination issues. Microwave input power is efficiently coupled with an ionizing gas without using a dielectric microwave window and without developing a throat plasma by providing a ferromagnetic cylindrical chamber wall with a conical end narrowing to an axial entrance hole for microwaves supplied on-axis from an open-ended waveguide. Permanent magnet rings are attached inside the wall with alternating polarities against the wall. An entrance magnet ring surrounding the entrance hole has a ferromagnetic pole piece that extends into the chamber from the entrance hole to a continuing second face that extends radially across an inner pole of the entrance magnet ring.

  17. Studies of AN Extractor Geometry Magnetically Insulated Ion Diode with AN Exploding Metal Film Anode Plasma Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondeau, Gary D.

    Magnetically insulated diodes (MIDs) are of interest as ion sources for inertial confinement fusion. We examine several issues that are of concern with MIDs, including ion turn-on delay and anode plasma production, and diode impedance history and particle current scaling with the applied magnetic field and gap spacing. The LION pulsed power generator (1.5 MV, 4 Omega, 40 ns pulse length) was used to power an extractor geometry magnetically insulated (radial magnetic field) ion beam diode. The diode was studied with three anode configurations. In the first, with epoxy-filled-groove (epoxy) anodes, scaling of the ion and electron currents with the gap and the magnetic field was examined. We found that the observed ion current is consistent with a diode model that has been successful with barrel geometry MIDs. The electron leakage current scaled proportionally to 1/Bd^2, where d is the anode-cathode gap spacing and B is the magnetic field strength. Studies of ion beam propagation in vacuum showed that space charge non -neutrality near the magnetic field coils caused the beam to expand initially. Later in the ion pulse (20 to 30 ns), the beam expansion became much less severe. The second anode configuration utilized an "electron collector" protruding above an epoxy anode surface. With the collector, we observed less bremsstrahlung across the active anode region. From the damage to thin wires inserted into the anode and from the level of the ion current, we inferred that the electron layer was 1-2 mm further from the anode on collector shots. The last anode configuration studied was the exploding metal film active anode plasma source (EMFAAPS). Current from the accelerator was directed by an electron collector or a plasma opening switch through a thin aluminum film, which exploded to form the anode plasma. The primary ion species from EMFAAPS were protons, Al^{3+ } and Al^{2+}, although oxygen discharge cleaning reduced the proton fraction in favor of O^{3+}, O ^{2+}, C

  18. Ion shell distributions as free energy source for plasma waves on auroral field lines mapping to plasma sheet boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olsson

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Ion shell distributions are hollow spherical shells in velocity space that can be formed by many processes and occur in several regions of geospace. They are interesting because they have free energy that can, in principle, be transmitted to ions and electrons. Recently, a technique has been developed to estimate the original free energy available in shell distributions from in-situ data, where some of the energy has already been lost (or consumed. We report a systematic survey of three years of data from the Polar satellite. We present an estimate of the free energy available from ion shell distributions on auroral field lines sampled by the Polar satellite below 6 RE geocentric radius. At these altitudes the type of ion shells that we are especially interested in is most common on auroral field lines close to the polar cap (i.e. field lines mapping to the plasma sheet boundary layer, PSBL. Our analysis shows that ion shell distributions that have lost some of their free energy are commonly found not only in the PSBL, but also on auroral field lines mapping to the boundary plasma sheet (BPS, especially in the evening sector auroral field lines. We suggest that the PSBL ion shell distributions are formed during the so-called Velocity Dispersed Ion Signatures (VDIS events. Furthermore, we find that the partly consumed shells often occur in association with enhanced wave activity and middle-energy electron anisotropies. The maximum downward ion energy flux associated with a shell distribution is often 10mWm-2 and sometimes exceeds 40mWm-2 when mapped to the ionosphere and thus may be enough to power many auroral processes. Earlier simulation studies have shown that ion shell distributions can excite ion Bernstein waves which, in turn, energise electrons in the parallel direction. It is possible that ion shell distributions are the link between the X-line and the auroral wave activity and electron

  19. Two-dimensional temperature distribution inside a hemispherical bowl-shaped target for plasma source ion implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘成森; 王艳辉; 王德真

    2005-01-01

    One important parameter for the plasma source ion implantation (PSII) process is the target temperature obtained during the surface modification. Because the power input to the target being implanted can be large, its temperature is quite high. The target temperature prediction is useful, whether the high temperature is required in the experiment.In addition, there is likely to be temperature variation across the target surface, which can lead to locally different surface properties. In this paper, we have presented a model to predict and explain the temperature distribution on a hemispherical bowl-shaped vessel during plasma source ion implantation. A two-dimensional fluid model to derive both the ion flux to the target and the energy imparted to the substrate by the ions in the plasma sheath simulation is employed. The calculated energy input and radiative heat loss are used to predict the temperature rise and variation inside the sample in the thermal model. The shape factor of the target for radiation is taken into account in the radiative energy loss. The influence of the pulse duration and the pulsing frequency on the temperature distribution is investigated in detail. Our work shows that at high pulsing frequencies the temperature of the bowl will no longer rise with the increase of the pulsing frequency.

  20. Multicusp ion sources (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.N. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1994-04-01

    During the last decade, different types of multicusp ion sources, such as high current, high concentration H[sup +], H[sup +][sub 2], or N[sup +] ion sources, negative ion sources, radio-frequency-driven sources, and high charge state ion sources have been developed at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. This article reviews the history of the research and development of these ion sources and their applications.

  1. Study of plasma meniscus formation and beam halo in negative ion source using the 3D3VPIC model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, S.; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate school of Science and Technology, Keio University, Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Fukano, A. [Tokyo Metropolitan Collage of Industrial Technology, Higashioi, Shinagawa, Tokyo 140-0011 (Japan)

    2015-04-08

    In this paper, the effect of the electron confinement time on the plasma meniscus and the fraction of the beam halo is investigated by 3D3V-PIC (three dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space) (Particle in Cell) simulation in the extraction region of negative ion source. The electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of diffusion across the magnetic field. Our 3D3V-PIC results support the previous result by 2D3V-PIC results i.e., it is confirmed that the penetration of the plasma meniscus becomes deep into the source plasma region when the effective confinement time is short.

  2. H$^{-}$ ion source for CERN's Linac4 accelerator: simulation, experimental validation and optimization of the hydrogen plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Mattei, Stefano; Lettry, Jacques

    2017-07-25

    Linac4 is the new negative hydrogen ion (H$^-$) linear accelerator of the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). Its ion source operates on the principle of Radio-Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma (RF-ICP) and it is required to provide 50~mA of H$^-$ beam in pulses of 600~$\\mu$s with a repetition rate up to 2 Hz and within an RMS emittance of 0.25~$\\pi$~mm~mrad in order to fullfil the requirements of the accelerator. This thesis is dedicated to the characterization of the hydrogen plasma in the Linac4 H$^-$ ion source. We have developed a Particle-In-Cell Monte Carlo Collision (PIC-MCC) code to simulate the RF-ICP heating mechanism and performed measurements to benchmark the fraction of the simulation outputs that can be experimentally accessed. The code solves self-consistently the interaction between the electromagnetic field generated by the RF coil and the resulting plasma response, including a kinetic description of charged and neutral species. A fully-implicit implementation allowed to si...

  3. Long-pulse production of high current negative ion beam by using actively temperature controlled plasma grid for JT-60SA negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Grisham, L. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2015-04-08

    The temperature control system of the large-size plasma grid has been developed to realize the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA. By using this prototype system for the JT-60SA ion source, 15 A negative ions has been sustained for 100 s for the first time, which is three times longer than that obtained in JT-60U. In this system, a high-temperature fluorinated fluid with a high boiling point of 270 degree Celsius is circulated in the cooling channels of the plasma grids (PG) where a cesium (Cs) coverage is formed to enhance the negative ion production. Because the PG temperature control had been applied to only 10% of the extraction area previously, the prototype PG with the full extraction area (110 cm × 45 cm) was developed to increase the negative ion current in this time. In the preliminary results of long pulse productions of high-current negative ions at a Cs conditioning phase, the negative ion production was gradually degraded in the last half of 100 s pulse where the temperature of an arc chamber wall was not saturated. From the spectroscopic measurements, it was found that the Cs flux released from the wall might affect to the negative ion production, which implied the wall temperature should be kept low to control the Cs flux to the PG for the long-pulse high-current production. The obtained results of long-pulse production and the PG temperature control method contributes the design of the ITER ion source.

  4. Laser ion source studies at CERN

    CERN Document Server

    Tambini, J

    1995-01-01

    The plasma produced when a powerful laser pulse is focused onto a target surface in vacuum can provide a copious source of highly charged ions. Ions can then be extracted from the plasma to form a high current, short pulse length ion beam. Experimental laser ion sources have been the subject of investigation in medical physics and particle accelerator applications; a laser ion source is an option for the injection system of heavy ions for the Large Hadron Collider at CERN where a high intensity lead ion beam is required. This paper describes work carried out at CERN to develop a CO2 laser ion source.

  5. The role of seed electrons on the plasma breakdown and preglow of electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarvainen, O.; Ropponen, T.; Toivanen, V.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, Jyvaskyla 40500 (Finland); Thuillier, T. [LPSC, Universite Joseph Fourier Grenoble 1, CNRS/IN2P3, 38026 Grenoble, France and Institut National Polytechnique de Grenoble, 38026 Grenoble (France); Noland, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The 14 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source at University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (JYFL) has been operated in pulsed mode in order to study the plasma breakdown and preglow effect. It was observed that the plasma breakdown time and preglow characteristics are affected by seed electrons provided by a continuous low power microwave signal at secondary frequency. Sustaining low density plasma during the off-period of high power microwave pulses at the primary frequency shifts the charge state distribution of the preglow transient toward higher charge states. This could be exploited for applications requiring fast and efficient ionization of radioactive elements as proposed for the Beta Beam project within the EURISOL design study, for example. In this article we present results measured with helium and neon.

  6. Analysis of H atoms in a negative ion source plasma with the non-equilibrium electron energy distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, S; Shibata, T; Terasaki, R; Kameyama, N; Hatayama, A; Bacal, M; Tsumori, K

    2012-02-01

    In negative ion sources for the neutral beam injection, it is important to calculate H atom flux onto the plasma grid (PG) surface for the evaluation of H(-) production on the PG surface. We have developed a neutral (H(2) molecules and H atoms) transport code. In the present study, the neutral transport code is applied to the analysis of the H(2) and H transport in a NIFS-R&D ion source in order to calculate the flux onto the PG surface. Taking into account non-equilibrium feature of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF), i.e., the fast electron component, we have done the neutral transport simulation. The results suggest that the precise evaluation of the EEDF, especially in the energy range 15 eV < E < 30 eV is important for the dissociation rate of H(2) molecules by the electron impact collision and the resultant H atom flux on the PG.

  7. Electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma characterization by X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mascali, David, E-mail: davidmascali@lns.infn.it; Castro, Giuseppe; Celona, Luigi; Neri, Lorenzo; Gammino, Santo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Biri, Sándor; Rácz, Richárd; Pálinkás, József [Institute for Nuclear Research (Atomki), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Bem tér 18/c, H-4026 Debrecen (Hungary); Caliri, Claudia [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università degli Studi di Catania, Dip.to di Fisica e Astronomia, via Santa Sofia 64, 95123 Catania (Italy); Romano, Francesco Paolo [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); CNR, Istituto per i Beni Archeologici e Monumentali, Via Biblioteca 4, 95124 Catania (Italy); Torrisi, Giuseppe [INFN–Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, Via S. Sofia 62, 95125 Catania (Italy); Università Mediterranea di Reggio Calabria, DIIES, Via Graziella, I-89100 Reggio Calabria (Italy)

    2016-02-15

    An experimental campaign aiming to investigate electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma X-ray emission has been recently carried out at the ECRISs—Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources laboratory of Atomki based on a collaboration between the Debrecen and Catania ECR teams. In a first series, the X-ray spectroscopy was performed through silicon drift detectors and high purity germanium detectors, characterizing the volumetric plasma emission. The on-purpose developed collimation system was suitable for direct plasma density evaluation, performed “on-line” during beam extraction and charge state distribution characterization. A campaign for correlating the plasma density and temperature with the output charge states and the beam intensity for different pumping wave frequencies, different magnetic field profiles, and single-gas/gas-mixing configurations was carried out. The results reveal a surprisingly very good agreement between warm-electron density fluctuations, output beam currents, and the calculated electromagnetic modal density of the plasma chamber. A charge-coupled device camera coupled to a small pin-hole allowing X-ray imaging was installed and numerous X-ray photos were taken in order to study the peculiarities of the ECRIS plasma structure.

  8. Production of electron cyclotron resonance plasma by using multifrequencies microwaves and active beam profile control on a large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yushi; Watanabe, Takeyoshi; Matsui, Yuuki; Hirai, Yoshiaki; Kutsumi, Osamu; Sakamoto, Naoki; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2010-02-01

    A new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed to enhance efficiency of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma for broad and dense ion beam source under the low pressure. The magnetic field configuration is constructed by a pair of magnets assembly, i.e., comb-shaped magnet which cylindrically surrounds the plasma chamber. The resonance zones corresponding to the fundamental ECR for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are constructed at different positions. The profiles of the plasma parameters in the ECR ion source are different from each frequency of microwave. Large bore extractor is set at the opposite side against the microwave feeds. It is found that differences of their profiles also appear at those of ion beam profiles. We conducted to launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves controlled individually, and tried to control the profiles of the plasma parameters and then those of extracted ion beam.

  9. Preparation and Properties of Ag-Containing Diamond-Like Carbon Films by Magnetron Plasma Source Ion Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Baba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The doping effect of silver on the structure and properties of diamond-like carbon (DLC films was investigated. The samples were prepared by a process combining acetylene plasma source ion implantation (high-voltage pulses of −10 kV with reactive magnetron sputtering of an Ag disc. A mixture of two gases, argon, and acetylene was introduced into the discharge chamber as working gas for plasma formation. A negative high-voltage pulse was applied to the substrate holder, thus, accelerating ions towards the substrate. The chemical composition of the deposited films was modified by the respective gas flows and determined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The silver concentration within the DLC films influenced the structure and the tribological properties. The surface roughness, as observed by scanning electron microscopy, increased with silver concentration. The film structure was characterized by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffractometry (XRD. The DLC films were mainly amorphous, containing crystalline silver, with the amount of silver depending on the process conditions. The tribological properties of the films were improved by the silver doping. The lowest friction coefficient of around 0.06 was derived at a low silver content.

  10. Microwave emission related to cyclotron instabilities in a minimum-B electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izotov, I.; Tarvainen, O.; Mansfeld, D.; Skalyga, V.; Koivisto, H.; Kalvas, T.; Komppula, J.; Kronholm, R.; Laulainen, J.

    2015-08-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) have been essential in the research and applications of nuclear physics over the past 40 years. They are extensively used in a wide range of large-scale accelerator facilities for the production of highly charged heavy ion beams of stable and radioactive elements. ECRISs are susceptible to kinetic instabilities due to resonance heating mechanism leading to anisotropic electron velocity distribution function. Instabilities of cyclotron type are a proven cause of frequently observed periodic bursts of ‘hot’ electrons and bremsstrahlung, accompanied with emission of microwave radiation and followed by considerable drop of multiply charged ions current. Detailed studies of the microwave radiation associated with the instabilities have been performed with a minimum-B 14 GHz ECRIS operating on helium, oxygen and argon plasmas. It is demonstrated that during the development of cyclotron instability ‘hot’ electrons emit microwaves in sub-microsecond scale bursts at temporally descending frequencies in the 8-15 GHz range with two dominant frequencies of 11.09 and 12.59 GHz regardless of ECRIS settings i.e. magnetic field strength, neutral gas pressure or species and microwave power. The experimental data suggest that the most probable excited plasma wave is a slow extraordinary Z-mode propagating quasi-longitudinally with respect to the external magnetic field.

  11. Electron Beam Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Zschornacka, G.; Thorn, A.

    2013-12-16

    Electron beam ion sources (EBISs) are ion sources that work based on the principle of electron impact ionization, allowing the production of very highly charged ions. The ions produced can be extracted as a DC ion beam as well as ion pulses of different time structures. In comparison to most of the other known ion sources, EBISs feature ion beams with very good beam emittances and a low energy spread. Furthermore, EBISs are excellent sources of photons (X-rays, ultraviolet, extreme ultraviolet, visible light) from highly charged ions. This chapter gives an overview of EBIS physics, the principle of operation, and the known technical solutions. Using examples, the performance of EBISs as well as their applications in various fields of basic research, technology and medicine are discussed.

  12. Simplification of the Plasma Load of Negative-Pulse-Bias Source Used in Arc Ion Plating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong QI; Ninghui WANG; Guoqiang LIN; Zhenfeng DING

    2003-01-01

    Based on the voltage and current fluctuating phenomenon in the arc plasma load under the negative-pulse-bias, usingthe plasma physics theory and analysis of computer simulation expatiates that the nature of plasma load in vacuumarc plasma is a capacitance

  13. Negative Ion Confinement in the Multicusp Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodadadi Azadboni, Fatemeh; Sedaghatizade, Mahmood

    2010-04-01

    To optimize the negative ion source and generate intense beams of negative ions, understanding of transport properties of both electrons and negative ions is indispensable. Transport process of negative hydrogen ions (H-) in a multicusp H- source, has been simulated by three-dimensional Femlab simulation software. Multipolar plasma confinement is known to result in enhanced plasma density, homogeneous plasma of a large volume, and quiescent plasmas. The effect of plasma confinement by applying multi-polar magnetic field was investigated. Results are obtained for ten different configurations of permanent magnet and discussed. Full line cusps are found to give optimum plasma density. Negative ions created on the sidewall hardly can reach the center of the source due to trapping by the multicusp magnetic field. As a result, H- ions created on the sidewall do not have a significant effect on the H- current.

  14. Sub-Auroral Ion Drifts as a Source of Mid-Latitude Plasma Density Irregularities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotnikov, V.; Kim, T.; Mishin, E.; Paraschiv, I.; Rose, D.

    Ionospheric irregularities cause scintillations of electromagnetic signals that can severely affect navigation and transionospheric communication, in particular during space storms. At midlatitudes, such space weather events are caused mainly by subauroral electric field structures (SAID/SAPS) [1, 2]. SAID/SAPS -related shear flows and plasma density troughs point to interchange and Kelvin-Helmholtz type instabilities as a possible source of plasma irregularities. A model of nonlinear development of these instabilities based on the two-fluid hydrodynamic description with inclusion of finite Larmor radius effects will be presented. A numerical code in C language to solve the derived nonlinear equations for analysis of interchange and flow velocity shear instabilities in the ionosphere was developed. This code was used to analyze competition between interchange and Kelvin Helmholtz instabilities in the equatorial region [3]. The high-resolution simulations with continuous density and velocity profiles will be driven by the ambient conditions corresponding to the in situ Defence Military Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite low-resolution data [2] during UHF/GPS L-band subauroral scintillation events. [1] Mishin, E. (2013), Interaction of substorm injections with the subauroral geospace: 1. Multispacecraft observations of SAID, J. Geophys. Res. Space Phys., 118, 5782-5796, doi:10.1002/jgra.50548. [2] Mishin, E., and N. Blaunstein (2008), Irregularities within subauroral polarization stream-related troughs and GPS radio interference at midlatitudes. In: T. Fuller-Rowell et al. (eds), AGU Geophysical Monograph 181, MidLatitude Ionospheric Dynamics and Disturbances, pp. 291-295, doi:10.1029/181GM26, Washington, DC, USA. [3] V. Sotnikov, T. Kim, E. Mishin, T. Genoni, D. Rose, I. Paraschiv, Development of a Flow Velocity Shear Instability in the Presence of Finite Larmor Radius Effects, AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, 15 - 19 December, 2014.

  15. Multicusp sources for ion beam projection lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R. A.; Kunkel, W. B.; Leung, K. N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M. D.; Wutte, D.; Zahir, N.

    1998-02-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing positive and negative ions with good beam quality and low energy spread. The ion energy spread of multicusp sources has been measured by three different techniques. The axial ion energy spread has been reduced by introducing a magnetic filter inside the multicusp source chamber which adjusts the plasma potential distribution. The axial energy spread is further reduced by optimizing the source configuration. Values as low as 0.8 eV have been achieved.

  16. Plasma diagnostics of the SIMPA Ecr ion source by X-ray spectroscopy, Collisions of H-like Neon ions with Argon clusters; Diagnostic du plasma de la source d'ions ECR SIMPA par spectroscopie X, Collision d'ions neon hydrogenoides avec des agregats d'argon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adrouche, N

    2006-09-15

    The first part of this thesis is devoted to the SIMPA ECR ion source characterization, first, I explored the ion source's capacities on the point of view of extracted currents for three elements, argon, krypton and neon. By analyzing the Bremsstrahlung spectra, I determined the electronic temperature in the plasma and the electronic and ionic densities. In a second time, I recorded high resolution X-spectra of argon and krypton plasma's. By taking into account the principal mechanisms of production of a K hole in the ions inside the plasma, I determined the ionic densities of the high charge states of argon. Lastly, I highlighted a correlation between the ions charge states densities with the intensities of extracted currents. The second part of the thesis is devoted to Ne{sup 9+-} argon clusters collisions. First, I presented simple and effective theoretical models allowing to describe the phenomena occurring during a collision, from the point of view of the projectile. I carried out a simulation for a collision of an ion Ne{sup 9+} with an argon cluster of a given size, which has enabled us to know the energy levels populated during the electronic capture and to follow the number of electrons in each projectile shell. Lastly, I presented the first results of a collision between a Ne{sup 9+} beam and argon clusters. These results, have enabled me by using projectile X-ray spectroscopy during the ions-clusters collision, to evidence a strong clustering of targets atoms and to highlight an electronic multi-capture in the projectile ion excited states. (author)

  17. Analysis of H atoms in a negative ion source plasma with the non-equilibrium electron energy distribution function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, S.; Shibata, T.; Terasaki, R.; Kameyama, N.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Bacal, M. [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, UPMC, Universite PARIS-SUD 11, UMR CNRS 7648 (France); Tsumori, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    In negative ion sources for the neutral beam injection, it is important to calculate H atom flux onto the plasma grid (PG) surface for the evaluation of H{sup -} production on the PG surface. We have developed a neutral (H{sub 2} molecules and H atoms) transport code. In the present study, the neutral transport code is applied to the analysis of the H{sub 2} and H transport in a NIFS-R and D ion source in order to calculate the flux onto the PG surface. Taking into account non-equilibrium feature of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF), i.e., the fast electron component, we have done the neutral transport simulation. The results suggest that the precise evaluation of the EEDF, especially in the energy range 15 eV < E < 30 eV is important for the dissociation rate of H{sub 2} molecules by the electron impact collision and the resultant H atom flux on the PG.

  18. The DCU laser ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeates, P; Costello, J T; Kennedy, E T

    2010-04-01

    Laser ion sources are used to generate and deliver highly charged ions of various masses and energies. We present details on the design and basic parameters of the DCU laser ion source (LIS). The theoretical aspects of a high voltage (HV) linear LIS are presented and the main issues surrounding laser-plasma formation, ion extraction and modeling of beam transport in relation to the operation of a LIS are detailed. A range of laser power densities (I approximately 10(8)-10(11) W cm(-2)) and fluences (F=0.1-3.9 kJ cm(-2)) from a Q-switched ruby laser (full-width half-maximum pulse duration approximately 35 ns, lambda=694 nm) were used to generate a copper plasma. In "basic operating mode," laser generated plasma ions are electrostatically accelerated using a dc HV bias (5-18 kV). A traditional einzel electrostatic lens system is utilized to transport and collimate the extracted ion beam for detection via a Faraday cup. Peak currents of up to I approximately 600 microA for Cu(+) to Cu(3+) ions were recorded. The maximum collected charge reached 94 pC (Cu(2+)). Hydrodynamic simulations and ion probe diagnostics were used to study the plasma plume within the extraction gap. The system measured performance and electrodynamic simulations indicated that the use of a short field-free (L=48 mm) region results in rapid expansion of the injected ion beam in the drift tube. This severely limits the efficiency of the electrostatic lens system and consequently the sources performance. Simulations of ion beam dynamics in a "continuous einzel array" were performed and experimentally verified to counter the strong space-charge force present in the ion beam which results from plasma extraction close to the target surface. Ion beam acceleration and injection thus occur at "high pressure." In "enhanced operating mode," peak currents of 3.26 mA (Cu(2+)) were recorded. The collected currents of more highly charged ions (Cu(4+)-Cu(6+)) increased considerably in this mode of operation.

  19. Profiles of ion beams and plasma parameters on a multi-frequencies microwaves large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yushi; Sakamoto, Naoki; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    In order to contribute to various applications of plasma and beams based on an electron cyclotron resonance, a new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed with enhanced efficiency for broad and dense ion beam. The magnetic field configuration consists of a pair of comb-shaped magnet surrounding plasma chamber cylindrically. Resonance zones corresponding for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are positioned at spatially different positions. We launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves operated individually, try to control profiles of the plasma parameters and the extracted ion beams, and to measure them in detail.

  20. Ion sources with arc-discharge plasma box driven by directly heated LaB(6) electron emitter or cold cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Alexander A; Davydenko, Vladimir I; Deichuli, Petr P; Shulzhenko, Grigori I; Stupishin, Nikolay V

    2008-02-01

    In the Budker Institute, Novosibirsk, an ion source with arc-discharge plasma box has been developed in the recent years for application in thermonuclear devices for plasma diagnostics. Several modifications of the ion source were provided with extracted current ranging from 1 to 7 A and pulse duration of up to 4 s. Initially, the arc-discharge plasma box with cold cathode was used, with which pulse duration is limited to 2 s by the cathode overheating and sputtering in local arc spots. Recently, a directly heated LaB(6) electron emitter was employed instead, which has extended lifetime compared to the cold cathode. In the paper, characteristics of the beam produced with both arrangements of the plasma box are presented.

  1. Alternative solutions to caesium in negative-ion sources: a study of negative-ion surface production on diamond in H2/D2 plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartry, Gilles; Kogut, Dmitry; Achkasov, Kostiantyn; Layet, Jean-Marc; Farley, Thomas; Gicquel, Alix; Achard, Jocelyn; Brinza, Ovidiu; Bieber, Thomas; Khemliche, Hocine; Roncin, Philippe; Simonin, Alain

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with a study of H‑/D‑ negative ion surface production on diamond in low pressure H2/D2 plasmas. A sample placed in the plasma is negatively biased with respect to plasma potential. Upon positive ion impacts on the sample, some negative ions are formed and detected according to their mass and energy by a mass spectrometer placed in front of the sample. The experimental methods developed to study negative ion surface production and obtain negative ion energy and angle distribution functions are first presented. Different diamond materials ranging from nanocrystalline to single crystal layers, either doped with boron or intrinsic, are then investigated and compared with graphite. The negative ion yields obtained are presented as a function of different experimental parameters such as the exposure time, the sample bias which determines the positive ion impact energy and the sample surface temperature. It is concluded from these experiments that the electronic properties of diamond materials, among them the negative electron affinity, seem to be favourable for negative-ion surface production. However, the negative ion yield decreases with the plasma induced defect density.

  2. Design of a high-yield H{sub 2}{sup +} ion source for commissioning of the IFMIF accelerator using a one-dimensional plasma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, R.F. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom)], E-mail: robert.king@jet.uk; Surrey, E. [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Holmes, A.J.T. [Marcham Scientific Ltd., Sarum House, 10 Salisbury Road, Hungerford, Berkshire RG17 0LH (United Kingdom)

    2008-12-15

    It is desirable to minimise the activation of components during the commissioning phase of the IFMIF accelerator and this can be achieved by using a beam of H{sub 2}{sup +} ions in place of the D{sup +} beam. Having the same charge to mass ratio ensures that the commissioning can be conducted at full power, provided a sufficiently intense source of H{sub 2}{sup +} ions is available. Ideally, the H{sub 2}{sup +} beam current should equal that of the IFMIF D{sup +} beam current, 140 mA, with a species fraction of greater than 85% H{sub 2}{sup +}. This paper describes a study to determine the physical processes and ion source design criteria that optimise H{sub 2}{sup +} yield. Examination of the processes contributing to the yield of H{sub 2}{sup +} ions in a plasma indicate that extraction should occur as close to the ionisation volume as possible. The most suitable ion source is currently the volume discharge. A one-dimensional plasma model of this source has been developed and is validated against experimental measurements. The model has been used to identify those design criteria that most strongly affect the H{sub 2}{sup +} yield and has been used to optimise the design of the volume arc source for the production of H{sub 2}{sup +} ions.

  3. Radio frequency ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Shen Guan Ren; Gao Fu; LiuNaiYi

    2001-01-01

    The study on Radio Frequency Ion Source is mainly introduced, which is used for CIAE 600kV ns Pulse Neutron Generator; and obtained result is also presented. The RF ion source consists of a diameter phi 25 mm, length 200 mm, coefficient of expansion =3.5 mA, beam current on target >=1.5 mA, beam spot =100 h.

  4. Temperature elevated N ion implantation of Ti6Al4V alloys using the plasma source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Specimens of Ti6Al4V alloy were implanted with nitrogen ions of 4× 1018 cm-2 at temperatures from 100 to 600℃. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES), microhardness measurements and pin-on-disk wear testing, Scanning Electron Mi croscopy (SEM), and Glancing angle X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were utilized to evaluate the surface property improvements. The thickness of implanted layers increased by about an order of magnitude when the temperature was elevated from 100 to 600℃. Higher surface hardness and wear resistance were also obtained in the high tempera ture implantation. The XRD image showed the presence of nitrides of titanium at the implanted surface.

  5. Investigation of cold cathodes of plasma sources generating of hydrogen ion beams

    CERN Document Server

    Veresov, L P; Dzkuya, M I; Zhukov, Y N; Kuznetsov, G V; Tsekvava, I A

    2001-01-01

    Designs of a hollow cellular cathode (HCC) and of an inverse cylindrical multichamber magnetronic cathode (ICMMC), used as cold cathodes in duoplasmatron for hydrogen ion beam generation, are described. Their service characteristics are compared. It is ascertained that emission ability of both HCC and ICMMC is approximately the same. However, duoplasmatron with ICMMC features a three times higher gas effectiveness compared with HCC. Service life of duoplasmatron with both types of cathodes amounts to several thousand hours. On the basis of test results the choice is made in favour of ICMMC

  6. The Physics and Technology of Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The first edition of this title has become a well-known reference book on ion sources. The field is evolving constantly and rapidly, calling for a new, up-to-date version of the book. In the second edition of this significant title, editor Ian Brown, himself an authority in the field, compiles yet again articles written by renowned experts covering various aspects of ion source physics and technology. The book contains full chapters on the plasma physics of ion sources, ion beam formation, beam transport, computer modeling, and treats many different specific kinds of ion sources in sufficient detail to serve as a valuable reference text

  7. Lithium ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Prabir K.; Greenway, Wayne G.; Grote, Dave P.; Kwan, Joe W.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L.

    2014-01-01

    A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion source has been chosen as a source of ˜100mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. Research and development was carried out on lithium alumino-silicate ion sources prior to NDCX-II source fabrication. Space-charge-limited emission with the current density exceeding 1 mA/cm2 was measured with 0.64 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at 1275 °C. The beam current density is less for the first 10.9 cm diameter NDCX-II source, and it may be due to an issue of surface coverage. The lifetime of a thin coated (on a tungsten substrate) source is varied, roughly 40-50 h, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of 6μs each, i.e., a duty factor of 3×10-7, at an operating temperature of 1250-1275 °C. The 10.9 cm diameter source lifetime is likely the same as of a 0.64 cm source, but the lifetime of a source with a 2 mm diameter (without a tungsten substrate) is 10-15 h with a duty factor of 1 (DC extraction). The lifetime variation is dependent on the amount of deposition of β-eucryptite mass, and the surface temperature. The amount of mass deposition does not significantly alter the current density. More ion source work is needed to improve the large source performance.

  8. Lithium ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Prabir K., E-mail: pkroy@lbl.gov [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California CA-94720 (United States); Greenway, Wayne G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California CA-94720 (United States); Grote, Dave P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory LLC, CA-94550 (United States); Kwan, Joe W.; Lidia, Steven M.; Seidl, Peter A.; Waldron, William L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), One Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California CA-94720 (United States)

    2014-01-01

    A 10.9 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion source has been chosen as a source of ∼100mA lithium ion current for the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-II) at LBNL. Research and development was carried out on lithium alumino-silicate ion sources prior to NDCX-II source fabrication. Space-charge-limited emission with the current density exceeding 1 mA/cm{sup 2} was measured with 0.64 cm diameter lithium alumino-silicate ion sources at 1275 °C. The beam current density is less for the first 10.9 cm diameter NDCX-II source, and it may be due to an issue of surface coverage. The lifetime of a thin coated (on a tungsten substrate) source is varied, roughly 40–50 h, when pulsed at 0.05 Hz and with pulse length of 6μs each, i.e., a duty factor of 3×10{sup −7}, at an operating temperature of 1250–1275 °C. The 10.9 cm diameter source lifetime is likely the same as of a 0.64 cm source, but the lifetime of a source with a 2 mm diameter (without a tungsten substrate) is 10–15 h with a duty factor of 1 (DC extraction). The lifetime variation is dependent on the amount of deposition of β-eucryptite mass, and the surface temperature. The amount of mass deposition does not significantly alter the current density. More ion source work is needed to improve the large source performance.

  9. Fluid model of the sheath in front of a floating electrode immersed in a magnetized plasma with oblique magnetic field: Some comments on ion source terms and ion temperature effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyergyek, T. [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Tržaška 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, POB 100, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kovačič, J. [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, POB 100, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2015-04-15

    A one-dimensional fluid model of the magnetized plasma-wall transition region in front of a floating electrode immersed in a magnetized plasma with oblique magnetic field is presented. The Boltzmann relation is assumed for the electrons, while the positive ions obey the ion continuity and momentum exchange equation. The ions are assumed to be isothermal. By comparison with a two-fluid model, it is shown that assuming the Boltzmann relation for the electrons implies that there is no creation or annihilation of the electrons. Consequently, there should not be any creation and annihilation of the positive ions either. The models that assume the Boltzmann relation for the electrons and a non-zero ion source term at the same time are therefore inconsistent, but such models have nevertheless been used extensively by many authors. So, in this work, an extensive comparison of the results obtained using the zero source term on one hand and three different non-zero source terms on the other hand is made. Four different ion source terms are considered in total: the zero source term and three different non-zero ion source terms. When the zero source term is used, the model becomes very sensitive to the boundary conditions, and in some cases, the solutions exhibit large amplitude oscillations. If any of the three non-zero ion source terms is used, those problems are eliminated, but also the consistency of the model is broken. The model equations are solved numerically in the entire magnetized plasma-wall transition region. For zero ion temperature, the model can be solved even if a very small ion velocity is selected as a boundary condition. For finite ion temperature, the system of equations becomes stiff, unless the ion velocity at the boundary is increased slightly above the ion thermal velocity. A simple method how to find a solution with a very small ion velocity at the boundary also for finite ion temperature in the entire magnetized plasma-wall transition region is

  10. Extraction of negative charges from an ion source: Transition from an electron repelling to an electron attracting plasma close to the extraction surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, Christian; Fantz, Ursel

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale sources for negative hydrogen ions, capable of delivering an extracted ion current of several ten amperes, are a key component of the neutral beam injection system of the upcoming ITER fusion device. Since the created heat load of the inevitably co-extracted electrons after magnetic separation from the extracted beam limits their tolerable amount, special care must be taken for the reduction of co-extracted electrons—in particular, in deuterium operation, where the larger amount of co-extracted electrons often limits the source performance. By biasing the plasma grid (PG, first grid of the extraction system) positively with respect to the source body, the plasma sheath in front of the PG can be changed from an electron repelling towards an electron attracting sheath. In this way, the flux of charged particles onto the PG can be varied, thus changing the bias current and inverse to it the amount of co-extracted electrons. The PG bias affects also the flux of surface-produced H - towards the plasma volume as well as the plasma symmetry in front of the plasma grid, strongly influenced by an E → × B → drift. The influence of varying PG sheath potential profile on the plasma drift, the negative hydrogen ion density, and the source performance at the prototype H - source is presented, comparing hydrogen and deuterium operation. The transition in the PG sheath profile takes place in both isotopes, with a minimum of co-extracted electrons formed in case of the electron attracting PG sheath. The co-extracted electron density in deuterium operation is higher than in hydrogen operation, which is accompanied by an increased plasma density in deuterium.

  11. Microwave Discharge Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Celona, L

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the basic principles, design features and characteristics of microwave discharge ion sources. A suitable source for the production of intense beams for high-power accelerators must satisfy the requirements of high brightness, stability and reliability. The 2.45 GHz off-resonance microwave discharge sources are ideal devices to generate the required beams, as they produce multimilliampere beams of protons, deuterons and singly charged ions. A description of different technical designs will be given, analysing their performance, with particular attention being paid to the quality of the beam, especially in terms of its emittance.

  12. Treatment of spent ion-exchange resins in shaft-type reactor with fuel-plasma source of heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Knyazev, I. A.; Lifanov, F. A.; Polkanov, M. A.; Shvetsov, S. Yu; Savkin, A. E. [Moscow Scientific and Industrial Association RADON, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1999-07-01

    The method of high-temperature conditioning the spent radioactive ion-exchange resins in combination with other combustible and incombustible radioactive waste in the plasma shaft furnace with obtaining a crystalline glass-like matrix as a final product has been developed. The method was tested on the pilot plant consisted of ceramic plasma melter, steel water-cooled shaft furnace, lined by fire-resistant concrete, and system of gas purification. The capacity of the furnace was within the limits from 10 to 15 kg/h. The volume and mass reduction factors of treated waste were 36 and 7.6, accordingly. The content of gaseous products of thermal decomposition of a waste at an output of the shaft furnace and properties of obtained slag compound were determined. Based on test results the proposals on creation of compact plasma plant for treatment of mixed radioactive waste including spent ion exchange resins were developed. (author). 3 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  13. CSNS H^- ion source test stand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴小兵; 张俊嵩; 张华顺; 赵富祥; 欧阳华甫; 池云龙; 何伟; 黄涛; 李刚; 刘应满; 卢艳华; 徐韬光

    2011-01-01

    The Penning surface plasma source is adopted as the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) H^- ion source. The designed energy and beam current of the source are 50 keV and 20 mA, respectively, with a normalized root mean square (norm. rms.) emittance of

  14. The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

    1990-01-01

    There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th[sup 80+] and Xe[sup 53+]. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

  15. The physics of Electron Beam Ion Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stockli, M.P.; Cocke, C.L.

    1990-12-31

    There are 13 Electron Beam Ion Sources in operation which produce highly charged ions, up to Th{sup 80+} and Xe{sup 53+}. Most of the sources are used to study these ions under electron impact or when recombining with gaseous or solid targets. That provides an insight into the atomic physics of these highly charged ions and into the physics of the plasma in which such ions can be found. This paper reviews the present knowledge of atomic processes, important in the production of such ions with an EBIS.

  16. CSNS H- ion source test stand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-Bing; ZHANG Jun-Song; ZHANG Hua-Shun; ZHAO Fu-Xiang; OUYANG Hua-Fu; CHI Yun-Long; HE Wei; HUANG Tao; LI Gang; LIU Ying-Man; LU Yan-Hua; XU Tao-Guang

    2011-01-01

    The Penning surface plasma source is adopted as the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) H- ion source. The designed energy and beam current of the source are 50 keV and 20 mA, respectively, with a normalized root mean square(norm·rms.)emittance of 0.2πmm·mrad.The construction of a H-ion source test stand has been completed, and the commissioning of the source is in progress. Stable H- ion beams with energy of 50 keV and current up to 50 mA are attained. Emittance measurement for the H- beam is being prepared.

  17. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Yamamoto, T; Sekine, M; Okamura, M

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (∼100 μA) with high charge (∼10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  18. Multicusp sources for ion beam projection lithography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M.D.; Wutte, D.; Zahir, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1998-02-01

    Multicusp ion sources are capable of producing positive and negative ions with good beam quality and low energy spread. The ion energy spread of multicusp sources has been measured by three different techniques. The axial ion energy spread has been reduced by introducing a magnetic filter inside the multicusp source chamber which adjusts the plasma potential distribution. The axial energy spread is further reduced by optimizing the source configuration. Values as low as 0.8 eV have been achieved. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. 11. international conference on ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitner, D.; Lyneis, C.; Cheng, D.; Galloway, M.L.; Leitner, M.; Todd, D.S.; Ciavola, G.; Gammino, S.; Celona, L.; Ando, L.; Torrisi, L.; Cavenago, M.; Galata, A.; Spaedtke, P.; Tinschert, K.; Lang, R.; Iannucci, R.; Leroy, R.; Barue, C.; Hitz, D.; Koivisto, H.; Suominen, P.; Tarvainen, O.; Beijers, H.; Brandenburg, S.; Vanrooyen, D.; Hillo, C.; Kuchler, D.; Homeyer, H.; Rohrich, J.; Schachter, L.; Dobrescu, S.; Nakagawa, T.; Higurashi, Y.; Kidera, M.; Aihara, T.; Kase, M.; Goto, A.; Yang, Y.; Zhao, H.W.; Zhang, Z.M.; Zhang, X.Z.; Guo, X.H.; He, W.E.; Sun, L.T.; Yuan, P.; Song, M.T.; Xie, Z.Q.; Cao, Y.; Zhan, W.L.; Wei, B.W.; Bricault, P.; Lau, C.; Essabaa, S.; Cheikh Mhamed, M.; Bajeat, O.; Ducourtieux, M.; Lefort, H.; Panteleev, V.N.; Barzakh, A.E.; Fedorov, D.V.; Ionan, A.M.; Mezilev, K.A.; Moroz, F.V.; Orlov, S.Y.; Volkov, Y.M.; Andrighetto, A.; Lhersonneau, G.; Rizzi, V.; Tecchio, L.B.; Dubois, M.; Gaubert, G.; Jardins, P.; Lecesne, N.; Leroy, R.; Pacquet, J.Y.; Saint Laurent, M.G.; Villari, A.C.O.; Bajeat, O.; Essabaa, S.; Lau, C.; Menna, M.; Franberg, H.; Ammann, M.; Gdggeler, H.W.; Koster, U.; Allen, F.; Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Ames, F.; Baartman, R.; Bricault, P.; Jayamanna, K.; Lamy, T.; McDonald, M.; Olivo, M.; Schmorl, P.; Yuan, D.H.L.; Asaji, T.; Sasaki, H.; Kato, Y.; Atabaev, B.; Radjabov, S.S.; Akhmadjanova, M.K.; Yuzikaeva, F.R.; Baoqun, Cui; Liqiang, Li; Yingjun, Ma; Shengyun, Zhu; Cong, Jiang

    2005-07-01

    This document gathers the summaries of the presentations made at ICIS05 (international conference on ion sources). It can be organized into 3 main topics: 1) 'fundamentals and theory' that deals with plasma, beam extraction, transport and emittance, diagnostics and simulation; 2) 'various types of ion sources' that include ECRIS, EBIS, microwave, negative, radioactive, polarized and laser ion sources, and charge breeders; and 3) 'ion sources and applications' in fields like accelerator injection, fusion energy, space propulsion, mass spectrometry, and neutron and cluster and rare nuclide production.

  20. Design aspects of a compact, single-frequency, permanent magnet ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed resonant plasma volume

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y.; Alton, G.D.; Mills, G.D.; Reed, C.A.; Haynes, D.L.

    1997-09-01

    A compact, all-permanent-magnet single-frequency ECR ion source with a large uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume has been designed and is presently under construction at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The central region of the field is designed to achieve a flat-field (constant mod-B) which extends over the length of the central field region along the axis of symmetry and radially outward to form a uniformly distributed ECR plasma volume. The magnetic field design strongly contrasts with those used in conventional ECR ion sources where the central field regions are approximately parabolic and the consequent ECR zones are surfaces. The plasma confinement magnetic field mirror has a mirror ratio B{sub max}/B{sub ECR} of slightly greater than two. The source is designed to operate at a nominal RF frequency of 6 GHz. The central flat magnetic field region can be easily adjusted by mechanical means to tune the source to the resonant conditions within the limits of 5.5 to 6.8 GHz. The RF injection system is broadband to ensure excitation of transverse electric (TE) modes so that the RF power is largely concentrated in the resonant plasma volume which lies along and surrounds the axis of symmetry of the source. Because of the much larger ECR zone, the probability for absorption of microwave power is dramatically increased thereby increasing the probability for acceleration of electrons, the electron temperature of the plasma and, consequently, the hot electron population within the plasma volume of the source. The creation of an ECR volume rather than a surface is commensurate with higher charge states and higher beam intensities within a particular charge state.

  1. Laser ion source with solenoid field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, Takeshi; Fuwa, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Kotaro; Okamura, Masahiro

    2014-11-01

    Pulse length extension of highly charged ion beam generated from a laser ion source is experimentally demonstrated. The laser ion source (LIS) has been recognized as one of the most powerful heavy ion source. However, it was difficult to provide long pulse beams. By applying a solenoid field (90 mT, 1 m) at plasma drifting section, a pulse length of carbon ion beam reached 3.2 μs which was 4.4 times longer than the width from a conventional LIS. The particle number of carbon ions accelerated by a radio frequency quadrupole linear accelerator was 1.2 × 1011, which was provided by a single 1 J Nd-YAG laser shot. A laser ion source with solenoid field could be used in a next generation heavy ion accelerator.

  2. Performance of an inverted ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvadori, M. C.; Teixeira, F. S.; Sgubin, L. G.; Araujo, W. W. R.; Spirin, R. E. [Institute of Physics, University of Sao Paulo, C.P. 66318, CEP 05315-970, Sao Paulo S.P. (Brazil); Oks, E. M. [State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Brown, I. G. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-02-15

    Whereas energetic ion beams are conventionally produced by extracting ions (say, positive ions) from a plasma that is held at high (positive) potential, with ion energy determined by the potential drop through which the ions fall in the beam formation electrode system, in the device described here the plasma and its electronics are held at ground potential and the ion beam is formed and injected energetically into a space maintained at high (negative) potential. We refer to this configuration as an 'inverted ion source.' This approach allows considerable savings both technologically and economically, rendering feasible some ion beam applications, in particular small-scale ion implantation, that might otherwise not be possible for many researchers and laboratories. We have developed a device of this kind utilizing a metal vapor vacuum arc plasma source, and explored its operation and beam characteristics over a range of parameter variation. The downstream beam current has been measured as a function of extraction voltage (5-35 kV), arc current (50-230 A), metal ion species (Ti, Nb, Au), and extractor grid spacing and beamlet aperture size (3, 4, and 5 mm). The downstream ion beam current as measured by a magnetically-suppressed Faraday cup was up to as high as 600 mA, and with parametric variation quite similar to that found for the more conventional metal vapor vacuum arc ion source.

  3. H- ion source developments at the SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL; Sparks, Dennis O [ORNL; Luciano, Nicholas P [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Carr, Jr, Jerry [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) will require substantially higher average and pulse H- beam currents than can be produced from conventional ion sources such as the base line SNS source. H- currents of 40-50 mA (SNS operations) and 70-100 mA (power upgrade project) with an rms emittance of 0.20-0.35 Pi mm mrad and a ~7% duty factor will be needed. We are therefore investigating several advanced ion source concepts based on RF excitation. First, the performance characteristics of an external antenna source based on an Al2O3 plasma chamber combined with an external multicusp magnetic configuration, an elemental Cs system, and plasma gun will be discussed. Second, the first plasma measurements of a helicon-driven H- ion source will also be presented.

  4. Negative ion source with external RF antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Hahto, Sami K.; Hahto, Sari T.

    2007-02-13

    A radio frequency (RF) driven plasma ion source has an external RF antenna, i.e. the RF antenna is positioned outside the plasma generating chamber rather than inside. The RF antenna is typically formed of a small diameter metal tube coated with an insulator. An external RF antenna assembly is used to mount the external RF antenna to the ion source. The RF antenna tubing is wound around the external RF antenna assembly to form a coil. The external RF antenna assembly is formed of a material, e.g. quartz, which is essentially transparent to the RF waves. The external RF antenna assembly is attached to and forms a part of the plasma source chamber so that the RF waves emitted by the RF antenna enter into the inside of the plasma chamber and ionize a gas contained therein. The plasma ion source is typically a multi-cusp ion source. A converter can be included in the ion source to produce negative ions.

  5. Development of a microwave ion source for ion implantations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, N., E-mail: Nbk-Takahashi@shi.co.jp; Murata, H.; Kitami, H.; Mitsubori, H.; Sakuraba, J.; Soga, T.; Aoki, Y.; Katoh, T. [Technology Research Center, Sumitomo Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokosuka, Kanagawa 237-8555 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A microwave ion source is expected to have a long lifetime, as it has fewer consumables. Thus, we are in the process of developing a microwave ion source for ion implantation applications. In this paper, we report on a newly developed plasma chamber and the extracted P{sup +} beam currents. The volume of the plasma chamber is optimized by varying the length of a boron nitride block installed within the chamber. The extracted P{sup +} beam current is more than 30 mA, at a 25 kV acceleration voltage, using PH{sub 3} gas.

  6. Preparation of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films on the interior surface of tubes by a combined method of plasma source ion implantation and DC sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatada, R., E-mail: hatada@ca.tu-darmstadt.de [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Department of Materials Science, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Flege, S.; Bobrich, A.; Ensinger, W.; Dietz, C. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Department of Materials Science, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Baba, K. [Industrial Technology Center of Nagasaki, Applied Technology Division, Omura, Nagasaki 856-0026 (Japan); Sawase, T.; Watamoto, T. [Nagasaki University, Department of Applied Prosthodontics, Nagasaki 852-8523 (Japan); Matsutani, T. [Technische Universität Darmstadt, Department of Materials Science, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Kinki University, Department of Electric and Electronic Engineering, Higashi-osaka 577-2332 (Japan)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • Deposition of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films inside of tubes. • Combination of plasma source ion implantation and DC sputtering. • Antibacterial effect against S. aureus bacteria. - Abstract: Adhesive diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can be prepared by plasma source ion implantation (PSII), which is also suitable for the treatment of the inner surface of a tube. Incorporation of a metal into the DLC film provides a possibility to change the characteristics of the DLC film. One source for the metal is DC sputtering. In this study PSII and DC sputtering were combined to prepare DLC films containing low concentrations of Ag on the interior surfaces of stainless steel tubes. A DLC film was deposited using a C{sub 2}H{sub 4} plasma with the help of an auxiliary electrode inside of the tube. This electrode was then used as a target for the DC sputtering. A mixture of the gases Ar and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} was used to sputter the silver. By changing the gas flow ratios and process time, the resulting Ag content of the films could be varied. Sample characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, a ball-on-disk test was performed to investigate the tribological properties of the films. The antibacterial activity was determined using Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  7. A negative ion source for alkali ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van

    1980-01-01

    An ion source is described which delivers negative alkali ions. With this source, which consists of a duoplasmatron and a charge exchange canal with alkali vapour, negative Li, Na and K ions are produced. The oven in which alkali metals are evaporated can reach temperatures up to 575°C.

  8. A negative ion source for alkali ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Zwol, N.A. van

    1980-01-01

    An ion source is described which delivers negative alkali ions. With this source, which consists of a duoplasmatron and a charge exchange canal with alkali vapour, negative Li, Na and K ions are produced. The oven in which alkali metals are evaporated can reach temperatures up to 575°C.

  9. Influence of microwave driver coupling design on plasma density at Testbench for Ion sources Plasma Studies, a 2.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megía-Macías, A.; Vizcaíno-de-Julián, A. [E.S.S. Bilbao, Edificio Cosimet, Landabarri 2, 48940-Leioa, Vizcaya (Spain); Cortázar, O. D., E-mail: dcortazar@essbilbao.org [E.S.S. Bilbao, Edificio Cosimet, Landabarri 2, 48940-Leioa, Vizcaya (Spain); Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, ETSII, C.J. Cela s/n, 13170 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-03-15

    A comparative study of two microwave driver systems (preliminary and optimized) for a 2.45 GHz hydrogen Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma generator has been conducted. The influence on plasma behavior and parameters of stationary electric field distribution in vacuum, i.e., just before breakdown, along all the microwave excitation system is analyzed. 3D simulations of resonant stationary electric field distributions, 2D simulations of external magnetic field mapping, experimental measurements of incoming and reflected power, and electron temperature and density along the plasma chamber axis have been carried out. By using these tools, an optimized set of plasma chamber and microwave coupler has been designed paying special attention to the optimization of stationary electric field value in the center of the plasma chamber. This system shows a strong stability on plasma behavior allowing a wider range of operational parameters and even sustaining low density plasma formation without external magnetic field. In addition, the optimized system shows the capability to produce values of plasma density four times higher than the preliminary as a consequence of a deeper penetration of the magnetic resonance surface in relative high electric field zone by keeping plasma stability. The increment of the amount of resonance surface embedded in the plasma under high electric field is suggested as a key factor.

  10. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Pickard, D.S.; Weber, M.; Williams, M.D.

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source is planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 micron patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma.

  11. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N. [and others

    1995-08-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 {mu}m patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf-pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of an rf-generated plasma.

  12. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K.N.; Perkins, L.T.; Pickard, D.S.; Weber, M.; Williams, M.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source is planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 {mu}m patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of a rf-generated plasma. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Beam emittance measurements on multicusp ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarstedt, M.; Lee, Y.; Leung, K. N.; Perkins, L. T.; Pickard, D. S.; Weber, M.; Williams, M. D.

    1996-03-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used for various applications. Presently, the implementation of this type of ion source is planned for the development of an ion beam lithography machine, which will be used for the projection of sub-0.2 μm patterns onto a wafer substrate. Since, for this application, a very good beam quality and a small ion energy spread are required, emittance measurements have been performed on a multicusp ion source for various source conditions. It is shown that the installation of proper capacitors between the extraction electrodes is necessary to avoid rf pickup, which otherwise leads to a distortion of the beam emittance. The influence of the magnetic filter field on the beam emittance has been investigated, and the beam emittance of a dc filament-discharge plasma has also been compared to that of a rf-generated plasma.

  14. CERN PS laser ion source development

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier, P; Haseroth, H; Khomenko, S; Kondrashev, S A; Kugler, H; Lisi, N; Lombardi, A M; Makarov, K; Meyer, C; Ostroumov, P N; Pirkl, Werner; Rörich, V; Roudskoy, I; Satov, Yu A; Schnuriger, J C; Scrivens, R; Sharkov, B Yu; Shumshurov, A V; Stepanov, A; Tenishev, V; Varelá-Rodriguez, F

    1999-01-01

    CERN, together with ITEP and TRINITI (Russia), is developing a CO2 laser ion source. The key design parameters are: 1.4 1010 ions of Pb25+ in a pulse of 5.5 ms, with a 4-rms emittance of 0.2 10-6 rad m, working at a repetition rate of 1 Hz. This device is considered as one candidate source for LHC heavy ion operation. The status of the laser development, the experimental set-up of the source consisting of the target area and its illumination, the plasma expansion area and extraction, beam transport and ion pre-acceleration by an RFQ, will be given.

  15. Pulsed Plasma Electron Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Yakov

    2008-11-01

    Pulsed (˜10-7 s) electron beams with high current density (>10^2 A/cm^2) are generated in diodes with electric field of E > 10^6 V/cm. The source of electrons in these diodes is explosive emission plasma, which limits pulse duration; in the case E Hadas and Ya. E. Krasik, Europhysics Lett. 82, 55001 (2008).

  16. Characterization of carbon contamination under ion and hot atom bombardment in a tin-plasma extreme ultraviolet light source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgov, A., E-mail: a.dolgov@utwente.nl [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Lopaev, D. [Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation); Lee, C.J. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Zoethout, E. [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research (DIFFER), Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Medvedev, V. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Yakushev, O. [Institute for Spectroscopy Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Bijkerk, F. [MESA+ Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands)

    2015-10-30

    Highlights: • Carbon film grown during exposure to EUV radiation and high energy ions was studied. • The carbon film is highly resistant to chemical and physical sputtering. • Surface contamination of plasma-facing components is similar to hydrogenated DLC. - Abstract: Molecular contamination of a grazing incidence collector for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography was experimentally studied. A carbon film was found to have grown under irradiation from a pulsed tin plasma discharge. Our studies show that the film is chemically inert and has characteristics that are typical for a hydrogenated amorphous carbon film. It was experimentally observed that the film consists of carbon (∼70 at.%), oxygen (∼20 at.%) and hydrogen (bound to oxygen and carbon), along with a few at.% of tin. Most of the oxygen and hydrogen are most likely present as OH groups, chemically bound to carbon, indicating an important role for adsorbed water during the film formation process. It was observed that the film is predominantly sp{sup 3} hybridized carbon, as is typical for diamond-like carbon. The Raman spectra of the film, under 514 and 264 nm excitation, are typical for hydrogenated diamond-like carbon. Additionally, the lower etch rate and higher energy threshold in chemical ion sputtering in H{sub 2} plasma, compared to magnetron-sputtered carbon films, suggests that the film exhibits diamond-like carbon properties.

  17. Negative Ion Sources: Magnetron and Penning

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    The history of the magnetron and Penning electrode geometry is briefly outlined. Plasma generation by electrical discharge-driven electron impact ionization is described and the basic physics of plasma and electrodes relevant to magnetron and Penning discharges are explained. Negative ions and their applications are introduced, along with their production mechanisms. Caesium and surface production of negative ions are detailed. Technical details of how to build magnetron and Penning surface plasma sources are given, along with examples of specific sources from around the world. Failure modes are listed and lifetimes compared.

  18. Sources and detectors of fast ions for basic devices

    OpenAIRE

    Furno, Ivo; Fasoli, Ambrogio; Plyushchev, Gennady

    2009-01-01

    The physics of supra thermal test ions in turbulent plasmas can be conveniently studied in basic plasma physics devices, which allow high-resolution measurements of plasma and fast ion parameters and wave fields throughout the whole plasma cross-section. We describe recent advances in the development of an experimental setup consisting of a non-perturbative Li 6+ miniaturized ion source and a detector for the investigation of the interaction between supra thermal ions and drift/interchange–dr...

  19. Profiles of plasma parameters and density of negative hydrogen ions by laser detachment measurements in RF-driven ion sources; Profile der Plasmaparameter und Dichte negativer Wasserstoffionen mittels Laserdetachmentmessungen in HF-angeregten Ionenquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ-Koch, Sina

    2007-12-20

    This work shows the application of the Laserdetachment method for spatially resolved measurements of negative Hydrogen/Deuterium ion density. It was applied on a high power low pressure RF-driven ion source. The Laser detachment method is based on the measurement of electron currents on a positively biased Langmuir probe before and during/after a laser pulse. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons can be derived from the ratio of currents to the probe. The absolute density of negative ions can be obtained when the electron density is measured with the standard Langmuir probe setup. Measurements with the Langmuir probe additionally yield information about the floating and plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density of positive ions. The Laser detachment setup had to be adapted to the special conditions of the RF-driven source. In particular the existence of RF fields (1 MHz), high source potential (-20 kV), magnetic fields ({proportional_to} 7 mT) and caesium inside the source had to be considered. The density of negative ions could be identified in the range of n(H{sup -})=1.10{sup 17} 1/m{sup 3}, which is in the same order of magnitude as the electron density. Only the application of the Laser detachment method with the Langmuir probe measurements will yield spatially resolved plasma parameters and H- density profiles. The influence of diverse external parameters, such as pressure, RF-power, magnetic fields on the plasma parameters and their profiles were studied and explained. Hence, the measurements lead to a detailed understanding of the processes inside the source. (orig.)

  20. Enhancing the performances of ECR Ion Sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alton, G.D.; Liu, Y.

    1999-03-29

    The performances of ECR ion sources can be enhanced in the spatial domain by tailoring the central magnetic field so that it is uniformly distributed over a large plasma volume and is of magnitude so as to be in resonance with single frequency microwave radiation. Analogously, the performances of conventional minimum-B ECR ion sources can be enhanced in the frequency domain by injecting multiple discrete frequency or broadband microwave radiation into their plasma volumes. In this report, examples of both the spatial-and frequency-domain techniques will be given. For example, the design aspects of an all permanent-magnet ''volume-type'' (spatial-domain) ECR ion source will be described and the effects of injecting multiple frequencies (frequency-domain) on the charge-state-distributions extracted from a conventional minimum-B ECR ion source will be presented.

  1. Radio frequency multicusp ion source development (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. It has been demonstrated that the source can meet the H{sup {minus}} beam current and emittance requirements for this application. By employing a porcelain-coated antenna, a clean plasma discharge with very long-life operation can be achieved. Today, the rf source is used to generate both positive and negative hydrogen ion beams and has been tested in various particle accelerator laboratories throughout the world. Applications of this ion source have been extended to other fields such as ion beam lithography, oil-well logging, ion implantation, accelerator mass spectrometry and medical therapy machines. This paper summarizes the latest rf ion source technology and development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. Radio frequency multicusp ion source development (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, K. N.

    1996-03-01

    The radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp source was originally developed for use in the Superconducting Super Collider injector. It has been demonstrated that the source can meet the H- beam current and emittance requirements for this application. By employing a porcelain-coated antenna, a clean plasma discharge with very long-life operation can be achieved. Today, the rf source is used to generate both positive and negative hydrogen ion beams and has been tested in various particle accelerator laboratories throughout the world. Applications of this ion source have been extended to other fields such as ion beam lithography, oil-well logging, ion implantation, accelerator mass spectrometry and medical therapy machines. This paper summarizes the latest rf ion source technology and development at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.

  3. The Frankfurt RF-driven ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Beller, Peter; Klein, H; Maaser, A; Volk, K; Weber, M

    2000-01-01

    An RF-driven volume ion source based on the high efficiency ion source (HIEFS) has been developed at the Institut fuer Angewandte Physik in Frankfurt. The RF-driven ion source operates at a frequency of 3.5 MHz with a maximum duty factor of 10%. Using an 11 kW RF-amplifier a He sup + -beam with a current of 82 mA as well as an oxygen beam with a current of 39 mA and an O sup + -fraction of 90% could be extracted. Experiments were done to study the operating conditions of the ion source. For the working gases helium and oxygen the emission current density in dependence on several ion source parameters was investigated. Furthermore, the energy distribution of the electrons and ions in the plasma as well as the beam composition for several working gases were studied. This article will give a detailed description of the ion source and the experimental setup. In addition, various dependencies between the plasma parameters and the emission current density, the energy distribution of electrons and ions and the beam ...

  4. Thermal and electrostatic simulations of the diagnostic calorimeter for the source for production of ion of deuterium extracted from RF plasma beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serianni, G; Dalla Palma, M; De Muri, M; Fasolo, D; Pasqualotto, R; Pomaro, N; Rizzolo, A; Tollin, M

    2012-02-01

    To study and optimise negative ion production for the ITER neutral beam injectors, a test facility is under construction in Padova with the aim of testing beam characteristics and to verify the source proper operation. The instrumented calorimeter STRIKE (short-time retractable instrumented kalorimeter experiment) is being developed to characterise the SPIDER (Source for Production of Ion of Deuterium Extracted from RF plasma) beam during short operations. The paper presents an investigation of the response of STRIKE measurement systems. It results that biasing is necessary to cope with the influence of secondary electrons on current measurements; moreover, despite the discretisation of the recorded thermal patterns introduced by the pixels of thermal cameras, a sufficient spatial resolution is expected.

  5. Characterization of the CW starter plasma RF matching network for operating the SNS H- ion source with lower H2 flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B. X.; Stockli, M. P.; Kang, Y.; Piller, C.; Murray, S. N.; Pennisi, T. R.; Santana, M.; Welton, R. F.

    2016-02-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source H- ion source is operated with a pulsed 2-MHz RF (50-60 kW) to produce the 1-ms long, ˜50 mA H- beams at 60 Hz. A continuous low power (˜300 W) 13.56-MHz RF plasma, which is initially ignited with a H2 pressure bump, serves as starter plasma for the pulsed high power 2-MHz RF discharges. To reduce the risk of plasma outages at lower H2 flow rates which is desired for improved performance of the following radio frequency quadrupole, the 13.56-MHz RF matching network was characterized over a broad range of its two tuning capacitors. The H-α line intensity of the 13.56-MHz RF plasma and the reflected power of the 13.56-MHz RF were mapped against the capacitor settings. Optimal tunes for the maximum H-α intensity are consistent with the optimal tunes for minimum reflected power. Low limits of the H2 flow rate not causing plasma outages were explored within the range of the map. A tune region that allows lower H2 flow rate has been identified, which differs from the optimal tune for global minimum reflected power that was mostly used in the past.

  6. Fast ion beam-plasma interaction system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breun, R A; Ferron, J R

    1979-07-01

    A device has been constructed for the study of the interaction between a fast ion beam and a target plasma of separately controllable parameters. The beam of either hydrogen or helium ions has an energy of 1-4 keV and a total current of 0.5-2 A. The beam energy and beam current can be varied separately. The ion source plasma is created by a pulsed (0.2-10-ms pulse length) discharge in neutral gas at up to 3 x 10(-3) Torr. The neutrals are pulsed into the source chamber, allowing the neutral pressure in the target region to remain less than 5 x 10(-5) Torr at a 2-Hz repetition rate. The creation of the source plasma can be described by a simple set of equations which predict optimum source design parameters. The target plasma is also produced by a pulsed discharge. Between the target and source chambers the beam is neutralized by electrons drawn from a set of hot filaments. Currently under study is an unstable wave in a field-free plasma excited when the beam velocity is nearly equal to the target electron thermal velocity (v(beam) approximately 3.5 x 10(7) cm/s, Te = 0.5 eV).

  7. Saddle antenna radio frequency ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudnikov, V., E-mail: vadim@muonsinc.com; Johnson, R. [Muons, Inc., Batavia, Illinois 60510 (United States); Murray, S.; Pennisi, T.; Santana, M.; Piller, C.; Stockli, M.; Welton, R. [ORNL, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Breitschopf, J. [TLU, Seguin, Texas 78155 (United States); Dudnikova, G. [UMD, College Park, Maryland 32611 (United States); Institute of Computational Technologies SBRAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Existing RF ion sources for accelerators have specific efficiencies for H{sup +} and H{sup −} ion generation ∼3–5 mA/cm{sup 2} kW, where about 50 kW of RF power is typically needed for 50 mA beam current production. The Saddle Antenna (SA) surface plasma source (SPS) described here was developed to improve H{sup −} ion production efficiency, reliability, and availability. In SA RF ion source, the efficiency of positive ion generation in the plasma has been improved to 200 mA/cm{sup 2} kW. After cesiation, the current of negative ions to the collector was increased from 1 mA to 10 mA with RF power ∼1.5 kW in the plasma (6 mm diameter emission aperture) and up to 30 mA with ∼4 kW RF. Continuous wave (CW) operation of the SA SPS has been tested on the test stand. The general design of the CW SA SPS is based on the pulsed version. Some modifications were made to improve the cooling and cesiation stability. CW operation with negative ion extraction was tested with RF power up to ∼1.2 kW in the plasma with production up to Ic = 7 mA. A stable long time generation of H{sup −} beam without degradation was demonstrated in RF discharge with AlN discharge chamber.

  8. Energetic ions in ITER plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinches, S. D. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul-lez-Durance Cedex (France); Chapman, I. T.; Sharapov, S. E. [CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Lauber, Ph. W. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Association, Boltzmanstraße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Oliver, H. J. C. [H H Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Royal Fort, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); CCFE, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Shinohara, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Tani, K. [Nippon Advanced Technology Co., Ltd, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0102 (Japan)

    2015-02-15

    This paper discusses the behaviour and consequences of the expected populations of energetic ions in ITER plasmas. It begins with a careful analytic and numerical consideration of the stability of Alfvén Eigenmodes in the ITER 15 MA baseline scenario. The stability threshold is determined by balancing the energetic ion drive against the dominant damping mechanisms and it is found that only in the outer half of the plasma (r/a>0.5) can the fast ions overcome the thermal ion Landau damping. This is in spite of the reduced numbers of alpha-particles and beam ions in this region but means that any Alfvén Eigenmode-induced redistribution is not expected to influence the fusion burn process. The influence of energetic ions upon the main global MHD phenomena expected in ITER's primary operating scenarios, including sawteeth, neoclassical tearing modes and Resistive Wall Modes, is also reviewed. Fast ion losses due to the non-axisymmetric fields arising from the finite number of toroidal field coils, the inclusion of ferromagnetic inserts, the presence of test blanket modules containing ferromagnetic material, and the fields created by the Edge Localised Mode (ELM) control coils in ITER are discussed. The greatest losses and associated heat loads onto the plasma facing components arise due to the use of the ELM control coils and come from neutral beam ions that are ionised in the plasma edge.

  9. Energetic ions in ITER plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinches, S. D.; Chapman, I. T.; Lauber, Ph. W.; Oliver, H. J. C.; Sharapov, S. E.; Shinohara, K.; Tani, K.

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses the behaviour and consequences of the expected populations of energetic ions in ITER plasmas. It begins with a careful analytic and numerical consideration of the stability of Alfvén Eigenmodes in the ITER 15 MA baseline scenario. The stability threshold is determined by balancing the energetic ion drive against the dominant damping mechanisms and it is found that only in the outer half of the plasma ( r / a > 0.5 ) can the fast ions overcome the thermal ion Landau damping. This is in spite of the reduced numbers of alpha-particles and beam ions in this region but means that any Alfvén Eigenmode-induced redistribution is not expected to influence the fusion burn process. The influence of energetic ions upon the main global MHD phenomena expected in ITER's primary operating scenarios, including sawteeth, neoclassical tearing modes and Resistive Wall Modes, is also reviewed. Fast ion losses due to the non-axisymmetric fields arising from the finite number of toroidal field coils, the inclusion of ferromagnetic inserts, the presence of test blanket modules containing ferromagnetic material, and the fields created by the Edge Localised Mode (ELM) control coils in ITER are discussed. The greatest losses and associated heat loads onto the plasma facing components arise due to the use of the ELM control coils and come from neutral beam ions that are ionised in the plasma edge.

  10. Novel laser ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Fournier, P; Kugler, H; Lisi, N; Scrivens, R; Rodríguez, F V; Düsterer, S; Sauerbrey, R; Schillinger, H; Theobald, W; Veisz, L; Tisch, J W G; Smith, R A

    2000-01-01

    Development in the field of high-power laser systems with repetition rates of several Hz and energies of few joules is highly active and opening, giving new possibilities for the design of laser ions sources. Preliminary investigations on the use of four different laser and target configurations are presented: (1) A small CO/sub 2/ laser (100 mJ, 10.6 mu m) focused onto a polyethylene target to produce C ions at 1 Hz repetition rate (CERN). (2) An excimer XeCl laser (6 J, 308 nm) focused onto solid targets (Frascati). (3) A femtosecond Ti: sapphire laser (250 mJ, 800 nm) directed onto a solid targets (Jena). (4) A picosecond Nd: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (0.3 J, 532 nm) focused into a dense medium of atomic clusters and onto solid targets (London). The preliminary experimental results and the most promising schemes will be discussed with respect to the scaling of the production of high numbers of highly charged ions. Different lasers are compared in terms of current density at 1 m distance for each charge state...

  11. Ion sources for ion implantation technology (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Shigeki, E-mail: sakai-shigeki@nissin.co.jp; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Inouchi, Yutaka; Umisedo, Sei; Miyamoto, Naoki [Nissin Ion Equipment co., ltd, 575 Kuze-Tonoshiro-cho Minami-ku, Kyoto 601-8205 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Ion sources for ion implantation are introduced. The technique is applied not only to large scale integration (LSI) devices but also to flat panel display. For LSI fabrication, ion source scheduled maintenance cycle is most important. For CMOS image sensor devices, metal contamination at implanted wafer is most important. On the other hand, to fabricate miniaturized devices, cluster ion implantation has been proposed to make shallow PN junction. While for power devices such as silicon carbide, aluminum ion is required. For doping processes of LCD fabrication, a large ion source is required. The extraction area is about 150 cm × 10 cm, and the beam uniformity is important as well as the total target beam current.

  12. Characteristics of MINI ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitoh, Yuichi; Yokota, Watalu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    1997-03-01

    A very compact electron cyclotron resonance ion source (MINI ECR) was manufactured to extend available energy ranges of ion beams by applying multiply charged ions to electrostatic accelerators. The magnetic field to confine a plasma is formed only by small permanent magnets and the microwave power up to 15 W is generated by a compact transistor amplifier in order to install the ion source at a narrow high-voltage terminal where the electrical power feed is restricted. The magnet assembly is 12 cm in length and 11 cm in diameter, and forms a mirror field with the maximum strength of 0.55 T. The total power consumption of the source is below 160 W. The performance of the source was tested in a bench stand. The results of Ar, Xe, O, and N ion generation are reported in this paper. (author)

  13. Dimension effects in plasma immersion ion implantation of cylindrical bore

    CERN Document Server

    Tian Xiu Bo; Tong Hong Hui; Chu, P K

    2002-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation is a new technique pertaining to ion implantation. Different from the case of exterior surface treatment, plasma immersion ion implantation of interior surface possesses dimension effects. Consequently it is a challenge to implant the inner wall of a cylindrical bore due to this finite dimension.The ion energy cannot be linearly changed with applied voltage and there exists a saturation value due to overlap effect of plasma sheath. The plasma in the bore may rapidly be depleted, which is attributed to finite plasma volume and plasma-sheath con-flowing effect. For instance the plasma depletion time is about 0.55 mu s when a bore with a diameter of 20 cm is treated under conditions of applied voltage of 30 kV and plasma density of 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 5 ions/cm sup 3. Interior plasma-source hardware may be an effective solution

  14. Modification of anisotropic plasma diffusion via auxiliary electrons emitted by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malferrari, L; Odorici, F; Veronese, G P; Rizzoli, R; Mascali, D; Celona, L; Gammino, S; Castro, G; Miracoli, R; Serafino, T

    2012-02-01

    The diffusion mechanism in magnetized plasmas is a largely debated issue. A short circuit model was proposed by Simon, assuming fluxes of lost particles along the axial (electrons) and radial (ions) directions which can be compensated, to preserve the quasi-neutrality, by currents flowing throughout the conducting plasma chamber walls. We hereby propose a new method to modify Simon's currents via electrons injected by a carbon nanotubes-based electron gun. We found this improves the source performances, increasing the output current for several charge states. The method is especially sensitive to the pumping frequency. Output currents for given charge states, at different auxiliary electron currents, will be reported in the paper and the influence of the frequency tuning on the compensation mechanism will be discussed.

  15. Influence of temperature on properties of nitrogen plasma source ion implantation (N-PSII) of Ti6A14V alloy

    CERN Document Server

    Geng Man; Zhao Qing

    2001-01-01

    Specimens of Ti6Al4V alloy were implanted with nitrogen plasma source ion implantation (N-PSII) at temperatures between 100 degree C and 600 degree C to a ion dose of 4 x 10 sup 1 sup 7 cm sup - sup 2. Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) was used to determine the nitrogen concentration depth profiles. Microhardness measurements and pin-on-disk wear test were performed to evaluate the improvements of the surface modification. Glancing angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) was employed to determine the phases presented in the surface modified layer. The thickness of implanted layer increased by about an order of magnitude when the temperature was elevated from 100 degree C to 600 degree C. Higher surface hardness and wear resistance was also obtained at higher temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed distinct microstructural changes and the presence of titanium nitrides in the implanted surface

  16. Study of plasma meniscus and beam halo in negative ion sources using three dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space particle in cell model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishioka, S., E-mail: nishioka@ppl.appi.keio.ac.jp; Goto, I.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Miyamoto, K. [School of Natural and Living Sciences Education, Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Fukano, A. [Toshiba, 33 Isogo-chou, Isogo-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa 235-001 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Our previous study by two dimension in real space and three dimension in velocity space-particle in cell model shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources. The negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. The purpose of this study is to verify this mechanism with the full 3D model. It is shown that the above mechanism is essentially unchanged even in the 3D model, while the fraction of the beam halo is significantly reduced to 6%. This value reasonably agrees with the experimental result.

  17. Laser ion source for particle accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Sherwood, T R

    1995-01-01

    There is an interest in accelerating atomic nuclei to produce particle beams for medical therapy, atomic and nuclear physics, inertial confinement fusion and particle physics. Laser Ion Sources, in which ions are extracted from plasma created when a high power density laser beam pulse strikes a solid surface in a vacuum, are not in common use. However, some new developments in which heavy ions have been accelerated show that such sources have the potential to provide the beams required for high-energy accelerator systems.

  18. Operation of ECR Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In 2001, ECR ion source was operated for HIRFL about 5138 hours and 8 species of ion beams, such as ~(12)C~(4+), ~(12)C~(5+), ~(36)Ar~(11+),~(13)C~(4+),~(40)Ca~(11+),~(40)Ar~(11+),~(56)Fe~(10+) and ~(18)O~(6+) were provided. Among these ions,~(56)Fe~(10+)is a new ion beam. In this period, 14 experiments of heavy ion physics application and nuclear research were finished.

  19. Preparation of Ag-containing diamond-like carbon films on the interior surface of tubes by a combined method of plasma source ion implantation and DC sputtering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Bobrich, A.; Ensinger, W.; Dietz, C.; Baba, K.; Sawase, T.; Watamoto, T.; Matsutani, T.

    2014-08-01

    Adhesive diamond-like carbon (DLC) films can be prepared by plasma source ion implantation (PSII), which is also suitable for the treatment of the inner surface of a tube. Incorporation of a metal into the DLC film provides a possibility to change the characteristics of the DLC film. One source for the metal is DC sputtering. In this study PSII and DC sputtering were combined to prepare DLC films containing low concentrations of Ag on the interior surfaces of stainless steel tubes. A DLC film was deposited using a C2H4 plasma with the help of an auxiliary electrode inside of the tube. This electrode was then used as a target for the DC sputtering. A mixture of the gases Ar and C2H4 was used to sputter the silver. By changing the gas flow ratios and process time, the resulting Ag content of the films could be varied. Sample characterizations were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectrometry, atomic force microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Additionally, a ball-on-disk test was performed to investigate the tribological properties of the films. The antibacterial activity was determined using Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.

  20. Observations of strong ion-ion correlations in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, T., E-mail: ma8@llnl.gov; Pak, A.; Landen, O. L.; Le Pape, S.; Turnbull, D.; Döppner, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fletcher, L.; Galtier, E.; Hastings, J.; Lee, H. J.; Nagler, B.; Glenzer, S. H. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Chapman, D. A. [Plasma Physics Group, AWE plc, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Falcone, R. W. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Fortmann, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Gericke, D. O. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Gregori, G.; White, T. G. [University of Oxford, Clarendon Laboratory, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Neumayer, P. [Extreme Matter Institute, GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany); Vorberger, J. [Max Planck Institut für Physik komplexer Systeme, Nötthnizer Straße 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); and others

    2014-05-15

    Using simultaneous spectrally, angularly, and temporally resolved x-ray scattering, we measure the pronounced ion-ion correlation peak in a strongly coupled plasma. Laser-driven shock-compressed aluminum at ∼3× solid density is probed with high-energy photons at 17.9 keV created by molybdenum He-α emission in a laser-driven plasma source. The measured elastic scattering feature shows a well-pronounced correlation peak at a wave vector of k=4Å{sup −1}. The magnitude of this correlation peak cannot be described by standard plasma theories employing a linear screened Coulomb potential. Advanced models, including a strong short-range repulsion due to the inner structure of the aluminum ions are however in good agreement with the scattering data. These studies have demonstrated a new highly accurate diagnostic technique to directly measure the state of compression and the ion-ion correlations. We have since applied this new method in single-shot wave-number resolved S(k) measurements to characterize the physical properties of dense plasmas.

  1. Surface plasma source with saddle antenna radio frequency plasma generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudnikov, V; Johnson, R P; Murray, S; Pennisi, T; Piller, C; Santana, M; Stockli, M; Welton, R

    2012-02-01

    A prototype RF H(-) surface plasma source (SPS) with saddle (SA) RF antenna is developed which will provide better power efficiency for high pulsed and average current, higher brightness with longer lifetime and higher reliability. Several versions of new plasma generators with small AlN discharge chambers and different antennas and magnetic field configurations were tested in the plasma source test stand. A prototype SA SPS was installed in the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) ion source test stand with a larger, normal-sized SNS AlN chamber that achieved unanalyzed peak currents of up to 67 mA with an apparent efficiency up to 1.6 mA∕kW. Control experiments with H(-) beam produced by SNS SPS with internal and external antennas were conducted. A new version of the RF triggering plasma gun has been designed. A saddle antenna SPS with water cooling is fabricated for high duty factor testing.

  2. Ion sources for heavy ion fusion (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Simon S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.; Peters, C.; Reginato, L.; Tauschwitz, A.; Grote, D.; Deadrick, F.

    1996-03-01

    The development of ion sources for heavy ion fusion will be reported with particular emphasis on a recently built 2 MV injector. The new injector is based on an electrostatic quadrupole configuration, and has produced pulsed K+ ions of 950 mA peak from a 6.7 in. curved alumino silicate source. The ion beam has reached 2.3 MV with an energy flatness of ±0.2% over 1 μs. The measured normalized edge emittance of less than 1 π mm mrad is close to the source temperature limit. The design, construction, performance, and comparisons with three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations will be described.

  3. Negative hydrogen ion sources for accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moehs, D.P.; /Fermilab; Peters, J.; /DESY; Sherman, J.; /Los Alamos

    2005-08-01

    A variety of H{sup -} ion sources are in use at accelerator laboratories around the world. A list of these ion sources includes surface plasma sources with magnetron, Penning and surface converter geometries as well as magnetic-multipole volume sources with and without cesium. Just as varied is the means of igniting and maintaining magnetically confined plasmas. Hot and cold cathodes, radio frequency, and microwave power are all in use, as well as electron tandem source ignition. The extraction systems of accelerator H{sup -} ion sources are highly specialized utilizing magnetic and electric fields in their low energy beam transport systems to produce direct current, as well as pulsed and/or chopped beams with a variety of time structures. Within this paper, specific ion sources utilized at accelerator laboratories shall be reviewed along with the physics of surface and volume H{sup -} production in regard to source emittance. Current research trends including aperture modeling, thermal modeling, surface conditioning, and laser diagnostics will also be discussed.

  4. A high charge state multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.N.; Keller, R. (Accelerator and Fusion Research Division, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (US))

    1990-01-01

    Attempts have been made to generate high charge state ion beams by employing a multicusp plasma source. Three experimental investigations have been performed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and at Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, Darmstadt (GSI) to study the charge state distributions and the emittance of the extracted beam. Results demonstrate that charge state as high as +7 can be obtained with argon or xenon plasmas. The brightness of a 11-mA xenon ion beam is found to be 26 A/({pi} mm mrad){sup 2}.

  5. Hooded arc ion-source

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The positioning system for the hooded arc ion-source, shown prior to mounting, consists of four excentric shafts to locate the ion-source and central electrodes. It will be placed on the axis of the SC and introduced into the vacuum tank via the air locks visible in the foreground.

  6. Negative ion studies on the RF plasma device MAGPIE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willett, Hannah; Santoso, Jesse; Corr, Cormac; Gibson, Kieran

    2016-10-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) systems provide both heating and current drive in tokamak fusion reactors. High energy (> 1 MeV) neutral beams are produced by neutralising accelerated ions, for which negative ions are used; the neutralisation cross section for positive ions becomes negligible at these energies. This requires very high throughput negative ion sources. Currently this is achieved using inductively coupled plasma sources, which incorporate caesium to improve the production rate. It has been proposed that helicon plasma sources could provide a more efficient, higher throughput method of producing negative ions for NBI, possibly even removing the need for caesium. We report on studies of the negative hydrogen ion population in the MAGPIE helicon device (Australian National University) under a variety of operating conditions. The probe-based laser photodetachment method and Langmuir probes are employed to estimate the negative hydrogen ion density throughout the device. Initial results support the viability of helicon-based negative ion sources.

  7. Development of the RF Ion Sources for Focused Ion Beam Accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Voznyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of investigations of ion sources developed in the IAP of NAS of Ukraine for generation of high brightness ion beams with small energy spread. A series of RF ion sources operated at the frequency of 27.12 MHz were studied: the inductive RF ion source, the helicon ion source, the multi-cusp RF ion source, and the sputter type RF source of metal ions. A global model and transformer model were applied for calculation of RF source plasma parameters. Ion energy spread, ion mass, and ion current density of some sources were measured in the wide range of RF power, extraction voltage and gas pres-sure.

  8. Gas and metal ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oaks, E. [High Current Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)]|[State Academy of Control System and Radioelectronics, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Yushkov, G. [High Current Electronics Institute, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    1996-08-01

    The positive ion sources are now of interest owing to both their conventional use, e.g., as injectors in charged-particle accelerators and the promising capabilities of intense ion beams in the processes related to the action of ions on various solid surfaces. For industrial use, the sources of intense ion beams and their power supplies should meet the specific requirements as follows: They should be simple, technologically effective, reliable, and relatively low-cost. Since the scanning of an intense ion beam is a complicated problem, broad ion beams hold the greatest promise. For the best use of such beams it is desirable that the ion current density be uniformly distributed over the beam cross section. The ion beam current density should be high enough for the treatment process be accomplished for an acceptable time. Thus, the ion sources used for high-current, high-dose metallurgical implantation should provide for gaining an exposure dose of {approximately} 10{sup 17} cm{sup {minus}2} in some tens of minutes. So the average ion current density at the surface under treatment should be over 10{sup {minus}5} A/cm{sup 2}. The upper limit of the current density depends on the admissible heating of the surface under treatment. The accelerating voltage of an ion source is dictated by its specific use; it seems to lie in the range from {approximately}1 kV (for the ion source used for surface sputtering) to {approximately}100 kV and over (for the ion sources used for high-current, high-dose metallurgical implantation).

  9. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavenago, M.; Minarello, A.; Sattin, M. [INFN-LNL, v.le dell' Universita n 2, I-35020, Legnaro (PD) Italy (Italy); Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Laterza, B.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla fusione, c.so S. Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); and others

    2015-04-08

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135 mA at −60 kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2 MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  10. Development of versatile multiaperture negative ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavenago, M.; Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; De Muri, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P.; Agostinetti, P.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Cervaro, V.; Cazzador, M.; Degli Agostini, F.; Franchin, L.; Kulevoy, T.; Laterza, B.; Mimo, A.; Minarello, A.; Petrenko, S.; Ravarotto, D.; Rossetto, F.; Sattin, M.; Zaniol, B.; Zucchetti, S.

    2015-04-01

    Enhancement of negative ion sources for production of large ion beams is a very active research field nowadays, driven from demand of plasma heating in nuclear fusion devices and accelerator applications. As a versatile test bench, the ion source NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1) is being commissioned by Consorzio RFX and INFN. The nominal beam current of 135 mA at -60 kV is divided into 9 beamlets, with multiaperture extraction electrodes. The plasma is sustained by a 2 MHz radiofrequency power supply, with a standard matching box. A High Voltage Deck (HVD) placed inside the lead shielding surrounding NIO1 contains the radiofrequency generator, the gas control, electronics and power supplies for the ion source. An autonomous closed circuit water cooling system was installed for the whole system, with a branch towards the HVD, using carefully optimized helical tubing. Insulation transformer is installed in a nearby box. Tests of several magnetic configurations can be performed. Status of experiments, measured spectra and plasma luminosity are described. Upgrades of magnetic filter, beam calorimeter and extraction grid and related theoretical issues are reviewed.

  11. Development of hollow anode penning ion source for laboratory application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, B. K.; Shyam, A.; Das, R.; Rao, A. D. P.

    2012-03-01

    The research work presented here focuses for the development of miniature penning type ion source. One hollow anode penning type ion source was developed in our laboratory. The size of the ion source is 38 mm diameter and 55 mm length. The ion source consists of two cathodes, a hollow anode and one piece of rare earth permanent magnet. The plasma was created in the plasma region between cathodes and the hollow anode. The J × B force in the region helps for efficient ionization of the gas even in the high vacuum region˜1×10 -5 Torr. The ions were extracted in the axial direction with help of the potential difference between the electrodes and the geometry of the extraction angle. The effect of the extraction electrode geometry for efficient extraction of the ions from the plasma region was examined. This ion source is a self extracted ion source. The self extracted phenomena reduce the cost and the size of the ion source. The extracted ion current was measured by a graphite probe. An ion current of more than 200 μA was observed at the probe placed 70 mm apart from the extraction electrode. In this paper, the structure of the ion source, effect of operating pressure, potential difference and the magnetic field on the extracted ion current is reported.

  12. Beam investigations at a multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, K.; Klein, H. (Institut fuer Angewandte Physik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universitaet, Robert-Mayer-Strasse 2-4, D-6000 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)); Leung, K.N. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States))

    1992-04-01

    In cooperation with the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, a multicusp ion source has been investigated. The goal of these investigations is to generate a nearly pure atomic nitrogen (N{sup +}) ion beam. To achieve this, the discharge chamber is divided into two parts of different plasma parameters by means of a filter magnetic field. As beam diagnostics, a bending magnet and a faraday cup have been used. Measurements of the beam current density and the ion composition for a wide range of discharge conditions have been performed. By using a Langmuir probe, we have performed measurements of electron temperature and electron density.

  13. Resonance Ionization Laser Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Marsh, B

    2013-01-01

    The application of the technique of laser resonance ionization to the production of singly charged ions at radioactive ion beam facilities is discussed. The ability to combine high efficiency and element selectivity makes a resonance ionization laser ion source (RILIS) an important component of many radioactive ion beam facilities. At CERN, for example, the RILIS is the most commonly used ion source of the ISOLDE facility, with a yearly operating time of up to 3000 hours. For some isotopes the RILIS can also be used as a fast and sensitive laser spectroscopy tool, provided that the spectral resolution is sufficiently high to reveal the influence of nuclear structure on the atomic spectra. This enables the study of nuclear properties of isotopes with production rates even lower than one ion per second and, in some cases, enables isomer selective ionization. The solutions available for the implementation of resonance laser ionization at radioactive ion beam facilities are summarized. Aspects such as the laser r...

  14. Status and Operation of the Linac4 Ion Source Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; Chaudet, E; Gil-Flores, J; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Koszar, I; Mahner, E; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; O’Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Rochez, J; Sanchez Alvarez, J; Sanchez Arias, J; Scrivens, R; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Hatayama, A; Nishida, K; Shibata, T; Yamamot, T; Otha, M

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s Linac4 45 kV H- ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2MHz RF- plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H- beam of 16-22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the LEBT, RFQ and chopper of Linac4.

  15. Drift wave in pair-ion plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Samiran Ghosh; Nikhil Chakrabarti; Manoranjan Khan; M R Gupta

    2013-02-01

    The conditions for the existence of low-frequency electrostatic drift wave in pair-ion plasma are discussed. It is shown that the temperature and/or mass difference of both species could produce drift wave in a pair-ion plasma. The results are discussed in the context of the fullerene pair-ion plasma experiment.

  16. Study of Coupling between a Plasma Source and Plasma Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berumen, Jorge; Chu, Feng; Hood, Ryan; Mattingly, Sean; Rogers, Anthony; Skiff, Fred

    2014-10-01

    An experimental study on the coupling between a plasma source and plasma fluctuations in a cylindrical, magnetized, singly-ionized Argon inductively-coupled gas discharge plasma that is weakly collisional is presented. Typical plasma conditions are n ~1010 cm-3 Te ~ 3 eV and B ~ 1 kG. Amplitude Modulation (AM) of the inductively-coupled RF plasma source is produced near the fundamental-mode ion-acoustic wave frequency (~1 kHz) to study the effects of the source-wave interaction and plasma production. Density fluctuation measurements are implemented using Laser-Induced Fluorescence techniques and Langmuir probes. We apply coherent detection with respect to the wave frequency to obtain the perturbed ion distribution function associated with the waves. Measurements of fluctuating I-V traces from a Langmuir probe array and antenna current load are also used to show the effects of the interaction. We would like to acknowledge DOE DE-FG02-99ER54543 for their financial support throughout this research.

  17. Preparation of Metal-Containing Diamond-Like Carbon Films by Magnetron Sputtering and Plasma Source Ion Implantation and Their Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Flege

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Metal-containing diamond-like carbon (Me-DLC films were prepared by a combination of plasma source ion implantation (PSII and reactive magnetron sputtering. Two metals were used that differ in their tendency to form carbide and possess a different sputter yield, that is, Cu with a relatively high sputter yield and Ti with a comparatively low one. The DLC film preparation was based on the hydrocarbon gas ethylene (C2H4. The preparation technique is described and the parameters influencing the metal content within the film are discussed. Film properties that are changed by the metal addition, such as structure, electrical resistivity, and friction coefficient, were evaluated and compared with those of pure DLC films as well as with literature values for Me-DLC films prepared with a different hydrocarbon gas or containing other metals.

  18. Industrial ion sources broadbeam gridless ion source technology

    CERN Document Server

    Zhurin, Viacheslav V

    2012-01-01

    Due to the large number of uses of ion sources in academia and industry, those who utilize these sources need up to date and coherent information to keep themselves abreast of developments and options, and to chose ideal solutions for quality and cost-effectiveness. This book, written by an author with a strong industrial background and excellent standing, is the comprehensive guide users and developers of ion sources have been waiting for. Providing a thorough refresher on the physics involved, this resource systematically covers the source types, components, and the operational parameters.

  19. Energy spread of ion beams generated in multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarstedt, M.; Herz, P.; Kunkel, W.B. [and others

    1995-04-01

    For the production of future microelectronics devices, various alternate methods are currently being considered to replace the presently used method of lithography with ion beam lithography. One of these methods is the Ion Projection Lithography (IPL), which aims at the possibility of projecting sub-0.25 {mu}m patterns of a stencil mask onto a wafer substrate. In order to keep the chromatic aberrations below 25 nm, an ion source which delivers a beam with energy spread of less than 3 eV is desired. For this application, multicusp ion sources are being considered. We measure the longitudinal energy spread of the plasma ions by using a two-grid electrostatic energy analyzer. The energy spread of the extracted beam is measured by a high-voltage retarding-field energy analyzer. In order to obtain the transverse ion temperature, a parallel-plate scanner is being set up to study the beam emittance. In this paper, comparisons are made for different ion source configurations.

  20. Optimized Extraction of H– by Three-Electrode Faraday Cup System in Magnetized Sheet Plasma Ion Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Fernandez

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A locally designed rectangular parallelepiped, three-electrode Faraday cup system has been developed.Its design incorporates the capability of simultaneous extraction and deposition of the H– ions on substrates.The device functions to attain prescribed selectivity conditions of extracted ions, with controlled energies,for deposition or adsorption. It has been proven to detect the ions at filter bias voltage of 13.61 V with acurrent density of 5.3 A/m2 that is relatively higher than reported (Abate & Ramos, 2000.

  1. Advanced penning ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenkel, Thomas; Ji, Qing; Persaud, Arun; Sy, Amy V.

    2016-11-01

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus for ion generation. In one aspect, an apparatus includes an anode, a first cathode, a second cathode, and a plurality of cusp magnets. The anode has a first open end and a second open end. The first cathode is associated with the first open end of the anode. The second cathode is associated with the second open end of the anode. The anode, the first cathode, and the second cathode define a chamber. The second cathode has an open region configured for the passage of ions from the chamber. Each cusp magnet of the plurality of cusp magnets is disposed along a length of the anode.

  2. The SNS External Antenna H- Ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is an accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure that we will meet our operational commitments as well as provide for future facility upgrades with high reliability, we have developed an RF-driven, H- ion source based on a ceramic aluminum nitride (AlN) plasma chamber [1]. This source is expected to be utilized by the SNS for neutron production starting in 2009. This report details the design of the production source which features an AlN plasma chamber, 2-layer external antenna, cooled-multicusp magnet array, Cs2CrO4 cesium system and a Molybdenum plasma ignition gun. Performance of the production source both on the SNS accelerator and SNS test stand is reported. The source has also been designed to accommodate an elemental Cs system with an external reservoir which has demonstrated unanalyzed beam currents up to ~100mA (60Hz, 1ms) on the SNS ion source test stand.

  3. rf improvements for Spallation Neutron Source H-ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yoon W [ORNL; Fuja, Raymond E [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Hardek, Thomas W [ORNL; Lee, Sung-Woo [ORNL; McCarthy, Mike [ORNL; Piller, Chip [ORNL; Shin, Ki [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Welton, Robert F [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is ramping up the accelerated proton beam power to 1.4 MW and just reached 1 MW. The rf-driven multicusp ion source that originates from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has been delivering 38 mA H beam in the linac at 60 Hz, 0.9 ms. To improve availability, a rf-driven external antenna multicusp ion source with a water-cooled ceramic aluminum nitride AlN plasma chamber is developed. Computer modeling and simulations have been made to analyze and optimize the rf performance of the new ion source. Operational statistics and test runs with up to 56 mA medium energy beam transport beam current identify the 2 MHz rf system as a limiting factor in the system availability and beam production. Plasma ignition system is under development by using a separate 13 MHz system. To improve the availability of the rf power system with easier maintenance, we tested a 70 kV isolation transformer for the 80 kW, 6% duty cycle 2 MHz amplifier to power the ion source from a grounded solid-state amplifier. 2010 American Institute of Physics.

  4. Highly Stripped Ion Sources for MeV Ion Implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2009-06-30

    manufacturing industry by lowering power consumption by as much as 30 kW per ion implanter. Major problem was meeting commercialization goals did not succeed for the following reasons (which were discovered after R&D completion): record output of high charge state phosphorous would have thermally damage wafers; record high charge state of antimony requires tool (ion implanting machine in ion implantation jargon) modification, which did not make economic sense due to the small number of users. High fraction boron ion was delivered to PVI client Axcelis for retrofit and implantation testing; the source could have reduced beam preinjector power consumption by a factor of 3.5. But, since the source generated some lithium (though in miniscule amounts); last minute decision was made not to employ the source in implanters. An additional noteworthy reason for failure to commercialize is the fact that the ion implantation manufacturing industry had been in a very deep bust cycle. BNL, however, has benefited from advances in high-charge state ion generation, due to the need high charge state ions in some RHIC preinjectors. Since the invention of the transistor, the trend has been to miniaturize semiconductor devices. As semiconductors become smaller (and get miniaturized), ion energy needed for implantation decreases, since shallow implantation is desired. But, due to space charge (intra-ion repulsion) effects, forming and transporting ion beams becomes a rather difficult task. A few small manufacturers of low quality semiconductors use plasma immersion to circumvent the problem. However, in plasma immersion undesired plasma impurity ions are also implanted; hence, the quality of those semiconductors is poor. For high quality miniature semiconductor manufacturing, pure, low energy ion beams are utilized. But, low energy ion implanters are characterized by low current (much lower than desirable) and, therefore, low production rates. Consequently, increasing the current of pure low energy

  5. Speciation analysis by gas chromatography with plasma source spectrometric detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łobiński, Ryszard; Adams, Freddy C.

    State-of-the-art species-selective analysis by gas chromatography (GC) with plasma source spectrometric detection is discussed for organometal and organometalloid compounds. Various plasmas, inductively coupled plasma, microwave induced plasma, capacitatively coupled plasma, direct current plasma and alternating current plasma, are characterized and critically compared as sources of radiation for atomic emission spectrometry and sources of ions for mass spectrometry. Interfaces between gas chromatography (packed, wide-bore, capillary and multicapillary) and plasma source spectrometry are characterized. Particular emphasis is given to applications of GC with plasma source detection to real-world analytical problems, which are comprehensively reviewed. The use of plasmas for the acquisition of auxiliary molecular information such as empirical formulae and structural information is discussed. Recent developments relating to sample preparation and presentation to the hyphenated system are addressed. The most significant trends in speciation analysis are highlighted.

  6. Laser ion source with solenoid for Brookhaven National Laboratory-electron beam ion sourcea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K.; Yamamoto, T.; Sekine, M.; Okamura, M.

    2012-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) preinjector at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a new heavy ion-preinjector for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL). Laser ion source (LIS) is a primary ion source provider for the BNL-EBIS. LIS with solenoid at the plasma drift section can realize the low peak current (˜100 μA) with high charge (˜10 nC) which is the BNL-EBIS requirement. The gap between two solenoids does not cause serious plasma current decay, which helps us to make up the BNL-EBIS beamline.

  7. Negative ion production in multicusp sources (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchenko, Y. I.; Oka, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.

    2002-02-01

    Cesium seed improves multicusp negative ion (NI) Source performance. Experiments display the surface origin of NI production in the multicusp source (MS): a strong NI yield dependence on plasma grid (PG) temperature and work function, a low NI yield sensitivity to Cs density in plasma, etc. On other hand, cesium seed changes the MS plasma potential, electron density, and temperature, decreases the coextracted electron current, and produces a NI density increase in the source volume. Cesium ions can contribute to the slow positive charge in the plasma presheath and extraction region, and improve the NI extraction. The study of NI production was done by the directed deposition of a well-defined amount of cesium, by cesium recovery in the MS. The obtained data evidences the surface origin of H- yield enhancement 3-10 mg cesium deposition was enough for producing a NI yield increase due to hydrogen conversion on the cesiated PG surface. The long-term H- yield enhancement with larger cesium deposition and no change of NI yield with the PG temperature change displays the maintenance of the thick Cs+W coverage, which governs the enhanced surface H- production in the MS. The experimental data and the MS surface-plasma mechanism features will be presented and discussed.

  8. Cold Strontium Ion Source for Ion Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jarom; Durfee, Dallin

    2015-05-01

    We are working on a cold source of Sr Ions to be used in an ion interferometer. The beam will be generated from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) of Sr atoms by optically ionizing atoms leaking out a carefully prepared hole in the MOT. A single laser cooling on the resonant transition (461 nm) in Sr should be sufficient for trapping, as we've calculated that losses to the atom beam will outweigh losses to dark states. Another laser (405 nm), together with light from the trapping laser, will drive a two photon transition in the atom beam to an autoionizing state. Supported by NSF Award No. 1205736.

  9. Ion sources for high-power hadron accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Ion sources are a critical component of all particle accelerators. They create the initial beam that is accelerated by the rest of the machine. This paper will introduce the many methods of creating a beam for high-power hadron accelerators. A brief introduction to some of the relevant concepts of plasma physics and beam formation is given. The different types of ion source used in accelerators today are examined. Positive ion sources for producing H+ ions and multiply charged heavy ions are covered. The physical principles involved with negative ion production are outlined and different types of negative ion sources are described. Cutting edge ion source technology and the techniques used to develop sources for the next generation of accelerators are discussed.

  10. Characterization of carbon contamination under ion and hot atom bombardment in a tin-plasma extreme ultraviolet light source

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolgov, A.; Lopaev, D.; Lee, C. J.; Zoethout, E.; Medvedev, V.; Yakushev, O.; F. Bijkerk,

    2015-01-01

    Molecular contamination of a grazing incidence collector for extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography was experimentally studied. A carbon film was found to have grown under irradiation from a pulsed tin plasma discharge. Our studies show that the film is chemically inert and has characteristics that a

  11. Vacuum ARC ion sources - activities & developments at LBL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, I. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1996-08-01

    The author describes work at LBL on the development and application of vacuum arc ion sources. Work has been done on vacuum spark sources - to produce very high charge states, studies of high charge states in magnetic field, hybrid ion source operation on metal/gas plasma, multipole operation, work on MEVVA V for implantation applications, development of broad beam sources, and removal of particles from the output of the source.

  12. Streaming instability in negative ion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajith; Mathew, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The streaming instability in an unmagnetized negative ion plasma has been studied by computational and theoretical methods. A one dimensional electrostatic Particle In Cell Simulation and fluid dynamical description of negative ion plasma showed that, if the positive ions are having a relative streaming velocity, four different wave modes corresponding to Langmuir wave, fast and slow ion waves and ion acoustic waves are produced. Below a critical wave number, instead of two distinct fast and slow ion waves, we observed a coupled wave mode. The value of the critical wave number is strongly determined by the ion streaming velocity. The thermal velocities of electrons and ions influence the growth rate of instability.

  13. Design Studies of a Multicusp Ion Source with FEMLAB Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azadboni, Fatemeh Khodadadi; Sedaghatizade, Mahmood; Sepanloo, Kamran

    2010-02-01

    Femlab simulations have been used to arrive at the first step in the design of an ion source. The goal is to optimize Magnetic multipole plasma confinement geometries, the increased area of constant magnetic field in the central region of the plasma volume and the increase in number of electrons which have stationary orbits within this region of the field. The confinement of electrons is essential for Multicusp ion source to produce intense beams of negative hydrogen ions (H-). A higher electron temperature and density given by a better plasma confinement leads to the higher efficiencies of the ionization and the production of highly charged ions. We have performed Femlab simulations of the magnetic flux density from permanent magnet used for a Multicusp ion source, plasma confinement and trapping of fast electrons by the magnetic field.

  14. Development of laser ion source for heavy ion applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibuya, Shinji, E-mail: shibuya@aec-beam.co.jp [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan); Hattori, Toshiyuki, E-mail: thattori@nr.titech.ac.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Hayashizaki, Noriyosu, E-mail: nhayashi@nr.titech.ac.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu, E-mail: hirotsugu.kashiwagi@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki-machi, Takasaki-shi, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Maruyama, Toshiyuki, E-mail: t-maruyama@toyama-jp.com [Toyama Co., Ltd., 4-13-16 Hibarigaoka, Zama-shi, Kanagawa 252-0003 (Japan); Mochizuki, Tetsuro, E-mail: Mochizuki@toyama-jp.com [Toyama Co., Ltd., 4-13-16 Hibarigaoka, Zama-shi, Kanagawa 252-0003 (Japan); Momota, Sadao, E-mail: momota.sadao@kochi-tech.ac.jp [Kochi University of Technology, 185 Tosa-yamada-cyo, Kami-shi, Kochi 782-8502 (Japan); Nakagawa, Jun, E-mail: nakagawa@toyama-jp.com [Toyama Co., Ltd., 4-13-16 Hibarigaoka, Zama-shi, Kanagawa 252-0003 (Japan); Takeuchi, Takeshi, E-mail: aec2g@nirs.go.jp [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, 3-8-5 Konakadai, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan)

    2011-12-15

    We have been developing a high-performance laser ion source (LIS) for practical applications since 2009. Ideally, the LIS should generate a carbon beam with a peak current of 20 mA and a pulse duration of over 1 {mu}s. We selected a Nd:YAG laser with a Gaussian-coupled resonator as the laser source based on our experience of generating high-charge-state ion beams. This laser can produce fundamental pulses with a power of 650 mJ and durations of about 6 ns. The graphite target used is 10 cm high and 10 cm in diameter, as it can be irradiated with up to 10{sup 5} laser shots. The maximum extraction voltage was designed to be 50 kV. We have already finished designing the LIS and we commenced fabrication. We intend to measure the source performance by performing plasma and beam tests up to the end of March 2011.

  15. Laser ion source for high brightness heavy ion beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, M.

    2016-09-01

    A laser ion source is known as a high current high charge state heavy ion source. However we place great emphasis on the capability to realize a high brightness ion source. A laser ion source has a pinpoint small volume where materials are ionized and can achieve quite uniform low temperature ion beam. Those features may enable us to realize very small emittance beams. In 2014, a low charge state high brightness laser ion source was successfully commissioned in Brookhaven National Laboratory. Now most of all the solid based heavy ions are being provided from the laser ion source for regular operation.

  16. Recent negative ion source activity at JYFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O.; Komppula, J.; Laitinen, M.; Sajavaara, T.; Koivisto, H.; Jokinen, A.; Dehnel, M. P.

    2013-02-01

    A filament-powered multicusp ion source for production of H- has been developed for the Jyväskylä Pelletron accelerator for use in ion beam lithography and particle induced X-ray emission applications. The source can be considered conventional with the exception of the filter field being created with an electric magnet for continuous adjustability. A permanent magnet dipoleantidipole electron dump is integrated in the puller electrode. The source provides 50 μA H- beam at 10 keV energy with 0.019 mm mrad 95 % normalized rms emittance through a 2 mm aperture. Lower emittance is achievable by changing the plasma electrode insert to a smaller aperture one if application requires. A new commercial MCC30/15 cyclotron has been installed at the Jyväskylä accelerator laboratory providing 30MeV H+ and 15Mev D+ for use in nuclear physics experiments and applications. The ion source delivered with the cyclotron is a a filament-powered multicusp source capable of about 130 h continuous operation at 1 mA H- output between filament changes. The ion source is located in the cyclotron vault and therefore a significant waiting time for the vault cooldown is required before filament change is possible. This kind of operation is not acceptable as 350 h and longer experiments are expected. Therefore a project for developing a CW 13.56 MHz RF ion source has been initiated. A planar RF antenna replacing the filament back plate of the existing TRIUMF-type ion source has been used in the first tests with 240 μA of H- and 21 mA of electrons measured at 1.5 kW of RF power. Tests with higher RF power levels were prevented by electron beam induced sparking. A new plasma chamber has been built and a new extraction is being designed for the RF ion source. The extraction code IBSimu has recently gone through a major update on how smooth electrode surfaces are implemented in the Poisson solvers. This has made it possible to implement a fast multigrid solver with low memory consumption. Also

  17. Analysis of the H- ion emissive surface in the extraction region of negative ion sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameyama, N; Fukuyama, T; Wada, S; Kuppel, S; Tsumori, K; Nakano, H; Hatayama, A; Miyamoto, K; Fukano, A; Bacal, M

    2012-02-01

    To understand the plasma characteristics in the extraction region of negative H(-) sources is very important for the optimization of H(-) extraction from the sources. The profile of plasma density and electrostatic potential in the extraction region with and without extraction grid voltage are analyzed with a 2D particle in cell modeling of the NIFS-RD H(-) sources. The simulation results make clear the physical process forming a double ion plasma layer (which consists only of positive H(+) and negative H(-) ions) recently observed in the Cs-seeded experiments of the NIFS-R&D source in the vicinity of the extraction hole and the plasma grid. The results also give a useful insight into the formation mechanism of the plasma meniscus and the H(-) extraction process for such double ion plasma.

  18. LINAC4 - The Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Haugaa, Olav

    2013-01-01

    My summer student project has been split in three parts. During the first 4-5 weeks I was involved in the design of the filtermagnets for the IS02 with the simulation tool Opera. After this, I have performed data analysis of the plasma light emission in the IS01 source with the software Matlab and I took part in the development of a Fortran code for plasma simulations. In all projects, understanding plasma physics has been essential and the learning outcome related to this field has been very high.

  19. Negative ion production in multicusp sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchenko, Yu. I.; Oka, Y.; Kaneko, O.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.

    2002-04-01

    The study of negative ion production in the multicusp negative ion sources (MS) was done by the directed deposition of well-defined amount of cesium into MS, by the cesium recovery from the polluted layers in the MS and by the plasma grid masking. The data obtained evidences the surface-plasma mechanism of negative ion production in the MS. It is shown that a dynamic cesium-tungsten coverage on a plasma grid surface provides the enhanced H- production in the MS. The Cs+W coverage is produced on the hot plasma grid surface due to coadsorption of cesium and of tungsten, evaporated from filaments. The permanent flux of cesium to plasma grid coverage is produced by the thick Cs+W reservoir with a high (75%) percentage of cesium on the cold anode surface. A relatively high cesium seed with a rate of about 20 mg/1 h/30 shots operation is necessary to support the increased H- production in the regular MS. Electrode processing by an additional discharge recovers the cesium from the aged coverage and enhances the H- production without an additional cesium seed. Recovery processing permits the use of deposited cesium more efficiently and to minimize cesium addition during the MS long-term operation. An essential decrease of cesium escape to accelerator and an improvement of injector high voltage operation is produced by introducing the shutter mask at plasma grid surface. The shutter mask experiment displayed, that >60% of H- beam current was born on the hot shutter mask surface. The source operation with a high negative shutter mask biasing and an increased hydrogen pressure resulted in a 35% higher H- yield, than of regular MS.

  20. Diagnosis of energetic ions and ion composition in fusion plasmas by collective Thomson scattering of mm-waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bindslev, Henrik; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Leipold, Frank;

    2012-01-01

    In fusion plasmas, the dominant heating source will be fusion generated energetic ions slowing down in the plasma. The same ions can also drive waves and instabilities in the plasma. Their distribution in velocity and in space has major impact on plasma dynamics, and plasma dynamics in turn affects...... the energetic ion distributions. The dynamics of energetic ions is thus important to measure in order to understand fusion plasmas, and important to monitor as part of input to plasma control. The collective Thomson scattering of millimeter waves has proven to be a valuable means of diagnosing energetic ion...... distributions in fusion plasmas1,2. A beam of mm-waves with a diameter of 5–10 cm and a power of 150–600 kW is sent through the plasma, and radiation scattered from this probe beam by the microscopic fluctuations in the plasma is detected. These microscopic fluctuations are in part induced by the ion motion...

  1. ECR-Driven Multicusp Volume H- Ion Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacal, M.; Ivanov, A. A.; Rouillé, C.; Svarnas, P.; Béchu, S.; Pelletier, J.

    2005-04-01

    We studied the negative ion current extracted from the plasma created by seven elementary ECR sources, operating at 2.45 GHz, placed in the magnetic multipole chamber "Camembert III". We varied the pressure from 1 to 4 mTorr, with a maximum power of 1 kW and studied the plasma created in this system by measuring the various plasma parameters, including the density and temperature of the negative hydrogen ions. We found that the electron temperature is optimal for negative hydrogen ion production at 9.5 cm from the ECR sources. The tantalum-covered wall surface pollution reduces the extracted negative ion current and enhances the electron current. Tantalum evaporation has a positive effect. The use of a grid and of a collar in front of the plasma electrode did not lead to any enhancement of the extracted negative ion current.

  2. Ion temperature evolution in an ultracold neutral plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McQuillen, P., E-mail: patrickmcquillen@rice.edu; Strickler, T.; Langin, T.; Killian, T. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, Houston, Texas 77005 (United States)

    2015-03-15

    We study the long-time evolution of the ion temperature in an expanding ultracold neutral plasma using spatially resolved, laser-induced-fluorescence spectroscopy. Adiabatic cooling reduces the ion temperature by an order of magnitude during the plasma expansion, to temperatures as low as 0.2 K. Cooling is limited by heat exchange between ions and the much hotter electrons. We also present evidence for an additional heating mechanism and discuss possible sources. Data are described by a model of the plasma evolution, including the effects of ion-electron heat exchange. We show that for appropriate initial conditions, the degree of Coulomb coupling of ions in the plasma increases during expansion.

  3. Ion Temperature Evolution in an Ultracold Neutral Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    McQuillen, P; Langin, T; Killian, T C

    2015-01-01

    We study the long-time evolution of the ion temperature in an expanding ultracold neutral plasma using spatially resolved, laser-induced-fluorescence spectroscopy. Adiabatic cooling reduces the ion temperature by an order of magnitude during the plasma expansion, to temperatures as low as 0.2 K. Cooling is limited by heat exchange between ions and the much hotter electrons. We also present evidence for an additional heating mechanism and discuss possible sources. Data are described by a model of the plasma evolution, including the effects of ion-electron heat exchange. We show that for appropriate initial conditions, the degree of Coulomb coupling of ions in the plasma increases during expansion.

  4. Charge state distribution analysis of Al and Pb ions from the laser ion source at IMP

    CERN Document Server

    Shan, Sha; Zhang-Min, Li; Xiao-Hong, Guo; Lun-Cai, Zhou; Guo-Zhu, Cai; Liang-ting, Sun; Xue-Zhen, Zhang; Huan-Yu, Zhao; Xi-Meng, Chen; Hong-Wei, Zhao

    2013-01-01

    A prototype laser ion source that could demonstrate the possibility of producing intense pulsed high charge state ion beams has been established with a commercial Nd:YAG laser (E max = 3 J, 1064 nm, 8-10 ns) to produce laser plasma for the research of Laser Ion Source (LIS). At the laser ion source test bench, high purity (99.998 %) aluminum and lead targets have been tested for laser plasma experiment. An Electrostatic Ion Analyzer (EIA) and Electron Multiply Tube (EMT) detector were used to analyze the charge state and energy distribution of the ions produced by the laser ion source. The maximum charge states of Al12+ and Pb7+ were achieved. The results will be presented and discussed in this paper.

  5. Spectroscopic measurement of H(1S) and H sub 2 (v double prime ,J double prime ) in an H sup minus ion source plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stutzin, G.C.

    1990-08-01

    Low pressure H{sub 2} discharges have been used for some time as sources of H{sup {minus}} ions. These discharges contain many different species of particles which interact with each other and with the walls of the discharge chamber. Models exist that predict the populations of the various species for given macroscopic discharge parameters. However, many of the cross sections and wall catalyzation coefficients are unknown or somewhat uncertain. Therefore, it is of interest to measure the populations of as many of these species as possible, in order to determine the validity of the models. These models predict that H{sup {minus}} is created predominantly by the two-step process of vibrational excitation of hydrogen molecules followed by dissociative attachment of slow electrons to these vibrationally-excited hydrogen molecules. Many different collisional processes must be included in the models to explain the dependence of the various populations upon macroscopic parameters. This work presents results of spectroscopic measurements of the density and translational temperature of hydrogen atoms and of specific rotationally- and vibrationally-excited states of electronic ground-state H{sub 2}, in a discharge optimized for H{sup {minus}} production, as well as conventional measurements of the various charged species within the plasma. The spectroscopic measurements are performed directly by narrowband, single-photon absorption in the vacuum ultraviolet.

  6. Proceedings of the 10th international workshop on ECR ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, F W; Kirkpatrick, M I [eds.

    1991-01-01

    This report contains papers on the following topics: Recent Developments and Future Projects on ECR Ion Sources; Operation of the New KVI ECR Ion Source at 10 GHz; Operational Experience and Status of the INS SF-ECR Ion Source; Results of the New ECR4'' 14.5 GHz ECRIS; Preliminary Performance of the AECR; Experimental Study of the Parallel and Perpendicular Particle Losses from an ECRIS Plasma; Plasma Instability in Electron Cyclotron Resonance Heated Ion Sources; The Hyperbolic Energy Analyzer; Status of ECR Source Development; The New 10 GHz CAPRICE Source; First Operation of the Texas A M ECR Ion Source; Recent Developments of the RIKEN ECR Ion Sources; The 14 GHz CAPRICE Source; Characteristics and Potential Applications of an ORNL Microwave ECR Multicusp Plasma Ion Source; ECRIPAC: The Production and Acceleration of Multiply Charged Ions Using an ECR Plasma; ECR Source for the HHIRF Tandem Accelerator; Feasibility Studies for an ECR-Generated Plasma Stripper; Production of Ion Beams by using the ECR Plasmas Cathode; A Single Stage ECR Source for Efficient Production of Radioactive Ion Beams; The Single Staged ECR Source at the TRIUMF Isotope Separator TISOL; The Continuous Wave, Optically Pumped H{sup {minus}} Source; The H{sup +} ECR Source for the LAMPF Optically Pumped Polarized Ion Source; Present Status of the Warsaw CUSP ECR Ion Source; An ECR Source for Negative Ion Production; GYRAC-D: A Device for a 200 keV ECR Plasma Production and Accumulation; Status Report of the 14.4 GHZ ECR in Legnaro; Status of JYFL-ECRIS; Report on the Uppsala ECRIS Facility and Its Planned Use for Atomic Physics; A 10 GHz ECR Ion Source for Ion-Electron and Ion-Atom Collision Studies; and Status of the ORNL ECR Source Facility for Multicharged Ion Collision Research.

  7. Ion-Acoustic Instabilities in a Multi-Ion Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble P. Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have, in this paper, studied the stability of the ion-acoustic wave in a plasma composed of hydrogen, positively and negatively charged oxygen ions, and electrons, which approximates very well the plasma environment around a comet. Modelling each cometary component (H+, O+, and O− by a ring distribution, we find that ion-acoustic waves can be generated at frequencies comparable to the hydrogen ion plasma frequency. The dispersion relation has been solved both analytically and numerically. We find that the ratio of the ring speed (u⊥s to the thermal spread (vts modifies the dispersion characteristics of the ion-acoustic wave. The contrasting behaviour of the phase velocity of the ion-acoustic wave in the presence of O− ions for u⊥s>vts (and vice versa can be used to detect the presence of negatively charged oxygen ions and also their thermalization.

  8. Characterization of ISOLDE ion source and ion source chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Barbeau, Marion

    2014-01-01

    This report presents results of measurements made with the ISOLDE OFF-LINE mass separator [1]. The first part shows measurements of the ionization characteristics of noble gases in a VADIS ion source. The goal of the measurements was to determine the dependency of the extractable current of first and second noble gases ions with the electron energy. In the second part, investigation on in-target chemistry are presented. Here, the effect of injected sulfur hexafluoride ($SF_6$) on the release of oxygen from aluminium oxide ($Al_2 O_3$) was studied.

  9. Dependence of beam emittance on plasma electrode temperature and rf-power, and filter-field tuning with center-gapped rod-filter magnets in J-PARC rf-driven H{sup −} ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, A., E-mail: akira.ueno@j-parc.jp; Koizumi, I.; Ohkoshi, K.; Ikegami, K.; Takagi, A.; Yamazaki, S.; Oguri, H. [J-PARC Center, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken 319-1195 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    The prototype rf-driven H{sup −} ion-source with a nickel plated oxygen-free-copper (OFC) plasma chamber, which satisfies the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC) 2nd stage requirements of a H{sup −} ion beam current of 60 mA within normalized emittances of 1.5 π mm mrad both horizontally and vertically, a flat top beam duty factor of 1.25% (500 μs × 25 Hz) and a life-time of more than 50 days, was reported at the 3rd international symposium on negative ions, beams, and sources (NIBS2012). The experimental results of the J-PARC ion source with a plasma chamber made of stainless-steel, instead of nickel plated OFC used in the prototype source, are presented in this paper. By comparing these two sources, the following two important results were acquired. One was that the about 20% lower emittance was produced by the rather low plasma electrode (PE) temperature (T{sub PE}) of about 120 °C compared with the typically used T{sub PE} of about 200 °C to maximize the beam current for the plasma with the abundant cesium (Cs). The other was that by using the rod-filter magnets with a gap at each center and tuning the gap-lengths, the filter-field was optimized and the rf-power necessary to produce the J-PARC required H{sup −} ion beam current was reduced typically 18%. The lower rf-power also decreases the emittances.

  10. 21 CFR 640.60 - Source Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Source Plasma. 640.60 Section 640.60 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.60 Source Plasma. The proper name of the product shall be Source Plasma. The product is defined as the fluid portion of human blood...

  11. Development of an rf driven multicusp ion source for nuclear science experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutte, D.; Freedman, S.; Gough, R.; Lee, Y.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K. N.; Lyneis, C.; Pickard, D. S.; Williams, M. D.; Xie, Z. Q.

    1998-07-01

    A compact 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (rf) driven multicusp ion source is under development at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for radioactive ion beam applications. In this paper we describe the ion source design and the general ion source performance using H 2, Ar, Xe gas and a 90% Ar/10% CO gas mixture for generating the discharge plasma. The following ion source characteristics have been analyzed: extractable ion current, ion species distributions, ionization efficiency for nobel gases, axial energy spread and ion beam emittance measurements. This ion source can generate ion current densities of approximately 60 mA/cm 2.

  12. Laser Plasmas : Multiple charge states of titanium ions in laser produced plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Shukla; S Bandhyopadhyay; V N Rai; A V Kilpio; H C Pant

    2000-11-01

    An intense laser radiation (1012 to 1014 W/cm-2) focused on the solid target creates a hot (≥ 1 keV) and dense plasma having high ionization state. The multiple charged ions with high current densities produced during laser matter interaction have potential application in accelerators as an ion source. This paper presents generation and detection of highly stripped titanium ions (Ti) in laser produced plasma. An Nd:glass laser (KAMETRON) delivering 50 J energy ( = 0.53 m) in 2.5 ns was focused onto a titanium target to produce plasma. This plasma was allowed to drift across a space of ∼ 3 m through a diagnostic hole in the focusing mirror before ions are finally detected with the help of electrostatic ion analyzer. Maximum current density was detected for the charge states of +16 and +17 of Ti ions for laser intensity of ∼ 1014 W/cm-2.

  13. Compact microwave ion source for industrial applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong-Sub; Kim, Dae-Il; Kim, Han-Sung; Seol, Kyung-Tae; Kwon, Hyeok-Jung; Hong, In-Seok

    2012-02-01

    A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source for ion implanters has many good properties for industrial application, such as easy maintenance and long lifetime, and it should be compact for budget and space. But, it has a dc current supply for the solenoid and a rf generator for plasma generation. Usually, they are located on high voltage platform because they are electrically connected with beam extraction power supply. Using permanent magnet solenoid and multi-layer dc break, high voltage deck and high voltage isolation transformer can be eliminated, and the dose rate on targets can be controlled by pulse duty control with semiconductor high voltage switch. Because the beam optics does not change, beam transfer components, such as focusing elements and beam shutter, can be eliminated. It has shown the good performances in budget and space for industrial applications of ion beams.

  14. Multicomponent Consideration of Electron Fraction of ECR Source Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Shirkov, G D

    1999-01-01

    The development of physical model and mathematical simulation methods of electron and ion accumulation and production in the ECR ion source is presented. New equations represent electrons in the ECR plasma as a multicomponent media. In the result any kind of experimental or analytical electron distribution function can be approximated with a series of Maxwellian distributions with different temperatures and partial weights. Main positive plasma potential is introduced into consideration in addition to the negative potential dip for highly charged ion confinement. This potential regulates the loss rate of primary cold electrons from the plasma volume and completes the total picture of ECR plasma behavior. The first test of new model and code with recent experimental data of RIKEN 18 GHz ECR source has shown some new opportunities for investigators to study the ECR ion sources.

  15. Ion Source Physics and Technology (1/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This series of lectures starts with an introduction in some aspects of atomic and plasma physics as base for the ion source physics. The main part covers aspects of ion source physics, technology and operation. Several source types are presented. Some information on infrastructure and supporting services (as high voltage, cooling, microwaves etc) are given to better understand the source environment. The last part on engineering aims to show that, in the field of ion sources, many different technologies are combined in a quite small environment, which is challenging and interesting at the same time.

  16. Ion Source Physics and Technology (2/2)

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    This series of lectures starts with an introduction in some aspects of atomic and plasma physics as base for the ion source physics. The main part covers aspects of ion source physics, technology and operation. Several source types are presented. Some information on infrastructure and supporting services (as high voltage, cooling, microwaves etc) are given to better understand the source environment. The last part on engineering aims to show that, in the field of ion sources, many different technologies are combined in a quite small environment, which is challenging and interesting at the same time.

  17. Plasma sources of solar system magnetospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Blanc, Michel; Chappell, Charles; Krupp, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    This volume reviews what we know of the corresponding plasma source for each intrinsically magnetized planet. Plasma sources fall essentially in three categories: the solar wind, the ionosphere (both prevalent on Earth), and the satellite-related sources. Throughout the text, the case of each planet is described, including the characteristics, chemical composition and intensity of each source. The authors also describe how the plasma generated at the source regions is transported to populate the magnetosphere, and how it is later lost. To summarize, the dominant sources are found to be the solar wind and sputtered surface ions at Mercury, the solar wind and ionosphere at Earth (the relative importance of the two being discussed in a specific introductory chapter), Io at Jupiter and – a big surprise of the Cassini findings – Enceladus at Saturn. The situation for Uranus and Neptune, which were investigated by only one fly-by each, is still open and requires further studies and exploration. In the final cha...

  18. Physical investigation of a quad confinement plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, Aaron; Lucca Fabris, Andrea; Young, Christopher; Cappelli, Mark

    2016-10-01

    Quad magnetic confinement plasma sources are novel magnetized DC discharges suitable for applications in a broad range of fields, particularly space propulsion, plasma etching and deposition. These sources contain a square discharge channel with magnetic cusps at the four lateral walls, enhancing plasma confinement and electron residence time inside the device. The magnetic field topology is manipulated using four independent electromagnets on each edge of the channel, tuning the properties of the generated plasma. We characterize the plasma ejected from the quad confinement sources using a combination of traditional electrostatic probes and non-intrusive laser-based diagnostics. Measurements show a strong ion acceleration layer located 8 cm downstream of the exit plane, beyond the extent of the magnetic field. The ion velocity field is investigated with different magnetic configurations, demonstrating how ion trajectories may be manipulated. C.Y. acknowledges support from the DOE NSSA Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship under contract DE-FC52-08NA28752.

  19. CAS Accelerator Physics (Ion Sources) in Slovakia

    CERN Multimedia

    CAS School

    2012-01-01

    The CERN Accelerator School (CAS) and the Slovak University of Technology jointly organised a specialised course on ion sources, held at the Hotel Senec, Senec, Slovakia, from 29 May to 8 June, 2012.   Following some background lectures on accelerator physics and the fundamental processes of atomic and plasma physics, the course covered a wide range of topics related to ion sources and highlighted the latest developments in the field. Realistic case studies and topical seminars completed the programme. The school was very successful, with 69 participants representing 25 nationalities. Feedback from the participants was extremely positive, reflecting the high standard of the lectures. The case studies were performed with great enthusiasm and produced some excellent results. In addition to the academic programme, the participants were able to take part in a one-day excursion consisting of a guided tour of Bratislava and free time. A welcome event was held at the Hotel Senec, with s...

  20. Improvement of penning ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Bizyukov, A A; Kashaba, A Y; Sereda, K N

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that the loss of a longitudinal symmetry of magnetic field distribution in respect to the centre of the Penning discharge system causes change of electrostatic potential distribution in the discharge gap leads to appearance of asymmetry of current magnitude to the cathodes of the Penning cell,change of magnitude of current density and energy distribution of the ion beam extracted in a longitudinal direction.The use of an inhomogeneous magnetic field which is longitudinally asymmetrical concerning electrodes of the system allows to increase current efficiency of Penning ion sources from 0,2 to 0,55.

  1. Physical mechanisms leading to high currents of highly charged ions in laser-driven ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haseroth, Helmut [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland); Hora, Heinrich [New South Wales Univ., Kensington, NSW (Australia)]|[Regensburg Inst. of Tech. (Germany). Anwenderzentrum

    1996-12-31

    Heavy ion sources for the big accelerators, for example, the LHC, require considerably more ions per pulse during a short time than the best developed classical ion source, the electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) provides; thus an alternative ion source is needed. This can be expected from laser-produced plasmas, where dramatically new types of ion generation have been observed. Experiments with rather modest lasers have confirmed operation with one million pulses of 1 Hz, and 10{sup 11} C{sup 4+} ions per pulse reached 2 GeV/u in the Dubna synchrotron. We review here the complexities of laser-plasma interactions to underline the unique and extraordinary possibilities that the laser ion source offers. The complexities are elaborated with respect to keV and MeV ion generation, nonlinear (ponderomotive) forces, self-focusing, resonances and ``hot`` electrons, parametric instabilities, double-layer effects, and the few ps stochastic pulsation (stuttering). Recent experiments with the laser ion source have been analyzed to distinguish between the ps and ns interaction, and it was discovered that one mechanism of highly charged ion generation is the electron impact ionization (EII) mechanism, similar to the ECR, but with so much higher plasma densities that the required very large number of ions per pulse are produced. (author).

  2. High Intensity High Charge State ECR Ion Sources

    CERN Document Server

    Leitner, Daniela

    2005-01-01

    The next-generation heavy ion beam accelerators such as the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA), the Radioactive Ion Beam Factory at RIKEN, the GSI upgrade project, the LHC-upgrade, and IMP in Lanzhou require a great variety of high charge state ion beams with a magnitude higher beam intensity than currently achievable. High performance Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion sources can provide the flexibility since they can routinely produce beams from hydrogen to uranium. Over the last three decades, ECR ion sources have continued improving the available ion beam intensities by increasing the magnetic fields and ECR heating frequencies to enhance the confinement and the plasma density. With advances in superconducting magnet technology, a new generation of high field superconducting sources is now emerging, designed to meet the requirements of these next generation accelerator projects. The talk will briefly review the field of high performance ECR ion sources and the latest developments for high intens...

  3. Miniaturized cathodic arc plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, Andre; MacGill, Robert A.

    2003-04-15

    A cathodic arc plasma source has an anode formed of a plurality of spaced baffles which extend beyond the active cathode surface of the cathode. With the open baffle structure of the anode, most macroparticles pass through the gaps between the baffles and reflect off the baffles out of the plasma stream that enters a filter. Thus the anode not only has an electrical function but serves as a prefilter. The cathode has a small diameter, e.g. a rod of about 1/4 inch (6.25 mm) diameter. Thus the plasma source output is well localized, even with cathode spot movement which is limited in area, so that it effectively couples into a miniaturized filter. With a small area cathode, the material eroded from the cathode needs to be replaced to maintain plasma production. Therefore, the source includes a cathode advancement or feed mechanism coupled to cathode rod. The cathode also requires a cooling mechanism. The movable cathode rod is housed in a cooled metal shield or tube which serves as both a current conductor, thus reducing ohmic heat produced in the cathode, and as the heat sink for heat generated at or near the cathode. Cooling of the cathode housing tube is done by contact with coolant at a place remote from the active cathode surface. The source is operated in pulsed mode at relatively high currents, about 1 kA. The high arc current can also be used to operate the magnetic filter. A cathodic arc plasma deposition system using this source can be used for the deposition of ultrathin amorphous hard carbon (a-C) films for the magnetic storage industry.

  4. Efficient ion beam extraction from a flowing plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, M.; John, P.K.

    1979-10-01

    A moving plasma with directed flow velocities v larger than the ion acoustic speed c/sub s/ is used as a source of high-current ion beams in the 10--20-keV range of energies. Current densities up to 3 A/cm/sup 2/ are obtained at the plasma boundary which is an order of magnitude larger than the limiting value of Bohm current in a stationary plasma. The observed current densities were proportional to v, unlike the Bohm current densities which are proportional to ion acoustic speed. Total ion currents up to approx.100 A were extracted from the plasma through a two electrode extraction system. Simple geometric shaping of the electrodes enabled an 8-cm-diam beam to be focused to approx.7 mm.

  5. Negative chlorine ions from multicusp radio frequency ion source for heavy ion fusion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahto, S. K.; Hahto, S. T.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.; Grisham, L. R.

    2003-06-01

    Use of high mass atomic neutral beams produced from negative ions as drivers for inertial confinement fusion has been suggested recently. Best candidates for the negative ions would be bromine and iodine with sufficiently high mass and electron affinity. These materials require a heated vapor ion source. Chlorine was selected for initial testing because it has similar electron affinity to those of bromine and iodine, and is available in gaseous form. An experiment was set up by the Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group in Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to measure achievable current densities and other beam parameters by using a rf driven multicusp ion source [K. N. Leung, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1165 (1994); Q. Ji et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 73, 822 (2002)]. Current density of 45 mA/cm2 was achieved with 99.5% of the beam as atomic negative chlorine at 2.2 kW of rf power. An electron to negative ion ratio as low as 7 to 1 was observed, while the ratio of positive and negative chlorine ion currents was 1.3. This in addition to the fact that the front plate biasing had almost no effect to the negative chlorine ion and electron currents indicates that a very high percentage of the negative charge in the extraction area of the ion source was in form of Cl- ions. A comparison of positive and negative chlorine ion temperatures was conducted with the pepper pot emittance measurement technique and very similar transverse temperature values were obtained for positive and negative chlorine ions.

  6. Ion dynamics in plasma compensation scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timofeev, I.V.; Lotov, K.V. E-mail: lotov@inp.nsk.su

    2002-06-11

    In this paper the ability of a plasma to compensate beam-induced fields at the interaction point of muon colliders is discussed. Among numerous factors that limit beam and plasma parameters for which a given compensation degree can be achieved, one of the most important limitations (the motion of plasma ions) is analyzed in details. It is found that this limitation is determined by an instability of the relative motion of plasma electrons and ions. It is shown that discussed parameters of ultimate muon colliders fall outside the applicability area of plasma compensation.

  7. Ion Plasma Responses to External Electromagnetic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naus, H.W.L.

    2010-01-01

    The response of ion plasmas to external radiation fields is investigated in a quantum mechanical formalism.We focus on the total electric field within the plasma. For general bandpass signals three frequency regions can be distinguished in terms of the plasma frequency. For low frequencies, the exte

  8. Fundamental studies on the Cs dynamics under ion source conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, R., E-mail: roland.friedl@physik.uni-augsburg.de; Fantz, U. [AG Experimentelle Plasmaphysik (EPP), Institute of Physics, University of Augsburg, 86135 Augsburg (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstraße 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The performance of surface conversion based negative hydrogen ion sources is mainly determined by the caesium dynamics. Therefore, fundamental investigations in vacuum and plasma are performed at a flexible laboratory setup with ion source parameters. Studies on the influence of Cs on the plasma parameters of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} plasmas showed that n{sub e} and T{sub e} in the bulk plasma are not affected by relevant amounts of Cs and no isotopic differences could be observed. The coating of the vessel surfaces with Cs, however, leads to a considerable gettering of hydrogen atoms from the plasma volume and to the decrease of n{sub e} close to a sample surface due to the formation of negative ions.

  9. New ion source for KSTAR neutral beam injection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Seong; Jeong, Seung Ho; In, Sang-Ryul

    2012-02-01

    The neutral beam injection system (NBI-1) of the KSTAR tokamak can accommodate three ion sources; however, it is currently equipped with only one prototype ion source. In the 2010 and 2011 KSTAR campaigns, this ion source supplied deuterium neutral beam power of 0.7-1.6 MW to the KSTAR plasma with a beam energy of 70-100 keV. A new ion source will be prepared for the 2012 KSTAR campaign with a much advanced performance compared with the previous one. The newly designed ion source has a very large transparency (∼56%) without deteriorating the beam optics, which is designed to deliver a 2 MW injection power of deuterium beams at 100 keV. The plasma generator of the ion source is of a horizontally cusped bucket type, and the whole inner wall, except the cathode filaments and plasma grid side, functions as an anode. The accelerator assembly consists of four multi-circular aperture grids made of copper and four electrode flanges made of aluminum alloy. The electrodes are insulated using PEEK. The ion source will be completed and tested in 2011.

  10. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, James; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John

    2014-02-01

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  11. A hollow cathode ion source for production of primary ions for the BNL electron beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alessi, James, E-mail: alessi@bnl.gov; Beebe, Edward; Carlson, Charles; McCafferty, Daniel; Pikin, Alexander; Ritter, John [Collider-Accelerator Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    A hollow cathode ion source, based on one developed at Saclay, has been modified significantly and used for several years to produce all primary 1+ ions injected into the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) at Brookhaven. Currents of tens to hundreds of microamperes have been produced for 1+ ions of He, C, O, Ne, Si, Ar, Ti, Fe, Cu, Kr, Xe, Ta, Au, and U. The source is very simple, relying on a glow discharge using a noble gas, between anode and a solid cathode containing the desired species. Ions of both the working gas and ionized sputtered cathode material are extracted, and then the desired species is selected using an ExB filter before being transported into the EBIS trap for charge breeding. The source operates pulsed with long life and excellent stability for most species. Reliable ignition of the discharge at low gas pressure is facilitated by the use of capacitive coupling from a simple toy plasma globe. The source design, and operating experience for the various species, is presented.

  12. Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) Fusion using Helicon Injected Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miley, George; Ahern, Drew; Bowman, Jaerd

    2016-10-01

    The use of an external plasma source with the IEC has the advantage that the background pressure in the IEC chamber can be low. This then enables a deep potential well formation for ion confinement. Also unit efficiency is increase due to minimization of ion losses through charge exchange. This technique is under study experimentally for use in a plasma jet propulsion unit and as an IEC type neutron source. Current work has studied the effect of locating the IEC grids off-center in the vacuum chamber, near the plasma entrance from the Helicon. With double grids, the relative potentials employed are also key factors in device performance. Electron emitters are added for space charge neutralization in the case of plasma jet propulsion. Plasma simulations are used to supplement the experiments. Specifically, the electric field and the magnetic field effects on energetic ion trajectories are examined for varying configurations. Funding by NASA, Air Force Research Lab and NPL Associates.

  13. Nanobeam production with the multicusp ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Ji, Q.; Leung, K. N.; Zahir, N.

    2000-02-01

    A 1.8-cm-diam multicusp ion source to be used for focused ion beam applications has been tested for Xe, He, Ne, Ar, and Kr ions. The extractable ion and electron currents were measured. The extractable ion current is similar for all these ion species except for Ne+, but the extractable electron current behaves quite differently. The multicusp ion source will be used with a combined extractor-collimator electrode system that can provide a few hundred nA of Xe+ or Kr+ ions. Ion optics computation indicates that these beams can be further focused with an electrostatic column to a beam spot size of ˜100 nm.

  14. Overview of ion source characterization diagnostics in INTF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.; Sudhir, Dass; Bhuyan, M.; Soni, J.; Tyagi, H.; Joshi, J.; Yadav, A.; Rotti, C.; Parmar, Deepak; Patel, H.; Pillai, S.; Chakraborty, A.

    2016-02-01

    INdian Test Facility (INTF) is envisaged to characterize ITER diagnostic neutral beam system and to establish the functionality of its eight inductively coupled RF plasma driver based negative hydrogen ion source and its beamline components. The beam quality mainly depends on the ion source performance and therefore, its diagnostics plays an important role for its safe and optimized operation. A number of diagnostics are planned in INTF to characterize the ion source performance. Negative ions and its cesium contents in the source will be monitored by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and cavity ring down spectroscopy. Plasma near the extraction region will be studied using standard electrostatic probes. The beam divergence and negative ion stripping losses are planned to be measured using Doppler shift spectroscopy. During initial phase of ion beam characterization, carbon fiber composite based infrared imaging diagnostics will be used. Safe operation of the beam will be ensured by using standard thermocouples and electrical voltage-current measurement sensors. A novel concept, based on plasma density dependent plasma impedance measurement using RF electrical impedance matching parameters to characterize the RF driver plasma, will be tested in INTF and will be validated with OES data. The paper will discuss about the overview of the complete INTF diagnostics including its present status of procurement, experimentation, interface with mechanical systems in INTF, and integration with INTF data acquisition and control systems.

  15. Overview of ion source characterization diagnostics in INTF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, M., E-mail: mainak@iter-india.org; Sudhir, Dass; Bhuyan, M.; Tyagi, H.; Joshi, J.; Yadav, A.; Rotti, C.; Parmar, Deepak; Patel, H.; Pillai, S.; Chakraborty, A. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, A-29 GIDC, Sector-25, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382016 (India); Soni, J. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India)

    2016-02-15

    INdian Test Facility (INTF) is envisaged to characterize ITER diagnostic neutral beam system and to establish the functionality of its eight inductively coupled RF plasma driver based negative hydrogen ion source and its beamline components. The beam quality mainly depends on the ion source performance and therefore, its diagnostics plays an important role for its safe and optimized operation. A number of diagnostics are planned in INTF to characterize the ion source performance. Negative ions and its cesium contents in the source will be monitored by optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and cavity ring down spectroscopy. Plasma near the extraction region will be studied using standard electrostatic probes. The beam divergence and negative ion stripping losses are planned to be measured using Doppler shift spectroscopy. During initial phase of ion beam characterization, carbon fiber composite based infrared imaging diagnostics will be used. Safe operation of the beam will be ensured by using standard thermocouples and electrical voltage-current measurement sensors. A novel concept, based on plasma density dependent plasma impedance measurement using RF electrical impedance matching parameters to characterize the RF driver plasma, will be tested in INTF and will be validated with OES data. The paper will discuss about the overview of the complete INTF diagnostics including its present status of procurement, experimentation, interface with mechanical systems in INTF, and integration with INTF data acquisition and control systems.

  16. Chaotic ion motion in magnetosonic plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varvoglis, H.

    1984-01-01

    The motion of test ions in a magnetosonic plasma wave is considered, and the 'stochasticity threshold' of the wave's amplitude for the onset of chaotic motion is estimated. It is shown that for wave amplitudes above the stochasticity threshold, the evolution of an ion distribution can be described by a diffusion equation with a diffusion coefficient D approximately equal to 1/v. Possible applications of this process to ion acceleration in flares and ion beam thermalization are discussed.

  17. Control System of the H~- Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The control system is of primary importance to the accelerator operation. This paper presents a brief introduction to the new ion source control system. The research is to build a new H- ion source based on

  18. Spherical solitons in ion-beam plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, G.C.; Ibohanbi Singh, K. (Manipur Univ., Imphal (India). Dept. of Mathematics)

    1991-01-01

    By using the reductive perturbation technique, the soliton solution of an ion-acoustic wave radially ingoing in a spherically bounded plasma consisting of ions and ion-beams with multiple electron temperatures is obtained. In sequel to the earlier investigations, the solitary waves are studied as usual through the derivation of a modified Korteweg-de Vries (K-dV) equation in different plasma models arising due to the variation of the isothermality of the plasmas. The characteristics of the solitons are finally compared with those of the planar and the cylindrical solitons. (orig.).

  19. Ion optics of RHIC electron beam ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pikin, A.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Kponou, A.; Okamura, M.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kuznetsov, G. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk 630090 (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-15

    RHIC electron beam ion source has been commissioned to operate as a versatile ion source on RHIC injection facility supplying ion species from He to Au for Booster. Except for light gaseous elements RHIC EBIS employs ion injection from several external primary ion sources. With electrostatic optics fast switching from one ion species to another can be done on a pulse to pulse mode. The design of an ion optical structure and the results of simulations for different ion species are presented. In the choice of optical elements special attention was paid to spherical aberrations for high-current space charge dominated ion beams. The combination of a gridded lens and a magnet lens in LEBT provides flexibility of optical control for a wide range of ion species to satisfy acceptance parameters of RFQ. The results of ion transmission measurements are presented.

  20. Simulation of H- ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvas, T; Welton, R F; Tarvainen, O; Han, B X; Stockli, M P

    2012-02-01

    A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at the University of Jyväskylä, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H(-) ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H(-) currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole.

  1. Simulation of H- ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulatora)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvas, T.; Welton, R. F.; Tarvainen, O.; Han, B. X.; Stockli, M. P.

    2012-02-01

    A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at the University of Jyväskylä, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H- ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H- currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole.

  2. Ge laser-generated plasma for ion implantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrida, L.; Torrisi, L.; Czarnecka, A.; Wołowski, J.; Quarta, Ge; Calcagnile, L.; Lorusso, A.; Nassisi, V.

    Laser-generated plasma obtained by Ge ablation in vacuum was investigated with the aim to implant energetic Ge ions in light substrates (C, Si, SiO2). Different intensities of laser sources were employed for these experiments: Nd:Yag of Catania-LNS; Nd:Yag of Warsaw-IPPL; excimer laser of Lecce-INFN; iodine laser of Prague-PALS. Different experimental setups were used to generate multiple ion stream emissions, multiple ion energetic distributions, high implantation doses, thin film deposition and post-acceleration effects. `On line' measurements of ion energy were obtained with ion collectors and ion energy analyzer in time-of-flight configuration. `Off line' measurement of Ge implants were obtained with 2.25 MeV helium beam in Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Results indicated that ion implants show typical deep profiles only for substrates placed along the normal to the target surface at which the ion energy is maximum.

  3. Isotope effects in a multicusp tandem ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, W.G. (Department of Pure and Applied Physics, Queen' s University, Belfast BT7 1NN (Northern Ireland))

    1992-10-05

    Measurements of plasma parameters, including electron density, electron energy distribution function (eedf), and negative ion density, have been made in the driver and extractor regions of a multicusp tandem ion source. Here results which focus on comparing operation in hydrogen and deuterium are presented. Several isotope effects are evident. In particular, for the same operating conditions, the electron density is found to be higher in deuterium than in hydrogen while the negative ion density is consistently lower.

  4. Molecular and negative ion production by a standard electron cyclotron resonance ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, R; Biri, S; Juhász, Z; Sulik, B; Pálinkás, J

    2012-02-01

    Molecular and negative ion beams, usually produced in special ion sources, play an increasingly important role in fundamental and applied atomic physics. The ATOMKI-ECRIS is a standard ECR ion source, designed to provide highly charged ion (HCI) plasmas and beams. In the present work, H(-), O(-), OH(-), O(2)(-), C(-), C(60)(-) negative ions and H(2)(+), H(3)(+), OH(+), H(2)O(+), H(3)O(+), O(2)(+) positive molecular ions were generated in this HCI-ECRIS. Without any major modification in the source and without any commonly applied tricks (such as usage of cesium or magnetic filter), negative ion beams of several μA and positive molecular ion beams in the mA range were successfully obtained.

  5. Liquid metal ion source assembly for external ion injection into an electron string ion source (ESIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segal, M. J., E-mail: mattiti@gmail.com [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, Cape Town 7700 (South Africa); Bark, R. A.; Thomae, R. [iThemba LABS, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7130 (South Africa); Donets, E. E.; Donets, E. D.; Boytsov, A.; Ponkin, D.; Ramsdorf, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Joloit-Curie 6, 141980 Dubna, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    An assembly for a commercial Ga{sup +} liquid metal ion source in combination with an ion transportation and focusing system, a pulse high-voltage quadrupole deflector, and a beam diagnostics system has been constructed in the framework of the iThemba LABS (Cape Town, South Africa)—JINR (Dubna, Russia) collaboration. First, results on Ga{sup +} ion beam commissioning will be presented. Outlook of further experiments for measurements of charge breeding efficiency in the electron string ion source with the use of external injection of Ga{sup +} and Au{sup +} ion beams will be reported as well.

  6. Plasma ion stratification by weak planar shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simakov, Andrei N.; Keenan, Brett D.; Taitano, William T.; Chacón, Luis

    2017-09-01

    We derive fluid equations for describing steady-state planar shocks of a moderate strength ( 0 shock Mach number) propagating through an unmagnetized quasineutral collisional plasma comprising two separate ion species. In addition to the standard fluid shock quantities, such as the total mass density, mass-flow velocity, and electron and average ion temperatures, the equations describe shock stratification in terms of variations in the relative concentrations and temperatures of the two ion species along the shock propagation direction. We have solved these equations analytically for weak shocks ( 0 shocks, and they have been used to verify kinetic simulations of shocks in multi-ion plasmas.

  7. Development of a versatile multiaperture negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavenago, M. [INFN-LNL, viale dell' Universita n.2, I-35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Kulevoy, T.; Petrenko, S. [INFN-LNL, viale dell' Universita n.2, I-35020 Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); ITEP, B. Cheremushkinskaya 25, 117218 Moscow (Russian Federation); Serianni, G.; Antoni, V.; Bigi, M.; Fellin, F.; Recchia, M.; Veltri, P. [Consorzio RFX, Associazione Euratom-ENEA sulla fusione, c.so S. Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy)

    2012-02-15

    A 60 kV ion source (9 beamlets of 15 mA each of H{sup -}) and plasma generators are being developed at Consorzio RFX and INFN-LNL, for their versatility in experimental campaigns and for training. Unlike most experimental sources, the design aimed at continuous operation. Magnetic configuration can achieve a minimum |B| trap, smoothly merged with the extraction filter. Modular design allows for quick substitution and upgrading of parts such as the extraction and postacceleration grids or the electrodes in contact with plasma. Experiments with a radio frequency plasma generator and Faraday cage inside the plasma are also described.

  8. Recent progress in heavy ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, D.J.

    1977-03-01

    A summary is given of the progress during the last several years in the technology of sources of high charge state positive heavy ions and negative heavy ions. Subjects covered include recent results in ECR and EBIS source development and comparison of various source types for high charge state heavy ions.

  9. RF H-minus ion source development in China spallation neutron source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Ouyang, H.; Xiao, Y.; Liu, S.; Lü, Y.; Cao, X.; Huang, T.; Xue, K.

    2017-08-01

    China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) phase-I project currently uses a Penning surface plasma H- ion source, which has a life time of several weeks with occasional sparks between high voltage electrodes. To extend the life time of the ion source and prepare for the CSNS phase-II, we are trying to develop a RF negative hydrogen ion source with external antenna. The configuration of the source is similar to the DESY external antenna ion source and SNS ion source. However several changes are made to improve the stability and the life time. Firstly, Si3N4 ceramic with high thermal shock resistance, and high thermal conductivity is used for plasma chamber, which can endure an average power of 2000W. Secondly, the water-cooled antenna is brazed on the chamber to improve the energy efficiency. Thirdly, cesium is injected directly to the plasma chamber if necessary, to simplify the design of the converter and the extraction. Area of stainless steel exposed to plasma is minimized to reduce the sputtering and degassing. Instead Mo, Ta, and Pt coated materials are used to face the plasma, which makes the self-cleaning of the source possible.

  10. Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique

    OpenAIRE

    Ensinger, Wolfgang

    1996-01-01

    Influence of plasma density and plasma sheath dynamics on the ion implantation by plasma immersion technique / B. Rauschenbach ... - In: Nuclear instruments and methods in physics research. B. 113. 1996. S. 266-269

  11. Modeling of low pressure plasma sources for microelectronics fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Ankur; Bera, Kallol; Kenney, Jason; Likhanskii, Alexandre; Rauf, Shahid

    2017-10-01

    Chemically reactive plasmas operating in the 1 mTorr–10 Torr pressure range are widely used for thin film processing in the semiconductor industry. Plasma modeling has come to play an important role in the design of these plasma processing systems. A number of 3-dimensional (3D) fluid and hybrid plasma modeling examples are used to illustrate the role of computational investigations in design of plasma processing hardware for applications such as ion implantation, deposition, and etching. A model for a rectangular inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source is described, which is employed as an ion source for ion implantation. It is shown that gas pressure strongly influences ion flux uniformity, which is determined by the balance between the location of plasma production and diffusion. The effect of chamber dimensions on plasma uniformity in a rectangular capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) is examined using an electromagnetic plasma model. Due to high pressure and small gap in this system, plasma uniformity is found to be primarily determined by the electric field profile in the sheath/pre-sheath region. A 3D model is utilized to investigate the confinement properties of a mesh in a cylindrical CCP. Results highlight the role of hole topology and size on the formation of localized hot-spots. A 3D electromagnetic plasma model for a cylindrical ICP is used to study inductive versus capacitive power coupling and how placement of ground return wires influences it. Finally, a 3D hybrid plasma model for an electron beam generated magnetized plasma is used to understand the role of reactor geometry on plasma uniformity in the presence of E  ×  B drift.

  12. Characteristics of the Berkeley multicusp ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, K W; Leung, K N

    1979-11-01

    The performance of a cubical permanent magnet generated line-cusp ion source has been investigated for use with neutral beam injectors. This source has been operated with discharge currents greater than 500 A and ion current densities higher than 400 mA/cm2 at the extraction grid. The uniformity of the density profile across the extraction area is found to be dependent on the gas pressure. By using a fast Langmuir probe sweeping circuit, the electron temperature and the plasma density and potential have been analyzed for different discharge powers and gas pressures. The heat load on the plasma grid when it is electrically floating or connected to the negative cathode has been compared calorimetrically. The use of lanthanum hexaboride and impregnated oxide cathodes have been investigated for the purpose of long pulse operation. The phenomenon of mode flipping is found to occur quite frequently during a discharge with these magnetic-field-free cathodes. Species composition as a function of discharge power and chamber length is measured by a mass spectrometer.

  13. A Multicusp Ion Source for Radioactive Ion Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutte, D.; Freedman, S.; Gough, R.; Lee, Y.; Leitner, M.; Leung, K. N.; Lyneis, C.; Picard, D. S.; Sun, L.; Williams, M. D.; Xie, Z. Q.

    1997-05-01

    In order to produce a radioactive ion beam of (14)O+, a 10-cm-diameter, 13.56 MHz radio frequency (rf) driven multicusp ion source is now being developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. In this paper we describe the specific ion source design and the basic ion source characteristics using Ar, Xe and a 90types of measurements have been performed: extractable ion current, ion species distributions, gas efficiency, axial energy spread and ion beam emittance measurements. The source can generate ion current densities of approximately 60 mA/cm2 . In addition the design of the ion beam extraction/transport system for the actual experimental setup for the radioactive beam line will be presented.

  14. Laser ion source for isobaric heavy ion collider experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanesue, T; Kumaki, M; Ikeda, S; Okamura, M

    2016-02-01

    Heavy-ion collider experiment in isobaric system is under investigation at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. For this experiment, ion source is required to maximize the abundance of the intended isotope. The candidate of the experiment is (96)Ru + (96)Zr. Since the natural abundance of particular isotope is low and composition of isotope from ion source depends on the composites of the target, an isotope enriched material may be needed as a target. We studied the performance of the laser ion source required for the experiment for Zr ions.

  15. Dense Metal Plasma in a Solenoid for Ion Beam Neutralization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre; Kauffeldt, Marina; Oks, Efim M.; Roy, Prabir K.

    2010-10-30

    Space-charge neutralization is required to compress and focus a pulsed, high-current ion beam on a target for warm dense matter physics or heavy ion fusion experiments. We described approaches to produce dense plasma in and near the final focusing solenoid through which the ion beam travels, thereby providing an opportunity for the beam to acquire the necessary space-charge compensating electrons. Among the options are plasma injection from pulsed vacuum arc sources located outside the solenoid, and using a high current (> 4 kA) pulsed vacuum arc plasma from a ring cathode near the edge of the solenoid. The plasma distribution is characterized by photographic means, by an array of movable Langmuir probes, by a small single probe, and by evaluating Stark broadening of the Balmer H beta spectral line. In the main approach described here, the plasma is produced at several cathode spots distributed azimuthally on the ring cathode. It is shown that the plasma is essentially hollow, as determined by the structure of the magnetic field, though the plasma density exceeds 1014 cm-3 in practically all zones of the solenoid volume if the ring electrode is placed a few centimeters off the center of the solenoid. The plasma is non-uniform and fluctuating, however, since its density exceeds the ion beam density it is believed that this approach could provide a practical solution to the space charge neutralization challenge.

  16. Strong Turbulence in Alkali Halide Negative Ion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, Daniel

    1999-11-01

    Negative ion plasmas (NIPs) are charge-neutral plasmas in which the negative charge is dominated by negative ions rather than electrons. They are found in laser discharges, combustion products, semiconductor manufacturing processes, stellar atmospheres, pulsar magnetospheres, and the Earth's ionosphere, both naturally and man-made. They often display signatures of strong turbulence^1. Development of a novel, compact, unmagnetized alkali halide (MX) NIP source will be discussed, it incorporating a ohmically-heated incandescent (2500K) tantulum solenoid (3cm dia, 15 cm long) with heat shields. The solenoid ionizes the MX vapor and confines contaminant electrons, allowing a very dry (electron-free) source. Plasma densities of 10^10 cm-3 and positive to negative ion mass ratios of 1 Fusion 4, 91 (1978).

  17. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Grisham and J.W. Kwan

    2008-08-12

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1] could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  18. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy, and Related Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, L.R.; Kwan, J.W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions [1]could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons -- can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion-ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  19. Perspective on the Role of Negative Ions and Ion-Ion Plasmas in Heavy Ion Fusion Science, Magnetic Fusion Energy,and Related Fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grisham, L. R.; Kwan, J. W.

    2008-08-01

    Some years ago it was suggested that halogen negative ions could offer a feasible alternative path to positive ions as a heavy ion fusion driver beam which would not suffer degradation due to electron accumulation in the accelerator and beam transport system, and which could be converted to a neutral beam by photodetachment near the chamber entrance if desired. Since then, experiments have demonstrated that negative halogen beams can be extracted and accelerated away from the gas plume near the source with a surviving current density close to what could be achieved with a positive ion of similar mass, and with comparable optical quality. In demonstrating the feasibility of halogen negative ions as heavy ion driver beams, ion - ion plasmas, an interesting and somewhat novel state of matter, were produced. These plasmas, produced near the extractor plane of the sources, appear, based upon many lines of experimental evidence, to consist of almost equal densities of positive and negative chlorine ions, with only a small component of free electrons. Serendipitously, the need to extract beams from this plasma for driver development provides a unique diagnostic tool to investigate the plasma, since each component - positive ions, negative ions, and electrons - can be extracted and measured separately. We discuss the relevance of these observations to understanding negative ion beam extraction from electronegative plasmas such as halogens, or the more familiar hydrogen of magnetic fusion ion sources. We suggest a concept which might improve negative hydrogen extraction by the addition of a halogen. The possibility and challenges of producing ion - ion plasmas with thin targets of halogens or, perhaps, salt, is briefly addressed.

  20. ACCELERATORS Control system for the CSNS ion source test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan-Hua; Li, Gang; Ouyang, Hua-Fu

    2010-12-01

    A penning plasma surface H- ion source test stand for the CSNS has just been constructed at the IHEP. In order to achieve a safe and reliable system, nearly all devices of the ion source are designed to have the capability of both local and remote operation function. The control system consists of PLCs and EPICS real-time software tools separately serving device control and monitoring, PLC integration and OPI support. This paper summarizes the hardware and software implementation satisfying the requirements of the ion source control system.

  1. Plasma source mass spectrometry in experimental nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, R M

    1998-01-01

    The development and commercial availability of plasma ion source, specifically inductively coupled plasma, mass spectrometers (ICP-MS) have significantly extended the potential application of stable isotopes for nutritional modeling. The status of research and commercial ICP-MS instruments, and their applications and limitations for stable isotopic studies are reviewed. The consequences of mass spectroscopic resolution and measurement sensitivity obtainable with quadrupole, sector, time-of-flight, and trap instruments on stable isotope analysis are examined. Requirements for reliable isotope measurements with practical biological samples including tissues and fluids are considered. The possibility for stable isotope analysis in chemically separated compounds (speciation) also is explored. On-line compound separations by chromatography or electrophoresis, for example, have been combined instrumentally with ICP-MS. Som possibilities and requirements are described for stable isotope speciation analysis.

  2. rf-driven ion sources for industrial applications (invited) (abstract)a)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2008-02-01

    The Plasma and Ion Source Technology Group at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have been developing rf-driven ion sources for the last two decades. These sources are being used to generate both positive and negative ion beams. Some of these sources are operating in particle accelerators such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge, while others are being employed in various industrial ion beam systems. There are four areas where the rf-driven ion sources are commonly used in industry. (1) In semiconductor manufacturing, rf-driven sources have found important applications in plasma etching, ion beam implantation, and ion beam lithography. (2) In material analysis and surface modification, miniature rf-ion sources can be found in focused ion beam systems. They can provide ion beams of essentially any element in the Periodic Table. The newly developed combined rf ion-electron beam unit improves greatly the performance of the secondary ion mass spectrometry tool. (3) For neutron production, rf ion source is a major component of compact, high flux D-D, D-T, or T-T neutron generators. These neutron sources are now being employed in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) as well as in neutron imaging and material interrogation. (4) Large area rf-driven ion source will be used in an industrial design neutral beam diagnostic system for probing fusion plasmas. Such sources can be easily scaled to provide large ion beam current for future fusion reactor applications.

  3. Characterization of transmission line effects and ion-ion plasma formation in an inductively coupled plasma etch reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khater, Marwan H.

    2000-10-01

    The plasma and processing uniformity are greatly affected by the gas flow distribution and the source geometry in inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etch reactors. However, a reasonably uniform source design, along with uniform gas distribution, does not always guarantee uniform plasma, because transmission line (i.e. standing wave) effects also impact its performance. In this work, we demonstrate that the gas flow distribution can have a major impact on both the plasma density profiles and etch rate uniformity at low pressures where one might expect diffusion to make gas flow distribution less important. We also present an ICP source design with a geometry that enables better control over the field profiles azimuthal symmetry despite transmission line effects. B-dot probe measurements of the free space electromagnetic fields for the new source and a comparably dimensioned standard planar coil showed improved azimuthal symmetry for the new source. We have also developed a three-dimensional electromagnetic model for ICP sources that accounts for current variations along the source length due to standing wave effects. The electromagnetic field profiles obtained from the model showed good agreement with the measured field profiles. Langmuir probe measurements showed that the new ICP source generated high density (1011--1012 cm-3) plasmas at low pressures with significantly improved azimuthal symmetry of power deposition and plasma generation. In addition, polysilicon etch rate profiles on 150 mm wafers also showed improved azimuthal symmetry and uniformity with the new ICP source. The new source was then used to investigate chlorine discharge properties and their spatial profiles in continuous wave (CW) and pulsed operation. Time-resolved Langmuir probe measurements showed that electron-free or "ion-ion" chlorine plasma forms during the afterglow (i.e. power-off) due to electron attachment. Such electron-free plasma can provide both positive and negative ion fluxes to a

  4. Numerical model of electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mironov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Important features of the electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS operation are accurately reproduced with a numerical code. The code uses the particle-in-cell technique to model the dynamics of ions in ECRIS plasma. It is shown that a gas dynamical ion confinement mechanism is sufficient to provide the ion production rates in ECRIS close to the experimentally observed values. Extracted ion currents are calculated and compared to the experiment for a few sources. Changes in the simulated extracted ion currents are obtained with varying the gas flow into the source chamber and the microwave power. Empirical scaling laws for ECRIS design are studied and the underlying physical effects are discussed.

  5. Effect of radial plasma transport at the magnetic throat on axial ion beam formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod

    2016-08-01

    Correlation between radial plasma transport and formation of an axial ion beam has been investigated in a helicon plasma reactor implemented with a convergent-divergent magnetic nozzle. The plasma discharge is sustained under a high magnetic field mode and a low magnetic field mode for which the electron energy probability function, the plasma density, the plasma potential, and the electron temperature are measured at the magnetic throat, and the two field modes show different radial parametric behaviors. Although an axial potential drop occurs in the plasma source for both field modes, an ion beam is only observed in the high field mode while not in the low field mode. The transport of energetic ions is characterized downstream of the plasma source using the delimited ion current and nonlocal ion current. A decay of ion beam strength is also observed in the diffusion chamber.

  6. A highly reliable trigger for vacuum ARC plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardet, H.; Godechot, X.; Jarjat, F. [SODERN, Limeil-Brevannes (France)

    1996-08-01

    The authors have developed a reliable electrical trigger and its associated circuitry to fire vacuum arc plasma or ion source. They tested different embodiments of the trigger device in order to get a highly reliable one, which is able to perform more than 1.2 x 10{sup 6} shots at 60 A and 6.5 ps pulse length. The evolution of the ion current emitted has been recorded as a function of the number of shots. They have also investigated in which direction the plasma jet is emitted : axially or radially. This device can be used to fire a vacuum arc plasma or ion source by plasma injection. It has obvious advantage to be placed outside the cathode and therefore would ease maintenance of vacuum arc devices.

  7. A low-energy linear oxygen plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre; Yushkov, Georgy Yu.

    2007-01-08

    A new version of a Constricted Plasma Source is described,characterized by all metal-ceramic construction, a linear slit exit of180 mm length, and cw-operation (typically 50 kHz) at an average power of1.5 kW. The plasma source is here operated with oxygen gas, producingstreaming plasma that contains mainly positive molecular and atomic ions,and to a much lesser degree, negative ions. The maximum total ion currentobtained was about 0.5 A. The fraction of atomic ions reached more than10 percent of all ions when the flow rate was less then 10 sccm O2,corresponding to a chamber pressure of about 0.5 Pa for the selectedpumping speed. The energy distribution functions of the different ionspecies were measured with a combinedmass spectrometer and energyanalyzer. The time-averaged distribution functions were broad and rangedfrom about 30eV to 90 eV at 200 kHz and higher frequencies, while theywere only several eV broad at 50 kHz and lower frequencies, with themaximum located at about 40 eV for the grounded anode case. This maximumwas shifted down to about 7 eV when the anode was floating, indicatingthe important role of the plasma potential for the ion energy for a givensubstrate potential. The source could be scaled to greater length and maybe useful for functionalization of surfaces and plasma-assisteddeposition of compound films.

  8. Negative hydrogen ions in a linear helicon plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Cormac; Santoso, Jesse; Samuell, Cameron; Willett, Hannah; Manoharan, Rounak; O'Byrne, Sean

    2015-09-01

    Low-pressure negative ion sources are of crucial importance to the development of high-energy (>1 MeV) neutral beam injection systems for the ITER experimental tokamak device. Due to their high power coupling efficiency and high plasma densities, helicon devices may be able to reduce power requirements and potentially remove the need for caesium. In helicon sources, the RF power can be coupled efficiently into the plasma and it has been previously observed that the application of a small magnetic field can lead to a significant increase in the plasma density. In this work, we investigate negative ion dynamics in a high-power (20 kW) helicon plasma source. The negative ion fraction is measured by probe-based laser photodetachment, electron density and temperature are determined by a Langmuir probe and tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy is used to determine the density of the H(n = 2) excited atomic state and the gas temperature. The negative ion density and excited atomic hydrogen density display a maximum at a low applied magnetic field of 3 mT, while the electron temperature displays a minimum. The negative ion density can be increased by a factor of 8 with the application of the magnetic field. Spatial and temporal measurements will also be presented. The Australian Research Grants Council is acknowledged for funding.

  9. Status and operation of the Linac4 ion source prototypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Aguglia, D; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; Chaudet, E; Gil-Flores, J; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Hatayama, A; Koszar, I; Mahner, E; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, Ø; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; Nishida, K; O'Neil, M; Ohta, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Rochez, J; Sanchez Alvarez, J; Sanchez Arias, J; Scrivens, R; Shibata, T; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Yamamoto, T

    2014-02-01

    CERN's Linac4 45 kV H(-) ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma, and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2 MHz RF-plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H(-) beam of 16-22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and chopper of Linac4.

  10. Status and Operation of the Linac4 Ion Source Prototypes

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Andersson, P; Bertolo, S; Butterworth, A; Coutron, Y; Dallocchio, A; Chaudet, E; Gil-Flores, J; Guida, R; Hansen, J; Hatayama, A; Koszar, I; Mahner, E; Mastrostefano, C; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; Nishida, K; O’Neil, M; Ohta, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Rochez, J; Sanchez Alvarez, J; Sanchez Arias, J; Scrivens, R; Shibata, T; Steyaert, D; Thaus, N; Yamamoto, T

    2014-01-01

    CERN’s Linac4 45 kV H- ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2MHz RF- plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H- beam of 16-22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator and chopper of Linac4.

  11. Status and operation of the Linac4 ion source prototypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettry, J., E-mail: Jacques.lettry@cern.ch; Aguglia, D.; Andersson, P.; Bertolo, S.; Butterworth, A.; Coutron, Y.; Dallocchio, A.; Chaudet, E.; Gil-Flores, J.; Guida, R.; Hansen, J.; Koszar, I.; Mahner, E.; Mastrostefano, C.; Mathot, S.; Mattei, S.; Midttun, Ø.; Moyret, P.; Nisbet, D.; O’Neil, M. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); and others

    2014-02-15

    CERN's Linac4 45 kV H{sup −} ion sources prototypes are installed at a dedicated ion source test stand and in the Linac4 tunnel. The operation of the pulsed hydrogen injection, RF sustained plasma, and pulsed high voltages are described. The first experimental results of two prototypes relying on 2 MHz RF-plasma heating are presented. The plasma is ignited via capacitive coupling, and sustained by inductive coupling. The light emitted from the plasma is collected by viewports pointing to the plasma chamber wall in the middle of the RF solenoid and to the plasma chamber axis. Preliminary measurements of optical emission spectroscopy and photometry of the plasma have been performed. The design of a cesiated ion source is presented. The volume source has produced a 45 keV H{sup −} beam of 16–22 mA which has successfully been used for the commissioning of the Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerator, and chopper of Linac4.

  12. Compact RF ion source for industrial electrostatic ion accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Hyeok-Jung, E-mail: hjkwon@kaeri.re.kr; Park, Sae-Hoon; Kim, Dae-Il; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Gyeongsangbukdo 38180 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex is developing a single-ended electrostatic ion accelerator to irradiate gaseous ions, such as hydrogen and nitrogen, on materials for industrial applications. ELV type high voltage power supply has been selected. Because of the limited space, electrical power, and robust operation, a 200 MHz RF ion source has been developed. In this paper, the accelerator system, test stand of the ion source, and its test results are described.

  13. Multicusp sources for ion beam lithography applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.N.; Herz, P.; Kunkel, W.B.; Lee, Y.; Perkins, L.; Pickard, D.; Sarstedt, M.; Weber, M.; Williams, M.D.

    1995-05-01

    Application of the multicusp source for Ion Projection Lithography is described. It is shown that the longitudinal energy spread of the positive ions at the extraction aperture can be reduced by employing a magnetic filter. The advantages of using volume-produced H{sup {minus}} ions for ion beam lithography is also discussed.

  14. Multicusp sources for ion beam lithography applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.N.; Herz, P.; Kunkel, W.B.; Lee, Y.; Perkins, L.; Pickard, D.; Sarstedt, M.; Weber, M.; Williams, M.D. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Application of the multicusp source for ion projection lithography is described. It is shown that the longitudinal energy spread of the positive ions at the extraction aperture can be reduced by employing a magnetic filter. The advantages of using volume-produced H{sup {minus}} ions for ion beam lithography are also discussed. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Vacuum} {ital Society}

  15. Highly charged ion X-rays from Electron-Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    OpenAIRE

    Indelicato, Paul; Boucard, S.; Covita, D. S.; Gotta, D.; Gruber, A; Hirtl, A.; Fuhrmann, H.; Le Bigot, E.-O.; Schlesser, S.; dos Santos, J. M. F.; Simons, L.M.; Stingelin, L.; Trassinelli, Martino; Veloso, J.; Wasser, A.

    2006-01-01

    Radiation from the highly-charged ions contained in the plasma of Electron-Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources constitutes a very bright source of X-rays. Because the ions have a relatively low kinetic energy ($\\approx 1$~eV) transitions can be very narrow, containing only small Doppler broadening. We describe preliminary accurate measurements of two and three-electron ions with $Z=16$--18. We show how these measurement can test sensitively many-body relativistic calculations or can be used as X-...

  16. Production and ion-ion cooling of highly charged ions in electron string ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donets, D E; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B; Syresin, E M

    2009-06-01

    The scheme of an internal injection of Au atoms into the working space of the "Krion-2" electron string ion source (ESIS) was applied and tested. In this scheme Au atoms are evaporated from the thin tungsten wire surface in vicinity of the source electron string. Ion beams with charge states up to Au51+ were produced. Ion-ion cooling with use of C and O coolant ions was studied. It allowed increasing of the Au51+ ion yield by a factor of 2. Ions of Kr up to charge state 28+ were also produced in the source. Electron strings were first formed with injection electron energy up to 6 keV. Methods to increase the ESIS ion output are discussed.

  17. Ge and Ti post-ion acceleration from laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torrisi, L., E-mail: Lorenzo.Torrisi@unime.i [INFN-LNS di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Messina, Ctr. Papardo 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Giuffrida, L. [INFN-LNS di Catania, Via S. Sofia 62, 95123 Catania (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Messina, Ctr. Papardo 31, 98166 S. Agata, Messina (Italy); Rosinski, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion, 23 Hery Str. 01-497 Warsaw (Poland); Schallhorn, C. [Department of Physics, University of California, Portola Plaza 430, 90095 Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2010-09-15

    Laser ion sources (LIS) are employed with success to generate, in vacuum, Ge and Ti ion beams with high current, ion energy, charge states and directivity. Nanoseconds infrared laser pulses, with intensities of the order of 10{sup 10} W/cm{sup 2}, induce high ablation in Ge and Ti targets. Ions are produced in vacuum with energy distribution following the Coulomb-Boltzmann-shifted distribution and they are ejected mainly along the normal to the target surface. The free ion expansion process occurs in a constant-potential chamber placed at 30 kV positive voltage. An electric field of 5 kV/cm was used to accelerate the ions emitted from the plasma at INFN-LNS laser facility. Time-of-flight technique is employed to measure the mean ion energies of the post-accelerated particles. Ion charge states and energy distributions were measured through an ion energy spectrometer.

  18. Ge and Ti post-ion acceleration from laser ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, L.; Giuffrida, L.; Rosinski, M.; Schallhorn, C.

    2010-09-01

    Laser ion sources (LIS) are employed with success to generate, in vacuum, Ge and Ti ion beams with high current, ion energy, charge states and directivity. Nanoseconds infrared laser pulses, with intensities of the order of 10 10 W/cm 2, induce high ablation in Ge and Ti targets. Ions are produced in vacuum with energy distribution following the Coulomb-Boltzmann-shifted distribution and they are ejected mainly along the normal to the target surface. The free ion expansion process occurs in a constant-potential chamber placed at 30 kV positive voltage. An electric field of 5 kV/cm was used to accelerate the ions emitted from the plasma at INFN-LNS laser facility. Time-of-flight technique is employed to measure the mean ion energies of the post-accelerated particles. Ion charge states and energy distributions were measured through an ion energy spectrometer.

  19. Note: A pulsed laser ion source for linear induction accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, H., E-mail: bamboobbu@hotmail.com [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-106, Mianyang 621900 (China); School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, K.; Shen, Y.; Jiang, X.; Dong, P.; Liu, Y.; Wang, Y.; Chen, D.; Pan, H.; Wang, W.; Jiang, W.; Long, J.; Xia, L.; Shi, J.; Zhang, L.; Deng, J. [Institute of Fluid Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-106, Mianyang 621900 (China)

    2015-01-15

    We have developed a high-current laser ion source for induction accelerators. A copper target was irradiated by a frequency-quadrupled Nd:YAG laser (266 nm) with relatively low intensities of 10{sup 8} W/cm{sup 2}. The laser-produced plasma supplied a large number of Cu{sup +} ions (∼10{sup 12} ions/pulse) during several microseconds. Emission spectra of the plasma were observed and the calculated electron temperature was about 1 eV. An induction voltage adder extracted high-current ion beams over 0.5 A/cm{sup 2} from a plasma-prefilled gap. The normalized beam emittance measured by a pepper-pot method was smaller than 1 π mm mrad.

  20. Ion beam measurements at the superconducting ECR ion source SECRAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeder, Jan; Rossbach, Jon; Lang, Ralf; Maimone, Fabio; Spaedtke, Peter; Tinschert, Klaus [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung mbH, Darmstadt (Germany); Sun, Liangting; Cao, Yun; Zhao, Hongwei [Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou, GS (China)

    2009-08-15

    Measurement of the charge-state distribution, the beam profile, the beam emittance of the named ion source are presented. Furthermore computer simulations of the magnetic flux-density distribution in this source are described. (HSI)

  1. Dense Plasma Focus - From Alternative Fusion Source to Versatile High Energy Density Plasma Source for Plasma Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, R. S.

    2015-03-01

    The dense plasma focus (DPF), a coaxial plasma gun, utilizes pulsed high current electrical discharge to heat and compress the plasma to very high density and temperature with energy densities in the range of 1-10 × 1010 J/m3. The DPF device has always been in the company of several alternative magnetic fusion devices as it produces intense fusion neutrons. Several experiments conducted on many different DPF devices ranging over several order of storage energy have demonstrated that at higher storage energy the neutron production does not follow I4 scaling laws and deteriorate significantly raising concern about the device's capability and relevance for fusion energy. On the other hand, the high energy density pinch plasma in DPF device makes it a multiple radiation source of ions, electron, soft and hard x-rays, and neutrons, making it useful for several applications in many different fields such as lithography, radiography, imaging, activation analysis, radioisotopes production etc. Being a source of hot dense plasma, strong shockwave, intense energetic beams and radiation, etc, the DPF device, additionally, shows tremendous potential for applications in plasma nanoscience and plasma nanotechnology. In the present paper, the key features of plasma focus device are critically discussed to understand the novelties and opportunities that this device offers in processing and synthesis of nanophase materials using, both, the top-down and bottom-up approach. The results of recent key experimental investigations performed on (i) the processing and modification of bulk target substrates for phase change, surface reconstruction and nanostructurization, (ii) the nanostructurization of PLD grown magnetic thin films, and (iii) direct synthesis of nanostructured (nanowire, nanosheets and nanoflowers) materials using anode target material ablation, ablated plasma and background reactive gas based synthesis and purely gas phase synthesis of various different types of

  2. Three Filtered Vacuum Arc Plasma Sources Deposition & Implantation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xian-ying; ZHANG Hui-xing; LI Qiang

    2004-01-01

    A deposition & implantation system, which includes three filtered vacuum arc plasma sources, has been built. Vacuum arc discharge is used to produce high-density metal plasma; Curved magnetic filtering technique is used to transfer the plasma into out-of-sight vacuum chamber and reduce macro-particles from the vacuum arc plasma in order to drastically reduce the macro-particles contamination of the films. The up to 30 kV negative bias applied to the target can be used for ion implantation in order to improve the film adhesion; or for ion sputtering to clear the substrate surface. The 0 to 300 V negative bias can be used to adjust the ion energy which forming films. The system is designed for various thin films synthesizing, such as single-layer, compound layer, multi-layer films. It's principle, components and applications are described in the literature.

  3. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Reinard; Kester, Oliver

    2010-02-01

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not "sorcery" but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  4. Electron beam ion source and electron beam ion trap (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, Reinard [Scientific Software Service, Kapellenweg 2a, D-63571 Gelnhausen (Germany); Kester, Oliver [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan 48824 (United States)

    2010-02-15

    The electron beam ion source (EBIS) and its trap variant [electron beam ion trap (EBIT)] celebrated their 40th and 20th anniversary, respectively, at the EBIS/T Symposium 2007 in Heidelberg. These technologically challenging sources of highly charged ions have seen a broad development in many countries over the last decades. In contrast to most other ion sources the recipe of improvement was not ''sorcery'' but a clear understanding of the physical laws and obeying the technological constraints. This review will report important achievements of the past as well as promising developments in the future.

  5. Long-pulse operation of an intense negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeiri, Yasuhiko; Osakabe, Masaki; Tsumori, Katsuyoshi; Kaneko, Osamu; Oka, Yoshihide; Asano, Eiji; Kawamoto, Toshikazu; Akiyama, Ryuichi; Kuroda, Tsutomu [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    In the National Institute for Fusion Science, as the heating system for the Large Helical Device (LHD), the negative ion NBI system of 20 MW incident power has been planned, and the development of a large current, large size negative ion source has been advanced. Based on the results obtained so far, the design of the LHD-NBI system was reconsidered, and the specification of the actual negative ion source was decided as 180 KeV-40A. This time, the grounding electrode with heightened heat removal capacity was made, and the long pulse operation was attempted, therefore, its results are reported. The structure of the external magnetic filter type large negative ion source used for the long pulse experiment is explained. In order to form the negative ion beam of long pulses, it is necessary to form stable are discharge plasma for long time, and variable resistors were attached to the output side of arc power sources of respective filament systems. By adjusting the resistors, uniform are discharge was able to be caused for longer than 10 s stably. The results of the long pulse experiment are reported. The dependence of the characteristics of negative ion beam on plasma electrode temperature was small, and the change of the characteristics of negative ion beam due to beam pulse width was not observed. (K.I.)

  6. Nanobeam production with the multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Ji, Q. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Leung, K. N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Zahir, N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2000-02-01

    A 1.8-cm-diam multicusp ion source to be used for focused ion beam applications has been tested for Xe, He, Ne, Ar, and Kr ions. The extractable ion and electron currents were measured. The extractable ion current is similar for all these ion species except for Ne{sup +}, but the extractable electron current behaves quite differently. The multicusp ion source will be used with a combined extractor-collimator electrode system that can provide a few hundred nA of Xe{sup +} or Kr{sup +} ions. Ion optics computation indicates that these beams can be further focused with an electrostatic column to a beam spot size of {approx}100 nm. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  7. Cobalt alloy ion sources for focused ion beam implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muehle, R.; Doebeli, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zimmermann, P. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Cobalt alloy ion sources have been developed for silicide formation by focused ion beam implantation. Four eutectic alloys AuCo, CoGe, CoY and AuCoGe were produced by electron beam welding. The AuCo liquid alloy ion source was investigated in detail. We have measured the emission current stability, the current-voltage characteristics, and the mass spectrum as a function of the mission current. (author) 1 fig., 2 refs.

  8. Electron string ion sources for carbon ion cancer therapy accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Boytsov, A Yu; Donets, E D; Donets, E E; Katagiri, K; Noda, K; Ponkin, D O; Ramzdorf, A Yu; Salnikov, V V; Shutov, V B

    2015-01-01

    The Electron String type of Ion Sources (ESIS) was developed, constructed and tested first in the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. These ion sources can be the appropriate sources for production of pulsed C4+ and C6+ ion beams which can be used for cancer therapy accelerators. In fact the test ESIS Krion-6T already now at the solenoid magnetic field only 4.6 T provides more than 10^10 C4+ ions per pulse and about 5*10^9 C6+ ions per pulse. Such ion sources could be suitable for application at synchrotrons. It was also found, that Krion-6T can provide more than 10^11 C6+ ions per second at 100 Hz repetition rate, and the repetition rate can be increased at the same or larger ion output per second. This makes ESIS applicable at cyclotrons as well. As for production of 11C radioactive ion beams ESIS can be the most economic kind of ion source. To proof that the special cryogenic cell for pulse injection of gaseous species into electron string was successfully tested using the ESIS Krion-2M.

  9. Modelling the plasma plume of an assist source in PIAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauer, Jochen; Harhausen, Jens; Foest, Rüdiger; Loffhagen, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    Plasma ion assisted deposition (PIAD) is a technique commonly used to produce high-precision optical interference coatings. Knowledge regarding plasma properties is most often limited to dedicated scenarios without film deposition. Approaches have been made to gather information on the process plasma in situ to detect drifts which are suspected to cause limits in repeatability of resulting layer properties. Present efforts focus on radiance monitoring of the plasma plume of an Advanced Plasma Source (APSpro, Bühler) by optical emission spectroscopy to provide the basis for an advanced plasma control. In this contribution modelling results of the plume region are presented to interpret these experimental data. In the framework of the collisional radiative model used, 15 excited neutral argon states in the plasma are considered. Results of the species densities show good consistency with the measured optical emission of various argon 2 p - 1 s transitions. This work was funded by BMBF under grant 13N13213.

  10. Oscillating plasma bubbles. III. Internal electron sources and sinks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    An internal electron source has been used to neutralize ions injected from an ambient plasma into a spherical grid. The resultant plasma is termed a plasma 'bubble.' When the electron supply from the filament is reduced, the sheath inside the bubble becomes unstable. The plasma potential of the bubble oscillates near but below the ion plasma frequency. Different modes of oscillations have been observed as well as a subharmonic and multiple harmonics. The frequency increases with ion density and decreases with electron density. The peak amplitude occurs for an optimum current and the instability is quenched at large electron densities. The frequency also increases if Langmuir probes inside the bubble draw electrons. Allowing electrons from the ambient plasma to enter, the bubble changes the frequency dependence on grid voltage. It is concluded that the net space charge density in the sheath determines the oscillation frequency. It is suggested that the sheath instability is caused by ion inertia in an oscillating sheath electric field which is created by ion bunching.

  11. Cesiated hollow cathodes in the multicusp ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchenko, Yu. I.; Oka, Y.; Hamabe, M.; Kaneko, O.; Krivenko, A.; Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Osakabe, M.; Ikeda, K.; Asano, E.; Kawamoto, T.

    2002-02-01

    A cesiated hydrogen hollow cathode (CHC) was tested for plasma injection in the multicusp negative ion source (MS). The CHC arc with hydrogen feed and cesium seeding through the CHC volume was explored. One cathode unit (40 mm length, 19 mm in diameter, emission opening area 1-3 mm2) with no special cooling provided the MS discharge operation with direct current up to 30 A, and up to 60 A in the long-pulse mode. High efficiency of negative ion production in the MS discharge, driven by a CHC plasma injection was recorded.

  12. ION SOURCES FOR ENERGY EXTREMES OF ION IMPLANTATION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERSCHCOVITCH,A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; BATALIN, V.A.; KROPACHEV, G.N.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; KULEVOY, T.V.; KOLOMIETS, A.A.; PERSHIN, V.I.; PETRENKO, S.V.; RUDSKOY, I.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; BUGAEV, A.S.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; LITOVKO, I.V.; OKS, E.M.; YUSHKOV, G. YU.; MASEUNOV, E.S.; POLOZOV, S.M.; POOLE, H.J.; STOROZHENKO, P.A.; SVAROVSKI, YA.

    2007-08-26

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques, which meet the two energy extreme range needs of mega-electron-volt and 100's of electron-volt ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of Antimony and Phosphorous ions: P{sup 2+} (8.6 pmA), P{sup 3+} (1.9 pmA), and P{sup 4+} (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb{sup 3+} Sb{sup 4+}, Sb{sup 5+}, and Sb{sup 6+} respectively. For low energy ion implantation our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA of positive Decaborane ions were extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative Decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, Boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bemas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  13. Ion sources for energy extremes of ion implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, A; Johnson, B M; Batalin, V A; Kropachev, G N; Kuibeda, R P; Kulevoy, T V; Kolomiets, A A; Pershin, V I; Petrenko, S V; Rudskoy, I; Seleznev, D N; Bugaev, A S; Gushenets, V I; Litovko, I V; Oks, E M; Yushkov, G Yu; Masunov, E S; Polozov, S M; Poole, H J; Storozhenko, P A; Svarovski, A Ya

    2008-02-01

    For the past four years a joint research and development effort designed to develop steady state, intense ion sources has been in progress with the ultimate goal to develop ion sources and techniques that meet the two energy extreme range needs of meV and hundreads of eV ion implanters. This endeavor has already resulted in record steady state output currents of high charge state of antimony and phosphorus ions: P(2+) [8.6 pmA (particle milliampere)], P(3+) (1.9 pmA), and P(4+) (0.12 pmA) and 16.2, 7.6, 3.3, and 2.2 pmA of Sb(3+)Sb(4+), Sb(5+), and Sb(6+) respectively. For low energy ion implantation, our efforts involve molecular ions and a novel plasmaless/gasless deceleration method. To date, 1 emA (electrical milliampere) of positive decaborane ions was extracted at 10 keV and smaller currents of negative decaborane ions were also extracted. Additionally, boron current fraction of over 70% was extracted from a Bernas-Calutron ion source, which represents a factor of 3.5 improvement over currently employed ion sources.

  14. Production of multiply charge-state ions in a multicusp ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, M. D.; deVries, G. J.; Gough, R. A.; Leung, K. N.; Monroy, M.

    1996-03-01

    High charge state ion beams are commonly used in atomic and nuclear physics experiments. Multiply charged ions are normally produced in an ECR or in an EBIS. Multicusp generators can confine primary electrons very efficiently. Therefore, the electrical and gas efficiencies of these devices are high. Since the magnetic cusp fields are localized near the chamber wall, large volumes of uniform and high density plasmas can be obtained at low pressure, conditions favorable for the formation of multiply charged state ions. Attempts have been made at LBNL to generate multiply charged ion beams by employing a 25-cm diam by 25-cm long multicusp source. Experimental results demonstrated that charge states as high as 7+ can be obtained with argon or xenon plasmas. Multiply charged metallic ions such as tungsten and titanium have also been successfully formed in the multicusp source by evaporation and sputtering processes. In order to extend the charge state to higher values, a novel technique of injecting high energy electrons into the source plasma is proposed. If this is successful, the multicusp source will become very useful for radioactive beam accelerators, ion implantation, and nuclear physics applications.

  15. Production of multiply charge-state ions in a multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.D.; deVries, G.J.; Gough, R.A.; Leung, K.N.; Monroy, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    High charge state ion beams are commonly used in atomic and nuclear physics experiments. Multiply charged ions are normally produced in an ECR or in an EBIS. Multicusp generators can confine primary electrons very efficiently. Therefore, the electrical and gas efficiencies of these devices are high. Since the magnetic cusp fields are localized near the chamber wall, large volumes of uniform and high density plasmas can be obtained at low pressure, conditions favorable for the formation of multiply charged state ions. Attempts have been made at LBNL to generate multiply charged ion beams by employing a 25-cm diam by 25-cm long multicusp source. Experimental results demonstrated that charge states as high as 7+ can be obtained with argon or xenon plasmas. Multiply charged metallic ions such as tungsten and titanium have also been successfully formed in the multicusp source by evaporation and sputtering processes. In order to extend the charge state to higher values, a novel technique of injecting high energy electrons into the source plasma is proposed. If this is successful, the multicusp source will become very useful for radioactive beam accelerators, ion implantation, and nuclear physics applications. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  16. Multicharged iron ions produced by using induction heating vapor source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yushi; Kubo, Takashi; Muramatsu, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kiyokatsu; Kitagawa, Atsushi; Yoshida, Yoshikazu; Asaji, Toyohisa; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2008-02-01

    Multiply charged Fe ions are produced from solid pure material in an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source. We develop an evaporator by using induction heating with an induction coil which is made of bare molybdenum wire partially covered by ceramic beads in vacuum and surrounding and heating directly the pure Fe rod. Heated material has no contact with insulators, so that outgas is minimized. The evaporator is installed around the mirror end plate outside of the ECR plasma with its hole grazing the ECR zone. Helium or argon gas is usually chosen for supporting gas. The multicharged Fe ions up to Fe(13+) are extracted from the opposite side of mirror and against the evaporator, and then multicharged Fe ion beam is formed. We compare production of multicharged iron ions by using this new source with our previous methods.

  17. Analysis of the ion beam obtained from a small multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langbein, K.; Riehl, G.; Klein, H. (Insitut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Frankfurt, Robert-Mayer-Strasse 2-4, D-6000 Frankurt a. M., Federal Republic of Germany (DE)); Walther, S.R.; Keller, R. (Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The small multicusp ion source developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has been equipped with a low voltage ratio, single aperture extraction system. The influence of the potential of the plasma electrode and of a dipole filter field on the beam emittance are measured. A simple method to reduce hash is suggested. The aim of these investigations is to produce nitrogen ion beams with a high atomic ion fraction and a low emittance as required for a RFQ-accelerator, which will be built for ion implantation.

  18. Laser Ion Source Project at IGISOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, A. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Moore, I. D., E-mail: iain.moore@php.jyu.fi [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Billowes, J.; Campbell, P.; Flanagan, K. T. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Geppert, Ch. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Huikari, J.; Jokinen, A. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Kessler, T. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Marsh, B. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Penttilae, H.; Rinta-Antila, S. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland); Tordoff, B. [University of Manchester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Wendt, K. D. A. [University of Mainz, Institut fuer Physik (Germany); Aystoe, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics (Finland)

    2005-04-15

    The application of laser ionisation is being developed for the IGISOL mass separator facility in Jyvaeskylae, Finland. The conceived laser ion source will have two independent pulsed laser systems based on all solid-state lasers and dye lasers for maximal coverage of ionisation schemes throughout the periodic table. A laser ion source trap, LIST, method will be pursued for optimal selectivity.

  19. GANIL Workshop on Ion Sources; Journees Sources d'Ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leroy, Renan [Grand Accelerateur National d' Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France)

    1999-07-01

    The proceedings of the GANIL Workshop on Ion Sources held at GANIL - Caen on 18-19 March 1999 contains 13 papers aiming at improving the old source operation and developing new types of sources for nuclear research and studies of ion physics. A number of reports are devoted to applications like surface treatment, ion implantation or fusion injection. The 1+{yields}n+ transformation, charged particle transport in ECR sources, addition of cesium and xenon in negative ion sources and other basic issues in ion sources are also addressed.

  20. Mass spectrometry in a multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullan, A.A. (Applied Physical Science, University of Ulster, Coleraine (Northern Ireland)); Graham, W.G. (Physics Department, Queen' s University, Belfast, (Northern Ireland))

    1990-08-05

    Mass spectrometry has been used for the detection of positive and negative ions in a multicusp ion source operating with both hydrogen and deuterium gas. The mass spectrometer operation has been optimized and it is shown that applying ion extraction voltages can disturb the discharge. Using this technique combined with a Langmuir probe technique we are able to study the positive ionic fractions present when operating with both gases (and the negative ion densities.)

  1. Development of C⁶⁺ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T; Yamaguchi, A; Sato, K; Goto, A; Iwai, T; Nayuki, T; Nemoto, K; Kayama, T; Takeuchi, T

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C(6+) injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  2. Development of C6+ laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sako, T.; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K.; Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T.; Takeuchi, T.

    2016-02-01

    A prototype C6+ injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  3. Development of C{sup 6+} laser ion source and RFQ linac for carbon ion radiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sako, T., E-mail: takayuki1.sako@toshiba.co.jp; Yamaguchi, A.; Sato, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan); Goto, A.; Iwai, T.; Nayuki, T.; Nemoto, K.; Kayama, T. [Cancer Research Center, Yamagata University Faculty of Medicine, Yamagata 990-9585 (Japan); Takeuchi, T. [Accelerator Engineering Corporation, Chiba 263-0043 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A prototype C{sup 6+} injector using a laser ion source has been developed for a compact synchrotron dedicated to carbon ion radiotherapy. The injector consists of a laser ion source and a 4-vane radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) linac. Ion beams are extracted from plasma and directly injected into the RFQ. A solenoid guides the low-energy beams into the RFQ. The RFQ is designed to accelerate high-intensity pulsed beams. A structure of monolithic vanes and cavities is adopted to reduce its power consumption. In beam acceleration tests, a solenoidal magnetic field set between the laser ion source and the RFQ helped increase both the peak currents before and after the RFQ by a factor of 4.

  4. Peltier Refrigerators for Molecular Ion Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    2008-11-01

    Molecular ion sources have been considered for various applications. In particular, there is considerable effort to develop decaborane and octadecaborane ion sources for the semiconductor industry. Since the invention of the transistor, the trend has been to miniaturize semiconductor devices. As semiconductors become smaller (and get miniaturized), ion energy needed for implantation decreases, since shallow implantation is desired. But, due to space charge (intra-ion repulsion) effects, forming and transporting ion beams becomes a rather difficult task. These problems associated with lower energy ion beams limit implanter ion currents, thus leading to low production rates. One way to tackle the space charge problem is to use singly charged molecular ions. A crucial aspect in generating large molecular ion beam currents is ion source temperature control. Peltier coolers, which have in the past successfully utilized in BaF2 and CSI gamma ray detectors, may be ideal for this application. Clogging prevention of molecular ion sources is also a hurdle, which was overcome with special slots. Both topics are to be presented.

  5. High dielectric constant ceramics for ion-electron sources

    CERN Document Server

    Boscolo, I

    2002-01-01

    Ferroelectric disks, coated with proper electrodes, can easily produce a dense plasma cloud when excited with a high-voltage pulse. This plasma can be a source of either electrons or ions depending on the sign of the extracting field set in front of the disk. We present the behavior of the disks operating at high frequency as emitters of both electrons and ions in two experimental configurations: (a) without and (b) with two screening grids. These two screening grids are inserted when the plasma must be confined within the cathode region. The system is capable of providing ion pulses of a few hundred milliamperes, whose length can range from a hundred nanoseconds to dozen microseconds. The electron pulses of energetic electrons have typically an amplitude higher than a couple of amperes. Tests at MHz repetition rate were positive as for stable operation.

  6. Plasma Cathode Electron Sources Physics, Technology, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Oks, Efim

    2006-01-01

    This book fills the gap for a textbook describing this kind of electron beam source in a systematic and thorough manner: from physical processes of electron emission to examples of real plasma electron sources and their applications.

  7. Mirror-field confined compact plasma source using permanent magnet for plasma processings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tetsuya; Sato, Kei-ichiro; Yabuta, Yuki; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2016-12-01

    A mirror-field confined compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source using permanent magnets was developed, aiming for the realization of high-quality plasma processings where high-density reactive species are supplied to a substrate with minimizing the ion bombardment damages. The ECR position was located between a microwave transmissive window and a quartz limiter, and plasmas were transported from the ECR position to a midplane of the magnetic mirror field through the quartz limiter. Thus, a radius of core plasma could be determined by the limiter, which was 15 mm in this study. Plasma parameters were investigated by the Langmuir probe measurement. High-density plasma larger than 1011 cm-3 could be produced by applying 5.85-GHz microwave power of 10 W or more. For the outside region of the core plasma where a wafer for plasma processings will be set at, the ion current density was decreased dramatically with distance from the core plasma and became smaller by approximately two orders of magnitude that in the core plasma region for the radial position of 40 mm, suggesting the realization of reduction in ion bombardment damages.

  8. Mirror-field confined compact plasma source using permanent magnet for plasma processings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Tetsuya; Sato, Kei-Ichiro; Yabuta, Yuki; Sugawa, Shigetoshi

    2016-12-01

    A mirror-field confined compact electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma source using permanent magnets was developed, aiming for the realization of high-quality plasma processings where high-density reactive species are supplied to a substrate with minimizing the ion bombardment damages. The ECR position was located between a microwave transmissive window and a quartz limiter, and plasmas were transported from the ECR position to a midplane of the magnetic mirror field through the quartz limiter. Thus, a radius of core plasma could be determined by the limiter, which was 15 mm in this study. Plasma parameters were investigated by the Langmuir probe measurement. High-density plasma larger than 10(11) cm(-3) could be produced by applying 5.85-GHz microwave power of 10 W or more. For the outside region of the core plasma where a wafer for plasma processings will be set at, the ion current density was decreased dramatically with distance from the core plasma and became smaller by approximately two orders of magnitude that in the core plasma region for the radial position of 40 mm, suggesting the realization of reduction in ion bombardment damages.

  9. Two approaches for $H^{-}$ ion production with 245 GHz ion sources

    CERN Document Server

    Gobin, R; Bacal, M; Breton, J; Delferrière, O; Harrault, F; Ivanov, A A; Svarnas, P; Tuske, O

    2006-01-01

    Over the last few years, the accelerator community requested the development of improved negative hydrogen ion sources. For spallation sources, like SNS or ESS, pulsed high intensity H/sup negative ion beams of a few tens of milliamperes, with a duty cycle close to 10%, are required. New facilities like CERN also ask for high performance negative ion beams. Since CEA undertook an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR)-based ion source programme, a European network devoted to high performance negative ion source development has been created. In this group, several laboratories developing 2.45 GHz ECR sources follow different approaches to increase the extracted ion current. At Saclay, with a solenoidal magnetic structure based on coils, close to 3 mA H/sup negative ion beam is now extracted in pulsed mode (2 ms/100 ms). A metallic biased grid separates the plasma bulk from the H/sup negative ion production zone and significantly improves the H/sup negative extracted current. At Ecole Polytechnique, the source Came...

  10. A thin column of dense plasma for space-charge neutralization of intense ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, P. K.; Seidl, P. A.; Anders, A.; Barnard, J. J.; Bieniosek, F. M.; Friedman, A.; Gilson, E. P.; Greenway, W.; Sefkow, A. B.; Jung, J. Y.; Leitner, M.; Lidia, S. M.; Logan, B. G.; Waldron, W. L.; Welch, D. R.

    2008-11-01

    Typical ion driven warm dense matter experiment requires a plasma density of 10^14/cm^3 to meet the challenge of np>nb, where np, and nb are the number densities of plasma and beam, respectively. Plasma electrons neutralize the space charge of an ion beam to allow a small spot of about 1-mm radius. In order to provide np>nb for initial warm, dense matter experiments, four cathodic arc plasma sources have been fabricated, and the aluminum plasma is focused in a focusing solenoid (8T field). A plasma probe with 37 collectors was developed to measure the radial plasma profile inside the solenoid. Results show that the plasma forms a thin column of diameter ˜7mm along the solenoid axis. The magnetic mirror effect, plasma condensation, and the deformation of the magnetic field due to eddy currents are under investigation. Data on plasma parameters and ion beam neutralization will be presented.

  11. Numerical modeling of the SNS H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.

    2015-04-01

    Ion source rf antennas that produce H- ions can fail when plasma heating causes ablation of the insulating coating due to small structural defects such as cracks. Reducing antenna failures that reduce the operating capabilities of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator is one of the top priorities of the SNS H- Source Program at ORNL. Numerical modeling of ion sources can provide techniques for optimizing design in order to reduce antenna failures. There are a number of difficulties in developing accurate models of rf inductive plasmas. First, a large range of spatial and temporal scales must be resolved in order to accurately capture the physics of plasma motion, including the Debye length, rf frequencies on the order of tens of MHz, simulation time scales of many hundreds of rf periods, large device sizes on tens of cm, and ion motions that are thousands of times slower than electrons. This results in large simulation domains with many computational cells for solving plasma and electromagnetic equations, short time steps, and long-duration simulations. In order to reduce the computational requirements, one can develop implicit models for both fields and particle motions (e.g. divergence-preserving ADI methods), various electrostatic models, or magnetohydrodynamic models. We have performed simulations using all three of these methods and have found that fluid models have the greatest potential for giving accurate solutions while still being fast enough to perform long timescale simulations in a reasonable amount of time. We have implemented a number of fluid models with electromagnetics using the simulation tool USim and applied them to modeling the SNS H- ion source. We found that a reduced, single-fluid MHD model with an imposed magnetic field due to the rf antenna current and the confining multi-cusp field generated increased bulk plasma velocities of > 200 m/s in the region of the antenna where ablation is often observed in the SNS source. We report

  12. Characterization of electron temperature by simulating a multicusp ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Yeong Heum; Ghergherehchi, Mitra; Kim, Sang Bum; Jun, Woo Jung; Lee, Jong Chul; Mohamed Gad, Khaled Mohamed; Namgoong, Ho; Chai, Jong Seo

    2016-12-01

    Multicusp ion sources are used in cyclotrons and linear accelerators to produce high beam currents. The structure of a multicusp ion source consists of permanent magnets, filaments, and an anode body. The configuration of the array of permanent magnets, discharge voltage of the plasma, extraction bias voltage, and structure of the multicusp ion source body decide the quality of the beam. The electrons are emitted from the filament by thermionic emission. The emission current can be calculated from thermal information pertaining to the filament, and from the applied voltage and current. The electron trajectories were calculated using CST Particle Studio to optimize the plasma. The array configuration of the permanent magnets decides the magnetic field inside the ion source. The extraction bias voltage and the structure of the multicusp ion source body decide the electric field. Optimization of the electromagnetic field was performed with these factors. CST Particle Studio was used to calculate the electron temperature with a varying permanent magnet array. Four types of permanent magnet array were simulated to optimize the electron temperature. It was found that a 2-layer full line cusp field (with inverse field) produced the best electron temperature control behavior.

  13. Laser-produced plasma source system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fomenkov, Igor V.; Brandt, David C.; Bykanov, Alexander N.; Ershov, Alexander I.; Partlo, William N.; Myers, David W.; Böwering, Norbert R.; Vaschenko, Georgiy O.; Khodykin, Oleh V.; Hoffman, Jerzy R.; Vargas L., Ernesto; Simmons, Rodney D.; Chavez, Juan A.; Chrobak, Christopher P.

    2007-03-01

    This paper describes the development of laser produced plasma (LPP) technology as an EUV source for advanced scanner lithography applications in high volume manufacturing. EUV lithography is expected to succeed 193 nm immersion technology for critical layer patterning below 32 nm beginning with beta generation scanners in 2009. This paper describes the development status of subsystems most critical to the performance to meet joint scanner manufacturer requirements and semiconductor industry standards for reliability and economic targets for cost of ownership. The intensity and power of the drive laser are critical parameters in the development of extreme ultraviolet LPP lithography sources. The conversion efficiency (CE) of laser light into EUV light is strongly dependent on the intensity of the laser energy on the target material at the point of interaction. The total EUV light generated then scales directly with the total incident laser power. The progress on the development of a short pulse, high power CO2 laser for EUV applications is reported. The lifetime of the collector mirror is a critical parameter in the development of extreme ultra-violet LPP lithography sources. The deposition of target materials and contaminants, as well as sputtering of the collector multilayer coating and implantation of incident particles can reduce the reflectivity of the mirror substantially over the exposure time even though debris mitigation schemes are being employed. The results of measurements of high energy ions generated by a short-pulse CO2 laser on a laser-produced plasma EUV light source with Sn target are presented. Droplet generation is a key element of the LPP source being developed at Cymer for EUV lithography applications. The main purpose of this device is to deliver small quantities of liquid target material as droplets to the laser focus. The EUV light in such configuration is obtained as a result of creating a highly ionized plasma from the material of the

  14. The study of helicon plasma source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Ting-Ting; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Zhan-Wen; Shang, Yong; Sun, Liang-Ting; Zhang, Xue-Zhen; Zhao, Huan-Yu

    2010-02-01

    Helicon plasma source is known as efficient generator of uniform and high density plasma. A helicon plasma source was developed for investigation of plasma neutralization and plasma lens in the Institute of Modern Physics in China. In this paper, the characteristics of helicon plasma have been studied by using Langmuir four-probe and a high argon plasma density up to 3.9x10(13) cm(-3) have been achieved with the Nagoya type III antenna at the conditions of the magnetic intensity of 200 G, working gas pressure of 2.8x10(-3) Pa, and rf power of 1200 W with a frequency of 27.12 MHz. In the experiment, the important phenomena have been found: for a given magnetic induction intensity, the plasma density became greater with the increase in rf power and tended to saturation, and the helicon mode appeared at the rf power between 200 and 400 W.

  15. Hollow metal target magnetron sputter type radio frequency ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, N., E-mail: mwada@mail.doshisha.ac.jp; Kasuya, T.; Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyoto 610–0321 (Japan); Tsubouchi, N. [Kansai Institute, Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Osaka 563–8577 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    A 70 mm diameter 70 mm long compact ion source equipped with a hollow sputtering target has been designed and tested. The hollow sputtering target serves as the radio frequency (RF) plasma excitation electrode at 13.56 MHz. A stable beam of Cu{sup +} has been extracted when Ar was used as the discharge support gas. In the extracted beam, Cu{sup +} had occupied more than 85% of the total ion current. Further increase in Cu{sup +} ions in the beam is anticipated by increasing the RF power and Ar pressure.

  16. Performance characterization of rf-driven multicusp ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, L. T.; De Vries, G. J.; Herz, P. R.; Kunkel, W. B.; Leung, K. N.; Pickard, D. S.; Wengrow, A.; Williams, M. D.

    1996-03-01

    Radio-frequency (rf)-driven multicusp ion sources have been developed extensively at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for many applications, each requiring specific source designs. These uses have ranged from large ion sources for neutral-beam injectors—several tens of centimeters in size—to small sources for oil-well logging neutron tubes—a few centimeters in diameter. The advantages associated with internal antenna, rf-driven ion sources include reliability, long component life, ease of operation, and the ability to generate plasmas free of the impurities commonly found in hot-filament discharge sources. We have investigated and characterized the performance of rf-driven sources with respect to the rf operating frequency and ion source size for hydrogen ion species and current density. Furthermore, we have included in this study the aspects of proper coupling of the rf generator to the antenna through an impedance matching network. Finally, critical issues pertaining to general rf operation including beam extraction, rf shielding, and cooling of transformer cores are discussed.

  17. Performance characterization of rf-driven multicusp ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, L.T.; De Vries, G.J.; Herz, P.R.; Kunkel, W.B.; Leung, K.N.; Pickard, D.S.; Wengrow, A.; Williams, M.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    1996-03-01

    Radio-frequency (rf)-driven multicusp ion sources have been developed extensively at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for many applications, each requiring specific source designs. These uses have ranged from large ion sources for neutral-beam injectors{emdash}several tens of centimeters in size{emdash}to small sources for oil-well logging neutron tubes{emdash}a few centimeters in diameter. The advantages associated with internal antenna, rf-driven ion sources include reliability, long component life, ease of operation, and the ability to generate plasmas free of the impurities commonly found in hot-filament discharge sources. We have investigated and characterized the performance of rf-driven sources with respect to the rf operating frequency and ion source size for hydrogen ion species and current density. Furthermore, we have included in this study the aspects of proper coupling of the rf generator to the antenna through an impedance matching network. Finally, critical issues pertaining to general rf operation including beam extraction, rf shielding, and cooling of transformer cores are discussed.

  18. Negative ion production and beam extraction processes in a large ion source (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsumori, K., E-mail: tsumori@nifs.ac.jp; Nakano, H.; Goto, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Osakabe, M.; Takeiri, Y.; Kaneko, O. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Ikeda, K.; Kisaki, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Geng, S. [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Shonan Village, Hayama, Kanagawa 240-0193 (Japan); Wada, M. [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Doshisha University, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0321 (Japan); Sasaki, K.; Nishiyama, S. [Division of Quantum Science and Engineering, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan); Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Sartori, E.; Brombin, M.; Veltri, P. [Plasma Engineering Group, Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padova (Italy); Wimmer, C. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Bereich ITER-Technologie und -Diagnostik/N-NBI Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-02-15

    Recent research results on negative-ion-rich plasmas in a large negative ion source have been reviewed. Spatial density and flow distributions of negative hydrogen ions (H{sup −}) and positive hydrogen ions together with those of electrons are investigated with a 4-pin probe and a photodetachment (PD) signal of a Langmuir probe. The PD signal is converted to local H{sup −} density from signal calibration to a scanning cavity ring down PD measurement. Introduction of Cs changes the slope of plasma potential local distribution depending upon the plasma grid bias. A higher electron density H{sub 2} plasma locally shields the bias potential and behaves like a metallic free electron gas. On the other hand, the bias and extraction electric fields penetrate in a Cs-seeded electronegative plasma even when the electron density is similar. Electrons are transported by the penetrated electric fields from the driver region along and across the filter and electron deflection magnetic fields. Plasma ions exhibited a completely different response against the penetration of electric fields.

  19. Ion Sources for MedAustron

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Wallner, J; Sargsyan, E; CERN. Geneva. BE Department

    2010-01-01

    The MedAustron Ion therapy center will be constructed in Wiener Neustadt (Austria) in the vicinity of Vienna. Its accelerator complex consists of four ion sources, a linear accelerator, a synchrotron and a beam delivery system to the three medical treatment rooms and to the research irradiation room. The ion sources shall deliver beams of H31+, C4+ and light ions with utmost reliability and stability. This paper describes the features of the ion sources presently planned for the MedAustron facility; such as ion source main parameters, gas injection, temperature control and cooling systems. A dedicated beam diagnostics technique is proposed in order to characterize ECR ions beams; in the first drift region after the ion source, a fraction of the mixed beam is selected via moveable aperture. With standard beam diagnostics, we then aim to produce position-dependant observables such as ion-current density, beam energy distribution and emittance for each charge states to be compared to simulations of ECR e-heating...

  20. New Developments of a Laser Ion Source for Ion Synchrotrons

    CERN Document Server

    Kondrashev, S; Konukov, K; Sharkov, B Yu; Shumshurov, A V; Camut, O; Chamings, J A; Kugler, H; Scrivens, R; Charushin, A; Makarov, K; Satov, Yu; Smakovskii, Yu

    2004-01-01

    Laser Ion Sources (LIS) are well suited to filling synchrotron rings with highly charged ions of almost any element in a single turn injection mode. We report the first measurements of the LIS output parameters for Pb27+ ions generated by the new 100 J/1 Hz Master Oscillator - Power Amplifier CO2-laser system. A new LIS has been designed, built and tested at CERN, as an ion source for ITEP-TWAC accelerator/accumulator facility, and as a possible future source for an upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) injector chain. The use of the LIS based on 100 J/1 Hz CO2-laser together with the new ion LINAC, as injector for ITEP-TWAC project, is discussed..

  1. Novel modification of Hall-type ion source (study and the first results)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncharov, A. A., E-mail: gonchar@iop.kiev.ua; Dobrovolsky, A. N.; Najko, L. V.; Najko, I. V. [Institute of Physics, National Academy of Science, Kiev 03028 (Ukraine); Litovko, I. V. [Institute for Nuclear Research, National Academy of Science, Kiev 03650 (Ukraine)

    2016-02-15

    We present the original approach to use plasma accelerators with closed electron drift (Hall-type ion sources), which, unlike traditional accelerators with metal and dielectric walls, have open walls and can be applied for creation cost effective low maintenance plasma devices based on plasma lens configuration for production of converging towards axis accelerated ion beams. The paper describes pilot sample of Hall-type plasma accelerator, the first experimental results, one-dimensional theoretical model, and exact analytical solutions following from it.

  2. Gyrophase bunched ions in the plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Zhai, Hao; Gao, Zhuxiu; Huang, Chaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Gyrophase bunched ions were first detected in the upstream region of the Earth's bow shock in the early 1980s which is formed by the microphysical process associated with reflected solar wind ions at the bow shock. Inside the magnetosphere, the results of computer simulations demonstrated that nonlinear wave-particle interaction can also result in the gyrophase bunching of particles. However, to date direct observations barely exist regarding this issue occurred inside the magnetosphere. In this paper, we report for the first time an event of gyrophase bunched ions observed in the near-Earth plasma sheet. The nongyrotropic distributions of ions were closely accompanied with the electromagnetic waves at the oxygen cyclotron frequency. The phase of bunched ions and the phase of waves mainly have very narrow phase differences (helicity with respect to the propagation direction, which agrees with the characteristic of electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves. The observation of O+ ions composition suggests that the oxygen band waves are excited due to the enhancements of the O+ ion density. This study suggests that the gyrophase bunching is a significant nonlinear effect that exists not only in the bow shock but also in the inner magnetosphere.

  3. Identification and Manipulations of Impurity Ions in Magnesium Ion Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderegg, F.; Affolter, M.; Driscoll, C. F.; Dubin, D. H. E.

    2011-10-01

    A nominally ``pure'' Mg24+ ion plasma accumulates impurity ions over periods of hours to days by charge exchange with residual background gas (P ~10-10 Torr) in a Penning-Malmberg trap. We use thermal cyclotron spectroscopy (TCS) to identify ion impurities, and observe spatial separation at low temperatures. TCS consists of applying rf bursts at the impurity cyclotron frequencies, with LIF measurement of the majority species heating due to collisions with the heated impurites. We find that for short bursts the heating is proportional to the burst amplitude squared, and to the square of the burst duration, as predicted by a simple single particle model. We spatially separate the impurities from the Magnesium ions by two different techniques: a) With laser cooling to T ions at larger radii. We typically observe a 5-20% ``hole'' in the center of the Mg plasma where the ``dark'' lower-mass impurities reside; and we directly observe the Mg25 and Mg26 at the outer edge of the Mg24 column. b) Resonant laser pressure in the z-direction pushes on the Mg24, and the species separates longitudinally when this laser force is greater than the mass-dependent centrifugal force. Supported by NSF PHY-0903877 and DOE DE-SC0002451.

  4. An ion-optical bench for testing ion source lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, J. J.; Ells, D. R.

    1988-06-01

    An ion-optical bench has been designed and constructed to obtain experimental data on the focusing properties of ion lenses in three dimensions. The heart of the apparatus is a position-sensitive detector (PSD) that gives output signals proportional to the x and y positions of each ion impact. The position signals can be displayed on an oscilloscope screen and analyzed by a two-parameter pulse-height analyzer, thereby giving a visual picture of the ion beam cross section and intensity distribution. The PSD itself is mounted on a track and is movable during operation from a position immediately following the ion lens to 30 cm away. This enables the rapid collection of accurate data on the intensity distribution and divergence angles of ions leaving the source lens. Examples of ion lens measurements are given.

  5. Carbon Multicharged Ion Generation from Laser Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balki, Oguzhan; Elsayed-Ali, Hani E.

    2014-10-01

    Multicharged ions (MCI) have potential uses in different areas such as microelectronics and medical physics. Carbon MCI therapy for cancer treatment is considered due to its localized energy delivery to hard-to-reach tumors at a minimal damage to surrounding tissues. We use a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with 40 ns pulse width operated at 1064 nm to ablate a graphite target in ultrahigh vacuum. A time-of-flight energy analyzer followed by a Faraday cup is used to characterize the carbon MCI extracted from the laser plasma. The MCI charge state and energy distribution are obtained. With increase in the laser fluence, the ion charge states and ion energy are increased. Carbon MCI up to C+6 are observed along with carbon clusters. When an acceleration voltage is applied between the carbon target and a grounded mesh, ion extraction is observed to increase with the applied voltage. National Science Foundation.

  6. Review of polarized ion sources (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, A

    2010-02-01

    Recent progress in polarized ion sources development is reviewed. New techniques for production of polarized H(-) ion (proton), D(-) (D(+)), and (3)He(++) ion beams are discussed. Feasibility studies of these techniques are in progress at BNL and other laboratories. Polarized deuteron beams will be required for the polarization program at the Dubna Nuclotron and at the deuteron electric dipole moment experiment at BNL. Experiments with polarized (3)He(++) ion beams are a part of the experimental program at the future electron ion collider.

  7. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delferrière, O; Gobin, R; Harrault, F; Nyckees, S; Sauce, Y; Tuske, O

    2012-02-01

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  8. Advanced light ion source extraction system for a new electron cyclotron resonance ion source geometry at Saclaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delferrière, O.; Gobin, R.; Harrault, F.; Nyckees, S.; Sauce, Y.; Tuske, O.

    2012-02-01

    One of the main goal of intense light ion injector projects such as IPHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2, is to produce high current beams while keeping transverse emittance as low as possible. To prevent emittance growth induced in a dual solenoid low energy transfer line, its length has to be minimized. This can be performed with the advanced light ion source extraction system concept that we are developing: a new ECR 2.45 GHz type ion source based on the use of an additional low energy beam transport (LEBT) short length solenoid close to the extraction aperture to create the resonance in the plasma chamber. The geometry of the source has been considerably modified to allow easy maintenance of each component and to save space in front of the extraction. The source aims to be very flexible and to be able to extract high current ion beams at energy up to 100 kV. A specific experimental setup for this source is under installation on the BETSI test bench, to compare its performances with sources developed up to now in the laboratory, such as SILHI, IFMIF, or SPIRAL2 ECR sources. This original extraction source concept is presented, as well as electromagnetic simulations with OPERA-2D code. Ion beam extraction in space charge compensation regime with AXCEL, and beam dynamics simulation with SOLMAXP codes show the beam quality improvement at the end of the LEBT.

  9. Electrospray ion source with reduced analyte electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kertesz, Vilmos; Van Berkel, Gary J

    2013-07-30

    An electrospray ion (ESI) source and method capable of ionizing an analyte molecule without oxidizing or reducing the analyte of interest. The ESI source can include an emitter having a liquid conduit, a working electrode having a liquid contacting surface, a spray tip, a secondary working electrode, and a charge storage coating covering partially or fully the liquid contacting surface of the working electrode. The liquid conduit, the working electrode and the secondary working electrode can be in liquid communication. The electrospray ion source can also include a counter electrode proximate to, but separated from, said spray tip. The electrospray ion source can also include a power system for applying a voltage difference between the working electrodes and a counter-electrode. The power system can deliver pulsed voltage changes to the working electrodes during operation of said electrospray ion source to minimize the surface potential of the charge storage coating.

  10. Simulation of RF power and multi-cusp magnetic field requirement for H- ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Manish; Senecha, V. K.; Kumar, Rajnish; Ghodke, Dharmraj. V.

    2016-12-01

    A computer simulation study for multi-cusp RF based H- ion source has been carried out using energy and particle balance equation for inductively coupled uniformly dense plasma considering sheath formation near the boundary wall of the plasma chamber for RF ion source used as high current injector for 1 Gev H- Linac project for SNS applications. The average reaction rates for different reactions responsible for H- ion production and destruction have been considered in the simulation model. The RF power requirement for the caesium free H- ion source for a maximum possible H- ion beam current has been derived by evaluating the required current and RF voltage fed to the coil antenna using transformer model for Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP). Different parameters of RF based H- ion source like excited hydrogen molecular density, H- ion density, RF voltage and current of RF antenna have been calculated through simulations in the presence and absence of multicusp magnetic field to distinctly observe the effect of multicusp field. The RF power evaluated for different H- ion current values have been compared with the experimental reported results showing reasonably good agreement considering the fact that some RF power will be reflected from the plasma medium. The results obtained have helped in understanding the optimum field strength and field free regions suitable for volume emission based H- ion sources. The compact RF ion source exhibits nearly 6 times better efficiency compare to large diameter ion source.

  11. The prototype of radioactive ion source

    CERN Document Server

    Aleksandrov, A V; Kot, N K; Andrighetto, A; Stroe, L

    2001-01-01

    The design and experimental results of the RIB source prototype are presented.A source will have the container of sup 2 sup 3 sup 5 U compounds heated up to 2200-2500 degree C. Vapors of uranium fission obtained when the ion source is irradiated by the high-energy neutron flux, are then ionized and extracted from the source. In the experiments with the prototype loaded by sup 1 sup 2 C the source working temperature 2700 degree C was reached, the carbon ion current 10 nA was obtained. The total operation time of more than 100 hours with no performance degradation was demonstrated.

  12. The ITER full size plasma source device design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonato, P. [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: piergiorgio.sonato@igi.cnr.it; Agostinetti, P.; Anaclerio, G.; Antoni, V.; Barana, O.; Bigi, M.; Boldrin, M. [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Cavenago, M. [INFN, Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Dal Bello, S.; Palma, M. Dalla [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Daniele, A. [ENEA, Frascati, Roma (Italy); D' Arienzo, M.; De Lorenzi, A.; Ferro, A.; Fiorentin, A.; Gaio, E.; Gazza, E.; Grando, L.; Fantini, F.; Fellin, F. [Consorzio RFX, EURATOM-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)] (and others)

    2009-06-15

    In the framework of the strategy for the development and the procurement of the NB systems for ITER, it has been decided to build in Padova a test facility, including two experimental devices: a full size plasma source with low voltage extraction and a full size NB injector at full beam power (1 MV). These two different devices will separately address the main scientific and technological issues of the 17 MW NB injector for ITER. In particular the full size plasma source of negative ions will address the ITER performance requirements in terms of current density and uniformity, limitation of the electron/ion ratio and stationary operation at full current with high reliability and constant performances for the whole operating time up to 1 h. The required negative ion current density to be extracted from the plasma source ranges from 290 A/m{sup 2} in D{sub 2} (D{sup -}) and 350 A/m{sup 2} in H{sub 2} (H{sup -}) and these values should be obtained at the lowest admissible neutral pressure in the plasma source volume, nominally at 0.3 Pa. The electron to ion ratio should be limited to less than 1 and the admissible ion inhomogeneity extracted from the grids should be better than 10% on the whole plasma cross-section having a surface exposed to the extraction grid of the order of 1 m{sup 2}. The main design choices will be presented in the paper as well as an overview of the design of the main components and systems.

  13. An Experimental Study of Waveguide Coupled Microwave Heating with Conventional Multicusp Negative Ion Source

    CERN Document Server

    Komppula, J; Koivisto, H; Laulainen, J; Tarvainen, O

    2015-01-01

    Negative ion production with conventional multicusp plasma chambers utilizing 2.45 GHz microwave heating is demonstrated. The experimental results were obtained with the multicusp plasma chambers and extraction systems of the RFdriven RADIS ion source and the filament driven arc discharge ion source LIISA. A waveguide microwave coupling system, which is almost similar to the one used with the SILHI ion source, was used. The results demonstrate that at least one third of negative ion beam obtained with inductive RF-coupling (RADIS) or arc discharge (LIISA) can be achieved with 1 kW of 2.45 GHz microwave power in CW mode without any modification of the plasma chamber. The co-extracted electron to H^- ratio and the optimum pressure range were observed to be similar for both heating methods. The behaviour of the plasma implies that the energy transfer from the microwaves to the plasma electrons is mainly an off-resonance process.

  14. An experimental study of waveguide coupled microwave heating with conventional multicusp negative ion sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komppula, J.; Kalvas, T.; Koivisto, H.; Laulainen, J.; Tarvainen, O.

    2015-04-01

    Negative ion production with conventional multicusp plasma chambers utilizing 2.45 GHz microwave heating is demonstrated. The experimental results were obtained with the multicusp plasma chambers and extraction systems of the RF-driven RADIS ion source and the filament driven arc discharge ion source LIISA. A waveguide microwave coupling system, which is almost similar to the one used with the SILHI ion source, was used. The results demonstrate that at least one third of negative ion beam obtained with inductive RF-coupling (RADIS) or arc discharge (LIISA) can be achieved with 1 kW of 2.45 GHz microwave power in CW mode without any modification of the plasma chamber. The co-extracted electron to H- ratio and the optimum pressure range were observed to be similar for both heating methods. The behaviour of the plasma implies that the energy transfer from the microwaves to the plasma electrons is mainly an off-resonance process.

  15. Large-Area Permanent-Magnet ECR Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John E.

    2007-01-01

    A 40-cm-diameter plasma device has been developed as a source of ions for material-processing and ion-thruster applications. Like the device described in the immediately preceding article, this device utilizes electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) excited by microwave power in a magnetic field to generate a plasma in an electrodeless (noncontact) manner and without need for an electrically insulating, microwave-transmissive window at the source. Hence, this device offers the same advantages of electrodeless, windowless design - low contamination and long operational life. The device generates a uniform, high-density plasma capable of sustaining uniform ion-current densities at its exit plane while operating at low pressure [magnetic field in this device is generated by a permanent-magnet circuit that is optimized to generate resonance surfaces. The microwave power is injected on the centerline of the device. The resulting discharge plasma jumps into a "high mode" when the input power rises above 150 W. This mode is associated with elevated plasma density and high uniformity. The large area and uniformity of the plasma and the low operating pressure are well suited for such material-processing applications as etching and deposition on large silicon wafers. The high exit-plane ion-current density makes it possible to attain a high rate of etching or deposition. The plasma potential is <3 V low enough that there is little likelihood of sputtering, which, in plasma processing, is undesired because it is associated with erosion and contamination. The electron temperature is low and does not vary appreciably with power.

  16. Comparison of different antenna designs in the spallation neutron source negative hydrogen ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veitzer, Seth A.; Kundrapu, Madhusudhan; Stoltz, Peter H.; Beckwith, Kristian R. C.

    2017-08-01

    Internal antenna negative hydrogen ion sources can fail when plasma heating causes ablation of the insulating coating due to small structural defects such as cracks. During this process, plasma ions impacting the surfaces of rf antennas causes heating of the coating, which can melt or ablate, thus exposing conducting surfaces to the plasma. Reducing antenna failures that reduce the operating capabilities of the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) accelerator has been one of the top priorities of the SNS H-Source Program at ORNL. We have been utilizing numerical modeling of internal antenna negative hydrogen ion sources in order help optimize antenna designs in order to reduce antenna failures. We have implemented a number of fluid models with electromagnetics using the simulation tool USim and applied them to modeling the SNS internal antenna negative ion source. We report here on results comparing two different antenna designs. The baseline design, as is currently in use in the SNS source, and a wide-leg design, that has been tested, and may replace the baseline design if it can reduce antenna failures while still maintaining source performance. The wide-leg antenna is designed to move the antenna supports out of the high-density plasma regions, in order to decrease the possible negative effects of ion bombardment. We model the plasma evolution using a single-fluid MHD model with an imposed magnetic field due to the rf antenna current and the confining multi-cusp field for both the baseline and wide-leg antenna configurations. We find that the maximum plasma velocity near the antenna surfaces is reduced by nearly 50% in the wide-leg configuration, and that overall the bulk plasma velocity is reduced for this configuration. In addition, although we measure a small increase in the maximum plasma flux on the antenna surface for the wide-leg design, we see a broad-based reduction of plasma flux on the antenna in the regions where the antenna is mostly exposed to the

  17. Plasma ion composition measurements for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E. C.; Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Lipatov, A. S.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Paschalidis, N. P.; Coplan, M. A.; Cassidy, T. A.; Richardson, J. D.; Fegley, B.; Andre, N.

    2013-11-01

    Jupiter magnetospheric interactions and surface composition, both important to subsurface ocean detection for the Galilean icy moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, can be measured using plasma ion mass spectrometry on either an orbiting spacecraft or one designed for multiple flybys of these moons. Detection of emergent oceanic materials at the Europa surface is more likely than at Ganymede and Callisto. A key challenge is to resolve potential intrinsic Europan materials from the space weathering patina of iogenic species implanted onto the sensible surface by magnetospheric interactions. Species-resolved measurements of pickup ion currents are also critical to extraction of oceanic induced magnetic fields from magnetospheric interaction background dominated by these currents. In general the chemical astrobiological potential of Europa should be determined through the combination of surface, ionospheric, and pickup ion composition measurements. The requisite Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) for these measurements would need to work in the high radiation environment of Jupiter's magnetosphere between the orbits of Europa and Ganymede, and beyond. A 3D hybrid model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is also needed to construct a global model of the electric and magnetic fields, and the plasma environment, around Europa. Europa's ionosphere is probably usually dominated by hot pickup ions with 100-1000 eV temperatures, excursions to a "classical" cold ionosphere likely being infrequent. A field aligned ionospheric wind driven by the electron polarization electric field should arise and be measurable.

  18. A Modified MeVVA Ion Source for a Malmberg-Penning Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, David K.; Peterson, Bryan G.; Hart, Grant W.

    2006-10-01

    We have designed a new type of plasma gun ion source for a Malmberg-Penning trap based on Metal Vapor Vacuum Arc (MeVVA) ion source designs. Our primary intent with this MeVVA-type source is to create a confinable beryllium-7 (7Be) plasma. The radioactivity of 7Be requires us to replace the sample inside the ion source on a regular basis. Our design makes it possible to easily remove the cathode of the ion source from an ultra-high vacuum trap and exchange 7Be samples while only needing to repressurize a small chamber rather than the entire trap. This design has an added benefit of being capable of generating plasmas from a wide variety of metals by simply exchanging the source target in the removable cathode. Because of this wide compatibility, we will be able to use our trap for studying any number of different plasmas, including other radioactive types.

  19. Second harmonic plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for second harmonic plasma emission by the weak turbulence (or random phase) processes L + L + or - S to T, proceeding in two three-wave steps, L + or - S to L prime and L + L prime to T, where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and electromagnetic waves, respectively, is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes, and constraints on the characteristics of the source plasma, are derived. Limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation and the levels of the L prime and S waves are determined. Expressions for the growth rates and path-integrated wave temperatures are derived for simple models of the wave spectra and source plasma.

  20. Design study of electron cyclotron resonance-ion plasma accelerator for heavy ion cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, T., E-mail: ttinoue@juntendo.ac.jp; Sugimoto, S.; Sasai, K. [Graduate School of Medicine, Juntendo University, Tokyo 113–8421 (Japan); Hattori, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263–0024 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    Electron Cyclotron Resonance-Ion Plasma Accelerator (ECR-IPAC) device, which theoretically can accelerate multiple charged ions to several hundred MeV with short acceleration length, has been proposed. The acceleration mechanism is based on the combination of two physical principles, plasma electron ion adiabatic ejection (PLEIADE) and Gyromagnetic Autoresonance (GYRAC). In this study, we have designed the proof of principle machine ECR-IPAC device and simulated the electromagnetic field distribution generating in the resonance cavity. ECR-IPAC device consisted of three parts, ECR ion source section, GYRAC section, and PLEIADE section. ECR ion source section and PLEIADE section were designed using several multi-turn solenoid coils and sextupole magnets, and GYRAC section was designed using 10 turns coil. The structure of ECR-IPAC device was the cylindrical shape, and the total length was 1024 mm and the maximum diameter was 580 mm. The magnetic field distribution, which maintains the stable acceleration of plasma, was generated on the acceleration center axis throughout three sections. In addition, the electric field for efficient acceleration of electrons was generated in the resonance cavity by supplying microwave of 2.45 GHz.

  1. First experiments with the negative ion source NIO1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavenago, M., E-mail: cavenago@lnl.infn.it; Fagotti, E.; Minarello, A.; Poggi, M.; Sattin, M. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL), v.le dell’Università 2, I-35020 Legnaro PD (Italy); Serianni, G.; Agostinetti, P.; Antoni, V.; Baltador, C.; Barbisan, M.; Baseggio, L.; Bigi, M.; Cervaro, V.; Degli Agostini, F.; Laterza, B.; Maniero, M.; Pasqualotto, R.; Ravarotto, D.; Recchia, M.; Sartori, E. [Consorzio RFX, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); and others

    2016-02-15

    Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs), which need to be strongly optimized in the perspective of DEMO reactor, request a thorough understanding of the negative ion source used and of the multi-beamlet optics. A relatively compact radio frequency (rf) ion source, named NIO1 (Negative Ion Optimization 1), with 9 beam apertures for a total H{sup −} current of 130 mA, 60 kV acceleration voltage, was installed at Consorzio RFX, including a high voltage deck and an X-ray shield, to provide a test bench for source optimizations for activities in support to the ITER NBI test facility. NIO1 status and plasma experiments both with air and with hydrogen as filling gas are described. Transition from a weak plasma to an inductively coupled plasma is clearly evident for the former gas and may be triggered by rising the rf power (over 0.5 kW) at low pressure (equal or below 2 Pa). Transition in hydrogen plasma requires more rf power (over 1.5 kW)

  2. High current ion source development at Frankfurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volk, K.; Klein, H.; Lakatos, A.; Maaser, A.; Weber, M. [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Angewandte Physik

    1995-11-01

    The development of high current positive and negative ion sources is an essential issue for the next generation of high current linear accelerators. Especially, the design of the European Spallation Source facility (ESS) and the International Fusion Material Irradiation Test Facility (IFMIF) have increased the significance of high brightness hydrogen and deuterium sources. As an example, for the ESS facility, two H{sup -}-sources each delivering a 70 mA H{sup -}-beam in 1.45 ms pulses at a repetition rate of 50 Hz are necessary. A low emittance is another important prerequisite. The source must operate, while meeting the performance requirements, with a constancy and reliability over an acceptable period of time. The present paper summarizes the progress achieved in ion sources development of intense, single charge, positive and negative ion beams. (author) 16 figs., 7 refs.

  3. Optimization of negative ion current in a compact microwave driven upper hybrid resonance multicusp plasma sourcea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, D.; Bhattacharjee, S.; Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Chakraborty, A.

    2012-02-01

    Performance of a microwave driven upper hybrid resonance multicusp plasma source as a volume negative ion source is reported. Microwaves are directly launched into the plasma chamber predominantly in the TE11 mode. The source is operated at different discharge conditions to obtain the optimized negative H- ion current which is ˜33 μA (0.26 mA/cm2). Particle balance equations are solved to estimate the negative ion density, which is compared with the experimental results. Future prospects of the source are discussed.

  4. Estimate of cusp loss width in multicusp negative ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, T.; Ogasawara, M.; Hatayama, A.

    1998-02-01

    Expression of cusp loss width derived by Bosch and Merlino is applied to JAERI's Kamaboko source. The width is related to the ambipolar diffusion coefficient across the cusp magnetic field. Electron-ion collision is found 1.2-7.4 times larger as compared with electron-neutral collision. Averaged cusp magnetic field in the diffusion coefficient is taken as a parameter in the simulation code for Kamaboko source. When the averaged magnetic field is 48 G, simulation results agree well with JAERI's experiment in a wide range of pressure and arc power variation. The value of 48 G is reasonable from the consideration of confining the equation of ion source plasma. The obtained width is about 10 times the value evaluated by two times ion Larmor radius on the surface of cusp magnet.

  5. Effect of electrode materials on a negative ion production in a cesium seeded negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, Takashi; Morishita, Takutoshi; Kashiwagi, Mieko; Hanada, Masaya; Iga, Takashi; Inoue, Takashi; Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Imai, Tsuyoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Wada, Motoi [Doshisha Univ., Kyoto (Japan)

    2003-03-01

    Effects of plasma grid materials on the negative ion production efficiency in a cesium seeded ion source have been experimentally studied. Grid materials of Au, Ag, Cu, Ni, and Mo were examined. A 2.45 GHz microwave ion source was utilized in the experiment to avoid contamination of tungsten from filament cathode. Relations between the negative ion currents and work functions of the grid were measured for these materials. Influence of the contamination by tungsten on the grid was also investigated. If was clarified that the negative ion production efficiency was determined only by the work function of the grid. The efficiency did not depend on the material itself. The lowest work function of 1.42 eV was obtained for Au grid with Cs, and a high H{sup -} production efficiency of 20.7 mA/kW was measured. This efficiency is about 1.3 times larger than that of Cs/Mo and Cs/Cu. Further improvement of the production efficiency was observed by covering the plasma grid with tungsten and cesium simultaneously. Such co-deposition of W and Cs on the plasma grid produced the negative ion production efficiency of 1.7 times higher than that from the tungsten grid simply covered with Cs. (author)

  6. Fundamental plasma emission involving ion sound waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairns, Iver H.

    1987-01-01

    The theory for fundamental plasma emission by the three-wave processes L + or - S to T (where L, S and T denote Langmuir, ion sound and transverse waves, respectively) is developed. Kinematic constraints on the characteristics and growth lengths of waves participating in the wave processes are identified. In addition the rates, path-integrated wave temperatures, and limits on the brightness temperature of the radiation are derived.

  7. Saturn Plasma Sources and Associated Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanc, M.; Andrews, D. J.; Coates, A. J.; Hamilton, D. C.; Jackman, C. M.; Jia, X.; Kotova, A.; Morooka, M.; Smith, H. T.; Westlake, J. H.

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews the different sources of plasma for Saturn's magnetosphere, as they are known essentially from the scientific results of the Cassini-Huygens mission to Saturn and Titan. At low and medium energies, the main plasma source is the H2O cloud produced by the "geyser" activity of the small satellite Enceladus. Impact ionization of this cloud occurs to produce on the order of 100 kg/s of fresh plasma, a source which dominates all the other ones: Titan (which produces much less plasma than anticipated before the Cassini mission), the rings, the solar wind (a poorly known source due to the lack of quantitative knowledge of the degree of coupling between the solar wind and Saturn's magnetosphere), and the ionosphere. At higher energies, energetic particles are produced by energy diffusion and acceleration of lower energy plasma produced by the interchange instabilities induced by the rapid rotation of Saturn, and possibly, for the highest energy range, by contributions from the CRAND process acting inside Saturn's magnetosphere. Discussion of the transport and acceleration processes acting on these plasma sources shows the importance of rotation-induced radial transport and energization of the plasma, and also shows how much the unexpected planetary modulation of essentially all plasma parameters of Saturn's magnetosphere remains an unexplained mystery.

  8. A negative ion source test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, S.; Dehnel, M.; Potkins, D.; Theroux, J.; Hollinger, C.; Martin, J.; Philpott, C.; Stewart, T.; Jackle, P.; Williams, P.; Brown, S.; Jones, T.; Coad, B.; Withington, S.

    2016-02-01

    Progress is being made in the development of an Ion Source Test Facility (ISTF) by D-Pace Inc. in collaboration with Buckley Systems Ltd. in Auckland, NZ. The first phase of the ISTF is to be commissioned in October 2015 with the second phase being commissioned in March 2016. The facility will primarily be used for the development and the commercialization of ion sources. It will also be used to characterize and further develop various D-Pace Inc. beam diagnostic devices.

  9. A negative ion source test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melanson, S.; Dehnel, M., E-mail: morgan@d-pace.com; Potkins, D.; Theroux, J.; Hollinger, C.; Martin, J.; Stewart, T.; Jackle, P.; Withington, S. [D-Pace, Inc., P.O. Box 201, Nelson, British Columbia V1L 5P9 (Canada); Philpott, C.; Williams, P.; Brown, S.; Jones, T.; Coad, B. [Buckley Systems Ltd., 6 Bowden Road, Mount Wellington, Auckland 1060 (New Zealand)

    2016-02-15

    Progress is being made in the development of an Ion Source Test Facility (ISTF) by D-Pace Inc. in collaboration with Buckley Systems Ltd. in Auckland, NZ. The first phase of the ISTF is to be commissioned in October 2015 with the second phase being commissioned in March 2016. The facility will primarily be used for the development and the commercialization of ion sources. It will also be used to characterize and further develop various D-Pace Inc. beam diagnostic devices.

  10. A review of vacuum ARC ion source research at ANSTO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, P.J.; Noorman, J.T.; Watt, G.C. [ANSTO, Menai (Australia)

    1996-08-01

    The authors talk briefly describes the history and current status of vacuum arc ion source research at the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). In addition, the author makes some mention of the important role of previous Vacuum Arc Ion Source Workshops in fostering the development of this research field internationally. During the period 1986 - 89, a type of plasma centrifuge known as a vacuum arc centrifuge was developed at ANSTO as part of a research project on stable isotope separation. In this device, a high current vacuum arc discharge was used to produce a metal plasma which was subsequently rotated in an axial magnetic field. The high rotational speeds (10{sup 5} - 10{sup 6} rad sec{sup {minus}1}) achievable with this method produce centrifugal separation of ions with different mass:charge ratios such as isotopic species. The first portent of things to come occurred in 1985 when Dr. Ian Brown visited ANSTO`s Lucas Heights Research Laboratories and presented a talk on the metal vapour vacuum arc (MEVVA) ion source which had only recently been invented by Brown and co-workers, J. Galvin and R. MacGill, at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. For those of us involved in vacuum arc centrifuge research, this was an exciting development primarily because the metal vapour vacuum arc plasma source was common to both devices. Thus, a type of arc, which had since the 1930`s been extensively investigated as a means of switching high current loads, had found wider application as a useful plasma source.

  11. Pickup ions at Dione and Enceladus: Cassini Plasma Spectrometer simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Ed C.; Johnson, R. E.; Jurac, S.; Richardson, J. D.; McGrath, M.; Crary, F.; Young, D. T.; Nordholt, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    Voyager images of the icy satellites of Saturn, Dione and Enceladus, suggest that they may have been geologically active and are not only composed of ice. Recent observations by the Hubble Space Telescope have shown the presence of ozone at both Dione and Rhea, which also implies the presence of molecular oxygen at these bodies. Observations of Ariel, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto indicate the presence of CO2, so its presence on the Saturnian satellites is also expected. The Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) will provide the capability to determine the global composition of these bodies by measuring the pickup ions produced by the ionization of their sputter-produced atmospheres. We will present a model of these atmospheres and associated pickup ions and demonstrate CAPS ability to distinguish the freshly produced picked up ions from the ambient plasma. Such ions are expected to form a ring distribution that will have a uniquely different energy-angle dependence than the ambient plasma ions. In the case of Dione we expect the potential for a moderate strength interaction for which both Voyager 1 and Pioneer 11 spacecraft measured ion cyclotron waves centered on the Dione L shell and near the equatorial plane. SKR radio emissions also displayed emissions occurring at the orbital period of Dione which could indicate some intrinsic activity due to Dione. So again, something interesting may be going on at Dione. Since Enceladus, or material in orbit near Enceladus, may be the source of the E-ring, some surprises may be encountered during its close encounter with the Cassini spacecraft. In the case of Dione we will show that a wake pass at 500 km altitude is more than an order of magnitude better than an upstream pass at 500 km altitude. Pickup ion detection for minor ion species such as NH3+ is possible for 500 km altitude wake pass but not for ≈500 km altitude upstream pass at closest approach. For navigation reasons a 100 km pass is not allowed. Therefore it is

  12. Polarized ion source operation at IUCF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derenchuk, V. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States); Belov, A. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 117312, Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Brown, R.; Collins, J.; Sowinski, J.; Stephenson, E.; Wedekind, M. [Indiana University Cyclotron Facility, Bloomington, Indiana 47408 (United States)

    1995-07-15

    The IUCF high intensity polarized ion source (HIPIOS), based on the source in operation at TUNL (1) and employing cold ({similar_to}30 K) atomic beam technology with an electron cyclotron resonance ionizer, has recently delivered beam to the first users. The results of the development work required to make the source operate reliably, with reasonable beam parameters are described. Methods used to measure the polarization and possible sources of unpolarized background are also discussed.

  13. Molecular ion sources for low energy semiconductor ion implantation (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hershcovitch, A., E-mail: hershcovitch@bnl.gov [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Gushenets, V. I.; Bugaev, A. S.; Oks, E. M.; Vizir, A.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); Seleznev, D. N.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kozlov, A.; Kropachev, G. N.; Kuibeda, R. P.; Minaev, S. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Dugin, S.; Alexeyenko, O. [State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation State Research Institute for Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Smaller semiconductors require shallow, low energy ion implantation, resulting space charge effects, which reduced beam currents and production rates. To increase production rates, molecular ions are used. Boron and phosphorous (or arsenic) implantation is needed for P-type and N-type semiconductors, respectively. Carborane, which is the most stable molecular boron ion leaves unacceptable carbon residue on extraction grids. A self-cleaning carborane acid compound (C{sub 4}H{sub 12}B{sub 10}O{sub 4}) was synthesized and utilized in the ITEP Bernas ion source resulting in large carborane ion output, without carbon residue. Pure gaseous processes are desired to enable rapid switch among ion species. Molecular phosphorous was generated by introducing phosphine in dissociators via 4PH{sub 3} = P{sub 4} + 6H{sub 2}; generated molecular phosphorous in a pure gaseous process was then injected into the HCEI Calutron-Bernas ion source, from which P{sub 4}{sup +} ion beams were extracted. Results from devices and some additional concepts are described.

  14. Langmuir probe studies on a RF ion source for NBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNeely, P. E-mail: p.mcneely@ipp.mpg.de; Heineman, B.; Kraus, W.; Riedl, R.; Speth, E.; Vollmer, O

    2001-10-01

    IPP Garching has been developing a RF ion source for H{sup -} production. In order to improve the data quality a new scanning probe system with passive RF compensation has been installed on the Type VI ion source on the BATMAN test stand. Using this probe, measurements have been carried out to study changes to the plasma parameters (electron density, electron temperature, and plasma potential) due to variation in the source operating conditions. The data were collected at a source pressure of 0.5 Pa and with 60{+-}5 kW applied RF power. Presented are some of the results of these measurements, focusing on the effect of: argon seeding, addition of Cs to the source, and the newly added Faraday screen. The electron density behaves in a fashion that agrees with the theory of ambipolar diffusion. Typically there is little change to the average electron energy observed regardless of which effect is considered. The plasma potential shows the most significant changes with external source conditions, both in value for all cases and shape when the Faraday screen was added.

  15. Simple filtered repetitively pulsed vacuum arc plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekh, Yu.; Zhirkov, I. S.; Delplancke-Ogletree, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    A very simple design of cathodic filtered vacuum arc plasma source is proposed. The source without filter has only four components and none of them require precise machining. The source operates in a repetitively pulsed regime, and for laboratory experiments it can be used without water cooling. Despite the simple construction, the source provides high ion current at the filter outlet reaching 2.5% of 400 A arc current, revealing stable operation in a wide pressure range from high vacuum to oxygen pressure up to more than 10-2 mbar. There is no need in complicated power supply system for this plasma source, only one power supply can be used to ignite the arc, to provide the current for the arc itself, to generate the magnetic field in the filter, and provide its positive electric biasing without any additional high power resistance.

  16. Development of a laser ion source for production of high-intensity heavy-ion beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashiwagi, H.; Yamada, K.; Kurashima, S.

    2017-09-01

    A laser ion source has been developed as a high-intensity source for the ion implanter and the single pulsed beam of the azimuthally varying field cyclotron at TIARA. Highly charged beams of C5+ and C6+ ions and low-charged beams of heavy ions such as C, Al, Ti, Cu, Au, and Pt are required for the single-pulse acceleration in the cyclotron and for the ion implanter, respectively. In the vacuum chamber of the ion source, a target holder on a three-dimensional linear-motion stage provides a fresh surface for each laser shot. A large-sized target with a maximum size of 300 mm × 135 mm is mounted on the holder for long-term operation. The ion current (ion charge flux) in the laser-produced plasma is measured by a Faraday cup and time-of-flight spectra of each charge state are measured using a 90° cylindrical electrostatic analyzer just behind the Faraday cup. Carbon-plasma-generation experiments indicate that the source produces intense high- and low-charged pulsed ion beams. At a laser energy of 483 mJ (2.3 × 1013 W/cm2), average C6+ current of 13 mA and average C5+ current of 23 mA were obtained over the required time duration for single-pulse acceleration in the cyclotron (49 ns for C6+ and 80 ns for C5+). Furthermore, at 45 mJ (2.1 × 1012 W/cm2), an average C2+ current of 1.6 mA over 0.88 μs is obtained.

  17. Ion transport barriers triggered by plasma polarization in gyrokinetic simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugarek, A.; Sarazin, Y.; Zarzoso, D.; Abiteboul, J.; Brun, A. S.; Cartier-Michaud, T.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph; Grandgirard, V.; Latu, G.; Passeron, C.; Thomine, O.

    2013-07-01

    The creation of ion transport barriers by externally induced sheared E × B flows is investigated with the global, full-f and flux-driven gyrokinetic code GYSELA. A gyrokinetic source of vorticity is designed and proves to be efficient in polarizing the plasma. Induced sheared electric fields develop in the turbulent core and are accompanied by the creation of a transport barrier. The barrier and the sheared flow relax quasi-periodically because of zonal flow activity and a destabilizing temperature anisotropy induced by the vorticity source. A new cyclic mechanism leading to the relaxation of transport barriers in tokamaks is discovered.

  18. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operationa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J.; Alessi, J.; Faircloth, D.; Gerardin, A.; Kalvas, T.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.

    2012-02-01

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Européen de Recherches Nucléaires is under construction and a RF-driven H- ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H-, electrons, and Cs- ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

  19. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettry, J.; Gerardin, A.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S. [CERN, 1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Alessi, J. [BNL, P.O. Box 5000, Upton, New York 11973-5000 (United States); Faircloth, D. [RAL, Harwell Oxford, Didcot OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); Kalvas, T. [University of Jyvaskyla, P.O.Box 35, FI-40014 (Finland)

    2012-02-15

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H{sup -} ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H{sup -}, electrons, and Cs{sup -} ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

  20. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettry J.; Alessi J.; Faircloth, D.; Gerardin, A.; Kalvas, T.; Pereira, H.; Sgobba, S.

    2012-02-23

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Europeen de Recherches Nucleaires is under construction and a RF-driven H{sup -} ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H{sup -}, electrons, and Cs{sup -} ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

  1. Investigation of ISIS and Brookhaven National Laboratory ion source electrodes after extended operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettry, J; Alessi, J; Faircloth, D; Gerardin, A; Kalvas, T; Pereira, H; Sgobba, S

    2012-02-01

    Linac4 accelerator of Centre Européen de Recherches Nucléaires is under construction and a RF-driven H(-) ion source is being developed. The beam current requirement for Linac4 is very challenging: 80 mA must be provided. Cesiated plasma discharge ion sources such as Penning or magnetron sources are also potential candidates. Accelerator ion sources must achieve typical reliability figures of 95% and above. Investigating and understanding the underlying mechanisms involved with source failure or ageing is critical when selecting the ion source technology. Plasma discharge driven surface ion sources rely on molybdenum cathodes. Deformation of the cathode surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. A metallurgical investigation of an ISIS ion source is presented. The origin of the deformation is twofold: Molybdenum sputtering by cesium ions digs few tenths of mm cavities while a growth of molybdenum is observed in the immediate vicinity. The molybdenum growth under hydrogen atmosphere is hard and loosely bound to the bulk. It is, therefore, likely to peel off and be transported within the plasma volume. The observation of the cathode, anode, and extraction electrodes of the magnetron source operated at BNL for two years are presented. A beam simulation of H(-), electrons, and Cs(-) ions was performed with the IBSimu code package to qualitatively explain the observations. This paper describes the operation conditions of the ion sources and discusses the metallurgical analysis and beam simulation results.

  2. Porcelain-coated antenna for radio-frequency driven plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Wells, Russell P.; Craven, Glen E.

    1996-01-01

    A new porcelain-enamel coated antenna creates a clean plasma for volume or surface-conversion ion sources. The porcelain-enamel coating is hard, electrically insulating, long lasting, non fragile, and resistant to puncture by high energy ions in the plasma. Plasma and ion production using the porcelain enamel coated antenna is uncontaminated with filament or extraneous metal ion because the porcelain does not evaporate and is not sputtered into the plasma during operation. Ion beams produced using the new porcelain-enamel coated antenna are useful in ion implantation, high energy accelerators, negative, positive, or neutral beam applications, fusion, and treatment of chemical or radioactive waste for disposal. For ion implantation, the appropriate species ion beam generated with the inventive antenna will penetrate large or small, irregularly shaped conducting objects with a narrow implantation profile.

  3. PIC modeling of negative ion sources for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccogna, F.; Minelli, P.

    2017-01-01

    This work represents the first attempt to model the full-size ITER negative ion source prototype including expansion, extraction and part of the acceleration regions keeping the resolution fine enough to resolve every single aperture of the extraction grid. The model consists of a 2.5-dimensional Particle-in-Cell/Monte Carlo Collision representation of the plane perpendicular to the filter field lines. Both the magnetic filter and electron deflection fields have been included. A negative ion current density of {j}{H-}=500 {{A}} {{{m}}}-2 produced by neutral conversion from the plasma grid is used as fixed parameter, while negative ions produced by electron dissociative attachment of vibrationally excited molecules and by ionic conversion on plasma grid are self-consistently simulated. Results show the non-ambipolar character of the transport in the expansion region driven by electron magnetic drifts in the plane perpendicular to the filter field. It induces a top-bottom asymmetry detected up to the extraction grid which in turn leads to a tilted positive ion flow hitting the plasma grid and a tilted negative ion flow emitted from the plasma grid. As a consequence, the plasma structure is not uniform around the single aperture: the meniscus assumes a form of asymmetric lobe and a deeper potential well is detected from one side of the aperture relative to the other side. Therefore, the surface-produced contribution to the negative ion extraction is not equally distributed between both the sides around the aperture but it come mainly from the lower side of the grid giving an asymmetrical current distribution in the single beamlet.

  4. 6.4 GHz ECR ion source at VECC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G S Taki; D K Chakraborty; R K Bhandari

    2002-11-01

    The 6.4 GHz ECR ion source that was indigenously developed a few years ago has been operating continuously for injecting oxygen and neon beams to the cyclotron since 1997. VEC-ECR is a single stage high magnetic field ion source provided with a negatively biased electron repeller placed on the axis, near the injection mirror point. The supply of cold electrons and use of low mass mixing gas improve the stability of ECR plasma. Very recently, the effect of aluminum oxide coating on the copper plasma chamber wall has been studied. The plasma chamber wall was coated with aluminum by vacuum evaporation method and then exposed to oxygen gas to form aluminum oxide. It was noticed that the process substantially shifts the charge state distribution to the higher charge state with an enhancement of ion current by an order of magnitude. With the aluminized plasma chamber, the VEC-ECR can now produce 12 A of O7+, 6.5 A of Ar12+, 1.5 A of Kr20+ and 1.0 A of Xe31+.

  5. Laser photodetachment diagnostics of a 1/3-size negative hydrogen ion source for NBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, S., E-mail: geng.shaofei@nifs.ac.jp [The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Tsumori, K.; Nakano, H.; Kisaki, M.; Ikeda, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Osakabe, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Kaneko, O. [National Institutes for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 Japan (Japan)

    2015-04-08

    To investigate the flows of charged particles in front of the plasma grid (PG) in a negative hydrogen ion source, the information of the local densities of electrons and negative hydrogen ions (H-) are necessary. For this purpose, the laser photodetachment is applied for pure hydrogen plasmas and Cs-seeded plasma in a 1/3-size negative hydrogen ion source in NIFS-NBI test stand. The H- density obtained by photodetachment is calibrated by the results from cavity ring-down (CRD). The pressure dependence and PG bias dependence of the local H- density are presented and discussed. The results show that H- density increases significantly by seeding Cs into the plasma. In Cs-seeded plasma, relativity exists between the H- ion density and plasma potential.

  6. Physics-based investigation of negative ion behavior in a negative-ion-rich plasma using integrated diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsumori, K.; Takeiri, Y.; Ikeda, K.; Nakano, H.; Geng, S.; Kisaki, M.; Nagaoka, K.; Tokuzawa, T.; Wada, M.; Sasaki, K.; Nishiyama, S.; Goto, M.; Osakabe, M.

    2017-08-01

    Total power of 16 MW has been successfully delivered to the plasma confined in the Large Helical Device (LHD) from three Neutral Beam Injectors (NBIs) equipped with negative hydrogen (H-) ion sources. However, the detailed mechanisms from production through extraction of H- ions are still yet to be clarified and a similar size ion source on an independent acceleration test bench called Research and development Negative Ion Source (RNIS) serves as the facility to study physics related to H- production and transport for further improvement of NBI. The production of negative-ion-rich plasma and the H- ions behavior in the beam extraction region in RNIS is being investigated by employing an integrated diagnostic system. Flow patterns of electrons, positive ions and H- ions in the extraction region are described in a two-dimensional map. The measured flow patterns indicate the existence a stagnation region, where the H- flow changes the direction at a distance about 20 mm from the plasma grid. The pattern also suggested the H- flow originated from plasma grid (PG) surface that turned back toward extraction apertures. The turning region seems formed by a layer of combined magnetic field produced by the magnetic filter field and the Electron-Deflection Magnetic (EDM) field created by magnets installed in the extraction electrode.

  7. Industrial plasma immersion ion implanter and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tong Hong Hui; Huo Yan Feng; Wang Ke; Mu Li Lan; Feng Tie Min; Zhao Jun; Yan Bing; Geng Man

    2002-01-01

    A new generation industrial plasma immersion ion implanter was developed recently in South-western Institute of Physics and some experimental results are reported. The vacuum chamber with 900 mm in diameter and 1050 mm in height stands vertically. The pumping system includes turbo -pump and mechanical pump and it can be automatically controlled by PLC. The background pressure is less than 4 x 10 sup - sup 4 Pa. The plasma in the chamber can be generated by hot-filament discharge and three high-efficiency magnetic filter metal plasma sources, so that the plasma immersion ion implantation and enhanced deposition can be done. The maximum pulse voltage output is 80 kV, maximum pulse current is 60 A, repetition frequency is 50-500 Hz, and the pulse rise time is less than 2 mu s. The power modulator can operate in the pulse bunching mode if necessary. In general, the plasma density is 10 sup 8 -10 sup 1 sup 0 cm sup - sup 3 , the film deposition rate is 0.1-0.5 nm/s

  8. Hollow-Cathode Source Generates Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deininger, W. D.; Aston, G.; Pless, L. C.

    1989-01-01

    Device generates argon, krypton, or xenon plasma via thermionic emission and electrical discharge within hollow cathode and ejects plasma into surrounding vacuum. Goes from cold start up to full operation in less than 5 s after initial application of power. Exposed to moist air between operations without significant degradation of starting and running characteristics. Plasma generated by electrical discharge in cathode barrel sustained and aided by thermionic emission from emitter tube. Emitter tube does not depend on rare-earth oxides, making it vulnerable to contamination by exposure to atmosphere. Device modified for use as source of plasma in laboratory experiments or industrial processes.

  9. Production of low energy spread ion beams with multicusp sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Perkins, L.T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Gough, R.A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Hoffmann, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Kunkel, W.B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Leung, K.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Sarstedt, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Vujic, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Weber, M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Williams, M.D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-05-11

    The use of multicusp sources to generate ion beams with narrow energy spread has been investigated. It is found that the presence of a magnetic filter can reduce the longitudinal energy spread significantly. This is achieved by creating a uniform plasma potential distribution in the discharge chamber region, eliminating ion production in the extraction chamber and in the sheath of the exit aperture and by minimizing the probability of charge exchange processes in the extraction chamber. An energy spread as low as 1 eV has been measured. (orig.).

  10. Production of low energy spread ion beams with multicusp sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y., Lee; Perkins, L. T.; Gough, R. A.; Hoffmann, M.; Kunkel, W. B.; N. Leung, K.; Sarstedt, M.; Vujic, J.; Weber, M.; Williams, M. D.

    1996-02-01

    The use of multicusp sources to generate ion beams with narrow energy spread has been investigated. It is found that the presence of a magnetic filter can reduce the longitudinal energy spread significantly. This is achieved by creating a uniform plasma potential distribution in the discharge chamber region, eliminating ion production in the extraction chamber and in the sheath of the exit aperture and by minimizing the probability of charge exchange processes in the extraction chamber. An energy spread as low as 1 eV has been measured.

  11. The distribution and depth of ion doses implanted into wedges by plasma immersion ion implantation in drifting and stationary plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tarrant, R N; Devasahayam, S; McKenzie, D R; Bilek, M M M [School of Physics (A28), University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2006-08-15

    The distribution of ion dose arising from plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII) of a complex shape in the form of a wedge is measured. Two types of plasma are considered: a drifting titanium plasma derived from a pulsed cathodic arc and a stationary plasma generated by PIII pulses in oxygen or nitrogen gas. The distributions of the implanted material over the surface of the aluminium wedge were studied using secondary ion mass spectroscopy and Rutherford backscattering. The effects of varying the apex angles of the wedge and the plasma density are investigated. We conclude that ion-focusing effects at the apex of the wedge were more important for the drifting plasma than for the stationary plasmas. In a drifting plasma, the ion drift velocity directed towards the apex of the wedge compresses the sheath close to the apex and enhances the concentration of the dose. For the stationary plasma, the dose is more uniform.

  12. Plasma immersion ion implantation for reducing metal ion release

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz, C.; Garcia, J. A.; Maendl, S.; Pereiro, R.; Fernandez, B.; Rodriguez, R. J. [Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain); Leibniz-Institut fuer Oberflaechenmodifizierung, 04318 Leipzig (Germany); Universidad de Oviedo, Departamento Quimica Fisica y Analitica (Spain); Centro de Ingenieria Avanzada de Superficies AIN, 31191, Cordovilla-Pamplona (Spain)

    2012-11-06

    Plasma immersion ion implantation of Nitrogen and Oxygen on CoCrMo alloys was carried out to improve the tribological and corrosion behaviors of these biomedical alloys. In order to optimize the implantation results we were carried experiments at different temperatures. Tribocorrosion tests in bovine serum were used to measure Co, Cr and Mo releasing by using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry analysis after tests. Also, X-ray Diffraction analysis were employed in order to explain any obtained difference in wear rate and corrosion tests. Wear tests reveals important decreases in rate of more than one order of magnitude for the best treatment. Moreover decreases in metal release were found for all the implanted samples, preserving the same corrosion resistance of the unimplanted samples. Finally this paper gathers an analysis, in terms of implantation parameters and achieved properties for industrial implementation of these treatments.

  13. A close-coupling multi-antenna type radio frequency driven ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Y; Shoji, T

    2012-02-01

    A newly close coupling multi-antenna type radio frequency driven ion source is tested for the purpose of essentially improving plasma coupling on the basis of our old type ion source, which reuses a NNBI (negative ion source for neutral beam injection) ion source used in 1∕5th scale of the Large Helical Device NNBI. The ion source and the antenna structure are described, and the efficient plasma production in terms of the positive ion saturation current (the current density) is studied. The source is made of a metal-walled plasma chamber which is desirable from the point of view of the structural toughness for fusion and industrial application, etc. At around 160 kW of rf input power, the ion saturation current density successfully reaches the 5 A∕cm(2) level with a gas pressure of 0.6-2 Pa in hydrogen for 10 ms pulse duration. The rf power efficiency of the plasma production with a close coupling configuration of the antenna is improved substantially compared to that with the previous antenna unit in the old type ion source. The power efficiency is assessed as competing with that of other types of sources.

  14. Multicusp ion source with external RF antenna for production of H- ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalvas, T.; Hahto, S. K.; Vainionpää, J. H.; Leung, K. N.; Wilde, S. B.; Mandrillon, P.

    2007-08-01

    A multicusp ion source with modular design was developed at LBNL for production of H- ions. The source consists of a front plate, two multicusp front chambers, a quartz flange with external 3-loop RF antenna and a rear multicusp chamber. The source has LaB6 sputtering target at the rear chamber to lower the work function of the surfaces by coating them with LaB6 and an external cesium oven on the front plate. The front plate also has an integrated collar and filter magnets to cool plasma near the extraction. The collar also enables the use of cesium and LaB6 surface effects. The rear chamber is equipped with three vacuum feed-throughs for operation with two gases and a pressure measurement. Current density of over 10 mA/cm2 of H- has been measured with e/I- ratio being ˜100 when the source was operated with only 1000 W of cw RF power. Negative ion production was enhanced using cesium, Xe gas mixing and LaB6 deposition to the source surfaces. When the front plate with filter magnets is removed, the source produces large amounts of H+. Current density of 110 mA/cm2 with 1800 W RF power at 2.3 Pa source pressure was measured with over 90 % atomic species. A long operation lifetime is excepted as the external RF antenna is not exposed to plasma.

  15. Sources of Pressure in Titan's Plasma Environment

    CERN Document Server

    Achilleos, N; Bertucci, C; Guio, P; Romanelli, N; Sergis, N

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze varying plasma conditions upstream of Titan, we have combined a physical model of Saturn's plasmadisk with a geometrical model of the oscillating current sheet. During modeled oscillation phases where Titan is furthest from the current sheet, the main sources of plasma pressure in the near-Titan space are the magnetic pressure and, for disturbed conditions, the hot plasma pressure. When Titan is at the center of the sheet, the main source is the dynamic pressure associated with Saturn's cold, subcorotating plasma. Total pressure at Titan (dynamic plus thermal plus magnetic) typically increases by a factor of five as the current sheet center is approached. The predicted incident plasma flow direction deviates from the orbital plane of Titan by < 10 deg. These results suggest a correlation between the location of magnetic pressure maxima and the oscillation phase of the plasmasheet.

  16. Review of highly charged heavy ion production with electron cyclotron resonance ion source (invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, T.

    2014-02-01

    The electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) plays an important role in the advancement of heavy ion accelerators and other ion beam applications worldwide, thanks to its remarkable ability to produce a great variety of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. Great efforts over the past decade have led to significant ECRIS performance improvements in both the beam intensity and quality. A number of high-performance ECRISs have been built and are in daily operation or are under construction to meet the continuously increasing demand. In addition, comprehension of the detailed and complex physical processes in high-charge-state ECR plasmas has been enhanced experimentally and theoretically. This review covers and discusses the key components, leading-edge developments, and enhanced ECRIS performance in the production of highly charged heavy ion beams.

  17. First experiments with gasdynamic ion source in CW mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skalyga, V., E-mail: skalyga@ipfran.ru; Vodopyanov, A. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul‘yanova St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Lobachevsky State University of Nizhny Novgorod (UNN), 23 Gagarina St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Izotov, I.; Golubev, S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS), 46 Ul‘yanova St., Nizhny Novgorod 603950 (Russian Federation); Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaskyla, P.O. Box 35 (YFL), 40500 Jyvaskyla (Finland)

    2016-02-15

    A new type of ECR ion source—a gasdynamic ECR ion source—has been recently developed at the Institute of Applied Physics. The main advantages of such device are extremely high ion beam current with a current density up to 600–700 emA/cm{sup 2} in combination with low emittance, i.e., normalized RMS emittance below 0.1 π mm mrad. Previous investigations were carried out in pulsed operation with 37.5 or 75 GHz gyrotron radiation with power up to 100 kW at SMIS 37 experimental facility. The present work demonstrates the first experience of operating the gasdynamic ECR ion source in CW mode. A test bench of SMIS 24 facility has been developed at IAP RAS. 24 GHz radiation of CW gyrotron was used for plasma heating in a magnetic trap with simple mirror configuration. Initial studies of plasma parameters were performed. Ion beams with pulsed and CW high voltage were successfully extracted from the CW discharge. Obtained experimental results demonstrate that all advantages of the gasdynamic source can be realized also in CW operation.

  18. Gridless, very low energy, high-current, gaseous ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vizir, A. V.; Oks, E. M. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation); State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation); Shandrikov, M. V.; Yushkov, G. Yu. [High Current Electronics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk 634055 (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-15

    We have made and tested a very low energy gaseous ion source in which the plasma is established by a gaseous discharge with electron injection in an axially diverging magnetic field. A constricted arc with hidden cathode spot is used as the electron emitter (first stage of the discharge). The electron flux so formed is filtered by a judiciously shaped electrode to remove macroparticles (cathode debris from the cathode spot) from the cathode material as well as atoms and ions. The anode of the emitter discharge is a mesh, which also serves as cathode of the second stage of the discharge, providing a high electron current that is injected into the magnetic field region where the operating gas is efficiently ionized. In this discharge configuration, an electric field is formed in the ion generation region, accelerating gas ions to energy of several eV in a direction away from the source, without the use of a gridded acceleration system. Our measurements indicate that an argon ion beam is formed with an energy of several eV and current up to 2.5 A. The discharge voltage is kept at less than 20 V, to keep below ion sputtering threshold for cathode material, a feature which along with filtering of the injected electron flow, results in extremely low contamination of the generated ion flow.

  19. Liquid metal ion source analysis system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marriott, P.

    1986-06-14

    An analysis system for angular and mass resolved energy distribution measurements of liquid metal ion source beams has been constructed. The energy analyser has been calibrated, and preliminary on-axis energy distribution measurements of a gallium source operating between 0.26 and 30.0 ..mu..A have been made. These results closely agree with measurements reported by other workers, confirming the unusual FWHM behaviour of gallium sources below approx. 2 ..mu..A.

  20. Measurement of beam characteristics from C{sup 6+} laser ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, A., E-mail: aki.yamag@toshiba.co.jp; Sako, K.; Sato, K. [Toshiba Corporation, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Hayashizaki, N. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Hattori, T. [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Chiba 263-8555 (Japan)

    2014-02-15

    We developed a C{sup 6+} laser ion source for a heavy-ion accelerator. A carbon target was irradiated with a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm wavelength, 1.4 J maximum laser energy, 10 ns pulse duration) to generate a high-density plasma. The laser ion source employed a rotating carbon target for continuous operation. Ion beams were extracted from the plasma through a drift space using a direct plasma injection scheme [B. Yu. Sharkov, A. V. Shumshurov, V. P. Dubenkow, O. B. Shamaev, and A. A. Golubev, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2841 (1992)] up to a maximum voltage of 40 kV. We measured the characteristics of the ion beams from the laser ion source and present the results of experiments here.

  1. Numerical simulation for optimization of multipole permanent magnets of multicusp ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinzadeh, M.; Afarideh, H., E-mail: hafarideh@aut.ac.ir

    2014-01-21

    A new ion source will be designed and manufactured for the CYCLONE30 commercial cyclotron with a much advanced performance compared with the previous one. The newly designed ion source has more plasma density, which is designed to deliver an H{sup –} beam at 30 keV. In this paper numerical simulation of the magnetic flux density from permanent magnet used for a multicusp ion source, plasma confinement and trapping of fast electrons by the magnetic field has been performed to optimize the number of magnets confining the plasma. A code has been developed to fly electrons in the magnetic field to evaluate the mean life of electrons in plasma in different magnetic conditions to have a better evaluation and comparison of density in different cases. The purpose of this design is to recapture more energetic electrons with permanent magnets. Performance simulations of the optimized ion source show considerable improvement over reported one by IBA.

  2. Numerical simulation for optimization of multipole permanent magnets of multicusp ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, M.; Afarideh, H.

    2014-01-01

    A new ion source will be designed and manufactured for the CYCLONE30 commercial cyclotron with a much advanced performance compared with the previous one. The newly designed ion source has more plasma density, which is designed to deliver an H- beam at 30 keV. In this paper numerical simulation of the magnetic flux density from permanent magnet used for a multicusp ion source, plasma confinement and trapping of fast electrons by the magnetic field has been performed to optimize the number of magnets confining the plasma. A code has been developed to fly electrons in the magnetic field to evaluate the mean life of electrons in plasma in different magnetic conditions to have a better evaluation and comparison of density in different cases. The purpose of this design is to recapture more energetic electrons with permanent magnets. Performance simulations of the optimized ion source show considerable improvement over reported one by IBA.

  3. H- Ion Sources For CERN’s Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Lettry, J; Coutron, Y; Chaudeta, E; Dallocchio, A; Gil Flores, J; Hansen, J; Mahner, E; Mathot, S; Mattei, S; Midttun, O; Moyret, P; Nisbet, D; O’Neil, M; Paoluzzi, M; Pasquino, C; Pereira, H; Sanchez Arias, J; Schmitzer, C; Scrivens, R; Steyaert, D

    2013-01-01

    The specifications set to the Linac4 ion source are: H- ion pulses of 0.5 ms duration, 80 mA intensity and 45 keV energy within a normalized emittance of 0.25 mmmrad RMS at a repetition rate of 2 Hz. In 2010, during the commissioning of a prototype based on H- production from the plasma volume, it was observed that the powerful co-extracted electron beam inherent to this type of ion source could destroy its electron beam dump well before reaching nominal parameters. However, the same source was able to provide 80 mA of protons mixed with a small fraction of H2+ and H3+ molecular ions. The commissioning of the radio frequency quadrupole accelerator (RFQ), beam chopper and H- beam diagnostics of the Linac4 are scheduled for 2012 and its final installation in the underground building is to start in 2013. Therefore, a crash program was launched in 2010 and reviewed in 2011 aiming at keeping the original Linac4 schedule with the following deliverables: Design and production of a volume ion source prototype suitabl...

  4. Design study of primary ion provider for relativistic heavy ion collider electron beam ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, K; Kanesue, T; Tamura, J; Okamura, M

    2010-02-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory has developed the new preinjector system, electron beam ion source (EBIS) for relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Space Radiation Laboratory. Design of primary ion provider is an essential problem since it is required to supply beams with different ion species to multiple users simultaneously. The laser ion source with a defocused laser can provide a low charge state and low emittance ion beam, and is a candidate for the primary ion source for RHIC-EBIS. We show a suitable design with appropriate drift length and solenoid, which helps to keep sufficient total charge number with longer pulse length. The whole design of primary ion source, as well as optics arrangement, solid targets configuration and heating about target, is presented.

  5. Ion source based on the cathodic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, David M.; Falabella, Steven

    1994-01-01

    A cylindrically symmetric arc source to produce a ring of ions which leave the surface of the arc target radially and are reflected by electrostatic fields present in the source to a point of use, such as a part to be coated. An array of electrically isolated rings positioned in the source serves the dual purpose of minimizing bouncing of macroparticles and providing electrical insulation to maximize the electric field gradients within the source. The source also includes a series of baffles which function as a filtering or trapping mechanism for any macroparticles.

  6. Dense plasma focus (DPF) accelerated non radio isotopic radiological source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusnak, Brian; Tang, Vincent

    2017-01-31

    A non-radio-isotopic radiological source using a dense plasma focus (DPF) to produce an intense z-pinch plasma from a gas, such as helium, and which accelerates charged particles, such as generated from the gas or injected from an external source, into a target positioned along an acceleration axis and of a type known to emit ionizing radiation when impinged by the type of accelerated charged particles. In a preferred embodiment, helium gas is used to produce a DPF-accelerated He2+ ion beam to a beryllium target, to produce neutron emission having a similar energy spectrum as a radio-isotopic AmBe neutron source. Furthermore, multiple DPFs may be stacked to provide staged acceleration of charged particles for enhancing energy, tunability, and control of the source.

  7. Vacuum arc ion source development at GSI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spaedtke, P.; Emig, H.; Wolf, B.H. [GSI Darmstadt (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    Ion beams produced by the Mevva ion source are well suited for the injection into a synchrotron accelerator due to the low repetition rate (0.2 ... 5 Hz, the higher repetition rate is for the optimization of the linear accelerator only) and the short pulse length (up to 0.5ms). From the beginning of the authors experience with the Mevva ion source at GSI they tried to improve the reliability of pulse-to-pulse reproducibility and to minimize the noise on the extracted ion beam. For accelerator application this is highly necessary, otherwise the accelerator tuning and optimization becomes very difficult or even impossible. Already the beam transport becomes difficult for a noisy beam, because space charge compensation can be destroyed (at least partially). Furthermore a noisy dc-beam results in some rf-buckets which might be even empty.

  8. Intense highly charged ion beam production and operation with a superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Guo, J. W.; Lu, W.; Xie, D. Z.; Hitz, D.; Zhang, X. Z.; Yang, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The superconducting electron cyclotron resonance ion source with advanced design in Lanzhou (SECRAL) is a superconducting-magnet-based electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS) for the production of intense highly charged heavy ion beams. It is one of the best performing ECRISs worldwide and the first superconducting ECRIS built with an innovative magnet to generate a high strength minimum-B field for operation with heating microwaves up to 24-28 GHz. Since its commissioning in 2005, SECRAL has so far produced a good number of continuous wave intensity records of highly charged ion beams, in which recently the beam intensities of 40Ar+ and 129Xe26+ have, for the first time, exceeded 1 emA produced by an ion source. Routine operations commenced in 2007 with the Heavy Ion accelerator Research Facility in Lanzhou (HIRFL), China. Up to June 2017, SECRAL has been providing more than 28,000 hours of highly charged heavy ion beams to the accelerator demonstrating its great capability and reliability. The great achievement of SECRAL is accumulation of numerous technical advancements, such as an innovative magnetic system and an efficient double-frequency (24 +18 GHz ) heating with improved plasma stability. This article reviews the development of SECRAL and production of intense highly charged ion beams by SECRAL focusing on its unique magnet design, source commissioning, performance studies and enhancements, beam quality and long-term operation. SECRAL development and its performance studies representatively reflect the achievements and status of the present ECR ion source, as well as the ECRIS impacts on HIRFL.

  9. Power supply system for negative ion source at IPR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahlaut, Agrajit; Sonara, Jashwant; Parmar, K G; Soni, Jignesh; Bandyopadhyay, M; Singh, Mahendrajit; Bansal, Gourab; Pandya, Kaushal; Chakraborty, Arun, E-mail: agrajit@ipr.res.i [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar, Gujarat - 382428 (India)

    2010-02-01

    The first step in the Indian program on negative ion beams is the setting up of Negative ion Experimental Assembly - RF based, where 100 kW of RF power shall be coupled to a plasma source producing plasma of density {approx}5 x 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}, from which {approx} 10 A of negative ion beam shall be produced and accelerated to 35 kV, through an electrostatic ion accelerator. The experimental system is modelled similar to the RF based negative ion source, BATMAN presently operating at IPP, Garching, Germany. The mechanical system for Negative Ion Source Assembly is close to the IPP source, remaining systems are designed and procured principally from indigenous sources, keeping the IPP configuration as a base line. High voltage (HV) and low voltage (LV) power supplies are two key constituents of the experimental setup. The HV power supplies for extraction and acceleration are rated for high voltage ({approx}15 to 35kV), and high current ({approx} 15 to 35A). Other attributes are, fast rate of voltage rise (< 5ms), good regulation (< {+-}1%), low ripple (< {+-}2%), isolation ({approx}50kV), low energy content (< 10J) and fast cut-off (< 100{mu}s). The low voltage (LV) supplies required for biasing and providing heating power to the Cesium oven and the plasma grids; have attributes of low ripple, high stability, fast and precise regulation, programmability and remote operation. These power supplies are also equipped with over-voltage, over-current and current limit (CC Mode) protections. Fault diagnostics, to distinguish abnormal rise in currents (breakdown faults) with over-currents is enabled using fast response breakdown and over-current protection scheme. To restrict the fault energy deposited on the ion source, specially designed snubbers are implemented in each (extraction and acceleration) high voltage path to swap the surge energy. Moreover, the monitoring status and control signals from these power supplies are required to be electrically ({approx} 50k

  10. Meter scale plasma source for plasma wakefield experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Shaw, J. L.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.; Hogan, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    High accelerating gradients generated by a high density electron beam moving through plasma has been used to double the energy of the SLAC electron beam [1]. During that experiment, the electron current density was high enough to generate its own plasma without significant head erosion. In the newly commissioned FACET facility at SLAC, the peak current will be lower and without pre-ionization, head erosion will be a significant challenge for the planned experiments. In this work we report on our design of a meter scale plasma source for these experiments to effectively avoid the problem of head erosion. The plasma source is based on a homogeneous metal vapor gas column that is generated in a heat pipe oven [2]. A lithium oven over 30 cm long at densities over 1017 cm-3 has been constructed and tested at UCLA. The plasma is then generated by coupling a 10 TW short pulse Ti:Sapphire laser into the gas column using an axicon lens setup. The Bessel profile of the axicon setup creates a region of high intensity that can stretch over the full length of the gas column with approximately constant diameter. In this region of high intensity, the alkali metal vapor is ionized through multi-photon ionization process. In this manner, a fully ionized meter scale plasma of uniform density can be formed. Methods for controlling the plasma diameter and length will also be discussed.

  11. Meter scale plasma source for plasma wakefield experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vafaei-Najafabadi, N.; Shaw, J. L.; Marsh, K. A.; Joshi, C.; Hogan, M. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States)

    2012-12-21

    High accelerating gradients generated by a high density electron beam moving through plasma has been used to double the energy of the SLAC electron beam [1]. During that experiment, the electron current density was high enough to generate its own plasma without significant head erosion. In the newly commissioned FACET facility at SLAC, the peak current will be lower and without pre-ionization, head erosion will be a significant challenge for the planned experiments. In this work we report on our design of a meter scale plasma source for these experiments to effectively avoid the problem of head erosion. The plasma source is based on a homogeneous metal vapor gas column that is generated in a heat pipe oven [2]. A lithium oven over 30 cm long at densities over 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3} has been constructed and tested at UCLA. The plasma is then generated by coupling a 10 TW short pulse Ti:Sapphire laser into the gas column using an axicon lens setup. The Bessel profile of the axicon setup creates a region of high intensity that can stretch over the full length of the gas column with approximately constant diameter. In this region of high intensity, the alkali metal vapor is ionized through multi-photon ionization process. In this manner, a fully ionized meter scale plasma of uniform density can be formed. Methods for controlling the plasma diameter and length will also be discussed.

  12. Enhanced Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Ion-Implanted Titanium Using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Hegedűs

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The surface properties of metallic implants play an important role in their clinical success. Improving upon the inherent shortcomings of Ti implants, such as poor bioactivity, is imperative for achieving clinical use. In this study, we have developed a Ti implant modified with Ca or dual Ca + Si ions on the surface using an electron cyclotron resonance ion source (ECRIS. The physicochemical and biological properties of ion-implanted Ti surfaces were analyzed using various analytical techniques, such as surface analyses, potentiodynamic polarization and cell culture. Experimental results indicated that a rough morphology was observed on the Ti substrate surface modified by ECRIS plasma ions. The in vitro electrochemical measurement results also indicated that the Ca + Si ion-implanted surface had a more beneficial and desired behavior than the pristine Ti substrate. Compared to the pristine Ti substrate, all ion-implanted samples had a lower hemolysis ratio. MG63 cells cultured on the high Ca and dual Ca + Si ion-implanted surfaces revealed significantly greater cell viability in comparison to the pristine Ti substrate. In conclusion, surface modification by electron cyclotron resonance Ca and Si ion sources could be an effective method for Ti implants.

  13. Ion source design for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The more frequently used design techniques for the components of broad-beam electron bombardment ion sources are discussed. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, the cathodes, and the magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. A comparison is made between two-grid and three-grid optics. The designs presented are representative of current technology and are adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  14. Ion plating with an induction heating source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spalvins, T.; Brainard, W. A.

    1976-01-01

    Induction heating is introduced as an evaporation heat source in ion plating. A bare induction coil without shielding can be directly used in the glow discharge region with no arcing. The only requirement is to utilize an rf inductive generator with low operating frequency of 75 kHz. Mechanical simplicity of the ion plating apparatus and ease of operation is a great asset for industrial applications; practically any metal such as nickel, iron, and the high temperature refractories can be evaporated and ion plated.

  15. Ion source design for industrial applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, H. R.; Robinson, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    The more frequently used design techniques for the components of broad-beam electron bombardment ion sources are discussed. The approach used emphasizes refractory metal cathodes and permanent-magnet multipole discharge chambers. Design procedures and sample calculations are given for the discharge chamber, ion optics, the cathodes, and the magnetic circuit. Hardware designs are included for the isolator, cathode supports, anode supports, pole-piece assembly, and ion-optics supports. A comparison is made between two-grid and three-grid optics. The designs presented are representative of current technology and are adaptable to a wide range of configurations.

  16. Optical surfacing via linear ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Lixiang, E-mail: wulx@hdu.edu.cn [Key Lab of RF Circuits and Systems of Ministry of Education, Zhejiang Provincial Key Lab of LSI Design, Microelectronics CAD Center, College of Electronics and Information, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou (China); Wei, Chaoyang, E-mail: siomwei@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shao, Jianda, E-mail: jdshao@siom.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)

    2017-04-15

    We present a concept of surface decomposition extended from double Fourier series to nonnegative sinusoidal wave surfaces, on the basis of which linear ion sources apply to the ultra-precision fabrication of complex surfaces and diffractive optics. The modified Fourier series, or sinusoidal wave surfaces, build a relationship between the fabrication process of optical surfaces and the surface characterization based on power spectral density (PSD) analysis. Also, we demonstrate that the one-dimensional scanning of linear ion source is applicable to the removal of mid-spatial frequency (MSF) errors caused by small-tool polishing in raster scan mode as well as the fabrication of beam sampling grating of high diffractive uniformity without a post-processing procedure. The simulation results show that optical fabrication with linear ion source is feasible and even of higher output efficiency compared with the conventional approach.

  17. The RHIC polarized H- ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenski, A.; Atoian, G.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Steski, D.

    2016-02-01

    A novel polarization technique had been successfully implemented for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) polarized H- ion source upgrade to higher intensity and polarization. In this technique, a proton beam inside the high magnetic field solenoid is produced by ionization of the atomic hydrogen beam (from external source) in the He-gaseous ionizer cell. Further proton polarization is produced in the process of polarized electron capture from the optically pumped Rb vapor. The use of high-brightness primary beam and large cross sections of charge-exchange cross sections resulted in production of high intensity H- ion beam of 85% polarization. The source very reliably delivered polarized beam in the RHIC Run-2013 and Run-2015. High beam current, brightness, and polarization resulted in 75% polarization at 23 GeV out of Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) and 60%-65% beam polarization at 100-250 GeV colliding beams in RHIC.

  18. Simulation of H{sup -} ion source extraction systems for the Spallation Neutron Source with Ion Beam Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalvas, T.; Tarvainen, O. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Welton, R. F.; Han, B. X.; Stockli, M. P. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States)

    2012-02-15

    A three-dimensional ion optical code IBSimu, which is being developed at University of Jyvaeskylae, features positive and negative ion plasma extraction models and self-consistent space charge calculation. The code has been utilized for modeling the existing extraction system of the H{sup -} ion source of the Spallation Neutron Source. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data. A high-current extraction system with downstream electron dumping at intermediate energy has been designed. According to the simulations it provides lower emittance compared to the baseline system at H{sup -} currents exceeding 40 mA. A magnetic low energy beam transport section consisting of two solenoids has been designed to transport the beam from the alternative electrostatic extraction systems to the radio frequency quadrupole.

  19. Design of the RF ion source for the ITER NBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcuzzi, D. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy)], E-mail: diego.marcuzzi@igi.cnr.it; Agostinetti, P.; Dalla Palma, M. [Consorzio RFX, Euratom-ENEA Association, Corso Stati Uniti 4, I-35127 Padova (Italy); Falter, H.D.; Heinemann, B.; Riedl, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    A radio frequency (RF) driven negative ion source has been designed for the ITER neutral beam injectors, as an alternative to the traditional arc driven solution. The main advantage of this technology is to avoid the presence of the filaments, that require periodic maintenance and consequently frequent shutdowns. The requirements for the ion source of the ITER NBI are to provide a uniform flux of D{sup -}/H{sup -} to the plasma grid of the accelerator that will result in a beam current of 40 A at 1 MeV. The present specification is for a filling pressure of 0.3 Pa. The ion source needs to provide 20/28 mA/cm{sup 2} D{sup -}/H{sup -} current density across the 0.58 m x 1.54 m aperture array for 3600 s. The source, consisting of a main chamber facing the plasma grid, of eight RF drivers and the auxiliary systems for power transfer, cooling and diagnostic purposes, is housed in the same quasi-cylindrical structure that supports the arc driven solution. Specific electric and hydraulic circuits have been designed and verified. In the paper the analyses performed for the design of the components are presented in detail.

  20. Numerical Simulation Multicomponent Ion Beam Transport form ECR Ion Source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaLei; SongMingtao; ZhangZimin; CaoYun

    2003-01-01

    In order to simulate the transport of multi-components ion beam extracted from an ECR ion source, we have developed a multi-charged ion beam transport program named MCIBS 1.0. The program is dedicated to numerical simulation of the behavior of highly-charged ion beam and optimization of beam optics in transport lines and is realized on a PC with Windows user interface of Microsoft Visual Basic. Among all the ions with different charge states in the beam, the exchanges of electrons between highly charged ions and low charged ions or neutral,atoms of residual gas are taken into account by using classical Molecular Over-barrier Model and Monte Carlo method. An advanced Windows graphical interface makes it; comfortable and friendly for the user to operate in an interactive mode. The present program is used for the numerical calculation and optimization of beam optics in a transport line consisting of various magnetic elements, such as dipole magnet, quadrupole and so on. It is possible to simultaneously simulate 200,000 particles, in a transport line of 340 m at most, and show every particle orbit. Beam cross section graphics and emittance phase pictures can be also shown at any position in the transport line.

  1. Low energy ion beam dynamics of NANOGAN ECR ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sarvesh, E-mail: sarvesh@iuac.res.in; Mandal, A.

    2016-04-01

    A new low energy ion beam facility (LEIBF) has been developed for providing the mass analyzed highly charged intense ion beams of energy ranging from a few tens of keV to a few MeV for atomic, molecular and materials sciences research. The new facility consists of an all permanent magnet 10 GHz electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion source (NANOGAN) installed on a high voltage platform (400 kV) which provides large currents of multiply charged ion beams. Higher emittance at low energy of intense ion beam puts a tremendous challenge to the beam optical design of this facility. The beam line consists of mainly the electrostatic quadrupoles, an accelerating section, analyzing cum switching magnet and suitable beam diagnostics including vacuum components. The accelerated ion beam is analyzed for a particular mass to charge (m/q) ratio as well as guided to three different lines along 75°, 90° and 105° using a large acceptance analyzing cum switching magnet. The details of transverse beam optics to all the beam lines with TRANSPORT and GICOSY beam optics codes are being described. Field computation code, OPERA 3D has been utilized to design the magnets and electrostatic quadrupoles. A theoretical estimation of emittance for optimized geometry of ion source is given so as to form the basis of beam optics calculations. The method of quadrupole scan of the beam is used to characterize the emittance of the final beam on the target. The measured beam emittance increases with m/q ratios of various ion beams similar to the trend observed theoretically.

  2. Estimation of Sputtering Damages on a Magnetron H- Ion Source Induced by Cs+ and H+ Ions

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, H; Alessi, J; Kalvas, t

    2013-01-01

    An H− ion source is being developed for CERN’s Linac4 accelerator. A beam current requirement of 80 mA and a reliability above 99% during 1 year with 3 month uninterrupted operation periods are mandatory. To design a low-maintenance long life-time source, it is important to investigate and understand the wear mechanisms. A cesiated plasma discharge ion source, such as the BNL magnetron source, is a good candidate for the Linac4 ion source. However, in the magnetron source operated at BNL, the removal of material from the molybdenum cathode and the stainless steel anode cover plate surfaces is visible after extended operation periods. The observed sputtering traces are shown to result from cesium vapors and hydrogen gas ionized in the extraction region and subsequently accelerated by the extraction field. This paper presents a quantitative estimate of the ionization of cesium and hydrogen by the electron and H− beams in the extraction region of BNL’s magnetron ion source. The respective contributions o...

  3. Size scaling of negative hydrogen ion sources for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantz, U.; Franzen, P.; Kraus, W.; Schiesko, L.; Wimmer, C.; Wünderlich, D.

    2015-04-01

    The RF-driven negative hydrogen ion source (H-, D-) for the international fusion experiment ITER has a width of 0.9 m and a height of 1.9 m and is based on a ⅛ scale prototype source being in operation at the IPP test facilities BATMAN and MANITU for many years. Among the challenges to meet the required parameters in a caesiated source at a source pressure of 0.3 Pa or less is the challenge in size scaling of a factor of eight. As an intermediate step a ½ scale ITER source went into operation at the IPP test facility ELISE with the first plasma in February 2013. The experience and results gained so far at ELISE allowed a size scaling study from the prototype source towards the ITER relevant size at ELISE, in which operational issues, physical aspects and the source performance is addressed, highlighting differences as well as similarities. The most ITER relevant results are: low pressure operation down to 0.2 Pa is possible without problems; the magnetic filter field created by a current in the plasma grid is sufficient to reduce the electron temperature below the target value of 1 eV and to reduce together with the bias applied between the differently shaped bias plate and the plasma grid the amount of co-extracted electrons. An asymmetry of the co-extracted electron currents in the two grid segments is measured, varying strongly with filter field and bias. Contrary to the prototype source, a dedicated plasma drift in vertical direction is not observed. As in the prototype source, the performance in deuterium is limited by the amount of co-extracted electrons in short as well as in long pulse operation. Caesium conditioning is much harder in deuterium than in hydrogen for which fast and reproducible conditioning is achieved. First estimates reveal a caesium consumption comparable to the one in the prototype source despite the large size.

  4. RF Driven Multicusp H- Ion Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leung, K.N.; DeVries, G.J.; DiVergilio, W.F.; Hamm, R.W.; Hauck, C.A.; Kunkel, W.B.; McDonald, D.S.; Williams, M.D.

    1990-06-01

    An rf driven multicusp source capable of generating 1-ms H{sup -} beam pulses with a repetition rate as high as 150 Hz has been developed. This source can be operated with a filament or other types of starter. There is almost no lifetime limitation and a clean plasma can be maintained for a long period of operation. It is demonstrated that rf power as high as 25 kW could be coupled inductively to the plasma via a glass-coated copper-coil antenna. The extracted H{sup -} current density achieved is about 200 mA/cm{sup 2}.

  5. Temperature peaking at beginning of breakdown in 2.45 GHz pulsed off-resonance electron cyclotron resonance ion source hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortazar, O. D. [Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. E.T.S.I.I., Camilo J. Cela s/n, 13071-C. Real (Spain); Megia-Macias, A.; Vizcaino-de-Julian, A. [E.S.S. Bilbao, Edificio Cosimet, Landabarri 2, 48940-Leioa, Vizcaya (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    An experimental study of temperature and density evolution during breakdown in off-resonance ECR hydrogen plasma is presented. Under square 2.45 GHz microwave excitation pulses with a frequency of 50 Hz and relative high microwave power, unexpected transient temperature peaks that reach 18 eV during 20 {mu}s are reported at very beginning of plasma breakdown. Decays of such peaks reach final stable temperatures of 5 eV at flat top microwave excitation pulse. Evidence of interplay between incoming power and duty cycle giving different kind of plasma parameters evolutions engaged to microwave coupling times is observed. Under relative high power conditions where short microwave coupling times are recorded, high temperature peaks are measured. However, for lower incoming powers and longer coupling times, temperature evolves gradually to a higher final temperature without peaking. On the other hand, the early instant where temperature peaks are observed also suggest a possible connection with preglow processes during breakdown in ECRIS plasmas.

  6. Spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panitzsch, Lauri

    2013-02-08

    The experimental determination of the spatial distribution of charged particles along the ion-optical axis in electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) defines the focus of this thesis. The spatial distributions of different ion species were obtained in the object plane of the bending magnet ({approx}45 cm downstream from the plasma electrode) and in the plane of the plasma electrode itself, both in high spatial resolution. The results show that each of the different ion species forms a bloated, triangular structure in the aperture of the plasma electrode. The geometry and the orientation of these structures are defined by the superposition of the radial and axial magnetic fields. The radial extent of each structure is defined by the charge of the ion. Higher charge states occupy smaller, more concentrated structures. The total current density increases towards the center of the plasma electrode. The circular and star-like structures that can be observed in the beam profiles of strongly focused, extracted ion beams are each dominated by ions of a single charge state. In addition, the spatially resolved current density distribution of charged particles in the plasma chamber that impinge on the plasma electrode was determined, differentiating between ions and electrons. The experimental results of this work show that the electrons of the plasma are strongly connected to the magnetic field lines in the source and thus spatially well confined in a triangular-like structure. The intensity of the electrons increases towards the center of the plasma electrode and the plasma chamber, as well. These electrons are surrounded by a spatially far less confined and less intense ion population. All the findings mentioned above were already predicted in parts by simulations of different groups. However, the results presented within this thesis represent the first (and by now only) direct experimental verification of those predictions and are qualitatively transferable to

  7. High Power Light Gas Helicon Plasma Source For VASMIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, J. P.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Glover, T. W.; Jacobson, V. T.; McCaskill, G. E.; Winter, D. S.; Baity, F. W.; Carter, M. D.; Goulding, R. H.

    2004-01-01

    The VASIMR space propulsion development effort relies on a high power (greater than 10kW) helicon source to produce a dense flowing plasma (H, D and He) target for ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) acceleration of the ions. Subsequent expansion in an expanding magnetic field (magnetic nozzle) converts ion lunetic energy to directed momentum. This plasma source must have critical features to enable an effective propulsion device. First, it must ionize most of the input neutral flux of gas, thus producing a plasma stream with a high degree of ionization for application of ICR power. This avoids propellant waste and potential power losses due to charge exchange. Next, the plasma stream must flow into a region of high magnetic field (approximately 0.5 T) for efficient ICR acceleration. Third, the ratio of input power to plasma flux must be low, providing an energy per ion-electron pair approaching 100 eV. Lastly, the source must be robust and capable of very long life-times (years). In our helicon experiment (VX-10) we have measured a ratio of input gas to plasma flux near 100%. The plasma flows from the helicon region (B approximately 0.1 T) into a region with a peak magnetic field of 0.8 T. The energy input per ion-electron pair has been measured at 300 plus or minus 100 eV. Recent results at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show an enhanced efficiency mode of operation with a high power density, over 5 kW in a 5 cm diameter tube. Our helicon is presently 9 cm in diameter and operates up to 3.5 kW of input power. An upgrade to a power level of 10 kW is underway. Much of our recent work has been with a Boswell double-saddle antenna design. We are also converting the antenna design to a helical type. With these modifications, we anticipate an improvement in the ionization efficiency. This paper presents the results from scaling the helicon in the VX-10 device from 3.5 to 10 kW. We also compare the operation with a double-saddle to a helical antenna design. Finally, we

  8. High Power Light Gas Helicon Plasma Source For VASMIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, J. P.; Chang-Diaz, F. R.; Glover, T. W.; Jacobson, V. T.; McCaskill, G. E.; Winter, D. S.; Baity, F. W.; Carter, M. D.; Goulding, R. H.

    2004-01-01

    The VASIMR space propulsion development effort relies on a high power (greater than 10kW) helicon source to produce a dense flowing plasma (H, D and He) target for ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) acceleration of the ions. Subsequent expansion in an expanding magnetic field (magnetic nozzle) converts ion lunetic energy to directed momentum. This plasma source must have critical features to enable an effective propulsion device. First, it must ionize most of the input neutral flux of gas, thus producing a plasma stream with a high degree of ionization for application of ICR power. This avoids propellant waste and potential power losses due to charge exchange. Next, the plasma stream must flow into a region of high magnetic field (approximately 0.5 T) for efficient ICR acceleration. Third, the ratio of input power to plasma flux must be low, providing an energy per ion-electron pair approaching 100 eV. Lastly, the source must be robust and capable of very long life-times (years). In our helicon experiment (VX-10) we have measured a ratio of input gas to plasma flux near 100%. The plasma flows from the helicon region (B approximately 0.1 T) into a region with a peak magnetic field of 0.8 T. The energy input per ion-electron pair has been measured at 300 plus or minus 100 eV. Recent results at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) show an enhanced efficiency mode of operation with a high power density, over 5 kW in a 5 cm diameter tube. Our helicon is presently 9 cm in diameter and operates up to 3.5 kW of input power. An upgrade to a power level of 10 kW is underway. Much of our recent work has been with a Boswell double-saddle antenna design. We are also converting the antenna design to a helical type. With these modifications, we anticipate an improvement in the ionization efficiency. This paper presents the results from scaling the helicon in the VX-10 device from 3.5 to 10 kW. We also compare the operation with a double-saddle to a helical antenna design. Finally, we

  9. Io Plasma Torus Ion Composition: Voyager, Galileo, Cassini

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagenal, Fran; Nerney, Edward; Steffl, Andrew Joseph

    2016-10-01

    With JAXA's Hisaki spacecraft in orbit around Earth gathering information on the Io plasma torus and NASA's Juno mission measuring plasma conditions in the jovian magnetosphere, the time is ripe for a re-evaluation of earlier observations of the plasma torus to assess evidence for temporal variations. In particular, we are interested in exploring the ion composition of the torus and whether there is evidence of the ultimate source – the volcanic gases from Io – have deviated from SO2. We use the latest CHIANTI 8.0 atomic database to analyze UV spectra of the torus from Voyager, Galileo and Cassini as well as with the physical chemistry model of Delamere, Steffl and Bagenal (2005). We find that contrary to earlier analyses of Voyager data (e.g. Shemansky 1987; 1988) that produced a composition requiring a neutral source of O/S~4, we find an ion composition that is consistent with the Cassini UVIS data (Steffl et al. 2004) and a neutral O/S~2, consistent with SO2.

  10. Development of a compact multicusp ion source of He+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, M.; Sasao, M.; Wada, M.; Hamabe, M.; Kuroda, T.; Guharay, S. K.

    2000-02-01

    A filament-type helium ion source has been developed for the purpose of alpha particle diagnostics and as a test beam for electrostatic quadrupole transport experiments. We have obtained preliminary results of He+ beam current, ˜60 mA/cm2. The normalized brightness of this beam is ˜1010A/(m rad)2. The normalized emittance (90%) measured by multislit faraday cup emittance meter is ˜0.6 mm mrad below 100 V, 10 A arc discharge. The effects of plasma parameters in the source on the beam emittance and on the beam perveance are discussed.

  11. RF sources for ITER Ion Cyclotron H and CD system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, F., E-mail: fabienne.kazarian@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 Sain-Paul-Les-Durance (France); Beaumont, B.; Arambhadiya, B.; Gassmann, T.; Lamalle, Ph.; Rathi, D. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 Sain-Paul-Les-Durance (France); Mukherjee, A.; Ajesh, P.; Machchhar, H.; Patadia, D.; Patel, M.; Rajnish, K.; Singh, R.; Suthar, G.; Trivedi, R. [ITER India, IPR, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428, Gujarat (India); Kumazawa, R.; Seki, T.; Saito, K.; Kasahara, H.; Mutoh, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    The Ion Cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (IC H and CD) system for ITER will provide 20 MW to the plasma. The associated Radio Frequency (RF) source system has to be compliant with all operation modes foreseen in that frame. Their specifications are fully described in this paper and constraints on IC RF source components are detailed, in particular concerning the final stage tube of the amplifier. Results of tests performed under a collaborative work at the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS) facility are presented. Consequences on the procurement process by ITER India (II) are deduced.

  12. High-current negative hydrogen ion beam production in a cesium-injected multicusp source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeiri, Y.; Tsumori, K.; Kaneko, O. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    A high-current negative hydrogen ion source has been developed, where 16.2 A of the H{sup -} current was obtained with a current density of 31 mA/cm{sup 2}. The ion source is a multicusp source with a magnetic filter for negative ion production, and cesium vapor is injected into the arc chamber, leading to enhancement of the negative ion yields. The cesium-injection effects are discussed, based on the experimental observations. Although the surface production of the negative ions on the cesium-covered plasma grid is thought to be a dominant mechanism of the H{sup -} current enhancement, the cesium effects in the plasma volume, such as the cesium ionization and the electron cooling, are observed, and could contribute to the improved operation of the negative ion source. (author)

  13. Matching network for RF plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickard, Daniel S.; Leung, Ka-Ngo

    2007-11-20

    A compact matching network couples an RF power supply to an RF antenna in a plasma generator. The simple and compact impedance matching network matches the plasma load to the impedance of a coaxial transmission line and the output impedance of an RF amplifier at radio frequencies. The matching network is formed of a resonantly tuned circuit formed of a variable capacitor and an inductor in a series resonance configuration, and a ferrite core transformer coupled to the resonantly tuned circuit. This matching network is compact enough to fit in existing compact focused ion beam systems.

  14. Effect of Substrate Potential on Plasma Parameters of Magnetic Multicusp Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshio; Goto, Masahiro

    1998-06-01

    The effect of substrate potential on plasmas produced in a magnetic multicusp plasma source has been studied experimentally. Plasma parameters such as electron temperature and plasma potential are estimated from electron energy distribution function numerically calculated from probe current-voltage characteristics. For a substrate potential of -150 V with respect to the source chamber, which is much lower than substrate floating potentials, the plasma parameters are not affected by the application of the potential. However, for the case where the substrate is shorted with the source chamber, the high energy component of electrons significantly decreases in comparison with the floating case leading to the reduction of electron temperature. In this case, plasma potential is positive with respect to the substrate to suppress electron loss but its absolute value is only of the order of electron temperature in eV, which is much lower than the potential between the plasma and the substrate in the floating case. This discharge mode could be advantageous in significantly reducing the ion impact energy to the substrate plate.

  15. Ion source development for the Los Alamos heavy ion fusion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Engelhardt, L.S.; Humphries, S.; Meyer, E.A.; Oona, H.; Shurter, R.P.

    1985-10-01

    A multi-beam injector is being designed and built at Los Alamos for the U.S. Heavy Ion Fusion Program. As part of this program, development of an aluminum-spark, pulsed plasma source is being carried out. Faraday cup diagnostics are used to study current emission and to map the current profile. An aluminum oxide scintillator with photographic film is used in conjunction with a pepper-pot to obtain time integrated emittance values.

  16. Ion source development for the Los Alamos heavy ion fusion injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Oona, H.; Meyer, E.A.; Shurter, R.P.; Engelhardt, L.S.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A multi-beam injector is being designed and built at Los Alamos for the US Heavy Ion Fusion Program. As part of this program, development of an aluminum-spark, pulsed plasma source is being carried out. Faraday cup diagnostics are used to study current emission and to map the current profile. An aluminum oxide scintillator with photographic film is used in conjunction with a pepper-pot to obtain time integrated emittance values.

  17. Plasma-based EUV light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumlak, Uri; Golingo, Raymond; Nelson, Brian A.

    2010-11-02

    Various mechanisms are provided relating to plasma-based light source that may be used for lithography as well as other applications. For example, a device is disclosed for producing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light based on a sheared plasma flow. The device can produce a plasma pinch that can last several orders of magnitude longer than what is typically sustained in a Z-pinch, thus enabling the device to provide more power output than what has been hitherto predicted in theory or attained in practice. Such power output may be used in a lithography system for manufacturing integrated circuits, enabling the use of EUV wavelengths on the order of about 13.5 nm. Lastly, the process of manufacturing such a plasma pinch is discussed, where the process includes providing a sheared flow of plasma in order to stabilize it for long periods of time.

  18. Ion acoustic shocks in magneto rotating Lorentzian plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussain, S.; Akhtar, N. [Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, NILORE, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); DPAM, PIEAS, NILORE, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hasnain, H. [Theoretical Physics Division, PINSTECH, NILORE, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)

    2014-12-15

    Ion acoustic shock structures in magnetized homogeneous dissipative Lorentzian plasma under the effects of Coriolis force are investigated. The dissipation in the plasma system is introduced via dynamic viscosity of inertial ions. The electrons are following the kappa distribution function. Korteweg-de Vries Burger (KdVB) equation is derived by using reductive perturbation technique. It is shown that spectral index, magnetic field, kinematic viscosity of ions, rotational frequency, and effective frequency have significant impact on the propagation characteristic of ion acoustic shocks in such plasma system. The numerical solution of KdVB equation is also discussed and transition from oscillatory profile to monotonic shock for different plasma parameters is investigated.

  19. Studies of an inductively coupled negative hydrogen ion radio frequency source through simulations and experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2004-08-24

    In the frame work of a development project for ITER neutral beam injection system a radio frequency (RF) driven negative hydrogen (H-/D-) ion source, (BATMAN ion source) is developed which is designed to produce several 10s of ampere of H-/D- beam current. This PhD work has been carried out to understand and optimize BATMAN ion source. The study has been done with the help of computer simulations, modeling and experiments. The complete three dimensional Monte-Carlo computer simulation codes have been developed under the scope of this PhD work. A comprehensive description about the volume production and the surface production of H- ions is presented in the thesis along with the study results obtained from the simulations, modeling and the experiments. One of the simulations is based on the volume production of H- ions, where it calculates the density profile of the vibrationally excited H2 molecules, the density profile of H- ions and the transport probability of those H- ions along the source axis towards the grid. The other simulation studies the transport of those H- ions which are produced on the surface of the plasma grid. It is expected that if there is a plasma flow in the source, the transport of plasma components (molecules and ions) would be influenced. Experimentally it is observed that there is a convective plasma flow exists in the ion source. A transverse magnetic filter field which is present near the grid inside the ion source reduces the flow velocity. Negative ions and electrons have the same sign of charge; therefore the electrons are co-extracted with the negative ions through the grid system, which is not desirable. It is observed that a magnetic field near the grid, magnetized the electrons and therefore reduce the co-extracted electron current. It is also observed experimentally that if the plasma grid is biased positively with respect to the source body, the electron density near the plasma grid is reduced and therefore the co

  20. Ion Acoustic Waves in the Presence of Electron Plasma Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1977-01-01

    Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave.......Long-wavelength ion acoustic waves in the presence of propagating short-wavelength electron plasma waves are examined. The influence of the high frequency oscillations is to decrease the phase velocity and the damping distance of the ion wave....

  1. Nonrelativistic structure calculations of two-electron ions in a strongly coupled plasma environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharyya, S.; Saha, J. K.; Mukherjee, T. K.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the controversy between the interpretations of recent measurements on dense aluminum plasma created with the Linac coherent light source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser (FEL) and the Orion laser has been addressed. In both kinds of experiments, heliumlike and hydrogenlike spectral lines are used for plasma diagnostics. However, there exist no precise theoretical calculations for He-like ions within a dense plasma environment. The strong need for an accurate theoretical estimate for spectral properties of He-like ions in a strongly coupled plasma environment leads us to perform ab initio calculations in the framework of the Rayleigh-Ritz variation principle in Hylleraas coordinates where an ion-sphere potential is used. An approach to resolve the long-drawn problem of numerical instability for evaluating two-electron integrals with an extended basis inside a finite domain is presented here. The present values of electron densities corresponding to the disappearance of different spectral lines obtained within the framework of an ion-sphere potential show excellent agreement with Orion laser experiments in Al plasma and with recent theories. Moreover, this method is extended to predict the critical plasma densities at which the spectral lines of H-like and He-like carbon and argon ions disappear. Incidental degeneracy and level-crossing phenomena are being reported for two-electron ions embedded in strongly coupled plasma. Thermodynamic pressure experienced by the ions in their respective ground states inside the ion spheres is also reported.

  2. Design of triode extraction system for a dual hollow cathode ion source

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jing-Hui; ZHU Kun; ZHAO Wei-Jiang; LIU Ke-Xin

    2011-01-01

    A triode extraction system is designed for a dual hollow cathode ion source being developed at the Institute of Heavy Ion Physics,Peking University.Basic parameters of the plasma are selected after examining the operation principle of the ion source,then the triode extraction system is designed and optimized by using software PBGUNS (for Particle Beam GUN Simulations).The physical design of the system is given in this paper.

  3. Co-axial multicusp source for low axial energy spread ion beam production

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Y; Leung, K N; Vujic, J L; Williams, M D; Zahir, N

    1999-01-01

    A co-axial multicusp ion source has been designed and tested. This source uses a new magnetic filter configuration. This magnetic filter is efficient in modifying the plasma potential distribution which can reduce the axial energy spread of the extracted ion beam. Energy spreads as low as 0.6 eV have been obtained. The electron temperature in this source has also been found to be about 0.1 eV. Furthermore, the new source configuration is capable of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution which can improve the transverse ion energy, which results in a low beam emittance. The co-axial source can be used for a number of different applications such as ion projection lithography and radioactive ion beam projects.

  4. Co-axial multicusp source for low axial energy spread ion beam production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. E-mail: yylee@lbl.gov; Gough, R.A.; Leung, K.N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M.D.; Zahir, N

    1999-09-01

    A co-axial multicusp ion source has been designed and tested. This source uses a new magnetic filter configuration. This magnetic filter is efficient in modifying the plasma potential distribution which can reduce the axial energy spread of the extracted ion beam. Energy spreads as low as 0.6 eV have been obtained. The electron temperature in this source has also been found to be about 0.1 eV. Furthermore, the new source configuration is capable of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution which can improve the transverse ion energy, which results in a low beam emittance. The co-axial source can be used for a number of different applications such as ion projection lithography and radioactive ion beam projects.

  5. Co-axial multicusp source for low axial energy spread ion beam production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Gough, R. A.; Leung, K. N.; Vujic, J.; Williams, M. D.; Zahir, N.

    1999-09-01

    A co-axial multicusp ion source has been designed and tested. This source uses a new magnetic filter configuration. This magnetic filter is efficient in modifying the plasma potential distribution which can reduce the axial energy spread of the extracted ion beam. Energy spreads as low as 0.6 eV have been obtained. The electron temperature in this source has also been found to be about 0.1 eV. Furthermore, the new source configuration is capable of adjusting the radial plasma potential distribution which can improve the transverse ion energy, which results in a low beam emittance. The co-axial source can be used for a number of different applications such as ion projection lithography and radioactive ion beam projets.

  6. Design of Magnetic Field System for Calutron Ion Source Set

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; Xiu-yan; ZENG; Zi-qiang

    2013-01-01

    The Calutron ion source is the most important equipment of EMIS,and the structure of the ion source is more complicated.Because the parameter of each part is interrelate,as experiment and test set,It is very convenient to adjust the parameter of ion source and make the ion source get a good quality.Magnetic field system is the leading and necessary auxiliary equipment of the Calutron ion source

  7. Ion Current Density Calculation of the Inductive Radio Frequency Ion Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Voznyi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available A radio-frequency (RF inductive ion source at 27.12 MHz is investigated. With a global model of the argon discharge, plasma density, electron temperature and ion current density of the ion source is calculated in relation to absorbed RF power and gas pressure as a discharge chamber size changes. It is found that ion beam current density grows as the discharge chamber size decreases. Calculations show that in the RF source with a discharge chamber 30 mm in diameter and 35 mm long the ion current density is 40 mA/cm2 at 100 W of absorbed RF power and 7 mTorr of pressure, and agrees well with experimentally measured value of 43 mA/cm2. With decreasing discharge chamber diameter to 15 mm ion current density can reach 85 mA/cm2 at absorbed RF power of 100 W.

  8. Independent control of ion current and ion impact energy onto electrodes in dual frequency plasma devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyle, P C; Ellingboe, A R; Turner, M M [Plasma Research Laboratory, National Centre for Plasma Science and Technology and School of Physical Sciences, Dublin City University, Dublin 9 (Ireland)

    2004-03-07

    Dual frequency capacitive discharges are designed to offer independent control of the flux and energy of ions impacting on an object immersed in a plasma. This is desirable in applications such as the processing of silicon wafers for microelectronics manufacturing. In such discharges, a low frequency component couples predominantly to the ions, while a high frequency component couples predominantly to electrons. Thus, the low frequency component controls the ion energy, while the high frequency component controls the plasma density. Clearly, this desired behaviour is not achieved for arbitrary configurations of the discharge, and in general one expects some unwanted coupling of ion flux and energy. In this paper we use computer simulations with the particle-in-cell method to show that the most important governing parameter is the ratio of the driving frequencies. If the ratio of the high and low frequencies is great enough, essentially independent control of the ion energy and flux is possible by manipulation of the high and low frequency power sources. Other operating parameters, such as pressure, discharge geometry, and absolute power, are of much less significance.

  9. Review of laser-driven ion sources and their applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daido, Hiroyuki; Nishiuchi, Mamiko; Pirozhkov, Alexander S

    2012-05-01

    For many years, laser-driven ion acceleration, mainly proton acceleration, has been proposed and a number of proof-of-principle experiments have been carried out with lasers whose pulse duration was in the nanosecond range. In the 1990s, ion acceleration in a relativistic plasma was demonstrated with ultra-short pulse lasers based on the chirped pulse amplification technique which can provide not only picosecond or femtosecond laser pulse duration, but simultaneously ultra-high peak power of terawatt to petawatt levels. Starting from the year 2000, several groups demonstrated low transverse emittance, tens of MeV proton beams with a conversion efficiency of up to several percent. The laser-accelerated particle beams have a duration of the order of a few picoseconds at the source, an ultra-high peak current and a broad energy spectrum, which make them suitable for many, including several unique, applications. This paper reviews, firstly, the historical background including the early laser-matter interaction studies on energetic ion acceleration relevant to inertial confinement fusion. Secondly, we describe several implemented and proposed mechanisms of proton and/or ion acceleration driven by ultra-short high-intensity lasers. We pay special attention to relatively simple models of several acceleration regimes. The models connect the laser, plasma and proton/ion beam parameters, predicting important features, such as energy spectral shape, optimum conditions and scalings under these conditions for maximum ion energy, conversion efficiency, etc. The models also suggest possible ways to manipulate the proton/ion beams by tailoring the target and irradiation conditions. Thirdly, we review experimental results on proton/ion acceleration, starting with the description of driving lasers. We list experimental results and show general trends of parameter dependences and compare them with the theoretical predictions and simulations. The fourth topic includes a review of

  10. 微推力ECR离子推力器等离子体源电子获能计算分析%Calculation Analysis on Electron Heating within Plasma Source Used by Micro ECR Ion Thruster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤明杰; 杨涓; 冯冰冰; 金逸舟; 罗立涛

    2015-01-01

    为满足小型航天器的微推进需求,开展了微推力电子回旋共振(ECR)离子推力器的计算研究。实现该推力器的关键是ECR等离子体源合理的磁场和电场分布数值计算,从而使电子在穿过ECR谐振区时能够获得最大能量。为此以双环形永磁材料结构作为磁路,分别以直线形、环形和盘形微波耦合天线产生微波电磁场,同时改变等离子体源特征长度,利用有限元软件计算并分析ECR等离子体源内磁场和微波电场的分布规律以及电子在ECR区的获能规律。结果以微波输入功率5W、频率4.2GHz为例,发现环形耦合天线与较短等离子体源特征长度的结构组合可使电子在ECR区的获能指标达到最大且分布最佳。%To satisfy the propulsion need of small spacecrafts,it is essential to calculate characteristics of mi⁃cro electron cyclotron resonance(ECR)ion thruster. To get the maximum energy absorbed by electrons when passing through ECR layer,calculation of reasonable magnetic and electric field distribution in the plasma source is a key problem. In this article,the conformation of magnetic circuit was formed by two annular permanent mag⁃nets,microwave electromagnetic fields were generated separately by the linear,ring and dish-shaped antennas, and characteristic lengths of plasma source were altered several times. Through the calculation by applying finite element method,the important distribution of magnetic and microwave electric fields,and energy to heat electron were obtained. It is found that with 5W power and 4.2GHz frequency of input microwave,the structural combina⁃tion of ring coupling antenna and shorter characteristic length of plasma source allows electron heating index to get the maximum value and the optimal distribution in ECR layer.

  11. Next Generation H- Ion Sources for the SNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welton, Robert F [ORNL; Carmichael, Justin R [ORNL; Carr, Jr, Jerry [ORNL; Crisp, Danny W [ORNL; Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Han, Baoxi [ORNL; Pennisi, Terry R [ORNL; Murray Jr, S N [ORNL; Stockli, Martin P [ORNL; Tarvainen, Olli A [ORNL; Santana, Manuel [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is the leading accelerator-based, pulsed neutron-scattering facility, currently in the process of ramping up neutron production. In order to insure meeting operational requirements as well as providing for future facility beam power upgrades, a multifaceted H{sup -} ion source development program is ongoing. This work discusses several aspects of this program, specifi