WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma sod activities

  1. Oxidized SOD1 alters proteasome activities in vitro and in the cortex of SOD1 overexpressing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pecheur, Marie; Bourdon, Emmanuel; Paly, Evelyne; Farout, Luc; Friguet, Bertrand; London, Jacqueline

    2005-07-04

    Premature ageing, one of the characteristics of Down syndrome (DS), may involve oxidative stress and impairment of proteasome activity. Transgenic mice overexpressing the human copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene are one of the first murine models for DS and it has been shown that SOD1 overexpression might be either deleterious or beneficial. Here, we show a reduction in proteasome activities in the cortex of SOD1 transgenic mice and an associated increase in the content of oxidized SOD1 protein. As we demonstrate that in vitro oxidized SOD can inhibit purified proteasome peptidase activities, modified SOD1 might be partially responsible for proteasome inhibition shown in SOD1 transgenic mice.

  2. A fused selenium-containing protein with both GPx and SOD activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Huijun; Ge, Yan; Wang, Ying; Lin, Chi-Tsai; Li, Jing; Liu, Xiaoman; Zang, Tianzhu; Xu, Jiayun; Liu, Junqiu; Luo, Guimin; Shen, Jiacong

    2007-01-01

    As a safeguard against oxidative stress, the balance between the main antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and catalase (CAT) was believed to be more important than any single one, for example, dual-functional SOD/CAT enzyme has been proved to have better antioxidant ability than either single enzyme. By combining traditional fusion protein technology with amino acid auxotrophic expression system, we generated a bifunctional enzyme with both GPx and SOD activities. It displayed better antioxidant ability than GPx or SOD. Such dual-functional enzymes could facilitate further studies of the cooperation of GPx and SOD and generation of better therapeutic agents

  3. SOD activity in cam plant kalanchoe daigremontiana exposed to S02

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zbigniew Miszalski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kalanchoe daigremontiana CAM plants exhibit very low sensitivity to the action of sulphite dioxide. Fumigation for a week with 3 ppm SO2 leads to an increase in the dismutation rate of the oxygen radical expressed in units of SOD activity and an increase in SOD activity itself. This strong increase disappears 100 h after fumigation. A transient increase in SOD activity represents an adaptation mechanism to oxidative stress caused by SO2.

  4. Association of the SOD2 polymorphism (Val6Ala and SOD activity with vaso-occlusive crisis and acute splenic sequestration in children with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabela Cristina Cordeiro Farias

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The SOD2 polymorphism Val16Ala TàC influences the antioxidative response. This study investigated the association of the SOD2 polymorphism and superoxide dismutase (SOD activity with vaso-occlusive crisis (VOC and acute splenic sequestration (ASS in children with sickle cell anemia (SCA. One hundred ninety-five children aged 1-9 years old were analyzed. The TC and CC genotypes were associated with lower SOD activity compared with the TT genotype (p=0.0321; p=0.0253, respectively. Furthermore, TC/CC were more frequent in patients with VOC or ASS (p=0.0285; p=0.0090, respectively. These results suggest that the SOD2 polymorphism associated with low SOD activity could be involved in SCA physiopathology.

  5. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Enzyme Activity Assay in Fasciola spp. Para-sites and Liver Tissue Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Assady

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this comparative study was to detect superoxide dismutase (SOD activities in Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica parasites, infected and healthy liver tissues in order to determine of species effects and liver infection on SODs activity level.Methods: Fasciola spp. parasites and sheep liver tissues (healthy and infected liver tissues, 10 samples for each, were collected, homogenized and investigated for protein measurement, protein detection and SOD enzyme activity assay. Protein concentration was measured by Bradford method and SODs band protein was detected on SDS-PAGE. SODs activity was determined by iodonitrotetrazolium chloride, INT, and xanthine substrates. Independent samples t-test was conducted for analysis of SODs activities difference.Results: Protein concentration means were detected for F. hepatica 1.3 mg/ ml, F. gigantica 2.9 mg/ml, healthy liver tissue 5.5 mg/ml and infected liver tissue 1.6 mg/ml (with similar weight sample mass. Specific enzyme activities in the samples were obtained 0.58, 0.57, 0.51, 1.43 U/mg for F. hepatica, F. gigantica, healthy liver and infected liver respectively. Gel electrophoresis of Fasciola spp. and sheep liver tissue extracts revealed a band protein with MW of 60 kDa. The statistical analysis revealed significant difference between SOD activities of Fasciola species and also between SOD activity of liver tissues (P<.05.Conclusion: Fasciola species and liver infection are effective causes on SOD enzyme activity level.

  6. Comprehensive analysis to explain reduced or increased SOD1 enzymatic activity in ALS patients and their relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Isil; Birve, Anna; Berdynski, Mariusz; Hjertkvist, Karin; Rofougaran, Reza; Nilsson, Torbjörn K; Glass, Jonathan D; Marklund, Stefan L; Andersen, Peter M

    2017-08-01

    To characterise stabilities in erythrocytes of mutant SOD1 proteins, compare SOD1 enzymatic activities between patients with different genetic causes of ALS and search for underlying causes of deviant SOD1 activities in individuals lacking SOD1 mutations. Blood samples from 4072 individuals, ALS patients with or without a SOD1 mutation, family members and controls were studied. Erythrocyte SOD1 enzymatic activities normalised to haemoglobin content were determined, and effects of haemoglobin disorders on dismutation assessed. Coding SOD1 sequences were analysed by Sanger sequencing, exon copy number variations by fragment length analysis and by TaqMan Assay. Of the 44 SOD1 mutations found, 75% caused severe destabilisation of the mutant protein but in 25% it was physically stable. Mutations producing structural changes caused halved erythrocyte SOD1 activities. There were no differences in SOD1 activities between patients without a SOD1 mutation and control individuals or carriers of TBK1 mutations and C9orf72 HRE . In the low and high SOD1 activity groups no deviations were found in exon copy numbers and intron gross structures. Thalassemias and iron deficiency were associated with increased SOD1 activity/haemoglobin ratios. Adjunct erythrocyte SOD1 activity analysis reliably signals destabilising SOD1 mutations including intronic mutations that are missed by exon sequencing.

  7. SOD2 Activity Is not Impacted by Hyperoxia in Murine Neonatal Pulmonary Artery Smooth Muscle Cells and Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Gupta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension (PH complicates bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD in 25% of infants. Superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 is an endogenous mitochondrial antioxidant, and overexpression protects against acute lung injury in adult mice. Little is known about SOD2 in neonatal lung disease and PH. C57Bl/6 mice and isogenic SOD2+/+ and SOD2−/+ mice were placed in room air (control or 75% O2 (chronic hyperoxia, CH for 14 days. Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH was assessed by Fulton’s index. Medial wall thickness (MWT and alveolar area were assessed on formalin fixed lung sections. Pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMC were placed in 21% or 95% O2 for 24 h. Lung and PASMC protein were analyzed for SOD2 expression and activity. Oxidative stress was measured with a mitochondrially-targeted sensor, mitoRoGFP. CH lungs have increased SOD2 expression, but unchanged activity. SOD2−/+ PASMC have decreased expression and activity at baseline, but increased SOD2 expression in hyperoxia. Hyperoxia increased mitochondrial ROS in SOD2+/+ and SOD2−/+ PASMC. SOD2+/+ and SOD2−/+ CH pups induced SOD2 expression, but not activity, and developed equivalent increases in RVH, MWT, and alveolar area. Since SOD2−/+ mice develop equivalent disease, this suggests other antioxidant systems may compensate for partial SOD2 expression and activity in the neonatal period during hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress.

  8. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) in boar spermatozoa: purification, biochemical properties and changes in activity during semen storage (16°C) in different extenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orzołek, Aleksandra; Wysocki, Paweł; Strzeżek, Jerzy; Kordan, Władysław

    2013-03-01

    The antioxidant system in semen is composed of enzymes, low-molecular weight antioxidants and seminal plasma proteins. Loss of enzymatic activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) during semen preservation may cause insufficient antioxidant defense of boar spermatozoa. The aim of this study was to isolate and characterize SOD molecular forms from spermatozoa and to describe changes in SOD activity in boar sperm during preservation at 16°C. Sperm extracts were prepared from fresh or diluted semen and used for SOD purification or activity measurement. Ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration was used to purify SOD molecular forms. BTS, Dilu Cell, M III and Vitasem were used as diluents for 5-day storage of semen at +16°C. The molecular form of SOD released from spermatozoa after cold shock and homogenization had a molecular weight of approximately 67kDa. The activity of the SOD form was the highest at pH 10 within the temperature range between 20 and 45°C. The enzymatic activity of form released after cold shock was inhibited by H2O2 and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC; by 65 and 40%, respectively). The SOD form released by homogenization was inhibited by H2O2 and DDC (40%). The molecular form released after urea treatment was a 30kDa protein with maximum activity at 20°C and pH 10. Enzymatic activity of this form was inhibited by H2O2 by 35%, DDC by 80% and 2-mercaptoethanol by 15%. The antigenic determinants of SOD isolated from boar seminal plasma and spermatozoa were similar to each other. Susceptibility of spermatozoa to cold shock increased during storage, but the differences between extenders were statistically non-significant. Copyright © 2013 Society for Biology of Reproduction & the Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research of Polish Academy of Sciences in Olsztyn. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  9. Improving enzymatic activities and thermostability of a tri-functional enzyme with SOD, catalase and cell-permeable activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangwattananun, Piriya; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Songtawee, Napat; Bülow, Leif; Isarankura Na Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Prachayasittikul, Virapong; Yainoy, Sakda

    2017-04-10

    Synergistic action of major antioxidant enzymes, e.g., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is known to be more effective than the action of any single enzyme. Recently, we have engineered a tri-functional enzyme, 6His-MnSOD-TAT/CAT-MnSOD (M-TAT/CM), with SOD, CAT and cell-permeable activities. The protein actively internalized into the cells and showed superior protection against oxidative stress-induced cell death over native enzymes fused with TAT. To improve its molecular size, enzymatic activity and stability, in this study, MnSOD portions of the engineered protein were replaced by CuZnSOD, which is the smallest and the most heat resistant SOD isoform. The newly engineered protein, CAT-CuZnSOD/6His-CuZnSOD-TAT (CS/S-TAT), had a 42% reduction in molecular size and an increase in SOD and CAT activities by 22% and 99%, respectively. After incubation at 70°C for 10min, the CS/S-TAT retained residual SOD activity up to 54% while SOD activity of the M-TAT/CM was completely abolished. Moreover, the protein exhibited a 5-fold improvement in half-life at 70°C. Thus, this work provides insights into the design and synthesis of a smaller but much more stable multifunctional antioxidant enzyme with ability to enter mammalian cells for further application as protective/therapeutic agent against oxidative stress-related conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Species-specific activation of Cu/Zn SOD by its CCS copper chaperone in the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleason, Julie E; Li, Cissy X; Odeh, Hana M; Culotta, Valeria C

    2014-06-01

    Candida albicans is a pathogenic yeast of important public health relevance. Virulence of C. albicans requires a copper and zinc containing superoxide dismutase (SOD1), but the biology of C. albicans SOD1 is poorly understood. To this end, C. albicans SOD1 activation was examined in baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), a eukaryotic expression system that has proven fruitful for the study of SOD1 enzymes from invertebrates, plants, and mammals. In spite of the 80% similarity between S. cerevisiae and C. albicans SOD1 molecules, C. albicans SOD1 is not active in S. cerevisiae. The SOD1 appears incapable of productive interactions with the copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS1) of S. cerevisiae. C. albicans SOD1 contains a proline at position 144 predicted to dictate dependence on CCS1. By mutation of this proline, C. albicans SOD1 gained activity in S. cerevisiae, and this activity was independent of CCS1. We identified a putative CCS1 gene in C. albicans and created heterozygous and homozygous gene deletions at this locus. Loss of CCS1 resulted in loss of SOD1 activity, consistent with its role as a copper chaperone. C. albicans CCS1 also restored activity to C. albicans SOD1 expressed in S. cerevisiae. C. albicans CCS1 is well adapted for activating its partner SOD1 from C. albicans, but not SOD1 from S. cerevisiae. In spite of the high degree of homology between the SOD1 and CCS1 molecules in these two fungal species, there exists a species-specific barrier in CCS-SOD interactions which may reflect the vastly different lifestyles of the pathogenic versus the noninfectious yeast.

  11. Elevated mRNA-levels of distinct mitochondrial and plasma membrane Ca2+ transporters in individual hypoglossal motor neurons of endstage SOD1 transgenic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eMühling

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Disturbances in Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondrial dysfunction have emerged as major pathogenic features in familial and sporadic forms of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS, a fatal degenerative motor neuron disease. However, the distinct molecular ALS-pathology remains unclear. Recently, an activity-dependent Ca2+ homeostasis deficit, selectively in highly vulnerable cholinergic motor neurons in the hypoglossal nucleus (hMNs from a common ALS mouse model, endstage superoxide dismutase SOD1G93A transgenic mice, was described. This functional deficit was defined by a reduced hMN mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake capacity and elevated Ca2+ extrusion across the plasma membrane. To address the underlying molecular mechanisms, here we quantified mRNA-levels of respective potential mitochondrial and plasma membrane Ca2+ transporters in individual, choline-acetyltransferase (ChAT positive hMNs from wildtype (WT and endstage SOD1G93A mice, by combining UV laser microdissection with RT-qPCR techniques, and specific data normalization. As ChAT cDNA levels as well as cDNA and genomic DNA levels of the mitochondrially encoded NADH dehydrogenase ND1 were not different between hMNs from WT and endstage SOD1G93A mice, these genes were used to normalize hMN-specific mRNA-levels of plasma membrane and mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters, respectively. We detected about 2-fold higher levels of the mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters MCU/MICU1, Letm1 and UCP2 in remaining hMNs from endstage SOD1G93A mice. These higher expression-levels of mitochondrial Ca2+ transporters in individual hMNs were not associated with a respective increase in number of mitochondrial genomes, as evident from hMN specific ND1 DNA quantification. Normalized mRNA-levels for the plasma membrane Na2+/Ca2+exchanger NCX1 was also about 2-fold higher in hMNs from SOD1G93A mice. Thus, pharmacological stimulation of Ca2+ transporters in highly vulnerable hMNs might offer a novel neuroprotective strategy for ALS.

  12. Effect of irradiation on sod activity and selenium content in garlic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Weimin; Zheng Anjian; Yan Jianmin; Cao Qingsui; Wu Haihong; Cao Shifeng

    2006-01-01

    The effects of irradiation at 0.1 kGy, 1.0 kGy on SOD activity and the content of total selenium, inorganic selenium, organic selenium in garlic (Allium sativum L.) stored at 10 degree C or 25 degree C were investigated. The results indicated that irradiation treatment with 0.1 kGy, 1 kGy significantly slowed the reduction of SOD activities in garlic stored at 10 degree C or 25 degree C, while the treatment irradiation had no influence on the content of all kinds of selenium. But the garlic stored at 25 degree C had higher content of total selenium, inorganic selenium, organic selenium than that in garlic stored at 10 degree C. (authors)

  13. Basic study on low dose radiation effect: SOD activity of immune organs and hemogram in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaoka, Kiyonori; Kaneko, Ichiro; Mizutani, Takeo; Nakano, Kazushiro; Edamatsu, Rei; Mori, Akitane.

    1989-01-01

    We examined the effect of low dose radiation on SOD activities of immune organs such as thymus, spleen, bone marrow in rats and hematological findings changes. Animals were exposed to radiation in a wholebody fashion, 4 hours before sacrifice. SOD activities in thymus and bone marrow cells from the rats X-ray irradiated at doses of 0.25∼0.50 Gy/10 min were enhanced in comparison with those of non-irradiated rats. The enhancement was also observed in spleen cells obtained from group of rats irradiated at 0.05 Gy/10 min. Radiation exposure with over 0.50 Gy/10 min gave rats inhibitory responses in those immune organs. The changes in homogram were not observed with γ-ray exposure of less than 0.10 Gy/10 min. (author)

  14. Dietary resveratrol administration increases MnSOD expression and activity in mouse brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robb, Ellen L.; Winkelmolen, Lieke; Visanji, Naomi; Brotchie, Jonathan; Stuart, Jeffrey A.

    2008-01-01

    trans-Resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene; RES) is of interest for its reported protective effects in a variety of pathologies, including neurodegeneration. Many of these protective properties have been attributed to the ability of RES to reduce oxidative stress. In vitro studies have shown an increase in antioxidant enzyme activities following exposure to RES, including upregulation of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, an enzyme that is capable of reducing both oxidative stress and cell death. We sought to determine if a similar increase in endogenous antioxidant enzymes is observed with RES treatment in vivo. Three separate modes of RES delivery were utilized; in a standard diet, a high fat diet and through a subcutaneous osmotic minipump. RES given in a high fat diet proved to be effective in elevating antioxidant capacity in brain resulting in an increase in both MnSOD protein level (140%) and activity (75%). The increase in MnSOD was not due to a substantial proliferation of mitochondria, as RES treatment induced a 10% increase in mitochondrial abundance (Citrate Synthase activity). The potential neuroprotective properties of MnSOD have been well established, and we demonstrate that a dietary delivery of RES is able to increase the expression and activity of this enzyme in vivo

  15. The effect of the spaceship carrying on the biological characters and sod activity of eggplant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Shiheng; Zhang Ya; Zhu Shuijin; Wang Yanfan

    2004-01-01

    The effects of the space shuttle carrying on the growth and biological characters of eggplant SP 1 population were studied. The results showed that the effect of space shuttle carrying on the growth and development of eggplant SP 1 were very significant on the characters such as the plant height, reproductive development, leaf size, fruit length, fruit quality and fruiting rate etc, especially on the plant development and the fruit size, and it is hopeful to select some good eggplant germplasm or cultivars from the population. The SOD activity showed that the SOD level in the mutant-1 plant was one time more than that in control plant, indicating that the space shuttle carrying may increase the expression of some genes and lead to the great change in morphological characters

  16. Effect of N+ beam exposure on superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and induction of Mn-SOD in Deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Daojun; Chen Ruolei; Shao Chunlin; Wu Lijun; Yu Zengliang

    2000-01-01

    Though bacteria of the radiation-resistant Deinococcus radiodurans have a high resistance to the lethal and mutagenic effects of many DNA-damaging agents, the mechanisms involved in the response of these bacteria to oxidative stress are poorly understood. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities produced by these bacteria were measured, and the change of SOD and CAT activities by 20 keV N + beam exposure was examined. Their activities were increased by N + beam exposure from 8 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 to 6 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . The treatment of H 2 O 2 and [CHCl 3 + CH 3 CH 2 OH] and the measurement of absorption spectrum showed that the increase in SOD activity was resulted from inducible activities of Mn-SOD in D. radiodurans AS1.633 by N + beam exposure. These results suggested that this bacteria possess inducible defense mechanisms against the deleterious effects of oxidisation

  17. Enhanced tethered-flight duration and locomotor activity by overexpression of the human gene SOD1 in Drosophila motorneurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agavni Petrosyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mutation of the human gene superoxide dismutase (hSOD1 is associated with the fatal neurodegenerative disease familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (Lou Gehrig’s disease. Selective overexpression of hSOD1 in Drosophila motorneurons increases lifespan to 140% of normal. The current study was designed to determine resistance to lifespan decline and failure of sensorimotor functions by overexpressing hSOD1 in Drosophila‘s motorneurons. First, we measured the ability to maintain continuous flight and wingbeat frequency (WBF as a function of age (5 to 50 days. Flies overexpressing hSOD1 under the D42-GAL4 activator were able to sustain flight significantly longer than controls, with the largest effect observed in the middle stages of life. The hSOD1-expressed line also had, on average, slower wingbeat frequencies in late, but not early life relative to age-matched controls. Second, we examined locomotor (exploratory walking behavior in late life when flies had lost the ability to fly (age ≥ 60 d. hSOD1-expressed flies showed significantly more robust walking activity relative to controls. Findings show patterns of functional decline dissimilar to those reported for other life-extended lines, and suggest that the hSOD1 gene not only delays death but enhances sensorimotor abilities critical to survival even in late life.

  18. Peripheral motor axons of SOD1(G127X) mutant mice are susceptible to activity-dependent degeneration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez Herrero, Susana; Calin, A; Graffmo, K S

    2013-01-01

    -onset, fast-progression SOD1(G127X) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis to long-lasting, high-frequency repetitive activity. Tibial nerves were stimulated at ankle in 7 to 8-month-old SOD1(G127X) mice when they were clinically indistinguishable from wild-type (WT) mice. The evoked compound muscle......-concentrations. It is possible that in SOD1(G127X) there is inadequate energy-dependent Na(+)/K(+) pumping, which may lead to a lethal Na(+) overload....

  19. Production of Human Cu,Zn SOD with Higher Activity and Lower Toxicity in E. coli via Mutation of Free Cysteine Residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although, as an antioxidant enzyme, human Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (hSOD1 can mitigate damage to cell components caused by free radicals generated by aerobic metabolism, large-scale manufacturing and clinical use of hSOD1 are still limited by the challenge of rapid and inexpensive production of high-quality eukaryotic hSOD1 in recombinant forms. We have demonstrated previously that it is a promising strategy to increase the expression levels of soluble hSOD1 so as to increase hSOD1 yields in E. coli. In this study, a wild-type hSOD1 (wtSOD1 and three mutant SOD1s (mhSOD1s, in which free cysteines were substituted with serine, were constructed and their expression in soluble form was measured. Results show that the substitution of Cys111 (mhSOD1/C111S increased the expression of soluble hSOD1 in E. coli whereas substitution of the internal Cys6 (mhSOD1/C6S decreased it. Besides, raised levels of soluble expression led to an increase in hSOD1 yields. In addition, mhSOD1/C111S expressed at a higher soluble level showed lower toxicity and stronger whitening and antiradiation activities than those of wtSOD1. Taken together, our data demonstrate that C111S mutation in hSOD1 is an effective strategy to develop new SOD1-associated reagents and that mhSOD1/C111S is a satisfactory candidate for large-scale production.

  20. Antimalarial, antimicrobial, cytotoxic, DNA interaction and SOD like activities of tetrahedral copper(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Jugal V.; Gajera, Sanjay B.; Patel, Mohan N.

    2015-02-01

    The mononuclear copper(II) complexes with P, O-donor ligand and different fluoroquinolones have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic spectra, TGA, EPR, FT-IR and LC-MS spectroscopy. An antimicrobial efficiency of the complexes has been tested against five different microorganisms in terms of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and displays very good antimicrobial activity. The binding strength and binding mode of the complexes with Herring Sperm DNA (HS DNA) have been investigated by absorption titration and viscosity measurement studies. The studies suggest the classical intercalative mode of DNA binding. Gel electrophoresis assay determines the ability of the complexes to cleave the supercoiled form of pUC19 DNA. Synthesized complexes have been tested for their SOD mimic activity using nonenzymatic NBT/NADH/PMS system and found to have good antioxidant activity. All the complexes show good cytotoxic and in vitro antimalarial activities.

  1. Imbalance in SOD/CAT activities in rat skeletal muscles submitted to treadmill training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ricardo A; Andrades, Michael E; Oliveira, Marcos R; Pirola, Aline C; Zago, Morgana S; Silveira, Paulo C L; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Cláudio F

    2006-10-01

    The association between physical exercise and oxidative damage in the skeletal musculature has been the focus of many studies in literature, but the balance between superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and its relation to oxidative damage is not well established. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between regular treadmill physical exercise, oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in skeletal muscle of rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats (8-12 months) were randomly separated into two groups (trained n=9 and untrained n=6). Trained rats were treadmill-trained for 12 weeks in progressive exercise (velocity, time, and inclination). Training program consisted in a progressive exercise (10 m/min without inclination for 10 min/day). After 1 week the speed, time and inclination were gradually increased until 17 m/min at 10% for 50 min/day. After the training period animals were killed, and gastrocnemius and quadriceps were surgically removed to the determination of biochemical parameters. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, catalase, superoxide dismutase and citrate synthase activities, and muscular glycogen content were measured in the isolated muscles. We demonstrated that there is a different modulation of CAT and SOD in skeletal muscle in trained rats when compared to untrained rats (increased SOD/CAT ratio). TBARS levels were significantly decreased and, in contrast, a significant increase in protein carbonylation was observed. These results suggest a non-described adaptation of skeletal muscle against exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  2. Biological effects of CCS in the absence of SOD1 enzyme activation: implications for disease in a mouse model for ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proescher, Jody B; Son, Marjatta; Elliott, Jeffrey L; Culotta, Valeria C

    2008-06-15

    The CCS copper chaperone is critical for maturation of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) through insertion of the copper co-factor and oxidization of an intra-subunit disulfide. The disulfide helps stabilize the SOD1 polypeptide, which can be particularly important in cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) linked to misfolding of mutant SOD1. Surprisingly, however, over-expressed CCS was recently shown to greatly accelerate disease in a G93A SOD1 mouse model for ALS. Herein we show that disease in these G93A/CCS mice correlates with incomplete oxidation of the SOD1 disulfide. In the brain and spinal cord, CCS over-expression failed to enhance oxidation of the G93A SOD1 disulfide and if anything, effected some accumulation of disulfide-reduced SOD1. This effect was mirrored in culture with a C244,246S mutant of CCS that has the capacity to interact with SOD1 but can neither insert copper nor oxidize the disulfide. In spite of disulfide effects, there was no evidence for increased SOD1 aggregation. If anything, CCS over-expression prevented SOD1 misfolding in culture as monitored by detergent insolubility. This protection against SOD1 misfolding does not require SOD1 enzyme activation as the same effect was obtained with the C244,246S allele of CCS. In the G93A SOD1 mouse, CCS over-expression was likewise associated with a lack of obvious SOD1 misfolding marked by detergent insolubility. CCS over-expression accelerates SOD1-linked disease without the hallmarks of misfolding and aggregation seen in other mutant SOD1 models. These studies are the first to indicate biological effects of CCS in the absence of SOD1 enzymatic activation.

  3. A molecular chaperone activity of CCS restores the maturation of SOD1 fALS mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchinat, Enrico; Barbieri, Letizia; Banci, Lucia

    2017-12-12

    Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) is an important metalloprotein for cellular oxidative stress defence, that is mutated in familiar variants of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (fALS). Some mutations destabilize the apo protein, leading to the formation of misfolded, toxic species. The Copper Chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) transiently interacts with SOD1 and promotes its correct maturation by transferring copper and catalyzing disulfide bond formation. By in vitro and in-cell NMR, we investigated the role of the SOD-like domain of CCS (CCS-D2). We showed that CCS-D2 forms a stable complex with zinc-bound SOD1 in human cells, that has a twofold stabilizing effect: it both prevents the accumulation of unstructured mutant SOD1 and promotes zinc binding. We further showed that CCS-D2 interacts with apo-SOD1 in vitro, suggesting that in cells CCS stabilizes mutant apo-SOD1 prior to zinc binding. Such molecular chaperone function of CCS-D2 is novel and its implications in SOD-linked fALS deserve further investigation.

  4. Engineering of a novel tri-functional enzyme with MnSOD, catalase and cell-permeable activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luangwattananun, Piriya; Yainoy, Sakda; Eiamphungporn, Warawan; Songtawee, Napat; Bülow, Leif; Ayudhya, Chartchalerm Isarankura Na; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2016-04-01

    Cooperative function of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), in protection against oxidative stress, is known to be more effective than the action of either single enzyme. Chemical conjugation of the two enzymes resulted in molecules with higher antioxidant activity and therapeutic efficacy. However, chemical methods holds several drawbacks; e.g., loss of enzymatic activity, low homogeneity, time-consuming, and the need of chemical residues removal. Yet, the conjugated enzymes have never been proven to internalize into target cells. In this study, by employing genetic and protein engineering technologies, we reported designing and production of a bi-functional protein with SOD and CAT activities for the first time. To enable cellular internalization, cell penetrating peptide from HIV-1 Tat (TAT) was incorporated. Co-expression of CAT-MnSOD and MnSOD-TAT fusion genes allowed simultaneous self-assembly of the protein sequences into a large protein complex, which is expected to contained one tetrameric structure of CAT, four tetrameric structures of MnSOD and twelve units of TAT. The protein showed cellular internalization and superior protection against paraquat-induced cell death as compared to either complex bi-functional protein without TAT or to native enzymes fused with TAT. This study not only provided an alternative strategy to produce multifunctional protein complex, but also gained an insight into the development of therapeutic agent against oxidative stress-related conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An ALS-Associated Mutant SOD1 Rapidly Suppresses KCNT1 (Slack) Na+-Activated K+ Channels in Aplysia Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yalan; Ni, Weiming; Horwich, Arthur L; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2017-02-22

    Mutations that alter levels of Slack (KCNT1) Na + -activated K + current produce devastating effects on neuronal development and neuronal function. We now find that Slack currents are rapidly suppressed by oligomers of mutant human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), which are associated with motor neuron toxicity in an inherited form of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We recorded from bag cell neurons of Aplysia californica , a model system to study neuronal excitability. We found that injection of fluorescent wild-type SOD1 (wt SOD1YFP) or monomeric mutant G85R SOD1YFP had no effect on net ionic currents measured under voltage clamp. In contrast, outward potassium currents were significantly reduced by microinjection of mutant G85R SOD1YFP that had been preincubated at 37°C or of cross-linked dimers of G85R SOD1YFP. Reduction of potassium current was also seen with multimeric G85R SOD1YFP of ∼300 kDa or >300 kDa that had been cross-linked. In current clamp recordings, microinjection of cross-linked 300 kDa increased excitability by depolarizing the resting membrane potential, and decreasing the latency of action potentials triggered by depolarization. The effect of cross-linked 300 kDa on potassium current was reduced by removing Na + from the bath solution, or by knocking down levels of Slack using siRNA. It was also prevented by pharmacological inhibition of ASK1 (apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1) or of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, but not by an inhibitor of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. These results suggest that soluble mutant SOD1 oligomers rapidly trigger a kinase pathway that regulates the activity of Na + -activated K + channels in neurons. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Slack Na + -activated K + channels (KCNT1, K Na 1.1) regulate neuronal excitability but are also linked to cytoplasmic signaling pathways that control neuronal protein translation. Mutations that alter the amplitude of these currents have devastating effects on neuronal

  6. Overexpression of Cu-Zn SOD in Brucella abortus suppresses bacterial intracellular replication via down-regulation of Sar1 activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Zhou, Mi; Yang, Yanling; Wu, Jing; Peng, Qisheng

    2018-01-01

    Brucella Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD) is a periplasmic protein, and immunization of mice with recombinant Cu-Zn SOD protein confers protection against Brucella abortus infection. However, the role of Cu-Zn SOD during the process of Brucella infection remains unknown. Here, we report that Cu-Zn SOD is secreted into culture medium and is translocated into host cells independent of type IV secretion systems (T4SS). Furthermore, co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies reveal that Brucella abortus Cu-Zn SOD interacts with the small GTPase Sar1. Overexpression of Cu-Zn SOD in Brucella abortus inhibits bacterial intracellular growth by abolishing Sar1 activity in a manner independent of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:29515756

  7. Do Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) protect Cells from DNA Damage Induced by Active Arsenicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the conversion of superoxide to hydrogen peroxide, which can be converted to water and oxygen through the action of catalase. Heterozygous mice of strain B6: 129S7-SodltmlLeb/J were obtained from Jackson Laboratories and bred to produce offspr...

  8. Effect of N+ beam exposure on the activities of Mn-SOD and catalase in deinococcus radiodurans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Daojun; Chen Ruolei; Wu Lifang; Li Hong; Yao JIanming; Shao Chunlin; Wu Lijun; Yu Zengliang

    2000-01-01

    Though the radiation-resistant bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans (D. radiodurans) have a high resistance to the lethal and mutagenic effects of many DNA-damaging agents, the mechanisms involved in the response of these bacteria to oxidative stress are poorly understood. The superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities produced in bacteria (D. radiodurans AS1.633) and their change caused by 20 keV N'+ beam exposure were examined. Results showed that the activities of the enzymes were increased in the case of N + beam exposure from 8 x 10 14 ions/cm 2 to 6 x 10 15 ions/cm 2 . In addition, the treatment of H 2 O 2 and [CHCl 3 + CH 3 CH 2 OH] and the measurement of absorption spectrum showed that the increase of whole SOD activity resulted from inducible activities of Mn-SOD in (a sub-type) D. radiodurans AS1.633. These results suggested that these bacteria possess inducible defense mechanisms against the deleterious effects of oxidization

  9. Regression analysis of γ-ray effect on sod activity and MDA content in four vegetable leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zegang; Feng Min; Hu Jianwei; Gao Yue; Lv Haiyan; Luo Shishi; Zheng Haoxian; Ma Fei; Ge Cailin

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic effects of γ-ray on SOD, POD activities and MDA content in leaves of four vegetable varieties were studied. The results were quantitatively described by the method of curve fitting and establishing mathematical model. The parameters of the formula suggested that the four vegetable varieties' sensitivity to radiation appeared as following order: Basella rubra>Lactuca sativa>Lactuca sativa spp>Brassica Chinensis. (authors)

  10. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef eBrandauer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK for exercise training-induced increases in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p<0.01 and superoxide dismutase 2 (MnSOD; p<0.05 protein abundance in quadriceps muscle of wild-type (WT; n=13-15, but not AMPK α2 kinase dead (KD; n=12-13 mice. We also observed a strong trend for increased MnSOD abundance in exercise-trained skeletal muscle of healthy humans (p=0.051; n=6. To further elucidate a role for AMPK in mediating these effects, we treated WT (n=7-8 and AMPK α2 KD (n=7-9 mice with 5-amino-1-β-D-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR. Four weeks of daily AICAR injections (500 mg/kg resulted in AMPK-dependent increases in SIRT3 (p<0.05 and MnSOD (p<0.01 in WT, but not AMPK α2 KD mice. We also tested the effect of repeated AICAR treatment on mitochondrial protein levels in mice lacking the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α KO; n=9-10. Skeletal muscle SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was reduced in sedentary PGC-1α KO mice (p<0.01 and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD protein abundance was only observed in WT mice (p<0.05. Finally, the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122 or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139 was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling in skeletal muscle in response to exercise training.

  11. Identification of a single-nucleotide insertion in the promoter region affecting the sodC promoter activity in Brucella neotomae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina A Moustafa

    Full Text Available Brucella neotomae is not known to be associated with clinical disease in any host species. Previous research suggested that B. neotomae might not express detectable levels of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD, a periplasmic enzyme known to be involved in protecting Brucella from oxidative bactericidal effects of host phagocytes. This study was undertaken to investigate the genetic basis for the disparity in SOD expression in B. neotomae. Our Western blot and SOD enzyme assay analyses indicated that B. neotomae does express SOD, but at a substantially reduced level. Nucleotide sequence analysis of region upstream to the sodC gene identified a single-nucleotide insertion in the potential promoter region. The same single-nucleotide insertion was also detected in the sodC promoter of B. suis strain Thomsen, belonging to biovar 2 in which SOD expression was undetectable previously. Examination of the sodC promoter activities using translational fusion constructs with E. coli β-galactosidase demonstrated that the B. neotomae and B. suis biovar 2 promoters were very weak in driving gene expression. Site-directed mutation studies indicated that the insertion of A in the B. neotomae sodC promoter reduced the promoter activity. Increasing the level of SOD expression in B. neotomae through complementation with B. abortus sodC gene did not alter the bacterial survival in J774A.1 macrophage-like cells and in tissues of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. These results for the first time demonstrate the occurrence of a single-nucleotide polymorphism affecting promoter function and gene expression in Brucella.

  12. Fisetin Exerts Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Effects in Multiple Mutant hSOD1 Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis by Activating ERK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T H; Wang, S Y; Wang, X D; Jiang, H Q; Yang, Y Q; Wang, Y; Cheng, J L; Zhang, C T; Liang, W W; Feng, H L

    2018-05-21

    Oxidative stress exhibits a central role in the course of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive neurodegenerative disease commonly found to include a copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene mutation. Fisetin, a natural antioxidant, has shown benefits in varied neurodegenerative diseases. The possible effect of fisetin in ALS has not been clarified as of yet. We investigated whether fisetin affected mutant hSOD1 ALS models. Three different hSOD1-related mutant models were used: Drosophila expressing mutant hSOD1 G85R , hSOD1 G93A NSC34 cells, and transgenic mice. Fisetin treatment provided neuroprotection as demonstrated by an improved survival rate, attenuated motor impairment, reduced ROS damage and regulated redox homeostasis compared with those in controls. Furthermore, fisetin increased the expression of phosphorylated ERK and upregulated antioxidant factors, which were reversed by MEK/ERK inhibition. Finally, fisetin reduced the levels of both mutant and wild-type hSOD1 in vivo and in vitro, as well as the levels of detergent-insoluble hSOD1 proteins. The results indicate that fisetin protects cells from ROS damage and improves the pathological behaviors caused by oxidative stress in disease models related to SOD1 gene mutations probably by activating ERK, thereby providing a potential treatment for ALS. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparing the functional components, SOD-like activities, antimutagenicity, and nutrient compositions of Phellinus igniarius and Phellinus linteus mushrooms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nae-Cherng Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Many species of the genus Phellinus possess beneficial properties, including antioxidant, immune-enhancing, and antimutagenic effects. Phenolic compounds and polysaccharides are two kinds of bioactive compounds; however, few studies have compared the differences between Phellinus igniarius and Phellinus linteus in their functional components, functional activities, and nutrient compositions. Herein, the proximate compositions and microelements of the fruiting body of P. igniarius and P. linteus were determined. The fruiting body of P. igniarius and P. linteus were extracted by boiling water [water extract of P. igniarius (WEPI and P. linteus (WEPL]. The contents of total phenolics and polysaccharides, as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD-like and antimutagenic activities of WEPI and WEPL, were compared. We found that WEPI was rich in phenolics and polysaccharides and had higher SOD-like activity than WEPL. Nutrient compositions were mainly different in minerals, whereas anitmutagenicity was similar. All of these results suggested that P. igniarius has greater potential for the development of antioxidant and immunomodulating food products than P. linteus.

  14. Quercetin Protects Primary Human Osteoblasts Exposed to Cigarette Smoke through Activation of the Antioxidative Enzymes HO-1 and SOD-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl F. Braun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Smokers frequently suffer from impaired fracture healing often due to poor bone quality and stability. Cigarette smoking harms bone cells and their homeostasis by increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of this study was to investigate whether Quercetin, a naturally occurring antioxidant, can protect osteoblasts from the toxic effects of smoking. Human osteoblasts exposed to cigarette smoke medium (CSM rapidly produced ROS and their viability decreased concentration- and time-dependently. Co-, pre- and postincubation with Quercetin dose-dependently improved their viability. Quercetin increased the expression of the anti-oxidative enzymes heme-oxygenase- (HO- 1 and superoxide-dismutase- (SOD- 1. Inhibiting HO-1 activity abolished the protective effect of Quercetin. Our results demonstrate that CSM damages human osteoblasts by accumulation of ROS. Quercetin can diminish this damage by scavenging the radicals and by upregulating the expression of HO-1 and SOD-1. Thus, a dietary supplementation with Quercetin could improve bone matter, stability and even fracture healing in smokers.

  15. AMP-activated protein kinase controls exercise training- and AICAR-induced increases in SIRT3 and MnSOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandauer, Josef; Andersen, Marianne A; Kellezi, Holti

    2015-01-01

    , the acetylation status of SIRT3 target lysine residues on MnSOD (K122) or oligomycin-sensitivity conferring protein (OSCP; K139) was not altered in either mouse or human skeletal muscle in response to acute exercise. We propose an important role for AMPK in regulating mitochondrial function and ROS handling......The mitochondrial protein deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT) 3 may mediate exercise training-induced increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and improvements in reactive oxygen species (ROS) handling. We determined the requirement of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) for exercise training-induced increases...... in skeletal muscle abundance of SIRT3 and other mitochondrial proteins. Exercise training for 6.5 weeks increased SIRT3 (p

  16. Reciprocal Effects of Oxidative Stress on Heme Oxygenase Expression and Activity Contributes to Reno-Vascular Abnormalities in EC-SOD Knockout Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoko Kawakami

    2012-01-01

    although, HO activity was significantly (P<0.05 attenuated along with attenuation of serum adiponectin and vascular epoxide levels (P<0.05. CoPP, in EC-SOD(−/− mice, enhanced HO activity (P<0.05 and reversed aforementioned pathophysiological abnormalities along with restoration of vascular EET, p-eNOS, p-AKT and serum adiponectin levels in these animals. Taken together our results implicate a causative role of insufficient activation of heme-HO-adiponectin system in pathophysiological abnormalities observed in animal models of chronic oxidative stress such as EC-SOD(−/− mice.

  17. Plasma extracellular superoxide dismutase concentration, allelic variations in the SOD3 gene and risk of myocardial infarction and all-cause mortality in people with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammedi, Kamel; Bellili-Muñoz, Naïma; Marklund, Stefan L; Driss, Fathi; Le Nagard, Hervé; Patente, Thiago A; Fumeron, Frédéric; Roussel, Ronan; Hadjadj, Samy; Marre, Michel; Velho, Gilberto

    2015-01-15

    Oxidative stress is involved in development of diabetes complications. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD, SOD3) is a major extracellular antioxidant enzyme and is highly expressed in arterial walls. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) and 8-iso-prostaglandin (isoprostane) are markers of oxidative stress. We investigated association of SOD3 gene variants, plasma concentrations of EC-SOD, AOPP and isoprostane with myocardial infarction and mortality in diabetic patients. We studied three cohorts designed to evaluate the vascular complications of diabetes: the GENEDIAB study (469 participants with type 1 diabetes at baseline; follow-up data for 259 participants), the GENESIS study (603 participants with type 1 diabetes at baseline; follow-up data for 525 participants) and the DIABHYCAR study (3137 participants with type 2 diabetes at baseline and follow-up). Duration of follow-up was 9, 5, and 5 years, respectively. Main outcome measures were incidence of myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular and total mortality during follow-up. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms in the SOD3 locus were genotyped in the three cohorts. Plasma concentrations of EC-SOD, AOPP, and isoprostane were measured in baseline samples of GENEDIAB participants. In GENEDIAB/GENESIS pooled cohorts, the minor T-allele of rs2284659 variant was inversely associated with the prevalence at baseline (Odds Ratio 0.48, 95% CI 0.29-0.78, p = 0.004) and the incidence during follow-up of myocardial infarction (Hazard Ratio 0.58, 95% CI 0.40-0.83, p = 0.003) and with cardiovascular (HR 0.33, 95% CI 0.08-0.74, p = 0.004) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.44, 95% CI 0.21-0.73, p = 0.0006). The protective allele was associated with higher plasma EC-SOD and lower plasma AOPP concentrations in GENEDIAB. It was also inversely associated with incidence of myocardial infarction (HR 0.75, 95% CI 0.59-0.94, p = 0.01) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97, p = 0

  18. The effect of nano-TiO2 photocatalysis on the antioxidant activities of Cu, Zn-SOD at physiological pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen; Zou, Hai-Feng; Lv, Shao-Wu; Lin, Yan-Hong; Wang, Min; Yan, Fei; Sheng, Ye; Song, Yan-Hua; Chen, Jie; Zheng, Ke-Yan

    2017-09-01

    Security issues of nanoparticles on biological toxicity and potential environmental risk have attracted more and more attention with the rapid development and wide applications of nanotechnology. In this work, we explored the effect and probable mechanism of nano-TiO 2 on antioxidant activity of copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu, Zn-SOD) under natural light and mixed light at physiological pH. Nano-TiO 2 was prepared by sol-hydrothermal method, and then characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron micrographs (TEM). The Cu, Zn-SOD was purified by sephadex G75 chromatography and qualitatively analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polypropylene amide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The effect and mechanism were elucidated base on Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR), Circular Dichroism (CD), zeta potential, and electron spin resonance (ESR) methods. Accompanying the results of FT-IR, CD and zeta potential, it could be concluded that nano-TiO 2 had no effect on the antioxidant activity of Cu, Zn-SOD by comparing the relative activity under natural light at physiological pH. But the relative activity of Cu, Zn-SOD significantly decreased along with the increase of nano-TiO 2 concentration under the mixed light. The results of ESR showed the cause of this phenomenon was the Cu(II) in the active site of Cu, Zn-SOD was reduced to Cu(I) by H 2 O 2 and decreased the content of active Cu, Zn-SOD. The reduction can be inhibited by catalase. Excess O 2 ·- produced by nano-TiO 2 photocatalysis under mixed light accumulated a mass of H 2 O 2 through disproportionation reaction in this experimental condition. The results show that nano-TiO 2 cannot affect the antioxidant activity of Cu, Zn-SOD in daily life. The study on the effect of nano-TiO 2 on Cu, Zn-SOD will provide a valid theory support for biological safety and the toxicological effect mechanism of nanomaterials on enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparing of Cu/Zn SOD Gene Expression of Lymphocyte Cell and Malondialdehyde Level in Active Men and Women after Physical Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhtiar Tartibian

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study is to compare Cu/Zn SOD mRNA and MDA level as a result of a session incremental exercise in active women and men. Materials and Methods: This research is a quasi-experimental study with repeated measurements in which 14 active female and 13 male subjects with age range 22-24 participated voluntarily. Then, blood was taken from brachial vein of the subjects in three stages before and after GXT (Graded exercise test and 3 hours after that and SYBER Green PCR Master mix reagent Kit and Real time-PCR were used to measure Cu/Zn SOD mRNA and spectrophotometer was used to measure MDA level.Results: MDA levels increased significantly in men during the recovery stage and after the exercise (p1=0.012 and p2 =0.014, but it did not increase significantly in active women. Also, MDA difference between the two genders was not reported significant in any of the exercise stages. Cu/Zn SOD gene expression did not increase significantly in either sex.Conclusion: The risk of injury from free radicals is more probable in active men than active women and vigorous physical activity does not significantly increase the Cu/Zn SOD gene expression.

  20. Irradiation effect on the seed vigor, SOD activity and MDA content in germinating seeds of yellow-seeded and black-seeded rape seed (Brassica napus L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Jixiang; Hu Danhong; Liu Houli

    1993-01-01

    Seeds of a set of near-isogenic lines (Brassica napus L.) with different seed coat color from yellow to black were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays of 150 krad. Seed vigor, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in germinating seeds were analysed. In these characters, no significant difference between yellow-seeded lines (YLs) and black-seeded lines (BLs) showed before irradiation. But after irradiation, SOD activity in YLs was lower than that in BLs. While MDA content in YLs was obviously higher that that in DLs. As a result of irradiation, seed vigor of YLs was lower than that in BLs. these results indicated that the irradiation resistance of rape seed was related to the level of SOD as well as protective structure or substances in seed coat and that the radiosensitivity of YLs was higher than that of DLs

  1. In vitro antioxidant activity, enzyme kinetics, biostability and cellular SOD mimicking ability of 1:1 curcumin-copper (II) complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunwar, A.; Mishra, B.; Barik, A.; Priyadarsini, K.I.; Narang, H.; Krishna, M.

    2008-01-01

    In vitro antioxidant activity of 1:1 curcumin copper (II) complex was evaluated by following the inhibition of γ-radiation induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in model systems. The SOD enzyme kinetic parameters K m and V max values and the turn over number of the complex were determined. The complex is stable in bio-fluids and prevents oxidation of lipid and protein solution in presence of H 2 O 2 and showed reduction in MnSOD level in spleen cells without having any effect on cell viability. (author)

  2. In vitro antioxidant activity, enzyme kinetics, biostability and cellular SOD mimicking ability of 1:1 curcumin-copper (II) complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunwar, A; Mishra, B; Barik, A; Priyadarsini, K I [Radiation and Photochemistry Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Narang, H; Krishna, M [Radiation Biology and Health Sciences Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2008-01-15

    In vitro antioxidant activity of 1:1 curcumin copper (II) complex was evaluated by following the inhibition of {gamma}-radiation induced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation in model systems. The SOD enzyme kinetic parameters K{sub m} and V{sub max} values and the turn over number of the complex were determined. The complex is stable in bio-fluids and prevents oxidation of lipid and protein solution in presence of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and showed reduction in MnSOD level in spleen cells without having any effect on cell viability. (author)

  3. Gaharu Leaf Extract Water Reduce MDA and 8-OHdG Levels and Increase Activities SOD and Catalase in Wistar Rats Provided Maximum Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Oka Adi Parwata

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress occurs due to an imbalance of the number of free radicals by the number of endogenous antioxidant produced by the body i.e. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD, Gluthathione Peroxidase (GPx, and Catalase. The imbalance between the number of free radicals and antioxidants can be overcome with the endogenous antioxidant intake that exogenous oxidative stress can be reduced. One of exogenous antioxidants is natural Gaharu leaf water extract. Objective: This research focus on the effect of Gaharu leaf water extract in reducing MDA and 8-OHdG and increase the activity of SOD and Catalase. Methods: This study was an experimental with post only controls group design. Experiment was divided  into 5 groups of wistar rats, each consisting of 5 animals, i.e. negative control group without extract [K (-], treatment 1 treated 50 mg/kg BW/day of the extract (T1, treatment 2 treated 100 mg/kg BW/day of the extract (T2, treatment 3 treated 200 mg/ kg BW/day of the extract (T3, and positive control group [K (+] treated with vitamin Cat a dose 50 mg/kg BW/day. All groups treated for 10 weeks. Every day, before treatment, each group was given a maximum swimming activity for 1.5 hours for 10 weeks. ELISA was used to measure MDA, 8-OHdG, SOD, and Catalase activities. Result: The research results showed that treatment of extract of  leaves of Gaharu with an higher dose from 50 mg/kg BW up to 200 mg/ kg BW significantly decline (p <0.05 levels of MDA with the average ranging from 6.37±0.23, 5,56±0.27 and 4.32±0.27, 8-OHdG with a mean of 1.64±0.11, 1.26±0.46, and 1.09±0.17. On the other hand the treatment also increase SOD activity with less ranging from 12.15±1.04, 15.70±2.02, and 18.84±1.51, and Catalase ranging from 6,68±0.63, 8.20±1.14 and 9.29±0,79 in the blood of Wistar rats were given a maximum activity compared to the negative control group. This is probably higher phenol compounds (bioflavonoids quantity content of the extract

  4. ApoSOD1 lacking dismutase activity neuroprotects motor neurons exposed to beta-methylamino-L-alanine through the Ca2+/Akt/ERK1/2 prosurvival pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrozziello, Tiziana; Secondo, Agnese; Tedeschi, Valentina; Esposito, Alba; Sisalli, MariaJosè; Scorziello, Antonella; Di Renzo, Gianfranco; Annunziato, Lucio

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a severe human adult-onset neurodegenerative disease affecting lower and upper motor neurons. In >20% of cases, the familial form of ALS is caused by mutations in the gene encoding Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Interestingly, administration of wild-type SOD1 to SOD1G93A transgenic rats ameliorates motor symptoms through an unknown mechanism. Here we investigated whether the neuroprotective effects of SOD1 are due to the Ca2+-dependent activation of such prosurvival signaling pathway and not to its catalytic activity. To this aim, we also examined the mechanism of neuroprotective action of ApoSOD1, the metal-depleted state of SOD1 that lacks dismutase activity, in differentiated motor neuron-like NSC-34 cells and in primary motor neurons exposed to the cycad neurotoxin beta-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA). Preincubation of ApoSOD1 and SOD1, but not of human recombinant SOD1G93A, prevented cell death in motor neurons exposed to L-BMAA. Moreover, ApoSOD1 elicited ERK1/2 and Akt phosphorylation in motor neurons through an early increase of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Accordingly, inhibition of ERK1/2 by siMEK1 and PD98059 counteracted ApoSOD1- and SOD1-induced neuroprotection. Similarly, transfection of the dominant-negative form of Akt in NSC-34 motor neurons and treatment with the selective PI3K inhibitor LY294002 prevented ApoSOD1- and SOD1-mediated neuroprotective effects in L-BMAA-treated motor neurons. Furthermore, ApoSOD1 and SOD1 prevented the expression of the two markers of L-BMAA-induced ER stress GRP78 and caspase-12. Collectively, our data indicate that ApoSOD1, which is devoid of any catalytic dismutase activity, exerts a neuroprotective effect through an early activation of Ca2+/Akt/ERK1/2 pro-survival pathway that, in turn, prevents ER stress in a neurotoxic model of ALS. PMID:28085149

  5. Safrole oxide induces neuronal apoptosis through inhibition of integrin beta4/SOD activity and elevation of ROS/NADPH oxidase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Le; Zhao, BaoXiang; Lv, Xin; Wang, Nan; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, ShangLi; Miao, JunYing

    2007-02-20

    Neuronal apoptosis is a very important event in the development of the central nervous system (CNS), but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We have previously shown that safrole oxide, a small molecule, induces integrin beta4 expression and promotes apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells. In this study, the effects of safrole oxide on cell growth and apoptosis have been examined in primary cultures of mouse neurons. Safrole oxide was found to significantly inhibit neuronal cell growth and to induce apoptosis. The inhibitory and apoptotic activities of safrole oxide followed a dose- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, the expression of integrin beta4 was significantly inhibited with safrole oxide treatment. Furthermore, safrole oxide dramatically increases the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activity of NADPH oxidase. Moreover, manganese-dependent superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) activity was decreased significantly with safrole oxide treatment. Our study thus demonstrates that safrole oxide induces neuronal apoptosis through integrin beta4, ROS, NADPH, and MnSOD.

  6. Studies on the Effect of 99Tc in colloid on enzyme activity(G.p.x ,G.S.T,SOD) before and after used diadzain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmood, A. M.; Alwan, I. F.; Abd Al-Kream, H. M.

    2012-12-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effect of Tin -colloid labeled with Technetium -99m on some enzyme activities of treated mice. it was noticed that an increase in the level of Glutathione-S- transferase (GST) glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), super oxide dismutase (SOD) and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels for treated (20) mice compared to the level of control mice Group (20). After That, the use diadzein extracted from soy been and linseed with concentrate of (0.250 mg/Kg), (0.500/Kg) on mice Group (20). It was found decreased activities GST, Gpx , SOD and MDA compared with 9 9mT c Tin-colloid Group without diadzein. (Author)

  7. Genetic Correction of SOD1 Mutant iPSCs Reveals ERK and JNK Activated AP1 as a Driver of Neurodegeneration in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay Bhinge

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Although mutations in several genes with diverse functions have been known to cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, it is unknown to what extent causal mutations impinge on common pathways that drive motor neuron (MN-specific neurodegeneration. In this study, we combined induced pluripotent stem cells-based disease modeling with genome engineering and deep RNA sequencing to identify pathways dysregulated by mutant SOD1 in human MNs. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis followed by pharmacological screening identified activated ERK and JNK signaling as key drivers of neurodegeneration in mutant SOD1 MNs. The AP1 complex member JUN, an ERK/JNK downstream target, was observed to be highly expressed in MNs compared with non-MNs, providing a mechanistic insight into the specific degeneration of MNs. Importantly, investigations of mutant FUS MNs identified activated p38 and ERK, indicating that network perturbations induced by ALS-causing mutations converge partly on a few specific pathways that are drug responsive and provide immense therapeutic potential. : In this article, Bhinge, Stanton, and colleagues use genome editing of patient-derived iPSCs to model ALS phenotypic defects in vitro. Transcriptomic analysis of disease MNs reveals activation of MAPK, AP1, WNT, cell-cycle, and p53 signaling in ALS MNs. Pharmacological screening uncovers activated ERK and JNK signaling as therapeutic targets in ALS. Keywords: ALS, SOD1, FUS, CRISPR-Cas9, p38, ERK, JNK, WNT, TP53, JUN

  8. Effects of low dose radiation on tumor growth and changes of erythrocyte immune function and activity of SOD in tumor-bearing mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hongsheng; Lu Yanda

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the effect of low dose radiation on tumor growth and changes of erythrocyte immune function and activity of SOD in the tumor-bearing mice. Methods: Kunming strain male mice were implanted with S 180 sarcoma cells in the right inguen subcutaneously as an experimental in situ animal model. Six hours before implantation the mice were given 75 mG whole-body X-ray irradiation and tumor-formation rate was counted 5 days late. From then, every two days the tumor volume was measured to draw a tumor growth curve. Fifteen days later, all mice were killed to measure the tumor weight, observe the necrosis area and the tumor-infiltration lymphoreticular cells (TIL) in the tumor pathologically. At the same time, erythrocyte immune function and activity of SOD were tested. Results: (1) The mice pre-exposed to low dose radiation had a lower tumor formation rate than those without a pre-exposed (P < 0.05). (2) The tumor growth slowed down significantly in mice receiving a low does irradiation; The average tumor weight in mice receiving a low dose irradiation was lighter too (P < 0.05). (3) The tumor necrosis areas were larger and TILs were more in the irradiation group than those of the control group. (4) The erythrocyte immune function and activity of SOD in the irradiation group were all higher significantly than those of the control group ( P < 0.05). Conclusion: Low dose radiation could markedly increase anti-tumor ability of the organism and improve the erythrocyte immune function and activity of SOD in red cells, suggesting it could be useful in clinical cancer treatment

  9. Tamarix hispida zinc finger protein ThZFP1 participates in salt and osmotic stress tolerance by increasing proline content and SOD and POD activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zang, Dandan; Wang, Chao; Ji, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yucheng

    2015-06-01

    Zinc finger proteins (ZFPs) are a large family that play important roles in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, RNA binding, morphogenesis, transcriptional regulation, abiotic or biotic stress response. However, the functions of ZFPs involved in abiotic stress are largely not known. In the present study, we cloned and functionally characterized a ZFP gene, ThZFP1, from Tamarix hispida. The expression of ThZFP1 is highly induced by NaCl, mannitol or ABA treatment. To study the function of ThZFP1 involved in abiotic stress response, transgenic T. hispida plants with overexpression or knockdown of ThZFP1 were generated using a transient transformation system. Gain- and loss-of-function studies of ThZFP1 suggested that ThZFP1 can induce the expression of a series of genes, including delta-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS), peroxidase (POD) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), leading to accumulation of proline and enhanced activities of SOD and POD. These physiological changes enhanced proline content and reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging capability when exposed to salt or osmotic stress. All the results obtained from T. hispida plants were further confirmed by analyses of the transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing ThZFP1. These data together suggested that ThZFP1 positively regulates proline accumulation and activities of SOD and POD under salt and osmotic stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Imidazole-containing phthalazine derivatives inhibit Fe-SOD performance in Leishmania species and are active in vitro against visceral and mucosal leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Moreno, M; Gómez-Contreras, F; Navarro, P; Marín, C; Ramírez-Macías, I; Rosales, M J; Campayo, L; Cano, C; Sanz, A M; Yunta, M J R

    2015-07-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal activity of a series of imidazole-containing phthalazine derivatives 1-4 was tested on Leishmania infantum, Leishmania braziliensis and Leishmania donovani parasites, and their cytotoxicity on J774·2 macrophage cells was also measured. All compounds tested showed selectivity indexes higher than that of the reference drug glucantime for the three Leishmania species, and the less bulky monoalkylamino substituted derivatives 2 and 4 were clearly more effective than their bisalkylamino substituted counterparts 1 and 3. Both infection rate measures and ultrastructural alterations studies confirmed that 2 and 4 were highly leishmanicidal and induced extensive parasite cell damage. Modifications to the excretion products of parasites treated with 2 and 4 were also consistent with substantial cytoplasmic alterations. On the other hand, the most active compounds 2 and 4 were potent inhibitors of iron superoxide dismutase enzyme (Fe-SOD) in the three species considered, whereas their impact on human CuZn-SOD was low. Molecular modelling suggests that 2 and 4 could deactivate Fe-SOD due to a sterically favoured enhanced ability to interact with the H-bonding net that supports the antioxidant features of the enzyme.

  11. Significant in vivo anti-inflammatory activity of Pytren4Q-Mn a superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 mimetic scorpiand-like Mn (II complex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Serena

    Full Text Available The clinical use of purified SOD enzymes has strong limitations due to their large molecular size, high production cost and immunogenicity. These limitations could be compensated by using instead synthetic SOD mimetic compounds of low molecular weight.We have recently reported that two SOD mimetic compounds, the Mn(II complexes of the polyamines Pytren2Q and Pytren4Q, displayed high antioxidant activity in bacteria and yeast. Since frequently molecules with antioxidant properties or free-radical scavengers also have anti-inflammatory properties we have assessed the anti-inflammatory potential of Pytren2Q and Pytren4Q Mn(II complexes, in cultured macrophages and in a murine model of inflammation, by measuring the degree of protection they could provide against the cellular injury produced by lipopolisacharide, a bacterial endotoxin.In this report we show that the Mn(II complex of Pytren4Q but not that of Pytren2Q effectively protected human cultured THP-1 macrophages and whole mice from the inflammatory effects produced by LPS. These results obtained with two molecules that are isomers highlight the importance of gathering experimental data from animal models of disease in assessing the potential of candidate molecules.The effective anti-inflammatory activity of the Mn(II complex of Pytren4Q in addition to its low toxicity, water solubility and ease of production would suggest it is worth taking into consideration for future pharmacological studies.

  12. Influence of gross saponins from tribulus terrestris L on SOD activity and MDA content for chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuo Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To observe influence of gross saponins from tribulus terrestris L(GSTTon SOD activity and MDA content for chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit, and discusses the retina oxidative damage inhibition on chronic high intraocular pressure model of rabbit. METHODS:Totally 24 healthy New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group(A group; high intraocular pressure model blank group(B group; high intraocular pressure model with GSTT treated group(C group; high intraocular pressure model with Erigeron brevicapas hand mass(EBHMtreated group(D group. High intraocular pressure model was induced by 20g/L methylcellulose injection into the anterior chamber in B group, C group and D group. D group was injected 5 mg/kg GSTT and C group was injected 4.5mg/kg EBHM and measured intraocular pressure with Schiotz tonometer every day for 4 weeks. The retina tissue superoxide dismutase(SODand maleic dialdehyde(MDAcontent were detected 28 days later. RESULTS: After glaucoma model of rabbit eyes were established, the intraocular pressure during observation period was maintained in 32-39mmHg; High intraocular pressure model blank group and normal control group, EBHM treatment group, GSTT treatment group were compared, the differences of retina MDA, SOD content had statistical significance(P0.05; EBHM treatment group, GSTT treatment group and normal control group were compared, the content of MDA in the retina was still slightly higher(P<0.05, the content of SOD slightly lower(P<0.05 CONCLUSION: GSTT can effectively improve the retina SOD activity of chronic high intraocular pressure in rabbit and reduce the content of MDA, which has a protective effect of persistent high intraocular retinal oxidative stress.

  13. Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD), an antioxidant gene from seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis); molecular cloning, sequence characterization, antioxidant activity and potential peroxidation function of its recombinant protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-10-01

    Copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) from Hippocampus abdominalis (HaCuZnSOD) is a metalloenzyme which belongs to the ubiquitous family of SODs. Here, we determined the characteristic structural features of HaCuZnSOD, analyzed its evolutionary relationships, and identified its potential immune responses and biological functions in relation to antioxidant defense mechanisms in the seahorse. The gene had a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 67 bp, a coding sequence of 465 bp and a 3' UTR of 313 bp. The putative peptide consists of 154 amino acids. HaCuZnSOD had a predicted molecular mass of 15.94 kDa and a theoretical pI value of 5.73, which is favorable for copper binding activity. In silico analysis revealed that HaCuZnSOD had a prominent Cu-Zn_superoxide_dismutase domain, two Cu/Zn signature sequences, a putative N-glycosylation site, and several active sites including Cu(2+) and Zn(2+) binding sites. The three dimensional structure indicated a β-sheet barrel with 8 β-sheets and two short α-helical regions. Multiple alignment analyses revealed many conserved regions and active sites among its orthologs. The highest amino acid identity to HaCuZnSOD was found in Siniperca chuatsi (87.4%), while Maylandia zebra shared a close relationship in the phylogenetic analysis. Functional assays were performed to assess the antioxidant, biophysical and biochemical properties of overexpressed recombinant (r) HaCuZnSOD. A xanthine/XOD assay gave optimum results at pH 9 and 25 °C indicating these may be the best conditions for its antioxidant action in the seahorse. An MTT assay and flow cytometry confirmed that rHaCuZnSOD showed peroxidase activity in the presence of HCO3(-). In all the functional assays, the level of antioxidant activity of rHaCuZnSOD was concentration dependent; metal ion supplementation also increased its activity. The highest mRNA expressional level of HaCuZnSOD was found in blood. Temporal assessment under pathological stress showed a delay

  14. Radioimmunoassay for plasma renin activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay for the determination of renin activity in blood plasma is described. The plasma sample is mixed with a generator buffer solution also containing an inhibitor for enzymes which convert angiotensin I into other substances. The renin in the plasma sample converts angiotensinogen into angiotensin I. The amount of angiotensin I is then measured with a competitive binding method using 125 I-labelled angiotensin I and antibodies to angiotensin I

  15. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N F

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is derived from observations of such waves. However, it is clear on reading the book that such a restriction is not a disadvantage, but allows the author to concentrate on the main theme of the book, namely the use of fluid and particle pictures to model the equilibrium and active states of space plasmas. There are many other books which cover the wave aspects of space plasmas, and would complement this book. The book's coverage is based on the extensive and profound research of the author and his colleagues in the area of fluid and particle modeling of space plasma structures. After an introduction to the physical setting of active plasmas, and a necessarily concise, but effective, discussion of the fluid and particle models to be used, the steady states of the magnetized plasmas of interest are treated, including the magnetosphere, solar plasmas and current sheets. Next the dynamics of unstable states is covered, including MHD and tearing instabilities, and nonlinear aspects, with a detailed discussion of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the models are applied to magnetospheric and solar observations. The book is attractively written and produced, and this reviewer managed to find a minimum number of errors. A particularly attractive

  16. Comparative proteomic analyses reveal that FlbA down-regulates gliT expression and SOD activity in Aspergillus fumigatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Kwang-Soo; Park, Hee-Soo; Kim, Young-Hwan; Yu, Jae-Hyuk

    2013-07-11

    FlbA is a regulator of G-protein signaling protein that plays a central role in attenuating heterotrimeric G-protein mediated vegetative growth signaling in Aspergillus. The deletion of flbA (∆flbA) in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus results in accelerated cell death and autolysis in submerged culture. To further investigate the effects of ∆flbA on intracellular protein levels we carried out 2-D proteome analyses of 2-day old submerged cultures of ∆flbA and wild type (WT) strains and observed 160 differentially expressed proteins. Via nano-LC-ESI-MS/MS analyses, we revealed the identity of 10 and 2 proteins exhibiting high and low level accumulation, respectively, in ∆flbA strain. Notably, the GliT protein is accumulated at about 1800-fold higher levels in ∆flbA than WT. Moreover, GliT is secreted at high levels from ∆flbA strain, whereas Sod1 (superoxide dismutase) is secreted at a higher level in WT. Northern blot analyses reveal that ∆flbA results in elevated accumulation of gliT mRNA. Consequently, ∆flbA strain exhibits enhanced tolerance to gliotoxin toxicity. Finally, ∆flbA strain displayed enhanced SOD activity and elevated resistance to menadione and paraquat. In summary, FlbA-mediated signaling control negatively affects cellular responses associated with detoxification of reactive oxygen species and of exogenous gliotoxin in A. fumigatus. Regulator of G protein Signaling (RGS) proteins play crucial roles in fundamental biological processes in filamentous fungi. FlbA is the first studied filamentous fungal RGS protein, yet much remains to be understood about its roles in the opportunistic human pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. In the present study, we examined the effects of the deletion of flbA using comprehensive analyses of the intra- and extracellular proteomes of A. fumigatus wild type and the flbA deletion mutant. Via MS analyses, we identified 10 proteins exhibiting high level accumulation in the flbA deletion

  17. Hinokitiol Exerts Anticancer Activity through Downregulation of MMPs 9/2 and Enhancement of Catalase and SOD Enzymes: In Vivo Augmentation of Lung Histoarchitecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Hsun Huang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is extremely resistant to chemotherapy and the death rate is increasing hastily worldwide. Extracellular matrix promotes the migration and invasion of tumor cells through the production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9. Evidence has shown that natural dietary antioxidants are capable of inhibiting cancer cell growth. Our recent studies showed that hinokitiol, a natural bioactive compound, inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and platelets aggregation. The present study is to investigate the anticancer efficacy of hinokitiol against B16-F10 melanoma cells via modulating tumor invasion factors MMPs, antioxidant enzymes in vitro. An in vivo mice model of histological investigation was performed to study the patterns of elastic and collagen fibers. Hinokitiol inhibited the expression and activity of MMPs-2 and -9 in B16-F10 melanoma cells, as measured by western blotting and gelatin zymography, respectively. An observed increase in protein expression of MMPs 2/9 in melanoma cells was significantly inhibited by hinokitiol. Notably, hinokitiol (1–5 μM increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT and superoxide dismutase (SOD from the reduction in melanoma cells. Also, hinokitiol (2–10 µM concentration dependently reduced in vitro Fenton reaction induced hydroxyl radical (OH· formation. An in vivo study showed that hinokitiol treatment increased elastic fibers (EF, collagens dispersion, and improved alveolar alterations in the lungs of B16/F10 injected mice. Overall, our findings propose that hinokitiol may be a potent anticancer candidate through down regulation of MMPs 9/2, reduction of OH· production and enhancement of antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT.

  18. Hinokitiol Exerts Anticancer Activity through Downregulation of MMPs 9/2 and Enhancement of Catalase and SOD Enzymes: In Vivo Augmentation of Lung Histoarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chien-Hsun; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran; Chang, Chao-Chien; Fong, Tsorng-Harn; Lu, Shing-Hwa; Thomas, Philip Aloysius; Choy, Cheuk-Sing; Sheu, Joen-Rong

    2015-09-25

    Melanoma is extremely resistant to chemotherapy and the death rate is increasing hastily worldwide. Extracellular matrix promotes the migration and invasion of tumor cells through the production of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and -9. Evidence has shown that natural dietary antioxidants are capable of inhibiting cancer cell growth. Our recent studies showed that hinokitiol, a natural bioactive compound, inhibited vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and platelets aggregation. The present study is to investigate the anticancer efficacy of hinokitiol against B16-F10 melanoma cells via modulating tumor invasion factors MMPs, antioxidant enzymes in vitro. An in vivo mice model of histological investigation was performed to study the patterns of elastic and collagen fibers. Hinokitiol inhibited the expression and activity of MMPs-2 and -9 in B16-F10 melanoma cells, as measured by western blotting and gelatin zymography, respectively. An observed increase in protein expression of MMPs 2/9 in melanoma cells was significantly inhibited by hinokitiol. Notably, hinokitiol (1-5 μM) increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from the reduction in melanoma cells. Also, hinokitiol (2-10 µM) concentration dependently reduced in vitro Fenton reaction induced hydroxyl radical (OH·) formation. An in vivo study showed that hinokitiol treatment increased elastic fibers (EF), collagens dispersion, and improved alveolar alterations in the lungs of B16/F10 injected mice. Overall, our findings propose that hinokitiol may be a potent anticancer candidate through down regulation of MMPs 9/2, reduction of OH· production and enhancement of antioxidant enzymes SOD and CAT.

  19. PPARγ activation abolishes LDL-induced proliferation of human aortic smooth muscle cells via SOD-mediated down-regulation of superoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Kyung-Sun; Kim, Dong-Uk; Ryoo, Sungwoo; Nam, Miyoung; Baek, Seung Tae; Kim, Lila; Park, Song-Kyu; Myung, Chang-Seon; Hoe, Kwang-Lae

    2007-01-01

    Native LDL would be a mitogenic and chemotactic stimulus of VSMC proliferation and differentiation in the atherosclerotic lesion where endothelial disruption occurred. In previous studies, our group investigated the molecular mechanisms by which LDL induces IL-8 production and by which PPARα activation abolishes LDL effects in human aortic SMCs (hAoSMCs). Herein is the first report of PPARγ activation by troglitazone (TG) exerting its inhibitory effects on LDL-induced cell proliferation via generation not of H 2 O 2 , but of O2?-, and the subsequent activation of Erk1/2 in hAoSMCs. Moreover, in this study TG abolished the LDL-accelerated G 1 -S progression to control levels via down-regulation of active cyclinD1/CDK4 and cyclinE/CDK2 complexes and up-regulation of p21 Cip1 expression. TG exerted its anti-proliferative effects through the up-regulation of basal superoxide dismutase (SOD) expression. This data suggests that the regulation of O2?- is located at the crossroads between LDL signaling and cell proliferation

  20. Effect of high dietary zinc on plasma ceruloplasmin and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities in copper-depleted and repleted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panemangalore, M; Bebe, F N

    1996-01-01

    The effect of moderately high dietary zinc (Zn) on the activities of plasma (PL) ceruloplasmin (CP), and PL and erythrocyte (RBC) copper (Cu), Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD) was determined in weanling rats fed Cu-deficient (DEF; CON; 5 mg Cu/kg) copper diets containing normal or high Zn (HZn; 60 mg/kg) for 4 wk and supplemented with oral Cu (CuS; 5 mg/L) in drinking water for 0, 1, 3, or 7 d. PL Cu decreased (67% compared to CON; p DEF and increased to control level after 3 d of CuS; increased in the MAR group after 1 d of CuS. HZn reduced overall PL Cu by 27% in all groups, but did not alter the linear increase in PL Cu between 0 and 3 d of Cu S. PL CP activity altered concomitantly with PL Cu levels: The time course of increase in CP activity after 0-3 d of CuS was not influenced by HZn in the diet and CP declined in the DEF group by 92%. There was no correlation between dietary Cu level and PL CP. PL SOD activity decreased by 46% (p DEF group, increased to control activity after 1 d of CuS and declined slightly after 7 d; MAR diet did not alter PL SOD. HZn diet increased PL SOD activity in all groups by 150%, reduced activity in the DEF and MAR groups by 65 and 37% and delayed the recovery of PL SOD after CuS. RBC SOD declined in the DEF and MAR groups by 56 and 33% (p < or = 0.05) and did not respond to CuS; HZn diet did not influence RBC SOD activity. These data indicate that moderately high Zn in the diet reduces PL Cu, but not PL CP activity or the recovery of PL Cu or CP activity after oral CuS of Cu-deficient rats, modifies the response of PL SOD to dietary Cu, but does not influence RBC SOD activity.

  1. SOD EK60 Active Acoustics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Accurate and precise stock assessments are predicated on accurate and precise estimates of life history parameters, abundance, and catch across the range of the...

  2. Aberrant association of misfolded SOD1 with Na(+)/K(+)ATPase-α3 impairs its activity and contributes to motor neuron vulnerability in ALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruegsegger, Céline; Maharjan, Niran; Goswami, Anand; Filézac de L'Etang, Audrey; Weis, Joachim; Troost, Dirk; Heller, Manfred; Gut, Heinz; Saxena, Smita

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult onset progressive motor neuron disease with no cure. Transgenic mice overexpressing familial ALS associated human mutant SOD1 are a commonly used model for examining disease mechanisms. Presently, it is well accepted that alterations in motor neuron

  3. EFFECTS OF CIGARETTE SMOKING ON ERYTHROCYTE ANTIOXIDATIVE ENZYME ACTIVITIES AND PLASMA CONCENTRATIONS OF THEIR COFACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zahraie

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco smoke contains numerous compounds, many ‎of which are oxidants and capable of producing free radical and enhancing ‎the oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on the erythrocyte antioxidative enzyme activities and the plasma ‎concentration of their cofactors. ‎Sixty eight healthy men were enrolled, 32 of whom had never smoked and 36 had smoked at least 10 cigarettes per day for ‎at least one year. Hemolysate superoxide dismutase (Cu-Zn SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and ‎catalase (CAT activities were measured using spectrophotometer. Plasma copper, zinc and selenium concentrations were determined ‎using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Plasma iron concentration was determined by colorimetric ‎method. We found that erythrocyte Cu-Zn SOD activity was significantly higher in tobacco smokers ‎compared with non-smokers (1294 ± 206.7 U/gHb in smokers vs. 1121.6 ± 237.8 U/gHb in non-‎smokers, P < 0.01. While plasma selenium concentration was significantly lower in tobacco ‎smokers (62.7±14.8 μg/L in smokers vs. 92.1 ± 17.5 μg/L in non-smokers, P < 0.01, there were no significant ‎differences in erythrocyte GSH-Px and CAT activities and plasma copper, zinc and iron concentrations between the two groups. ‎It seems that cigarette smoking can alter antioxidative enzymes activity and plasma concentration of some trace elements.

  4. Protease activity of plasma hemopexin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, WW; Borghuis, T; Harmsen, MC; van den Berg, Anke; Kema, IP; Niezen, KE; Kapojos, JJ

    Background. Previous studies into the relevance of a putative circulating factor in the pathogenesis of minimal change nephrotic syndrome have opened the possibility that plasma hemopexin might be an important effector molecule in this disorder. Thus, intra renal infusion of isolated plasma

  5. Influence of Aging on Plasma Renin Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, K. W.; Kim, S. H.; Kang, S. K.; Choi, H. Y.

    1982-01-01

    Influence of aging on plasma renin activity was evaluated in healthy normotensive subjects(age range 21-63 years, 413 males) devoid of cardiorenal or endocrinological problems. The age-related decrease of plasma renin activity in the subjects between 21-28 years group and 36-42 years group was slight, but over the 43 years groups was significantly different. The age-related suppression of plasma renin activity was much more smooth and continuous all over the age ranges evaluated. The sexual difference in plasma renin activity was noticed between the subjects of 22 years old group (34 males) and 19 years group (34 females) (p<0.003). The data suggest that the age-related suppression of plasma renin activity appeared in healthy normotensive subjects should be considered in the case of evaluation of low renin essential hypertension.

  6. Plasma diamine oxidase activity in asthmatic children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoichiro Toyoshima

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Histamine plays an important role in the development of asthmatic symptoms. Diamine oxidase (DAO histaminase, which inactivates histamine, is located in the intestine and kidney and is released into plasma. Plasma DAO activity in asthmatic children was measured by a recently developed high performance liquid chromatographic method using histamine as the DAO substrate. Diamine oxidase activity was higher in severely asthmatic children than in those with mild asthma. A time course study during the acute exacerbation phase revealed that DAO activity rose during acute asthmatic attacks and then decreased gradually over several days. Although the mechanisms of plasma DAO activity increase during acute asthmatic attacks could not be explained, data showed that plasma DAO activity is an important index of histamine metabolism in asthmatics and may relate to some mechanisms of acute exacerbation of airway inflammation. Consequently, fluctuations in plasma DAO can be used as one of various indices of instability in management of asthma.

  7. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an "adsorption-dilution" effect that blocks FXII contact with hydrophobic activator surfaces. The adsorption-dilution effect explains the apparent specificity for hydrophilic activators pursued by earlier investigators. Finally a comparison of FXII autoactivation in buffer, serum, protein cocktail, and plasma solutions is shown herein. Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. However, activation of factor XII dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not

  8. Maximization of the sod peat load and treatment; Palaturpeen kuormituksen maksimointi ja kaesittely

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkilae, A.; Nurmi, H.; Paappanen, T.; Frilander, P.

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this two year (1994-1995) project was to improve especially the efficiency of sod peat production, carried out using a spreading wagon, by increasing the sod peat load set for the field to value 20 kgDS/m{sup 2} (original value 10-14 kgDS/m{sup 2}), and by studying and developing a collection method for ridging and ridge processing, suitable for high-loads. The research was emphasized to laboratory tests, but some field test were also made. It was possible to increase the sod peat load most accurately to 20 kgDS/m{sup 2} by using wave-like sod peat. The drying speeds of horizontal and vertical wave-like sod peats were near to each other. The functioning of active-sod was rendered by the unevenness of the field. Production of active-sod requires less energy than production of wave-like sod. Horizontal wave-like sod was scaled using Malkov`s drying model, adjusted in cooperation with the researchers of the Russian research centre NIITP to suit better for wave-like sod peat. The best dimensions for wave were calculated for the horizontal wave-like sod using long-term weather conditions data (Pudasjaervi 1971-1990). The picking device of the ridger, developed using laboratory tests, consisted of a grid moving on the field, standing the sod up, above which there is a rotating truncheon coil which transfers the sod along the grid for further processing. The share of the fines by weight, loosened from the field during picking up the sod was 0.5 % of the sod-mass, and the losses were 11 % of the number of the sod. At the driving speed 2.9 km/h the suitable coil rotation speed was about 20 r/min, hence the rotation speed of the truncheons was twice as high as the driving speed

  9. Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the antioxidant genes CAT, GR and SOD1, erythrocyte enzyme activities, dietary and life style factors and breast cancer risk in a Danish, prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Vogel, Ulla; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-01-01

    investigated in 703 breast cancer case-control pairs in the Danish, prospective "Diet, Cancer and Health" cohort together with gene-environment interactions between the polymorphisms, enzyme activities and intake of fruits and vegetables, alcohol and smoking in relation to breast cancer risk. Our results...... showed that genetically determined variations in the antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD1, CAT and GSR were not associated with risk of breast cancer per se. However, intake of alcohol, fruit and vegetables, and smoking status interacted with some of the polymorphisms in relation to breast cancer risk...

  10. Isolated cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in G93A SOD1 mice overexpressing CCS protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Marjatta; Leary, Scot C; Romain, Nadine; Pierrel, Fabien; Winge, Dennis R; Haller, Ronald G; Elliott, Jeffrey L

    2008-05-02

    G93A SOD1 transgenic mice overexpressing CCS protein develop an accelerated disease course that is associated with enhanced mitochondrial pathology and increased mitochondrial localization of mutant SOD1. Because these results suggest an effect of mutant SOD1 on mitochondrial function, we assessed the enzymatic activities of mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes in the spinal cords of CCS/G93A SOD1 and control mice. CCS/G93A SOD1 mouse spinal cord demonstrates a 55% loss of complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) activity compared with spinal cord from age-matched non-transgenic or G93A SOD1 mice. In contrast, CCS/G93A SOD1 spinal cord shows no reduction in the activities of complex I, II, or III. Blue native gel analysis further demonstrates a marked reduction in the levels of complex IV but not of complex I, II, III, or V in spinal cords of CCS/G93A SOD1 mice compared with non-transgenic, G93A SOD1, or CCS/WT SOD1 controls. With SDS-PAGE analysis, spinal cords from CCS/G93A SOD1 mice showed significant decreases in the levels of two structural subunits of cytochrome c oxidase, COX1 and COX5b, relative to controls. In contrast, CCS/G93A SOD1 mouse spinal cord showed no reduction in levels of selected subunits from complexes I, II, III, or V. Heme A analyses of spinal cord further support the existence of cytochrome c oxidase deficiency in CCS/G93A SOD1 mice. Collectively, these results establish that CCS/G93A SOD1 mice manifest an isolated complex IV deficiency which may underlie a substantial part of mutant SOD1-induced mitochondrial cytopathy.

  11. Repair effects of exogenous SOD on Bacillus subtilis against gamma radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaoming; Zhang, E.; Fang, Liu; Zhang, Jianguo; Zhu, Jie; He, Wei; Luo, Xuegang

    2013-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that removes free radicals from cells in many organisms. In order to further characterize these repair effects and their mechanism when subjected to radiation, Bacillus subtilis cells were exposed to gamma radiation and the cell survival rate, intracellular SOD activity, and DNA double-strand breakage were investigated. Vegetative cells of B. subtilis were irradiated by 60 Co gamma radiation at varying doses and subsequently exposed to varying levels of exogenous SOD. Standard plate-count, xanthine oxidase, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) methods were employed to investigate the repair effects. The results showed that the exogenous SOD could significantly improve cell survival rate and intracellular SOD activity after gamma radiation. The cell survival rate was elevated 30–87 times above levels observed in control samples. Adding exogenous SOD into gamma irradiated cells may dramatically increase intracellular SOD activity (p 60 Co γ radiation and exposed to exogenous SOD. • Adding exogenous SOD into γ-irradiated cells may dramatically increase cell survival rate. • DNA strand scission may be prevented by addition of SOD. • Exogenous SOD may have the ability to repair cell damage after γ-rays radiation

  12. Article Expression, Purification, and Characterization of Cu/ZnSOD from Panax Ginseng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayong Ding

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD has a strong antioxidant effect, but the traditional SOD extraction method is not the most efficient method of SOD amplification. In this study, we report the cloning of the Cu/ZnSOD gene from Panax ginseng into a temperature-regulated expression plasmid, pBV220. Cu/ZnSOD inclusion bodies were expressed in E. coli at a high level. Then, the inclusion bodies were purified by ion-exchange chromatography and molecular sieve chromatography. Finally, we obtained stable SOD in the bacterial broth, with a protein content of 965 mg/L and enzyme specific activity of 9389.96 U/mg. These results provide a foundation for future studies on the antioxidant mechanisms of ginseng and the development and application of ginseng Cu/ZnSOD.

  13. Influence of percutaneous stimulation of hepatic region with mid-frequency pulse current on the activity of serum GSH-PX, SOD, T-AOC and the content of malondialdehyde in exercise-induced fatigued soldiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-yi DAI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To explore the influence of percutaneous stimulation of the hepatic region with mid-frequency pulsed current on the serum activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, superoxide dismutase (SOD and total antioxidant capacity and content of malondialdehyde (MDA in exercise-induced fatigued soldiers. Methods  Sixty healthy male recruits without training history were randomly divided into control group and stimulation group (n=30. Subjects in both groups received intensive training for 5 weeks (trained from Monday to Saturday, and rest on Sunday to establish an exercise-induced fatigue model. The recruits in stimulation group received rehabilitation therapy of percutaneous stimulation of the hepatic region with mid-frequency pulse current (frequency was 1024Hz, dynamic cycle 1s, stimulation time 20min, output intensity ≤80mA after the training immediately. In every Sunday morning of the 1st, 3rd and 5th week, venous blood samples were obtained from recruits of both groups for determination of the serum activity of GSH-PX, SOD and T-AOC and content of MDA. Results  In both groups, the serum activity of GSH-PX and T-AOC on 5th weekend was lower than that of 1st and 3rd weekends, and the serum activity of GSH-PX and T-AOC on 3rd weekend was lower than that of 1st weekend (P0.05; the serum MDA content on 5th weekend was higher than that of 3rd and 1st weekends, and the content on 3rd weekend was higher than that of 1st weekend (P<0.01. The activity of GSH-PX, SOD and T-AOC increased and the MDA content decreased on 1st, 3rd and 5th weekends in stimulation group when compared with control group (P<0.05, P<0.01. Conclusions  The percutaneous stimulation of the hepatic region by mid-frequency pulsed current in exercise-induced fatigued soldiers may improve the activity of antioxidant enzymes in the liver, enhance the function of antioxidant system, promote free radical scavenging, delay the occurrence of and promote the recovery from

  14. Altered Phenotypes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Heterologous Expression of Basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa SOD2 Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia C. Melo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Heterologous expression of a putative manganese superoxide dismutase gene (SOD2 of the basidiomycete Moniliophthora perniciosa complemented the phenotypes of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae sod2Δ mutant. Sequence analysis of the cloned M. perniciosa cDNA revealed an open reading frame (ORF coding for a 176 amino acid polypeptide with the typical metal-binding motifs of a SOD2 gene, named MpSOD2. Phylogenetic comparison with known manganese superoxide dismutases (MnSODs located the protein of M. perniciosa (MpSod2p in a clade with the basidiomycete fungi Coprinopsis cinerea and Laccaria bicolor. Haploid wild-type yeast transformants containing a single copy of MpSOD2 showed increased resistance phenotypes against oxidative stress-inducing hydrogen peroxide and paraquat, but had unaltered phenotype against ultraviolet–C (UVC radiation. The same transformants exhibited high sensitivity against treatment with the pro-mutagen diethylnitrosamine (DEN that requires oxidation to become an active mutagen/carcinogen. Absence of MpSOD2 in the yeast sod2Δ mutant led to DEN hyper-resistance while introduction of a single copy of this gene restored the yeast wild-type phenotype. The haploid yeast wild-type transformant containing two SOD2 gene copies, one from M. perniciosa and one from its own, exhibited DEN super-sensitivity. This transformant also showed enhanced growth at 37 °C on the non-fermentable carbon source lactate, indicating functional expression of MpSod2p. The pro-mutagen dihydroethidium (DHE-based fluorescence assay monitored basal level of yeast cell oxidative stress. Compared to the wild type, the yeast sod2Δ mutant had a much higher level of intrinsic oxidative stress, which was reduced to wild type (WT level by introduction of one copy of the MpSOD2 gene. Taken together our data indicates functional expression of MpSod2 protein in the yeast S. cerevisiae.

  15. Interleukin-6, Creatine Kinase, and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities following Platelet-Rich Plasma Treatment on Muscle Injury: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingling Lai

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP treatment alongside rehabilitation compared with rehabilitation alone on inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6, IL-6, creatine kinase muscle type (CKM, and antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT following hamstring injury. This study was a randomised control trial. Participants diagnosed with grade-2 acute hamstring injury (n=16 were divided into 2 groups of PRP treatment with rehabilitation program (PRP-T and rehabilitation program (CON. Blood samples were collected at baseline, and 2 fortnightly for the various biochemical assessments. Participants were certified to have recovered upon fulfilling return to play (RTP criteria. Level of IL-6 and the activities of CKM, SOD, and CAT were measured. PRP-T group benefited from earlier time to RTP with significantly lower IL-6 level and CAT activity compared to CON group. There was no significant difference in CKM and SOD activities between the groups, though a trend of lower values in all variables was observed at week 4 compared to week 0. PRP treatment potentially improves muscle healing process by altering both the inflammatory and oxidative responses, hence hastens time to RTP. KEY WORDS:  Autologous, blood injection, rehabilitation, sports injury, hamstring injury

  16. U.S. Burning Plasma Organization Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: (1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; (2) activation of the advisory Council; (3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; (4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; (5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  17. Status of plasma physics research activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masoud, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    The status of plasma physics research activities in Egypt is reviewed. There are nine institutes with plasma research activities. The largest is the Atomic energy Authority (AEA), which has activities in fundamental plasma studies, fusion technology, plasma and laser applications, and plasma simulation. The experiments include Theta Pinches, a Z Pinch, a coaxial discharge, a glow discharge, a CO 2 laser, and the EGYPTOR tokamak. (author)

  18. ATM is required for SOD2 expression and homeostasis within the mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyer, Lisa M; Kepple, Jessica D; Ai, Lingbao; Kim, Wan-Ju; Stanton, Virginia L; Reinhard, Mary K; Backman, Lindsey R F; Streitfeld, W Scott; Babu, Nivetha Ramesh; Treiber, Nicolai; Scharffetter-Kochanek, Karin; McKinnon, Peter J; Brown, Kevin D

    2017-12-01

    ATM activates the NF-κB transcriptional complex in response to genotoxic and oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to examine if the NF-κB target gene and critical antioxidant SOD2 (MnSOD) in cultured mammary epithelium is also ATM-dependent, and what phenotypes arise from deletion of ATM and SOD2 within the mammary gland. SOD2 expression was studied in human mammary epithelial cells and MCF10A using RNAi to knockdown ATM or the NF-κB subunit RelA. To study ATM and SOD2 function in mammary glands, mouse lines containing Atm or Sod2 genes containing LoxP sites were mated with mice harboring Cre recombinase under the control of the whey acidic protein promoter. Quantitative PCR was used to measure gene expression, and mammary gland structure was studied using histology. SOD2 expression is ATM- and RelA-dependent, ATM knockdown renders cells sensitive to pro-oxidant exposure, and SOD mimetics partially rescue this sensitivity. Mice with germline deletion of Atm fail to develop mature mammary glands, but using a conditional knockout approach, we determined that Atm deletion significantly diminished the expression of Sod2. We also observed that these mice (termed Atm Δ/Δ ) displayed a progressive lactation defect as judged by reduced pup growth rate, aberrant lobulo-alveolar structure, diminished milk protein gene expression, and increased apoptosis within lactating glands. This phenotype appears to be linked to dysregulated Sod2 expression as mammary gland-specific deletion of Sod2 phenocopies defects observed in Atm Δ/Δ dams. We conclude that ATM is required to promote expression of SOD2 within the mammary epithelium, and that both ATM and SOD2 play a crucial role in mammary gland homeostasis.

  19. Screening of a clinically and biochemically diagnosed SOD patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The disease follows an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance and causes deficiency in the activity of sulfite oxidase, an enzyme that normally catalyzes conversion of sulfite to sulfate. Aim of the study: SOD is an underdiagnosed disorder and its diagnosis can be difficult in young infants as early clinical features and ...

  20. Short and long time effects of low temperature Plasma Activated Media on 3D multicellular tumor spheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judée, Florian; Fongia, Céline; Ducommun, Bernard; Yousfi, Mohammed; Lobjois, Valérie; Merbahi, Nofel

    2016-02-01

    This work investigates the regionalized antiproliferative effects of plasma-activated medium (PAM) on colon adenocarcinoma multicellular tumor spheroid (MCTS), a model that mimics 3D organization and regionalization of a microtumor region. PAM was generated by dielectric barrier plasma jet setup crossed by helium carrier gas. MCTS were transferred in PAM at various times after plasma exposure up to 48 hours and effect on MCTS growth and DNA damage were evaluated. We report the impact of plasma exposure duration and delay before transfer on MCTS growth and DNA damage. Local accumulation of DNA damage revealed by histone H2AX phosphorylation is observed on outermost layers and is dependent on plasma exposure. DNA damage is completely reverted by catalase addition indicating that H2O2 plays major role in observed genotoxic effect while growth inhibitory effect is maintained suggesting that it is due to others reactive species. SOD and D-mannitol scavengers also reduced DNA damage by 30% indicating that and OH* are involved in H2O2 formation. Finally, PAM is able to retain its cytotoxic and genotoxic activity upon storage at +4 °C or -80 °C. These results suggest that plasma activated media may be a promising new antitumor strategy for colorectal cancer tumors.

  1. Comparison of anti-oxidant enzymes activity and levels of zinc and selenium in sperm and seminal plasma between fertile and idiopathic infertile men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi Kharazi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reactive oxygen species (ROS-induced lipidperoxidation can lead to dysfunction of sperm and thereby, infertility may be occurred. So, always there is a balance between amount of ROS and anti-oxidant molecules in semen. Anti-oxidant enzymes of sperm; superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPX, catalse and zinc and selenium can protect it from destructive effects of ROS. Hence, the present study was designed to compare the activities of these enzymes and trace elements between fertile and idiopathic infertile men.Methods: Semen specimens were collected from 30 infertile men with proven infertility by an urologist, and 30 fertile men as control donors, with age range between 20-40 years old. Semen analysis was conducted by CASA method. Atomic absorption method was used for measuring of zinc and selenium concentration. Activity assays of SOD and GPX were performed by Randox Kits. Aebi method also was applied for evaluation of catalase activity.Results: There was no difference between the activities of enzymes in fertile men and infertile ones. Also, it wasn't seen any difference in the selenium and zinc levels of seminal plasma. There was no relationship between evaluated items with sperm parameters. Only, in asthenoteratospermic individuals negative correlations were found between GPX and sperm motility, selenium and sperm morphology. Also, in these individuals ,there was a positive correlation between SOD and catalse activity.Conclusion: Measuring activities of SOD, GPx, and catalase and the contents of zinc and selenium of seminal plasma do not appear to be suitable tools for determining the fertility potential of sperm.

  2. Biochar activated by oxygen plasma for supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rakesh Kumar; Dubey, Mukul; Kharel, Parashu; Gu, Zhengrong; Fan, Qi Hua

    2015-01-01

    Biochar, also known as black carbon, is a byproduct of biomass pyrolysis. As a low-cost, environmental-friendly material, biochar has the potential to replace more expensive synthesized carbon nanomaterials (e.g. carbon nanotubes) for use in future supercapacitors. To achieve high capacitance, biochar requires proper activation. A conventional approach involves mixing biochar with a strong base and baking at a high temperature. However, this process is time consuming and energy inefficient (requiring temperatures >900 °C). This work demonstrates a low-temperature (characteristics are studied. Significant enhancement of the capacitance is achieved: 171.4 F g-1 for a 5-min oxygen plasma activation, in comparison to 99.5 F g-1 for a conventional chemical activation and 60.4 F g-1 for untreated biochar. This enhancement of the charge storage capacity is attributed to the creation of a broad distribution in pore size and a larger surface area. The plasma activation mechanisms in terms of the evolution of the biochar surface and microstructure are further discussed.

  3. FDIC Summary of Deposits (SOD) Download File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation — The FDIC's Summary of Deposits (SOD) download file contains deposit data for branches and offices of all FDIC-insured institutions. The Federal Deposit Insurance...

  4. The TrkAIII oncoprotein inhibits mitochondrial free radical ROS-induced death of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by augmenting SOD2 expression and activity at the mitochondria, within the context of a tumour stem cell-like phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierdomenico Ruggeri

    Full Text Available The developmental and stress-regulated alternative TrkAIII splice variant of the NGF receptor TrkA is expressed by advanced stage human neuroblastomas (NBs, correlates with worse outcome in high TrkA expressing unfavourable tumours and exhibits oncogenic activity in NB models. In the present study, we report that constitutive TrkAIII expression in human SH-SY5Y NB cells inhibits Rotenone, Paraquat and LY83583-induced mitochondrial free radical reactive oxygen species (ROS-mediated death by stimulating SOD2 expression, increasing mitochondrial SOD2 activity and attenuating mitochondrial free radical ROS production, in association with increased mitochondrial capacity to produce H2O2, within the context of a more tumour stem cell-like phenotype. This effect can be reversed by the specific TrkA tyrosine kinase inhibitor GW441756, by the multi-kinase TrkA inhibitors K252a, CEP-701 and Gö6976, which inhibit SOD2 expression, and by siRNA knockdown of SOD2 expression, which restores the sensitivity of TrkAIII expressing SH-SY5Y cells to Rotenone, Paraquat and LY83583-induced mitochondrial free radical ROS production and ROS-mediated death. The data implicate the novel TrkAIII/SOD2 axis in promoting NB resistance to mitochondrial free radical-mediated death and staminality, and suggest that the combined use of TrkAIII and/or SOD2 inhibitors together with agents that induce mitochondrial free radical ROS-mediated death could provide a therapeutic advantage that may also target the stem cell niche in high TrkA expressing unfavourable NB.

  5. Post activation depression of the Ia EPSP in motoneurones is reduced in both aged mice and in the G127X SOD1 model of Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Anne; Lehnhoff, Janna; Moldovan, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Post Activation Depression (PActD) is a long lasting depression of Ia afferent EPSPs in response to repetitive activation. This is of clinical relevance given its consistent reduction across a range of spastic disorders. We used in vivo intracellular recording in mice to explore changes in PAct...... or tibial nerves. The stimulation was then reduced to below spike threshold to visualise the monosynaptic EPSP. A 20Hz train of 4 EPSPs was followed by a test EPSP with a varied time delay with respect to the train. Depression was expressed as the size of the test EPSP with respect to the first EPSP...... of the train. PActD in mice was similar to that observed in larger animals by Hultborn et al. (1996) with respect to both the magnitude and the time course (~79% at the 0.5sec time interval gradually diminishing to 100% by the 4sec interval). The following values are means±SD at the 0.5sec interval...

  6. Defects in TLR3 expression and RNase L activation lead to decreased MnSOD expression and insulin resistance in muscle cells of obese people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabre, Odile Martine Julie; Breuker, C; Amouzou, C

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and oxidative stress that blunt insulin response in its target tissues, leading to insulin resistance (IR). IR is a characteristic feature of type 2 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is responsible for 75% of total insulin-dependent glucose uptake...... with palmitate, a saturated free fatty acid (FFA) known to induce inflammation and oxidative stress via TLR4 activation. While RNase L and RLI levels remained unchanged, OAS level was decreased in primary myotubes from insulin-resistant obese subjects (OB-IR) compared with myotubes from insulin-sensitive obese......; consequently, skeletal muscle IR is considered to be the primary defect of systemic IR development. Interestingly, some obese people stay insulin-sensitive and metabolically healthy. With the aim of understanding this difference and identifying the mechanisms responsible for insulin sensitivity maintenance...

  7. ALS mutant SOD1 interacts with G3BP1 and affects stress granule dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal, Jozsef; Kuang, Lisha; Barnett, Kelly R; Zhu, Brian Z; Shissler, Susannah C; Korotkov, Konstantin V; Hayward, Lawrence J; Kasarskis, Edward J; Zhu, Haining

    2016-10-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) are responsible for approximately 20 % of the familial ALS cases. ALS-causing SOD1 mutants display a gain-of-toxicity phenotype, but the nature of this toxicity is still not fully understood. The Ras GTPase-activating protein-binding protein G3BP1 plays a critical role in stress granule dynamics. Alterations in the dynamics of stress granules have been reported in several other forms of ALS unrelated to SOD1. To our surprise, the mutant G93A SOD1 transgenic mice exhibited pathological cytoplasmic inclusions that co-localized with G3BP1-positive granules in spinal cord motor neurons. The co-localization was also observed in fibroblast cells derived from familial ALS patient carrying SOD1 mutation L144F. Mutant SOD1, unlike wild-type SOD1, interacted with G3BP1 in an RNA-independent manner. Moreover, the interaction is specific for G3BP1 since mutant SOD1 showed little interaction with four other RNA-binding proteins implicated in ALS. The RNA-binding RRM domain of G3BP1 and two particular phenylalanine residues (F380 and F382) are critical for this interaction. Mutant SOD1 delayed the formation of G3BP1- and TIA1-positive stress granules in response to hyperosmolar shock and arsenite treatment in N2A cells. In summary, the aberrant mutant SOD1-G3BP1 interaction affects stress granule dynamics, suggesting a potential link between pathogenic SOD1 mutations and RNA metabolism alterations in ALS.

  8. Increased Zn/Glutathione Levels and Higher Superoxide Dismutase-1 Activity as Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in Women with Long-Term Dental Amalgam Fillings: Correlation between Mercury/Aluminium Levels (in Hair) and Antioxidant Systems in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabaña-Muñoz, María Eugenia; Parmigiani-Izquierdo, José María; Bravo-González, Luis Alberto; Kyung, Hee-Moon; Merino, José Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Background The induction of oxidative stress by Hg can affect antioxidant enzymes. However, epidemiological studies have failed to establish clear association between dental fillings presence and health problems. Objectives To determine whether heavy metals (in hair), antioxidant enzymes (SOD-1) and glutathione levels could be affected by the chronic presence of heavy metals in women who had dental amalgam fillings. Materials and Methods 55 hair samples (42 females with amalgam fillings and 13 female control subjects) were obtained. All subjects (mean age 44 years) who had dental amalgam filling for more than 10 years (average 15 years). Certain metals were quantified by ICP-MS (Mass Spectrophotometry) in hair (μg/g: Al, Hg, Ba, Ag, Sb, As, Be, Bi, Cd, Pb, Pt, Tl, Th, U, Ni, Sn, Ti) and SOD-1 and Glutathione (reduced form) levels in plasma. Data were compared with controls without amalgams, and analyzed to identify any significant relation between metals and the total number of amalgam fillings, comparing those with four or less (n = 27) with those with more than four (n = 15). As no significant differences were detected, the two groups were pooled (Amlgam; n = 42). Findings Hg, Ag, Al and Ba were higher in the amalgam group but without significant differences for most of the heavy metals analyzed. Increased SOD-1 activity and glutathione levels (reduced form) were observed in the amalgam group. Aluminum (Al) correlated with glutathione levels while Hg levels correlated with SOD-1. The observed Al/glutathione and Hg/SOD-1 correlation could be adaptive responses against the chronic presence of mercury. Conclusions Hg, Ag, Al and Ba levels increased in women who had dental amalgam fillings for long periods. Al correlated with glutathione, and Hg with SOD-1. SOD-1 may be a possible biomarker for assessing chronic Hg toxicity. PMID:26076368

  9. Molecular Cloning, Characterization and Predicted Structure of a Putative Copper-Zinc SOD from the Camel, Camelus dromedarius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajamaluddin Malik

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase (SOD is the first line of defense against oxidative stress induced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. Its activity is related to many diseases; so, it is of importance to study the structure and expression of SOD gene in an animal naturally exposed most of its life to the direct sunlight as a cause of oxidative stress. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius is adapted to the widely varying desert climatic conditions that extremely changes during daily life in the Arabian Gulf. Studying the cSOD1 in C. dromedarius could help understand the impact of exposure to direct sunlight and desert life on the health status of such mammal. The full coding region of a putative CuZnSOD gene of C. dromedarius (cSOD1 was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and cloned for the first time (gene bank accession number for nucleotides and amino acids are JF758876 and AEF32527, respectively. The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 459 nucleotides encoding a protein of 153 amino acids which is equal to the coding region of SOD1 gene and protein from many organisms. The calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of cSOD1 was 15.7 kDa and 6.2, respectively. The level of expression of cSOD1 in different camel tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and testis was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cSOD1 transcript was found in the camel liver (represented as 100% followed by testis (45%, kidney (13%, lung (11% and spleen (10%, using 18S ribosomal subunit as endogenous control. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high similarity with Cebus apella (90%, Sus scrofa (88%, Cavia porcellus (88%, Mus musculus (88%, Macaca mulatta (87%, Pan troglodytes (87%, Homo sapiens (87%, Canis familiaris (86%, Bos taurus (86%, Pongo abelii (85% and Equus caballus (82%. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cSOD1 is grouped together with S. scrofa. The

  10. Molecular cloning, characterization and predicted structure of a putative copper-zinc SOD from the camel, Camelus dromedarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ataya, Farid S; Fouad, Dalia; Al-Olayan, Ebtsam; Malik, Ajamaluddin

    2012-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is the first line of defense against oxidative stress induced by endogenous and/or exogenous factors and thus helps in maintaining the cellular integrity. Its activity is related to many diseases; so, it is of importance to study the structure and expression of SOD gene in an animal naturally exposed most of its life to the direct sunlight as a cause of oxidative stress. Arabian camel (one humped camel, Camelus dromedarius) is adapted to the widely varying desert climatic conditions that extremely changes during daily life in the Arabian Gulf. Studying the cSOD1 in C. dromedarius could help understand the impact of exposure to direct sunlight and desert life on the health status of such mammal. The full coding region of a putative CuZnSOD gene of C. dromedarius (cSOD1) was amplified by reverse transcription PCR and cloned for the first time (gene bank accession number for nucleotides and amino acids are JF758876 and AEF32527, respectively). The cDNA sequencing revealed an open reading frame of 459 nucleotides encoding a protein of 153 amino acids which is equal to the coding region of SOD1 gene and protein from many organisms. The calculated molecular weight and isoelectric point of cSOD1 was 15.7 kDa and 6.2, respectively. The level of expression of cSOD1 in different camel tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, lung and testis) was examined using Real Time-PCR. The highest level of cSOD1 transcript was found in the camel liver (represented as 100%) followed by testis (45%), kidney (13%), lung (11%) and spleen (10%), using 18S ribosomal subunit as endogenous control. The deduced amino acid sequence exhibited high similarity with Cebus apella (90%), Sus scrofa (88%), Cavia porcellus (88%), Mus musculus (88%), Macaca mulatta (87%), Pan troglodytes (87%), Homo sapiens (87%), Canis familiaris (86%), Bos taurus (86%), Pongo abelii (85%) and Equus caballus (82%). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that cSOD1 is grouped together with S. scrofa. The

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Nanoparticles Made from Co-Incubation of SOD and Glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Cai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The attractive potential of natural superoxide dismutase (SOD in the fields of medicine and functional food is limited by its short half-life in circulation and poor permeability across the cell membrane. The nanoparticle form of SOD might overcome these limitations. However, most preparative methods have disadvantages, such as complicated operation, a variety of reagents—some of them even highly toxic—and low encapsulation efficiency or low release rate. The aim of this study is to present a simple and green approach for the preparation of SOD nanoparticles (NPs by means of co-incubation of Cu/Zn SOD with glucose. This method was designed to prepare nanoscale aggregates based on the possible inhibitory effect of Maillard reaction on heating-induced aggregation during the co-incubation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE results indicated that the Maillard reaction occurred during the co-incubation process. It was found that enzymatically active NPs of Cu/Zn SOD were simultaneously generated during the reaction, with an average particle size of 175.86 ± 0.71 nm, and a Zeta potential of −17.27 ± 0.59 mV, as established by the measurement of enzymatic activity, observations using field emission scanning electron microscope, and analysis of dynamic light scattering, respectively. The preparative conditions for the SOD NPs were optimized by response surface design to increase SOD activity 20.43 fold. These SOD NPs showed storage stability for 25 days and better cell uptake efficacy than natural SOD. Therefore, these NPs of SOD are expected to be a potential drug candidate or functional food factor. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the preparation of nanoparticles possessing the bioactivity of the graft component protein, using the simple and green approach of co-incubation with glucose, which occurs frequently in the food industry during thermal processing.

  12. The impact of partial manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2)-deficiency on mitochondrial oxidant stress, DNA fragmentation and liver injury during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramachandran, Anup; Lebofsky, Margitta; Weinman, Steven A.; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2011-01-01

    Acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity is the most frequent cause of acute liver failure in many countries. The mechanism of cell death is initiated by formation of a reactive metabolite that binds to mitochondrial proteins and promotes mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidant stress. Manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) is a critical defense enzyme located in the mitochondrial matrix. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the functional consequences of partial SOD2-deficiency (SOD2+/-) on intracellular signaling mechanisms of necrotic cell death after APAP overdose. Treatment of C57Bl/6J wild type animals with 200 mg/kg APAP resulted in liver injury as indicated by elevated plasma alanine aminotransferase activities (2870 ± 180 U/L) and centrilobular necrosis at 6 h. In addition, increased tissue glutathione disulfide (GSSG) levels and GSSG-to-GSH ratios, delayed mitochondrial GSH recovery, and increased mitochondrial protein carbonyls and nitrotyrosine protein adducts indicated mitochondrial oxidant stress. In addition, nuclear DNA fragmentation (TUNEL assay) correlated with translocation of Bax to the mitochondria and release of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Furthermore, activation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) was documented by the mitochondrial translocation of phospho-JNK. SOD2+/- mice showed 4-fold higher ALT activities and necrosis, an enhancement of all parameters of the mitochondrial oxidant stress, more AIF release and more extensive DNA fragmentation and more prolonged JNK activation. Conclusions: the impaired defense against mitochondrial superoxide formation in SOD2+/- mice prolongs JNK activation after APAP overdose and consequently further enhances the mitochondrial oxidant stress leading to exaggerated mitochondrial dysfunction, release of intermembrane proteins with nuclear DNA fragmentation and more necrosis.

  13. Characterization of recombinant B. abortus strain RB51SOD towards understanding the uncorrelated innate and adaptive immune responses induced by RB51SOD compared to its parent vaccine strain RB51

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo eZhu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Brucella abortus is a Gram-negative, facultative intracellular pathogen for several mammals, including humans. Live attenuated B. abortus strain RB51 is currently the official vaccine used against bovine brucellosis in the United States and several other countries. Overexpression of protective B. abortus antigen Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD in a recombinant strain of RB51 (strain RB51SOD significantly increases its vaccine efficacy against virulent B. abortus challenge in a mouse model. An attempt has been made to better understand the mechanism of the enhanced protective immunity of RB51SOD compared to its parent strain RB51. We previously reported that RB51SOD stimulated enhanced Th1 immune response. In this study, we further found that T effector cells derived from RB51SOD-immunized mice exhibited significantly higher cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL activity than T effector cells derived from RB51-immunized mice against virulent B. abortus-infected target cells. Meanwhile, the macrophage responses to these two strains were also studied. Compared to RB51, RB51SOD cells had a lower survival rate in macrophages and induced lower levels of macrophage apoptosis and necrosis. The decreased survival of RB51SOD cells correlates with the higher sensitivity of RB51SOD, compared to RB51, to the bactericidal action of either Polymyxin B or sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS. Furthermore, a physical damage to the outer membrane of RB51SOD was observed by electron microscopy. Possibly due to the physical damage, overexpressed Cu/Zn SOD in RB51SOD was found to be released into the bacterial cell culture medium. Therefore, the stronger adaptive immunity induced by RB51SOD did not correlate with the low level of innate immunity induced by RB51SOD compared to RB51. This unique and apparently contradictory profile is likely associated with the differences in outer membrane integrity and Cu/Zn SOD release.

  14. Imaging of glial cell morphology, SOD1 distribution and elemental composition in the brainstem and hippocampus of the ALS hSOD1G93A rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamenković, Stefan; Dučić, Tanja; Stamenković, Vera; Kranz, Alexander; Andjus, Pavle R

    2017-08-15

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor and cognitive domains of the CNS. Mutations in the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause 20% of familial ALS and provoke formation of intracellular aggregates and copper and zinc unbinding, leading to glial activation and neurodegeneration. Therefore, we investigated glial cell morphology, intracellular SOD1 distribution, and elemental composition in the brainstem and hippocampus of the hSOD1 G93A transgenic rat model of ALS. Immunostaining for astrocytes, microglia and SOD1 revealed glial proliferation and progressive tissue accumulation of SOD1 in both brain regions of ALS rats starting already at the presymptomatic stage. Glial cell morphology analysis in the brainstem of ALS rats revealed astrocyte activation occurring before disease symptoms onset, followed by activation of microglia. Hippocampal ALS astrocytes exhibited an identical reactive profile, while microglial morphology was unchanged. Additionally, ALS brainstem astrocytes demonstrated progressive SOD1 accumulation in the cell body and processes, while microglial SOD1 levels were reduced and its distribution limited to distal cell processes. In the hippocampus both glial cell types exhibited SOD1 accumulation in the cell body. X-ray fluorescence imaging revealed decreased P and increased Ca, Cl, K, Ni, Cu and Zn in the brainstem, and higher levels of Cl, Ni and Cu, but lower levels of Zn in the hippocampus of symptomatic ALS rats. These results bring new insights into the glial response during disease development and progression in motor as well as in non-motor CNS structures, and indicate disturbed tissue elemental homeostasis as a prominent hallmark of disease pathology. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma Renin Activity in Diabetes Mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyo, Heui Jung; Park Jung Sik; Kim, Sung Kwon; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Jung Sang; Lee, Mun Ho

    1979-01-01

    To evaluate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in diabetes mellitus, basal plasma renin activity (PRA) and its response to intravenous furosemide were determined in 40 diabetic subjects. The diabetics were divided into 4 groups according to the presence of nephropathy and/or hypertension. Uncomplicated diabetics (Group I) were taken as control group and the results of the other groups were compared to this group. In diabetics with nephropathy alone (Group II), and with nephropathy and hypertension (Group III), basal PRA values were 0.63±0.59 ng/ml/hr., and 0.79±0.62 ng/ml/hr., respectively, both significantly lower than control group. (1.53±1.09 ng/ml/hr.). (p<0.05) In both of the above groups, the responses to intravenous furosemide tended to be blunted. On the other hand, in diabetics, with hypertension only (Group IV), the basal and stimulated PRA were not significantly different from control. Above results suggests that nephropathy may be one of the factors which suppress renin activity in diabetes mellitus

  16. Plasma Renin Activity in Diabetes Mellitus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pyo, Heui Jung; Sik, Park Jung; Kim, Sung Kwon; Choi, Kang Won; Lee, Jung Sang; Lee, Mun Ho [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-03-15

    To evaluate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in diabetes mellitus, basal plasma renin activity (PRA) and its response to intravenous furosemide were determined in 40 diabetic subjects. The diabetics were divided into 4 groups according to the presence of nephropathy and/or hypertension. Uncomplicated diabetics (Group I) were taken as control group and the results of the other groups were compared to this group. In diabetics with nephropathy alone (Group II), and with nephropathy and hypertension (Group III), basal PRA values were 0.63+-0.59 ng/ml/hr., and 0.79+-0.62 ng/ml/hr., respectively, both significantly lower than control group. (1.53+-1.09 ng/ml/hr.). (p<0.05) In both of the above groups, the responses to intravenous furosemide tended to be blunted. On the other hand, in diabetics, with hypertension only (Group IV), the basal and stimulated PRA were not significantly different from control. Above results suggests that nephropathy may be one of the factors which suppress renin activity in diabetes mellitus

  17. Tissue and plasma enzyme activities in juvenile green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R A; Wetzel, R

    1999-02-01

    To determine activities of intracellular enzymes in 8 major organs in juvenile green iguanas and to compare tissue and plasma activities. 6 green iguanas iguanas, but high values may not always indicate overt muscle disease. The AMS activity may be specific for the pancreas, but the wide range of plasma activity would likely limit its diagnostic usefulness. Activities of AST and LDH may reflect tissue damage or inflammation, but probably do not reflect damage to specific tissues or organs.

  18. Influence of radiation damage repair inhibitor on superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) in different sensitive crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Daojun; Xu Dengyi; Wan Zhaoliang; He Shoulin

    1997-01-01

    The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were affected remarkably by 60 Co γ-ray irradiation and radiation damage repair inhibitor (Caf, EDTA). SOD, CAT and POD activities showed the similar change pattern in both soybean (sensitive to radiation) and Brassica napus L. (resistant to radiation) seedlings in all treatments. After reaching the maximum value, SOD activity decreased with the increase of doses. CAT activity had the same change pattern as that of SOD in soybean, while with Brassica napus L., CAT activity remained relatively steady from 300 Gy to 1000 Gy. And POD activity increased with the increase of doses. Compared with H 2 O-treatments, CaF, EDAT post-treatments obviously enhanced SOD, CAT and POD activities. With all the treatments, the three enzyme activities were higher in Brassica napus L. than those in soybean seedlings

  19. Cysteine peroxidase activity in rat blood plasma | Razygraev ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rat plasma found to be able to accelerate greatly the H2O2-dependent oxidation of cysteine. The activity was a characteristic of a protein fraction precipitated at 30—44% ammonium sulfate saturation, and the specific activity in protein fraction was significantly higher than in plasma. Cysteine:H2O2 oxidoreductase ...

  20. Association between single nucleotide polymorphisms in the antioxidant genes CAT, GR and SOD1, erythrocyte enzyme activities, dietary and life style factors and breast cancer risk in a Danish, prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kopp, Tine Iskov; Vogel, Ulla; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to estrogens and alcohol consumption - the two only well-established risk factors for breast cancer - are capable of causing oxidative stress, which has been linked to progression of breast cancer. Here, five functional polymorphisms in the antioxidant genes SOD1, CAT and GSR were...

  1. Effect of CCS on the accumulation of FALS SOD1 mutant-containing aggregates and on mitochondrial translocation of SOD1 mutants: implication of a free radical hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha Kun; Chung, Youn Wook; Chock, P Boon; Yim, Moon B

    2011-05-15

    Missense mutations of SOD1 are linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) through a yet-to-be identified toxic-gain-of-function. One of the proposed mechanisms involves enhanced aggregate formation. However, a recent study showed that dual transgenic mice overexpressing both G93A and CCS copper chaperone (G93A/CCS) exhibit no SOD1-positive aggregates yet show accelerated FALS symptoms with enhanced mitochondrial pathology compared to G93A mice. Using a dicistronic mRNA to simultaneously generate hSOD1 mutants, G93A, A4V and G85R, and hCCS in AAV293 cells, we revealed: (i) CCS is degraded primarily via a macroautophagy pathway. It forms a stable heterodimer with inactive G85R, and via its novel copper chaperone-independent molecular chaperone activity facilitates G85R degradation via a macroautophagy-mediated pathway. For active G93A and A4V, CCS catalyzes their maturation to form active and soluble homodimers. (ii) CCS reduces, under non-oxidative conditions, yet facilitates in the presence of H(2)O(2), mitochondrial translocation of inactive SOD1 mutants. These results, together with previous reports showing FALS SOD1 mutants enhanced free radical-generating activity, provide a mechanistic explanation for the observations with G93A/CCS dual transgenic mice and suggest that free radical generation by FALS SOD1, enhanced by CCS, may, in part, be responsible for the FALS SOD1 mutant-linked aggregation, mitochondrial translocation, and degradation. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Inhibitors of SOD1 Interaction as an Approach to Slow the Progressive Spread of ALS Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    the progression of ALS caused by mutations in this protein . To accomplish this goal, we developed an assay that is based on the observation that the...force. In our assay , this force is the normal interaction that occurs when 2 individual SOD1 proteins come together to form a normal active enzyme...Using recombinant DNA, we create fusion proteins of SOD1 and each half of the luciferase enzyme. In the past year, we have characterized and optimized

  3. Mice overexpressing both non-mutated human SOD1 and mutated SOD1G93A genes: a competent experimental model for studying iron metabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eGajowiak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration and loss of motor neurons in the spinal cord, brainstem and motor cortex. Up to 10% of ALS cases are inherited (familial, fALS and associated with mutations, frequently in the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 gene. Rodent transgenic models of ALS are often used to elucidate a complex pathogenesis of this disease. Of importance, both ALS patients and animals carrying mutated human SOD1 gene show symptoms of oxidative stress and iron metabolism misregulation. The aim of our study was to characterize changes in iron metabolism in one of the most commonly used models of ALS – transgenic mice overexpressing human mutated SOD1G93A gene. We analyzed the expression of iron-related genes in asymptomatic, 2-month old and symptomatic, 4-month old SOD1G93A mice. In parallel, respective age-matched mice overexpressing human non-mutated SOD1 transgene and control mice were analyzed. We demonstrate that the overexpression of both SOD1 and SOD1G93A genes account for a substantial increase in SOD1 protein levels and activity in selected tissues and that not all the changes in iron metabolism genes expression are specific for the overexpression of the mutated form of SOD1.

  4. Plasma Chamber Design and Fabrication Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, B.; Bianchi, A.; Cucchiaro, A.; Coletti, A.; Frosi, P.; Mazzone, G.; Pizzuto, A.; Ramogida, G.; Coppi, B.

    2006-10-01

    A fabrication procedure for a typical Plasma Chamber (PC) sector has been developed to cover all the manufacturing phases, from the raw materials specification (including metallurgical processes) to the machining operations, acceptance procedures and vacuum tests. Basically, the sector is made of shaped elements (forged or rolled) welded together using special fixtures and then machined to achieve the final dimensional accuracy. An upgraded design of the plasma chamber's vertical support that can withstand the estimated electromagnetic loads (Eddy and Halo current plus horizontal net force resulting from the worst plasma disruption scenario VDE, Vertical Displacement Event) has been completed. The maintenance of the radial support can take place hands-on with a direct access from outside the cryostat. With the present design, vacuum tightness is achieved by welding conducted with automatic welding heads. On the outer surface of the PC a dedicated duct system, filled by helium gas, is included to cool down the PC to room temperature when needed.

  5. Manganese-superoxide dismutase (MnSOD), a role player in seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis) antioxidant defense system and adaptive immune system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Seongdo; Kim, Myoung-Jin; Hwang, Jee Youn; Kwon, Mun Gyeong; Hwang, Seong Don; Lee, Jehee

    2017-09-01

    Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a metaloenzyme that catalyzes dismutation of the hazardous superoxide radicals into less hazardous H 2 O 2 and H 2 O. Here, we identified a homolog of MnSOD from big belly seahorse (Hippocampus abdominalis; HaMnSOD) and characterized its structural and functional features. HaMnSOD transcript possessed an open reading frame (ORF) of 672 bp which codes for a peptide of 223 amino acids. Pairwise alignment showed that HaMnSOD shared highest identity with rock bream MnSOD. Results of the phylogenetic analysis of HaMnSOD revealed a close proximity with rock bream MnSOD which was consistent with the result of homology alignment. The intense expression of HaMnSOD was observed in the ovary, followed by the heart and the brain. Further, immune related responses of HaMnSOD towards pathogenic stimulation were observed through bacterial and viral challenges. Highest HaMnSOD expression in response to stimulants Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus iniae, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) was observed in the late stage in the blood tissue. Xanthine/xanthine oxidase assay (XOD assay) indicated the ROS-scavenging ability of purified recombinant HaMnSOD (rHaMnSOD). The optimum conditions for the SOD activity of rHaMnSOD were pH 9 and the 25 °C. Collectively, the results obtained through the expressional analysis profiles and the functional assays provide insights into potential immune related and antioxidant roles of HaMnSOD in the big belly seahorse. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is independent of sympathetic activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Christensen, N J; Andreasen, J

    1989-01-01

    in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy compared to diabetics without neuropathy, whereas baseline plasma DOPA concentrations were similar in the three groups investigated: 6.55 (5.03-7.26, median [interquartile range], n = 8) nmol l-1 in diabetics with neuropathy, 7.41 (5.79-7.97, n = 8) nmol l-1...... in diabetics without neuropathy, and 6.85 (5.58-7.36, n = 8) nmol l-1 in controls. No relationship was obtained between baseline values of plasma NE and plasma DOPA. Plasma DOPA did not change in the upright position, whereas plasma NE increased significantly. Our results indicate that plasma DOPA...... is not related to sympathetic activity and may be of non-neuronal origin....

  7. Misfolded SOD1 associated with motor neuron mitochondria alters mitochondrial shape and distribution prior to clinical onset.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Vande Velde

    Full Text Available Mutations in superoxide dismutase (SOD1 are causative for inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A proportion of SOD1 mutant protein is misfolded onto the cytoplasmic face of mitochondria in one or more spinal cord cell types. By construction of mice in which mitochondrially targeted enhanced green fluorescent protein is selectively expressed in motor neurons, we demonstrate that axonal mitochondria of motor neurons are primary in vivo targets for misfolded SOD1. Mutant SOD1 alters axonal mitochondrial morphology and distribution, with dismutase active SOD1 causing mitochondrial clustering at the proximal side of Schmidt-Lanterman incisures within motor axons and dismutase inactive SOD1 producing aberrantly elongated axonal mitochondria beginning pre-symptomatically and increasing in severity as disease progresses. Somal mitochondria are altered by mutant SOD1, with loss of the characteristic cylindrical, networked morphology and its replacement by a less elongated, more spherical shape. These data indicate that mutant SOD1 binding to mitochondria disrupts normal mitochondrial distribution and size homeostasis as early pathogenic features of SOD1 mutant-mediated ALS.

  8. Gelsolin-Cu/ZnSOD interaction alters intracellular reactive oxygen species levels to promote cancer cell invasion

    KAUST Repository

    Tochhawng, Lalchhandami; Deng, Shuo; Ganesan, Pugalenthi; Kumar, Alan Prem; Lim, Kiat Hon; Yang, Henry; Hooi, Shing Chuan; Goh, Yaw Chong; Maciver, Sutherland K.; Pervaiz, Shazib; Yap, Celestial T.

    2016-01-01

    , and this is mediated via gelsolin's effects in elevating intracellular superoxide (O2 .-) levels. We also provide evidence for a novel physical interaction between gelsolin and Cu/ZnSOD, that inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cu/ZnSOD, thereby resulting in a sustained

  9. Differences in muscle pain and plasma creatine kinase activity after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    encephalopathy,18 and the decrement in muscle power associated with muscle damage.6 ... A high degree of intra-individual variability in plasma. CK activity was ..... 21. Komi PV. Stretch-shortening cycle exercise: a powerful model to study.

  10. Determination of activated plasma fibronectin using radioactive labelled collagen I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1984-01-01

    The plasma concentration of biological active fibronectin was assayed by a protein binding assay using 125I-collagen I as ligand and heparin as activator. The standard curve is linear for a fibronectin range of 1.1-11 pmol (0.5-5.0 micrograms) and the coefficient of variation was less than 10......%. The active or activable fibronectin was compared to the immunoreactive fibronectin in plasma from patients with various bacterial diseases. Similar concentrations were detected by the two assays suggesting that all the circulating fibronectin was functionally active. The assay was also applied to determine...

  11. Pyrimethamine significantly lowers cerebrospinal fluid Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients with SOD1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Dale J; Shahbazi, Mona; Silani, Vincenzo; Ludolph, Albert C; Weishaupt, Jochen H; Ajroud-Driss, Senda; Fields, Kara G; Remanan, Rahul; Appel, Stanley H; Morelli, Claudia; Doretti, Alberto; Maderna, Luca; Messina, Stefano; Weiland, Ulrike; Marklund, Stefan L; Andersen, Peter M

    2017-06-01

    Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) reduction prolongs survival in SOD1-transgenic animal models. Pyrimethamine produces dose-dependent SOD1 reduction in cell culture systems. A previous phase 1 trial showed pyrimethamine lowers SOD1 levels in leukocytes in patients with SOD1 mutations. This study investigated whether pyrimethamine lowered SOD1 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in patients carrying SOD1 mutations linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS/SOD1). A multicenter (5 sites), open-label, 9-month-duration, dose-ranging study was undertaken to determine the safety and efficacy of pyrimethamine to lower SOD1 levels in the CSF in fALS/SOD1. All participants underwent 3 lumbar punctures, blood draw, clinical assessment of strength, motor function, quality of life, and adverse effect assessments. SOD1 levels were measured in erythrocytes and CSF. Pyrimethamine was measured in plasma and CSF. Appel ALS score, ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised, and McGill Quality of Life Single-Item Scale were measured at screening, visit 6, and visit 9. We enrolled 32 patients; 24 completed 6 visits (18 weeks), and 21 completed all study visits. A linear mixed effects model showed a significant reduction in CSF SOD1 at visit 6 (p < 0.001) with a mean reduction of 13.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.4-18.5) and at visit 9 (p < 0.001) with a mean reduction of 10.5% (95% CI = 5.2-15.8). Pyrimethamine is safe and well tolerated in ALS. Pyrimethamine is capable of producing a significant reduction in total CSF SOD1 protein content in patients with ALS caused by different SOD1 mutations. Further long-term studies are warranted to assess clinical efficacy. Ann Neurol 2017;81:837-848. © 2017 The Authors. Annals of Neurology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Neurological Association.

  12. Plasma technology of the surface polymer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dutra, Jorge C.N.; Mello, Sandra C.; Massi, Marcos; Otani, Choyu; Maciel, Homero S.; Bittencourt, Edison

    2005-01-01

    A number of polymers, especially rubbers, require surface treatment to achieve a satisfactory level of adhesion. The surface of EPDM rubber vulcanized is high hydrophobicity and is not suited for a number of potential applications, in particular, for adhering to the polyurethane liner of solid rocket propellants. In this case, plasma treatment can be a very attractive process because it can efficiently increase the surface energy attributed to surface oxidation with the introduction of polar groups 1, 2. In order to investigate the influence of the parameters on the modifications of the treated surface samples of EPDM rubber by plasma generated by gas oxygen and argon, the water and methylene iodide contact angles were measured at room temperature with an image analyzing using the sessile drop technique 3 - 6 . (author)

  13. Stability of Seven Days Sample Storage of Erythrocyte’s SOD and Blood’s GPx

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miswar Fattah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research was about SOD erythrocyte activities at day 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 which centrifuged at room temperature (22.5 0C and storage temperature (-80 0C, SOD activities at day-0 which centrifuged at 4 0C, SOD whole blood activities with one day incubated at 2-8 0C and GPx activities at day 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 with 2–8 0C storage temperature. Laboratory analysis were performed by using reagent from Randox Laboratories, and Hitachi 917 analyzer from Boehringer Mannheim. SOD activities were measured at 505 nm absorbance meanwhile 340 nm absorbance is used to measure GPx. Data was analyzed by using t-test method and showed that SOD activities at day 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 with room temperature centrifuged had no significant differences. Significant differences are found at day-0 with centrifuged at 4 0C and one day incubated whole blood at 2–8 0C. GPx activities at day- 3 had no significant differences. Significant differences are found at day-0,1, 5 and 7 after storage.

  14. Molecular and expression analysis of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) gene under temperature and starvation stress in rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianghua; Dong, Siming; Zhu, Huanxi; Jiang, Qichen; Yang, Jiaxin

    2013-04-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an important antioxidant enzyme that protects organs from damage by reactive oxygen species. We cloned cDNA encoding SOD activated with manganese (Mn-SOD) from the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus Pallas. The full-length cDNA of Mn-SOD was 1,016 bp and had a 669 bp open reading frame encoding 222 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of B. calyciflorus Mn-SOD showed 89.1, 71.3, and 62.1 % similarity with the Mn-SOD of the marine rotifer Brachionus plicatilis, the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, respectively. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the amino acid sequences of Mn-SODs from B. calyciflorus and other organisms revealed that this rotifer is closely related to nematodes. Analysis of the mRNA expression of Mn-SOD under different conditions revealed that expression was enhanced 5.6-fold (p 0.05). Moderate starvation promoted Mn-SOD mRNA expression (p 12 < 0.01, p 36 < 0.05), which reached a maximum value (15.3 times higher than control, p 24 < 0.01) at 24 h. SOD and CAT activities also elevated at the 12 h-starved group. These results indicate that induction of Mn-SOD expression by stressors likely plays an important role in aging of B. calyciflorus.

  15. Spinal cord homogenates from SOD1 familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis induce SOD1 aggregation in living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Pokrishevsky

    Full Text Available Mutant Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 can confer its misfolding on wild-type SOD1 in living cells; the propagation of misfolding can also be transmitted between cells in vitro. Recent studies identified fluorescently-tagged SOD1G85R as a promiscuous substrate that is highly prone to aggregate by a variety of templates, in vitro and in vivo. Here, we utilized several SOD1-GFP reporter proteins with G37R, G85R, or G93A mutations in SOD1. We observed that human spinal cord homogenates prepared from SOD1 familial ALS (FALS can induce significantly more intracellular reporter protein aggregation than spinal cord homogenates from sporadic ALS, Alzheimer's disease, multiple system atrophy or healthy control individuals. We also determined that the induction of reporter protein aggregation by SOD1-FALS tissue homogenates can be attenuated by incubating the cells with the SOD1 misfolding-specific antibody 3H1, or the small molecule 5-fluorouridine. Our study further implicates SOD1 as the seeding particle responsible for the spread of SOD1-FALS neurodegeneration from its initial onset site(s, and demonstrates two potential therapeutic strategies for SOD1-mediated disease. This work also comprises a medium-throughput cell-based platform of screening potential therapeutics to attenuate propagated aggregation of SOD1.

  16. Sod1 deficiency reduces incubation time in mouse models of prion disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaheen Akhtar

    Full Text Available Prion infections, causing neurodegenerative conditions such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and kuru in humans, scrapie in sheep and BSE in cattle are characterised by prolonged and variable incubation periods that are faithfully reproduced in mouse models. Incubation time is partly determined by genetic factors including polymorphisms in the prion protein gene. Quantitative trait loci studies in mice and human genome-wide association studies have confirmed that multiple genes are involved. Candidate gene approaches have also been used and identified App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 as affecting incubation times. In this study we looked for an association between App, Il1-r1 and Sod1 representative SNPs and prion disease incubation time in the Northport heterogeneous stock of mice inoculated with the Chandler/RML prion strain. No association was seen with App, however, significant associations were seen with Il1-r1 (P = 0.02 and Sod1 (P<0.0001 suggesting that polymorphisms at these loci contribute to the natural variation observed in incubation time. Furthermore, following challenge with Chandler/RML, ME7 and MRC2 prion strains, Sod1 deficient mice showed highly significant reductions in incubation time of 20, 13 and 24%, respectively. No differences were detected in Sod1 expression or activity. Our data confirm the protective role of endogenous Sod1 in prion disease.

  17. PENINGKATAN AKTIVITAS ENZIM SOD SERUM DAN KELUHAN KESEHATAN TERHADAP PAPARAN ASAP PEMBAKARAN KAYU PADA PEKERJA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitri Rokhmalia

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The chronic exposure of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde gases effected cellular influence enzymes activity SOD. This study aim to analyze the effect of exposure to nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde gases against SOD and health complaint of worker in home industry petis. The method of this study was analytical observation with prospective longitudinal study with design study cross-week. Research sites of home industry petis and government Sekardangan office. The population was 2 population that were the workers of home industry petis and the administration worker of government sekardangan office in Desa Sekardangan Kabupaten Sidoarjo with some criteria that worked at male, not getting sickness asma and willing to participate in this study. Sample size had 24 persons that was taken by simple random sampling, 12 persons from each workers home industry petis and administratif worker in government sekardangan office. The analysis result shown that nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde gases in air effected of enzymes SOD difference before and after exposure working group and not exposed (p<0,05 using paired t-test. The effect of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde gases in air effected enzymes activity SOD (p<0,05 using linear regression, but health complaint was effected by enzymes activity SOD (p<0,05 using logistic regression. The conclusion of this study was exposure of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde gases effect increasing of enzymes activity SOD of worker at home industry petis. Otherwise, there is effect of exposure of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde gases to health complaints. Keywords: nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde gases, wood burning smoke, SOD, health complaints

  18. Plasma renin activity profile in normal and hypertensive Filipinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guevara, R.; Torres, J. Jr.; Abundo, H.P.; Perez, A.P.

    To establish a base line profile of plasma renin activity in normotensive and hypertensive Filipinos, 1.019 cases, 479 males and 540 females with an age range 14 - 89 years (mean - 46 + -20) were studied at the Santo Tomas University Hospital of various life styles from the Metro-Manila area, 248 comprised the normotensive group (male - 122 or 49.2 %, female 126 or 50.8 %) and 771 were hypertensive. Of these, 711 (92.6 %) has essential hypertension and are presented in this report. Plasma Renin Activity was determined by radioimmunoassay using Dainabot Renin-Ricket. Concurrent 24 hr. urine sodium and potassium were determined. Nomograms of plasma renin activity as related to urine sodium excretion were drawn after computerized statistical analysis of data. The normal mean value of plasma renin activity was found to be 1.64 + - 0.81 ng./ml./hr. in the upright position and 1.15 + - .68 ng./ml./hr. in the supine position. Based on the nomogram derived, the values obtained in the 711 cases of essential hypertension were classified into High Renin - 14.3 % Normal Renin - 56.1 % and Low Renin - 29.6 %. This study establishes normal levels of plasma renin activity as well as define and classify same renin activity among hypertensive Filipinos, a useful and practicable guide for treatment and can be of prognostic significance. (author)

  19. Correlation between rivaroxaban (Xarelto) plasma activity, patient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with resultant marked fluctuation in anticoagulation control in a significant number ... activity, patient clinical variables and outcomes ... clinical laboratories to have the ability to measure .... To assess pharmacological activity, i.e. quality control.

  20. Evaluation of superoxide dismutase activity and its impact on semen quality parameters of infertile men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Saczko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, as one of the most important antioxidative defence enzymes, in seminal plasma of patients consulting for male infertility was presented in the article. The study included also the determination of its influence on selected human semen quality parameters. The material represents semen samples obtained from 15 men, which were divided into two groups: Group I (n=10 including patients consulting for infertility and Group II (n=5 containing healthy sperm donors as a control. All of the semen samples were cryopreserved and stored in liquid nitrogen. The frozen samples were thawed at the same time and then SOD activity was determined spectrophotometrically. The analysis of the investigations results indicates a significantly lower semen SOD activity detected in oligoasthenozoospermic patients, comparing to the activity found in normospermic men. The study showed a positive correlation between SOD activity in seminal plasma and semen quality parameters--sperm concentration and overall motility, which are regarded as the most important for normal fertilizing ability of the spermatozoa. Significantly lower SOD activity in seminal plasma of infertile patients, comparing to healthy sperm donors, as well as positive correlation and beneficial impact of SOD activity on human semen quality parameters seem to confirm the observations, that decreased seminal plasma scavenger antioxidant capacity, particularly in form of low SOD activity, can be responsible for male infertility. This trial shows that SOD activity survey in seminal plasma could be a useful tool for determining sperm fertilization potential and could improve the diagnosis of male infertility.

  1. Activations of c-fos/c-jun signaling are involved in the modulation of hypothalamic superoxide dismutase (SOD) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) gene expression in amphetamine-mediated appetite suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsieh, Y.-S.; Yang, S.-F.; Chiou, H.-L.; Kuo, D.-Y.

    2006-01-01

    Amphetamine (AMPH) is known as an anorectic agent. The mechanism underlying the anorectic action of AMPH has been attributed to its inhibitory action on hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY), an appetite stimulant in the brain. This study was aimed to examine the molecular mechanisms behind the anorectic effect of AMPH. Results showed that AMPH treatment decreased food intake, which was correlated with changes of NPY mRNA level, but increased c-fos, c-jun and superoxide dismutase (SOD) mRNA levels in hypothalamus. To determine if c-fos or c-jun was involved in the anorectic response of AMPH, infusions of antisense oligonucleotide into the brain were performed at 1 h before daily AMPH treatment in freely moving rats, and the results showed that c-fos or c-jun knockdown could block this anorectic response and restore NPY mRNA level. Moreover, c-fos or c-jun knockdown could partially block SOD mRNA level that might involve in the modulation of NPY gene expression. It was suggested that c-fos/c-jun signaling might involve in the central regulation of AMPH-mediated feeding suppression via the modulation of NPY gene expression

  2. Active neutral particle diagnostics for high temperature plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobita, Kenji

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes experimental studies related to active neutral particle diagnostics in the JT-60 tokamak. Detection efficiencies of a micro-channel plate (MCP), which has widely used in plasma diagnostics, were determined for ions and neutrals. Multi-step processes for a neutral beam is predicted to enhance the beam stopping cross section in a plasma. In order to confirm the predictions, shine-through for a hydrogen and for a helium beam was measured in the JT-60 ohmic plasmas. The measurements for a hydrogen beam resulted in the cross sectional enhancement in the beam stopping. The same experiment using a helium beam indicated that the cross sectional enhancement for helium was much smaller than that for hydrogen at almost same plasma parameters. Ion temperature diagnostic using active beam scattering was developed in data processing technique, in consideration of the device function of a neutral particle analyzer and in estimation of the effect of beam ion component. Fundamental experiments for detecting helium ions in a plasma were performed using two-electron transfer reaction between a helium atomic beam and helium ions, and the energy distribution and the density of the helium ions were determined. These experiments demonstrated promise of the two-electron transfer reaction as an alpha ash detection in a burning plasma. A parasitic neutral efflux accompanied by active beam injection was investigated. (J.P.N.)

  3. Determination of activated plasma fibronectin using radioactive labelled collagen I

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M

    1984-01-01

    The plasma concentration of biological active fibronectin was assayed by a protein binding assay using 125I-collagen I as ligand and heparin as activator. The standard curve is linear for a fibronectin range of 1.1-11 pmol (0.5-5.0 micrograms) and the coefficient of variation was less than 10...

  4. Plasma Renin Activity in Children with Protein Energy Malnutrition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma renin activity was measured by bio-assay in 100 children with kwashiorkor and in 20 healthy children, and also by radio-immunoassay in another 26 children with kwashiorkor and in another 20 healthy children. Both methods showed that (compared with healthy children) renin activity was significantly increased in ...

  5. Single chain variable fragment antibodies block aggregation and toxicity induced by familial ALS-linked mutant forms of SOD1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghadge, Ghanashyam D; Pavlovic, John D; Koduvayur, Sujatha P; Kay, Brian K; Roos, Raymond P

    2013-08-01

    Approximately 10% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases are familial (known as FALS) with an autosomal dominant inheritance pattern, and ~25% of FALS cases are caused by mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1). There is convincing evidence that mutant SOD1 (mtSOD1) kills motor neurons (MNs) because of a gain-of-function toxicity, most likely related to aggregation of mtSOD1. A number of recent reports have suggested that antibodies can be used to treat mtSOD1-induced FALS. To follow up on the use of antibodies as potential therapeutics, we generated single chain fragments of variable region antibodies (scFvs) against SOD1, and then expressed them as 'intrabodies' within a motor neuron cell line. In the present study, we describe isolation of human scFvs that interfere with mtSOD1 in vitro aggregation and toxicity. These scFvs may have therapeutic potential in sporadic ALS, as well as FALS, given that sporadic ALS may also involve abnormalities in the SOD1 protein or activity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren

    2012-01-01

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath (''plasma shield'') that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  7. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren

    2012-05-01

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath ("plasma shield") that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  8. Development of active porous medium filters based on plasma textiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuznetsov, Ivan A.; Saveliev, Alexei V.; Rasipuram, Srinivasan; Kuznetsov, Andrey V.; Brown, Alan; Jasper, Warren [Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States); Textile Engineering Chemistry and Science, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Inexpensive, flexible, washable, and durable materials that serve as antimicrobial filters and self-decontaminating fabrics are needed to provide active protection to people in areas regularly exposed to various biohazards, such as hospitals and bio research labs working with pathogens. Airlines and cruise lines need such material to combat the spread of infections. In households these materials can be used in HVAC filters to fight indoor pollution, which is especially dangerous to people suffering from asthma. Efficient filtering materials are also required in areas contaminated by other types of hazardous dust particulates, such as nuclear dust. The primary idea that guided the undertaken study is that a microplasma-generating structure can be embedded in a textile fabric to generate a plasma sheath (''plasma shield'') that kills bacterial agents coming in contact with the fabric. The research resulted in the development of a plasma textile that can be used for producing new types of self-decontaminating garments, fabrics, and filter materials, capable of activating a plasma sheath that would filter, capture, and destroy any bacteriological agent deposited on its surface. This new material relies on the unique antimicrobial and catalytic properties of cold (room temperature) plasma that is benign to people and does not cause thermal damage to many polymer textiles, such as Nomex and polypropylene. The uniqueness of cold plasma as a disinfecting agent lies in the inability of bacteria to develop resistance to plasma exposure, as they can for antibiotics. Plasma textiles could thus be utilized for microbial destruction in active antimicrobial filters (for continuous decontamination and disinfection of large amounts of air) as well as in self-decontaminating surfaces and antibacterial barriers (for example, for creating local antiseptic or sterile environments around wounds and burns).

  9. Additive contributions of two manganese-cored superoxide dismutases (MnSODs to antioxidation, UV tolerance and virulence of Beauveria bassiana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Qin Xie

    Full Text Available The biocontrol potential of entomopathogenic fungi against arthropod pests depends on not only their virulence to target pests but tolerance to outdoor high temperature and solar UV irradiation. Two Beauveria bassiana superoxide dismutases (SODs, BbSod2 and BbSod3, were characterized as cytosolic and mitochondrial manganese-cored isoenzymes (MnSODs dominating the total SOD activity of the fungal entomopathogen under normal growth conditions. To probe their effects on the biocontrol potential of B. bassiana, ΔBbSod2, ΔBbSod3, and three hairpin RNA-interfered (RNAi mutants with the transcripts of both BbSod2 and BbSod3 being suppressed by 91-97% were constructed and assayed for various phenotypic parameters in conjunction with ΔBbSod2/BbSod2, ΔBbSod3/BbSod3 and wild-type (control strains. In normal cultures, the knockout and RNAi mutants showed significant phenotypic alterations, including delayed sporulation, reduced conidial yields, and impaired conidial quality, but little change in colony morphology. Their mycelia or conidia became much more sensitive to menadione or H(2O(2-induced oxidative stress but had little change in sensitivity to the hyperosmolarity of NaCl and the high temperature of 45°C. Accompanied with the decreased antioxidative capability, conidial tolerances to UV-A and UV-B irradiations were reduced by 16.8% and 45.4% for ΔBbSod2, 18.7% and 44.7% for ΔBbSod3, and ∼33.7% and ∼63.8% for the RNAi mutants, respectively. Their median lethal times (LT(50s against Myzus persicae apterae, which were topically inoculated under a standardized spray, were delayed by 18.8%, 14.5% and 37.1%, respectively. Remarkably, the effects of cytosolic BbSod2 and mitochondrial BbSod3 on the phenotypic parameters important for the fungal bioncontrol potential were additive, well in accordance with the decreased SOD activities and the increased superoxide levels in the knockout and RNAi mutants. Our findings highlight for the first time that

  10. A Manganese Superoxide Dismutase (SOD2 Gene Polymorphism in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flemming Pociot

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin I (lL-I is selectively cytotoxic to the insulin producing beta cell of pancreatic islets. This effect may be due to IL-I induced generation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. Since beta cells contain low amounts of the superoxide radical scavenger enzyme manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD, this may leave beta cells more susceptible to IL-I than other cell types. Genetic variation in the MnSOD locus could reflect differences in scavenger potential. We, therefore, studied possible restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs of this locus in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (100M (n= 154 and control individuals (n=178, Taql revealed a double diallelic RFLP in patients as well as in controls. No overall difference in allelic or genotype frequencies were observed between 100M patients and control individuals (p=0.11 and no significant association of any particular RFLP pattern with 100M was found. Structurally polymorphic MnSOD protein variants with altered activities have been reported. If genetic variation results in MnSOD variants with reduced activities, the MnSOD locus may still be a candidate gene for 100M susceptibility. Whether the RFLPs reported in this study reflects differences in gene expression level, protein level and/or specific activity of the protein is yet to be studied.

  11. Surface properties of activated carbon treated by cold plasma heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norikazu, Kurano [Shigematsu works Co. Ltd., 267 Yashita, Iwatsuki 3390046 (Japan); Yamada, Hiroshi [Shigematsu works Co. Ltd., 267 Yashita, Iwatsuki 3390046 (Japan); Yajima, Tatsuhiko [Faculty of Engineering, Saitama Institute of Technology, 1690 Fusoiji, Okabe 3690293 (Japan); Sugiyama, Kazuo [Faculty of Engineering, Saitama University, 255 Shimo-okubo, Sakura-Ku, Saitama 3388570 (Japan)]. E-mail: sugi@apc.saitama-u.ac.jp

    2007-03-12

    To modify the surface properties of activated carbon powders, we have applied the cold plasma treatment method. The cold plasma was used to be generated in the evacuated reactor vessel by 2.45 GHz microwave irradiation. In this paper, changes of surface properties such as distribution of acidic functional groups and roughness morphology were examined. By the cold plasma treatment, activated carbons with large specific surface area of ca. 2000 m{sup 2}/g or more could be prepared in a minute. The amount of every gaseous organic compound adsorbed on the unit gram of treated activated carbons was more increased that on the unit gram of untreated carbons. Especially, the adsorbed amount of carbon disulfide was remarkably increased even if it was compared by the amount per unit surface area. These results suggest that the surface property of the sample was modified by the plasma treatment. It became apparent by observing SEM photographs that dust and impure particles in macropores of activated carbons were far more reduced by the plasma treatment than by the conventional heating in an electric furnace under vacuum. In addition, a bubble-like surface morphology of the sample was observed by AEM measurement. The amount of acidic functional groups at the surface was determined by using the Boehm's titration method. Consequently, the increase of lactone groups and the decrease of carboxyl groups were also observed.

  12. Modulation of Erythrocyte Plasma Membrane Redox System Activity by Curcumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhakar Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma membrane redox system (PMRS is an electron transport chain system ubiquitously present throughout all cell types. It transfers electron from intracellular substrates to extracellular acceptors for regulation of redox status. Curcumin, isolated from Curcuma longa, has modulatory effects on cellular physiology due to its membrane interaction ability and antioxidant potential. The present study investigates the effect of curcumin on PMRS activity of erythrocytes isolated from Wistar rats in vitro and in vivo and validated through an in silico docking simulation study using Molegro Virtual Docker (MVD. Effects of curcumin were also evaluated on level of glutathione (GSH and the oxidant potential of plasma measured in terms of plasma ferric equivalent oxidative potentials (PFEOP. Results show that curcumin significantly (p<0.01 downregulated the PMRS activity in a dose-dependent manner. Molecular docking results suggest that curcumin interacts with amino acids at the active site cavity of cytochrome b5 reductase, a key constituent of PMRS. Curcumin also increased the GSH level in erythrocytes and plasma while simultaneously decreasing the oxidant potential (PFEOP of plasma. Altered PMRS activity and redox status are associated with the pathophysiology of several health complications including aging and diabetes; hence, the above finding may explain part of the role of curcumin in health beneficial effects.

  13. The decreasing effect of exogenous SOD on damage of mice irradiated with 5 Gy 60Co-γ rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Fenju; Jiang Jiagui; Yi Jian

    1999-01-01

    The author presents a report on the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and the content of LPO measured in tissue of Liver, heart and brain of mice irradiated by 60 Co-γ rays 5 Gy 1, 3, 5 and 8 days after irradiation respectively. After radiation exogenous SOD was immediately i.p. injected into mice. The variation of LPO content in the above mentioned three kinds of tissue has been observed. The result of the measurement shows that after radiation at a dose of 5 Gy 60 Co-γ rays, the LPO content and SOD activity of mice organs varied with radiation time. The LPO content varied earliest in liver, while the variation of LPO content in heart and cerebrum took place 8 days after radiation, meanwhile the activity of SOD in the tissues significantly decreased in comparison with that the control group (P<0.01). After injection with SOD, the LPO content and SOD activity of the organs irradiated for different time significantly decreased and increased in comparison with that in the control group. This shows that the enzyme of SOD is of significant anti-radiation effect

  14. Plasma Treated Active Carbon for Capacitive Deionization of Saline Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiping Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The plasma treatment on commercial active carbon (AC was carried out in a capacitively coupled plasma system using Ar + 10% O2 at pressure of 4.0 Torr. The RF plasma power ranged from 50 W to 100 W and the processing time was 10 min. The carbon film electrode was fabricated by electrophoretic deposition. Micro-Raman spectroscopy revealed the highly increased disorder of sp2 C lattice for the AC treated at 75 W. An electrosorption capacity of 6.15 mg/g was recorded for the carbon treated at 75 W in a 0.1 mM NaCl solution when 1.5 V was applied for 5 hours, while the capacity of the untreated AC was 1.01 mg/g. The plasma treatment led to 5.09 times increase in the absorption capacity. The jump of electrosorption capacity by plasma treatment was consistent with the Raman spectra and electrochemical double layer capacitance. This work demonstrated that plasma treatment was a potentially efficient approach to activating biochar to serve as electrode material for capacitive deionization (CDI.

  15. Plasma edge physics in an actively cooled tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunn, J.P.; Adamek, A.; Boucher, C.

    2005-01-01

    Tore Supra is a large tokamak with a plasma of circular cross section (major radius 2.4 m and minor radius 0.72 m) lying on a toroidal limiter. Tore Supra's main mission is the development of technology to inject up to 25 MW of microwave heating power and extract it continuously for up to 1000 s in steady state without uncontrolled overheating of, or outgassing from, plasma-facing components. The entire first wall of the tokamak is actively cooled by a high pressure water loop and special carbon fiber composite materials have been designed to handle power fluxes up to 10 MW/m 2 . The edge plasma on open magnetic flux surfaces that intersect solid objects plays an important role in the overall behaviour of the plasma. The transport of sputtered impurity ions and the fueling of the core plasma are largely governed by edge plasma density, temperature, and flow profiles. Measurements of these quantities are becoming more reliable and frequent in many tokamaks, and it has become clear that we do not understand them very well. Classical two-dimensional fluid modelling fails to reproduce many aspects of the experimental observations such as the significant thickness of the edge plasma, and the near-sonic flows that occur where none should be expected. It is suspected that plasma turbulence is responsible for these anomalies. In the Tore Supra tokamak, various kinds of Langmuir probes are used to characterize the edge plasma. We will present original measurements that demonstrate the universality of many phenomena that have been observed in X-point divertor tokamaks, especially concerning the ion flows. As in the JET tokamak, surprisingly large values of parallel Mach number are measured midway between the two strike zones, where one would expect to find nearly stagnant plasma if the particle source were poloidally uniform. We will present results of a novel experiment that provides evidence for a poloidally localized particle and energy source on the outboard midplane of

  16. Conditions of activation of yeast plasma membrane ATPase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sychrová, H; Kotyk, A

    1985-04-08

    The in vivo activation of the H+-ATPase of baker's yeast plasma membrane found by Serrano in 1983 was demonstrated with D-glucose aerobically and anaerobically (as well as in a respiration-deficient mutant) and, after suitable induction, with maltose, trehalose, and galactose. The activated but not the control ATPase was sensitive to oligomycin. No activation was possible in a cell-free extract with added glucose. The ATPase was not activated in yeast protoplasts which may account for the absence of glucose-stimulated secondary active transports in these wall-less cells and provide support for a microscopic coupling between ATPase activity and these transports in yeast cells.

  17. Characterizing electrostatic turbulence in tokamak plasmas with high MHD activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes-Filho, Z O; Santos Lima, G Z dos; Caldas, I L; Nascimento, I C; Kuznetsov, Yu K [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66316, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R L, E-mail: viana@fisica.ufpr.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-09-01

    One of the challenges in obtaining long lasting magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas in tokamaks is to control electrostatic turbulence near the vessel wall. A necessary step towards achieving this goal is to characterize the turbulence level and so as to quantify its effect on the transport of energy and particles of the plasma. In this paper we present experimental results on the characterization of electrostatic turbulence in Tokamak Chauffage Alfven Bresilien (TCABR), operating in the Institute of Physics of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. In particular, we investigate the effect of certain magnetic field fluctuations, due to magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) instabilities activity, on the spectral properties of electrostatic turbulence at plasma edge. In some TCABR discharges we observe that this MHD activity may increase spontaneously, following changes in the edge safety factor, or after changes in the radial electric field achieved by electrode biasing. During the high MHD activity, the magnetic oscillations and the plasma edge electrostatic turbulence present several common linear spectral features with a noticeable dominant peak in the same frequency. In this article, dynamical analyses were applied to find other alterations on turbulence characteristics due to the MHD activity and turbulence enhancement. A recurrence quantification analysis shows that the turbulence determinism radial profile is substantially changed, becoming more radially uniform, during the high MHD activity. Moreover, the bicoherence spectra of these two kinds of fluctuations are similar and present high bicoherence levels associated with the MHD frequency. In contrast with the bicoherence spectral changes, that are radially localized at the plasma edge, the turbulence recurrence is broadly altered at the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer.

  18. ALS-associated mutation SOD1G93A leads to abnormal mitochondrial dynamics in osteocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Yi, Jianxun; Li, Xuejun; Xiao, Yajuan; Dhakal, Kamal; Zhou, Jingsong

    2018-01-01

    While the death of motor neuron is a pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), defects in other cell types or organs may also actively contribute to ALS disease progression. ALS patients experience progressive skeletal muscle wasting that may not only exacerbate neuronal degeneration, but likely has a significant impact on bone function. In our previous published study, we have discovered severe bone loss in an ALS mouse model with overexpression of ALS-associated mutation SOD1 G93A (G93A). Here we further provide a mechanistic understanding of the bone loss in ALS animal and cellular models. Combining mitochondrial fluorescent indicators and confocal live cell imaging, we discovered abnormalities in mitochondrial network and dynamics in primary osteocytes derived from the same ALS mouse model G93A. Those mitochondrial defects occur in ALS mice after the onset of neuromuscular symptoms, indicating that mitochondria in bone cells respond to muscle atrophy during ALS disease progression. To examine whether ALS mutation has a direct contribution to mitochondrial dysfunction independent of muscle atrophy, we evaluated mitochondrial morphology and motility in cultured osteocytes (MLO-Y4) with overexpression of mitochondrial targeted SOD1 G93A . Compared with osteocytes overexpressing the wild type SOD1 as a control, the SOD1 G93A osteocytes showed similar defects in mitochondrial network and dynamic as that of the primary osteocytes derived from the ALS mouse model. In addition, we further discovered that overexpression of SOD1 G93A enhanced the expression level of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a key protein promoting mitochondrial fission activity, and reduced the expression level of optic atrophy protein 1 (OPA1), a key protein related to mitochondrial fusion. A specific mitochondrial fission inhibitor (Mdivi-1) partially reversed the effect of SOD1 G93A on mitochondrial network and dynamics, indicating that SOD1 G93A likely promotes

  19. A Model of Oxidative Stress Management: Moderation of Carbohydrate Metabolizing Enzymes in SOD1-Null Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, Kristine E.; Parkes, Tony L.; Merritt, Thomas J. S.

    2011-01-01

    The response to oxidative stress involves numerous genes and mutations in these genes often manifest in pleiotropic ways that presumably reflect perturbations in ROS-mediated physiology. The Drosophila melanogaster SOD1-null allele (cSODn108) is proposed to result in oxidative stress by preventing superoxide breakdown. In SOD1-null flies, oxidative stress management is thought to be reliant on the glutathione-dependent antioxidants that utilize NADPH to cycle between reduced and oxidized form. Previous studies suggest that SOD1-null Drosophila rely on lipid catabolism for energy rather than carbohydrate metabolism. We tested these connections by comparing the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, lipid and triglyceride concentration, and steady state NADPH:NADP+ in SOD1-null and control transgenic rescue flies. We find a negative shift in the activity of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes in SOD1-nulls and the NADP+-reducing enzymes were found to have significantly lower activity than the other enzymes assayed. Little evidence for the catabolism of lipids as preferential energy source was found, as the concentration of lipids and triglycerides were not significantly lower in SOD1-nulls compared with controls. Using a starvation assay to impact lipids and triglycerides, we found that lipids were indeed depleted in both genotypes when under starvation stress, suggesting that oxidative damage was not preventing the catabolism of lipids in SOD1-null flies. Remarkably, SOD1-nulls were also found to be relatively resistant to starvation. Age profiles of enzyme activity, triglyceride and lipid concentration indicates that the trends observed are consistent over the average lifespan of the SOD1-nulls. Based on our results, we propose a model of physiological response in which organisms under oxidative stress limit the production of ROS through the down-regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in order to moderate the products exiting the electron transport chain. PMID

  20. Evolution of active region loop plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krall, K.R.; Antiochos, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    We investigate numerically the adjustment of coronal active-region loops to changes in their heating rate. The one-dimensional hydrodynamic equations are solved subject to boundary conditions in which heat flux-induced mass exchange between coronal and chromospheric components is allowed. The calculated evolution of physical parameters suggests that (1) mass supplied during chromospheric evaporation is much more effective in moderating coronal temperature excursions than when downward heat flux if dissipated by a static chromosphere, and (2) the method by which rhe chromosphere responds to changing coronal conditions can significantly influence coronal readjustment time scales. Observations are cited which illustrate the range of possible fluctuations in the heating rates

  1. Fission and activation of uranium by fashion-plasma neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Hochl, F.; McFarland, D.R.

    1978-01-01

    Disks of enriched and depleted uranium were irradiated by neutrons from the D-D fusions in a dense plasma-focus. A fission yield of 10 6 fissions-cm -3 in U 235 per pulse was determined with Ge(Li) gamme-ray spectrometry. Activation of U 238 caused increased beta activity after the plasma-neutron irradiation but alpha-particle spectrometry showed Pu 239 production was negligible. In addition, with a disk of lithium in the apparatus, 13.3 MeV neutrons from 7 Li(d,n) 8 Be was observed with a 80-m time-of-flight neutron detector. Dense plasma focuses are now operated not only in a single coaxial gun, but also in improved geometries, such as the hypocycloidal pinch and the staged plasma focus, from which a multiple plasma-focus array suitable for experimental verification of, and eventuel development into a fusion-fission hybrid reactor could be produced. (orig.) [de

  2. Novel Mechanism of Plasma Prekallikrein (PK) Activation by Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells: Evidence of the presence of PK Activator

    OpenAIRE

    Keum, Joo-Seob; Jaffa, Miran A; Luttrell, Louis M; Jaffa, Ayad A.

    2014-01-01

    The contribution of plasma prekallikrein (PK) to vascular remodeling is becoming increasingly recognized. Plasma PK is activated when the zymogen PK is digested to an active enzyme by activated factor XII (FXII). Here, we present our findings that vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) activate plasma PK in the absence of FXII. Extracted plasma membrane and cytosolic fractions of VSMCs activate PK, but the rate of PK activation was greater by the membrane fraction. FXII neutralizing antibody did...

  3. Pengaruh variasi pemberian Snack bar ubi jalar kedelai hitam terhadap Kadar Superoksida Dismutase (SOD darah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitriyono Ayustaningwarno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Snack bar from sweet potatoes and black soybeans is low GI, fat and calorie snack which haveantioxidant content, such as β-carotene, anthocyanin, isoflavone, and antioxidant activity, so can be an alternativesnack for patients with DM type 2. Antioxidants intake can prevent the oxidative stress that lead micro- and macrovascularcomplications in DM type 2. Antioxidant intake may preserve endogen antioxidant capacity, which is can bedetermined by analyzing SOD concentration.Objective: analyze effect variety of Snack bar from sweet potatoes and black soybeans consume to SOD concentration.Methods: experimental post-pretest research used 3 varieties of sweet potato’s color (red, yellow, and purpleinterventions. SOD concentration was analyzed by colorimetric. Statistic data was analyzed by dependent t-test andOne Way Anova.Results: No different between groups interventions Snack bar from purple, yellow or red sweet potatoes (p=0,122.Group with snack bar from purple sweet potatoes intervention has lowest SOD decreasing percentage among otherintervention groups.Conclusion: Consume snack bar form purple sweet potatoes and black soybeans can preserve SOD concentrationbetter than consume snack bar form yellow or red sweet potatoes and black soybeans

  4. Contribution to the Chemistry of Plasma-Activated Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julák, J.; Hujacová, A.; Scholtz, V.; Khun, J.; Holada, K.

    2018-01-01

    Plasma-activated water (PAW) was prepared by exposure to nonthermal plasma produced by a positive dc corona discharge in a transient spark regime. The activation of water was performed in atmosphere of various surrounding gases (air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and argon). This PAW retains its biological activity, measured on the mouse neuroblastoma cells culture, even after storage for more than one year. The highest hydrogen peroxide content was found for PAWs prepared in the atmospheres of argon or carbon dioxide, whereas the PAWs prepared in air and nitrogen exhibited lower hydrogen peroxide content. The acidity of PAWs mediated by nitric and nitrous acid formation displayed an opposite trend. It is concluded that the long-lasting biological effect of PAW is mediated by hydrogen peroxide in acid milieu only, whereas other possible active components decompose rapidly.

  5. Geomagnetic activity effects on plasma sheet energy conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamrin

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article we use three years (2001, 2002, and 2004 of Cluster plasma sheet data to investigate what happens to localized energy conversion regions (ECRs in the plasma sheet during times of high magnetospheric activity. By examining variations in the power density, E·J, where E is the electric field and J is the current density obtained by Cluster, we have studied the influence on Concentrated Load Regions (CLRs and Concentrated Generator Regions (CGRs from variations in the geomagnetic disturbance level as expressed by the Kp, the AE, and the Dst indices. We find that the ECR occurrence frequency increases during higher magnetospheric activities, and that the ECRs become stronger. This is true both for CLRs and for CGRs, and the localized energy conversion therefore concerns energy conversion in both directions between the particles and the fields in the plasma sheet. A higher geomagnetic activity hence increases the general level of energy conversion in the plasma sheet. Moreover, we have shown that CLRs live longer during magnetically disturbed times, hence converting more electromagnetic energy. The CGR lifetime, on the other hand, seems to be unaffected by the geomagnetic activity level. The evidence for increased energy conversion during geomagnetically disturbed times is most clear for Kp and for AE, but there are also some indications that energy conversion increases during large negative Dst. This is consistent with the plasma sheet magnetically mapping to the auroral zone, and therefore being more tightly coupled to auroral activities and variations in the AE and Kp indices, than to variations in the ring current region as described by the Dst index.

  6. A radioreceptor assay for measurement of plasma glucocorticoid binding activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Jie

    1990-01-01

    A radioreceptor assay (RRA) for plasma glucocorticoid binding activity (GCBA) has been developed using glucocorticoid receptor in rat thymocytes. Unlike other assays for natural and certain synthetic corticosteroids, RRA measures the GCBA of all natural and synthetic GC in plasma. The range of standard curve was 0 ∼ 1.00 mg/L. The sensitivity was 0.01 mg/l. The recovery rate was 92.1%, and the intra and inter assay CV was 0.7% (n = 3) and 4.4% (n = 3) respectively. The level of corticosterone in 9 rat plasma samples was determined by RRA and CBG-isotope binding assay. There was a general correlation over a wide range between the values determined by the two assays (r = 0.95; P < 0.001). The measuring condition was described in detail

  7. Accumulation of Misfolded SOD1 in Dorsal Root Ganglion Degenerating Proprioceptive Sensory Neurons of Transgenic Mice with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sábado

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is an adult-onset progressive neurodegenerative disease affecting upper and lower motoneurons (MNs. Although the motor phenotype is a hallmark for ALS, there is increasing evidence that systems other than the efferent MN system can be involved. Mutations of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1 gene cause a proportion of familial forms of this disease. Misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 exert neurotoxicity in a noncell autonomous manner, as evidenced in studies using transgenic mouse models. Here, we used the SOD1G93A mouse model for ALS to detect, by means of conformational-specific anti-SOD1 antibodies, whether misfolded SOD1-mediated neurotoxicity extended to neuronal types other than MNs. We report that large dorsal root ganglion (DRG proprioceptive neurons accumulate misfolded SOD1 and suffer a degenerative process involving the inflammatory recruitment of macrophagic cells. Degenerating sensory axons were also detected in association with activated microglial cells in the spinal cord dorsal horn of diseased animals. As large proprioceptive DRG neurons project monosynaptically to ventral horn MNs, we hypothesise that a prion-like mechanism may be responsible for the transsynaptic propagation of SOD1 misfolding from ventral horn MNs to DRG sensory neurons.

  8. Aminotransferases and Leucine Aminopeptidase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Stojevic, Z.; Milinkovic-Tur, S.; Simpraga, M.; Miljanic, S.

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that irradiation of mammals by gama-rays cause increase of some enzyme activity in their blood plasma (Miller and Gates 1949; Milch and Albaum 1959; Hughes 1958; Miholjcic et al. 1979). In our previous papers (Kraljevic et al., 1982; Kraljevic and Emanovic 1993) it has been shown that activities of some enzymes in the blood plasma of chickens after an intramuscular injection of radioactive isotope 32 P. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of gamma-ray irradiation of the whole body of chickens upon activity of some enzymes in their blood plasma. We also wanted to investigate whether the activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP) may serve as an additional test for functional liver damage in chickens caused by gamma-ray. Fifty day old hybrid male chickens of heavy Jata breeds were irradiated by gamma-ray in the dose of 7,23±0,95 Gy. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 15 after irradiation. Activity of AST, ALT, and LAP in the blood plasma were determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. At the end of the experiment all birds were sacrificed and, as well as died birds were photomorphologically and histologically investigated. The obtained results showed decrease of activity of all three enzymes during the whole period of investigation, but significant decrease showed only AST and LAP. It seems that both enzymes may serve as additional test for functional liver damage in chickens by external gamma-rays. (author)

  9. Immunoradiometric quantitation of tissue plasminogen activator-related antigen in human plasma: crypticity phenomenon and relationship to plasma fibrinolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wun, T.C.; Capuano, A.

    1987-01-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen has been developed using immunoaffinity purified antibody. Various treatments enhanced the detection of tPA antigen in the plasma samples. Maximum detection was obtained by acidification of plasma to pH 4.8 to 6.5 or addition of 0.5 mol/L of L-lysine or L-arginine. Acidification or addition of lysine to plasma is also required for maximum immunoadsorption of plasma tPA antigen on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose. These results indicate that plasma tPA antigen is partially cryptic to antibody in untreated plasma. The plasma tPA antigen isolated by immunoadsorption of either untreated plasma or acidified plasma on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose consists mainly of a 100-kd plasminogen activator species as determined by fibrin-agar zymography. The 100-kd activity is possibly a tPA:inhibitor complex. A standardized sample preparation method was conveniently adopted by mixing 3 vol of plasma and 1 vol of 2 mol/L of L-lysine for the assay. Reconstitution and recovery studies showed that the method is specific and permits full detection of both free tPA and tPA:inhibitor complex. The validity of the assay is further supported by the finding that the spontaneous plasma fibrinolysis previously demonstrated to be dependent on plasma tPA antigen is correlated with tPA antigen content. Using the standardized assay, we found that tPA antigen concentrations in 16 blood bank plasmas are equivalent to 3.7 to 20 ng of 60 kd tPA/mL. In all the plasma tested, more than half of the antigen is undetected unless the plasma is treated as described above

  10. Immunoradiometric quantitation of tissue plasminogen activator-related antigen in human plasma: crypticity phenomenon and relationship to plasma fibrinolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wun, T.C.; Capuano, A.

    1987-05-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen has been developed using immunoaffinity purified antibody. Various treatments enhanced the detection of tPA antigen in the plasma samples. Maximum detection was obtained by acidification of plasma to pH 4.8 to 6.5 or addition of 0.5 mol/L of L-lysine or L-arginine. Acidification or addition of lysine to plasma is also required for maximum immunoadsorption of plasma tPA antigen on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose. These results indicate that plasma tPA antigen is partially cryptic to antibody in untreated plasma. The plasma tPA antigen isolated by immunoadsorption of either untreated plasma or acidified plasma on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose consists mainly of a 100-kd plasminogen activator species as determined by fibrin-agar zymography. The 100-kd activity is possibly a tPA:inhibitor complex. A standardized sample preparation method was conveniently adopted by mixing 3 vol of plasma and 1 vol of 2 mol/L of L-lysine for the assay. Reconstitution and recovery studies showed that the method is specific and permits full detection of both free tPA and tPA:inhibitor complex. The validity of the assay is further supported by the finding that the spontaneous plasma fibrinolysis previously demonstrated to be dependent on plasma tPA antigen is correlated with tPA antigen content. Using the standardized assay, we found that tPA antigen concentrations in 16 blood bank plasmas are equivalent to 3.7 to 20 ng of 60 kd tPA/mL. In all the plasma tested, more than half of the antigen is undetected unless the plasma is treated as described above.

  11. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, S.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.; Röpcke, J.

    2015-12-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH4, C2H2, HCN, and NH3). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  12. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamann, S.; Röpcke, J.; Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J.; Strämke, M.; Strämke, S.

    2015-01-01

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH 4 , C 2 H 2 , HCN, and NH 3 ). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined

  13. Plasma nitriding monitoring reactor: A model reactor for studying plasma nitriding processes using an active screen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, S., E-mail: hamann@inp-greifswald.de; Röpcke, J. [INP-Greifswald, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Börner, K.; Burlacov, I.; Spies, H.-J. [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Materials Engineering, Gustav-Zeuner-Str. 5, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Strämke, M.; Strämke, S. [ELTRO GmbH, Arnold-Sommerfeld-Ring 3, 52499 Baesweiler (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    A laboratory scale plasma nitriding monitoring reactor (PLANIMOR) has been designed to study the basics of active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) processes. PLANIMOR consists of a tube reactor vessel, made of borosilicate glass, enabling optical emission spectroscopy (OES) and infrared absorption spectroscopy. The linear setup of the electrode system of the reactor has the advantages to apply the diagnostic approaches on each part of the plasma process, separately. Furthermore, possible changes of the electrical field and of the heat generation, as they could appear in down-scaled cylindrical ASPN reactors, are avoided. PLANIMOR has been used for the nitriding of steel samples, achieving similar results as in an industrial scale ASPN reactor. A compact spectrometer using an external cavity quantum cascade laser combined with an optical multi-pass cell has been applied for the detection of molecular reaction products. This allowed the determination of the concentrations of four stable molecular species (CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}). With the help of OES, the rotational temperature of the screen plasma could be determined.

  14. Overexpression of human SOD1 improves survival of mice susceptible to endotoxic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charchaflieh J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Jean Charchaflieh,1,2 Georges I Labaze,1 Pulsar Li,1 Holly Van Remmen,3 Haekyung Lee,1 Helen Stutz,1 Arlan Richardson,3 Asher Emanuel,1 Ming Zhang1,41Department of Anesthesiology, State University of New York (SUNY Downstate Medical Center, New York, NY, USA; 2Department of Anesthesiology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 3Barshop Center for Longevity and Aging Studies, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA; 4Department of Cell Biology, State University of New York (SUNY Downstate Medical Center, New York, NY, USABackground: Protective effects of the antioxidant enzyme Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 against endotoxic shock have not been demonstrated in animal models. We used a murine model to investigate whether overexpression of SOD1 protects against endotoxic shock, and whether the genetic background of SOD1 affects its effective protective effects and susceptibility to endotoxic shock.Methods: Transgenic (tg mice overexpressing human SOD1 and control mice were divided into four groups based on their genetic background: (1 tg mice with mixed genetic background (tg-JAX; (2 wild-type (WT littermates of tg-JAX strain (WT-JAX; (3 tg mice with C57BL/6J background (tg-TX; (4 WT littermates of tg-TX strain (WT-TX. Activity of SOD1 in the intestine, heart, and liver of tg and control mice was confirmed using a polyacrylamide activity gel. Endotoxic shock was induced by intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide. Survival rates over 120 hours (mean, 95% confidence interval were analyzed using Kaplan–Meier survival curves.Results: Human SOD1 enzymatic activities were significantly higher in the intestine, heart, and liver of both tg strains (tg-JAX and tg-TX compared with their WT littermates (WT-JAX and WT-TX, respectively. Interestingly, the endogenous SOD1 activities in tg-JAX mice were decreased compared with their WT littermates (WT-JAX, but such aberrant changes were not

  15. Advanced qualification methodology for actively cooled plasma facing components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Grosman, A.; Boscary, J.; Merola, M.; Cismondi, F.; Courtois, X.; Farjon, J. L.; Missirlian, M.; Schlosser, J.; Tivey, R.

    2007-12-01

    The use of high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) in steady state fusion devices requires high reliability. These components have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10-20 MW m-2 involving a number of severe engineering constraints. Feedback from the experience of various industrial manufacturings showed that the bonding of the refractory armour material onto the metallic heat sink causes generic difficulties strongly depending on material qualities and specific design. As the heat exhaust capability and lifetime of PFCs during plasma operation are directly linked to the manufacturing quality, a set of qualification activities such as active infrared thermography, lock-in and acoustic measurements were performed during the component development phases following a qualification route. This paper describes the major improvements stemming from better measurement accuracy and refined data processing and analyses recent developments aimed at investigating the capability to qualify the component in situ during its lifetime.

  16. Advanced qualification methodology for actively cooled plasma facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durocher, A.; Escourbiac, F.; Grosman, A.; Boscary, J.; Merola, M.; Cismondi, F.; Courtois, X.; Farjon, J.L.; Missirlian, M.; Schlosser, J.; Tivey, R.

    2007-01-01

    The use of high heat flux plasma facing components (PFCs) in steady state fusion devices requires high reliability. These components have to withstand heat fluxes in the range 10-20 MW m -2 involving a number of severe engineering constraints. Feedback from the experience of various industrial manufacturings showed that the bonding of the refractory armour material onto the metallic heat sink causes generic difficulties strongly depending on material qualities and specific design. As the heat exhaust capability and lifetime of PFCs during plasma operation are directly linked to the manufacturing quality, a set of qualification activities such as active infrared thermography, lock-in and acoustic measurements were performed during the component development phases following a qualification route. This paper describes the major improvements stemming from better measurement accuracy and refined data processing and analyses recent developments aimed at investigating the capability to qualify the component in situ during its lifetime

  17. Exposure of Mn and FeSODs, but not Cu/ZnSOD, to NO leads to nitrosonium and nitroxyl ions generation which cause enzyme modification and inactivation: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niketíc, V; Stojanović, S; Nikolić, A; Spasić, M; Michelson, A M

    1999-11-01

    The effect of NO treatment in vitro on structural and functional alterations of Cu/Zn, Mn, and Fe type of SODs was studied. Significant difference in response to NO of Cu/ZnSOD compared to the Mn and Fe types was demonstrated. Cu/ZnSOD was shown to be stable with respect to NO: even on prolonged exposure, NO produced negligible effect on its structure and activity. In contrast, both Mn and Fe types were found to be NO-sensitive: exposure to NO led to their fast and extensive inactivation, which was accompanied by extensive structural alterations, including (in some of the samples tested) the cleavage of enzyme polypeptide chains, presumably at His residues of the enzyme metal binding sites. The generation of nitrosonium (NO+) and nitroxyl (NO-) ions in NO treated Mn and FeSODs, which produce enzyme modifications and inactivation, was demonstrated. The physiological and biomedical significance of described findings is briefly discussed.

  18. Functional implications of plasma membrane condensation for T cell activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carles Rentero

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The T lymphocyte plasma membrane condenses at the site of activation but the functional significance of this receptor-mediated membrane reorganization is not yet known. Here we demonstrate that membrane condensation at the T cell activation sites can be inhibited by incorporation of the oxysterol 7-ketocholesterol (7KC, which is known to prevent the formation of raft-like liquid-ordered domains in model membranes. We enriched T cells with 7KC, or cholesterol as control, to assess the importance of membrane condensation for T cell activation. Upon 7KC treatment, T cell antigen receptor (TCR triggered calcium fluxes and early tyrosine phosphorylation events appear unaltered. However, signaling complexes form less efficiently on the cell surface, fewer phosphorylated signaling proteins are retained in the plasma membrane and actin restructuring at activation sites is impaired in 7KC-enriched cells resulting in compromised downstream activation responses. Our data emphasizes lipids as an important medium for the organization at T cell activation sites and strongly indicates that membrane condensation is an important element of the T cell activation process.

  19. Cytoplasmic Copper Detoxification in Salmonella Can Contribute to SodC Metalation but Is Dispensable during Systemic Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenlon, Luke A; Slauch, James M

    2017-12-15

    Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a leading cause of foodborne disease worldwide. Severe infections result from the ability of S Typhimurium to survive within host immune cells, despite being exposed to various host antimicrobial factors. SodCI, a copper-zinc-cofactored superoxide dismutase, is required to defend against phagocytic superoxide. SodCII, an additional periplasmic superoxide dismutase, although produced during infection, does not function in the host. Previous studies suggested that CueP, a periplasmic copper binding protein, facilitates acquisition of copper by SodCII. CopA and GolT, both inner membrane ATPases that pump copper from the cytoplasm to the periplasm, are a source of copper for CueP. Using in vitro SOD assays, we found that SodCI can also utilize CueP to acquire copper. However, both SodCI and SodCII have a significant fraction of activity independent of CueP and cytoplasmic copper export. We utilized a series of mouse competition assays to address the in vivo role of CueP-mediated SodC activation. A copA golT cueP triple mutant was equally as competitive as the wild type, suggesting that sufficient SodCI is active to defend against phagocytic superoxide independent of CueP and cytoplasmic copper export. We also confirmed that a strain containing a modified SodCII, which is capable of complementing a sodCI deletion, was fully virulent in a copA golT cueP background competed against the wild type. These competitions also address the potential impact of cytoplasmic copper toxicity within the phagosome. Our data suggest that Salmonella does not encounter inhibitory concentrations of copper during systemic infection. IMPORTANCE Salmonella is a leading cause of gastrointestinal disease worldwide. In severe cases, Salmonella can cause life-threatening systemic infections, particularly in very young children, the elderly, or people who are immunocompromised. To cause disease, Salmonella must survive the hostile environment inside host

  20. Transduced human copper chaperone for Cu,Zn-SOD (PEP-1-CCS) protects against neuronal cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Hyun; Kim, Dae Won; Kim, So Young; An, Jae Jin; Lee, Sun Hwa; Choi, Hee Soon; Sohn, Eun Jung; Hwang, Seok-Il; Won, Moo Ho; Kang, Tae-Cheon; Kwon, Hyung Joo; Kang, Jung Hoon; Cho, Sung-Woo; Park, Jinseu; Eum, Won Sik; Choi, Soo Young

    2005-12-31

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the development of various human diseases. Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) is one of the major means by which cells counteract the deleterious effects of ROS. SOD activity is dependent upon bound copper ions supplied by its partner metallochaperone protein, copper chaperone for SOD (CCS). In the present study, we investigated the protective effects of PEP-1-CCS against neuronal cell death and ischemic insults. When PEP-1-CCS was added to the culture medium of neuronal cells, it rapidly entered the cells and protected them against paraquat-induced cell death. Moreover, transduced PEP-1-CCS markedly increased endogenous SOD activity in the cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that it prevented neuronal cell death in the hippocampus in response to transient forebrain ischemia. These results suggest that CCS is essential to activate SOD, and that transduction of PEP-1-CCS provides a potential strategy for therapeutic delivery in various human diseases including stroke related to SOD or ROS.

  1. The effect of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked exogenous SOD1-G93A on electrophysiological properties and intracellular calcium in cultured rat astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Milena; Bataveljić, Danijela; Nikolić, Ljiljana; Bijelić, Dunja; Andjus, Pavle

    2016-01-01

    Over 150 mutations in the SOD1 gene that encodes Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause 20-25% of familial ALS, albeit without a known gain-of-function mechanism. ALS is also non-cell-autonomous, the interactions between motor neurons and their glial neighbours being implicated in disease progression. The aim here was to investigate the biophysical effects of the exogenous human mutant SOD1-G93A on rat astrocytes in culture. Primary cortical astrocyte cultures were treated with recombinant human apo- mSOD1-G93A vs. wild-type control (wtSOD1) and recorded by patch-clamp and calcium imaging. Results showed that exogenous mSOD1 as well as wtSOD1 induced a decrease of membrane resistance, the effect being persistent (up to 13 min) only for the mutant form. Similarly, whole-cell inward currents in astrocytes were augmented by both wt and mSOD1, but the effect was twice larger and only progressed continuously for the latter. Both forms of SOD1 also induced a rise in intracellular Ca(2+) activity, the effect being dependent on external Ca(2+) and again only persisted with mSOD1, becoming significantly different from wtSOD1 only at longer times (14 min). In conclusion, this study points to membrane permeability and Ca(2+) signalling as processes affected by SOD1-G93A that presents the humoral factor triggering the role of astrocytes in ALS pathophysiology.

  2. Tolerance analysis of chloroplast OsCu/Zn-SOD overexpressing rice under NaCl and NaHCO3 stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjie Guan

    Full Text Available The 636-bp-long cDNA sequence of OsCu/Zn-SOD (AK059841 was cloned from Oryza sativa var. Longjing11 via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. The encoded protein comprised of 211 amino acids is highly homologous to Cu/Zn-SOD proteins from tuscacera rice and millet. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that in rice, the level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression was lowest in roots and was highest in petals and during the S5 leaf stage. Moreover, the expression level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression decreased during the L5 leaf stage to maturity. The level of OsCu/Zn-SOD gene expression, however, was increased under saline-sodic stress and NaHCO3 stress. Germination tests under 125, 150, and 175 mM NaCl revealed that OsCu/Zn-SOD-overexpressing lines performed better than the non-transgenic (NT Longjing11 lines in terms of germination rate and height. Subjecting seedlings to NaHCO3 and water stress revealed that OsCu/Zn-SOD-overexpressing lines performed better than NT in terms of SOD activity, fresh weight, root length, and height. Under simulated NaHCO3 stress, OsCu/Zn-SOD-overexpressing lines performed better than NT in terms of survival rate (25.19% > 6.67% and yield traits (average grain weight 20.6 > 18.15 g. This study showed that OsCu/Zn-SOD gene overexpression increases the detoxification capacity of reactive oxygen species in O. sativa and reduces salt-induced oxidative damage. We also revealed the regulatory mechanism of OsCu/Zn-SOD enzyme in saline-sodic stress resistance in O. sativa. Moreover, we provided an experimental foundation for studying the mechanism of OsCu/Zn-SOD enzymes in the chloroplast.

  3. A 50 bp deletion in the SOD1 promoter lowers enzyme expression but is not associated with ALS in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingre, Caroline; Wuolikainen, Anna; Marklund, Stefan L; Birve, Anna; Press, Rayomand; Andersen, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in the superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene have been linked to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). A 50 base pair (bp) deletion of SOD1 has been suggested to reduce transcription and to be associated with later disease onset in ALS. This study was aimed to reveal if the 50 bp deletion influenced SOD1 enzymatic activity, occurrence and phenotype of the disease in a Swedish ALS/control cohort. Blood samples from 512 Swedish ALS patients and 354 Swedish controls without coding SOD1 mutations were analysed for the 50 bp deletion allele. The enzymatic activity of SOD1 in erythrocytes was analysed and genotype-phenotype correlations were assessed. Results demonstrated that the genotype frequencies of the 50 bp deletion were all found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. No significant differences were found for age of onset, disease duration or site of onset. SOD1 enzymatic activity showed a statistically significant decreasing trend in the control group, in which the allele was associated with a 5% reduction in SOD1 activity. The results suggest that the 50 bp deletion has a moderate reducing effect on SOD1 synthesis. No modulating effects, however, were found on ALS onset, phenotype and survival in the Swedish population.

  4. Immunoreactive Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD in lymphocytes sub-populations from normal and trisomy 21 subjects according to age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeteman, M.A.; Baret, A.; Courtiere, A.; Rebuffel, P.; Mattei, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Copper and manganese superoxide dismutases (Cu-SOD and Mn-SOD) were measured by radioimmunoassay in B and T lymphocytes and macrophages, in patients with trisomy 21 and in matched controls. In the controls, Cu-SOD was present in greater amounts than Mn-SOD and there were quantitative differences in the distribution in the three cellular sub-populations. In trisomy 21, levels of Cu-SOD were raised, with no change in levels of Mn-SOD, supporting the theory of a gene dosage effect. There were significant positive and negative correlations between age and Cu-SOD levels in controls, and a correlation approaching significance for Mn-SOD. In trisomy 21, there was no correlation between age and Cu-SOD levels, and the only significant correlation for Mn-SOD was for B lymphocytes

  5. [Activity of antioxidative enzymes and concentration of malondialdehyde as oxidative status markers in women with non-autoimmunological subclinical hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybus-Kalinowska, Barbara; Zwirska-Korczala, Krystyna; Kalinowski, Mariusz; Kukla, Michał; Birkner, Ewa; Jochem, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    The recent investigations point out the significant role of oxidative stress in the development of thyroid gland disease. The present study was designed to investigate the variation of oxidative stae in women with non-autoimmunological subclinical hyperthyroidism. The study was conducted on 20 females with non-autoimmunological subclinical hyperthyroidism and 15 healthy women. Manganase-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) plasma activity, and malondialdehyde (MDA) plasma concentration were measured. EC-SOD plasma activity was significantly higher in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism when compared with the control group (13.3 +/- 2.1 vs. 10.9 +/- 1.4 NU/ml; p < 0.05), unlike Mn-SOD (4.2 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.0 +/- 1.0 NU/ml). MDA plasma concentration increased significantly in women with subclinical hyperthyroidism (3.5 +/- 1.2 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.6 micromol/l; p < 0.05). The increased EC-SOD plasma activity may reflect disturbances of oxidative state in subclinical hyperthyroidism. Parallel increase of MDA plasma concentration may indicate enhancement of lipid peroxidationin in patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism.

  6. Analysis of Serum Cytokines and Single-Nucleotide Polymorphisms of SOD1, SOD2, and CAT in Erysipelas Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles C. Emene

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased free radical production had been documented in group A (β-hemolytic streptococcus infection cases. Comparing 71 erysipelas patients to 55 age-matched healthy individuals, we sought for CAT, SOD1, and SOD2 single polymorphism mutation (SNPs interactions with erysipelas’ predisposition and serum cytokine levels in the acute and recovery phases of erysipelas infection. Whereas female patients had a higher predisposition to erysipelas, male patients were prone to having a facial localization of the infection. The presence of SOD1 G7958, SOD2 T2734, and CAT C262 alleles was linked to erysipelas’ predisposition. T and C alleles of SOD2 T2734C individually were linked to patients with bullous and erythematous erysipelas, respectively. G and A alleles of SOD1 G7958A individually were associated with lower limbs and higher body part localizations of the infection, respectively. Serum levels of IL-1β, CCL11, IL-2Rα, CXCL9, TRAIL, PDGF-BB, and CCL4 were associated with symptoms accompanying the infection, while IL-6, IL-9, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, IL-17, G-CSF, and VEGF were associated with predisposition and recurrence of erysipelas. While variations of IL-1β, IL-7, IL-8, IL-17, CCL5, and HGF were associated with the SOD2 T2734C SNP, variations of PDFG-BB and CCL2 were associated with the CAT C262T SNP.

  7. Post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase, but not hepatic lipase activity, is related to plasma adiponectin in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, R; Wolffenbuttel, BHR; Sluiter, WJ; Van Tol, A; Dullaart, RPF

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationships of plasma adiponectin with post-heparin plasma lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase (HL) activities, and to evaluate whether plasma adiponectin contributes to diabetes-associated dyslipidaemia. Plasma adiponectin, post-heparin plasma

  8. How to Patch Active Plasma and Collisionless Sheath: Practical Guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2002-01-01

    Most plasmas have a very thin sheath compared with the plasma dimension. This necessitates separate calculations of the plasma and sheath. The Bohm criterion provides the boundary condition for calculation of plasma profiles. To calculate sheath properties, a value of electric field at the plasma-sheath interface has to be specified in addition to the Bohm criterion. The value of the boundary electric field and robust procedure to approximately patch plasma and collisionless sheath with a very good accuracy are reported

  9. Photosynthesis Activates Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase via Sugar Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Masaki; Inoue, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwata, Keiko; Kinoshita, Toshinori

    2016-05-01

    Plant plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase acts as a primary transporter via proton pumping and regulates diverse physiological responses by controlling secondary solute transport, pH homeostasis, and membrane potential. Phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine and the subsequent binding of 14-3-3 proteins in the carboxyl terminus of the enzyme are required for H(+)-ATPase activation. We showed previously that photosynthesis induces phosphorylation of the penultimate threonine in the nonvascular bryophyte Marchantia polymorpha However, (1) whether this response is conserved in vascular plants and (2) the process by which photosynthesis regulates H(+)-ATPase phosphorylation at the plasma membrane remain unresolved issues. Here, we report that photosynthesis induced the phosphorylation and activation of H(+)-ATPase in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaves via sugar accumulation. Light reversibly phosphorylated leaf H(+)-ATPase, and this process was inhibited by pharmacological and genetic suppression of photosynthesis. Immunohistochemical and biochemical analyses indicated that light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase occurred autonomously in mesophyll cells. We also show that the phosphorylation status of H(+)-ATPase and photosynthetic sugar accumulation in leaves were positively correlated and that sugar treatment promoted phosphorylation. Furthermore, light-induced phosphorylation of H(+)-ATPase was strongly suppressed in a double mutant defective in ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase and triose phosphate/phosphate translocator (adg1-1 tpt-2); these mutations strongly inhibited endogenous sugar accumulation. Overall, we show that photosynthesis activated H(+)-ATPase via sugar production in the mesophyll cells of vascular plants. Our work provides new insight into signaling from chloroplasts to the plasma membrane ion transport mechanism. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Responses of transgenic Arabidopsis plants and recombinant yeast cells expressing a novel durum wheat manganese superoxide dismutase TdMnSOD to various abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaouthar, Feki; Ameny, Farhat-Khemakhem; Yosra, Kamoun; Walid, Saibi; Ali, Gargouri; Faiçal, Brini

    2016-07-01

    In plant cells, the manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD) plays an elusive role in the response to oxidative stress. In this study, we describe the isolation and functional characterization of a novel Mn-SOD from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. Durum), named TdMnSOD. Molecular phylogeny analysis showed that the durum TdMnSOD exhibited high amino acids sequence identity with other Mn-SOD plants. The three-dimensional structure showed that TdMnSOD forms a homotetramer and each subunit is composed of a predominantly α-helical N-terminal domain and a mixed α/β C-terminal domain. TdMnSOD gene expression analysis showed that this gene was induced by various abiotic stresses in durum wheat. The expression of TdMnSOD enhances tolerance of the transformed yeast cells to salt, osmotic, cold and H2O2-induced oxidative stresses. Moreover, the analysis of TdMnSOD transgenic Arabidopsis plants subjected to different environmental stresses revealed low H2O2 and high proline levels as compared to the wild-type plants. Compared with the non-transformed plants, an increase in the total SOD and two other antioxidant enzyme activities including catalase (CAT) and peroxidases (POD) was observed in the three transgenic lines subjected to abiotic stress. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the involvement of durum wheat TdMnSOD in tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in crop plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Computer modeling of active experiments in space plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollens, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The understanding of space plasmas is expanding rapidly. This is, in large part, due to the ambitious efforts of scientists from around the world who are performing large scale active experiments in the space plasma surrounding the earth. One such effort was designated the Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers (AMPTE) and consisted of a series of plasma releases that were completed during 1984 and 1985. What makes the AMPTE experiments particularly interesting was the occurrence of a dramatic anomaly that was completely unpredicted. During the AMPTE experiment, three satellites traced the solar-wind flow into the earth's magnetosphere. One satellite, built by West Germany, released a series of barium and lithium canisters that were detonated and subsequently photo-ionized via solar radiation, thereby creating an artificial comet. Another satellite, built by Great Britain and in the vicinity during detonation, carried, as did the first satellite, a comprehensive set of magnetic field, particle and wave instruments. Upon detonation, what was observed by the satellites, as well as by aircraft and ground-based observers, was quite unexpected. The initial deflection of the ion clouds was not in the ambient solar wind's flow direction (rvec V) but rather in the direction transverse to the solar wind and the background magnetic field (rvec V x rvec B). This result was not predicted by any existing theories or simulation models; it is the main subject discussed in this dissertation. A large three dimensional computer simulation was produced to demonstrate that this transverse motion can be explained in terms of a rocket effect. Due to the extreme computer resources utilized in producing this work, the computer methods used to complete the calculation and the visualization techniques used to view the results are also discussed

  12. Plasma B-esterase activities in European raptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Claudie; Grolleau, Gérard; Chamoulaud, Serge; Rivière, Jean-Louis

    2005-01-01

    B-esterases are serine hydrolases composed of cholinesterases, including acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and carboxylesterase (CbE). These esterases, found in blood plasma, are inhibited by organophosphorus (OP) and carbamate (CB) insecticides and can be used as nondestructive biomarkers of exposure to anticholinesterase insecticides. Furthermore, B-esterases are involved in detoxification of these insecticides. In order to establish the level of these enzymes and to have reference values for their normal activities, total plasma cholinesterase (ChE), AChE and BChE activities, and plasma CbE activity were determined in 729 European raptors representing 20 species, four families, and two orders. The diurnal families of the Falconiforme order were represented by Accipitridae and Falconidae and the nocturnal families of the Strigiforme order by Tytonidae and Strigidae. Intraspecies differences in cholinesterase activities according to sex and/or age were investigated in buzzards (Buteo buteo), sparrowhawks (Accipiter nisus), kestrels (Falco tinnunculus), barn owls (Tyto alba), and tawny owls (Strix aluco). Sex-related differences affecting ChE and AChE activities were observed in young kestrels (2-3-mo-old) and age-related differences in kestrels (ChE and AChE), sparrowhawks (AChE), and tawny owls (ChE, AChE, and BChE). The interspecies analysis yielded a negative correlation between ChE activity and body mass taking into account the relative contribution of AChE and BChE to ChE activity, with the exception of the honey buzzard (Pernis apivorus). The lowest ChE activities were found in the two largest species, Bonelli's eagle (Hieraaetus fasciatus) and Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus) belonging to the Accipitridae family. The highest ChE activities were found in the relatively small species belonging to the Tytonidae and Strigidae families and in honey buzzard of the Accipitridae family. Species of the Accipitridae, Tytonidae, and

  13. High quality actively cooled plasma facing components for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively-cooled PFCs (plasma facing components) for future fusion devices with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra's Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL). This actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation, has been operated in essentially thermally steady state conditions. From experience with testing to identify braze flaws in the OPL, recommendations are made to analyze the impact of joining flaws on thermal-hydraulic performance of PFCs and to validate a method of inspection for such flaws early in the design development. Capability for extensive in-service monitoring of future PFCs is also recommended and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed

  14. Fluorogenic MMP activity assay for plasma including MMPs complexed to α2-macroglobulin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekman, B.; Drijfhout, J.W.; Ronday, H.K.; TeKoppele, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated MMP activities are implicated in tissue degradation in, e.g., arthritis and cancer. The present study was designed to measure MMP enzyme activity in plasma. Free active MMP is unlikely to be present in plasma: upon entering the circulation, active MMP is expected to be captured by the

  15. In-vivo effects of knocking-down metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 in the SOD1G93A mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonifacino, Tiziana; Cattaneo, Luca; Gallia, Elena; Puliti, Aldamaria; Melone, Marcello; Provenzano, Francesca; Bossi, Simone; Musante, Ilaria; Usai, Cesare; Conti, Fiorenzo; Bonanno, Giambattista; Milanese, Marco

    2017-09-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder due to loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs). The mechanisms of neuronal death are largely unknown, thus prejudicing the successful pharmacological treatment. One major cause for MN degeneration in ALS is represented by glutamate(Glu)-mediated excitotoxicity. We have previously reported that activation of Group I metabotropic Glu receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5) at glutamatergic spinal cord nerve terminals produces abnormal Glu release in the widely studied SOD1 G93A mouse model of ALS. We also demonstrated that halving mGluR1 expression in the SOD1 G93A mouse had a positive impact on survival, disease onset, disease progression, and on a number of cellular and biochemical readouts of ALS. We generated here SOD1 G93A mice with reduced expression of mGluR5 (SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ ) by crossing the SOD1 G93A mutant mouse with the mGluR5 heterozigous Grm5 -/+ mouse. SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ mice showed prolonged survival probability and delayed pathology onset. These effects were associated to enhanced number of preserved MNs, decreased astrocyte and microglia activation, reduced cytosolic free Ca 2+ concentration, and regularization of abnormal Glu release in the spinal cord of SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ mice. Unexpectedly, only male SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ mice showed improved motor skills during disease progression vs. SOD1 G93A mice, while SOD1 G93A Grm5 -/+ females did not. These results demonstrate that a lower constitutive level of mGluR5 has a significant positive impact in mice with ALS and support the idea that blocking Group I mGluRs may represent a potentially effective pharmacological approach to the disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Science and technology of plasma activated direct wafer bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberds, Brian Edward

    This dissertation studied the kinetics of silicon direct wafer bonding with emphasis on low temperature bonding mechanisms. The project goals were to understand the topological requirements for initial bonding, develop a tensile test to measure the bond strength as a function of time and temperature and, using the kinetic information obtained, develop lower temperature methods of bonding. A reproducible surface metrology metric for bonding was best described by power spectral density derived from atomic force microscopy measurements. From the tensile strength kinetics study it was found that low annealing temperatures could be used to obtain strong bonds, but at the expense of longer annealing times. Three models were developed to describe the kinetics. A diffusion controlled model and a reaction rate controlled model were developed for the higher temperature regimes (T > 600sp°C), and an electric field assisted oxidation model was proposed for the low temperature range. An in situ oxygen plasma treatment was used to further enhance the field-controlled mechanism which resulted in dramatic increases in the low temperature bonding kinetics. Multiple internal transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (MIT-FTIR) was used to monitor species evolution at the bonded interface and a capacitance-voltage (CV) study was undertaken to investigate charge distribution and surface states resulting from plasma activation. A short, less than a minute, plasma exposure prior to contacting the wafers was found to obtain very strong bonds for hydrophobic silicon wafers at very low temperatures (100sp°C). This novel bonding method may enable new technologies involving heterogeneous material systems or bonding partially fabricated devices to become realities.

  17. REB-instability with magneto-active inhomogeneous warm plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shorbagy, K.H.

    2000-07-01

    The beam-plasma heating due to a relativistic electron beam (REB) under the effect of an external static magnetic field is investigated. It is considered that a longitudinal 1-D oscillations exist in the plasma, which is inhomogeneous and bounded in the direction of the beam propagation. It is found that the variation in the plasma density has a profound effect on the spatial beam-plasma instability. Besides, the external static magnetic field and warmness of plasma electron leads to more power absorption from the electron beam, and consequently an auxiliary plasma heating. (author)

  18. REB-Instability with Magneto-Active Inhomogeneous Warm Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Shorbagy, Kh.H.

    2000-01-01

    The beam-plasma heating due to a relativistic electron beam (REB) under the effect of an external static magnetic field is investigated. It is considered that a longitudinal 1-D oscillations exist in the plasma, which is inhomogeneous and bounded in the direction of the beam propagation. It is found that the variation in the plasma density has a profound effect on the spatial beam-plasma instability. Besides, the external static magnetic field and warmness of plasma electron leads to more power absorption from the electron beam, and consequently an auxiliary plasma heating

  19. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Carlyle, J.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; Steed, K.

    2013-01-01

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  20. Actively cooled plasma facing components qualification, commissioning and health monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escourbiac, F.; Durocher, A.; Grosman, A.; Courtois, X.; Farjon, J.-L.; Schlosser, J.; Merola, M.; Tivey, R.

    2006-01-01

    In modern steady state magnetic fusion devices, actively cooled plasma facing components (PFC) have to handle heat fluxes in the range of 10-20 MW/m 2 . This generates a number of engineering constraints: the armour materials must be refractory and compatible with plasma wall interaction requirements (low sputtering and/or low atomic number); the heat sink must offer high thermal conductivity, high mechanical resistance and sufficient ductility; the component cooling system -which is generally based on the circulation of pressurized water in the PFC's heat sink - must offer high thermal heat transfer efficiency. Furthermore, the assembling of the refractory armour material onto the metallic heat sink causes generic difficulties strongly depending on thermo-mechanical properties of materials and design requirements. Life time of the PFC during plasma operation are linked to their manufacturing quality, in particular they are reduced by the possible presence of flaw assembling. The fabrication of PFC in an industrial frame including their qualification and their commissioning - which consists in checking the manufacturing quality during and at the end of manufacture - is a real challenge. From experience gained at Tore Supra on carbon fibre composite flat tiles technology components, it was assessed that a set of qualifications activities must be operated during R(and)D and manufacturing phases. Dedicated Non Destructive Technique (NDT) based on advanced active infrared thermography was developed for this purpose, afterwards, correlations between NDT, high heat flux testing and thermomechanical modelling were performed to analyse damage detection and propagation, and define an acceptance criteria valuable for industrial application. Health monitoring using lock-in technique was also recently operated in-situ of the Tore Supra tokamak for detection of possible defect propagation during operations, presence of acoustic precursor for critical heat flux detection induced

  1. Activities report of the National Space Research Institute Plasma Laboratory for the period 1988/1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the activities performed in the period 1988/1989 by the National Space Research Institute (INPE/SCT) Plasma Laboratory (LAP). The report presents the main results in the following research lines: plasma physics, plasma technology, and controlled thermonuclear fusion. (author). 49 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Antioxidative Activity of Onion Peel Extract in Obese Women: A Randomized, Double-blind, Placebo Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-Ah; Yim, Jung-Eun

    2015-09-01

    Quercetin, found abundantly in onion peel, has been known to have anticholesterol, antithrombotic and insulin-sensitizing properties. Here, we investigated the effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidative defense in obese woman. This study was randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Thirty-seven healthy obese participants were randomly assigned that eighteen subjects received red soft capsuled OPE (100 mg/d, 50 mg bis in die), while the other nineteen subjects received same capsuled placebo for 12 weeks. ROS production and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in plasma were determined by using ROS and SOD assay kits, respectively. Baseline characteristics of anthropometric indicators and blood metabolic profiles were not significantly different between the two groups. Compared with baseline values, OPE consumption significantly reduced waist and hip circumference. Plasma ROS level and SOD activity were decreased in both placebo and OPE groups compared with baseline values. However, plasma ROS level in OPE group was significantly lower than in placebo group while plasma SOD activity in OPE group was significantly higher than in placebo group after 12 weeks of consumption. These findings indicate that OPE consumption may exert antioxidative effect by preventing the decrease of SOD activity as well as the production of ROS in obese women.

  3. Plasma renin activity in patients with ischaemic heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbanek, J.; Hofman, O.; Reisenauer, R.; Slaby, A.

    1977-01-01

    Plasma renin activity (PRA) stimulated by upright posture was measured in 300 men aged 45-64 years using a radioimmunoassay of angiotensin-I. The examined subjects were normotensive or patients with benign essential hypertension and were divided into 6 groups according to the absence of manifest atherosclerosis, the presence of definite angina pectoris or a history of myocardial infarction. Each group contained 50 unselected subjects, with a comparable mean age. Significant differences in mean PRA were found between corresponding groups of hypertensives and normotensives, the values in hypertensives being lower. The percentage of low renin values was higher in hypertensives with ischaemic heart disease than in other groups. It is suggested that this finding might be explained by functional disturbances in the kidneys in hypertensives with ischaemic heart disease. (orig.) [de

  4. Plasma renin activity in patients with ischaemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbanek, J; Hofman, O; Reisenauer, R; Slaby, A [Karlova Universita, Prague (Czechoslovakia). Inst. of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine; Karlova Universita, Prague (Czechoslovakia). IV. Dept. of Internal Medicine; Vyzkumny Ustav Endokrinologicky, Prague [Czechoslovakia

    1977-04-01

    Plasma renin activity (PRA) stimulated by upright posture was measured in 300 men aged 45 to 64 years using a radioimmunoassay of angiotensin-I. The examined subjects were normotensive or patients with benign essential hypertension and were divided into 6 groups according to the absence of manifest atherosclerosis, the presence of definite angina pectoris or a history of myocardial infarction. Each group contained 50 unselected subjects, with a comparable mean age. Significant differences in mean PRA were found between corresponding groups of hypertensives and normotensives, the values in hypertensives being lower. The percentage of low renin values was higher in hypertensives with ischaemic heart disease than in other groups. It is suggested that this finding might be explained by functional disturbances in the kidneys in hypertensives with ischaemic heart disease.

  5. Effect of gas pressure on active screen plasma nitriding response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimoto, Akio; Nagatsuka, Kimiaki; Narita, Ryota; Nii, Hiroaki; Akamatsu, Katsuya

    2010-01-01

    An austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 was active screen plasma nitrided using a 304 steel screen to investigate the effect of the gas pressure on the ASPN response. The sample was treated for 18 ks at 723 K in 25% N2 + 75% H2 gases. The gas pressure was changed to 100, 600 and 1200 Pa. The distance between screen and sample was also changed to 10, 30 and 50 mm. The nitrided samples were characterized by appearance observation, surface roughness, optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and microhardness testing. After nitriding, polygonal particles with a normal distribution were observed at the center and edges of all the ASPN-treated sample surfaces. Particles on the sample surfaces were finer with an increase in the gas pressure. The nitrided layer with a greater and homogeneous thickness was obtained at a low gas pressure of 100 Pa. (author)

  6. Beam-plasma coupling physics in support of active experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakymenko, K.; Delzanno, G. L.; Roytershteyn, V.

    2017-12-01

    The recent development of compact relativistic accelerators might open up a new era of active experiments in space, driven by important scientific and national security applications. Examples include using electron beams to trace magnetic field lines and establish causality between physical processes occurring in the magnetosphere and those in the ionosphere. Another example is the use of electron beams to trigger waves in the near-Earth environment. Waves could induce pitch-angle scattering and precipitation of energetic electrons, acting as an effective radiation belt remediation scheme. In this work, we revisit the coupling between an electron beam and a magnetized plasma in the framework of linear cold-plasma theory. We show that coupling can occur through two different regimes. In the first, a non-relativistic beam radiates through whistler waves. This is well known, and was in fact the focus of many rockets and space-shuttle campaigns aimed at demonstrating whistler emissions in the eighties. In the second regime, the beam radiates through extraordinary (R-X) modes. Nonlinear simulations with a highly-accurate Vlasov code support the theoretical results qualitatively and demonstrate that the radiated power through R-X modes can be much larger than in the whistler regime. Test-particle simulations in the wave electromagnetic field will also be presented to assess the efficiency of these waves in inducing pitch-angle scattering via wave-particle interactions. Finally, the implications of these results for a rocket active experiment in the ionosphere and for a radiation belt remediation scheme will be discussed.

  7. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlien Pieters

    Full Text Available Due to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays. Blood samples were collected from 151 individuals and centrifuged at 352 and 1500 g to obtain plasma with varying numbers of platelet. In a follow-up study, blood samples were collected from an additional 23 individuals, from whom platelet-poor (2000 g, platelet-containing (352 g and platelet-rich plasma (200 g were prepared and analysed as fresh-frozen and after five defrost-refreeze cycles (to determine the contribution of in vitro platelet degradation. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen, tissue plasminogen activator/plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 complex, plasma clot lysis time, β-thromboglobulin and plasma platelet count were analysed. Platelet α-granule release (plasma β-thromboglobulin showed a significant association with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels but weak associations with plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and a functional marker of fibrinolysis, clot lysis time. Upon dividing the study population into quartiles based on β-thromboglobulin levels, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen increased significantly across the quartiles while plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity and clot lysis time tended to increase in the 4th quartile only. In the follow-up study, plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen was also significantly influenced by platelet count in a concentration-dependent manner. Plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels increased further after complete platelet degradation. Residual platelets in plasma significantly influence plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 antigen levels mainly

  8. S-acylation of SOD1, CCS, and a stable SOD1-CCS heterodimer in human spinal cords from ALS and non-ALS subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinone, Sarah E; Ghadge, Ghanashyam D; Ostrow, Lyle W; Roos, Raymond P; Green, William N

    2017-01-25

    Previously, we found that human Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is S-acylated (palmitoylated) in vitro and in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mouse models, and that S-acylation increased for ALS-causing SOD1 mutants relative to wild type. Here, we use the acyl resin-assisted capture (acyl-RAC) assay to demonstrate S-acylation of SOD1 in human post-mortem spinal cord homogenates from ALS and non-ALS subjects. Acyl-RAC further revealed that endogenous copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) is S-acylated in both human and mouse spinal cords, and in vitro in HEK293 cells. SOD1 and CCS formed a highly stable heterodimer in human spinal cord homogenates that was resistant to dissociation by boiling, denaturants, or reducing agents and was not observed in vitro unless both SOD1 and CCS were overexpressed. Cysteine mutations that attenuate SOD1 maturation prevented the SOD1-CCS heterodimer formation. The degree of S-acylation was highest for SOD1-CCS heterodimers, intermediate for CCS monomers, and lowest for SOD1 monomers. Given that S-acylation facilitates anchoring of soluble proteins to cell membranes, our findings suggest that S-acylation and membrane localization may play an important role in CCS-mediated SOD1 maturation. Furthermore, the highly stable S-acylated SOD1-CCS heterodimer may serve as a long-lived maturation intermediate in human spinal cord.

  9. Plasma cholinesterase activity of rats, western grey kangaroos, alpacas, sheep, cattle, and horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Chris; Mawson, Peter; Maloney, Shane K

    2015-01-01

    Plasma cholinesterase activity levels of various species may be of interest to toxicologists or pathologists working with chemicals that interfere with the activity of plasma cholinesterase. We used a pH titration method to measure the plasma cholinesterase activity of six mammalian species. Plasma cholinesterase activity varied up to 50-fold between species: sheep (88 ± 45 nM acetylcholine degraded per ml of test plasma per minute), cattle (94 ± 35), western grey kangaroos (126 ± 92), alpaca (364 ± 70), rats (390 ± 118) and horses (4539 ± 721). We present a simple, effective technique for the assay of plasma cholinesterase activity levels from a range of species. Although labour-intensive, it requires only basic laboratory equipment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot seminal plasma and their effects on sperm quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Mingming; Ding, Fuhong; Meng, Zhen; Lei, Jilin

    2015-08-01

    In this research, the concentration and activity of oxidants and anti-oxidants in turbot semen, and their effects on sperm quality were studied. The results showed that superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase, glutathione reductase (GR), uric acid, vitamin E (VE) and vitamin C (VC) were more abundant in seminal plasma than in spermatozoa. The variation for each of them was specific. In seminal plasma, the activity of SOD and GR increased from November 15, November 30 to December 15, and then decreased on December 30. The concentrations of both VC and uric acid decreased during the first 3 sampling times and increased on December 30. The oxidants in seminal plasma accumulated to the highest on December 30. Lactic acid (LA) and ATP levels decreased to the lowest on December 30. The correlation analysis showed that GR had the significant positive relevance to sperm motility and VSL/VCL, while ·OH had negative relevance to them.

  11. The design of actively cooled plasma-facing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheerer, M.; Smid, I.; Bolt, H.; Gervash, A.; Linke, J.

    2001-01-01

    In future fusion devices, like in the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X, the target plates of the divertor will be exposed to heat loads up to power densities of 10 MW/m 2 for 1000 s. For this purpose actively cooled target elements with an internal coolant flow return, made of 2-D CFC armor tiles brazed onto a two tube cooling structure were developed and manufactured at the Forschungszentrum Juelich. Individual bent- and coolant flow reversal elements were used to achieve a high flexibility in the shape of the target elements. A special brazing technology, using a thin layer of plasma-arc deposited titanium was used for the bonding of the cooling structure to the plasma facing armor (PFA). FEM-simulations of the thermal and mechanical behavior show that a detachment of about 25% of the bonded area between the copper tubes and the PFA can be tolerated, without exceeding the critical heat flux at 15 MW/m 2 or a surface temperature of 1400 C at 10 MW/m 2 by using twisted tape inserts with a twist ratio of 2 at a cooling water velocity of 10 m/s. Thermal cycling tests in an electron beam facility up to a power density level 10.5 MW/m 2 show a very good behavior of parts of the target elements, which confirms the performance under fusion relevant conditions. Even defected parts in the bonding interface of the target elements, known from ultrasonic inspections before, show no change in the thermal performance under cycling, which confirms also the structural integrity of partly defected regions. (orig.)

  12. Plasma Hazards and Acceptance for International Space Station Extravehicular Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    Extravehicular activity(EVA) is accepted by NASA and other space faring agencies as a necessary risk in order to build and maintain a safe and efficient laboratory in space. EVAs are used for standard construction and as contingency operations to repair critical equipment for vehicle sustainability and safety of the entire crew in the habitable volume. There are many hazards that are assessed for even the most mundane EVA for astronauts, and the vast majority of these are adequately controlled per the rules of the International Space Station Program. The need for EVA repair and construction has driven acceptance of a possible catastrophic hazard to the EVA crewmember which cannot currently be controlled adequately. That hazard is electrical shock from the very environment in which they work. This paper describes the environment, causes and contributors to the shock of EVA crewmembers attributed to the ionospheric plasma environment in low Earth orbit. It will detail the hazard history, and acceptance process for the risk associated with these hazards that give assurance to a safe EVA. In addition to the hazard acceptance process this paper will explore other factors that go into the decision to accept a risk including criticality of task, hardware design and capability, and the probability of hazard occurrence. Also included will be the required interaction between organizations at NASA(EVA Office, Environments, Engineering, Mission Operations, Safety) in order to build and eventually gain adequate acceptance rationale for a hazard of this kind. During the course of the discussion, all current methods of mitigating the hazard will be identified. This paper will capture the history of the plasma hazard analysis and processes used by the International Space Station Program to formally assess and qualify the risk. The paper will discuss steps that have been taken to identify and perform required analysis of the floating potential shock hazard from the ISS environment

  13. A Study on Plasma Renin Activity in Essential Hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choe, Kang Won; Lee, Jung Sang; Cho, Bo Yeon; Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Mun Ho

    1975-01-01

    Radioimmunoassay for the measurement of plasma renin activity (PRA) was performed in 43 normal Koreans and 45 patients with essential hypertension. Plasma samples were drawn in supine position in the morning and after upright posture for 4 hours. Urinary sodium excretion rates were measured in the concurrent 24 hour urine samples, an index of their sodium balance. The results were as follows: 1) There was an inverse correlation between 24 hr sodium excretion and PRA. The normal values of PRA in supine position ranged from 1.0 to 7.0 ng/ml/hr. when 24 hour sodium excretion were between 50 to 150 mEq. PRA in elderly tended to be low. 2) When stimulated by 4 hour upright posture, PRA increased by 2.6 times from the baseline value. 3) Of the 45 patients with essential hypertension, PRA was low in 10 cases (22.2%), normal in 28 cases (62.2%), and high in 7 cases (15.6%). 4) In the normal and high renin groups, who tended to be younger in ages, mean diastolic blood pressure and BUN were higher than in low renin group. Though hypertensive retinopathy and left ventricular hypertrophy in ECG were more prevalent in the former, no significant differences were noted as in the case of serum cholesterol. 5) There were 8 cases of cardiovascular complications (7 with cerebral vascular accident, 1 with myocardial infarction); 3 in low renin group (30%), 2 in normal renin (7.1%) and 3 in higher renin group (42.9%). This figure indicated higher rate of cardiovascular complications in higher renin groups, and lower rate in normal renin group. But the incidence of the complication was not significantly low in low renin group.

  14. Vacuum Plasma Spraying W-coated Reduced Activation Structural Steels for Fusion Plasma Facing Components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Sanghoon; Kim, Tae Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Tungsten (W) and its alloys are considered as candidate materials for plasma facing materials of the first wall and diverter components in fusion reactor systems because of high sputtering resistance and low tritium retention in a fusion environment. Therefore, it is considered that the joining between W and reduced activation structural steels, and its evaluation, are critical issues for the development of fusion reactors. However, the joining between these materials is a very challenging process because of significant differences in their physical properties, particularly the mismatch of coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE). For instance, the CTE of pure W is known to be about 4.3Χ10{sup -6}K{sup -1}; however, that of martensitic steels reaches over three times, about 12-14Χ10{sup -6}K{sup -1} at room temperature even up to 373K. Nevertheless, several joining techniques have been developed for joining between W and structural steels, such as a vapor deposition method, brazing and diffusion bonding. Meanwhile, vacuum plasma spraying (VPS) is supposed to be one of the prospective methods to fabricate a sufficient W layer on the steel substrates because of the coating of a large area with a relatively high fabricating rate. In this study, the VPS method of W powders on reduced activation steels was employed, and its microstructure and hardness distribution were investigated. ODS ferritic steels and F82H steel were coated by VPS-W, and the microstructure and hardness distribution were investigated. A microstructure analysis revealed that pure W was successfully coated on steel substrates by the VPS process without an intermediate layer, in spite of a mismatch of the CTE between dissimilar materials. After neutron irradiation, irradiation hardening significantly occurred in the VPSW. However, the hardening of VPS-W was lesser than that of bulk W irradiated HFIR at 773K. Substrate materials, ODS ferritic steels, and F82H steel, did not show irradiation hardening

  15. High quality actively cooled plasma-facing components for fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nygren, R.E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively cooled plasma-facing components (PFCs) for future fusion devices, with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra's Phase III outboard pump limiter (OPL). This actively cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long-pulse operation, has been operated under essentially thermally steady state conditions. Testing to identify braze flaws, analysis of the impact of joining flaws on the thermal-hydraulic performance of the OPL, and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed. This experience suggests that, for PFCs in future fusion devices, flaw-tolerant designs are possible; analyses of the impacts of flaws on performance can provide criteria for quality assurance; and validating appropriate methods of inspection for such flaws early in the design development of PFCs is prudent. The need for in-service monitoring is also discussed. (orig.)

  16. Active screen plasma nitriding enhances cell attachment to polymer surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaklamani, Georgia; Bowen, James; Mehrban, Nazia; Dong, Hanshan; Grover, Liam M.; Stamboulis, Artemis

    2013-01-01

    Active screen plasma nitriding (ASPN) is a well-established technique used for the surface modification of materials, the result of which is often a product with enhanced functional performance. Here we report the modification of the chemical and mechanical properties of ultra-high molecular weight poly(ethylene) (UHMWPE) using 80:20 (v/v) N 2 /H 2 ASPN, followed by growth of 3T3 fibroblasts on the treated and untreated polymer surfaces. ASPN-treated UHMWPE showed extensive fibroblast attachment within 3 h of seeding, whereas fibroblasts did not successfully attach to untreated UHMWPE. Fibroblast-coated surfaces were maintained for up to 28 days, monitoring their metabolic activity and morphology throughout. The chemical properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, revealing the presence of C-N, C=N, and C≡N chemical bonds. The elastic modulus, surface topography, and adhesion properties of the ASPN-treated UHMWPE surface were studied over 28 days during sample storage under ambient conditions and during immersion in two commonly used cell culture media.

  17. Study on the role of active radicals on plasma sterilization inside small diameter flexible polymeric tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mstsuura, Hiroto; Fujiyama, Takatomo; Okuno, Yasuki; Furuta, Masakazu; Okuda, Shuichi; Takemura, Yuichiro

    2015-09-01

    Recently, atmospheric pressure discharge plasma has gathered attention in various fields. Among them, plasma sterilization with many types of plasma source has studied for decades and its mechanism is still an open question. If active radicals produced in plasma has main contribution of killing bacterias, direct contact of the so-called plasma flame might not be necessary. To confirm this, sterilization inside small diameter flexible polymeric tubes is studied in present work. DBD type plasma jet is produce by flowing helium gas in a glass tube. A long polymeric tube is connected and plasma jet is introduced into it. Plasma flame length depends on helium gas flow rate, but limited to about 10 cm in our experimental condition. E.colis set at the exit plasma source is easily killed during 10 min irradiation. At the tube end (about 20 cm away from plasma source exit), sterilization is possible with 30 min operation. This result shows that active radical is produced with helium plasma and mist contained in sample, and it can be transferred more than 20 cm during it life time. More plasma diagnostic data will also be shown at the conference. This work was partially supported by the ''ZE Research Program, IAE(ZE27B-4).

  18. Liver insulinase and insulin-like activity of the blood plasma in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhikhareva, A I; Dokshina, G A [Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1975-05-01

    Comparative quantitative analysis of the functional effect of radiation on the activity of liver insulinase of irradiated rats has shown that the insulinase activity of the blood plasma decreases (21-45%) one to three days after the exposure at betatron. Insulinase activity of the liver extracts is also inhibited (16-22%) as compared to intact liver extracts. Twelve days after the exposure and later, insulin-like activity of the plasma and the enzyme activity increase up to 37 per cent.

  19. The Effect of Seaweed Eucheuma cottonii on Superoxide Dismutase (SOD Liver of Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUTIK WRESDIYATI

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD was reported decreased in the liver and kidney of hypercholesterolemic rats. This study was conducted to observe the effect of seaweed Eucheuma cottonii powder on the profile of blood cholesterol and the level of SOD in liver tissues of hypercholesterolemic rats by using immunohistochemical technique. Twenty male Wistar rats were used for this study. Those rats were divided into four groups; (i negative control group (A, (ii hypercholesterolemia group treated by 5% seaweed powder (B, (iii hypercholesterolemia group treated by 10% seaweed powder (C, and (iv Positive control group or hypercholesterolemia group (D. The experiment was carried out for 35 days. Hypercholesterolemia condition (> 130 mg/dl, except group A, was achieved by feeding the rats with commercial diet containing 1% cholesterol. Drinking water was given ad libitum for 40 days. The results showed that seaweed powder decreased the total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL, triglyceride, and increased the level of high density lipoprotein (HDL and SOD status in the liver tissues of hypercholesterolemic rats. The treatment of 10% seaweed powder gave better results than that of 5%. These results suggested that dietary fiber such in the seaweed powder has antioxidant activity.

  20. Effect of breed on plasma endothelin-1 concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration in healthy dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höglund, K.; Lequarré, A.-S.; Ljungvall, I.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are breed differences in several blood variables in healthy dogs. OBJECTIVE: Investigate breed variation in plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) concentration, plasma renin activity, and serum cortisol concentration. ANIMALS: Five-hundred and thirty-one healthy dogs of 9 breeds examined...... at 5 centers (2-4 breeds/center). METHODS: Prospective observational study. Circulating concentrations of ET-1 and cortisol, and renin activity, were measured using commercially available assays. Absence of organ-related or systemic disease was ensured by thorough clinical investigations, including...

  1. Plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of silicon dioxide films using plasma-activated triisopropylsilane as a precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Ki-Moon; Shin, Jae-Su; Yun, Ju-Young; Jun Lee, Sang; Kang, Sang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    The plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) process was developed as a growth technique of SiO 2 thin films using a plasma-activated triisopropylsilane [TIPS, ((iPr) 3 SiH)] precursor. TIPS was activated by an argon plasma at the precursor injection stage of the process. Using the activated TIPS, it was possible to control the growth rate per cycle of the deposited films by adjusting the plasma ignition time. The PEALD technique allowed deposition of SiO 2 films at temperatures as low as 50 °C without carbon impurities. In addition, films obtained with plasma ignition times of 3 s and 10 s had similar values of root-mean-square surface roughness. In order to evaluate the suitability of TIPS as a precursor for low-temperature deposition of SiO 2 films, the vapor pressure of TIPS was measured. The thermal stability and the reactivity of the gas-phase TIPS with respect to water vapor were also investigated by analyzing the intensity changes of the C–H and Si–H peaks in the Fourier-transform infrared spectrum of TIPS

  2. Plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor in children with urinary tract infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittenhagen, Per; Andersen, Jesper Brandt; Hansen, Anita

    2011-01-01

    In this prospective study we investigated the role of plasma levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in children with urinary tract infection.......In this prospective study we investigated the role of plasma levels of soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in children with urinary tract infection....

  3. Successful treatment of radiation-induced fibrosis using Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefaix, J L; Delanian, S; Leplat, J J; Tricaud, Y; Martin, M; Nimrod, A; Baillet, F; Daburon, F

    1996-05-01

    To establish how far liposomal copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) and manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), respectively, reduce radiation-induced fibrosis (RIF), using a well-characterized pig model of RIF permitting the design of a controlled laboratory experiment. In this model of acute localized gamma irradiation simulating accidental overexposure in humans, three groups of five large white pigs were irradiated using a collimated 192Ir source to deliver a single dose of 160 Gy onto the skin surface (100%) of the outer side of the thigh. A well-defined block of subcutaneous fibrosis involving skin and skeletal muscle developed 6 months after irradiation. One experimental group of five pigs was then injected i.m. with 10 mg/10 kg b.wt. of Cu/Zn-SOD, twice a week for 3 weeks, and another experimental group of five was injected with 10 mg/10 kg b.wt. of Mn-SOD, three times a week for 3 weeks. Five irradiated control pigs were injected with physiological serum. Animals were assessed for changes in the density of the palpated fibrotic block and in the dimensions of the projected cutaneous surface. Block depth was determined by ultrasound. Physical and sonographic findings were confirmed by autopsy 12-14 weeks after completing SOD injections. The density, length, width, and depth of the fibrotic block, and the areas and volume of its projected cutaneous surface were compared before treatment, 1, 3, and 6 weeks thereafter, and at autopsy, 12-14 weeks after treatment ended. The experimental animals exhibited no change in behavior and no abnormal clinical or anatomic signs. Whether they were given Cu/Zn- or Mn-SOD, significant and roughly equivalent softening and shrinking of the fibrotic block were noted in all treated animals between the first week after treatment ended and autopsy, when mean regression was 45% for length and width, 30% for depth, and 70% for area and volume. Histologic examination showed completely normal muscle and subcutaneous tissue

  4. Self-consistent dynamo-like activity in turbulent plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Hameiri, E.

    1986-05-01

    The evolution of turbulent plasmas is investigated within the framework of resistive magnetohydrodynamics. The functional form of the mean electric field is derived for fluctuations generated by tearing and resistive interchange modes. It is shown that a bath of such local and global modes in pinches causes toroidal field-reversal with finite pressure gradients in the plasma

  5. Antidiabetic and Plasma Endogenous Antioxidant Activity of alstonia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Alstonia boonei is a well-known plant of medicinal value but its effect on endogenous plasma antioxidant in diabetes remains unknown. Thus, need to investigate the effects of the methanolic extract of the plant on plasma bilirubin and uric acid level in alloxan induced diabetes rabbits. Twenty five rabbits divided into five ...

  6. The SOD gene family in tomato: identification, phylogenetic relationships and expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kun feng

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutases (SODs are critical antioxidant enzymes that protect organisms from reactive oxygen species (ROS caused by adverse conditions, and have been widely found in the cytoplasm, chloroplasts, and mitochondria of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. is an important economic crop and is cultivated worldwide. However, abiotic and biotic stresses severely hinder growth and development of the plant, which affects the production and quality of the crop. To reveal the potential roles of SOD genes under various stresses, we performed a systematic analysis of the tomato SOD gene family and analyzed the expression patterns of SlSOD genes in response to abiotic stresses at the whole-genome level. The characteristics of the SlSOD gene family were determined by analyzing gene structure, conserved motifs, chromosomal distribution, phylogenetic relationships, and expression patterns. We determined that there are at least nine SOD genes in tomato, including four Cu/ZnSODs, three FeSODs, and one MnSOD, and they are unevenly distributed on 12 chromosomes. Phylogenetic analyses of SOD genes from tomato and other plant species were separated into two groups with a high bootstrap value, indicating that these SOD genes were present before the monocot-dicot split. Additionally, many cis-elements that respond to different stresses were found in the promoters of nine SlSOD genes. Gene expression analysis based on RNA-seq data showed that most genes were expressed in all tested tissues, with the exception of SlSOD6 and SlSOD8, which were only expressed in young fruits. Microarray data analysis showed that most members of the SlSOD gene family were altered under salt- and drought-stress conditions. This genome-wide analysis of SlSOD genes helps to clarify the function of SlSOD genes under different stress conditions and provides information to aid in further understanding the evolutionary relationships of SOD genes in plants.

  7. Evaluation of the effects of a plasma activated medium on cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohades, S.; Laroussi, M., E-mail: mlarouss@odu.edu; Sears, J.; Barekzi, N.; Razavi, H. [Plasma Engineering and Medicine Institute, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia 23529 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The interaction of low temperature plasma with liquids is a relevant topic of study to the field of plasma medicine. This is because cells and tissues are normally surrounded or covered by biological fluids. Therefore, the chemistry induced by the plasma in the aqueous state becomes crucial and usually dictates the biological outcomes. This process became even more important after the discovery that plasma activated media can be useful in killing various cancer cell lines. Here, we report on the measurements of concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, a species known to have strong biological effects, produced by application of plasma to a minimum essential culture medium. The activated medium is then used to treat SCaBER cancer cells. Results indicate that the plasma activated medium can kill the cancer cells in a dose dependent manner, retain its killing effect for several hours, and is as effective as apoptosis inducing drugs.

  8. Muscle Expression of SOD1G93A Triggers the Dismantlement of Neuromuscular Junction via PKC-Theta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobrowolny, Gabriella; Martini, Martina; Scicchitano, Bianca Maria; Romanello, Vanina; Boncompagni, Simona; Nicoletti, Carmine; Pietrangelo, Laura; De Panfilis, Simone; Catizone, Angela; Bouchè, Marina; Sandri, Marco; Rudolf, Rüdiger; Protasi, Feliciano; Musarò, Antonio

    2018-04-20

    Neuromuscular junction (NMJ) represents the morphofunctional interface between muscle and nerve. Several chronic pathologies such as aging and neurodegenerative diseases, including muscular dystrophy and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, display altered NMJ and functional denervation. However, the triggers and the molecular mechanisms underlying the dismantlement of NMJ remain unclear. Here we provide evidence that perturbation in redox signaling cascades, induced by muscle-specific accumulation of mutant SOD1 G93A in transgenic MLC/SOD1 G93A mice, is causally linked to morphological alterations of the neuromuscular presynaptic terminals, high turnover rate of acetylcholine receptor, and NMJ dismantlement. The analysis of potential molecular mechanisms that mediate the toxic activity of SOD1 G93A revealed a causal link between protein kinase Cθ (PKCθ) activation and NMJ disintegration. The study discloses the molecular mechanism that triggers functional denervation associated with the toxic activity of muscle SOD1 G93A expression and suggests the possibility of developing a new strategy to counteract age- and pathology-associated denervation based on pharmacological inhibition of PKCθ activity. Collectively, these data indicate that muscle-specific accumulation of oxidative damage can affect neuromuscular communication and induce NMJ dismantlement through a PKCθ-dependent mechanism. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 28, 1105-1119.

  9. Synchronous oscillation prior to disruption caused by kink modes in HL-2A tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M.; Hu, D.; Wang, X. G.; Shi, Z. B.; Xu, Y.; Chen, W.; Ding, X. T.; Zhong, W. L.; Dong, Y. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Zhang, Y. P.; Gao, J. M.; Li, J. X.; Yang, Z. C.; Li, Y. G.; Liu, Y.

    2015-08-01

    A class of evident MHD activities prior to major disruption has been observed during recent radiation induced disruptions of the HL-2A tokamak discharges. It can be named SOD, synchronous oscillations prior to disruption, characterized by synchronous oscillation of electron cyclotron emission (ECE), core soft x-ray, Mirnov coil, and {{D}α} radiation signals at the divertor plate. The SOD activity is mostly observed in a parametric regime where the poloidal beta is low enough before disruption, typically corresponding to those radiation-induced disruptions. It has been found that the m/n = 2/1 mode is dominant during the SODs, and consequently it is the drop of the mode frequency and the final mode locking that lead to thermal quench. The mode frequency before the mode locking corresponds to the toroidal rotation frequency of the edge plasma. It is also found that during SODs, the location of the q = 2 surface is moving outward, and most of the plasma current is enclosed within the surface. This demonstrates that the current channel lies inside the rational surface during SOD, and thus the resistive kink mode is unstable. Further analysis of the electron temperature perturbation structure shows that the plasma is indeed dominated by the resistive kink mode, with kink-like perturbation in the core plasma region. It suggests that it is the nonlinear growth of the m/n = 2/1 resistive kink mode and its higher order harmonics, rather than the spontaneous overlapping of multiple neighboring islands, that ultimately triggered the disruption.

  10. Human SOD1 ALS Mutations in a Drosophila Knock-In Model Cause Severe Phenotypes and Reveal Dosage-Sensitive Gain- and Loss-of-Function Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Aslı; Held, Aaron; Bredvik, Kirsten; Major, Paxton; Achilli, Toni-Marie; Kerson, Abigail G; Wharton, Kristi; Stilwell, Geoff; Reenan, Robert

    2017-02-01

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is the most common adult-onset motor neuron disease and familial forms can be caused by numerous dominant mutations of the copper-zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene. Substantial efforts have been invested in studying SOD1-ALS transgenic animal models; yet, the molecular mechanisms by which ALS-mutant SOD1 protein acquires toxicity are not well understood. ALS-like phenotypes in animal models are highly dependent on transgene dosage. Thus, issues of whether the ALS-like phenotypes of these models stem from overexpression of mutant alleles or from aspects of the SOD1 mutation itself are not easily deconvolved. To address concerns about levels of mutant SOD1 in disease pathogenesis, we have genetically engineered four human ALS-causing SOD1 point mutations (G37R, H48R, H71Y, and G85R) into the endogenous locus of Drosophila SOD1 (dsod) via ends-out homologous recombination and analyzed the resulting molecular, biochemical, and behavioral phenotypes. Contrary to previous transgenic models, we have recapitulated ALS-like phenotypes without overexpression of the mutant protein. Drosophila carrying homozygous mutations rendering SOD1 protein enzymatically inactive (G85R, H48R, and H71Y) exhibited neurodegeneration, locomotor deficits, and shortened life span. The mutation retaining enzymatic activity (G37R) was phenotypically indistinguishable from controls. While the observed mutant dsod phenotypes were recessive, a gain-of-function component was uncovered through dosage studies and comparisons with age-matched dsod null animals, which failed to show severe locomotor defects or nerve degeneration. We conclude that the Drosophila knock-in model captures important aspects of human SOD1-based ALS and provides a powerful and useful tool for further genetic studies. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  11. Effect of plasma activated water on the postharvest quality of button mushrooms, Agaricus bisporus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yingyin; Tian, Ying; Ma, Ruonan; Liu, Qinghong; Zhang, Jue

    2016-04-15

    Non-thermal plasma is a new approach to improving microbiological safety while maintaining the sensory attributes of the treated foods. Recent research has reported that plasma activated water (PAW) can also efficiently inactivate a wide variety of microorganisms. This study invested the effects of plasma-activated water soaking on the postharvest preservation of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) over seven days of storage at 20°C. Plasma activated water reduced the microbial counts by 1.5 log and 0.5 log for bacteria and fungi during storage, respectively. Furthermore, the corresponding physicochemical and biological properties were assessed between plasma activated water soaking groups and control groups. The results for firmness, respiration rate and relative electrical conductivity suggested that plasma activated water soaking can delay mushroom softening. Meanwhile, no significant change was observed in the color, pH, or antioxidant properties of A. bisporus treated with plasma activated water. Thus, plasma activated water soaking is a promising method for postharvest fresh-keeping of A. bisporus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Low plasma aldosterone despite normal plasma renin activity in uncomplicated type 1 diabetes mellitus : effects of RAAS stimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luik, PT; Kerstens, MN; Hoogenberg, K; Navis, GJ; Dullaart, RPF

    Background Data on levels and responsiveness of PRA and aldosterone in type 1 diabetes mellitus are conflicting. Earlier studies were not standardized with respect to the type of diabetes mellitus, the presence of diabetic complications or sodium intake. Therefore, we studied plasma renin activity

  13. Bactericidal active ingredient in cryopreserved plasma-treated water with the reduced-pH method for plasma disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Katsuhisa; Ikawa, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yoichi; Tani, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Ohshima, Tomoko

    2016-09-01

    For the plasma disinfection of human body, plasma sterilization in liquid is crucial. We found that the plasma-treated water (PTW) has strong bactericidal activity under low pH condition. Physicochemical properties of PTW is discussed based on chemical kinetics. Lower temperature brings longer half-life and the bactericidal activity of PTW can be kept by cryopreservation. High performance PTW, corresponding to the disinfection power of 22 log reduction (B. subtilis spore), can be obtained by special plasma system equipped with cooling device. This is equivalent to 65% H2O2, 14% sodium hypochlorite and 0.33% peracetic acid, which are deadly poison for human. But, it is deactivated soon at higher temperature (4 sec. at body temperature), and toxicity to human body seems low. For dental application, PTW was effective on infected models of human extracted tooth. Although PTW has many chemical components, respective chemical components in PTW were isolated by ion chromatography. In addition to peaks of H2O2, NO2- and NO3-, a specific peak was detected. and only this fraction had bactericidal activity. Purified active ingredient of PTW is the precursor of HOO, and further details will be discussed in the presentation. MEXT (15H03583, 23340176, 25108505). NCCE (23-A-15).

  14. On methods of measuring the relative plasma composition by active charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, W.

    1991-04-01

    Two methods of measuring the hydrogenic composition of plasma with an active diagnostic beam are discussed: Evaluation at equal energies of the neutrals leaving the plasma and at equal velocities. Evaluation at equal velocity has the advantage that the plasma composition, particle penetration and stripping efficiency of the analyzer do not enter the evaluation. The only plasma parameter that has to be known is the plasma temperature. If measurement at two different velocities is possible, the temperature can also be evaluated from the corresponding four fluxes without any further knowledge of plasma or beam parameters. It is discussed under what circumstances evaluation of the plasma composition is possible for non-Maxwellian distribution functions. As the halo effect may be the main source of error, it is shown that the application of a helium beam may considerably reduce this problem. (orig.)

  15. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S. [Korea Atomic Emergy Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1973-03-15

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  16. Effect of Diuresis on Plasma Renin Activity and Aldosterone Concentration in Normal and Toxemic Pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, H. K.; Lee, H. S.; Cho, S. S.; Koh, J. H.; Lee, J. K.; Kim, H. S.

    1973-01-01

    The changes of plasma renin activity, aldosterone concentration, serum sodium, and potassium levels were studied before and after the water loading followed by diuretics injection. The materials were: 13 non-, 11 normal-, and 11 toxemic pregnancy cases. The plasma renin activity and aldosterone concentration of the cord and postpartum blood were also measured. Following were the results: 1. The plasma renin activity was elevated significantly in normal pregnancy, and slightly in toxemic pregnancy. The serum sodium levels were decreased in pregnancy. 2. The plasma aldosterone concentration was slightly decreased in normal pregnancy, and slightly increased in toxemic pregnancy, however, statistically insignificant. 3. The plasma renin activity of the cord and postpartum blood were lower than those of pregnancy cases. 4. The changes of plasma renin activity after the diuretic administration showed an initial increase, which recovered within 2 hours. These changes were the least in normal pregnancy, and the most in toxemic pregnancy. 5. The changes of plasma aldosterone concentration after the diuretic administration were similar to those of plasma renin activity, although the variations were not so wide.

  17. Radioimmunoassay of serum SOD-1 in the elderly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yu'an; Lin Baoyuan

    1995-01-01

    A RIA for serum SOD-1 was performed in 168 aged subjects including 47 aged healthy subjects and 121 aged patients as well as in 35 healthy young and adult cases serving as control. The measuring results are as follows: serum SOD-1 value of 47 aged healthy subjects are 279.42 +- 89.38 μg/l, 121 aged patients are 405.10 +- 181.29 μg/l, and 35 young and adult cases are 185.80 +- 56.44 μg/l. It shows the obvious difference between the aged group and control group. It also shows the obvious difference between the aged healthy subjects and aged patients. In addition, the clinical evaluation is also discussed

  18. Control plasma renin activity and changes in sympathetic tone as determinants of minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, K; Velasco, M; Wells, J; McNay, J L

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of the possible mechanism(s) underlying minoxidil-induced increase in plasma renin activity (PRA). 10 patients with essential hypertension were treated with minoxidil and subsequently with a combination of minoxidil plus propranolol. Minoxidil lowered mean arterial pressure 31.6 plus or minus 3.3 mm Hg, mean plus or minus SEM. There was an associated increase in both PRA, 6.26 plus or minus 2.43 NG/ML/H, and heart rate, 21.4 plus or minus 2.7 beats/min. The changes in PRA and heart rate were positively correlated, r, 0.79. Addition of propranolol reduced mean arterial pressure by a further 10.1 plus or minus 1.5 mm Hg and returned heart rate to control levels. Propranolol reduced PRA significantly but not to control levels. Control PRA positively correlated with PRA on minoxidil, r, 0.97, and with PRA on minoxidil plus propranolol, r, 0.98. We conclude that control PRA is a major determinant of change in PRA with minoxidil. Minoxidil increased PRA by at least two mechanisms: (a) an adrenergic mechanism closely related to change in heart rate and blocked by propranolol, and (b) a mechanism(s) not sensitive to propranolol and possibly related to decrease in renal perfusion pressure. PMID:1127099

  19. Defining SOD1 ALS natural history to guide therapeutic clinical trial design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bali, Taha; Self, Wade; Liu, Jingxia; Siddique, Teepu; Wang, Leo H; Bird, Thomas D; Ratti, Elena; Atassi, Nazem; Boylan, Kevin B; Glass, Jonathan D; Maragakis, Nicholas J; Caress, James B; McCluskey, Leo F; Appel, Stanley H; Wymer, James P; Gibson, Summer; Zinman, Lorne; Mozaffar, Tahseen; Callaghan, Brian; McVey, April L; Jockel-Balsarotti, Jennifer; Allred, Peggy; Fisher, Elena R; Lopate, Glenn; Pestronk, Alan; Cudkowicz, Merit E; Miller, Timothy M

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the natural history of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by SOD1 mutations (ALS SOD1 ) will provide key information for optimising clinical trials in this patient population. To establish an updated natural history of ALS SOD1 . Retrospective cohort study from 15 medical centres in North America evaluated records from 175 patients with ALS with genetically confirmed SOD1 mutations, cared for after the year 2000. Age of onset, survival, ALS Functional Rating Scale (ALS-FRS) scores and respiratory function were analysed. Patients with the A4V (Ala-Val) SOD1 mutation (SOD1 A4V ), the largest mutation population in North America with an aggressive disease progression, were distinguished from other SOD1 mutation patients (SOD1 non-A4V ) for analysis. Mean age of disease onset was 49.7±12.3 years (mean±SD) for all SOD1 patients, with no statistical significance between SOD1 A4V and SOD1 non-A4V (p=0.72, Kruskal-Wallis). Total SOD1 patient median survival was 2.7 years. Mean disease duration for all SOD1 was 4.6±6.0 and 1.4±0.7 years for SOD1 A4V . SOD1 A4V survival probability (median survival 1.2 years) was significantly decreased compared with SOD1 non-A4V (median survival 6.8 years; p<0.0001, log-rank). A statistically significant increase in ALS-FRS decline in SOD1 A4V compared with SOD1 non-A4V participants (p=0.02) was observed, as well as a statistically significant increase in ALS-forced vital capacity decline in SOD1 A4V compared with SOD1 non-A4V (p=0.02). SOD1 A4V is an aggressive, but relatively homogeneous form of ALS. These SOD1-specific ALS natural history data will be important for the design and implementation of clinical trials in the ALS SOD1 patient population. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Improvement of silicon direct bonding using surfaces activated by hydrogen plasma treatment

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, W B; Lee Jae Sik; Sung, M Y

    2000-01-01

    The plasma surface treatment, using hydrogen gas, of silicon wafers was studied as a pretreatment for silicon direct bonding. Chemical reactions of the hydrogen plasma with the surfaces were used for both surface activation and removal of surface contaminants. Exposure of the silicon wafers to the plasma formed an active oxide layer on the surface. This layer was hydrophilic. The surface roughness and morphology were examined as functions of the plasma exposure time and power. The surface became smoother with shorter plasma exposure time and lower power. In addition, the plasma surface treatment was very efficient in removing the carbon contaminants on the silicon surface. The value of the initial surface energy, as estimated by using the crack propagation method, was 506 mJ/M sup 2 , which was up to about three times higher than the value for the conventional direct bonding method using wet chemical treatments.

  1. Sequential plasma activation methods for hydrophilic direct bonding at sub-200 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ran; Yamauchi, Akira; Suga, Tadatomo

    2018-02-01

    We present our newly developed sequential plasma activation methods for hydrophilic direct bonding of silica glasses and thermally grown SiO2 films. N2 plasma was employed to introduce a metastable oxynitride layer on wafer surfaces for the improvement of bond energy. By using either O2-plasma/N2-plasma/N-radical or N2-plasma/N-radical sequential activation, the quartz-quartz bond energy was increased from 2.7 J/m2 to close to the quartz bulk fracture energy that was estimated to be around 9.0 J/m2 after post-bonding annealing at 200 °C. The silicon bulklike bond energy between thermal SiO2 films was also obtained. We suggest that the improvement is attributable to surface modification such as N-related defect formation and asperity softening by the N2 plasma surface treatment.

  2. A Study on Plasma Renin Activity in Korean Hemorrhagic Fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Suhng Gwon; Cho, Bo Yun; Lee, Jung Sang; Koh, Won Soon; Lee, Mun Ho; Kim, Won Dong; Yun, Hong Jin

    1976-01-01

    To evaluate the possible pathophysiologic role of renin in acute renal failure observed in Korean hemorrhagic fever (KHF), the author measured the basal plasma renin activity (PRA) and the stimulated PRA by radioimmunoassay for angiotensin I in 15 normal controls and 42 KHF patients who are admitted in Seoul National University Hospital and Nation Army Hospital from Jan. 1975 to Jan. 1976. The results obtained were as follows:The mean basal PRA in normal control group was 2.9±2.16 ng/ml/hr in the patients during the oliguric phase of KHF, the mean basal PRA was 4.7±2.13 ng/ml/hr, and there was statistically significant increase compared to the normal control. In the patients during the diuretic phase of KHF, the mean basal PRA was 3.4±2.09 ng/ml/hr, and there was statistically significant decrease compared to the oliguric phase of KHF. In normal control group, the mean basal PRA was 2.9±2.16 ng/ml/hr. And the PRA 1 hour after the administration of Lasix 40 mg intravenously (stimulated PRA) was 5.3±2.20 ng/ml/hr and there was statistically significant increase compared to basal level. In oliguric phase of KHF, the mean basal PRA was 4.6±2.01 ng/ml/hr. And stimulated PRA was 4.4±2.34 ng/ml/hr and there was no significant changes. In diuretic phase of KHF, the mean basal PR was 3.3±1.86 ng/ml/hr. And stimulated PRA was 5.2±2.58 ng/ml/hr and there was statistically significant increase compared to basal level. There were statistically no significant correlations between basal PRA and stimulated PRA and serum creatinine. BUN, urine volume and peritoneal dialysis.

  3. Improving the Delivery of SOD1 Antisense Oligonucleotides to Motor Neurons Using Calcium Phosphate-Lipid Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyu Chen

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting the upper and lower motor neurons in the motor cortex and spinal cord. Abnormal accumulation of mutant superoxide dismutase I (SOD1 in motor neurons is a pathological hallmark of some forms of the disease. We have shown that the orderly progression of the disease may be explained by misfolded SOD1 cell-to-cell propagation, which is reliant upon its active endogenous synthesis. Reducing the levels of SOD1 is therefore a promising therapeutic approach. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs can efficiently silence proteins with gain-of-function mutations. However, naked ASOs have a short circulation half-life and are unable to cross the blood brain barrier (BBB warranting the use of a drug carrier for effective delivery. In this study, calcium phosphate lipid coated nanoparticles (CaP-lipid NPs were developed for delivery of SOD1 ASO to motor neurons. The most promising nanoparticle formulation (Ca/P ratio of 100:1, had a uniform spherical core–shell morphology with an average size of 30 nm, and surface charge (ζ-potential of −4.86 mV. The encapsulation efficiency of ASO was 48% and stability studies found the particle to be stable over a period of 20 days. In vitro experiments demonstrated that the negatively charged ASO-loaded CaP-lipid NPs could effectively deliver SOD1-targeted ASO into a mouse motor neuron-like cell line (NSC-34 through endocytosis and significantly down-regulated SOD1 expression in HEK293 cells. The CaP-lipid NPs exhibited a pH-dependant dissociation, suggesting that that the acidification of lysosomes is the likely mechanism responsible for facilitating intracellular ASO release. To demonstrate tissue specific delivery and localization of these NPs we performed in vivo microinjections into zebrafish. Successful delivery of these NPs was confirmed for the zebrafish brain, the blood stream, and the spinal cord. These results suggest that Ca

  4. Effect of plasma-induced surface charging on catalytic processes: application to CO2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Kristof M.; Huygh, Stijn; Bogaerts, Annemie; Neyts, Erik C.

    2018-02-01

    Understanding the nature and effect of the multitude of plasma-surface interactions in plasma catalysis is a crucial requirement for further process development and improvement. A particularly intriguing and rather unique property of a plasma-catalytic setup is the ability of the plasma to modify the electronic structure, and hence chemical properties, of the catalyst through charging, i.e. the absorption of excess electrons. In this work, we develop a quantum chemical model based on density functional theory to study excess negative surface charges in a heterogeneous catalyst exposed to a plasma. This method is specifically applied to investigate plasma-catalytic CO2 activation on supported M/Al2O3 (M = Ti, Ni, Cu) single atom catalysts. We find that (1) the presence of a negative surface charge dramatically improves the reductive power of the catalyst, strongly promoting the splitting of CO2 to CO and oxygen, and (2) the relative activity of the investigated transition metals is also changed upon charging, suggesting that controlled surface charging is a powerful additional parameter to tune catalyst activity and selectivity. These results strongly point to plasma-induced surface charging of the catalyst as an important factor contributing to the plasma-catalyst synergistic effects frequently reported for plasma catalysis.

  5. Helium generated cold plasma finely regulates activation of human fibroblast-like primary cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Brun

    Full Text Available Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasmas are being developed for a wide range of health care applications, including wound healing. However in order to exploit the potential of plasma for clinical applications, the understanding of the mechanisms involved in plasma-induced activation of fibroblasts, the cells active in the healing process, is mandatory. In this study, the role of helium generated plasma in the tissue repairing process was investigated in cultured human fibroblast-like primary cells, and specifically in hepatic stellate cells and intestinal subepithelial myofibroblasts. Five minutes after treatment, plasma induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cultured cells, as assessed by flow cytometric analysis of fluorescence-activated 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate probe. Plasma-induced intracellular ROS were characterized by lower concentrations and shorter half-lives with respect to hydrogen peroxide-induced ROS. Moreover ROS generated by plasma treatment increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR-γ, nuclear receptor that modulates the inflammatory responses. Plasma exposure promoted wound healing in an in vitro model and induced fibroblast migration and proliferation, as demonstrated, respectively, by trans-well assay and partitioning between daughter cells of carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester fluorescent dye. Plasma-induced fibroblast migration and proliferation were found to be ROS-dependent as cellular incubation with antioxidant agents (e.g. N-acetyl L-cysteine cancelled the biological effects. This study provides evidence that helium generated plasma promotes proliferation and migration in liver and intestinal fibroblast-like primary cells mainly by increasing intracellular ROS levels. Since plasma-evoked ROS are time-restricted and elicit the PPAR-γ anti-inflammatory molecular pathway, this strategy ensures precise regulation of human fibroblast activation and

  6. Dynamic changes in plasma tissue plasminogen activator, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and beta-thromboglobulin content in ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Ping; Wo, Da; Xu, Zeng-Guang; Wei, Wei; Mao, Hui-ming

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the corresponding variations of plasma tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) activities, and beta-thromboglobulin (β-TG) content in patients during different stages of ischemic stroke. Ischemic stroke is a common disease among aging people and its occurrence is associated with abnormalities in the fibrinolytic system and platelet function. However, few reports focus on the dynamic changes in the plasma fibrinolytic system and β-TG content in patients with ischemic stroke. Patients were divided into three groups: acute, convalescent and chronic. Plasma t-PA and PAI-1 activities were determined by chromogenic substrate analysis and plasma β-TG content was detected by radioimmunoassay. Patients in the acute stage of ischemic stroke had significantly increased levels of t-PA activity and β-TG content, but PAI-1 activity was significantly decreased. Negative correlations were found between plasma t-PA and PAI-1 activities and between plasma t-PA activity and β-TG content in patients with acute ischemic stroke. There were significant differences in plasma t-PA and PAI-1 activities in the aged control group, as well as in the acute, convalescent and chronic groups. It can be speculated that the increased activity of t-PA in patients during the acute stage was the result of compensatory function, and that the increase in plasma β-TG level not only implies the presence of ischemic stroke but is likely a cause of ischemic stroke. During the later stages of ischemic stroke, greater attention is required in monitoring levels of PAI-1. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A Comparison of Two Yeast MnSODs: Mitochondrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae versus Cytosolic Candida albicans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheng, Y.; Cabelli, D.; Stich, T.A.; Barnese, K.; Gralla, E.B.; Cascio, D.; Britt, R.D.; Valentine, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Human MnSOD is significantly more product-inhibited than bacterial MnSODs at high concentrations of superoxide (O 2 - ). This behavior limits the amount of H 2 O 2 produced at high [O 2 - ]; its desirability can be explained by the multiple roles of H 2 O 2 in mammalian cells, particularly its role in signaling. To investigate the mechanism of product inhibition in MnSOD, two yeast MnSODs, one from Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria (ScMnSOD) and the other from Candida albicans cytosol (CaMnSODc), were isolated and characterized. ScMnSOD and CaMnSODc are similar in catalytic kinetics, spectroscopy, and redox chemistry, and they both rest predominantly in the reduced state (unlike most other MnSODs). At high [O 2 - ], the dismutation efficiencies of the yeast MnSODs surpass those of human and bacterial MnSODs, due to very low level of product inhibition. Optical and parallel-mode electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra suggest the presence of two Mn 3+ species in yeast Mn 3+ SODs, including the well-characterized 5-coordinate Mn 3+ species and a 6-coordinate L-Mn 3+ species with hydroxide as the putative sixth ligand (L). The first and second coordination spheres of ScMnSOD are more similar to bacterial than to human MnSOD. Gln154, an H-bond donor to the Mn-coordinated solvent molecule, is slightly further away from Mn in yeast MnSODs, which may result in their unusual resting state. Mechanistically, the high efficiency of yeast MnSODs could be ascribed to putative translocation of an outer-sphere solvent molecule, which could destabilize the inhibited complex and enhance proton transfer from protein to peroxide. Our studies on yeast MnSODs indicate the unique nature of human MnSOD in that it predominantly undergoes the inhibited pathway at high [O 2 - ].

  8. Trypanocidal activity of human plasma on Trypanosoma evansi in mice Atividade tripanocida do plasma humano sobre Trypanosoma evansi em camundongos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandro Schafer Da Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to test an alternative protocol with human plasma to control Trypanosoma evansi infection in mice. Plasma from an apparently 27-year-old healthy male, blood type A+, was used in the study. A concentration of 100 mg.dL-1 apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1 was detected in the plasma. Forty mice were divided into four groups with 10 animals each. Group A comprised uninfected animals. Mice from groups B, C and D were inoculated with a T. evansi isolate. Group B was used as a positive control. At three days post-infection (DPI, the mice were administered intraperitoneally with human plasma. A single dose of 0.2 mL plasma was given to those in group C. The mice from group D were administered five doses of 0.2 mL plasma with a 24 hours interval between the doses. Group B showed high increasing parasitemia that led to their death within 5 DPI. Both treatments eliminated parasites from the blood and increased the longevity of animals. An efficacy of 50 (group C and 80% (group D of human plasma trypanocidal activity was found using PCR. This therapeutic success was likely achieved in the group D due to their higher levels of APOL1 compared with group C.Este estudo teve como objetivo testar um protocolo alternativo com plasma humano para controlar a infecção por Trypanosoma evansi em camundongos. O plasma foi oriundo de um homem aparentemente saudável, com idade entre 27 anos e tipo de sangue A+. Foi detectada uma concentração de 100 mg.dL -1 de apolipoproteína L1 (APOL1 no plasma. Quarenta camundongos foram divididos em quatro grupos, contendo dez animais cada. Grupo A, composto de animais não infectados. Os roedores dos grupos B, C e D foram inoculados intraperitonealmente com um isolado de T. evansi. O Grupo B foi usado como um controle positivo. Três dias pós-infecção (DPI, os camundongos foram tratados com plasma humano. Uma dose única de 0,2 mL de plasma foi administrada nos roedores do grupo C. Os ratos do grupo D receberam cinco

  9. Enhanced coagulation activation in preeclampsia: the role of APC resistance, microparticles and other plasma constituents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanWijk, Marja J.; Boer, Kees; Berckmans, René J.; Meijers, Joost C. M.; van der Post, Joris A. M.; Sturk, Augueste; VanBavel, Ed; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2002-01-01

    Coagulation activation in pregnancy is further enhanced in preeclampsia. We investigated whether this results from increased thrombin generation by the plasma itself or its cell-derived microparticles. Plasma samples were obtained from preeclamptic, normal pregnant and nonpregnant women (each n =

  10. Note: A single-chamber tool for plasma activation and surface functionalization in microfabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, Adam J.; Scherrer, Joseph R.; Reiserer, Ronald S., E-mail: ron.reiserer@vanderbilt.edu [Vanderbilt Institute for Integrative Biosystems Research and Education and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present a simple apparatus for improved surface modification of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic devices. A single treatment chamber for plasma activation and chemical/physical vapor deposition steps minimizes the time-dependent degradation of surface activation that is inherent in multi-chamber techniques. Contamination and deposition irregularities are also minimized by conducting plasma activation and treatment phases in the same vacuum environment. An inductively coupled plasma driver allows for interchangeable treatment chambers. Atomic force microscopy confirms that silane deposition on PDMS gives much better surface quality than standard deposition methods, which yield a higher local roughness and pronounced irregularities in the surface.

  11. Plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity in healthy dogs and dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Javadi, S; Mol, JA; Boer, P; Boer, WH; Runberk, A

    2003-01-01

    The mean (se) basal plasma aldosterone concentrations were significantly lower in 31 dogs with pituitary-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (PDH) (75 [9] pmol/litre) than in 12 healthy dogs (118 [14] pmol/litre), whereas in five dogs with hyperadrenocorticism due to an adrenocortical tumour they were

  12. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandi, M.L.; Aurbach, G.D.; Fitzpatrick, L.A.; Quarto, R.; Spiegel, A.M.; Bliziotes, M.M.; Norton, J.A.; Doppman, J.L.; Marx, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    Hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands is a central feature of familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1. We used cultured bovine parathyroid cells to test for mitogenic activity in plasma from patients with this disorder. Normal plasma stimulated [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation, on the average, to the same extent as it was stimulated in a plasma-free control culture. This contrasted with the results of the tests with plasma from patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1, in which parathyroid mitogenic activity increased 2400 percent over the control value (P less than 0.001). Plasma from these patients also stimulated the proliferation of bovine parathyroid cells in culture, whereas plasma from normal subjects inhibited it. Parathyroid mitogenic activity in plasma from the patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 was greater than that in plasma from patients with various other disorders, including sporadic primary hyperparathyroidism (with adenoma, hyperplasia, or cancer of the parathyroid), sporadic primary hypergastrinemia, sporadic pituitary tumor, familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (P less than 0.05). Parathyroid mitogenic activity in the plasma of patients with familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 persisted for up to four years after total parathyroidectomy. The plasma also had far more mitogenic activity in cultures of parathyroid cells than did optimal concentrations of known growth factors or of any parathyroid secretagogue. This mitogenic activity had an apparent molecular weight of 50,000 to 55,000. We conclude that primary hyperparathyroidism in familial multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 may have a humoral cause

  13. Alternative pathways of thromboplastin-dependent activation of human factor X in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlar, R.A.; Griffin, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    To determine the interrelationships of the major coagulation pathways, the activation of 3H-labeled factor X in normal and various deficient human plasmas was evaluated when clotting was triggered by dilute rabbit or human thromboplastin. Various dilutions of thromboplastin and calcium were added to plasma samples containing 3H-factor X, and the time course of factor X activation was determined. At a 1/250 dilution of rabbit brain thromboplastin, the rate of factor X activation in plasmas deficient in factor VIII or factor IX was 10% of the activation rate of normal plasma or of factor XI deficient plasma. Reconstitution of the deficient plasmas with factors VIII or IX, respectively, reconstituted normal factor X activation. Similar results were obtained when various dilutions of human thromboplastin replaced the rabbit thromboplastin. From these plasma experiments, it is inferred that the dilute thromboplastin-dependent activation of factor X requires factors VII, IX, and VIII. An alternative extrinsic pathway that involves factors IX and VIII may be the physiologic extrinsic pathway and hence help to explain the consistent clinical observations of bleeding diatheses in patients deficient in factors IX or VIII

  14. Endogenous pyrogen activity in human plasma after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, J G; Kluger, M J

    1983-05-06

    Plasma obtained from human subjects after exercise and injected intraperitoneally into rats elevated rat rectal temperature and depressed plasma iron and zinc concentrations. The pyrogenic component was heat-denaturable and had an apparent molecular weight of 14,000 daltons. Human mononuclear leukocytes obtained after exercise and incubated in vitro released a factor into the medium that also elevated body temperature in rats and reduced trace metal concentrations. These results suggest that endogenous pyrogen, a protein mediator of fever and trace metal metabolism during infection, is released during exercise.

  15. Study of plasma charging-induced white pixel defect increase in CMOS active pixel sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokashiki, Ken; Bai, KeunHee; Baek, KyeHyun; Kim, Yongjin; Min, Gyungjin; Kang, Changjin; Cho, Hanku; Moon, Jootae

    2007-01-01

    Plasma process-induced 'white pixel defect' (WPD) of CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) is studied for Si3N4 spacer etch back process by using a magnetically enhanced reactive ion etching (MERIE) system. WPD preferably takes place at the wafer edge region when the magnetized plasma is applied to Si3N4 etch. Plasma charging analysis reveals that the plasma charge-up characteristic is well matching the edge-intensive WPD generation, rather than the UV radiation. Plasma charging on APS transfer gate might lead to a gate leakage, which could play a role in generation of signal noise or WPD. In this article the WPD generation mechanism will be discussed from plasma charging point of view

  16. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-01-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic

  17. Radiation effects on diamine oxidase activities in intestine and plasma of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ely, M.J.; Speicher, J.M.; Snyder, S.L.; Catravas, G.N.

    1985-01-01

    Diamine oxidase (DAO; EC 1.4.3.6) activity was measured in plasma and ileal tissue homogenates prepared from male Sprague-Dawley rats sacrificed at 1-15 days after acute whole-body irradiation with 14.5-MeV electrons. Animals irradiated with 1 Gy showed no significant changes in plasma and ileal DAO activities through day 13 relative to nonirradiated controls. Animals irradiated with 5, 10 and 12 Gy displayed marked declines in ileal DAO, with levels reaching a nadir on day 3. This was paralleled by a decrease in plasma DAO activity in all three dose groups. Recovery of ileal and plasma DAO levels was later seen as early as day 4 in animals irradiated with 5 and 10 Gy doses, but animals receiving 12 Gy did not survive beyond day 3. A further study highlights the relationship between radiation dose and levels of plasma and mucosal DAO on day 3, the time of maximum decrease at all doses tested. Mucosal DAO activity decreased almost linearly with doses up to 6 Gy. Plasma DAO levels closely paralleled the dose dependency of the mucosal levels. These data suggest that plasma DAO activity might be useful as a readily measurable marker of intestinal epithelial injury and recovery after acute radiation exposure

  18. Mechanisms of Enhanced Phrenic Long-Term Facilitation in SOD1G93A Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satriotomo, Irawan; Grebe, Ashley M.

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron disease, causing muscle paralysis and death from respiratory failure. Effective means to preserve/restore ventilation are necessary to increase the quality and duration of life in ALS patients. At disease end-stage in a rat ALS model (SOD1G93A), acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) restores phrenic nerve activity to normal levels via enhanced phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Mechanisms enhancing pLTF in end-stage SOD1G93A rats are not known. Moderate AIH-induced pLTF is normally elicited via cellular mechanisms that require the following: Gq-protein-coupled 5-HT2 receptor activation, new BDNF synthesis, and MEK/ERK signaling (the Q pathway). In contrast, severe AIH elicits pLTF via a distinct mechanism that requires the following: Gs-protein-coupled adenosine 2A receptor activation, new TrkB synthesis, and PI3K/Akt signaling (the S pathway). In end-stage male SOD1G93A rats and wild-type littermates, we investigated relative Q versus S pathway contributions to enhanced pLTF via intrathecal (C4) delivery of small interfering RNAs targeting BDNF or TrkB mRNA, and MEK/ERK (U0126) or PI3 kinase/Akt (PI828) inhibitors. In anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated rats, moderate AIH-induced pLTF was abolished by siBDNF and UO126, but not siTrkB or PI828, demonstrating that enhanced pLTF occurs via the Q pathway. Although phrenic motor neuron numbers were decreased in end-stage SOD1G93A rats (∼30% survival; p phrenic motor neurons (p phrenic motor plasticity results from amplification of normal cellular mechanisms versus addition/substitution of alternative mechanisms. Greater understanding of mechanisms underlying phrenic motor plasticity in ALS may guide development of new therapies to preserve and/or restore breathing in ALS patients. PMID:28500219

  19. Active-passive waveguide array for wave excitation in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motley, R.W.; Hooke, W.M.

    1979-11-01

    A modified version of the standard waveguide grill for exciting lower hybrid plasma waves is proposed. This version should reduce both the number of RF drive components and the amplitude of the (undesirable) surface waves. Results from a simple 2-element array are presented

  20. Plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is independent of sympathetic activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Christensen, N J; Andreasen, J

    1989-01-01

    in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy compared to diabetics without neuropathy, whereas baseline plasma DOPA concentrations were similar in the three groups investigated: 6.55 (5.03-7.26, median [interquartile range], n = 8) nmol l-1 in diabetics with neuropathy, 7.41 (5.79-7.97, n = 8) nmol l-1...

  1. Pre-conceptual design activities for the materials plasma exposure experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumsdaine, Arnold; Rapp, Juergen; Varma, Venugopal; Bjorholm, Thomas; Bradley, Craig; Caughman, John; Duckworth, Robert; Goulding, Richard; Graves, Van; Giuliano, Dominic; Lessard, Timothy; McGinnis, Dean; Meitner, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The development of long-pulse nuclear fusion devices requires testing plasma facing components at reactor relevant conditions. • The pre-conceptual design of a proposed linear plasma facility is presented. • Engineering considerations for multiple systems—plasma source and heating, magnet, vacuum, water cooling, and target, are presented. - Abstract: The development of next step fusion facilities such as DEMO or a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) requires first closing technology gaps in some critical areas. Understanding the material-plasma interface is necessary to enable the development of divertors for long-pulse plasma facilities. A pre-conceptual design for a proposed steady-state linear plasma device, the Materials Plasma Exposure Experiment (MPEX), is underway. A helicon plasma source along with ion cyclotron and electron Bernstein wave heating systems will produce ITER divertor relevant plasma conditions with steady-state parallel heat fluxes of up to 40 MW/m"2 with ion fluxes up to 10"2"4/m"2 s on target. Current plans are for the device to use superconducting magnets to produce 1–2 T fields. As a steady-state device, active cooling will be required for components that interact with the plasma (targets, limiters, etc.), as well as for other plasma facing components (transport regions, vacuum tanks, diagnostic ports). Design concepts for the vacuum system, the cooling system, and the plasma heating systems have been completed. The device will include the capability for handling samples that have been neutron irradiated in order to consider the multivariate effects of neutrons, plasma, and high heat-flux on the microstructure of divertor candidate materials. A vacuum cask, which can be disconnected from the high field environment in order to perform in-vacuo diagnosis of the surface evolution is also planned for the facility.

  2. Pre-conceptual design activities for the materials plasma exposure experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumsdaine, Arnold, E-mail: lumsdainea@ornl.gov; Rapp, Juergen; Varma, Venugopal; Bjorholm, Thomas; Bradley, Craig; Caughman, John; Duckworth, Robert; Goulding, Richard; Graves, Van; Giuliano, Dominic; Lessard, Timothy; McGinnis, Dean; Meitner, Steven

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • The development of long-pulse nuclear fusion devices requires testing plasma facing components at reactor relevant conditions. • The pre-conceptual design of a proposed linear plasma facility is presented. • Engineering considerations for multiple systems—plasma source and heating, magnet, vacuum, water cooling, and target, are presented. - Abstract: The development of next step fusion facilities such as DEMO or a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) requires first closing technology gaps in some critical areas. Understanding the material-plasma interface is necessary to enable the development of divertors for long-pulse plasma facilities. A pre-conceptual design for a proposed steady-state linear plasma device, the Materials Plasma Exposure Experiment (MPEX), is underway. A helicon plasma source along with ion cyclotron and electron Bernstein wave heating systems will produce ITER divertor relevant plasma conditions with steady-state parallel heat fluxes of up to 40 MW/m{sup 2} with ion fluxes up to 10{sup 24}/m{sup 2} s on target. Current plans are for the device to use superconducting magnets to produce 1–2 T fields. As a steady-state device, active cooling will be required for components that interact with the plasma (targets, limiters, etc.), as well as for other plasma facing components (transport regions, vacuum tanks, diagnostic ports). Design concepts for the vacuum system, the cooling system, and the plasma heating systems have been completed. The device will include the capability for handling samples that have been neutron irradiated in order to consider the multivariate effects of neutrons, plasma, and high heat-flux on the microstructure of divertor candidate materials. A vacuum cask, which can be disconnected from the high field environment in order to perform in-vacuo diagnosis of the surface evolution is also planned for the facility.

  3. An Adaptation to Low Copper in Candida albicans Involving SOD Enzymes and the Alternative Oxidase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chynna N Broxton

    Full Text Available In eukaryotes, the Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 is a major cytosolic cuproprotein with a small fraction residing in the mitochondrial intermembrane space (IMS to protect against respiratory superoxide. Curiously, the opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is predicted to express two cytosolic SODs including Cu/Zn containing SOD1 and manganese containing SOD3. As part of a copper starvation response, C. albicans represses SOD1 and induces the non-copper alternative SOD3. While both SOD1 and SOD3 are predicted to exist in the same cytosolic compartment, their potential role in mitochondrial oxidative stress had yet to be investigated. We show here that under copper replete conditions, a fraction of the Cu/Zn containing SOD1 localizes to the mitochondrial IMS to guard against mitochondrial superoxide. However in copper starved cells, localization of the manganese containing SOD3 is restricted to the cytosol leaving the mitochondrial IMS devoid of SOD. We observe that during copper starvation, an alternative oxidase (AOX form of respiration is induced that is not coupled to ATP synthesis but maintains mitochondrial superoxide at low levels even in the absence of IMS SOD. Surprisingly, the copper-dependent cytochrome c oxidase (COX form of respiration remains high with copper starvation. We provide evidence that repression of SOD1 during copper limitation serves to spare copper for COX and maintain COX respiration. Overall, the complex copper starvation response of C. albicans involving SOD1, SOD3 and AOX minimizes mitochondrial oxidative damage whilst maximizing COX respiration essential for fungal pathogenesis.

  4. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U.; Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K.; Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O_2) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H_2O_2 dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H_2O_2 addition with O_2 injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH"•, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O_2 injected and H_2O_2 added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  5. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge application in antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, M. W.; Choi, S.; Lyakhov, K.; Shaislamov, U. [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of); Mongre, R. K.; Jeong, D. K. [Jeju National University, Faculty of Biotechnology (Korea, Republic of); Suresh, R.; Lee, H. J., E-mail: hjlee@jejunu.ac.kr [Jeju National University, Department of Nuclear and Energy Engineering (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Plasma discharge is a novel disinfection and effectual inactivation approach to treat microorganisms in aqueous systems. Inactivation of Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) by generating high-frequency, high-voltage, oxygen (O{sub 2}) injected and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) added discharge in water was achieved. The effect of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} dose and oxygen injection rate on electrical characteristics of discharge and E. coli disinfection has been reported. Microbial log reduction dependent on H{sub 2}O{sub 2} addition with O{sub 2} injection was observed. The time variation of the inactivation efficiency quantified by the log reduction of the initial E. coli population on the basis of optical density measurement was reported. The analysis of emission spectrum recorded after discharge occurrence illustrated the formation of oxidant species (OH{sup •}, H, and O). Interestingly, the results demonstrated that O{sub 2} injected and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} added, underwater plasma discharge had fabulous impact on the E. coli sterilization. The oxygen injection notably reduced the voltage needed for generating breakdown in flowing water and escalated the power of discharge pulses. No impact of hydrogen peroxide addition on breakdown voltage was observed. A significant role of oxidant species in bacterial inactivation also has been identified. Furthermore the E. coli survivability in plasma treated water with oxygen injection and hydrogen peroxide addition drastically reduced to zero. The time course study also showed that the retardant effect on E. coli colony multiplication in plasma treated water was favorable, observed after long time. High-frequency underwater plasma discharge based biological applications is technically relevant and would act as baseline data for the development of novel antibacterial processing strategies.

  6. Phenoloxidase activity in larval and juvenile homogenates and adult plasma and haemocytes of bivalve molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-González, Antonio; Maeda-Martínez, Alfonso N; Vargas-Albores, Francisco; Ascencio-Valle, Felipe; Robles-Mungaray, Miguel

    2003-10-01

    Phenoloxidase (PO) activity was studied in larval and juvenile homogenates and in the plasma and haemocytes of adult Crassostrea gigas, Argopecten ventricosus, Nodipecten subnodosus, and Atrina maura. Samples were tested for the presence of PO activity by incubation with the substrate L-3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine using trypsin, alpha-chymotrypsin, laminarin, lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) to elicit activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) system. PO activity was not detected in larval homogenate. In juvenile homogenate, PO activity was found only in C. gigas and N. subnodosus. PO activity was present in adult samples and was enhanced by elicitors in the plasma of all species tested, but in haemocyte lysate supernatant (HLS) of only N. subnodosus. Activation of proPO by laminarin was suppressed by a protease inhibitor cocktail (P-2714) in plasma and HLS of all species tested.

  7. Relationship between plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity and left ventricular ejection fraction and hypertrophy among cardiac patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Fujimura

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR, which catalyzes purine catabolism, has two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, the latter of which produces superoxide during uric acid (UA synthesis. An association between plasma XOR activity and cardiovascular and renal outcomes has been previously suggested. We investigated the potential association between cardiac parameters and plasma XOR activity among cardiology patients.Plasma XOR activity was measured by [13C2,15N2]xanthine coupled with liquid chromatography/triplequadrupole mass spectrometry. Among 270 patients who were not taking UA-lowering drugs, XOR activity was associated with body mass index (BMI, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, HbA1c and renal function. Although XOR activity was not associated with serum UA overall, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, those with higher XOR activity had higher serum UA among patients without CKD. Compared with patients with the lowest XOR activity quartile, those with higher three XOR activity quartiles more frequently had left ventricular hypertrophy. In addition, plasma XOR activity showed a U-shaped association with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and increased plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels, and these associations were independent of age, gender, BMI, ALT, HbA1C, serum UA, and CKD stages.Among cardiac patients, left ventricular hypertrophy, low LVEF, and increased BNP were significantly associated with plasma XOR activity independent of various confounding factors. Whether pharmaceutical modification of plasma XOR activity might inhibit cardiac remodeling and improve cardiovascular outcome should be investigated in future studies.

  8. The effects of residual platelets in plasma on plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1-related assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Pieters (Marlien); S.A. Barnard (Sunelle A.); D.T. Loots (Du Toit); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractDue to controversial evidence in the literature pertaining to the activity of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in platelets, we examined the effects of residual platelets present in plasma (a potential pre-analytical variable) on various plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and plasminogen

  9. Active control of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities in hot plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    During the past century, world-wide energy consumption has risen dramatically, which leads to a quest for new energy sources. Fusion of hydrogen atoms in hot plasmas is an attractive approach to solve the energy problem, with abundant fuel, inherent safety and no long-lived radioactivity.  However, one of the limits on plasma performance is due to the various classes of magneto-hydrodynamic instabilities that may occur. The physics and control of these instabilities in modern magnetic confinement fusion devices is the subject of this book. Written by foremost experts, the contributions will provide valuable reference and up-to-date research reviews for "old hands" and newcomers alike.

  10. Atmospheric-pressure plasma activation and surface characterization on polyethylene membrane separator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Yu-Chien; Li, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Chun

    2017-01-01

    The surface hydrophilic activation of a polyethylene membrane separator was achieved using an atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. The surface of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator was found to be highly hydrophilic realized by adjusting the plasma power input. The variations in membrane separator chemical structure were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Chemical analysis showed newly formed carbonyl-containing groups and high surface concentrations of oxygen-containing species on the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated polymeric separator surface. It also showed that surface hydrophilicity primarily increased from the polar component after atmospheric-pressure plasma treatment. The surface and pore structures of the polyethylene membrane separator were examined by scanning electron microscopy, revealing a slight alteration in the pore structure. As a result of the incorporation of polar functionalities by atmospheric-pressure plasma activation, the electrolyte uptake and electrochemical impedance of the atmospheric-pressure-plasma-treated membrane separator improved. The investigational results show that the separator surface can be controlled by atmospheric-pressure plasma surface treatment to tailor the hydrophilicity and enhance the electrochemical performance of lithium ion batteries.

  11. G-protein activity in Percoll-purified plasma membranes, bulk plasma membranes, and low-density plasma membranes isolated from rat cerebral cortex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouřová, Lenka; Stöhr, Jiří; Lisý, Václav; Rudajev, Vladimír; Novotný, Jiří; Svoboda, Petr

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 4 (2009), BR111-BR122 ISSN 1234-1010 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC554; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06063; GA ČR(CZ) GA309/06/0121; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA500110606 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : rat cerebral cortex * plasma membrane * G-protein activity Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.543, year: 2009

  12. Active calcium transport in plasma membrane vesicles from developing cotyledons of common bean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jianzhong; Chen Ziyuan

    1995-01-01

    Plasma membrane vesicles were prepared from the developing cotyledons of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L cv Diyundou) by aqueous two-phase partitioning and characterized as to their purity by assaying marker enzymes for other membranes. The putative plasma membrane fraction was minimally contaminated by membranes other than plasma membrane and hence was of high purity. It exhibited a Ca 2+ -dependent ATPase activity, which was inhibited by 1 μmol/L EB and promoted by calcium ionophore A23187. Such an activity was responsible for the observed ATP-dependent 45 Ca 2+ uptake into inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. This process was stimulated by 0.6 μmol/L CaM and 20 μmol/L IAA but inhibited by 2 μmol/L ABA and abolished by A23187. Possible role of cytoplasmic Ca 2+ in mediating phytohormones activity is discussed

  13. Primary glia expressing the G93A-SOD1 mutation present a neuroinflammatory phenotype and provide a cellular system for studies of glial inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Min

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Detailed study of glial inflammation has been hindered by lack of cell culture systems that spontaneously demonstrate the "neuroinflammatory phenotype". Mice expressing a glycine → alanine substitution in cytosolic Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (G93A-SOD1 associated with familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS demonstrate age-dependent neuroinflammation associated with broad-spectrum cytokine, eicosanoid and oxidant production. In order to more precisely study the cellular mechanisms underlying glial activation in the G93A-SOD1 mouse, primary astrocytes were cultured from 7 day mouse neonates. At this age, G93A-SOD1 mice demonstrated no in vivo hallmarks of neuroinflammation. Nonetheless astrocytes cultured from G93A-SOD1 (but not wild-type human SOD1-expressing transgenic mouse pups demonstrated a significant elevation in either the basal or the tumor necrosis alpha (TNFα-stimulated levels of proinflammatory eicosanoids prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and leukotriene B4 (LTB4; inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and •NO (indexed by nitrite release into the culture medium; and protein carbonyl products. Specific cytokine- and TNFα death-receptor-associated components were similarly upregulated in cultured G93A-SOD1 cells as assessed by multiprobe ribonuclease protection assays (RPAs for their mRNA transcripts. Thus, endogenous glial expression of G93A-SOD1 produces a metastable condition in which glia are more prone to enter an activated neuroinflammatory state associated with broad-spectrum increased production of paracrine-acting substances. These findings support a role for active glial involvement in ALS and may provide a useful cell culture tool for the study of glial inflammation.

  14. Enhanced oxidation of naphthalene using plasma activation of TiO2/diatomite catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zuliang; Zhu, Zhoubin; Hao, Xiaodong; Zhou, Weili; Han, Jingyi; Tang, Xiujuan; Yao, Shuiliang; Zhang, Xuming

    2018-04-05

    Non-thermal plasma technology has great potential in reducing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emission. But in plasma-alone process, various undesired by-products are produced, which causes secondary pollutions. Here, a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor has been developed for the oxidation of naphthalene over a TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst at low temperature. In comparison to plasma-alone process, the combination of plasma and TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst significantly enhanced naphthalene conversion (up to 40%) and CO x selectivity (up to 92%), and substantially reduced the formation of aerosol (up to 90%) and secondary volatile organic compounds (up to near 100%). The mechanistic study suggested that the presence of the TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst intensified the electron energy in the DBD. Meantime, the energized electrons generated in the discharge activated TiO 2 , while the presence of ozone enhanced the activity of the TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst. This plasma-catalyst interaction led to the synergetic effect resulting from the combination of plasma and TiO 2 /diatomite catalyst, consequently enhanced the oxidation of naphthalene. Importantly, we have demonstrated the effectiveness of plasma to activate the photocatalyst for the deep oxidation of PAH without external heating, which is potentially valuable in the development of cost-effective gas cleaning process for the removal of PAHs in vehicle applications during cold start conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma Membrane ATPase Activity following Reversible and Irreversible Freezing Injury 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iswari, S.; Palta, Jiwan P.

    1989-01-01

    Plasma membrane ATPase has been proposed as a site of functional alteration during early stages of freezing injury. To test this, plasma membrane was purified from Solanum leaflets by a single step partitioning of microsomes in a dextran-polyethylene glycol two phase system. Addition of lysolecithin in the ATPase assay produced up to 10-fold increase in ATPase activity. ATPase activity was specific for ATP with a Km around 0.4 millimolar. Presence of the ATPase enzyme was identified by immunoblotting with oat ATPase antibodies. Using the phase partitioning method, plasma membrane was isolated from Solanum commersonii leaflets which had four different degrees of freezing damage, namely, slight (reversible), partial (partially reversible), substantial and total (irreversible). With slight (reversible) damage the plasma membrane ATPase specific activity increased 1.5- to 2-fold and its Km was decreased by about 3-fold, whereas the specific activity of cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome c oxidase in the microsomes were not different from the control. However, with substantial (lethal, irreversible) damage, there was a loss of membrane protein, decrease in plasma membrane ATPase specific activity and decrease in Km, while cytochrome c oxidase and cytochrome c reductase were unaffected. These results support the hypothesis that plasma membrane ATPase is altered by slight freeze-thaw stress. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:16666856

  16. Formation of tissue factor activity following incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein with plasma lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, T.; Kisiel, W.

    1990-01-01

    Incubation of recombinant human tissue factor apoprotein (Apo-TF) with human plasma decreased the recalcified clotting time of this plasma in a time-and dose-dependent manner suggesting relipidation of the Apo-TF by plasma lipoproteins. Incubation of Apo-TF with purified preparations of human very low density, low density and high density lipoproteins resulted in tissue factor activity in a clotting assay. The order of effectiveness was VLDL greater than LDL much greater than HDL. Tissue factor activity generated by incubation of a fixed amount of Apo-TF with plasma lipoproteins was lipoprotein concentration-dependent and saturable. The association of Apo-TF with lipoprotein particles was supported by gel filtration studies in which 125 I-Apo-TF coeluted with the plasma lipoprotein in the void volume of a Superose 6 column in the presence and absence of calcium ions. In addition, void-volume Apo-TF-lipoprotein fractions exhibited tissue factor activity. These results suggest that the factor VIII-bypassing activity of bovine Apo-TF observed in a canine hemophilic model may be due, in part, to its association with plasma lipoproteins and expression of functional tissue factor activity

  17. Effect of γ irradiation on the activity of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in plasma of the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dousset, N.; Douste-Blazy, L.

    1975-01-01

    Plasma cholesterol and lecithin-cholesterol-acyl-transferase activity are studied in irradiated rats. Ionizing radiations cause an increase of cholesterol levels in plasma, concerning mainly ester fraction. Lecithin-cholesterol-acyltransferase activity in plasma of irradiated rats is lowered 48 hours after exposure. This decreased rate of LCAT is probably the consequence of the post-irradiation hypercholesterolemia [fr

  18. Effect of platelet activating factor on endothelial permeability to plasma macromolecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Handley, D.A.; Arbeeny, C.M.; Lee, M.L.; Van Valen, R.G.; Saunders, R.N.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of intrajugular administration of platelet activating factor (PAF-C16) on vascular permeability was examined in the guinea pig. To examine the loss of selective endothelial permeability, the extravasative effect of PAF was assessed by monitoring hemoconcentration and the plasma loss of 125 I-albumin (6.7 nm), 125 I-low density lipoproteins (22.0 nm) or 125 I-very low density lipoproteins (62.1 nm). Extravasation was dose-dependent and began 1 min after PAF administration, continuing for 5-7 min. During extravasation, there was no evidence for selective plasma retention of any of the labeled plasma tracers, as measured by plasma radioactivity. These results suggest that PAF-induced extravasation is dose-dependent, with increases in vascular permeability sufficient to permit similar plasma efflux rates of albumin, low density lipoproteins and very low density lipoproteins

  19. Plasma-activated core-shell gold nanoparticle films with enhanced catalytic properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llorca, Jordi, E-mail: jordi.llorca@upc.edu; Casanovas, Albert; Dominguez, Montserrat; Casanova, Ignasi [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Institut de Tecniques Energetiques (Spain); Angurell, Inmaculada; Seco, Miquel; Rossell, Oriol [Universitat de Barcelona, Departament de Quimica Inorganica (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    Catalytically active gold nanoparticle films have been prepared from core-shell nanoparticles by plasma-activation and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Methane can be selectively oxidized into formic acid with an O{sub 2}-H{sub 2} mixture in a catalytic wall reactor functionalized with plasma-activated gold nanoparticle films containing well-defined Au particles of about 3.5 nm in diameter. No catalytic activity was recorded over gold nanoparticle films prepared by thermal decomposition of core-shell nanoparticles due to particle agglomeration.

  20. Plasma-activated core-shell gold nanoparticle films with enhanced catalytic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llorca, Jordi; Casanovas, Albert; Dominguez, Montserrat; Casanova, Ignasi; Angurell, Inmaculada; Seco, Miquel; Rossell, Oriol

    2008-01-01

    Catalytically active gold nanoparticle films have been prepared from core-shell nanoparticles by plasma-activation and characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Methane can be selectively oxidized into formic acid with an O 2 -H 2 mixture in a catalytic wall reactor functionalized with plasma-activated gold nanoparticle films containing well-defined Au particles of about 3.5 nm in diameter. No catalytic activity was recorded over gold nanoparticle films prepared by thermal decomposition of core-shell nanoparticles due to particle agglomeration

  1. Antibacterial activity of plasma from crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis against pathogenic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kommanee Jintana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Siamese crocodile (Crocodylus siamensis is a critically endangered species of freshwater crocodiles. Crocodilians live with opportunistic bacterial infection but normally suffer no adverse effects. They are not totally immune to microbial infection, but their resistance thereto is remarkably effective. In this study, crude and purified plasma extracted from the Siamese crocodile were examined for antibacterial activity against clinically isolated, human pathogenic bacterial strains and the related reference strains. Methods Crude plasma was prepared from whole blood of the Siamese crocodile by differential sedimentation. The crude plasma was examined for antibacterial activity by the liquid growth inhibition assay. The scanning electron microscopy was performed to confirm the effect of crude crocodile plasma on the cells of Salmonella typhi ATCC 11778. Effect of crude crocodile plasma on cell viability was tested by MTT assay. In addition, the plasma was purified by anion exchange column chromatography with DEAE-Toyopearl 650 M and the purified plasma was tested for antibacterial activity. Results Crude plasma was prepared from whole blood of the Siamese crocodile and exhibited substantial antibacterial activities of more than 40% growth inhibition against the six reference strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, and the four clinical isolates of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, and Vibrio cholerae. Especially, more than 80% growth inhibition was found in the reference strains of Salmonella typhi, Vibrio cholerae, and Staphylococcus epidermidis and in the clinical isolates of Salmonella typhi and Vibrio cholerae. The effect of the crude plasma on bacterial cells of Salmonella typhi, a certain antibacterial material probably penetrates progressively into the cytoplasmic space

  2. Preliminary studies of plasma growth hormone releasing activity during medical therapy of acromegaly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen, T.C.; Lawrence, A.M.; Kirsteins, L.

    1978-01-01

    The in vitro growth hormone releasing activity of plasma obtained from six acromegalic subjects was measured before and during therapy. In five subjects, plasmas were obtained before and during successful medical therapy with medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA). The sixth subject was sampled before and after transphenoidal Sr 90 -induced hypopituitarism. All subjects had a decrement in fasting growth hormone levels with respective therapies (29-88%). The in vitro growth hormone released from Rhesus monkey anterior pituitaries was assessed after incubating one lateral half in control plasma (pre-therapy) and the contralateral pituitary half in plasma obtained during or after therapy. Studies with plasmas obtained from the five patients successfully treated with MPA showed a decrease in growth hormone releasing activity during therapy in all (18-57%). Plasma obtained after Sr 90 pituitary ablation in the sixth subject had 35% more growth hormone releasing activity than obtained before therapy. These results suggest that active acromegalics who respond to MPA with significantly lowered growth hormone levels may actually achieve this response because of a decrease in growth hormone releasing factor measured peripherally. The opposite response in one acromegalic subject, following Sr 90 pituitary ablation and hypopituitarism, suggests that growth hormone releasing factor secretion may increase when growth hormone levels are lowered by ablative therapy. (orig.) [de

  3. Active control of internal transport barrier and confinement database in JT-60U reversed shear plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Yoshiteru; Takizuka, Tomonori; Shirai, Hiroshi; Fujita, Takaaki; Kamada, Yutaka; Ide, Shunsuke; Fukuda, Takeshi; Koide, Yoshihiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-07-01

    Active control of internal transport barrier (ITB) and confinement properties of plasma with ITB have been studied in reversed shear plasmas. Modifications of the radial electric field (E{sub r}) profile by changing the combination of tangential neutral beams can control the ITB strength, where the contribution to E{sub r} from the toroidal rotation plays an important role. The ITB confinement database of reversed shear plasmas has been constructed. Stored energy is strongly correlated with poloidal magnetic field at the ITB foot. (author)

  4. The influence of blood plasma of irradiated animals on activity of Ca2+ - ATPase and Mg2+ - ATPase in plasma membrane of thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreval', V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Rats were irradiated at doses 1.5, 4.0, 7.0 and 10 Gy. After 1, 8, 15, 22 and 30 days the effect of blood plasma on activity of Ca 2+ -ATPase and Mg 2+ -ATPase in plasma membrane of thymocytes was investigated. It was found that the raise of irradiation dose leads to increasing of blood plasma effect on membrane-bound enzymes

  5. Plasma properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weitzner, H.

    1990-06-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: MHD plasma activity: equilibrium, stability and transport; statistical analysis; transport studies; edge physics studies; wave propagation analysis; basic plasma physics and fluid dynamics; space plasma; and numerical methods

  6. MnSOD and catalase transgenes demonstrate that protection of islets from oxidative stress does not alter cytokine toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hainan; Li, Xiaoyan; Epstein, Paul N

    2005-05-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) are proposed mediators of cytokine-induced beta-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. We produced transgenic mice with increased beta-cell expression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Expression of these antioxidants increased beta-cell ROS scavenging and improved beta-cell survival after treatment with different sources of ROS. MnSOD or catalase conferred protection against streptozotocin (STZ)-induced beta-cell injury. Coexpression of MnSOD and catalase provided synergistic protection against peroxynitrite and STZ. To determine the potential effect of these antioxidants on cytokine-induced toxicity, we exposed isolated islets to a cytokine mixture, including interleukin-1beta and interferon-gamma. Cytokine toxicity was measured as reduced metabolic activity after 6 days and reduced insulin secretion after 1 day. Cytokines increased ROS production, and both antioxidants were effective in reducing cytokine-induced ROS. However, MnSOD and/or catalase provided no protection against cytokine-induced injury. To understand this, the nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling cascade was investigated. Antioxidants reduced NF-kappaB activation by ROS, but none of the antioxidants altered activation by cytokines, as measured by inhibitor of kappaB phosphorylation, NF-kappaB translocation, inducible NO synthase activation, and NO production. Our data agree with previous reports that antioxidants benefit beta-cell survival against ROS damage, but they are not consistent with reports that antioxidants reduce cytokine toxicity. ROS appear to have no role in cytokine toxicity in primary beta-cells.

  7. Plasma Dopamine-Beta-Hydroxylase as an Index of Peripheral Noradrenergic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-08-17

    and an acidic buffer are included in the DBH mix along with the substrate. In addition, a monoamine oxidase inhibitor is added to the mix to prevent ...diseases (41 , 155, 97). Patients with hyperthyroidism have significantly lower DBH values than those of controls (190, 192), and patients with hypo... hyperthyroidism , and plasma DBH activity was inversely related to thyroxin levels during therapy for hypothyroidism. Although this and plasma NE

  8. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of work intensity on plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin and renin activity and the interrelationships between these responses are investigated. Plasma volume, renin activity and osmotic, sodium and arginine vasopressin concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken from 15 healthy male subjects before and after six minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at 100, 175 and 225 W. Plasma volume is found to decrease significantly with increasing work intensity, while increases in Na(+) concentration, osmolality and vasopressin are only observed to be significant when the work intensity exceeds 40% maximal aerobic capacity and plasma resin activity increased linearly at all work levels. In addition, significant correlations are observed between plasma volume and osmolality and sodium changes, and between vasopressin and osmolality and sodium content changes. Data thus support the hypotheses that (1) vasopressin may be the primary controlling endocrine for fluid and electrolyte levels following exercise; (2) an exercise intensity greater than 40% maximal aerobic capacity is required to stimulate vasopressin release through changes in plasma osmolality; and (3) the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a more general stress response.

  9. SOD1 Transcriptional and Posttranscriptional Regulation and Its Potential Implications in ALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Milani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1 is a detoxifying enzyme localized in the cytosol, nucleus, peroxisomes, and mitochondria. The discovery that mutations in SOD1 gene cause a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS has attracted great attention, and studies to date have been mainly focused on discovering mutations in the coding region and investigation at protein level. Considering that changes in SOD1 mRNA levels have been associated with sporadic ALS (SALS, a molecular understanding of the processes involved in the regulation of SOD1 gene expression could not only unravel novel regulatory pathways that may govern cellular phenotypes and changes in diseases but also might reveal therapeutic targets and treatments. This review seeks to provide an overview of SOD1 gene structure and of the processes through which SOD1 transcription is controlled. Furthermore, we emphasize the importance to focus future researches on investigating posttranscriptional mechanisms and their relevance to ALS.

  10. Pre-analytical and Analytical Variables Affecting the Measurement of Plasma-Derived Microparticle Tissue Factor Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, RD; Barcel, DA; Williams, JC; Wang, JG; Boles, JC; Manly, DA; Key, NS; Mackman, N

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Elevated levels of tissue factor positive (TF+) microparticles (MPs) are observed in plasma from a variety of patients with an increased risk of thrombosis. We and others have described the measurement of TF activity in MPs isolated from plasma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pre-analytical and analytical variables on TF activity of MPs isolated from blood of healthy volunteers treated ex vivo with or without bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Materials and Methods We evaluated the following parameters: use of different centrifugation speeds to isolate the MPs; comparison of TF activity of MPs isolated from platelet poor plasma versus platelet free plasma; effect of freeze/thaw on MP TF activity; and comparison of the MP TF activity assay with the measurement of TF protein by ELISA or flow cytometry. Results MPs prepared from platelet poor plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g or 100,000 × g for 15 minutes had similar levels of TF activity. However, significantly less TF activity was found in MPs isolated from platelet free plasma compared with platelet poor plasma. Interestingly, freeze/thawing of the plasma showed donor to donor variation in MP TF activity, with a moderate increase in some individuals. Conclusion TF+ MPs can be quantitatively isolated from platelet poor or platelet free plasma by centrifugation at 20,000 × g for 15 minutes. Measurement of MP TF activity in plasma can be used to detect a prothrombotic state in patients with various diseases. PMID:21737126

  11. Plasma membrane factor XIIIA transglutaminase activity regulates osteoblast matrix secretion and deposition by affecting microtubule dynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadil F Al-Jallad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Transglutaminase activity, arising potentially from transglutaminase 2 (TG2 and Factor XIIIA (FXIIIA, has been linked to osteoblast differentiation where it is required for type I collagen and fibronectin matrix deposition. In this study we have used an irreversible TG-inhibitor to 'block -and-track' enzyme(s targeted during osteoblast differentiation. We show that the irreversible TG-inhibitor is highly potent in inhibiting osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and reduces secretion of both fibronectin and type I collagen and their release from the cell surface. Tracking of the dansyl probe by Western blotting and immunofluorescence microscopy demonstrated that the inhibitor targets plasma membrane-associated FXIIIA. TG2 appears not to contribute to crosslinking activity on the osteoblast surface. Inhibition of FXIIIA with NC9 resulted in defective secretory vesicle delivery to the plasma membrane which was attributable to a disorganized microtubule network and decreased microtubule association with the plasma membrane. NC9 inhibition of FXIIIA resulted in destabilization of microtubules as assessed by cellular Glu-tubulin levels. Furthermore, NC9 blocked modification of Glu-tubulin into 150 kDa high-molecular weight Glu-tubulin form which was specifically localized to the plasma membrane. FXIIIA enzyme and its crosslinking activity were colocalized with plasma membrane-associated tubulin, and thus, it appears that FXIIIA crosslinking activity is directed towards stabilizing the interaction of microtubules with the plasma membrane. Our work provides the first mechanistic cues as to how transglutaminase activity could affect protein secretion and matrix deposition in osteoblasts and suggests a novel function for plasma membrane FXIIIA in microtubule dynamics.

  12. Gelsolin-Cu/ZnSOD interaction alters intracellular reactive oxygen species levels to promote cancer cell invasion

    KAUST Repository

    Tochhawng, Lalchhandami

    2016-07-07

    The actin-binding protein, gelsolin, is a well known regulator of cancer cell invasion. However, the mechanisms by which gelsolin promotes invasion are not well established. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been shown to promote cancer cell invasion, we investigated on the hypothesis that gelsolin-induced changes in ROS levels may mediate the invasive capacity of colon cancer cells. Herein, we show that increased gelsolin enhances the invasive capacity of colon cancer cells, and this is mediated via gelsolin\\'s effects in elevating intracellular superoxide (O2 .-) levels. We also provide evidence for a novel physical interaction between gelsolin and Cu/ZnSOD, that inhibits the enzymatic activity of Cu/ZnSOD, thereby resulting in a sustained elevation of intracellular O2 .-. Using microarray data of human colorectal cancer tissues from Gene Omnibus, we found that gelsolin gene expression positively correlates with urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), an important matrix-degrading protease invovled in cancer invasion. Consistent with the in vivo evidence, we show that increased levels of O2 .- induced by gelsolin overexpression triggers the secretion of uPA. We further observed reduction in invasion and intracellular O2 .- levels in colon cancer cells, as a consequence of gelsolin knockdown using two different siRNAs. In these cells, concurrent repression of Cu/ ZnSOD restored intracellular O2 .- levels and rescued invasive capacity. Our study therefore identified gelsolin as a novel regulator of intracellular O2 .- in cancer cells via interacting with Cu/ZnSOD and inhibiting its enzymatic activity. Taken together, these findings provide insight into a novel function of gelsolin in promoting tumor invasion by directly impacting the cellular redox milieu.

  13. Radiation damage, treatment of tumor and acute benzene toxicosis effects of superoxide dismutase (SOD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Jiagui; Lin Xingcheng; Zhu Yuyu

    1987-09-01

    The protective effects of SOD on irradiated-mice were studied by white cell counts, determination of taurine in urine, and survival of irradiated-animals. The enzyme was protective against radiation-induced inhibition of lymphocyte blastogenesis. The protective effect of SOD on patients suffered from cancer was also studied by white cell counts. The effect of SOD on white cell counts in mice of benzene toxicosis was also discussed

  14. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD catalyzes NO-dependent tyrosine residue nitration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SRDJAN STOJANOVIC

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available The peroxynitrite-induced nitration of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD tyrosine residue, which causes enzyme inactivation, is well established. This led to suggestions that MnSOD nitration and inactivation in vivo, detected in various diseases associated with oxidative stress and overproduction of nitric monoxide (NO, conditions which favor peroxynitrite formation, is also caused by peroxynitrite. However, our previous in vitro study demonstrated that exposure of MnSOD to NO led to NO conversion into nitrosonium (NO+ and nitroxyl (NO– species, which caused enzyme modifications and inactivation. Here it is reported that MnSOD is tyrosine nitrated upon exposure to NO, as well as that MnSOD nitration contributes to inactivation of the enzyme. Collectively, these observations provide a compelling argument supporting the generation of nitrating species in MnSOD exposed to NO and shed a new light on MnSOD tyrosine nitration and inactivation in vivo. This may represent a novel mechanism by which MnSOD protects cell from deleterious effects associated with overproduction of NO. However, extensive MnSOD modification and inactivation associated with prolonged exposure to NO will amplify the toxic effects caused by increased cell superoxide and NO levels.

  15. Structures of the G85R Variant of SOD1 in Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Xiaohang; Antonyuk, Svetlana V.; Seetharaman, Sai V.; Whitson, Lisa J.; Taylor, Alexander B.; Holloway, Stephen P.; Strange, Richard W.; Doucette, Peter A.; Valentine, Joan Selverstone; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Hayward, Lawrence J.; Padua, Shelby; Cohlberg, Jeffrey A.; Hasnain, S. Samar; Hart, P. John (Texas-HSC); (Cal. State); (UMASS, MED); (UCLA); (Daresbury)

    2008-07-21

    Mutations in the gene encoding human copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) cause a dominant form of the progressive neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Transgenic mice expressing the human G85R SOD1 variant develop paralytic symptoms concomitant with the appearance of SOD1-enriched proteinaceous inclusions in their neural tissues. The process(es) through which misfolding or aggregation of G85R SOD1 induces motor neuron toxicity is not understood. Here we present structures of the human G85R SOD1 variant determined by single crystal x-ray diffraction. Alterations in structure of the metal-binding loop elements relative to the wild type enzyme suggest a molecular basis for the metal ion deficiency of the G85R SOD1 protein observed in the central nervous system of transgenic mice and in purified recombinant G85R SOD1. These findings support the notion that metal-deficient and/or disulfide-reduced mutant SOD1 species contribute to toxicity in SOD1-linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

  16. Soluble CD206 plasma levels in rheumatoid arthritis reflect decrease in disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heftdal, Line Dam; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll

    2017-01-01

    internalization and degradation. The soluble form has been suggested as a biomarker of M2A-macrophage activation. The aim of this study was to investigate sCD206 plasma levels in early RA patients initiating anti-TNFα treatment. Plasma levels of sCD206 were measured by ELISA in samples from 155 early RA patients...... from baseline after 6 months. In the ADA group, however, levels remained lower than baseline throughout the treatment period. In conclusion, initially, plasma sCD206 in early RA patients decreased in accordance with disease activity and initiation of DMARD treatment. Treatment with anti-TNFα preserved......Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by chronic joint inflammation and infiltration by activated macrophages. TNFα is a central mediator in this process. The mannose receptor, CD206, is a scavenger receptor expressed by M2A-macrophages and dendritic cells. It is involved in collagen...

  17. Mechanisms of Enhanced Phrenic Long-Term Facilitation in SOD1G93A Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Satriotomo, Irawan; Allen, Latoya L; Grebe, Ashley M; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2017-06-14

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative motor neuron disease, causing muscle paralysis and death from respiratory failure. Effective means to preserve/restore ventilation are necessary to increase the quality and duration of life in ALS patients. At disease end-stage in a rat ALS model ( SOD1 G93A ), acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) restores phrenic nerve activity to normal levels via enhanced phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Mechanisms enhancing pLTF in end-stage SOD1 G93A rats are not known. Moderate AIH-induced pLTF is normally elicited via cellular mechanisms that require the following: G q -protein-coupled 5-HT 2 receptor activation, new BDNF synthesis, and MEK/ERK signaling (the Q pathway). In contrast, severe AIH elicits pLTF via a distinct mechanism that requires the following: G s -protein-coupled adenosine 2A receptor activation, new TrkB synthesis, and PI3K/Akt signaling (the S pathway). In end-stage male S OD1 G93A rats and wild-type littermates, we investigated relative Q versus S pathway contributions to enhanced pLTF via intrathecal (C4) delivery of small interfering RNAs targeting BDNF or TrkB mRNA, and MEK/ERK (U0126) or PI3 kinase/Akt (PI828) inhibitors. In anesthetized, paralyzed and ventilated rats, moderate AIH-induced pLTF was abolished by siBDNF and UO126, but not siTrkB or PI828, demonstrating that enhanced pLTF occurs via the Q pathway. Although phrenic motor neuron numbers were decreased in end-stage SOD1 G93A rats (∼30% survival; p phrenic motor neurons ( p phrenic motor plasticity results from amplification of normal cellular mechanisms versus addition/substitution of alternative mechanisms. Greater understanding of mechanisms underlying phrenic motor plasticity in ALS may guide development of new therapies to preserve and/or restore breathing in ALS patients. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/375834-12$15.00/0.

  18. Biological activity of alligator, avian, and mammalian insulin in juvenile alligators: plasma glucose and amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lance, V A; Elsey, R M; Coulson, R A

    1993-02-01

    The biological activity of alligator, turkey, and bovine insulin on plasma glucose and plasma amino acids was tested in fasted juvenile alligators. Preliminary experiments showed that the stress associated with taking the initial blood sample resulted in a hyperglycemic response lasting more than 24 hr. Despite repeated bleedings no additional hyperglycemic events occurred, and blood glucose declined slowly over the next 7 days. Under these conditions the smallest dose of insulin eliciting a hypoglycemic response was 40 micrograms/kg body wt. A dose of 400 micrograms/kg body wt of either alligator or bovine insulin caused a pronounced hypoglycemia by 12 hr postinjection. Maximum decline in plasma glucose occurred at 24 to 36 hr with a slow return to control levels by 120 hr. There were no significant differences in the hypoglycemic responses to any of the three insulins tested. The decline in plasma amino acids was much more rapid than the decline in plasma glucose in response to insulin. Even at the 40 micrograms/kg body wt dose a significant difference from saline-injected control was seen at 2 hr postinjection. Maximum decline in plasma amino acids occurred at 8 to 12 hr with a return to baseline by 36 hr. These results show that the relatively conservative changes in the sequence of alligator insulin (three amino acid substitutions in the B-chain compared with that of chicken) have little effect on biological activity and that alligator insulin receptors do not appear to discriminate among the three insulins.

  19. Plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein mass and phospholipid transfer protein activity are associated with leptin in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, R. P. F.; de Vries, R.; Dallinga-Thie, G. M.; van Tol, A.; Sluiter, W. J.

    Adipose tissue contributes to plasma levels of lipid transfer proteins and is also the major source of plasma adipokines. We hypothesized that plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) mass, phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) activity and cholesteryl ester transfer (CET, a measure of CETP

  20. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-01-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic

  1. Receptor kinase-mediated control of primary active proton pumping at the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Kristensen, Astrid; Cuin, Tracey A.

    2014-01-01

    Acidification of the cell wall space outside the plasma membrane is required for plant growth and is the result of proton extrusion by the plasma membrane-localized H+-ATPases. Here we show that the major plasma membrane proton pumps in Arabidopsis, AHA1 and AHA2, interact directly in vitro...... and in planta with PSY1R, a receptor kinase of the plasma membrane that serves as a receptor for the peptide growth hormone PSY1. The intracellular protein kinase domain of PSY1R phosphorylates AHA2/AHA1 at Thr-881, situated in the autoinhibitory region I of the C-terminal domain. When expressed in a yeast...... heterologous expression system, the introduction of a negative charge at this position caused pump activation. Application of PSY1 to plant seedlings induced rapid in planta phosphorylation at Thr-881, concomitant with an instantaneous increase in proton efflux from roots. The direct interaction between AHA2...

  2. Carbohydrate-dependent binding of langerin to SodC, a cell wall glycoprotein of Mycobacterium leprae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Jin; Brennan, Patrick J; Heaslip, Darragh; Udey, Mark C; Modlin, Robert L; Belisle, John T

    2015-02-01

    Langerhans cells participate in the immune response in leprosy by their ability to activate T cells that recognize the pathogen, Mycobacterium leprae, in a langerin-dependent manner. We hypothesized that langerin, the distinguishing C-type lectin of Langerhans cells, would recognize the highly mannosylated structures in pathogenic Mycobacterium spp. The coding region for the extracellular and neck domain of human langerin was cloned and expressed to produce a recombinant active trimeric form of human langerin (r-langerin). Binding assays performed in microtiter plates, by two-dimensional (2D) Western blotting, and by surface plasmon resonance demonstrated that r-langerin possessed carbohydrate-dependent affinity to glycoproteins in the cell wall of M. leprae. This lectin, however, yielded less binding to mannose-capped lipoarabinomannan (ManLAM) and even lower levels of binding to phosphatidylinositol mannosides. However, the superoxide dismutase C (SodC) protein of the M. leprae cell wall was identified as a langerin-reactive ligand. Tandem mass spectrometry verified the glycosylation of a recombinant form of M. leprae SodC (rSodC) produced in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Analysis of r-langerin affinity by surface plasmon resonance revealed a carbohydrate-dependent affinity of rSodC (equilibrium dissociation constant [KD] = 0.862 μM) that was 20-fold greater than for M. leprae ManLAM (KD = 18.69 μM). These data strongly suggest that a subset of the presumptively mannosylated M. leprae glycoproteins act as ligands for langerin and may facilitate the interaction of M. leprae with Langerhans cells. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Associations of geomagnetic activity with plasma sheet thinning and expansion: A statistical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hones, E.W. Jr.; Pytte, T.; West, H.I. Jr.

    1984-01-01

    Associations of geomagnetic activity in the auroral zone with thinnings and expansions of the magnetotail plasma sheet are examined statistically in this paper. We first identified many plasma sheet thinnings and expansions in plasma and particle data from VELA satellites and from OGO 5 without reference to the ground magnetic data. These events were grouped according to the location of the detecting satellite in the magnetotail. For each such group the times of thinning or expansion were then used as fiducial times in a superposed-epoch analysis of the geomagnetic AL index values that were recorded in 8-hour intervals centered on the event times. The results show that many plasma sheet thinnings and expansions are related to discrete negative bay structures that are the classical signature of substorms. Furthermore, they support earlier findings that plasma sheet thinning and expansion at the VELA orbit (rroughly-equal18 R/sub E/) tend to be associated with the onset of the auroral zone negative bay and the beginning of its subsidence, respectively. Earthward of rroughly-equal13-15 R/sub E/, plasma sheet expansion occurs near the time of the onset of the negative bay, again in agreement with earlier findings. A large fraction of plasma sheet expansions to half thicknesses of > or approx. =6 R/sub E/ at the VELA orbit are associated not with a baylike geomagnetic disturbance but with subsidence of a prolonged interval of disturbance. The study also shows that many plasma sheet expansions are related simply to generally enhanced geomagnetic activity showing no baylike or other distinctive features

  4. PLASMA INSULIN AND IGF-1 AND HEPATIC ACTIVITY IN SAANEN GOAT KIDS, AROUND WEANING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiano Magistrelli

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Weaning is a crucial event in the life of young ruminants. At weaning ruminal and digestive activity are still incomplete, so weaning may coincide with a period of growth stasis. Since insulin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 can play a fundamental role in post-natal development, the aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma variations of insulin and IGF-1 levels and their relationships with the hepatic activity, around weaning.For this purpose, eleven 3-days-old Saanen goat kids were randomly divided into MILK (6 animals and WMIX (5 animals groups. All kids were fed goat milk to age 29 days. After that, MILK kids continued to receive milk, while WMIX ones underwent weaning, based on the progressive replacement of milk with solid feed. WMIX kids were completely weaned on day 48. Blood samples were weekly analyzed for metabolic traits, insulin and IGF-1 levels, alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST activities. On day 50, all animals were slaughtered, liver weight was recorded and liver samples were analyzed for DNA, RNA, phospholipids, glicogen and soluble protein content, ALT and AST activity.On day 50, plasma insulin and IGF-1 were lower in WMIX group, as possible consequence of the lower plasma glucose and amino acids levels. Liver weight was not different between groups, but liver weight expressed as percentage of body weight was lower in WMIX kids and highly correlated to plasma IGF-1. Liver glycogen was also lower in WMIX kids, as possible consequence of the lower plasma glucose.Hepatic ALT and AST activities were not different between groups and both were strongly correlated to plasma insulin. Moreover, insulin was positively correlated to the proteosynthetic capability per cell (RNA/DNA of the liver.Our results indicate that the adopted livestock practice permitted the normal development of the animal used, avoiding growth stasis. Anyway, weaning altered plasma insulin and IGF-1, without affecting

  5. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  6. Enhancing mitochondrial calcium buffering capacity reduces aggregation of misfolded SOD1 and motor neuron cell death without extending survival in mouse models of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parone, Philippe A; Da Cruz, Sandrine; Han, Joo Seok; McAlonis-Downes, Melissa; Vetto, Anne P; Lee, Sandra K; Tseng, Eva; Cleveland, Don W

    2013-03-13

    Mitochondria have been proposed as targets for toxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a progressive, fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of motor neurons. A decrease in the capacity of spinal cord mitochondria to buffer calcium (Ca(2+)) has been observed in mice expressing ALS-linked mutants of SOD1 that develop motor neuron disease with many of the key pathological hallmarks seen in ALS patients. In mice expressing three different ALS-causing SOD1 mutants, we now test the contribution of the loss of mitochondrial Ca(2+)-buffering capacity to disease mechanism(s) by eliminating ubiquitous expression of cyclophilin D, a critical regulator of Ca(2+)-mediated opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore that determines mitochondrial Ca(2+) content. A chronic increase in mitochondrial buffering of Ca(2+) in the absence of cyclophilin D was maintained throughout disease course and was associated with improved mitochondrial ATP synthesis, reduced mitochondrial swelling, and retention of normal morphology. This was accompanied by an attenuation of glial activation, reduction in levels of misfolded SOD1 aggregates in the spinal cord, and a significant suppression of motor neuron death throughout disease. Despite this, muscle denervation, motor axon degeneration, and disease progression and survival were unaffected, thereby eliminating mutant SOD1-mediated loss of mitochondrial Ca(2+) buffering capacity, altered mitochondrial morphology, motor neuron death, and misfolded SOD1 aggregates, as primary contributors to disease mechanism for fatal paralysis in these models of familial ALS.

  7. Specific, sensitive, precise, and rapid functional chromogenic assay of activated first complement component (C1) in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munkvad, S; Jespersen, J; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1990-01-01

    We present a new functional assay for the first complement component (C1) in plasma, based on its activation by inhibition of the C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-inh) when monospecific antiserum to C1-inh is added to the plasma. After maximal activation, we can determine the concentration of activated ...

  8. Depression and Anxiety are Common in Acute HIV Infection and Associate with Plasma Immune Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellmuth, Joanna; Colby, Donn; Valcour, Victor; Suttichom, Duanghathai; Spudich, Serena; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Prueksakaew, Peeriya; Sailasuta, Napapon; Allen, Isabel; Jagodzinski, Linda L; Slike, Bonnie; Ochi, Derek; Paul, Robert

    2017-11-01

    This observational study of 123 Thai participants sought to determine the rate and severity of affective symptoms during acute HIV infection (AHI) and possible associations to disease mechanisms. At diagnosis, just prior to starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), AHI participants completed assessments of depression and anxiety symptoms that were repeated at 4, 12, and 24 weeks. Blood markers of HIV infection and immune activation were measured at study entry, with optional cerebrospinal fluid measures. A high frequency of participants reported symptoms that exceeded published thresholds supportive of depression (55.0%) and anxiety (65.8%) at diagnosis, with significant reductions after starting cART. Meeting a threshold for clinically relevant depressive symptoms at study entry was associated with higher baseline plasma HIV RNA (5.98 vs. 5.50, t = 2.46, p = 0.015), lower CD4 counts (328 vs. 436 cells/mm 3 , t = 3.46, p = 0.001), and higher plasma neopterin, a marker of macrophage activation (2694 vs. 1730 pg/mL, Mann-Whitney U = 152.5, p = 0.011). Controlling for plasma HIV RNA and CD4 count, higher baseline plasma neopterin correlated with worse initial depression and anxiety scores. Depression and anxiety symptoms are frequent in acute HIV infection, associate with plasma immune activation, and can improve concurrent with cART.

  9. Tissue Factor Coagulant Activity is Regulated by the Plasma Membrane Microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yuanjie; Böing, Anita N; Hau, Chi M; Hajji, Najat; Ruf, Wolfram; Sturk, Auguste; Nieuwland, Rienk

    2018-06-01

     Tissue factor (TF) can be present in a non-coagulant and coagulant form. Whether the coagulant activity is affected by the plasma membrane microenvironment is unexplored.  This article studies the presence and coagulant activity of human TF in plasma membrane micro-domains.  Plasma membranes were isolated from human MIA PaCa2 cells, MDA-MB-231 cells and human vascular smooth muscle cells by Percoll gradient ultracentrifugation after cell disruption. Plasma membranes were fractionated by OptiPrep gradient ultracentrifugation, and the presence of TF, flotillin, caveolin, clathrin, protein disulphide isomerase (PDI), TF pathway inhibitor (TFPI) and phosphatidylserine (PS) were determined.  Plasma membranes contain two detergent-resistant membrane (DRM) compartments differing in density and biochemical composition. High-density DRMs (DRM-H) have a density ( ρ ) of 1.15 to 1.20 g/mL and contain clathrin, whereas low-density DRMs (DRM-L) have a density between 1.09 and 1.13 g/mL and do not contain clathrin. Both DRMs contain TF, flotillin and caveolin. PDI is detectable in DRM-H, TFPI is not detectable in either DMR-H or DRM-L and PS is detectable in DRM-L. The DRM-H-associated TF (> 95% of the TF antigen) lacks detectable coagulant activity, whereas the DRM-L-associated TF triggers coagulation. This coagulant activity is inhibited by lactadherin and thus PS-dependent, but seemed insensitive to 16F16, an inhibitor of PDI.  Non-coagulant and coagulant TF are present within different types of DRMs in the plasma membrane, and the composition of these DRMs may affect the TF coagulant activity. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  10. Plasma lipid peroxidation, blood GSH concentration and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in menstruating females with ovulatory and anovulatory cycles compared with males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lutosławska

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate plasma TBARS and blood GSH concentration and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in active, regularly menstruating female physical education students with ovulatory and anovulatory menstrual cycles and in their male counterparts. A total of 27 subjects (12 males and 15 females volunteered to participate in the study. All females were regularly menstruating with cycle length between 26-31 days. Plasma progesterone and 17-β-estradiol concentrations were assayed during the 7th-9th and 22nd-25th day of the menstrual cycle. Women with plasma progesterone concentration exceeding 19 nmol•l-1 during the 22nd-25th day were referred to as ovulatory (Group OV; n=7. Women without a peak plasma progesterone concentration were referred to as anovulatory (Group AN; n=8. Blood from male subjects was withdrawn twice - two weeks apart, at their convenience. It was found that the menstrual cycle phases did not affect plasma TBARS and blood glutathione concentration and erythrocyte GPX, CAT and SOD activity. However, erythrocyte GPX activity either in ovulatory or anovulatory women was by about 30% higher than in male subjects. Erythrocyte SOD activity in ovulatory women both in follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (1557 U/g Hb and 1394.6 U/g Hb, respectively was markedly lower than in men (1951.8 and 1937.7 U/g Hb for blood sampling I and II, respectively. In contrast, erythrocyte SOD activity in anovulatory women (1855.5 U/g Hb and 1745.7 U/g Hb in the follicular and luteal phases, respectively was similar to that found in men. The above data indicated that erythrocyte GPX and SOD activities are sensitive to plasma ovarian hormone concentration. In addition, they suggested that due to higher erythrocyte GPX activity females even with anovulatory menstrual cycles are protected better than males against hydrogen peroxide action. However, lower superoxide

  11. A single nucleotide change affects fur-dependent regulation of sodB in H. pylori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth M Carpenter

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a significant human pathogen that has adapted to survive the many stresses found within the gastric environment. Superoxide Dismutase (SodB is an important factor that helps H. pylori combat oxidative stress. sodB was previously shown to be repressed by the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur in the absence of iron (apo-Fur regulation [1]. Herein, we show that apo regulation is not fully conserved among all strains of H. pylori. apo-Fur dependent changes in sodB expression are not observed under iron deplete conditions in H. pylori strains G27, HPAG1, or J99. However, Fur regulation of pfr and amiE occurs as expected. Comparative analysis of the Fur coding sequence between G27 and 26695 revealed a single amino acid difference, which was not responsible for the altered sodB regulation. Comparison of the sodB promoters from G27 and 26695 also revealed a single nucleotide difference within the predicted Fur binding site. Alteration of this nucleotide in G27 to that of 26695 restored apo-Fur dependent sodB regulation, indicating that a single base difference is at least partially responsible for the difference in sodB regulation observed among these H. pylori strains. Fur binding studies revealed that alteration of this single nucleotide in G27 increased the affinity of Fur for the sodB promoter. Additionally, the single base change in G27 enabled the sodB promoter to bind to apo-Fur with affinities similar to the 26695 sodB promoter. Taken together these data indicate that this nucleotide residue is important for direct apo-Fur binding to the sodB promoter.

  12. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women. © 2013.

  13. Regulation of hepatic lipase activity by sphingomyelin in plasma lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng; Subbaiah, Papasani V

    2015-10-01

    Hepatic lipase (HL) is an important enzyme in the clearance of triacylglycerol (TAG) from the circulation, and has been proposed to have pro-atherogenic as well as anti-atherogenic properties. It hydrolyzes both phospholipids and TAG of lipoproteins, and its activity is negatively correlated with HDL levels. Although it is known that HL acts preferentially on HDL lipids, the basis for this specificity is not known, since it does not require any specific apoprotein for activity. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that sphingomyelin (SM), whose concentration is much higher in VLDL and LDL compared to HDL, is an inhibitor of HL, and that this could explain the lipoprotein specificity of the enzyme. The results presented show that the depletion of SM from normal lipoproteins activated the HL roughly in proportion to their SM content. SM depletion stimulated the hydrolysis of both phosphatidylcholine (PC) and TAG, although the PC hydrolysis was stimulated more. In the native lipoproteins, HL showed specificity for PC species containing polyunsaturated fatty acids at sn-2 position, and produced more unsaturated lyso PC species. The enzyme also showed preferential hydrolysis of certain TAG species over others. SM depletion affected the specificity of the enzyme towards PC and TAG species modestly. These results show that SM is a physiological inhibitor of HL activity in lipoproteins and that the specificity of the enzyme towards HDL is at least partly due to its low SM content. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Oxidation of limonene using activated carbon modified in dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glonek, Karolina; Wróblewska, Agnieszka; Makuch, Edyta; Ulejczyk, Bogdan; Krawczyk, Krzysztof; Wróbel, Rafał. J.; Koren, Zvi C.; Michalkiewicz, Beata

    2017-10-01

    The waste from industrial fruits processing is utilized for the extraction of limonene, a renewable terpene biomass compound obtained from orange peels. This was followed by limonene oxidation, which produces highly useful oxygenated derivatives (carveol, and perillyl alcohol, 1,2-epoxylimonene and its diol). New catalysts were obtained by treating relatively inexpensive commercially available EuroPh and FPV activated carbons with plasma. These catalysts were characterized by the following instrumental methods XRD, sorption of N2 and CO2, SEM, EDS, TEM, XPS, and Raman spectroscopy. The activities of the plasma-treated catalysts were measured in the oxidation of limonene by means of either hydrogen peroxide or t-butyl hydroperoxide as the oxidizing agents. During the oxidation with hydrogen peroxide the new plasma-treated catalysts were more active than their untreated counterparts. This effect was noticeable in the considerable increase in the conversion of limonene. The mechanism explaining this property is proposed, and it takes into account the role of the appropriate functional groups on the surface of the catalysts. This work has shown for the first time that the commercial EuroPh and FPV activated carbons, after having been treated by plasma, are active catalysts for the selective limonene oxidation for the production of value-added industrial products.

  15. Radioreceptor assay for evaluation of the plasma glucocorticoid activity of natural and synthetic steroids in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballard, P.L.; Carter, J.P.; Graham, B.S.; Baxter, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    An assay for plasma glucocorticoid activity has been developed using specific glucocorticoid receptors. Unlike other assays for cortisol and certain synthetic corticosteroids, this radioreceptor assay measures the glucocorticoid activity of all natural and synthetic steroids. Steroids extracted from as little as 0.05 ml of plasma are incubated with 3 H-dexamethasone and cytosol receptors from cultured rat hepatoma cells. From 0.5 to 50 ng of cortisol are accurately detected. Glucocorticoid activities of adult plasmas determined by the assay correlate closely with corticoid levels obtained in the CBG-isotope and fluorometric assays. Other steroids are measured in proportion to both concentration and potency as glucocorticoids. Relative activities include: cortisol 100, dexamethasone 940, prednisolone 230, prednisone 3, estradiol 1 and androstenedione 1. A similar ranking of steroids was found using receptors from a human source (fetal lung). The assay has been useful in detecting glucocorticoid activity in unidentified medications and in measuring plasma glucocorticoid levels after administration of synthetic corticosteroids. (auth)

  16. Recognition of acidic phospholipase A2 activity in plasma membranes of resident peritoneal macrophages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Y.; Abiko, Y.; Ohno, H.; Araki, T.; Takiguchi, H.

    1988-01-01

    Phospholipase (PLase) activities in the plasma membrane of guinea pig peritoneal macrophages were studied, as these enzymes having such activity may be candidates for the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from phosphatidylcholine (PC). An AA release system operating at acidic pH was identified in the macrophage plasma membrane and characterized. This membrane-bound acidic PLase A 2 had an optimum pH at 4.5, and enzyme activation was observed in Ca ++ -free medium; but the maximum activity was found at 0.5 mM Ca ++ concentration. The Km value for PC of acidic PLase A 2 was 4.2 μM, and a Michaelis-Menten relationship was evident. Calcium might act as a cofactor at some intermediate step during the activation of acidic PLase A 2 in light of the uncompetitive manner of Ca ++ action. Furthermore, the release of [ 3 H]-AA from preradiolabelled macrophage plasma membranes occurred with the addition of Ca ++ at pH 4.5. These data suggest that the acid PLase A 2 is a component of the plasma membrane and is not due to lysosomal contamination since membrane-bound acidic PLase A 2 properties are opposite to those found for lysosomal PLase A 2

  17. Active feedback stabilization of axisymmetric modes in highly elongated tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.J.; Hofmann, F.

    1993-07-01

    Active feedback stabilization of the vertical instability is studied for highly elongated tokamak plasmas (1≤κ≤3), and evaluated in particular for the TCV configuration. It is shown that the feedback can strongly affect the form of the eigenfunction for these highly elongated equilibria, and this can have detrimental effects on the ability of the feedback system to properly detect and stabilize the plasma. A calculation of the vertical displacement that uses poloidal flux measurements, poloidal magnetic field measurements, and corrections for the vessel eddy currents and active feedback currents was found to be effective even in the cases with the worst deformations of the eigenfunction. We also examine how these deformations affect differently shaped equilibria, and it is seen that the magnitude of the deformation of the eigenfunction is strongly function of the plasma elongation. (author) 15 figs., 13 refs

  18. Effect of focal irradiation on plasma kallikrein activity in tumor bearing rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makoyo, P.O.Z.R.; West, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    The activated plasma kallikrein from tumor bearing rats before and after focal irradiation of the hind limbs was measured by the hydrolysis of 0.015M N-(p-toluene sulfonyl)-L arginine methyl ester (TAME). Blood was collected from abdominal aorta of rats anesthetized with diethyl ether into plastic tubes containing 1 volume of 3.8 percent sodium citrate for each 9 volumes. Plasma was isolated by centrifugation (2000 g) at 4 0 C. Small pieces of minced tumor tissue were inserted in a trochar and inoculated in the hind limbs of the rats. Morris hepatomas 7777 and 3924A were transplanted subcutaneously over the hind legs while Walker 256 tumor was transplanted intramuscularly in the hind limbs. Plasma kallikrein (μm TAME utilized/ml/hr) was decreased in three different groups of tumor bearing rats: Walker tumor from 207 +- 34 to 114 +- 30 Hepatoma 7777 from 219 +- 13 to 106 +- 3 and Hepatoma 3924A from 227 +- 7 to 133 +- 5. Two hours after focal irradiation (1000 R) plasma kallikrein decreased further in Walker tumor and hepatoma 7777 to 55 +- 5 and 96 +- 3.6 respectively. The plasma of tumor bearing rats becomes deficient in kallikrein at about the time metastases may be identified. The acute fall in plasma kallikrein is consistent with the overall stress mechanism

  19. Comparison Between Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma and Ozone Regenerations of Activated Carbon Exhausted with Pentachlorophenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guangzhou; Liang, Dongli; Qu, Dong; Huang, Yimei; Li, Jie

    2014-06-01

    In this study, two regeneration methods (dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma and ozone (O3) regeneration) of saturated granular activated carbon (GAC) with pentachlorophenol (PCP) were compared. The results show that the two regeneration methods can eliminate contaminants from GAC and recover its adsorption properties to some extent. Comparing the DBD plasma with O3 regeneration, the adsorption rate and the capacity of the GAC samples after DBD plasma regeneration are greater than those after O3 regeneration. O3 regeneration decreases the specific surface area of GAC and increases the acidic surface oxygen groups on the surface of GAC, which causes a decrease in PCP on GAC uptake. With increasing regeneration cycles, the regeneration efficiencies of the two methods decrease, but the decrease in the regeneration efficiencies of GAC after O3 regeneration is very obvious compared with that after DBD plasma regeneration. Furthermore, the equilibrium data were fitted by the Freundlich and Langmuir models using the non-linear regression technique, and all the adsorption equilibrium isotherms fit the Langmuir model fairly well, which demonstrates that the DBD plasma and ozone regeneration processes do not appear to modify the adsorption process, but to shift the equilibrium towards lower adsorption concentrations. Analyses of the weight loss of GAC show that O3 regeneration has a lower weight loss than DBD plasma regeneration.

  20. Comparison Between Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma and Ozone Regenerations of Activated Carbon Exhausted with Pentachlorophenol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qu Guangzhou; Liang Dongli; Qu Dong; Huang Yimei; Li Jie

    2014-01-01

    In this study, two regeneration methods (dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma and ozone (O 3 ) regeneration) of saturated granular activated carbon (GAC) with pentachlorophenol (PCP) were compared. The results show that the two regeneration methods can eliminate contaminants from GAC and recover its adsorption properties to some extent. Comparing the DBD plasma with O 3 regeneration, the adsorption rate and the capacity of the GAC samples after DBD plasma regeneration are greater than those after O 3 regeneration. O 3 regeneration decreases the specific surface area of GAC and increases the acidic surface oxygen groups on the surface of GAC, which causes a decrease in PCP on GAC uptake. With increasing regeneration cycles, the regeneration efficiencies of the two methods decrease, but the decrease in the regeneration efficiencies of GAC after O 3 regeneration is very obvious compared with that after DBD plasma regeneration. Furthermore, the equilibrium data were fitted by the Freundlich and Langmuir models using the non-linear regression technique, and all the adsorption equilibrium isotherms fit the Langmuir model fairly well, which demonstrates that the DBD plasma and ozone regeneration processes do not appear to modify the adsorption process, but to shift the equilibrium towards lower adsorption concentrations. Analyses of the weight loss of GAC show that O 3 regeneration has a lower weight loss than DBD plasma regeneration

  1. Reduced endogenous urinary total antioxidant power and its relation of plasma antioxidant activity of superoxide dismutase in individuals with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yui, Kunio; Tanuma, Nasoyuki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kawasaki, Yohei

    2017-08-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have impaired detoxification capacity. Investigating the neurobiological bases of impaired antioxidant capacity is thus a research priority in the pathophysiology of ASD. We measured the urinary levels of hexanoyl-lysine (HEL) which is a new oxidative stress biomarker, total antioxidant power (TAP) and DNA methylation biomarker 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and the plasma levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), which is a major antioxidant enzyme. We examined whether the urinary levels of these enzymes and biomarkers may be related to symptoms of social impairment in 20 individuals with ASD (meanage,11.1±5.2years) and 12 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (meanage,14.3±6.2years). Symptoms of social impairment were assessed using the Social Responsiveness Scale (SRS). The dietary TAP of the fruit juice, chocolate, cookies, biscuits, jam and marmalade were significantly higher in the ASD group than in the control group, although the intake of nutrients was not significantly different between the groups. The urinary TAP levels were significantly lower in the ASD group than in the control group. There were no significantly differences in urinary HEL and 8-OHdG levels between the ASD and control groups. The SRS scores were significantly higher in the ASD group than in the control group. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that urinary TAP levels and plasma SOD levels can differences in the biomarkers and the SRS scores between the ASD group and the control group. The endogenous antioxidant capacity may be deficient without altered urinary HEL and 8-OHdG levels in individuals with ASD. The plasma SOD levels may be related to reduced endogenous antioxidant capacity. Copyright © 2016 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Skouby, Sven O.; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P≤0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity......Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... by 59% (P0.05). The relative increase in FSAP activity was significantly higher in women carrying the 1601GG genotype (63%) than in women carrying 1601GA genotype (50%) (P=0.01) and was associated with an increased activation of FVII. In conclusion: OC use increases the plasma measures of FSAP...

  3. Elevated thrombopoietin in plasma of burned patients without and with sepsis enhances platelet activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupia, E; Bosco, O; Mariano, F; Dondi, A E; Goffi, A; Spatola, T; Cuccurullo, A; Tizzani, P; Brondino, G; Stella, M; Montrucchio, G

    2009-06-01

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is a humoral growth factor that does not induce platelet aggregation per se, but enhances platelet activation in response to several agonists. Circulating levels of TPO are increased in patients with sepsis and are mainly related to sepsis severity. To investigate the potential contribution of elevated TPO levels in platelet activation during burn injury complicated or not by sepsis. We studied 22 burned patients, 10 without and 12 with sepsis, and 10 healthy subjects. We measured plasma levels of TPO, as well as leukocyte-platelet binding and P-selectin expression. The priming activity of plasma from burned patients or healthy subjects on platelet aggregation and leukocyte-platelet binding, and the role of TPO in these effects were also studied in vitro. Burned patients without and with sepsis showed higher circulating TPO levels and increased monocyte-platelet binding compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, TPO levels, monocyte-platelet binding and P-selectin expression were significantly higher in burned patients with sepsis than in burned patients without sepsis. In vitro, plasma from burned patients without and with sepsis, but not from healthy subjects, primed platelet aggregation, monocyte-platelet binding and platelet P-selectin expression. The effect of plasma from burned patients with sepsis was significantly higher than that of plasma from burned patients without sepsis. An inhibitor of TPO prevented the priming effect of plasma from burned patients. Increased TPO levels may enhance platelet activation during burn injury and sepsis, potentially participating in the pathogenesis of multi-organ failure in these diseases.

  4. Genetic Polymorphisms in SOD (rs2070424, rs7880) and CAT (rs7943316, rs1001179) Enzymes Are Associated with Increased Body Fat Percentage and Visceral Fat in an Obese Population from Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Guerrero, César; Hernández-Chávez, Paulina; Romo-Palafox, Inés; Blanco-Melo, Grecia; Parra-Carriedo, Alicia; Pérez-Lizaur, Ana

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative disturbance is an important factor involved in the etiology of comorbidities associated with obesity. Genetic polymorphisms such as SOD1 -251A>G, SOD2 47 C>T, CAT -21A>T and CAT -262 C>T have been described to alter the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The aim of the present work was to analyze the association of the mentioned SNPs with obesity and their relationship with anthropometric and clinical variables in this group. The study included 416 Mexican women (208 normal weight, NW and 208 subjects with obesity, OB). Dietary intake, anthropometric, biochemical and clinical features were evaluated and then analyzed in function of the genotypes. The mutated carriers (GA+GG) of SOD -251 were significantly higher in the OB group (0.24) compared to the NW group (0.08). The other SNPs showed no differences compared with control group. When comparing carrier mutated subjects with obesity vs. wild-type obese participants with the SNPs SOD1 -251, SOD2 47 and CAT -262, the carriers showed a significantly (p G is associated with obesity independent of the presence of diabetes or dyslipidemia. Mutated obese carries of SOD1 -251, SOD2 47 and CAT -262 are associated with a higher distribution of fat in comparison with obese wild-type carriers. Copyright © 2016 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. TFE-induced local unfolding and fibrillation of SOD1: bridging the experiment and simulation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Prakash, Amresh; Pandey, Preeti; Lynn, Andrew M; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz

    2018-05-18

    Misfolding and aggregation of Cu, Zn Superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is involved in the neurodegenerative disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Many studies have shown that metal-depleted, monomeric form of SOD1 displays substantial local unfolding dynamics and is the precursor for aggregation. Here, we have studied the structure and dynamics of different apo monomeric SOD1 variants associated with unfolding and aggregation in aqueous trifluoroethanol (TFE) through experiments and simulation. TFE induces partially unfolded β-sheet-rich extended conformations in these SOD1 variants, which subsequently develops aggregates with fibril-like characteristics. Fibrillation was achieved more easily in disulfide-reduced monomeric SOD1 when compared with wild-type and mutant monomeric SOD1. At higher concentrations of TFE, a native-like structure with the increase in α-helical content was observed. The molecular dynamics simulation results illustrate distinct structural dynamics for different regions of SOD1 variants and show uniform local unfolding of β-strands. The strands protected by the zinc-binding and electrostatic loops were found to unfold first in 20% (v/v) TFE, leading to a partial unfolding of β-strands 4, 5, and 6 which are prone to aggregation. Our results thus shed light on the role of local unfolding and conformational dynamics in SOD1 misfolding and aggregation. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Molecular Cloning and Expression Analysis of Cu/Zn SOD Gene from Gynura bicolor DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide dismutase is an important antioxidant enzyme extensively existing in eukaryote, which scavenges reactive oxygen species (ROS and plays an essential role in stress tolerance of higher plants. A full-length cDNA encoding Cu/Zn SOD was cloned from leaves of Gynura bicolor DC. by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE. The full-length cDNA of Cu/Zn SOD is 924 bp and has a 681 bp open reading frame encoding 227 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that belonged to the plant SOD super family. Cu/Zn SODs of the Helianthus annuus, Mikania micrantha, and Solidago canadensis var. scabra all have 86% similarity to the G. bicolor Cu/Zn SOD. Analysis of the expression of Cu/Zn SOD under different treatments revealed that Cu/Zn SOD was a stress-responsive gene, especially to 1-MCP. It indicates that the Cu/Zn SOD gene would be an important gene in the resistance to stresses and will be helpful in providing evidence for future research on underlying molecular mechanism and choosing proper postharvest treatments for G. bicolor.

  7. Overexpression of CCS in G93A-SOD1 mice leads to accelerated neurological deficits with severe mitochondrial pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Marjatta; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Kawamata, Hibiki; Rajendran, Bhagya; Boyer, Philip J; Manfredi, Giovanni; Elliott, Jeffrey L

    2007-04-03

    Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been detected within spinal cord mitochondria of mutant SOD1 transgenic mice, a model of familial ALS. The copper chaperone for SOD1 (CCS) provides SOD1 with copper, facilitates the conversion of immature apo-SOD1 to a mature holoform, and influences in yeast the cytosolic/mitochondrial partitioning of SOD1. To determine how CCS affects G93A-SOD1-induced disease, we generated transgenic mice overexpressing CCS and crossed them to G93A-SOD1 or wild-type SOD1 transgenic mice. Both CCS transgenic mice and CCS/wild-type-SOD1 dual transgenic mice are neurologically normal. In contrast, CCS/G93A-SOD1 dual transgenic mice develop accelerated neurological deficits, with a mean survival of 36 days, compared with 242 days for G93A-SOD1 mice. Immuno-EM and subcellular fractionation studies on the spinal cord show that G93A-SOD1 is enriched within mitochondria in the presence of CCS overexpression. Our results indicate that CCS overexpression in G93A-SOD1 mice produces severe mitochondrial pathology and accelerates disease course.

  8. Strength and leak testing of plasma activated bonded interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, M.M.; Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De

    2002-01-01

    on detection of changes in membrane deflections. The detection limit for leak was 8E-13 mbar l/s. For comparison, strength and leak tests were also performed with regular fusion bonded wafers annealed at 1100 degreesC. The PAB was found to withstand post-processing steps such as RCA cleaning, 24 h in de......-ionised water (DIW), 24 h in 2.5% HF, 24 h in acetone and 60 s in a resist developer. By analysing the thin silicon oxide present on the surfaces to be bonded with optical methods, the influence of pre-cleaning and activation process parameters was investigated....

  9. An analysis of plasma ion toroidal rotation during large amplitude MHD activity in JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snipes, J.A.; Esch, H.P.L. de; Lazzaro, E.; Stork, D.; Hellermann, M. von; Galvao, R.; Hender, T.C.; Zasche, D.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed study of plasma ion toroidal rotation in JET during large amplitude MHD activity has revealed a strong viscous force that couples plasma ions to MHD modes. Depending on the MHD modes present, this force can couple across all of the plasma cross section, across only the central region, roughly within the q=1 surface, or across only the outer region outside the q=1.5 surface. The force acts to flatten the ion toroidal rotation frequency profile, measured by the JET active charge exchange spectroscopy diagnostic, across the coupled region of plasma. The frequency of rotation in this region agrees with the MHD oscillation frequency measured by magnetic pick-up coils at the wall. The strength of the force between the ions and modes becomes evident during high power NBI when the mode locks and drags the ion toroidal rotation frequency to zero, within the errors of the measurements. The present theories of plasma rotation either ignore MHD effects entirely, consider only moderate n toroidal field ripple, or low n ripple effects. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs

  10. Hematology, plasma biochemistry, and tissue enzyme activities of invasive red lionfish captured off North Carolina, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, E T; Stoskopf, M K; Morris, J A; Clarke, E O; Harms, C A

    2010-12-01

    The red lionfish Pterois volitans is important not only in the aquarium trade but also as an invasive species in the western Atlantic. Introduced to waters off the southeastern coast of the United States, red lionfish have rapidly spread along much of the East Coast and throughout Bermuda, the Bahamas, and much of the Caribbean. Hematology and plasma biochemistry were evaluated in red lionfish captured from the offshore waters of North Carolina to establish baseline parameters for individual and population health assessment. Blood smears were evaluated for total and differential white blood cell counts, and routine clinical biochemical profiles were performed on plasma samples. To improve the interpretive value of routine plasma biochemistry profiles, tissue enzyme activities (alkaline phosphatase [ALP], alanine aminotransferase [ALT], aspartate aminotransferase [AST], gamma-glutamyl transferase [GGT], lactate dehydrogenase [LD], and creatine kinase [CK]) were analyzed from liver, kidney, skeletal muscle, gastrointestinal tract, and heart tissues from five fish. The hematological and plasma biochemical values were similar to those of other marine teleosts except that the estimated white blood cell counts were much lower than those routinely found in many species. The tissue enzyme activity findings suggest that plasma LD, CK, and AST offer clinical relevance in the assessment of red lionfish.

  11. The feed gas composition determines the degree of physical plasma-induced platelet activation for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekeschus, Sander; Brüggemeier, Janik; Hackbarth, Christine; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Partecke, Lars-Ivo; van der Linde, Julia

    2018-03-01

    Cold atmospheric (physical) plasma has long been suggested to be a useful tool for blood coagulation. However, the clinical applicability of this approach has not been addressed sufficiently. We have previously demonstrated the ability of a clinically accepted atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet (kINPen® MED) to coagulate liver incisions in mice with similar performance compared to the gold standard electrocauterization. We could show that plasma-mediated blood coagulation was dependent on platelet activation. In the present work, we extended on this by investigating kINPen®-mediated platelet activation in anticoagulated human donor blood ex vivo. With focus on establishing high-throughput, multi-parametric platelet activation assays and performing argon feed gas parameter studies we achieved the following results: (i) plasma activated platelets in heparinized but not in EDTA-anticoagulated blood; (ii) plasma decreased total platelet counts but increased numbers of microparticles; (iii) plasma elevated the expression of several surface activation markers on platelets (CD62P, CD63, CD69, and CD41/61); (iv) in platelet activation, wet and dry argon plasma outperformed feed gas admixtures with oxygen and/or nitrogen; (v) plasma-mediated platelet activation was accompanied by platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation is a necessary requirement for blood clot formation. These findings are important to further elucidate molecular details and clinical feasibility of cold physical plasma-mediated blood coagulation.

  12. Phosphine Plasma Activation of α-Fe 2 O 3 for High Energy Asymmetric Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng; Xia, Chuan; Emwas, Abdul-Hamid M.; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Miao, Xiaohe; Alshareef, Husam N.

    2018-01-01

    , the asymmetric supercapacitor devices based on plasma-activated Fe2O3 anodes and electrodeposited MnO2 cathodes can achieve a high stack energy density of 0.42 mWh cm-3 at a stack power density of 10.3 mW cm-3 along with good stability (88% capacitance retention

  13. Dispersion formulae for waves in a magneto-active relativistic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, P.; Mohanty, J.N.

    1980-01-01

    Dispersion formulae are derived for the transverse waves propagating through a collisionless magneto-active plasma in the direction of the magnetic field valid for relativistic as well as non-relativistic temperatures. Wave propagation under various limiting conditions of temperatures and magnetic field are discussed. (author)

  14. Dispersion formulae for waves in a magneto-active relativistic plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misra, P. (Ravenshaw Coll., Cuttack (India)); Mohanty, J.N. (F.M. College, Balasore (India). Dept. of Physics)

    1980-12-01

    Dispersion formulae are derived for the transverse waves propagating through a collisionless magneto-active plasma in the direction of the magnetic field valid for relativistic as well as non-relativistic temperatures. Wave propagation under various limiting conditions of temperatures and magnetic field are discussed.

  15. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-type I: its plasma determinants and relation with cardiovascular risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, T.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Schouten, E.G.; Kluft, C.

    2004-01-01

    The habitual level of PAI-1 is influenced by many factors, of which obesity and insulin resistance are the most important. It is possible to reduce plasma PAI-1 by changes in life style, e.g. weight reduction and physical activity. Data on potential interactions between environmental and metabolic

  16. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petar, K.; Marinko, V.; Saveta, M.; Miljenko, S.

    2004-01-01

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  17. Continuous reduction of plasma paraoxonase activity with increasing dialysis vintage in hemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Bernhard F; Holzhausen, Helge; Tepel, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Plasma paraoxonase (PON) is an enzyme that hydrolyzes organic phosphate and aromatic carboxylic acid esters. Reduced activity is associated with early events of atherogenesis. The relevance of PON phenotypes is not well characterized in hemodialysis patients. In a cross-sectional study we measure...

  18. Influence of thyroid disorders on the kidney expression and plasma activity of aminopeptidase A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangensteen, R; Segarra, A B; Ramirez-Sanchez, M; Gasparo, M De; Dominguez, G; Banegas, I; Vargas, F; Vives, F; Prieto, I

    2015-04-01

    Thyroid disorders may affect blood pressure and renal function modifying factors of the plasmatic and kidney renin-angiotensin system such as aminopeptidase A (AP A) that metabolizes angiotensin II to angiotensin III. We investigated the expression of AP A in the kidney, as well as its enzymatic activity in the plasma of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid adult male rats. Hyperthyroidism was induced by daily subcutaneous injections of tetraiodothyronine. Hypothyroid rats were obtained by administration of methimazole in drinking water. Expression of AP A was determined by Western blot analysis. Plasma AP A activity was measured fluorometrically using glutamyl-β-naphthylamide as substrate. While hyperthyroid rats exhibited lower levels of plasma AP A activity than controls, the kidney of hyperthyroid animals expressed significantly higher AP A than controls and hypothyroid animals. A discrepancy between the high expression of AP A in kidney of hyperthyroid rats and the low activity of AP A measured in plasma and kidney of hyperthyroid animals was found. The posttranslational influence of environmental biochemical factors may be in part responsible for that divergence.

  19. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor forms in plasma as markers of atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olson, Fredrik J; Thurison, Tine; Ryndel, Mikael

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: To test if circulating forms of the soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) are potential biomarkers of plaque vulnerability. DESIGN AND METHODS:: Plasma concentrations of suPAR(I-III), suPAR(II-III) and uPAR(I) were measured by time-resolved fluorescence immuno...

  20. Maximization and handling of sod peat loading. Final report; Palaturpeen kuormituksen maksimointi ja kaesittely. Loppuraportti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erkkilae, A.; Nurmi, H.; Paappanen, T.; Frilander, P.

    1996-11-01

    The objective of this two year (1994-1995) project was to improve especially the efficiency of sod peat production, carried out using spreading wagon method, by increasing the sod peat load set for the field to value 20 kgDgm{sup 2} (original value 10-14 kgDgm{sup 2}), and by studying and developing a collection method for ridging and ridge processing, suitable for high-loads. The research was emphasized to laboratory tests, but some field test were also made. Laboratory test equipment, to be mounted to peat machine simulator, were constructed, and picking-up of sod peat was tested in laboratory. It was possible to increase the sod peat load most accurately to 20 kgDgm{sup 2} by using wave-like sod peat. The picking device of the ridger consisted of a grid, standing the sod up, moving on the field. Above this there is a rotating truncheon coil which transfers the sod along the grid to further processing. The share of the fines by weight, loosened from the field during picking up of the sod was 0.5 % of the sod-mass, and the losses were 11 % of the number of the sod. At the driving speed 2.9 km/h the suitable coil rotation speed was about 20 r/min, hence the rotation speed of the truncheons was twice as high as the driving speed. A picking device, which consisted of two vertical truncheon-coils rotating into opposite directions, was constructed for collection of sod in the ridge. The operation of the device appeared to be good. While picking-up the sod in the ridge on the average 1.3 % of fines was loosened from the field with respect to the sod-mass. 41 % of the fines mixed with the ridge was sieved. The losses were on the average 3.9 % of the sod-mass. The highest measured power demand was 12 kW as the driving speed was 3.0 km/h. Collection method developed within this project, requires more field tests before commercial use

  1. Characterization of a dielectric barrier discharge in contact with liquid and producing a plasma activated water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neretti, G.; Taglioli, M.; Colonna, G.; Borghi, C. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a low-temperature plasma source for the generation of plasma activated water (PAW) is developed and characterized. The plasma reactor was operated by means of an atmospheric-pressure air dielectric barrier discharge (DBD). The plasma generated is in contact with the water surface and is able to chemically activate the liquid medium. Electrodes were supplied by both sinusoidal and nanosecond-pulsed voltage waveforms. Treatment times were varied from 2 to 12 min to increase the energy dose released to the water by the DBD plasma. The physics of the discharge was studied by means of electrical, spectroscopic and imaging diagnostics. The interaction between the plasma and the liquid was investigated as well. Temperature and composition of the treated water were detected. Images of the discharges showed a filamentary behaviour in the sinusoidal case and a more homogeneous behaviour in the nanosecond-pulsed one. The images and the electrical measurements allowed to evaluate an average electron number density of about 4  ×  1019 and 6  ×  1017 m-3 for the sinusoidal and nanosecond-pulsed discharges respectively. Electron temperatures in the range of 2.1÷2.6 eV were measured by using spectroscopic diagnostics. Rotational temperatures in the range of 318-475 K were estimated by fitting synthetic spectra with the measured ones. Water temperature and pH level did not change significantly after the exposure to the DBD plasma. The production of ozone and hydrogen peroxide within the water was enhanced by increasing the plasma treatment time and the energy dose. Numerical simulations of the nanosecond-pulsed discharge were performed by using a self-consistent coupling of state-to-state kinetics of the air mixture with the Boltzmann equation of free electron kinetics. Temporal evolution of the electron energy distribution function shows departure from the Maxwellian distribution especially during the afterglow phase of the discharge. When

  2. Acute Exercise Increases Plasma Total Antioxidant Status and Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Untrained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Berzosa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant defences are essential for cellular redox regulation. Since free-radical production may be enhanced by physical activity, herein, we evaluated the effect of acute exercise on total antioxidant status (TAS and the plasma activities of catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase and its possible relation to oxidative stress resulting from exercise. Healthy untrained male subjects (=34 performed three cycloergometric tests, including maximal and submaximal episodes. Venous blood samples were collected before and immediately after each different exercise. TAS and enzyme activities were assessed by spectrophotometry. An increase of the antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma was detected after both maximal and submaximal exercise periods. Moreover, under our experimental conditions, exercise also led to an augmentation of TAS levels. These findings are consistent with the idea that acute exercise may play a beneficial role because of its ability to increase antioxidant defense mechanisms through a redox sensitive pathway.

  3. The effects of diet and physical activity on plasma homovanillic acid in normal human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, K S; Mohs, R C; Davis, K L

    1983-03-01

    This study examines the effect of diet and moderate physical activity on plasma levels of the dopamine metabolite homovanillic acid (HVA) in healthy young males. At weekly intervals, subjects were fed four isocaloric meals: polycose (pure carbohydrate), sustecal, low monoamine, and high monoamine. Moderate physical activity consisted of 30 minutes of exercise on a bicycle ergometer. The effect of diet on plasma HVA (pHVA) was highly significant. Compared to the polycose meal, the high monoamine meal significantly increased pHVA. Moderate physical activity also significantly increased pHVA. Future clinical studies using pHVA in man as an index of brain dopamine function should control for the effects of both diet and physical activity.

  4. Present status of plasma-wall interactions research and materials development activities in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-08-01

    It is well known in the fusion engineering community that the plasma confinement performance in magnetic fusion devices is strongly affected by edge-plasma interactions with surface components. These plasma-material interactions (PMI) include fuel particle recycling and impurity generation both during normal and off-normal operation. To understand and then to control PMI effects, considerable effort has been made, particularly over the last decade in US, supported by Department of Energy, Division of Development and Technology. Also, because plasma-facing components are generally expected to receive significant amount of heat due to plasma bombardment and run-away electrons, materials must tolerate high-heat fluxes (HHF). The HHF-component research has been conducted in parallel with PMI research. One strong motivation for these research activities is that DT-burning experiments are currently planned in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR) in early 1990s. Several different but mutually complementary approaches have been taken in the PMI+HHF research. The first approach is to conduct PMI experiments using toroidal fusion devices such as TFTR. The second one is to simulate elemental processes involved in PMI using ion beams and electron beams, etc. The last one but not least is to use non-tokamak plasma facilities. Along with these laboratory activities, new materials have been developed and evaluated from the PMI+HHF point of view. In this paper, several major PMI+HHF research facilities in US and their activities are briefly reviewed. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs

  5. A mutation in the dynein heavy chain gene compensates for energy deficit of mutant SOD1 mice and increases potentially neuroprotective IGF-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larmet Yves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by a progressive loss of motor neurons. ALS patients, as well as animal models such as mice overexpressing mutant SOD1s, are characterized by increased energy expenditure. In mice, this hypermetabolism leads to energy deficit and precipitates motor neuron degeneration. Recent studies have shown that mutations in the gene encoding the dynein heavy chain protein are able to extend lifespan of mutant SOD1 mice. It remains unknown whether the protection offered by these dynein mutations relies on a compensation of energy metabolism defects. Results SOD1(G93A mice were crossbred with mice harboring the dynein mutant Cramping allele (Cra/+ mice. Dynein mutation increased adipose stores in compound transgenic mice through increasing carbohydrate oxidation and sparing lipids. Metabolic changes that occurred in double transgenic mice were accompanied by the normalization of the expression of key mRNAs in the white adipose tissue and liver. Furthermore, Dynein Cra mutation rescued decreased post-prandial plasma triglycerides and decreased non esterified fatty acids upon fasting. In SOD1(G93A mice, the dynein Cra mutation led to increased expression of IGF-1 in the liver, increased systemic IGF-1 and, most importantly, to increased spinal IGF-1 levels that are potentially neuroprotective. Conclusions These findings suggest that the protection against SOD1(G93A offered by the Cramping mutation in the dynein gene is, at least partially, mediated by a reversal in energy deficit and increased IGF-1 availability to motor neurons.

  6. An emerging role for misfolded wild-type SOD1 in sporadic ALS pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S Rotunno

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder that targets motor neurons, leading to paralysis and death within a few years of disease onset. While several genes have been linked to the inheritable, or familial, form of ALS, much less is known about the cause(s of sporadic ALS, which accounts for approximately 90% of ALS cases. Due to the clinical similarities between familial and sporadic ALS, it is plausible that both forms of the disease converge on a common pathway and, therefore, involve common factors. Recent evidence suggests the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 protein to be one such factor that is common to both sporadic and familial ALS. In 1993, mutations were uncovered in SOD1 that represent the first known genetic cause of familial ALS. While the exact mechanism of mutant-SOD1 toxicity is still not known today, most evidence points to a gain of toxic function that stems, at least in part, from the propensity of this protein to misfold. In the wild-type SOD1 protein, non-genetic perturbations such as metal depletion, disruption of the quaternary structure, and oxidation, can also induce SOD1 to misfold. In fact, these aforementioned post-translational modifications cause wild-type SOD1 to adopt a toxic conformation that is similar to familial ALS-linked SOD1 variants. These observations, together with the detection of misfolded wild-type SOD1 within human post-mortem sporadic ALS samples, have been used to support the controversial hypothesis that misfolded forms of wild-type SOD1 contribute to sporadic ALS pathogenesis. In this review, we present data from the literature that both support and contradict this hypothesis. We also discuss SOD1 as a potential therapeutic target for both familial and sporadic ALS.

  7. Effects of Dietary Lycopene Supplementation on Plasma Lipid Profile, Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense System in Feedlot Bamei Lamb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqin Jiang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Lycopene, a red non-provitamin A carotenoid, mainly presenting in tomato and tomato byproducts, has the highest antioxidant activity among carotenoids because of its high number of conjugated double bonds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of lycopene supplementation in the diet on plasma lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense system in feedlot lamb. Twenty-eight Bamei male lambs (90 days old were divided into four groups and fed a basal diet (LP0, 40:60 roughage: concentrate or the basal diet supplemented with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg lycopene. After 120 days of feeding, all lambs were slaughtered and sampled. Dietary lycopene supplementation significantly reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol (p0.05. The levels of TG (p<0.001 and LDL-C (p<0.001 were decreased with the feeding time extension, and both showed a linear trend (p<0.01. Malondialdehyde level in plasma and liver decreased linearly with the increase of lycopene inclusion levels (p<0.01. Dietary lycopene intake linearly increased the plasma antioxidant vitamin E level (p<0.001, total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC, p<0.05, and activities of catalase (CAT, p<0.01, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, p<0.05 and superoxide dismutase (SOD, p<0.05. The plasma T-AOC and activities of GSH-Px and SOD decreased with the extension of the feeding time. In liver, dietary lycopene inclusion showed similar antioxidant effects with respect to activities of CAT (p<0.05, linearly and SOD (p<0.001, linearly. Therefore, it was concluded that lycopene supplementation improved the antioxidant status of the lamb and optimized the plasma lipid profile, the dosage of 200 mg lycopene/kg feed might be desirable for growing lambs to prevent environment stress and maintain normal physiological metabolism.

  8. Effect of well-established plasma treatment technology on some physiological characteristics in maize leaves during seedling stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Hongxiang; Fang Xiangqian; Bian Shaofeng; Zhang Lihua; Tan Guobo; Meng Xiangmeng; Yan Weiping; Liu Yaliang; Sun Ning

    2010-01-01

    In order to provide theoretical references and technical support for application of plasma treatment technology in agriculture, the seeds of maize were treated by well-established plasma treatment technology, then the changes of physiological characteristics of maize leaves during seedling stage were studied. The results indicated that the stress resistance of maize was improved by plasma treatment. The SOD, POD and CAT activities, soluble protein content and soluble sugar content of leaves at two-leave stage, four-leave stage, six-leave stage and eight-leave stage treated by plasma were higher than that of CK, but the MDA content was lower than CK. Although NR activity in leaves at twoleave stage and four-leave stage was slightly lower than CK, but higher than CK at six-leave stage (26.81%) and eightleaves stage (26.75%). Plasma treatment enhanced the nitrogen metabolism capacity, and this tendency was increased remarkable with the growth stages processes. (authors)

  9. Knocking down metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 improves survival and disease progression in the SOD1(G93A) mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, Marco; Giribaldi, Francesco; Melone, Marcello; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Musante, Ilaria; Carminati, Enrico; Rossi, Pia I A; Vergani, Laura; Voci, Adriana; Conti, Fiorenzo; Puliti, Aldamaria; Bonanno, Giambattista

    2014-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset fatal neurodegenerative disease reflecting degeneration of upper and lower motoneurons (MNs). The cause of ALS and the mechanisms of neuronal death are still largely obscure, thus impairing the establishment of efficacious therapies. Glutamate (Glu)-mediated excitotoxicity plays a major role in MN degeneration in ALS. We recently demonstrated that the activation of Group I metabotropic Glu autoreceptors, belonging to both type 1 and type 5 receptors (mGluR1 and mGluR5), at glutamatergic spinal cord nerve terminals, produces excessive Glu release in mice over-expressing human superoxide-dismutase carrying the G93A point mutation (SOD1(G93A)), a widely used animal model of human ALS. To establish whether these receptors are implicated in ALS, we generated mice expressing half dosage of mGluR1 in the SOD1(G93A) background (SOD1(G93A)Grm1(crv4/+)), by crossing the SOD1(G93A) mutant mouse with the Grm1(crv4/+) mouse, lacking mGluR1 because of a spontaneous recessive mutation. SOD1(G93A)Grm1(crv4/+) mice showed prolonged survival probability, delayed pathology onset, slower disease progression and improved motor performances compared to SOD1(G93A) mice. These effects were associated to reduction of mGluR5 expression, enhanced number of MNs, decreased astrocyte and microglia activation, normalization of metallothionein and catalase mRNA expression, reduced mitochondrial damage, and decrease of abnormal Glu release in spinal cord of SOD1(G93A)Grm1(crv4/+)compared to SOD1(G93A) mice. These results demonstrate that a lower constitutive level of mGluR1 has a significant positive impact on mice with experimental ALS, thus providing the rationale for future pharmacological approaches to ALS by selectively blocking Group I metabotropic Glu receptors. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butakov Evgenii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  11. Investigation of air gasification of micronized coal, mechanically activated using the plasma control of the process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakov, Evgenii; Burdukov, Anatoly; Chernetskiy, Mikhail; Kuznetsov, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Combination of the processes of coal combustion and gasification into a single technology of mechano-chemical and plasma-chemical activation is of a considerable scientific and technological interest. Enhancement of coal reactivity at their grinding with mechanical activation is associated with an increase in the reaction rate of carbon material, and at plasma-chemical effect, the main is an increase in reactivity of the oxidizing agent caused by the high plasma temperatures of atomic oxygen. The process of gasification was studied on the 1-MW setup with tangential scroll supply of pulverized coal-air mixture and cylindrical reaction chamber. Coal ground by the standard boiler mill is fed to the disintegrator, then, it is sent to the scroll inlet of the burner-reactor with the transport air. Pulverized coal is ignited by the plasmatron of 10-kW power. In experiments on air gasification of micronized coal, carried out at the temperature in the reaction chamber of 1000-1200°C and air excess α = 0.3-1, the data on CO concentration of 11% and H2 concentration of up to 6% were obtained. Air and air-steam gasification of mechanically-activated micronized coals with plasma control was calculated using SigmaFlow software package.

  12. Non-thermal hydrogen plasma processing effectively increases the antibacterial activity of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Zhigang; Ma, Yulong; Zhu, Zhongjie; Zhao, Hongwei; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qing

    2018-01-01

    Graphene-based materials (GMs) are promising antibacterial agents which provide an alternative route to treat pathogenic bacteria with resistance to conventional antibiotics. To further improve their antibacterial activity, many methods have been developed to functionalize the GMs with chemicals. However, the application of additional chemicals may pose potential risks to the environment and human being. Herein, a radio-frequency-driven inductively coupled non-thermal hydrogen plasma was used to treat and reduce graphene oxide (GO) without using any other chemicals, and we found that the plasma-reduced GO (prGO) is with significantly higher bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli. The mechanism of the increased antibacterial activity of prGO is due to that plasma processing breaks down the GO sheets into smaller layers with more rough surface defects, which can thus induce more destructive membrane damages to the bacteria. This work sets another good example, showing that plasma processing is a green and low-cost alternative for GM modification for biomedical applications.

  13. 2001 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2001 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada (fusao), do Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2002-07-01

    The year 2001 activities of the controlled thermonuclear fusion research line of the Plasma Associated Laboratory at the National Institute for Space Research - Brazil are reported. The report approaches the staff, participation in congresses, goals for the year 2002 and papers on Tokamak plasmas, plasma diagnostic, bootstraps, plasma equilibrium and diagnostic.

  14. Active Detectors for Plasma Soft X-Ray Detection at PALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Granja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes the work carried out for an experimental study of low-energy nuclear excitation by laser-produced plasma at the PALS Prague laser facility. We describe the adaptation and shielding of single-quantum active radiation detectors developed at IEAP CTU Prague to facilitate their operation inside the laser interaction chamber in the vicinity of the plasma target. The goal of this effort is direct real-time single-quantum detection of plasma soft X-ray radiation with energy above a few keV and subsequent identification of the decay of the excited nuclear states via low-energy gamma rays in a highly radiative environment with strong electromagnetic interference.

  15. ACTIVE FILTER HARDWARE DESIGN and PERFORMANCE FOR THE DIII-D PLASMA CONTROL SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SELLERS, D.; FERRON, J.R; WALKER, M.L; BROESCH, J.D

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 The digital plasma control system (PCS), currently in operation on the DIII-D tokamak, requires inputs from a large number of sensors. Due to the nature of the digitizers and the relative noisy environment from which these signals are derived, each of the 32 signals must be conditioned via an active filter. Two different types of filters, Chebyshev and Bessel with fixed frequencies: 100 Hz Bessel was used for filtering the motional Stark effect diagnostic data. 800 Hz Bessel was designed to filter plasma control data and 1200 Hz Chebyshev is used with closed loop control of choppers. The performance of the plasma control system is greatly influenced by how well the actual filter responses match the software model used in the control system algorithms. This paper addresses the various issues facing the designer in matching the electrical design with the theoretical

  16. Na+/H+ Exchange Activity in the Plasma Membrane of Arabidopsis1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Quan-Sheng; Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Schumaker, Karen S.

    2003-01-01

    In plants, Na+/H+ exchangers in the plasma membrane are critical for growth in high levels of salt, removing toxic Na+ from the cytoplasm by transport out of the cell. The molecular identity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger in Arabidopsis (SOS1) has recently been determined. In this study, immunological analysis provided evidence that SOS1 localizes to the plasma membrane of leaves and roots. To characterize the transport activity of this protein, purified plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from leaves of Arabidopsis. Na+/H+ exchange activity, monitored as the ability of Na to dissipate an established pH gradient, was absent in plants grown without salt. However, exchange activity was induced when plants were grown in 250 mm NaCl and increased with prolonged salt exposure up to 8 d. H+-coupled exchange was specific for Na, because chloride salts of other monovalent cations did not dissipate the pH gradient. Na+/H+ exchange activity was dependent on Na (substrate) concentration, and kinetic analysis indicated that the affinity (apparent Km) of the transporter for Na+ is 22.8 mm. Data from two experimental approaches supports electroneutral exchange (one Na+ exchanged for one proton): (a) no change in membrane potential was measured during the exchange reaction, and (b) Na+/H+ exchange was unaffected by the presence or absence of a membrane potential. Results from this research provide a framework for future studies into the regulation of the plant plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger and its relative contribution to the maintenance of cellular Na+ homeostasis during plant growth in salt. PMID:12805632

  17. Na+/H+ exchange activity in the plasma membrane of Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Quan-Sheng; Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Schumaker, Karen S

    2003-06-01

    In plants, Na+/H+ exchangers in the plasma membrane are critical for growth in high levels of salt, removing toxic Na+ from the cytoplasm by transport out of the cell. The molecular identity of a plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger in Arabidopsis (SOS1) has recently been determined. In this study, immunological analysis provided evidence that SOS1 localizes to the plasma membrane of leaves and roots. To characterize the transport activity of this protein, purified plasma membrane vesicles were isolated from leaves of Arabidopsis. Na+/H+ exchange activity, monitored as the ability of Na to dissipate an established pH gradient, was absent in plants grown without salt. However, exchange activity was induced when plants were grown in 250 mm NaCl and increased with prolonged salt exposure up to 8 d. H+-coupled exchange was specific for Na, because chloride salts of other monovalent cations did not dissipate the pH gradient. Na+/H+ exchange activity was dependent on Na (substrate) concentration, and kinetic analysis indicated that the affinity (apparent Km) of the transporter for Na+ is 22.8 mm. Data from two experimental approaches supports electroneutral exchange (one Na+ exchanged for one proton): (a) no change in membrane potential was measured during the exchange reaction, and (b) Na+/H+ exchange was unaffected by the presence or absence of a membrane potential. Results from this research provide a framework for future studies into the regulation of the plant plasma membrane Na+/H+ exchanger and its relative contribution to the maintenance of cellular Na+ homeostasis during plant growth in salt.

  18. Monitoring the postpartum ovarian activity of Luxi cattle by use of plasma progesterone solid phase RIA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiaorong; Wang Jianchen; Liu Zhixi; Wu Hao; Zhang Dequn

    1992-01-01

    The blood samples were collected from 22 Luxi cattle, aged 2.5-8 years, from calving day (day 0) to 80 days postpartum at 4-day interval. Progesterone (P 4 ) levels in plasma were determined by solid phase RIA. The results are summarized as follows: P 4 levels in plasma of the cows remained at 0.34 +- 0.04-0.55 +- 0.06 ng/ml before 10.6 +- 3.9-13.6 +- 4.4 days postpartum, then they began to rise and the ovarian activity appeared. The plasma P 4 profiles of the cows can be classified into 4 types, characterized by (I) 3 normal cycles; (II) a short cycle followed by 2 normal cycles; (III) a normal cycle followed by a short cycle and a normal cycle; and (IV) some irregular cycles respectively. The lowest and the highest P 4 levels were 0.45 +- 0.15-0.60 +- 0.38 and 2.65 +- 1.95-4.17 +- 2.35 ng/ml respectively in luteal cycles. It is also concluded that determining plasma P 4 concentrations at 4-day interval can precisely identify the oestrus cycles of cows, and that the solid phase P 4 -RIA have practical value for determination of plasma P 4 concentration

  19. Comparison of digoxin concentration in plastic serum tubes with clot activator and heparinized plasma tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dukić, Lora; Simundić, Ana-Maria; Malogorski, Davorin

    2014-01-01

    Sample type recommended by the manufacturer for the digoxin Abbott assay is either serum collected in glass tubes or plasma (sodium heparin, lithium heparin, citrate, EDTA or oxalate as anticoagulant) collected in plastic tubes. In our hospital samples are collected in plastic tubes. Our hypothesis was that the serum sample collected in plastic serum tube can be used interchangeably with plasma sample for measurement of digoxin concentration. Our aim was verification of plastic serum tubes for determination of digoxin concentration. Concentration of digoxin was determined simultaneously in 26 venous blood plasma (plastic Vacuette, LH Lithium heparin) and serum (plastic Vacuette, Z Serum Clot activator; both Greiner Bio-One GmbH, Kremsmünster, Austria) samples, on Abbott AxSYM analyzer using the original Abbott Digoxin III assay (Abbott, Wiesbaden, Germany). Tube comparability was assessed using the Passing Bablok regression and Bland-Altman plot. Serum and plasma digoxin concentrations are comparable. Passing Bablok intercept (0.08 [95% CI = -0.10 to 0.20]) and slope (0.99 [95% CI = 0.92 to 1.11]) showed there is no constant or proportional error. Blood samples drawn in plastic serum tubes and plastic plasma tubes can be interchangeably used for determination of digoxin concentration.

  20. TWO-DIMENSIONAL CELLULAR AUTOMATON MODEL FOR THE EVOLUTION OF ACTIVE REGION CORONAL PLASMAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    López Fuentes, Marcelo [Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio, CONICET-UBA, CC. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Klimchuk, James A., E-mail: lopezf@iafe.uba.ar [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    We study a two-dimensional cellular automaton (CA) model for the evolution of coronal loop plasmas. The model is based on the idea that coronal loops are made of elementary magnetic strands that are tangled and stressed by the displacement of their footpoints by photospheric motions. The magnetic stress accumulated between neighbor strands is released in sudden reconnection events or nanoflares that heat the plasma. We combine the CA model with the Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops model to compute the response of the plasma to the heating events. Using the known response of the X-Ray Telescope on board Hinode, we also obtain synthetic data. The model obeys easy-to-understand scaling laws relating the output (nanoflare energy, temperature, density, intensity) to the input parameters (field strength, strand length, critical misalignment angle). The nanoflares have a power-law distribution with a universal slope of –2.5, independent of the input parameters. The repetition frequency of nanoflares, expressed in terms of the plasma cooling time, increases with strand length. We discuss the implications of our results for the problem of heating and evolution of active region coronal plasmas.

  1. Study of magnetic field expansion using a plasma generator for space radiation active protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Xianghong; Jia Shaoxia; Wan Jun; Wang Shouguo; Xu Feng; Bai Yanqiang; Liu Hongtao; Jiang Rui; Ma Hongbo

    2013-01-01

    There are many active protecting methods including Electrostatic Fields, Confined Magnetic Field, Unconfined Magnetic Field and Plasma Shielding etc. for defending the high-energy solar particle events (SPE) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) in deep space exploration. The concept of using cold plasma to expand a magnetic field is the best one of all possible methods so far. The magnetic field expansion caused by plasma can improve its protective efficiency of space particles. One kind of plasma generator has been developed and installed into the cylindrical permanent magnet in the eccentric. A plasma stream is produced using a helical-shaped antenna driven by a radio-frequency (RF) power supply of 13.56 MHz, which exits from both sides of the magnet and makes the magnetic field expand on one side. The discharging belts phenomenon is similar to the Earth's radiation belt, but the mechanism has yet to be understood. A magnetic probe is used to measure the magnetic field expansion distributions, and the results indicate that the magnetic field intensity increases under higher increments of the discharge power. (authors)

  2. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jets: Effect of gas flow, active species, and snake-like bullet propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, S.; Wang, Z.; Huang, Q.; Tan, X.; Lu, X. [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China); Ostrikov, K. [CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, PO Box 218, Lindfield NSW 2070 (Australia); School of Physics, University of Sydney, Sydney NSW 2006 (Australia); State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei 430074 (China)

    2013-02-15

    Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jets have recently attracted enormous interest owing to numerous applications in plasma biology, health care, medicine, and nanotechnology. A dedicated study of the interaction between the upstream and downstream plasma plumes revealed that the active species (electrons, ions, excited OH, metastable Ar, and nitrogen-related species) generated by the upstream plasma plume enhance the propagation of the downstream plasma plume. At gas flows exceeding 2 l/min, the downstream plasma plume is longer than the upstream plasma plume. Detailed plasma diagnostics and discharge species analysis suggest that this effect is due to the electrons and ions that are generated by the upstream plasma and flow into the downstream plume. This in turn leads to the relatively higher electron density in the downstream plasma. Moreover, high-speed photography reveals a highly unusual behavior of the plasma bullets, which propagate in snake-like motions, very differently from the previous reports. This behavior is related to the hydrodynamic instability of the gas flow, which results in non-uniform distributions of long-lifetime active species in the discharge tube and of surface charges on the inner surface of the tube.

  3. Exercise-intensity dependent alterations in plasma redox status do not reflect skeletal muscle redox-sensitive protein signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Lewan; Trewin, Adam; Levinger, Itamar; Shaw, Christopher S; Stepto, Nigel K

    2018-04-01

    Redox homeostasis and redox-sensitive protein signaling play a role in exercise-induced adaptation. The effects of sprint-interval exercise (SIE), high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) and continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CMIE), on post-exercise plasma redox status are unclear. Furthermore, whether post-exercise plasma redox status reflects skeletal muscle redox-sensitive protein signaling is unknown. In a randomized crossover design, eight healthy adults performed a cycling session of HIIE (5×4min at 75% W max ), SIE (4×30s Wingate's), and CMIE work-matched to HIIE (30min at 50% of W max ). Plasma hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and catalase activity were measured immediately post, 1h, 2h and 3h post-exercise. Plasma redox status biomarkers were correlated with phosphorylation of skeletal muscle p38-MAPK, JNK, NF-κB, and IκBα protein content immediately and 3h post-exercise. Plasma catalase activity was greater with SIE (56.6±3.8Uml -1 ) compared to CMIE (42.7±3.2, pexercise plasma TBARS and SOD activity significantly (pexercise protocol. A significant positive correlation was detected between plasma catalase activity and skeletal muscle p38-MAPK phosphorylation 3h post-exercise (r=0.40, p=0.04). No other correlations were detected (all p>0.05). Low-volume SIE elicited greater post-exercise plasma catalase activity compared to HIIE and CMIE, and greater H 2 O 2 compared to CMIE. Plasma redox status did not, however, adequately reflect skeletal muscle redox-sensitive protein signaling. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Confinement of activating receptors at the plasma membrane controls natural killer cell tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guia, Sophie; Jaeger, Baptiste N; Piatek, Stefan; Mailfert, Sébastien; Trombik, Tomasz; Fenis, Aurore; Chevrier, Nicolas; Walzer, Thierry; Kerdiles, Yann M; Marguet, Didier; Vivier, Eric; Ugolini, Sophie

    2011-04-05

    Natural killer (NK) cell tolerance to self is partly ensured by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-specific inhibitory receptors on NK cells, which dampen their reactivity when engaged. However, NK cells that do not detect self MHC class I are not autoreactive. We used dynamic fluorescence correlation spectroscopy to show that MHC class I-independent NK cell tolerance in mice was associated with the presence of hyporesponsive NK cells in which both activating and inhibitory receptors were confined in an actin meshwork at the plasma membrane. In contrast, the recognition of self MHC class I by inhibitory receptors "educated" NK cells to become fully reactive, and activating NK cell receptors became dynamically compartmentalized in membrane nanodomains. We propose that the confinement of activating receptors at the plasma membrane is pivotal to ensuring the self-tolerance of NK cells.

  5. Study on the interaction between active components from traditional Chinese medicine and plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Qishu; Wang, Rufeng; Jiang, Yanyan; Liu, Bin

    2018-05-04

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), as a unique form of natural medicine, has been used in Chinese traditional therapeutic systems over two thousand years. Active components in Chinese herbal medicine are the material basis for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Research on drug-protein binding is one of the important contents in the study of early stage clinical pharmacokinetics of drugs. Plasma protein binding study has far-reaching influence on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs and helps to understand the basic rule of drug effects. It is important to study the binding characteristics of the active components in Chinese herbal medicine with plasma proteins for the medical science and modernization of TCM. This review summarizes the common analytical methods which are used to study the active herbal components-protein binding and gives the examples to illustrate their application. Rules and influence factors of the binding between different types of active herbal components and plasma proteins are summarized in the end. Finally, a suggestion on choosing the suitable technique for different types of active herbal components is provided, and the prospect of the drug-protein binding used in the area of TCM research is also discussed.

  6. LH-RH binding to purified pituitary plasma membranes: absence of adenylate cyclase activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, R N; Shakespear, R A; Marshall, J C

    1978-06-01

    Purified bovine pituitary plasma membranes possess two specific LH-RH binding sites. The high affinity site (2.5 X 10(9) l/mol) has low capacity (9 X 10(-15) mol/mg membrane protein) while the low affinity site 6.1 X 10(5) l/mol) has a much higher capacity (1.1 X 10(-10) mol/mg). Specific LH-RH binding to plasma membranes is increased 8.5-fold during purification from homogenate whilst adenylate cyclase activity is enriched 7--8-fold. Distribution of specific LH-RH binding to sucrose density gradient interface fractions parallels that of adenylate cyclase activity. Mg2+ and Ca2+ inhibit specific [125I]LH-RH binding at micromolar concentrations. Synthetic LH-RH, up to 250 microgram/ml, failed to stimulate adenylase cyclase activity of the purified bovine membranes. Using a crude 10,800 g rat pituitary membrane preparation, LH-RH similarly failed to activate adenylate cyclase even in the presence of guanyl nucleotides. These data confirm the presence of LH-RH receptor sites on pituitary plasma membranes and suggest that LH-RH-induced gonadotrophin release may be mediated by mechanisms other than activation of adenylate cyclase.

  7. Relationship between physical activity and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in adults without chronic diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel A Gomez-Marcos

    Full Text Available To analyze the relationship between regular physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day physical activity recall (PAR, and plasma fibrinogen concentrations.A cross-sectional study in a previously established cohort of healthy subjects was performed. This study analyzed 1284 subjects who were included in the EVIDENT study (mean age 55.0±13.6 years; 60.90% women. Fibrinogen concentrations were measured in blood plasma. Physical activity was assessed with a 7-day PAR (metabolic equivalents (METs/hour/week and GT3X ActiGraph accelerometer (counts/minute for 7 days.Physical exercise, which was evaluated with both an accelerometer (Median: 237.28 counts/minute and 7-day PAR (Median: 8 METs/hour/week. Physical activity was negatively correlated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations, which was evaluated by counts/min (r = -0.100; p<0.001 and METs/hour/week (r = -0.162; p<0.001. In a multiple linear regression analysis, fibrinogen concentrations of the subjects who performed more physical activity (third tertile of count/minute and METs/hour/week respect to subjects who performed less (first tertile, maintained statistical significance after adjustments for age and others confounders (β = -0.03; p = 0.046 and β = -0.06; p<0.001, respectively.Physical activity, as assessed by accelerometer and 7-day PAR, was negatively associated with plasma fibrinogen concentrations. This relation is maintained in subjects who performed more exercise even after adjusting for age and other confounders.

  8. Effect of PTA on blood pressure, renal plasma flow and renal venous renin activity in renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.; Dewitz, H. von; Rosenthal, J.

    1983-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is more and more accepted for interventional management of renal artery stenosis in hypertensive patients. This study was carried out to assess the behaviour of arterial blood-pressure, renal plasma flow and renal venous rening activity in renovascular hypertension following catheter dilatation. Using the data the possibility is calculated to predict the effect of PTA on blood pressure preinterventionally. The results demonstrate that a successful employment of PTA depends on a normal contralateral renal plasma flow and a normalization of plasma flow of the poststenotic kidney. Determination of plasma renin activity is only of restricted value. (orig.)

  9. Active probing of plasma edge turbulence and feedback studies on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Richards, B.; Bengtson, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The edge fluctuations play a critical role in the overall tokamak confinement. Experiments on TEXT show that electrostatic fluctuations in the edge plasma are the dominant mechanism for energy and particle transport. The basic mechanisms responsible for the edge turbulence are the subject of ongoing research in fusion devices. To understand the driving forces responsible for edge fluctuations, a novel experiment is underway on TEXT to actively modify the turbulence at the plasma edge by launching waves using electrostatic probes in the shadow of the limiter. This technique permits active probing of the spectral properties of the edge turbulence. This new approach to the study of edge fluctuations can provide more insight into the basic dynamics of the turbulence and may, in turn, enable detailed comparison with the theory. These experiments, which rely on the use of oscillating electric fields at the plasma edge, complement edge fluctuation control studies that are presently limited to the use of applied dc biasing to influence the edge electric field profile. These experiments have been extended to control of the edge plasma fluctuation level, using feedback to explore its effects on the edge turbulence characteristics as well as on confinement. (author) 8 refs., 7 figs

  10. Active probing of plasma edge turbulence and feedback studies on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Carreras, B.A.; Richards, B.; Bengtson, R.D.; Crockett, D.B.; Gentle, K.W.; Li, G.X.; Hurwitz, P.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Tsui, H.Y.W.; Wootton, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    The edge fluctuations play a critical role in the overall tokamak confinement. Experiments on TEXT show that electrostatic fluctuations in the edge plasma are the dominant mechanism for energy and particle transport. The basic mechanisms responsible for the edge turbulence are the subject of ongoing research in fusion devices. To understand the driving forces responsible for edge fluctuations, a novel experiment is underway on TEXT to actively modify the turbulence at the plasma edge by launching waves using electrostatic probes in the shadow of the limiter. This technique permits active probing of the spectral properties of the edge turbulence. This new approach to the study of edge fluctuations can provide more insight into the basic dynamics of the turbulence and may, in turn, enable detailed comparison with the theory. These experiments, which rely on the use of oscillating electric fields at the plasma edge, complement edge fluctuation control studies that are presently limited to the use of applied dc biasing to influence the edge electric field profile. These experiments have been extended to control of the edge plasma fluctuation level, using feedback to explore its effects on the edge turbulence characteristics as well as on confinement

  11. Noziegums un sods Grama Svifta romānā "Dienas gaisma" un Fjodora Dostojevska romānā "Noziegums un sods"

    OpenAIRE

    Hohlova, Marija

    2008-01-01

    Šis bakalaura darbs pēta nozieguma un soda tēmu Fjodora Dostojevska romānā "Noziegums un sods" un Grema Svifta romānā "Dienas gaisma". Darbs sastāv no četrām nodaļām. Pirmajā nodaļā, kura pamatīgi aplūko nozieguma folozofiju, autore piemin integrēto pieeju nozieguma parādībai folozofijas skatījumā, kā arī analīzē nozieguma metafiziskās un socioloģiskās īpatnības uz Fjodora Dostojevska romāna "Noziegums un sods" pamata. Otrā nodaļa apraksta Fjodora Dostojevska romāna "Noziegums un sods" un Gre...

  12. Autolytic Activity and Plasma Binding Study of Aap, a Novel Minor Autolysin of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramina Mahboobi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Pneumococcal autolysins are enzymes involved in cell wall turnover and cellular division physiologically. They have been found to be involved in the pneumococcus pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify the autolytic activity of Spr1754 as a novel protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Moreover, the binding of the recombinant protein to plasma proteins was also determined. The spr1754 gene was amplified by PCR and cloned into the pET21a(+ prokaryotic expression vector. The constructed pET21a(+/spr1754 recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli Origami (DE3 and induced using IPTG. The recombinant protein of Spr1754 was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography and confirmed by SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis using anti-His tag monoclonal antibody. Autolytic activity and the ability of the recombinant protein in binding to plasma proteins were performed using zymogram analysis and western blot, respectively. The spr1754 with expected size was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli Origami (DE3, successfully. After purification of the Spr1754 recombinant protein, the autolytic activity was observed by zymography. Of the four plasma proteins used in this study, binding of lactoferrin to Spr1754 recombinant protein was shown. The Spr1754 recombinant protein has a bifunctional activity, i.e., as being autolysin and lactoferrin binding and designated as Aap (autolytic/ adhesion/ pneumococcus. Nevertheless, characterization of the Aap needs to be followed using gene inactivation and cell wall localization.

  13. Phosphine Plasma Activation of α-Fe 2 O 3 for High Energy Asymmetric Supercapacitors

    KAUST Repository

    Liang, Hanfeng

    2018-04-12

    We report a phosphine (PH3) plasma activation strategy for significantly boosting the electrochemical performance of supercapacitor electrodes. Using Fe2O3 as a demonstration, we show that the plasma activation simultaneously improves the conductivity, creates atomic-scale vacancies (defects), as well as increases active surface area, and thus leading to a greatly enhanced performance with a high areal capacitance of 340 mF cm-2 at 1 mA cm-2, compared to 66 mF cm-2 of pristine Fe2O3. Moreover, the asymmetric supercapacitor devices based on plasma-activated Fe2O3 anodes and electrodeposited MnO2 cathodes can achieve a high stack energy density of 0.42 mWh cm-3 at a stack power density of 10.3 mW cm-3 along with good stability (88% capacitance retention after 9000 cycles at 10 mA cm-2). Our work provides a simple yet effective strategy to greatly enhance the electrochemical performance of Fe2O3 anodes and to further promote their application in asymmetric supercapacitors.

  14. Absence of Nrf2 or its selective overexpression in neurons and muscle does not affect survival in ALS-linked mutant hSOD1 mouse models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R Vargas

    Full Text Available The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 governs the expression of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes. Nrf2 activation can prevent or reduce cellular damage associated with several types of injury in many different tissues and organs. Dominant mutations in Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1 cause familial forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, a fatal disorder characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons and subsequent muscular atrophy. We have previously shown that Nrf2 activation in astrocytes delays neurodegeneration in ALS mouse models. To further investigate the role of Nrf2 in ALS we determined the effect of absence of Nrf2 or its restricted overexpression in neurons or type II skeletal muscle fibers on symptoms onset and survival in mutant hSOD1 expressing mice. We did not observe any detrimental effect associated with the lack of Nrf2 in two different mutant hSOD1 animal models of ALS. However, restricted Nrf2 overexpression in neurons or type II skeletal muscle fibers delayed disease onset but failed to extend survival in hSOD1(G93A mice. These results highlight the concept that not only the pharmacological target but also the cell type targeted may be relevant when considering a Nrf2-mediated therapeutic approach for ALS.

  15. Activating basal-plane catalytic activity of two-dimensional MoS2 monolayer with remote hydrogen plasma

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Chia-Chin

    2016-09-10

    Two-dimensional layered transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) materials such as Molybdenum disufide (MoS2) have been recognized as one of the low-cost and efficient electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The crystal edges that account for a small percentage of the surface area, rather than the basal planes, of MoS2 monolayer have been confirmed as their active catalytic sites. As a result, extensive efforts have been developing in activating the basal planes of MoS2 for enhancing their HER activity. Here, we report a simple and efficient approach-using a remote hydrogen-plasma process-to creating S-vacancies on the basal plane of monolayer crystalline MoS2; this process can generate high density of S-vacancies while mainly maintaining the morphology and structure of MoS2 monolayer. The density of S-vacancies (defects) on MoS2 monolayers resulted from the remote hydrogen-plasma process can be tuned and play a critical role in HER, as evidenced in the results of our spectroscopic and electrical measurements. The H2-plasma treated MoS2 also provides an excellent platform for systematic and fundamental study of defect-property relationships in TMDs, which provides insights for future applications including electrical, optical and magnetic devices. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Active Control of Flow around NACA 0015 Airfoil by Using DBD Plasma Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şanlısoy A.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of plasma actuator on a flat plate and manipulation of flow separation on NACA0015 airfoil with plasma actuator at low Reynolds numbers were experimentally investigated. In the first section of the study, plasma actuator which consists of positive and grounded electrode couple and dielectric layer, located on a flat plate was actuated at different frequencies and peak to peak voltages in range of 3-5 kHz and 6-12 kV respectively. Theinduced air flow velocity on the surface of flat plate was measured by pitot tube at different locations behind the actuator. The influence of dielectricthickness and unsteady actuation with duty cycle was also examined. In the second section, the effect of plasma actuator on NACA0015 airfoil was studied atReynolds number 15000 and 30000. Four plasma actuators were placed at x/C = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.9, and different electrode combinations were activated by sinusoidal signal. Flow visualizations were done when the attack angles were 0°, 5°, 10°, 15° and 20°. The results indicate that up to the 15° attack angle, the separated flow was reattached by plasma actuator at 12kV peak to peak voltage and 4 kHz frequency. However, 12 kVpp voltage was insufficient to reattach the flow at 20° angle of attack. The separated flow could be reattached by increasing the voltage up to 13 kV. Lift coefficient was also increased by the manipulated flow over the airfoil. Results showed that even high attack angles, the actuators can control the flow separation and prevent the airfoil from stall at low Reynolds numbers.

  17. Effects of Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Treatment on Pentachlorophenol Removal of Granular Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji Puhui; Qu Guangzhou; Li Jie

    2013-01-01

    The pentachlorophenol (PCP) adsorbed granular activated carbon (GAC) was treated by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma. The effects of DBD plasma on the structure of GAC and PCP decomposition were analyzed by N 2 adsorption, thermogravimetric, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The experimental data of adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics of PCP on GAC were fitted with different kinetics and isotherm models, respectively. The results indicate that the types of N 2 adsorption isotherm of GAC are not changed by DBD plasma, while the specific surface area and pore volume increase after DBD plasma treatment. It is found that the weight loss of the saturated GAC is the highest, on the contrary, the weight loss of DBD treated GAC is the least because of reduced PCP residue on the GAC. The XPS spectra and SEM image suggest that some PCP on the GAC is removed by DBD plasma, and the surface of GAC treated by DBD plasma presents irregular and heterogeneous morphology. The GC-MS identification of by-products shows that two main dechlorination intermediate products, tetrachlorophenol and trichlorophenol, are distinguished. The fitting results of experimental data of adsorption kinetics and thermodynamics indicate that the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second order models can be used for the prediction of the kinetics of virgin GAC and DBD treated GAC for PCP adsorption, and the Langmuir isotherm model fits better with the data of adsorption isotherm than the Freundlich isotherm in the adsorption of PCP on virgin GAC and DBD treated GAC

  18. Investigation of tenuous plasma environment using Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) on Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Rumi; Jeszenszky, Harald; Torkar, Klaus; Andriopoulou, Maria; Fremuth, Gerhard; Taijmar, Martin; Scharlemann, Carsten; Svenes, Knut; Escoubet, Philippe; Prattes, Gustav; Laky, Gunter; Giner, Franz; Hoelzl, Bernhard

    2015-04-01

    The NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission is planned to be launched on March 12, 2015. The scientific objectives of the MMS mission are to explore and understand the fundamental plasma physics processes of magnetic reconnection, particle acceleration and turbulence in the Earth's magnetosphere. The region of scientific interest of MMS is in a tenuous plasma environment where the positive spacecraft potential reaches an equilibrium at several tens of Volts. An Active Spacecraft Potential Control (ASPOC) instrument neutralizes the spacecraft potential by releasing positive charge produced by indium ion emitters. ASPOC thereby reduces the potential in order to improve the electric field and low-energy particle measurement. The method has been successfully applied on other spacecraft such as Cluster and Double Star. Two ASPOC units are present on each of the MMS spacecraft. Each unit contains four ion emitters, whereby one emitter per instrument is operated at a time. ASPOC for MMS includes new developments in the design of the emitters and the electronics enabling lower spacecraft potentials, higher reliability, and a more uniform potential structure in the spacecraft's sheath compared to previous missions. Model calculations confirm the findings from previous applications that the plasma measurements will not be affected by the beam's space charge. A perfectly stable spacecraft potential precludes the utilization of the spacecraft as a plasma probe, which is a conventional technique used to estimate ambient plasma density from the spacecraft potential. The small residual variations of the potential controlled by ASPOC, however, still allow to determine ambient plasma density by comparing two closely separated spacecraft and thereby reconstructing the uncontrolled potential variation from the controlled potential. Regular intercalibration of controlled and uncontrolled potentials is expected to increase the reliability of this new method.

  19. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and nitrate tolerance – comparison of nitroglycerin and pentaerithrityl tetranitrate in Mn-SOD+/- mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stalleicken Dirk

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic therapy with nitroglycerin (GTN results in a rapid development of nitrate tolerance which is associated with an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. According to recent studies, mitochondrial ROS formation and oxidative inactivation of the organic nitrate bioactivating enzyme mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2 play an important role for the development of nitrate and cross-tolerance. Methods Tolerance was induced by infusion of wild type (WT and heterozygous manganese superoxide dismutase mice (Mn-SOD+/- with ethanolic solution of GTN (12.5 μg/min/kg for 4 d. For comparison, the tolerance-free pentaerithrityl tetranitrate (PETN, 17.5 μg/min/kg for 4 d was infused in DMSO. Vascular reactivity was measured by isometric tension studies of isolated aortic rings. ROS formation and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH-2 activity was measured in isolated heart mitochondria. Results Chronic GTN infusion lead to impaired vascular responses to GTN and acetylcholine (ACh, increased the ROS formation in mitochondria and decreased ALDH-2 activity in Mn-SOD+/- mice. In contrast, PETN infusion did not increase mitochondrial ROS formation, did not decrease ALDH-2 activity and accordingly did not lead to tolerance and cross-tolerance in Mn-SOD+/- mice. PETN but not GTN increased heme oxygenase-1 mRNA in EA.hy 926 cells and bilirubin efficiently scavenged GTN-derived ROS. Conclusion Chronic GTN infusion stimulates mitochondrial ROS production which is an important mechanism leading to tolerance and cross-tolerance. The tetranitrate PETN is devoid of mitochondrial oxidative stress induction and according to the present animal study as well as numerous previous clinical studies can be used without limitations due to tolerance and cross-tolerance.

  20. Auxin-activated NADH oxidase activity of soybean plasma membranes is distinct from the constitutive plasma membrane NADH oxidase and exhibits prion-like properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. James; Morre, Dorothy M.; Ternes, Philipp

    2003-01-01

    The hormone-stimulated and growth-related cell surface hydroquinone (NADH) oxidase activity of etiolated hypocotyls of soybeans oscillates with a period of about 24 min or 60 times per 24-h day. Plasma membranes of soybean hypocotyls contain two such NADH oxidase activities that have been resolved by purification on concanavalin A columns. One in the apparent molecular weight range of 14-17 kDa is stimulated by the auxin herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D). The other is larger and unaffected by 2,4-D. The 2,4-D-stimulated activity absolutely requires 2,4-D for activity and exhibits a period length of about 24 min. Also exhibiting 24-min oscillations is the rate of cell enlargement induced by the addition of 2,4-D or the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). Immediately following 2,4-D or IAA addition, a very complex pattern of oscillations is frequently observed. However, after several hours a dominant 24-min period emerges at the expense of the constitutive activity. A recruitment process analogous to that exhibited by prions is postulated to explain this behavior.

  1. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes......AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. METHODS: In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study...

  2. Radioimmunoassay for platelet activation specific protein GMP-140 on the platelet surface and in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Guoxin; Li Jianyong; Ruan Changgeng

    1991-08-01

    Using monoclonal antibody (McAb) SZ-51 which is specific for an alpha-granule membrane protein (GMP-140) on the surface of human activated platelets, the platelet GMP-140 expression in fixed whole blood was measured by direct radioimmunoassay and GMP-140 microparticles in plasma was measured by sandwich method. The GMP-140 molecules per platelet or milliliter (mL) were calculated for the following subjects; acute myocardial infarction; cerebro thrombosis; diabetic mellitus; asthma attack; epidemic hemorrhagic fever etc.. By comparing with the concentration of thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) in plasma, it is confirmed that the measurement of GMP-140 molecules is better than that of TXB 2 and vWF. It is a sensitive and specific method for evaluating the platelet activation degree in vivo. The establishment of this method will be useful to diagnosing the thrombotic disorders and studying the pathogenesis of some other diseases

  3. Decreased plasma levels of soluble CD18 link leukocyte infiltration with disease activity in spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Jalilian, Babak; Hvid, Malene

    2014-01-01

    of arthritis patients to have anti-inflammatory functions. Here, we study the mechanisms for these alterations and their association with SpA disease activity. METHODS: Plasma levels of sCD18 in a study population with 84 SpA patients and matched healthy controls were analyzed with a time resolved......A patients compared with healthy volunteers (P levels in the HLA-B27-positive subgroup (P levels exhibited an inverse correlation with the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) (P level of morning...... immunoflourometric assay (TRIFMA). Binding of sCD18 to endothelial cells and fibroblast-like synovial cells (FLS) was studied with confocal microscopy. Shedding of CD18 from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was studied with flow cytometry and TRIFMA. RESULTS: Plasma levels of sCD18 were decreased in Sp...

  4. Redox susceptibility of SOD1 mutants is associated with the differential response to CCS over-expression in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Marjatta; Fu, Qiao; Puttaparthi, Krishna; Matthews, Christina M; Elliott, Jeffrey L

    2009-04-01

    Over-expression of CCS in G93A SOD1 mice accelerates neurological disease and enhances mitochondrial pathology. We studied the effect of CCS over-expression in transgenic mice expressing G37R, G86R or L126Z SOD1 mutations in order to understand factors which influence mitochondrial dysfunction. Over-expression of CCS markedly decreased survival and produced mitochondrial vacuolation in G37R SOD1 mice but not in G86R or L126Z SOD1 mice. Moreover, CCS/G37R SOD1 spinal cord showed specific reductions in mitochondrial complex IV subunits consistent with an isolated COX deficiency, while no such reductions were detected in CCS/G86R or CCS/L126Z SOD1 mice. CCS over-expression increased the ratio of reduced to oxidized SOD1 monomers in the spinal cords of G37R SOD1 as well as G93A SOD1 mice, but did not influence the redox state of G86R or L126Z SOD1 monomers. The effects of CCS on disease are SOD1 mutation dependent and correlate with SOD1 redox susceptibility.

  5. Restoration of wet dune slacks on the Dutch Wadden Sea islands : Recolonization after large-scale sod cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, AP; Everts, H; Bruin, K; Fresco, L; Grootjans, Ab P.

    The effects of sod cutting were studied in a dune area on the Dutch Wadden Sea Island of Texel. Sod cutting was carried out in a range of different dune slacks in order to restore dune slack vegetation with many endangered Red List species. Sod cutting removed approximately 96% of the soil seed

  6. Restoration of Wet Dune Slacks on the Dutch Wadden Sea Islands: Recolonization After Large-Scale Sod Cutting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootjans, A.P.; Everts, H.; Bruin, K.; Fresco, L.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of sod cutting were studied in a dune area on the Dutch Wadden Sea Island of Texel. Sod cutting was carried out in a range of different dune slacks in order to restore dune slack vegetation with many endangered Red List species. Sod cutting removed approximately 96% of the soil seed

  7. In yeast redistribution of Sod1 to the mitochondrial intermembrane space provides protection against respiration derived oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöppel, Christine; Michels, Christine; Zimmer, Julia; Herrmann, Johannes M; Riemer, Jan

    2010-12-03

    The antioxidative enzyme copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (Sod1) is an important cellular defence system against reactive oxygen species (ROS). While the majority of this enzyme is localized to the cytosol, about 1% of the cellular Sod1 is present in the intermembrane space (IMS) of mitochondria. These amounts of mitochondrial Sod1 are increased for certain Sod1 mutants that are linked to the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). To date, only little is known about the physiological function of mitochondrial Sod1. Here, we use the model system Saccharomyces cerevisiae to generate cells in which Sod1 is exclusively localized to the IMS. We find that IMS-localized Sod1 can functionally substitute wild type Sod1 and that it even exceeds the protective capacity of wild type Sod1 under conditions of mitochondrial ROS stress. Moreover, we demonstrate that upon expression in yeast cells the common ALS-linked mutant Sod1(G93A) becomes enriched in the mitochondrial fraction and provides an increased protection of cells from mitochondrial oxidative stress. Such an effect cannot be observed for the catalytically inactive mutant Sod1(G85R). Our observations suggest that the targeting of Sod1 to the mitochondrial IMS provides an increased protection against respiration-derived ROS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol: influence of air activation rate and reforming temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nedybaliuk, O.A.; Chernyak, V.Ya.; Fedirchuk, I.I.; Demchina, V.P.; Bortyshevsky, V.A.; Korzh, R.V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the study of the influence that air activation rate and reforming temperature have on the gaseous products composition and conversion efficiency during the plasma-catalytic reforming of ethanol. The analysis of product composition showed that the conversion efficiency of ethanol has a maximum in the studied range of reforming temperatures. Researched system provided high reforming efficiency and high hydrogen energy yield at the lower temperatures than traditional conversion technologies

  9. Plasma-Activated Tropoelastin Functionalization of Zirconium for Improved Bone Cell Response

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Yeo, G. C.; Santos, M.; Kondyurin, A.; Lišková, Jana; Weiss, A. S.; Bilek, M. M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 4 (2016), s. 662-676 ISSN 2373-9878 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NV15-32497A; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : bone * plasma-activated coating * titanium * tropoelastin * zirconium Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2016

  10. Plasma factor VII-activating protease is increased by oral contraceptives and induces factor VII activation in-vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidelmann, Johannes J; Skouby, Sven O; Kluft, Cornelis

    2011-01-01

    Oral contraceptive (OC) use influences the hemostatic system significantly and is a risk factor for development of cardiovascular disease. Factor VII-activating protease (FSAP) has potential effects on hemostasis. The 1601GA genotype of the 1601G/A polymorphism in the FSAP gene expresses a FSAP...... progestins. FSAP genotypes, FSAP and factor VII (FVII) plasma measures were assessed at baseline and after 6 cycles of OC. The 1601GA genotype was present in 49 (8.3%) of the women and was associated with significantly reduced levels of FSAP (P=0.001). OC use increased FSAP antigen by 25% and FSAP activity...

  11. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergemann, Claudia; Cornelsen, Matthias; Quade, Antje; Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias; Rebl, Henrike; Weißmann, Volker; Seitz, Hermann; Nebe, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA — improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds – is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10 mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14 days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts. - Highlights: • Mechanical stabilization of β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds by PLA infiltration • Hybrid scaffolds with higher cell attraction due to plasma polymerized allylamine • 3D perfusion in vitro model for observation of cell migration inside scaffolds • Enhanced cell migration within plasma polymer coated TCP hybrid scaffolds

  12. Anti-tumor Effects of Plasma Activated Media and Correlation with Hydrogen Peroxide Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir; Mohades, Soheila; Barekzi, Nazir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat; Razavi, Hamid

    2016-09-01

    Plasma activated media (PAM) can induce death in cancer cells. In our research, PAM is produced by exposing liquid culture medium to a helium plasma pencil. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the aqueous state are known factors in anti-tumor effects of PAM. The duration of plasma exposure determines the concentrations of reactive species produced in PAM. Stability of the plasma generated reactive species and their lifetime depend on parameters such as the chemical composition of the medium. Here, a complete cell culture medium was employed to make PAM. Later, PAM was used to treat SCaBER cancer cells either as an immediate PAM (right after exposure) or as an aged-PAM (after storage). SCaBER (ATCC®HTB-3™) is an epithelial cell line from a human bladder with the squamous carcinoma disease. A normal epithelial cell line from a kidney tissue of a dog - MDCK (ATCC®CCL-34™) - was used to analyze the selective effect of PAM. Correspondingly, we measured the concentration of hydrogen peroxide- as a stable species with biological impact on cell viability- in both immediate PAM and aged-PAM. In addition, we report on the effect of serum supplemented in PAM on the H2O2 concentration measured by Amplex red assay kit. Finally, we evaluate the effects of PAM on growth and morphological changes in MDCK cells using fluorescence microscopy.

  13. Continuous cellularization of calcium phosphate hybrid scaffolds induced by plasma polymer activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergemann, Claudia [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Cornelsen, Matthias [University of Rostock, Fluid Technology and Microfluidics, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Quade, Antje [Leibniz-Institute for Plasma Science and Technology (INP), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Laube, Thorsten; Schnabelrauch, Matthias [INNOVENT e.V., Biomaterials Department, Pruessingstrasse 27B, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Rebl, Henrike [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany); Weißmann, Volker [Institute for Polymer Technologies (IPT) e.V., Alter Holzhafen 19, D-23966 Wismar (Germany); Seitz, Hermann [University of Rostock, Fluid Technology and Microfluidics, Justus-von-Liebig Weg 6, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Nebe, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.nebe@med.uni-rostock.de [University Medical Center Rostock, Cell Biology, Schillingallee 69, D-18057 Rostock (Germany)

    2016-02-01

    The generation of hybrid materials based on β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) and various biodegradable polymers like poly(L-lactide-co-D,L-lactide) (PLA) represents a common approach to overcoming the disadvantages of pure TCP devices. These disadvantages lie in TCP's mechanical properties, such as brittleness. The positive characteristic of PLA — improvement of compressive strength of calcium phosphate scaffolds – is diametrically opposed to its cell attractiveness. Therefore, the objective of this work was to optimize osteoblast migration and cellularization inside a three-dimensionally (3D) printed, PLA polymer stabilized TCP hybrid scaffold by a plasma polymer process depositing amino groups via allylamine. MG-63 osteoblastic cells inside the 10 mm hybrid scaffold were dynamically cultivated for 14 days in a 3D model system integrated in a perfusion reactor. The whole TCP/PLA hybrid scaffold was continuously colonized due to plasma polymerized allylamine activation inducing the migration potential of osteoblasts. - Highlights: • Mechanical stabilization of β-tricalcium phosphate scaffolds by PLA infiltration • Hybrid scaffolds with higher cell attraction due to plasma polymerized allylamine • 3D perfusion in vitro model for observation of cell migration inside scaffolds • Enhanced cell migration within plasma polymer coated TCP hybrid scaffolds.

  14. Assembling a supercapacitor electrode with dual metal oxides and activated carbon using a liquid phase plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ki, Seo Jin; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Park, Young-Kwon; Park, Hyunwoong; Jeong, Sangmin; Lee, Heon; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2017-12-01

    Developing supercapacitor electrodes at an affordable cost while improving their energy and/or power density values is still a challenging task. This study introduced a recipe which assembled a novel electrode composite using a liquid phase plasma that was applied to a reactant solution containing an activated carbon (AC) powder with dual metal precursors of iron and manganese. A comparison was made between the composites doped with single and dual metal components as well as among those synthesized under different precursor concentrations and plasma durations. The results showed that increasing the precursor concentration and plasma duration raised the content of both metal oxides in the composites, whereas the deposition conditions were more favorable to iron oxide than manganese oxide, due to its higher standard potential. The composite treated with the longest plasma duration and highest manganese concentration was superior to the others in terms of cyclic stability and equivalent series resistance. In addition, the new composite selected out of them showed better electrochemical performance than the raw AC material only and even two types of single metal-based composites, owing largely to the synergistic effect of the two metal oxides. Therefore, the proposed methodology can be used to modify existing and future composite electrodes to improve their performance with relatively cheap host and guest materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Active probing of plasma edge turbulence and feedback studies on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Richards, B.; Bengtson, R.D.

    1993-08-01

    A novel experiment is under way on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) to actively modify the turbulence at the plasma edge by launching waves using electrostatic probes in the shadow of the limiter. The experiments are carried out with a wave launching system consisting of two Langmuir probes, which are about 1.8 cm apart in the poloidal direction, with respect to the magnetic field. These probes are operated in the electron side of the (I,V) characteristic. The probe tips are fed separately by independent ac power supplies. Measurements indicate that the wave, launched with a typical frequency image of 15--50 kHz from the edge of the machine top, is received by sensing probes located halfway around the torus. The detected signal strength depends on the frequency of the wave, the plasma current, and the phasing of the applied ac signal between the launching probes. Modifications to the spectra of the density and potential fluctuations are observed. These experiments have been extended to control of the edge plasma fluctuation level using feedback to explore its effects on confinement. When the launcher is driven by the floating potential of the fluctuating plasma at the location of the launching probes, then the fluctuations are suppressed or excited, depending on the phasing between the probe tips, both locally and at the downstream sensing probes. The fluctuation-induced particle flux also varies with the feedback phasing

  16. Plasma renin activity, aldosterone and catecholamine levels when swimming and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guezennec, C Y; Defer, G; Cazorla, G; Sabathier, C; Lhoste, F

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the response of plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) and catecholamines to two graded exercises differing by posture. Seven male subjects (19-25 years) performed successively a running rest on a treadmill and a swimming test in a 50-m swimming pool. Each exercise was increased in severity in 5-min steps with intervals of 1 min. Oxygen consumption, heart rate and blood lactate, measured every 5 min, showed a similar progression in energy expenditure until exhaustion, but there was a shorter time to exhaustion in the last step of the running test. PRA, PAC and catecholamines were increased after both types of exercise. The PRA increase was higher after the running test (20.9 ng AngI X ml-1 X h-1) than after swimming (8.66 ng AngI X ml-1 X h-1). The PAC increase was slightly greater after running (123 pg X ml-1) than swimming (102 pg X ml-1), buth the difference was not significant. Plasma catecholamine was higher after the swimming test. These results suggest that the volume shift induced by the supine position and water pressure during swimming decreased the PRA response. The association after swimming compared to running of a decreased PRA and an enhanced catecholamine response rule out a strict dependence of renin release under the effect of plasma catecholamines and is evidence of the major role of neural pathways for renin secretion during physical exercise.

  17. Moderate plasma activated media suppresses proliferation and migration of MDCK epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohades, Soheila; Laroussi, Mounir; Maruthamuthu, Venkat

    2017-01-01

    Low-temperature plasma has been shown to have diverse biomedical uses, including its applications in cancer and wound healing. One recent approach in treating mammalian cells with plasma is through the use of plasma activated media (PAM), which is produced by exposing cell culture media to plasma. While the adverse effects of PAM treatment on cancerous epithelial cell lines have been recently studied, much less is known about the interaction of PAM with normal epithelial cells. In this paper, non-cancerous canine kidney MDCK (Madin-Darby Canine Kidney) epithelial cells were treated by PAM and time-lapse microscopy was used to directly monitor their proliferation and random migration upon treatment. While longer durations of PAM treatment led to cell death, we found that moderate levels of PAM treatment inhibited proliferation in these epithelial cells. We also found that PAM treatment reduced random cell migration within epithelial islands. Immunofluorescence staining showed that while there were no major changes in the actin/adhesion apparatus, there was a significant change in the nuclear localization of proliferation marker Ki-67, consistent with our time-lapse results. (paper)

  18. Large-scale production and properties of human plasma-derived activated Factor VII concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomokiyo, K; Yano, H; Imamura, M; Nakano, Y; Nakagaki, T; Ogata, Y; Terano, T; Miyamoto, S; Funatsu, A

    2003-01-01

    An activated Factor VII (FVIIa) concentrate, prepared from human plasma on a large scale, has to date not been available for clinical use for haemophiliacs with antibodies against FVIII and FIX. In the present study, we attempted to establish a large-scale manufacturing process to obtain plasma-derived FVIIa concentrate with high recovery and safety, and to characterize its biochemical and biological properties. FVII was purified from human cryoprecipitate-poor plasma, by a combination of anion exchange and immunoaffinity chromatography, using Ca2+-dependent anti-FVII monoclonal antibody. To activate FVII, a FVII preparation that was nanofiltered using a Bemberg Microporous Membrane-15 nm was partially converted to FVIIa by autoactivation on an anion-exchange resin. The residual FVII in the FVII and FVIIa mixture was completely activated by further incubating the mixture in the presence of Ca2+ for 18 h at 10 degrees C, without any additional activators. For preparation of the FVIIa concentrate, after dialysis of FVIIa against 20 mm citrate, pH 6.9, containing 13 mm glycine and 240 mm NaCl, the FVIIa preparation was supplemented with 2.5% human albumin (which was first pasteurized at 60 degrees C for 10 h) and lyophilized in vials. To inactivate viruses contaminating the FVIIa concentrate, the lyophilized product was further heated at 65 degrees C for 96 h in a water bath. Total recovery of FVII from 15 000 l of plasma was approximately 40%, and the FVII preparation was fully converted to FVIIa with trace amounts of degraded products (FVIIabeta and FVIIagamma). The specific activity of the FVIIa was approximately 40 U/ micro g. Furthermore, virus-spiking tests demonstrated that immunoaffinity chromatography, nanofiltration and dry-heating effectively removed and inactivated the spiked viruses in the FVIIa. These results indicated that the FVIIa concentrate had both high specific activity and safety. We established a large-scale manufacturing process of human plasma

  19. Detection of novel key residues of MnSOD enzyme and its role in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    avoidance mechanism and morphological changes (Flowers ... The MnSOD proteins of different species available in salinity condition with their uniprot IDs and domain information ...... relative Lycopersicon pennellii to salt-dependent oxidative.

  20. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, M; Mortensen, S P; Hellsten, Y

    2013-03-01

    Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study 2, young (23 ± 1 years, n = 8), older lifelong sedentary (66 ± 2 years, n = 8) and older lifelong endurance-trained (62 ± 2 years, n = 8) subjects were studied in a cross-sectional design. Skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels were increased with age and plasma endothelin-1 levels were higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals. Eight weeks of exercise training normalized plasma endothelin-1 levels in the hypertensive subjects and increased the protein expression of the ET(A) receptor in skeletal muscle of normotensive subjects. Similarly, individuals that had performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  1. Factor XI dependent and independent activation of thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor (TAFI) in plasma associated with clot formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, B. N.; Mosnier, L. O.; Meijers, J. C.; Griffin, J. H.

    1999-01-01

    Thrombin Activatable Fibrinolysis Inhibitor (TAFI) also known as plasma procarboxypeptidase B is activated by relatively high concentrations of thrombin in a reaction stimulated by thrombomodulin. In plasma an intact factor XI-dependent feed back loop via the intrinsic pathway is necessary to

  2. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is independently determined by obesity and insulin resistance in non-diabetic subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rindert; Kappelle, Paul J. W. H.; Dallinga-Thie, Geesje M.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.

    2011-01-01

    Phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) is an emerging cardio-metabolic risk factor which is intricately involved in lipoprotein metabolism. Elevated plasma PLTP activity levels are reported in obesity and diabetes mellitus, but the relative contributions of obesity and insulin resistance to plasma

  3. Destabilizing protein polymorphisms in the genetic background direct phenotypic expression of mutant SOD1 toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tali Gidalevitz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic background exerts a strong modulatory effect on the toxicity of aggregation-prone proteins in conformational diseases. In addition to influencing the misfolding and aggregation behavior of the mutant proteins, polymorphisms in putative modifier genes may affect the molecular processes leading to the disease phenotype. Mutations in SOD1 in a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS cases confer dominant but clinically variable toxicity, thought to be mediated by misfolding and aggregation of mutant SOD1 protein. While the mechanism of toxicity remains unknown, both the nature of the SOD1 mutation and the genetic background in which it is expressed appear important. To address this, we established a Caenorhabditis elegans model to systematically examine the aggregation behavior and genetic interactions of mutant forms of SOD1. Expression of three structurally distinct SOD1 mutants in C. elegans muscle cells resulted in the appearance of heterogeneous populations of aggregates and was associated with only mild cellular dysfunction. However, introduction of destabilizing temperature-sensitive mutations into the genetic background strongly enhanced the toxicity of SOD1 mutants, resulting in exposure of several deleterious phenotypes at permissive conditions in a manner dependent on the specific SOD1 mutation. The nature of the observed phenotype was dependent on the temperature-sensitive mutation present, while its penetrance reflected the specific combination of temperature-sensitive and SOD1 mutations. Thus, the specific toxic phenotypes of conformational disease may not be simply due to misfolding/aggregation toxicity of the causative mutant proteins, but may be defined by their genetic interactions with cellular pathways harboring mildly destabilizing missense alleles.

  4. Mn porphyrin-based SOD mimic, MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+), and non-SOD mimic, MnTBAP(3-), suppressed rat spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion injury via NF-κB pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celic, T; Španjol, J; Bobinac, M; Tovmasyan, A; Vukelic, I; Reboucas, J S; Batinic-Haberle, I; Bobinac, D

    2014-12-01

    Herein we have demonstrated that both superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimic, cationic Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(N-n-hexylpyridinium-2-yl)porphyrin (MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+)), and non-SOD mimic, anionic Mn(III) meso-tetrakis(4-carboxylatophenyl)porphyrin (MnTBAP(3-)), protect against oxidative stress caused by spinal cord ischemia/reperfusion via suppression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pro-inflammatory pathways. Earlier reports showed that Mn(III) N-alkylpyridylporphyrins were able to prevent the DNA binding of NF-κB in an aqueous system, whereas MnTBAP(3-) was not. Here, for the first time, in a complex in vivo system-animal model of spinal cord injury-a similar impact of MnTBAP(3-), at a dose identical to that of MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+), was demonstrated in NF-κB downregulation. Rats were treated subcutaneously at 1.5 mg/kg starting at 30 min before ischemia/reperfusion, and then every 12 h afterward for either 48 h or 7 days. The anti-inflammatory effects of both Mn porphyrins (MnPs) were demonstrated in the spinal cord tissue at both 48 h and 7 days. The downregulation of NF-κB, a major pro-inflammatory signaling protein regulating astrocyte activation, was detected and found to correlate well with the suppression of astrogliosis (as glial fibrillary acidic protein) by both MnPs. The markers of oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyl formation, were significantly reduced by MnPs. The favorable impact of both MnPs on motor neurons (Tarlov score and inclined plane test) was assessed. No major changes in glutathione peroxidase- and SOD-like activities were demonstrated, which implies that none of the MnPs acted as SOD mimic. Increasing amount of data on the reactivity of MnTBAP(3-) with reactive nitrogen species (RNS) (.NO/HNO/ONOO(-)) suggests that RNS/MnTBAP(3-)-driven modification of NF-κB protein cysteines may be involved in its therapeutic effects. This differs from the therapeutic efficacy of MnTnHex-2-PyP(5+) which presumably occurs via reactive

  5. Vulnerability of white matter tracts and cognition to the SOD2 polymorphism: A preliminary study of antioxidant defense genes in brain aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salminen, Lauren E; Schofield, Peter R; Pierce, Kerrie D; Bruce, Steven E; Griffin, Michael G; Tate, David F; Cabeen, Ryan P; Laidlaw, David H; Conturo, Thomas E; Bolzenius, Jacob D; Paul, Robert H

    2017-06-30

    Oxidative stress is a key mechanism of the aging process that can cause damage to brain white matter and cognitive functions. Polymorphisms in the superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) and catalase (CAT) genes have been associated with abnormalities in antioxidant enzyme activity in the aging brain, suggesting a risk for enhanced oxidative damage to white matter and cognition among older individuals with these genetic variants. The present study compared differences in white matter microstructure and cognition among 96 older adults with and without genetic risk factors of SOD2 (rs4880) and CAT (rs1001179). Results revealed higher radial diffusivity in the anterior thalamic radiation among SOD2 CC genotypes compared to CT/TT genotypes. Further, the CC genotype moderated the relationship between the hippocampal cingulum and processing speed, though this did not survive multiple test correction. The CAT polymorphism was not associated with brain outcomes in this cohort. These results suggest that the CC genotype of SOD2 is an important genetic marker of suboptimal brain aging in healthy individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) inhibits ERK phosphorylation by muscarinic receptor modulation in rat pituitary GH3 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Secondo, Agnese; De Mizio, Mariarosaria; Zirpoli, Laura; Santillo, Mariarosaria; Mondola, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    The Cu-Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) belongs to a family of isoenzymes that are able to dismutate the oxygen superoxide in hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. This enzyme is secreted by many cellular lines and it is also released trough a calcium-dependent depolarization mechanism involving SNARE protein SNAP 25. Using rat pituitary GH3 cells that express muscarinic receptors we found that SOD1 inhibits P-ERK1/2 pathway trough an interaction with muscarinic M1 receptor. This effect is strengthened by oxotremorine, a muscarinic M agonist and partially reverted by pyrenzepine, an antagonist of M1 receptor; moreover this effect is independent from increased intracellular calcium concentration induced by SOD1. Finally, P-ERK1/2 inhibition was accompanied by the reduction of GH3 cell proliferation. These data indicate that SOD1 beside the well studied antioxidant properties can be considered as a neuromodulator able to affect mitogen-activated protein kinase in rat pituitary cells trough a M1 muscarinic receptor

  7. The Effects of Bee Venom Acupuncture on the Central Nervous System and Muscle in an Animal hSOD1G93A Mutant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MuDan Cai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is caused by the degeneration of lower and upper motor neurons, leading to muscle paralysis and respiratory failure. However, there is no effective drug or therapy to treat ALS. Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, including acupuncture, pharmacopuncture, herbal medicine, and massage is popular due to the significant limitations of conventional therapy. Bee venom acupuncture (BVA, also known as one of pharmacopunctures, has been used in Oriental medicine to treat inflammatory diseases. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of BVA on the central nervous system (CNS and muscle in symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice, an animal model of ALS. Our findings show that BVA at ST36 enhanced motor function and decreased motor neuron death in the spinal cord compared to that observed in hSOD1G93A transgenic mice injected intraperitoneally (i.p. with BV. Furthermore, BV treatment at ST36 eliminated signaling downstream of inflammatory proteins such as TLR4 in the spinal cords of symptomatic hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. However, i.p. treatment with BV reduced the levels of TNF-α and Bcl-2 expression in the muscle hSOD1G93A transgenic mice. Taken together, our findings suggest that BV pharmacopuncture into certain acupoints may act as a chemical stimulant to activate those acupoints and subsequently engage the endogenous immune modulatory system in the CNS in an animal model of ALS.

  8. The search for active Europa plumes in Galileo plasma particle detector data: the E12 flyby

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huybrighs, H.; Roussos, E.; Krupp, N.; Fraenz, M.; Futaana, Y.; Barabash, S. V.; Glassmeier, K. H.

    2017-12-01

    Hubble Space Telescope observations of Europa's auroral emissions and transits in front of Jupiter suggest that recurring water vapour plumes originating from Europa's surface might exist. If conclusively proven, the discovery of these plumes would be significant, because Europa's potentially habitable ocean could be studied remotely by taking in-situ samples of these plumes from a flyby mission. The first opportunity to collect in-situ evidence of the plumes will not arise before the early 2030's when ESA's JUICE mission or NASA's Europa Clipper are set to arrive. However, it may be possible that NASA's Galileo mission has already encountered the plumes when it was active in the Jupiter system from 1995 to 2003. It has been suggested that the high plasma densities and anomalous magnetic fields measured during one of the Galileo flybys of Europa (flyby E12) could be connected to plume activity. In the context of the search for Europa plume signatures in Galileo particle data we present an overview of the in-situ plasma particle data obtained by the Galileo spacecraft during the E12 flyby. Focus is in particular on the data obtained with the plasma particle instruments PLS (low energy ions and electrons) and EPD (high energy ions and electrons). We search for signs of an extended exosphere/ionosphere that could be consistent with ongoing plume activity. The PLS data obtained during the E12 flyby show an extended interaction region between Europa and the plasma from Jupiter's magnetosphere, hinting at the existence of an extended ionosphere and exosphere. Furthermore we show how the EPD data are analyzed and modelled in order to evaluate whether a series of energetic ion depletions can be attributed to losses on the moon's surface or its neutral exosphere.

  9. Changes and significance of TNF - α, NOS activity and NO in the plasma of patients with chronic congestive heart failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Yafeng; Cheng Xujie; Liu Zhihua

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study changes and interrelations of TNF - α, NOS activity and NO in the plasma of patients with chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). Methods: The blood samples were taken from eighty patients and twenty healthy subjects. Plasma TNF - α was measured by RIA. Plasma NOS activity and NO were assessed with colorimetric analysis. Results: The level of plasma TNF - α, NOS activity and NO were significantly higher in CHF patients than that in healthy subjects and were increased with the severity of heart failure. The levels of TNF - α, NOS activity and NO showed significant relation with each other and all of them were closely related to the ejection fraction. Conclusion: TNF - α, NOS activity and NO increase greatly in patients of CHF and they maybe play an important roles in the progress of CHF. They can be used as markers for the severity and prognosis of heart failure

  10. Resveratrol Derivative-Rich Melinjo Seed Extract Attenuates Skin Atrophy in Sod1-Deficient Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Watanabe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidative damages induced by a redox imbalance cause age-related changes in cells and tissues. Superoxide dismutase (SOD enzymes play a pivotal role in the antioxidant system and they also catalyze superoxide radicals. Since the loss of cytoplasmic SOD (SOD1 resulted in aging-like phenotypes in several types of murine tissue, SOD1 is essential for the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Melinjo (Gnetum gnemon Linn seed extract (MSE contains trans-resveratrol (RSV and resveratrol derivatives, including gnetin C, gnemonoside A, and gnemonoside D. MSE intake also exerts no adverse events in human study. In the present studies, we investigated protective effects of MSE on age-related skin pathologies in mice. Orally MSE and RSV treatment reversed the skin thinning associated with increased oxidative damage in the Sod1−/− mice. Furthermore, MSE and RSV normalized gene expression of Col1a1 and p53 and upregulated gene expression of Sirt1 in skin tissues. In vitro experiments revealed that RSV significantly promoted the viability of Sod1−/− fibroblasts. These finding demonstrated that RSV in MSE stably suppressed an intrinsic superoxide generation in vivo and in vitro leading to protecting skin damages. RSV derivative-rich MSE may be a powerful food of treatment for age-related skin diseases caused by oxidative damages.

  11. Association SOD2 Polymorphism(-9C/T and Senile Cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Nakhaee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the most common causes of blindness around the world is cataract, which is a multifactorial eye disease and a major cause the loss lens transparency in the aging population. Oxidative stress is a major factor that often leads to cataract formation. Oxidative stress is defined as a disturbance in the balance of reactive oxygen species (ROS production  and antioxidant defenses, including enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems. One of the defense systems against free radicals is superoxide dismutase II (Mn SOD enzyme. SOD enzyme catalyses the dismutation of superoxide anion to O2 and H2O2. Several polymorphism  have been found associated with SOD2 gene. Present study has been done to evaluaet effects of genetic polymorphism, including SOD2 C/T polymorphism in the -9 position in senile cataract patiens and normal individuals. Material and methods: in this case- control study, there are 120 patients with senile cataract and 104 healthy people. We collected 2ml of whole blood in tubes containing EDTA, and then DNA extraction was performed. Polymorphisms were detected by PCR–RFLP technique. Findings: The distribution of CC, CT, TT genotypes of SOD2 gene were 28.3%, 43.3% and 28.3% in the patient group and 24%, 48.1% and 27.9% in the healthy group, respectively. Conclusion: No significant difference in the distribution SOD2 C/T polymorphism was observed between cases and controls. 

  12. Genetic disruption of SOD1 gene causes glucose intolerance and impairs β-cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscogiuri, Giovanna; Salmon, Adam B; Aguayo-Mazzucato, Cristina; Li, Mengyao; Balas, Bogdan; Guardado-Mendoza, Rodolfo; Giaccari, Andrea; Reddick, Robert L; Reyna, Sara M; Weir, Gordon; Defronzo, Ralph A; Van Remmen, Holly; Musi, Nicolas

    2013-12-01

    Oxidative stress has been associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. However, it is not clear whether oxidative damage is a cause or a consequence of the metabolic abnormalities present in diabetic subjects. The goal of this study was to determine whether inducing oxidative damage through genetic ablation of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) leads to abnormalities in glucose homeostasis. We studied SOD1-null mice and wild-type (WT) littermates. Glucose tolerance was evaluated with intraperitoneal glucose tolerance tests. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity was quantitated with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. β-Cell function was determined with the hyperglycemic clamp and morphometric analysis of pancreatic islets. Genetic ablation of SOD1 caused glucose intolerance, which was associated with reduced in vivo β-cell insulin secretion and decreased β-cell volume. Peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity were not significantly altered in SOD1-null mice. High-fat diet caused glucose intolerance in WT mice but did not further worsen the glucose intolerance observed in standard chow-fed SOD1-null mice. Our findings suggest that oxidative stress per se does not play a major role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and demonstrate that oxidative stress caused by SOD1 ablation leads to glucose intolerance secondary to β-cell dysfunction.

  13. Decreased serum Ou/Zn sOD in children with Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Russo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim To assess serum Cu/Zn SOD (Superoxide Dismutase concentration in autistic children and evaluate its possible relationship to GI Symptoms. Subjects and Methods Serum from 50 autistic children (31 with chronic digestive disease (most with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia (LNH and inflammation of the colorectal, small bowel and/or stomach and 19 autistic children without GI disease, and 29 non autistic controls (20 age matched non autistic children with no GI disease and 9 age matched non autistic children with GI disease were tested for Cu/Zn SOD using ELISAs. Results Serum Cu/Zn SOD levels of autistic children were significantly lower than all non autistic controls (p < 0.0001. Serum Cu/Zn SOD of autistic children with severe GI disease was significantly lower than autistic children with no GI disease (p < 0.0001, non autistic children without GI disease (<0.0001 and non autistic children with GI disease (p = 0.0003. Discussion These results suggest an association between Cu/Zn SOD serum levels and autism, particularly autistic children with GI disease, and that the concentration of serum Cu/Zn SOD may be a useful biomarker for autistic children with severe GI disease.

  14. Effect of antigravity suit inflation on cardiovascular, PRA, and PVP responses in humans. [Plasma Renin Activity and Plasma VasoPressin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravik, S. E.; Keil, L. C.; Geelen, G.; Wade, C. E.; Barnes, P. R.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of lower body and abdominal pressure, produced by antigravity suit inflation, on blood pressure, pulse rate, fluid and electrolyte shift, plasma vasopressin and plasma renin activity in humans in upright postures were studied. Five men and two women stood upright for 3 hr with the suit being either inflated or uninflated. In the control tests, the suit was inflated only during the latter part of the trials. Monitoring was carried out with a sphygnomanometer, with sensors for pulse rates, and using a photometer and osmometer to measure blood serum characteristics. The tests confirmed earlier findings that the anti-g suit eliminates increases in plasma renin activity. Also, the headward redistribution of blood obtained in the tests commends the anti-g suit as an alternative to water immersion or bed rest for initial weightlessness studies.

  15. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity and human atrial fibrillation: increased plasma angiotensin converting enzyme 2 activity is associated with atrial fibrillation and more advanced left atrial structural remodelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Tomos E; Kalman, Jonathan M; Patel, Sheila K; Mearns, Megan; Velkoska, Elena; Burrell, Louise M

    2017-08-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is an integral membrane protein whose main action is to degrade angiotensin II. Plasma ACE2 activity is increased in various cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to determine the relationship between plasma ACE2 activity and human atrial fibrillation (AF), and in particular its relationship to left atrial (LA) structural remodelling. One hundred and three participants from a tertiary arrhythmia centre, including 58 with paroxysmal AF (PAF), 20 with persistent AF (PersAF), and 25 controls, underwent clinical evaluation, echocardiographic analysis, and measurement of plasma ACE2 activity. A subgroup of 20 participants underwent invasive LA electroanatomic mapping. Plasma ACE2 activity levels were increased in AF [control 13.3 (9.5-22.3) pmol/min/mL; PAF 16.9 (9.7-27.3) pmol/min/mL; PersAF 22.8 (13.7-33.4) pmol/min/mL, P = 0.006]. Elevated plasma ACE2 was associated with older age, male gender, hypertension and vascular disease, elevated left ventricular (LV) mass, impaired LV diastolic function and advanced atrial disease (P < 0.05 for all). Independent predictors of elevated plasma ACE2 activity were AF (P = 0.04) and vascular disease (P < 0.01). There was a significant relationship between elevated ACE2 activity and low mean LA bipolar voltage (adjusted R2 = 0.22, P = 0.03), a high proportion of complex fractionated electrograms (R2 = 0.32, P = 0.009) and a long LA activation time (R2 = 0.20, P = 0.04). Plasma ACE2 activity is elevated in human AF. Both AF and vascular disease predict elevated plasma ACE2 activity, and elevated plasma ACE2 is significantly associated with more advanced LA structural remodelling. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Adaptation of H+-pumping and plasma membrane H+ ATPase activity in proteoid roots of white lupin under phosphate deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feng; Zhu, Yiyong; Müller, Caroline; Zörb, Christian; Schubert, Sven

    2002-05-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) is able to adapt to phosphorus deficiency by producing proteoid roots that release a huge amount of organic acids, resulting in mobilization of sparingly soluble soil phosphate in rhizosphere. The mechanisms responsible for the release of organic acids by proteoid root cells, especially the trans-membrane transport processes, have not been elucidated. Because of high cytosolic pH, the release of undissociated organic acids is not probable. In the present study, we focused on H+ export by plasma membrane H+ ATPase in active proteoid roots. In vivo, rhizosphere acidification of active proteoid roots was vanadate sensitive. Plasma membranes were isolated from proteoid roots and lateral roots from P-deficient and -sufficient plants. In vitro, in comparison with two types of lateral roots and proteoid roots of P-sufficient plants, the following increase of the various parameters was induced in active proteoid roots of P-deficient plants: (a) hydrolytic ATPase activity, (b) Vmax and Km, (c) H+ ATPase enzyme concentration of plasma membrane, (d) H+-pumping activity, (e) pH gradient across the membrane of plasmalemma vesicles, and (f) passive H+ permeability of plasma membrane. In addition, lower vanadate sensitivity and more acidic pH optimum were determined for plasma membrane ATPase of active proteoid roots. Our data support the hypothesis that in active proteoid root cells, H+ and organic anions are exported separately, and that modification of plasma membrane H+ ATPase is essential for enhanced rhizosphere acidification by active proteoid roots.

  17. Photocatalytic activity of visible-light-active iron-doped coatings prepared by plasma spraying

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ctibor, Pavel; Pala, Zdeněk; Štengl, Václav; Mušálek, Radek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 40, č. 1 (2014), s. 2365-2372 ISSN 0272-8842 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00430803 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 ; RVO:61388980 Keywords : Spectroscopy * Bandgap * Plasma spraying * Photocatalysis * TiO2–Fe2O3 Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass; JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass (UACH-T) Impact factor: 2.605, year: 2014 http://www. sci encedirect.com/ sci ence/article/pii/S0272884213009541#

  18. Comparative study of active plasma lenses in high-quality electron accelerator transport lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tilborg, J.; Barber, S. K.; Benedetti, C.; Schroeder, C. B.; Isono, F.; Tsai, H.-E.; Geddes, C. G. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2018-05-01

    Electrically discharged active plasma lenses (APLs) are actively pursued in compact high-brightness plasma-based accelerators due to their high-gradient, tunable, and radially symmetric focusing properties. In this manuscript, the APL is experimentally compared with a conventional quadrupole triplet, highlighting the favorable reduction in the energy dependence (chromaticity) in the transport line. Through transport simulations, it is explored how the non-uniform radial discharge current distribution leads to beam-integrated emittance degradation and a charge density reduction at focus. However, positioning an aperture at the APL entrance will significantly reduce emittance degradation without additional loss of charge in the high-quality core of the beam. An analytical model is presented that estimates the emittance degradation from a short beam driving a longitudinally varying wakefield in the APL. Optimizing laser plasma accelerator operation is discussed where emittance degradation from the non-uniform discharge current (favoring small beams inside the APL) and wakefield effects (favoring larger beam sizes) is minimized.

  19. Calculations of axisymmetric stability of tokamak plasmas with active and passive feedback

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, D.J.; Jardin, S.C.; Cheng, C.Z.

    1991-07-01

    A new linear MHD stability code, NOVA-W, has been developed in order to study feedback stabilization of the axisymmetric mode in deformable tokamak plasmas. The NOVA-W code is a modification of the non-variational MHD stability code NOVA that includes the effects of resistive passive conductors and active feedback circuits. The vacuum calculation has been reformulated in terms of the perturbed poloidal flux to allow the inclusion of perturbed toroidal currents outside the plasma. The boundary condition at the plasma-vacuum interface relates the instability displacement to the perturbed poloidal flux. This allows a solution of the linear MHD stability equations with the feedback effects included. The passive stability predictions of the code have been tested both against a simplified analytic model and against a different numerical calculation for a realistic tokamak configuration. The comparisons demonstrate the accuracy of the NOVA-W results. Active feedback calculations are performed for the CIT tokamak design demonstrating the effect of varying the position of the flux loops that provide the measurements of vertical displacement. The results compare well with those computed earlier using a less efficient nonlinear code. 37 refs., 13 figs

  20. Synthesis of electro-active manganese oxide thin films by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merritt, Anna R. [Energetics Research Division, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake, CA 93555 (United States); Rajagopalan, Ramakrishnan [Department of Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, Dubois, PA 15801 (United States); Materials Research Institute, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Carter, Joshua D. [Energetics Research Division, Naval Air Warfare Center Weapons Division, China Lake, CA 93555 (United States)

    2014-04-01

    The good stability, cyclability and high specific capacitance of manganese oxide (MnO{sub x}) has recently promoted a growing interest in utilizing MnO{sub x} in asymmetric supercapacitor electrodes. Several literature reports have indicated that thin film geometries of MnO{sub x} provide specific capacitances that are much higher than bulk MnO{sub x} powders. Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is a versatile technique for the production of metal oxide thin films with high purity and controllable thickness. In this work, MnO{sub x} thin films deposited by PECVD from a methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl precursor are presented and the effect of processing conditions on the quality of MnO{sub x} films is described. The film purity and oxidation state of the MnO{sub x} films were studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Preliminary electrochemical testing of MnO{sub x} films deposited on carbon fiber electrodes in aqueous electrolytes indicates that the PECVD synthesized films are electrochemically active. - Highlights: • Plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition of manganese oxide thin films. • Higher plasma power and chamber pressure increase deposition rate. • Manganese oxide thin films are electrochemically active. • Best electrochemical performance observed for pure film with low stress • Lower capacitance observed at higher scan rates despite thin film geometry.

  1. Decreased plasma ADAMTS-13 activity as a predictor of postoperative bleeding in cyanotic congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosangela P.S. Soares

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To analyze the preoperative plasma antigenic concentration and activity of von Willebrand factor and its main cleaving protease ADAMTS-13 in pediatric patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease undergoing surgical treatment and investigate possible correlations with postoperative bleeding. METHODS: Plasma antigenic concentrations (von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Collagen-binding assays were developed to measure biological activities (von Willebrand factor:collagen binding and ADAMTS-13 activity. The multimeric structure of von Willebrand factor was analyzed using Western immunoblotting. Demographic, diagnostic, and general and specific laboratory data and surgery-related variables were subjected to univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analysis for the prediction of postoperative bleeding. RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled, with ages ranging from 9 months to 7.6 years (median 2.5 years. The plasma concentrations of von Willebrand factor:Ag and ADAMTS-13:Ag were decreased by 65 and 82%, respectively, in the patients compared with the controls (p<0.001. An increased density of low-molecular-weight fractions of von Willebrand factor, which are suggestive of proteolytic degradation (p = 0.0081, was associated with decreased ADAMTS-13 activity, which was likely due to ADAMTS-13 consumption (71% of controls, p = 0.0029 and decreased von Willebrand factor:collagen binding (76% of controls, p = 0.0004. Significant postoperative bleeding occurred in 13 patients. The preoperative ADAMTS-13 activity of <64.6% (mean level for the group, preoperative activated partial thromboplastin time, and the need for cardiopulmonary bypass were characterized as independent risk factors for postoperative bleeding, with respective hazard ratios of 22.35 (95% CI 1.69 to 294.79, 1.096 (95% CI 1.016 to 1.183, and 37.43 (95% CI 1.79 to 782.73. CONCLUSION: Low plasma ADAMTS-13

  2. Acute intermittent hypoxia induced phrenic long-term facilitation despite increased SOD1 expression in a rat model of ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Nicole L; Satriotomo, Irawan; Harrigan, Daniel J; Mitchell, Gordon S

    2015-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron death. Since most ALS patients succumb to ventilatory failure from loss of respiratory motor neurons, any effective ALS treatment must preserve and/or restore breathing capacity. In rats over-expressing mutated super-oxide dismutase-1 (SOD1(G93A)), the capacity to increase phrenic motor output is decreased at disease end-stage, suggesting imminent ventilatory failure. Acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) induces phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF), a form of spinal respiratory motor plasticity with potential to restore phrenic motor output in clinical disorders that compromise breathing. Since pLTF requires NADPH oxidase activity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, it is blocked by NADPH oxidase inhibition and SOD mimetics in normal rats. Thus, we hypothesized that SOD1(G93A) (mutant; MT) rats do not express AIH-induced pLTF due to over-expression of active mutant superoxide dismutase-1. AIH-induced pLTF and hypoglossal (XII) LTF were assessed in young, pre-symptomatic and end-stage anesthetized MT rats and age-matched wild-type littermates. Contrary to predictions, pLTF and XII LTF were observed in MT rats at all ages; at end-stage, pLTF was actually enhanced. SOD1 levels were elevated in young and pre-symptomatic MT rats, yet superoxide accumulation in putative phrenic motor neurons (assessed with dihydroethidium) was unchanged; however, superoxide accumulation significantly decreased at end-stage. Thus, compensatory mechanisms appear to maintain ROS homoeostasis until late in disease progression, preserving AIH-induced respiratory plasticity. Following intrathecal injections of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin; 600 μM; 12 μL), pLTF was abolished in pre-symptomatic, but not end-stage MT rats, demonstrating that pLTF is NADPH oxidase dependent in pre-symptomatic, but NADPH oxidase independent in end-stage MT rats. Mechanisms

  3. Molecular identification of Nocardia species using the sodA gene: Identificación molecular de especies de Nocardia utilizando el gen sodA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Herrera, K; Sandoval, H; Mouniee, D; Ramírez-Durán, N; Bergeron, E; Boiron, P; Sánchez-Saucedo, N; Rodríguez-Nava, V

    2017-09-01

    Currently for bacterial identification and classification the rrs gene encoding 16S rRNA is used as a reference method for the analysis of strains of the genus Nocardia. However, it does not have enough polymorphism to differentiate them at the species level. This fact makes it necessary to search for molecular targets that can provide better identification. The sod A gene (encoding the enzyme superoxide dismutase) has had good results in identifying species of other Actinomycetes. In this study the sod A gene is proposed for the identification and differentiation at the species level of the genus Nocardia. We used 41 type species of various collections; a 386 bp fragment of the sod A gene was amplified and sequenced, and a phylogenetic analysis was performed comparing the genes rrs (1171 bp), hsp 65 (401 bp), sec A1 (494 bp), gyr B (1195 bp) and rpo B (401 bp). The sequences were aligned using the Clustal X program. Evolutionary trees according to the neighbour-joining method were created with the programs Phylo_win and MEGA 6. The specific variability of the sod A genus of the genus Nocardia was analysed. A high phylogenetic resolution, significant genetic variability, and specificity and reliability were observed for the differentiation of the isolates at the species level. The polymorphism observed in the sod A gene sequence contains variable regions that allow the discrimination of closely related Nocardia species. The clear specificity, despite its small size, proves to be of great advantage for use in taxonomic studies and clinical diagnosis of the genus Nocardia.

  4. Size and targeting to PECAM vs ICAM control endothelial delivery, internalization and protective effect of multimolecular SOD conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Muro, Silvia; Arguiri, Evguenia; Khoshnejad, Makan; Tliba, Samira; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2016-07-28

    Controlled endothelial delivery of SOD may alleviate abnormal local surplus of superoxide involved in ischemia-reperfusion, inflammation and other disease conditions. Targeting SOD to endothelial surface vs. intracellular compartments is desirable to prevent pathological effects of external vs. endogenous superoxide, respectively. Thus, SOD conjugated with antibodies to cell adhesion molecule PECAM (Ab/SOD) inhibits pro-inflammatory signaling mediated by endogenous superoxide produced in the endothelial endosomes in response to cytokines. Here we defined control of surface vs. endosomal delivery and effect of Ab/SOD, focusing on conjugate size and targeting to PECAM vs. ICAM. Ab/SOD enlargement from about 100 to 300nm enhanced amount of cell-bound SOD and protection against extracellular superoxide. In contrast, enlargement inhibited endocytosis of Ab/SOD and diminished mitigation of inflammatory signaling of endothelial superoxide. In addition to size, shape is important: endocytosis of antibody-coated spheres was more effective than that of polymorphous antibody conjugates. Further, targeting to ICAM provides higher endocytic efficacy than targeting to PECAM. ICAM-targeted Ab/SOD more effectively mitigated inflammatory signaling by intracellular superoxide in vitro and in animal models, although total uptake was inferior to that of PECAM-targeted Ab/SOD. Therefore, both geometry and targeting features of Ab/SOD conjugates control delivery to cell surface vs. endosomes for optimal protection against extracellular vs. endosomal oxidative stress, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Determining the Effect of Catechins on SOD1 Conformation and Aggregation by Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry Combined with Optical Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Pi, Zifeng; Liu, Shu; Liu, Zhiqiang; Song, Fengrui

    2018-02-01

    The aggregation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) plays an important role in the etiology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). For the disruption of ALS progression, discovering new drugs or compounds that can prevent SOD1 aggregation is important. In this study, ESI-MS was used to investigate the interaction of catechins and SOD1. The noncovalent complex of catechins that interact with SOD1 was found and retained in the gas phase under native ESI-MS condition. The conformation changes of SOD1 after binding with catechins were also explored via traveling wave ion mobility (IM) spectrometry. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) can stabilize SOD1 conformation against unfolding in three catechins. To further evaluate the efficacy of EGCG, we monitored the fluorescence changes of dimer E2,E2,-SOD1(apo-SOD1, E:empty) with and without ligands under denaturation conditions, and found that EGCG can inhibit apo-SOD1 aggregation. In addition, the circular dichroism spectra of the samples showed that EGCG can decrease the β-sheet content of SOD1, which can produce aggregates. These results indicated that orthogonal separation dimension in the gas-phase IM coupled with ESI-MS (ESI-IM-MS) can potentially provide insight into the interaction between SOD1 and small molecules. The advantage is that it dramatically decreases the analysis time. Meantime, optical spectroscopy techniques can be used to confirm ESI-IM-MS results. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  6. Protection of active implant electronics with organosilicon open air plasma coating for plastic overmolding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeppenfeld Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available To overcome challenges for manufacturing of modern smart medical plastic parts by injection molding, e.g. for active implants, the optimization of the interface between electronics and the polymer component concerning adhesion and diffusion behavior is crucial. Our results indicate that a nano-sized SiOxCyHz layer formed by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PE-CVD via open air atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ and by use of a hexamthyldisiloxane (HMDSO precursor can form a non-corrosive, anti-permeable and biocompatible coating. Due to the open air character of the APPJ process an inline coating before overmolding could be an easy applicable method and a promising advancement.

  7. Determination of selenium and zinc in rat plasma by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz A, Luis.

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the effects on the thyroid function when simple or multiple zinc, selenium and iodine deficiency are induced, research was carried out in laboratory animals. For simultaneously determining the Zn and Se concentration in rat plasma, an instrumental neutron activation analysis technique was applied. A clean laboratory, was used for the preparation of samples. High purity materials were used for sample collection and storage. Irradiation, decay and counting parameters were optimized to obtain the best sensitivity, accuracy and precision analysis. The Zn and Se concentrations were determined from the peak area of gamma-rays of 1115 and 265 KeV respectively. The analytical methodology used was validated with standard reference materials. The procedure used for the analysis, including the phases of collection, treatment of the samples and analytical determination was considered suitable for the study of trace elements in biological samples, especially plasma. (author) [es

  8. Method for the isolation of biologically active monomeric immunoglobulin A from a plasma fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibl, H; Tomasits, R; Wolf, H M; Eibl, M M; Mannhalter, J W

    1996-04-12

    A purification method for immunoglobulin A (IgA) yielding monomeric IgA with a purity of over 97% has been developed. This procedure uses ethanol-precipitated plasma (Cohn fraction III precipitate) as the starting material and includes heparin-Sepharose adsorption, dextran sulfate and ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydroxyapatite chromatography, batch adsorption by an anion-exchange matrix and gel permeation. Additional protein G Sepharose treatment leads to an IgA preparation of greater than 99% purity. The isolated IgA presented with an IgA subclass distribution, equivalent to IgA in unfractionated plasma, and was biologically active, as was shown by its ability to down-modulate Haemophilus influenzae-b-induced IL-6 secretion of human monocytes.

  9. Effect of electronegative additives on physical properties and chemical activity of gas discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, D. L.; Filatov, I. E.; Uvarin, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    Effect of electronegative additives (oxygen O2, sulfur dioxide SO2, carbon disulfide CS2, and carbon tetrachloride CCl4) on physical properties and chemical activity of plasma formed by pulsed corona discharge and by non-self-sustained discharge supported by pulsed electron beam in atmospheric pressure gas mixtures was investigated. It is shown that a decrease in discharge current depends on a sort of the additive and on its concentration. The reason is the difference in rate constants of electron attachment processes for the above molecules. In experiments on volatile organic compounds (VOCs) conversion in air by streamer corona it is obtained that an addition of CCl4 both decreases the discharge current amplitude and increases the VOCs conversion degree. An installation for investigation of electron attachment processes and for study of toxic impurities conversion in plasma formed by non-self-sustained discharge initiated by pulsed nanosecond electron beam is created.

  10. Detection of Sequence-Specific Tyrosine Nitration of Manganese SOD and SERCA in Cardiovascular Disease and Aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Shanqin; Ying, Jia; Jiang, Bingbing; Guo, Wei; Adachi, Takeshi; Sharov, Victor; Lazar, Harold; Menzoian, James; Knyushko, Tanya V.; Bigelow, Diana J.; Schoneich, Christian; Cohen, Richard

    2006-06-01

    Nitration of protein tyrosine residues (nY) is a marker of oxidative stress and may alter the biological activity of the modified proteins. The aim of this study was to develop antibodies towards site-specific nY-modified proteins and to use histochemical and immunoblotting to demonstrate protein nitration in tissues. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies towards peptides with known nY sites in MnSOD nY-34 and of two adjacent nY in the sarcoplasmic endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2 di-nY-294,295) were developed. Kidneys from rats infused with angiotensin II with known MnSOD nY and aorta from atherosclerotic rabbits and aging rat skeletal and cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum with known SERCA di-nY were used for positive controls. Staining for MnSOD nY-34 was most intense in distal renal tubules and collecting ducts. Staining of atherosclerotic aorta for SERCA2 di-nY was most intense in atherosclerotic plaques. Aging rat skeletal muscle and atherosclerotic aorta and cardiac atrium from human diabetic patients also stained positively. Staining was decreased by sodium dithionite that chemically reduces nitrotyrosine to aminotyrosine, and the antigenic nY-peptide blocked staining for each respective nY site, but not for the other. As previously demonstrated, immunoblotting failed to detect these modified proteins in whole tissue lysates, but did when the proteins were concentrated. Immunohistochemical staining for specific nY-modified tyrosine residues offers the ability to assess the effects of oxidant stress associated with pathological conditions on individual proteins whose function may be affected in specific tissue sites.

  11. Seeking homeostasis: Temporal trends in respiration, oxidation, and calcium in SOD1 G93A Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron W Irvin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Impairments in mitochondria, oxidative regulation, and calcium homeostasis have been well documented in numerous amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS experimental models, especially in the superoxide dismutase 1 glycine 93 to alanine (SOD1 G93A transgenic mouse. However, the timing of these deficiencies has been debatable. In a systematic review of 45 articles, we examine experimental measurements of cellular respiration, mitochondrial mechanisms, oxidative markers, and calcium regulation. We evaluate the quantitative magnitude and statistical temporal trend of these aggregated assessments in high transgene copy SOD1 G93A mice compared to wild type mice. Analysis of overall trends reveals cellular respiration, intracellular ATP, and corresponding mitochondrial elements (Cox, cytochrome c, complex I, enzyme activity are depressed for the entire lifespan of the SOD1 G93A mouse. Oxidant markers (H2O2, 8OH2’dG, MDA are initially similar to wild type but are double that of wild type by the time of symptom onset despite early post-natal elevation of protective heat shock proteins. All aspects of calcium regulation show early disturbances, although a notable and likely compensatory convergence to near wild type levels appears to occur between 40-80 days (pre-onset, followed by a post-onset elevation in intracellular calcium. The identified temporal trends and compensatory fluctuations provide evidence that the cause of ALS may lay within failed homeostatic regulation, itself, rather than any one particular perturbing event or cellular mechanism. We discuss the vulnerabilities of motoneurons to regulatory instability and possible hypotheses regarding failed regulation and its potential treatment in ALS.

  12. Neuroprotective Effect of Bexarotene in the SOD1G93A Mouse Model of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riancho, Javier; Ruiz-Soto, María; Berciano, María T.; Berciano, José; Lafarga, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive weakness and muscle atrophy related to the loss of upper and lower motor neurons (MNs) without a curative treatment. There is experimental evidence suggesting that retinoids may be involved in ALS pathogenesis. Bexarotene (Bxt) is a retinoid-X receptor agonist used in the treatment of cutaneous lymphoma with a favorable safety profile whose effects have been recently investigated in other neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we analyze the potential therapeutic effect of Bxt in the SOD1G93A mouse model of ALS. Mice were treated with Bxt or vehicle five times per week from day 60 onward. Survival, weight, and neuromuscular function studies together with histological and biochemical analyses were performed. Bxt significantly delayed motor function deterioration, ameliorated the loss of body weight, and extended mice survival up to 30% of the symptomatic period. Histological analyses of the lumbosacral spinal cord revealed that Bxt markedly delayed the early motor-neuron degeneration occurring at presymptomatic stages in ALS-transgenic mice. Bxt treatment contributed to preserve the MN homeostasis in the SOD1G93A mice. Particularly, it reduced the neuronal loss and the chromatolytic response, induced nucleolar hypertrophy, decreased the formation of ubiquitylated inclusions, and modulated the lysosomal response. As an agonist of the retinoic-X receptor (RXR) pathway, Bxt notably increased the nuclear expression of the RXRα throughout transcriptionally active euchromatin domains. Bxt also contributed to protect the MN environment by reducing reactive astrogliosis and preserving perisomatic synapsis. Overall, these neuroprotective effects suggest that treatment with Bxt could be useful in ALS, particularly in those cases related to SOD1 mutations. PMID:26190974

  13. Objectively measured sedentary behavior, physical activity, and plasma lipids in overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cliff, Dylan P; Okely, Anthony D; Burrows, Tracy L; Jones, Rachel A; Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E; Baur, Louise A

    2013-02-01

    This study examines the associations between objectively measured sedentary behavior, light physical activity (LPA), and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and plasma lipids in overweight and obese children. Cross-sectional analyses were conducted among 126 children aged 5.5-9.9 years. Sedentary behavior, LPA, and MVPA were assessed using accelerometry. Fasting blood samples were analyzed for plasma lipids (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], total cholesterol [TC], and triglycerides [TG]). MVPA was not related to plasma lipids (P > 0.05). Independent of age, sex, energy intake, and waist circumference z-score, sedentary behavior and LPA were associated with HDL-C (β = -0.23, 95% CI -0.42 to -0.04, P = 0.020; β = 0.20, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.39, P = 0.036, respectively). The strength of the associations remained after additionally adjusting for MVPA (sedentary behavior: β = -0.22, 95% CI -0.44 to 0.006, P = 0.056; LPA: β = 0.19, 95% CI -0.005 to 0.38, P = 0.056, respectively). Substituting at least LPA for sedentary time may contribute to the development of healthy HDL-C levels among overweight and obese children, independent of their adiposity. Comprehensive prevention and treatment strategies to improve plasma HDL-C among overweight and obese children should target reductions in total sedentary time and promote the benefits of LPA, in addition to promoting healthy levels of adiposity, healthy dietary behaviors, and MVPA. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  14. A plasma coagulation assay for an activated protein C-independent anticoagulant activity of protein S

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijnen, M.; van 't Veer, C.; Meijers, J. C.; Bertina, R. M.; Bouma, B. N.

    1998-01-01

    To study the physiological importance of the activated protein C (APC)-independent anticoagulant activity of protein S, we developed an assay specific for this activity. The ability of protein S to prolong the clotting time in an APC-independent way was expressed as the ratio of the clotting time in

  15. Mitochondria-targeted superoxide dismutase (SOD2) regulates radiation resistance and radiation stress response in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosoki, Ayaka; Yonekura, Shin-Ichiro; Zhao, Qing-Li

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a mediator of ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage. Previous studies have indicated that MnSOD (SOD2) plays a critical role in protection against ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. In this study, we constructed two types of stable HeLa cell lines overexpressing SOD2, HeLa S3/SOD2 and T-REx HeLa/SOD2, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the protection against radiation by SOD2. SOD2 overexpression in mitochondria enhanced the survival of HeLa S3 and T-REx HeLa cells following γ-irradiation. The levels of γH2AX significantly decreased in HeLa S3/SOD2 and T-REx HeLa/SOD2 cells compared with those in the control cells. MitoSox TM Red assays showed that both lines of SOD2-expressing cells showed suppression of the superoxide generation in mitochondria. Furthermore, flow cytometry with a fluorescent probe (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein) revealed that the cellular levels of ROS increased in HeLa S3 cells during post-irradiation incubation, but the increase was markedly attenuated in HeLa S3/SOD2 cells. DNA microarray analysis revealed that, of 47,000 probe sets analyzed, 117 and 166 probes showed more than 2-fold changes after 5.5 Gy of γ-irradiation in control and HeLa S3/SOD2 cells, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed different expression profiles in irradiated control cells and irradiated SOD2-overexpressing cells. These results indicate that SOD2 protects HeLa cells against cellular effects of γ-rays through suppressing oxidative stress in irradiated cells caused by ROS generated in the mitochondria and through regulating the expression of genes which play a critical role in protection against ionizing radiation. (author)

  16. Plasma lipid fatty acid composition, desaturase activities and insulin sensitivity in Amerindian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vessby, B; Ahrén, B; Warensjö, E; Lindgärde, F

    2012-03-01

    Two Amerindian populations--Shuar women living in the Amazonian rain forest under traditional conditions and urbanized women in a suburb of Lima were studied. The fatty acid composition in plasma lipids and the relationships between fatty acid composition and metabolic variables were studied, as well as in a reference group of Swedish women. Fasting plasma was used for analyses of glucose, insulin, leptin and fatty acid composition. Women in Lima had more body fat, higher fasting insulin and leptin and lower insulin sensitivity than the Shuar women, who had insulin sensitivity similar to Swedish women. Shuar women had very high proportions (mean; SD) of palmitoleic (13.2; 3.9%) and oleic (33.9; 3.7%) acids in the plasma cholesteryl esters with very low levels of linoleic acid (29.1; 6.1 3%), as expected on a low fat, high carbohydrate diet. The estimated activity of delta 9 (SCD-1) desaturase was about twice as high in the Shuar compared with Lima women, suggesting neo lipogenesis, while the delta 5 desaturase activity did not differ. The Lima women, as well as the Swedish, showed strong positive correlations between SCD-1 activity on the one hand and fasting insulin and HOMA index on the other. These associations were absent in the Shuar women. The high SCD-1 activity in the Shuar women may reflect increased lipogenesis in adipose tissue. It also illustrates how a low fat diet rich in non-refined carbohydrates can be linked to a good metabolic situation. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. 咪鲜胺及其制剂和主要代谢物对三叶浮萍SOD和POD活性的影响%Effect of Prochloraz, Its Formulation and Major Metabolites on the Activities of SOD and POD in Lemna pau-cicostata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫麦霞; 龚道新; 黎定军; 任竞; 刘名扬; 汪传刚

    2008-01-01

    为了全面正确地评价咪鲜胺及其制剂和主要代谢物施用后的生态环境效应和生物毒性,以三叶浮萍(Lemna Paucicostata)为实验材料,采用光照恒温培养法,研究了咪鲜胺及其制剂和主要代谢物(包括BTS44595、BTS44596和BTS45186)对三叶浮萍体内超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和过氧化物酶(POD)活性的影响.结果表明,随着处理浓度的升高,Prochloraz、Sportak、BTS44595和BTS44596对SOD活性和POD活性的影响由激活作用转变为抑制作用,而BTS45186对SOD和POD活性的影响则表现为抑制作用,且浓度越高,对SOD和POD活性的抑制作用越强;Prochloraz和Sportak对SOD和POD活性的影响较大, 但两者之间的差异不大,不过Proehloraz对三叶浮萍的SOD和POD活性的影响早于Sportak的影响.Pmchloraz及其主要代谢产物对SOD和POD活性影响的大小顺序 :B3S45186>Prochloraz>BTS44596>BTS44595.这说明Prochloraz降解为代谢产物BTS44595和BTS44596的过程是一个毒性下降的解毒过程,而BTS44595和BTS44596降解为BTS45186的过程是一个毒性上升的增毒过程.

  18. Chemical analysis of reactive species and antimicrobial activity of/nwater treated by nanosecond pulsed DBD air plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laurita, R.; Barbieri, D.; Gherardi, M.; Colombo, V.; Lukeš, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 2 (2015), s. 53-61 ISSN 2212-8166 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LD14080 Grant - others:European Cooperation in Science and Technology(XE) COST TD1208 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Dielectric barrier discharge * Plasma activated water * Reactive species * Peroxynitrite * Phenol degradation * Candida albicans * Staphylococcus aureus * Antimicrobial activity * Nosocomial infections Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2212816615300081

  19. Influence of Arm-cranking on Changes in Plasma CK Activity after High Force Eccentric Exercise of the Elbow Flexors

    OpenAIRE

    Kazunori, NOSAKA; Kei, SAKAMOTO; Mike, NEWTON; Exercise and Sports Science, Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University:School of Biomedical and Sports Science, Edith Cowan University; Exercise and Sports Science, Graduate School of Integrated Science, Yokohama City University; School of Biomedical and Sports Science, Edith Cowan University

    2002-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the time course of changes in plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity following eccentric exercise was influenced by rhythmical muscle contractions performed after eccentric exercise. This study examined whether arm-cranking (AC) alters the time course of changes in plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity after eccentric exercise of the elbow flexors (ECC). Six male students performed two bouts of ECC separated by 3 weeks, and AC (25watts, 2-hours) was performed immediately...

  20. Influence of antihypertensive therapy, sodium intake and the concentration of potassium in plasma on concentration of aldosterone and plasma renin activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lalić Tijana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Primary aldosteronism (PA is a group of disorders which are characterized by inadequate and non-suppressible production of aldosterone. The prevalence of PA is increasing in hypertensive population. The golden standard of screening for primary aldosteronism, determination of aldosterone/plasma renin activity (ARR, is influenced by numerous exogenous and endogenous factors. Testing cannot always be conducted under optimal conditions. Objective: To determine influence of antihypertensive drugs and concentrations of potassium and sodium in blood and urine on values of aldosterone and plasma renin activity. Methods: In this retrospective study, we analyzed medical reports of patients admitted to Department of thyroid gland disease in the period from 2009 to 2011, with increased risk for primary aldosteronism. Body weight and height, sodium and potassium in serum and urine, plasma aldosterone concentrations and plasma renin activity, data on medicines and comorbidity were analyzed in all patients. In processing data, statistical methods descriptive analysis, Student T test and univariate linear regression were applied. Result: Of 137 patients, there were more patients with resistant hypertension (53,28% than with adrenal tumors (46,72%. Most patients used calcium channel blockers. Treatment with alpha blockers and calcium channel blockers does not influence ARR. Beta blockers and ACE inhibitors can influence ARR and diuretics and vasodilatators have definite influence. Diabetes mellitus can have higher risk of false negative results. Urine sodium excretion is significantly correlated with plasma aldosteron and serum potassium. Plasma aldosteron and PRA are significantly correlated with concentrations of electrolites in urine. Conclusion: Increased prevalence of primary aldosteronism necessitates need for accurate and better diagnostics.

  1. Tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in human plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, S.A.; Jesty, J.

    1984-01-01

    A comparism was made of the tissue factor-dependent activation of tritium-labeled factor IX and factor X in a human plasma system and a study was made of the role of proteases known to stimulate factor VII activity. Plasma was defibrinated by heating and depleted of its factors IX and X by passing it through antibody columns. Addition of human brain thromboplastin, Ca2+, and purified 3H-labeled factor X to the plasma resulted, after a short lag, in burst-like activation of the factor X, measured as the release of radiolabeled activation peptide. The progress of activation was slowed by both heparin and a specific inhibitor of factor Xa but factor X activation could not be completely abolished by such inhibitors. In the case of 3H-factor IX activation, the rate also increased for approximately 3 min after addition of thromboplastin, but was not subsequently curtailed. A survey of proteases implicated as activators of factor VII in other settings showed that both factor Xa and factor IXa could accelerate the activation of factor IX. However, factor Xa was unique in obliterating activation when present at concentrations greater than approximately 1 nM. Heparin inhibited the tissue factor-dependent activation of factor IX almost completely, apparently through the effect of antithrombin on the feedback reactions of factors Xa and IXa on factor VII. These results suggest that a very tight, biphasic control of factor VII activity exists in human plasma, which is modulated mainly by factor Xa. At saturation of factor VIIa/tissue factor, factor IX activation was significantly more rapid than was previously found in bovine plasma under similar conditions. The activation of factor X at saturation was slightly more rapid than in bovine plasma, despite the presence of heparin

  2. A case of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of post-partum preeclampsia with suppressed plasma aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurelio Negro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES is characterized by headache, altered mental status, visual loss, and seizures. PRES is associated with neuroradiological findings: white matter abnormalities, predominantly in the parieto-occipital regions of the brain. PRES has been described in association with hypertensive encephalopathy, eclampsia, renal failure, or following immunosuppressive or anticancer therapy. We report a case of PRES in a severe preeclampsia occurring in the late postpartum period, with suppressed plasma aldosterone levels and plasma renin activity. These laboratory abnormalities may be due to an apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome.

  3. Role of low density lipoprotein in the activation of plasma lysolecithin acyltransferase activity. Effect of chemical and enzymatic modifications of the lipoprotein on enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subbaiah, P V; Chen, C H; Bagdade, J D; Albers, J J

    1985-01-01

    The effect of various chemical and enzymatic modifications of low density lipoprotein (LDL) on its ability to activate the isolated human plasma lysolecithin acyltransferase (LAT) was studied. Removal of all lipids from LDL resulted in the complete loss of LAT activation. Removal of only neutral lipids by extraction with heptane retained up to 50% of the original activity, which was not increased further by reconstitution of the LDL with the extracted lipids. Hydrolysis of the diacylphosphoglycerides of the LDL with phospholipases resulted in complete loss of LAT activation which was partially restored by the addition of egg lecithin. Hydrolysis of more than 4% of LDL protein by trypsin led to a linear decrease in activity with complete loss of activity occurring when about 25% of the LDL protein is hydrolyzed. Modification of the arginine groups of LDL reversibly inhibited the activation of LAT. Modification of lysine residues of LDL by acetylation, acetoacetylation or succinylation also abolished its ability to activate lysolecithin acylation.

  4. Bermudagrass sod growth and metal uptake in coal combustion by-product-amended media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlossberg, M.J.; Vanags, C.P.; Miller, W.P. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (USA). Dept. of Crop & Soil Science

    2004-04-01

    Coal combustion by-products (CCB) include fly ash and bottom ash and are generated nationally at rates of 10{sup 8} Mg yr{sup -1}. Land applications of CCB have improved physicochemical properties of soil, yet inherent bulkiness and trace metal content of CCB often limit their use. Likewise, utilization of biosolids and manure as fertilizer can be problematic due to unfavorable nutrient ratios. A 2-yr field study evaluated environmental and technical parameters associated with CCB-organic waste utilization as growth media in turfgrass sod production. Experimental growth media formulated with CCB and organic waste and a sand-compost control mixture were uniformly spread at rates from 200 to 400 m{sup 3} ha{sup -1} and sprigged with hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy). Leaf clippings were collected and analyzed for total elemental content each year. In Year 2, growth media samples were collected during establishment 47 and 84 days after planting (DAP) and viable Escherichia coli organisms were quantified. At harvest (99 or 114 DAP), sod biomass and physicochemical properties of the growth media were measured. During sod propagation, micronutrient and metal content in leaf clippings varied by growth media and time. After 47 d of typical sod field management, viable E. coli pathogens were detected in only one biosolids-amended plot. No viable E. coli were measured at 84 DAP. In both years, sod biomass was greatest in media containing biosolids and fly ash. Following installation of sod, evaluations did not reveal differences by media type or application volume. Using CCB-organic waste mixes at the rates described herein is a rapid and environmentally safe method of bermudagrass sod production.

  5. Unraveling ALS due to SOD1 mutation through the combination of brain and cervical cord MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Federica; Spinelli, Edoardo Gioele; Marjanovic, Ivan V; Stevic, Zorica; Pagani, Elisabetta; Valsasina, Paola; Salak-Djokic, Biljana; Jankovic, Milena; Lavrnic, Dragana; Kostic, Vladimir S; Filippi, Massimo

    2018-02-20

    To explore structural and functional changes of the brain and cervical cord in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) due to mutation in the superoxide dismutase ( SOD1 ) gene compared with sporadic ALS. Twenty patients with SOD1 ALS, 11 with sporadic ALS, and 33 healthy controls underwent clinical evaluation and brain MRI. Cortical thickness analysis, diffusion tensor MRI of the corticospinal tracts (CST) and corpus callosum, and resting-state functional connectivity were performed. Patients with ALS also underwent cervical cord MRI to evaluate cord cross-sectional area and magnetization transfer ratio (MTR). Patients with SOD1 ALS showed longer disease duration and slower rate of functional decline relative to those with sporadic ALS. No cortical thickness abnormalities were found in patients with ALS compared with controls. Fractional anisotropy showed that sporadic ALS patients had significant CST damage relative to both healthy controls ( p = 0.001-0.02) and SOD1-related ALS ( p = 0.05), although the latter showed alterations that were intermediate between controls and sporadic ALS. Functional hyperconnectivity of the motor cortex in the sensorimotor network was observed in patients with sporadic ALS relative to controls. Conversely, patients with SOD1 ALS showed lower cord cross-sectional area along the whole cervical cord relative to those with sporadic ALS ( p ALS showed cervical cord atrophy relative to those with sporadic ALS and a relative preservation of brain motor structural and functional networks. Neurodegeneration in SOD1 ALS is likely to occur primarily in the spinal cord. An objective and accurate estimate of spinal cord damage has potential in the future assessment of preventive SOD1 ALS therapies. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  6. Inherited variations in the SOD and GPX gene families and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuzhalin, Arseniy E; Kutikhin, Anton G

    2012-05-01

    Antioxidant defence enzymes are essential protectors of living organisms against oxidative stress. These enzymes are involved in the detoxification and decomposition of harmful chemical compounds called reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are, first and foremost, a source of intracellular oxidative stress. ROS directly promote the oxidative damage of genes resulting in aberrant regulation of many vital cell processes. As a consequence, the presence of ROS can lead to genomic instability, deregulation of transcription, induction of mitogenic signal transduction pathways and replication errors, all of which may increase the risk of cancer development. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of antioxidant defence genes may significantly modify the functional activity of the encoded proteins; therefore, certain alleles can be established as risk factors for particular cancer types. In the future, these risk alleles may be utilized as genomic markers of cancer predisposition to allow for early prevention measures among carriers of these alleles. The review is devoted to common single nucleotide polymorphisms of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) gene families and their impact on carcinogenesis. The predictive significance of several polymorphisms was determined, and these polymorphisms were recommended for further in-depth research.

  7. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L Frelinger

    Full Text Available Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma.To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity.PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, endothelial growth factor (EGF and platelet factor 4 (PF4, and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin.PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the presence of platelet

  8. Modification of Pulsed Electric Field Conditions Results in Distinct Activation Profiles of Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frelinger, Andrew L; Gerrits, Anja J; Garner, Allen L; Torres, Andrew S; Caiafa, Antonio; Morton, Christine A; Berny-Lang, Michelle A; Carmichael, Sabrina L; Neculaes, V Bogdan; Michelson, Alan D

    2016-01-01

    Activated autologous platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used in therapeutic wound healing applications is poorly characterized and standardized. Using pulsed electric fields (PEF) to activate platelets may reduce variability and eliminate complications associated with the use of bovine thrombin. We previously reported that exposing PRP to sub-microsecond duration, high electric field (SMHEF) pulses generates a greater number of platelet-derived microparticles, increased expression of prothrombotic platelet surfaces, and differential release of growth factors compared to thrombin. Moreover, the platelet releasate produced by SMHEF pulses induced greater cell proliferation than plasma. To determine whether sub-microsecond duration, low electric field (SMLEF) bipolar pulses results in differential activation of PRP compared to SMHEF, with respect to profiles of activation markers, growth factor release, and cell proliferation capacity. PRP activation by SMLEF bipolar pulses was compared to SMHEF pulses and bovine thrombin. PRP was prepared using the Harvest SmartPreP2 System from acid citrate dextrose anticoagulated healthy donor blood. PEF activation by either SMHEF or SMLEF pulses was performed using a standard electroporation cuvette preloaded with CaCl2 and a prototype instrument designed to take into account the electrical properties of PRP. Flow cytometry was used to assess platelet surface P-selectin expression, and annexin V binding. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), endothelial growth factor (EGF) and platelet factor 4 (PF4), and were measured by ELISA. The ability of supernatants to stimulate proliferation of human epithelial cells in culture was also evaluated. Controls included vehicle-treated, unactivated PRP and PRP with 10 mM CaCl2 activated with 1 U/mL bovine thrombin. PRP activated with SMLEF bipolar pulses or thrombin had similar light scatter profiles, consistent with the presence of platelet

  9. Effect of magnetic activity on plasma bubbles over equatorial and low-latitude regions in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of plasma bubble occurrence in the eveningside ionosphere, with magnetic activity during the period years 2001–2004, is studied here based on the TEC observations gathered by ground-based GPS receivers which are located in the equatorial and low-latitude regions in East Asia. The observed plasma bubbles consist of the plasma-bubble events in the equatorial (stations GUAM, PIMO and KAYT, and low-latitude regions (stations WUHN, DAEJ and SHAO. It is shown that most equatorial plasma-bubble events commence at 20:00 LT, and may last for >60 min. The magnetic activity appears to suppress the generation of equatorial plasma bubbles with a time delay of more than 3 h (4–9 h. While in the low-latitude regions, most plasma-bubble events commence at about 23:00 LT and last for <45 min. The best correlation between Kp and low-latitude plasma-bubble occurrence is found with an 8–9 h delay, a weak correlation exists for time delays of 6–7 h. This probably indicates that over 3 h delayed disturbance dynamo electric fields obviously inhibit the development of plasma bubbles in the pre-midnight sector.

  10. 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory; Relatorio de atividades de 2003 da linha de pesquisa e desenvolvimento em fusao termonuclear controlada - fusao. Laboratorio Associado de Plasma (LAP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    2004-07-01

    This document represents the 2003 activity report of the development and research line in controlled thermonuclear fusion of the Plasma Associated Laboratory - Brazil, approaching the areas of toroidal systems for magnetic confinement, plasma heating, current generation and high temperature plasma diagnostic.

  11. Activities report of the National Space Research Institute Plasma Laboratory for the period 1988/1989; Relatorio de atividades do Laboratorio Associado de Plasma do INPE no bienio 88/89

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, Gerson Otto

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the activities performed in the period 1988/1989 by the National Space Research Institute (INPE/SCT) Plasma Laboratory (LAP). The report presents the main results in the following research lines: plasma physics, plasma technology, and controlled thermonuclear fusion. (author). 49 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Observation of magnetic field perturbations during sawtooth activity in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soltwisch, H.; Koslowski, H.R.

    1997-01-01

    Sawtooth activity is a prominent example of a global plasma instability which is observed in virtually all tokamak devices. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical investigations, the phenomenon is still barely understood. As far as experimental effort is concerned, much attention has been paid to soft X-ray emission from the plasma and to its analysis in terms of two-dimensional contour plots, because it is thought to reflect the shape and temporal behaviour of magnetic flux surfaces during a sawtooth cycle. Recently, more direct methods of detecting sawtooth-related changes in the magnetic field structure have become available and have added new facets to the general picture. In this picture, some observations made on the Juelich tokamak TEXTOR by means of a Faraday rotation diagnostic technique will be reported. First, in correlation with the sawtooth collapse a localized periodic perturbation of the magnetic field with principal mode numbers m = 1 and n = 0 has been detected which, in the presence of an m = n = 1 island, may give rise to magnetic field line stochastization and thereby contribute significantly to a rapid expulsion of electronic energy from the plasma core region. Second, the so-called precursor oscillations prior to a sawtooth crash have been investigated and estimates have been obtained for the growth rate and width of a magnetic island forming immediately before the collapse. (Author)

  13. IAEA activities on atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction data for fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braams, Bastiaan J.; Chung, Hyun-Kyung

    2013-09-01

    The IAEA Atomic and Molecular Data Unit (http://www-amdis.iaea.org/) aims to provide internationally evaluated and recommended data for atomic, molecular and plasma-material interaction (A+M+PMI) processes in fusion research. The Unit organizes technical meetings and coordinates an A+M Data Centre Network (DCN) and a Code Centre Network (CCN). In addition the Unit organizes Coordinated Research Projects (CRPs), for which the objectives are mixed between development of new data and evaluation and recommendation of existing data. In the area of A+M data we are placing new emphasis in our meeting schedule on data evaluation and especially on uncertainties in calculated cross section data and the propagation of uncertainties through structure data and fundamental cross sections to effective rate coefficients. Following a recent meeting of the CCN it is intended to use electron scattering on Be, Ne and N2 as exemplars for study of uncertainties and uncertainty propagation in calculated data; this will be discussed further at the presentation. Please see http://www-amdis.iaea.org/CRP/ for more on our active and planned CRPs, which are concerned with atomic processes in core and edge plasma and with plasma interaction with beryllium-based surfaces and with irradiated tungsten.

  14. Biocidal Activity of Plasma Modified Electrospun Polysulfone Mats Functionalized with Polyethyleneimine-Capped Silver Nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Schiffman, Jessica D.

    2011-11-01

    The incorporation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) into polymeric nanofibers has attracted a great deal of attention due to the strong antimicrobial activity that the resulting fibers exhibit. However, bactericidal efficacy of AgNP-coated electrospun fibrous mats has not yet been demonstrated. In this study, polysulfone (PSf) fibers were electrospun and surface-modified using an oxygen plasma treatment, which allowed for facile irreversible deposition of cationically charged polyethyleneimine (PEI)-AgNPs via electrostatic interactions. The PSf-AgNP mats were characterized for relative silver concentration as a function of plasma treatment time using ICP-MS and changes in contact angle. Plasma treatment of 60 s was the shortest time required for maximum loss of bacteria (Escherichia coli) viability. Time-dependent bacterial cytotoxicity studies indicate that the optimized PSf-AgNP mats exhibit a high level of inactivation against both Gram negative bacteria, Escherichia coli, and Gram positive bacteria, Bacillus anthracis and Staphylococcus aureus. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  15. Plasma-activated multi-walled carbon nanotube-polystyrene composite substrates for biosensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Sanchez, Cesar; Orozco, Jahir; Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia; Pellicer, Eva; Lechuga, Laura M; Mendoza, Ernest

    2009-01-01

    Carbon nanotube-polymer composites have shown to be suitable materials for the fabrication of electrochemical transducers. The exposed surface of these materials is commonly passivated by a very thin layer of the polymer component that buries the conductive carbon particles. Working with multi-walled carbon nanotube-polystyrene (MWCNT-PS) composite structures, it was previously described how a simple low power oxygen plasma process produced an effective etching of the composite surface, thereby exposing the conductive surface of CNTs. This work shows how this plasma process not only gave rise to a suitable composite conductive surface for electrochemical sensing but simultaneously exposed and created a high density of oxygen-containing functional groups at both the CNT and the PS components, without affecting the material's mechanical stability. These chemical groups could be effectively modified for the stable immobilization of biological receptors. A detailed chemical characterization of the plasma-activated composite surface was possible using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The material reactivity towards the tethering of a protein was studied and protein-protein interactions were then evaluated on the modified composite transducers by scanning electron microscopy. Finally, an amperometric immunosensor approach for the detection of rabbit Immunoglobulin G target analyte was described and a minimum concentration of 3 ng ml -1 was easily measured.

  16. Plasma-activated multi-walled carbon nanotube-polystyrene composite substrates for biosensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Sanchez, Cesar; Orozco, Jahir; Jimenez-Jorquera, Cecilia [Instituto de Microelectronica de Barcelona, IMB-CNM (CSIC), Campus UAB, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Pellicer, Eva; Lechuga, Laura M; Mendoza, Ernest, E-mail: cesar.fernandez@imb-cnm.csic.e [Nanobiosensors and Molecular Nanobiophysics Group, Research Center on Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CIN2) CSIC-ICN, ETSE, Campus UAB-Edificio Q, E-08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain)

    2009-08-19

    Carbon nanotube-polymer composites have shown to be suitable materials for the fabrication of electrochemical transducers. The exposed surface of these materials is commonly passivated by a very thin layer of the polymer component that buries the conductive carbon particles. Working with multi-walled carbon nanotube-polystyrene (MWCNT-PS) composite structures, it was previously described how a simple low power oxygen plasma process produced an effective etching of the composite surface, thereby exposing the conductive surface of CNTs. This work shows how this plasma process not only gave rise to a suitable composite conductive surface for electrochemical sensing but simultaneously exposed and created a high density of oxygen-containing functional groups at both the CNT and the PS components, without affecting the material's mechanical stability. These chemical groups could be effectively modified for the stable immobilization of biological receptors. A detailed chemical characterization of the plasma-activated composite surface was possible using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The material reactivity towards the tethering of a protein was studied and protein-protein interactions were then evaluated on the modified composite transducers by scanning electron microscopy. Finally, an amperometric immunosensor approach for the detection of rabbit Immunoglobulin G target analyte was described and a minimum concentration of 3 ng ml{sup -1} was easily measured.

  17. Correlation of Coronal Plasma Properties and Solar Magnetic Field in a Decaying Active Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Young, Peter R.; Muglach, Karin; Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    We present the analysis of a decaying active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode during 2009 December 7-11. We investigated the temporal evolution of its structure exhibited by plasma at temperatures from 300,000 to 2.8 million degrees, and derived the electron density, differential emission measure, effective electron temperature, and elemental abundance ratios of Si/S and Fe/S (as a measure of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect). We compared these coronal properties to the temporal evolution of the photospheric magnetic field strength obtained from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. We find that, while these coronal properties all decreased with time during this decay phase, the largest change was at plasma above 1.5 million degrees. The photospheric magnetic field strength also decreased with time but mainly for field strengths lower than about 70 Gauss. The effective electron temperature and the FIP bias seem to reach a basal state (at 1.5 x 10(exp 6) K and 1.5, respectively) into the quiet Sun when the mean photospheric magnetic field (excluding all areas correlated with each other and the correlation is the strongest in the high-temperature plasma. Such correlation properties should be considered in the quest for our understanding of how the corona is heated. The variations in the elemental abundance should especially be considered together with the electron temperature and density.

  18. 2D surface temperature measurement of plasma facing components with modulated active pyrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiel, S.; Loarer, T.; Pocheau, C.; Roche, H.; Gauthier, E.; Aumeunier, M.-H.; Courtois, X.; Jouve, M.; Balorin, C.; Moncada, V.; Le Niliot, C.; Rigollet, F.

    2014-01-01

    In nuclear fusion devices, such as Tore Supra, the plasma facing components (PFC) are in carbon. Such components are exposed to very high heat flux and the surface temperature measurement is mandatory for the safety of the device and also for efficient plasma scenario development. Besides this measurement is essential to evaluate these heat fluxes for a better knowledge of the physics of plasma-wall interaction, it is also required to monitor the fatigue of PFCs. Infrared system (IR) is used to manage to measure surface temperature in real time. For carbon PFCs, the emissivity is high and known (ε ∼ 0.8), therefore the contribution of the reflected flux from environment and collected by the IR cameras can be neglected. However, the future tokamaks such as WEST and ITER will be equipped with PFCs in metal (W and Be/W, respectively) with low and variable emissivities (ε ∼ 0.1–0.4). Consequently, the reflected flux will contribute significantly in the collected flux by IR camera. The modulated active pyrometry, using a bicolor camera, proposed in this paper allows a 2D surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected fluxes and the emissivity. Experimental results with Tungsten sample are reported and compared with simultaneous measurement performed with classical pyrometry (monochromatic and bichromatic) with and without reflective flux demonstrating the efficiency of this method for surface temperature measurement independently of the reflected flux and the emissivity

  19. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  20. Freeze-dried plasma enhances clot formation and inhibits fibrinolysis in the presence of tissue plasminogen activator similar to pooled liquid plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Benjamin R; Moore, Ernest E; Moore, Hunter B; Sauaia, Angela; Stettler, Gregory; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Hansen, Kirk; Banerjee, Anirban; Silliman, Christopher C

    2017-08-01

    Systemic hyperfibrinolysis is an integral part of trauma-induced coagulopathy associated with uncontrolled bleeding. Recent data suggest that plasma-first resuscitation attenuates hyperfibrinolysis; however, the availability, transport, storage, and administration of plasma in austere environments remain challenging and have limited its use. Freeze-dried plasma (FDP) is a potential alternative due to ease of storage, longer shelf life, and efficient reconstitution. FDP potentially enhances clot formation and resists breakdown better than normal saline (NS) and albumin and similar to liquid plasma. Healthy volunteers underwent citrated blood draw followed by 50% dilution with NS, albumin, pooled plasma (PP), or pooled freeze-dried plasma (pFDP). Citrated native and tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA)-challenge (75 ng/mL) thrombelastography were done. Proteins in PP, pFDP, and albumin were analyzed by mass spectroscopy. pFDP and PP had superior clot-formation rates (angle) and clot strength (maximum amplitude) compared with NS and albumin in t-PA-challenge thrombelastographies (angle: pFDP, 67.9 degrees; PP, 67.8 degrees; NS, 40.6 degrees; albumin, 35.8 degrees; maximum amplitude: pFDP, 62.4 mm; PP, 63.5 mm; NS, 44.8 mm; albumin, 41.1 mm). NS and albumin dilution increased susceptibility to t-PA-induced hyperfibrinolysis compared with pFDP and PP (NS, 62.4%; albumin, 62.6%; PP, 8.5%; pFDP, 6.7%). pFDP was similar to PP in the attenuation of t-PA-induced fibrinolysis. Most proteins (97%) were conserved during the freeze-dry process, with higher levels in 12% of pFDP proteins compared with PP. pFDP enhances clot formation and attenuates hyperfibrinolysis better than NS and albumin and is a potential alternative to plasma resuscitation in the treatment of hemorrhagic shock. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Role of lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase in the metabolism of oxidized phospholipids in plasma: studies with platelet-activating factor-acetyl hydrolase-deficient plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, V S; Goyal, J; Miwa, M; Sugatami, J; Akiyama, M; Liu, M; Subbaiah, P V

    1999-07-09

    To determine the relative importance of platelet-activating factor-acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH) and lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) in the hydrolysis of oxidized phosphatidylcholines (OXPCs) to lyso-phosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC), we studied the formation and metabolism of OXPCs in the plasma of normal and PAF-AH-deficient subjects. Whereas the loss of PC following oxidation was similar in the deficient and normal plasmas, the formation of lyso-PC was significantly lower, and the accumulation of OXPC was higher in the deficient plasma. Isolated LDL from the PAF-AH-deficient subjects was more susceptible to oxidation, and stimulated adhesion molecule synthesis in endothelial cells, more than the normal LDL. Oxidation of 16:0-[1-14C]-18:2 PC, equilibrated with plasma PC, resulted in the accumulation of labeled short- and long-chain OXPCs, in addition to the labeled aqueous products. The formation of the aqueous products decreased by 80%, and the accumulation of short-chain OXPC increased by 110% in the deficient plasma, compared to the normal plasma, showing that PAF-AH is predominantly involved in the hydrolysis of the truncated OXPCs. Labeled sn-2-acyl group from the long-chain OXPC was not only hydrolyzed to free fatty acid, but was preferentially transferred to diacylglycerol, in both the normal and deficient plasmas. In contrast, the acyl group from unoxidized PC was transferred only to cholesterol, showing that the specificity of LCAT is altered by OXPC. It is concluded that, while PAF-AH carries out the hydrolysis of mainly truncated OXPCs, LCAT hydrolyzes and transesterifies the long-chain OXPCs.

  2. HOT PLASMA FROM SOLAR ACTIVE-REGION CORES: CONSTRAINTS FROM THE HINODE X-RAY TELESCOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmelz, J. T. [USRA, 7178 Columbia Gateway Drive, Columbia, MD 21046 (United States); Christian, G. M.; Matheny, P. O., E-mail: jschmelz@usra.edu [Physics Department, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN 38152 (United States)

    2016-12-20

    Mechanisms invoked to heat the solar corona to millions of degrees kelvin involve either magnetic waves or magnetic reconnections. Turbulence in the convection zone produces MHD waves, which travel upward and dissipate. Photospheric motions continuously build up magnetic energy, which is released through magnetic reconnection. In this paper, we concentrate on hot non-flaring plasma with temperatures of 5 MK <  T  < 10 MK because it is one of the few observables for which wave and reconnection models make different predictions. Wave models predict no (or little) hot plasma, whereas reconnection models predict it, although in amounts that are challenging to detect with current instrumentation. We used data from the X-ray Telescope (XRT) and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). We requested a special XRT observing sequence, which cycled through the thickest XRT filter several times per hour so we could average these images and improve the signal-to-noise. We did differential emission measure (DEM) analysis using the time-averaged thick-filter data as well as all available channels from both the XRT and AIA for regions observed on 2014 December 11. Whereas our earlier work was only able to determine that plasma with a temperature greater than 5 MK was present , we are now able to find a well-constrained DEM distribution. We have therefore added a strong observational constraint that must be explained by any viable coronal heating model. Comparing state-of-the-art wave and reconnection model predictions, we can conclude that reconnection is heating the hot plasma in these active regions.

  3. Modeling and Predicting the Daily Equatorial Plasma Bubble Activity Using the Tiegcm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B. A.; Retterer, J. M.; Yizengaw, E.; Wiens, K. C.; Wing, S.; Groves, K. M.; Caton, R. G.; Bridgwood, C.; Francis, M. J.; Terkildsen, M. B.; Norman, R.; Zhang, K.

    2014-12-01

    Describing and understanding the daily variability of Equatorial Plasma Bubble (EPB) occurrence has remained a significant challenge over recent decades. In this study we use the Thermosphere Ionosphere Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM), which is driven by solar (F10.7) and geomagnetic (Kp) activity indices, to study daily variations of the linear Rayleigh-Taylor (R-T) instability growth rate in relation to the measured scintillation strength at five longitudinally distributed stations. For locations characterized by generally favorable conditions for EPB growth (i.e., within the scintillation season for that location) we find that the TIEGCM is capable of identifying days when EPB development, determined from the calculated R-T growth rate, is suppressed as a result of geomagnetic activity. Both observed and modeled upward plasma drift indicate that the pre-reversal enhancement scales linearly with Kp from several hours prior, from which it is concluded that even small Kp changes cause significant variations in daily EPB growth. This control of Kp variations on EPB growth prompted an investigation into the use of predicted Kp values from the Wing Kp model over a 2-month equinoctial campaign in 2014. It is found that both the 1-hr and 4-hr predicted Kp values can be reliably used as inputs into the TIEGCM to forecast the EPB growth conditions during scintillation season, when daily EPB variability is governed by the suppression of EPBs on days with increased, but not necessarily high, geomagnetic activity.

  4. Constitutive activation of a plasma membrane H+-ATPase prevents abscisic acid-mediated stomatal closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlot, Sylvain; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Fenzi, Francesca; Valon, Christiane; Costa, Miguel; Piette, Laurie; Vavasseur, Alain; Genty, Bernard; Boivin, Karine; Müller, Axel; Giraudat, Jérôme; Leung, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    Light activates proton (H+)-ATPases in guard cells, to drive hyperpolarization of the plasma membrane to initiate stomatal opening, allowing diffusion of ambient CO2 to photosynthetic tissues. Light to darkness transition, high CO2 levels and the stress hormone abscisic acid (ABA) promote stomatal closing. The overall H+-ATPase activity is diminished by ABA treatments, but the significance of this phenomenon in relationship to stomatal closure is still debated. We report two dominant mutations in the OPEN STOMATA2 (OST2) locus of Arabidopsis that completely abolish stomatal response to ABA, but importantly, to a much lesser extent the responses to CO2 and darkness. The OST2 gene encodes the major plasma membrane H+-ATPase AHA1, and both mutations cause constitutive activity of this pump, leading to necrotic lesions. H+-ATPases have been traditionally assumed to be general endpoints of all signaling pathways affecting membrane polarization and transport. Our results provide evidence that AHA1 is a distinct component of an ABA-directed signaling pathway, and that dynamic downregulation of this pump during drought is an essential step in membrane depolarization to initiate stomatal closure. PMID:17557075

  5. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguang Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA and ursolic acid (UA contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w cholesterol (control or the same diet supplemented with (i 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii 0.24% PSE, (iii hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37% plus PSE (0.24% or (iv OA/UA mixture (0.01% for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  6. Active-passively mode-locked dye laser for diagnosis of laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, Y.L.; Fedosejevs, R.; Sigel, R.

    1981-03-01

    In this report an active-passively mode-locked, flashlamp-pumped dye laser for diagnosis of laser-produced plasmas is described. This dye laser system used as a pulsed light source for high-speed photography of laser-target experiments was synchronized to the ASTERIX III iodine laser pulse with better than 100 ps accuracy. The single pulse energy was 10 μJ, pulse duration less than 10 ps. In 111 shots clear shadowgrams were obtained during a total of 151 target shots, i.e. the system worked well in 74% of the shots. (orig.)

  7. Plasma actuators for active flow control based on a glow discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kühn, M.; Kühn-Kauffeldt, M.; Schein, J.; Belinger, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work a glow discharge based active flow control for high flow velocities and low Reynolds numbers is presented. Unlike common plasma actuators such as dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) or spark jets, this actuator uses small impulse bits at frequencies. The actuator is optimized for frequencies up to 40 kHz to counter Tollmien Schlichting wave effects and so reduce overall air foil drag. Several measurements to prove the non-eroding effect of the actuator and the electrical properties were performed. It was found that the actuator is capable of operating at high frequencies without measurable erosion. (paper)

  8. Acute Pre-/Post-Treatment with 8th Day SOD-Like Supreme (a Free Radical Scavenging Health Product Protects against Oxidant-Induced Injury in Cultured Cardiomyocytes and Hepatocytes In Vitro as Well as in Mouse Myocardium and Liver In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pou Kuan Leong

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available 8th Day superoxide dismutase (SOD-Like Supreme (SOD-Like Supreme, a free radical scavenging health product is an antioxidant-enriched fermentation preparation with free radical scavenging properties. In the present study, the cellular/tissue protective actions of SOD-Like Supreme against menadione toxicity in cultured H9c2 cardiomyocytes and in AML12 hepatocytes as well as oxidant-induced injury in the mouse myocardium and liver were investigated. SOD-Like Supreme was found to possess potent free radical scavenging activity in vitro as assessed by an oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay. Incubation with SOD-Like Supreme (0.5–3% (v/v was shown to protect against menadione-induced toxicity in H9c2 and AML12 cells, as evidenced by increases in cell viability. The ability of SOD-Like Supreme to protect against menadione cytotoxicity was associated with an elevation in the cellular reduced glutathione (GSH/oxidized glutathione (GSSG ratio in menadione-challenged cells. Consistent with the cell-based studies, pre-/post-treatment with SOD-Like Supreme (0.69 and 2.06 mL/kg, three intermittent doses per day for two consecutive days was found to protect against isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury and carbon tetrachloride hepatotoxicity in mice. The cardio/hepatoprotection afforded by SOD-Like Supreme was also paralleled by increases in myocardial/hepatic mitochondrial GSH/GSSG ratios in the SOD-Like Supreme-treated/oxidant-challenged mice. In conclusion, incubation/treatment with SOD-Like Supreme was found to protect against oxidant-induced injury in vitro and in vivo, presumably by virtue of its free radical scavenging activity.

  9. Plasma homovanillic acid, plasma anti-D1 and -D2 dopamine-receptor activity, and negative symptoms in chronically mediated schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, E; Kanba, S; Nibuya, M; Koshikawa, H; Nakaki, T; Yagi, G

    1992-02-15

    We have investigated the relationship between the concentration of homovanillic acid in human plasma (pHVA) and plasma anti-D1 and anti-D2 dopamine receptor activity in chronic schizophrenic patients whose neuroleptic dosage was changed. The change in pHVA level correlated with that in anti-D1, not anti-D2 activity, thus suggesting that the neuroleptic-induced changes in pHVA concentration may be associated with the blocking of D1- as well as D2- receptors. The change of scores on the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms did not significantly correlate with changes in anti-D1 or anti-D2 activity, but did so correlated with the change in pHVA level.

  10. Effects of Shenlong Decoction on Learning and Memory Abilities as well as SOD and MDA in Brain-aging Model Mice Induced by D-Galactose

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Yi; Wang Fawei; Yang Minghui; Zheng Qingping; Wang Youjing

    2006-01-01

    @@ Brain aging (dementia) model mice were made by cervical subcutaneous injection of D-galactose solution.Learning and memory abilities were detected with water maze test and superoxide dismulase(SOD)activities and malondiadehyde (MDA) contents in the liver and brain were determined after intragastrical administration of Shenlong Decoction (参龙汤) for 6 weeks. The results indicated that the swimming time was shortened and the correct swimming times increased, SOD activity raised and MDA content decreased in the three Shenlong Decoction groups with different doses as compared with the model group. It is concluded that Shenlong Decoction has the effects of anti-free radical injuries and improving the learning and memory abilities of the brain-aging mice induced by D-galactose.

  11. Prognostic role of ‘prion-like propagation’ in SOD1-linked familial ALS: an alternative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keizo eSugaya

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available ‘Prion-like propagation’ has recently been proposed for disease spread in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1-linked familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS. Pathological SOD1 conformers are presumed to propagate via cell-to-cell transmission. In this model, the risk-based kinetics of neuronal cell loss over time appears to be represented by a sigmoidal function that reflects the kinetics of intercellular transmission. Here, we describe an alternative view of prion-like propagation in SOD1-linked ALS−its relation to disease prognosis under the protective-aggregation hypothesis. Nucleation-dependent polymerization has been widely accepted as the molecular mechanism of prion propagation. If toxic species of misfolded SOD1, as soluble oligomers, are formed as on-pathway intermediates of nucleation-dependent polymerization, further fibril extension via sequential addition of monomeric mutant SOD1 would be protective against neurodegeneration. This is because the concentration of unfolded mutant SOD1 monomers, which serve as precursor of nucleation and toxic species of mutant SOD1, would decline in proportion to the extent of aggregation. The nucleation process requires that native conformers exist in an unfolded state that may result from escaping the cellular protein quality control machinery. However, prion-like propagation−SOD1 aggregated form self-propagates by imposing its altered conformation on normal SOD1−appears to antagonize the protective role of aggregate growth. The cross-seeding reaction with normal SOD1 would lead to a failure to reduce the concentration of unfolded mutant SOD1 monomers, resulting in continuous nucleation and subsequent generation of toxic species, and influence disease prognosis. In this alternative view, the kinetics of neuronal loss appears to be represented by an exponential function, with decreasing risk reflecting the protective role of aggregate and the potential for cross-seeding reactions between

  12. Peroxynitrite induced mitochondrial biogenesis following MnSOD knockdown in normal rat kidney (NRK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Marine

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Superoxide is widely regarded as the primary reactive oxygen species (ROS which initiates downstream oxidative stress. Increased oxidative stress contributes, in part, to many disease conditions such as cancer, atherosclerosis, ischemia/reperfusion, diabetes, aging, and neurodegeneration. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into hydrogen peroxide which can then be further detoxified by other antioxidant enzymes. MnSOD is critical in maintaining the normal function of mitochondria, thus its inactivation is thought to lead to compromised mitochondria. Previously, our laboratory observed increased mitochondrial biogenesis in a novel kidney-specific MnSOD knockout mouse. The current study used transient siRNA mediated MnSOD knockdown of normal rat kidney (NRK cells as the in vitro model, and confirmed functional mitochondrial biogenesis evidenced by increased PGC1α expression, mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and integrity, electron transport chain protein CORE II, mitochondrial mass, oxygen consumption rate, and overall ATP production. Further mechanistic studies using mitoquinone (MitoQ, a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor demonstrated that peroxynitrite (at low micromolar levels induced mitochondrial biogenesis. These findings provide the first evidence that low levels of peroxynitrite can initiate a protective signaling cascade involving mitochondrial biogenesis which may help to restore mitochondrial function following transient MnSOD inactivation.

  13. Coal combustion by-product (CCB) utilization in turfgrass sod production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlossberg, M.J.; Miller, W.P. [University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States). Dept. of Crop & Soil Science

    2004-04-01

    Coal combustion by-products (CCB) are produced nationwide, generating 101 Mg of waste annually. Though varied, the majority of CCB are crystalline alumino-silicate minerals. Both disposal costs of CCB and interest in alternative horticultural/agricultural production systems have increased recently. Field studies assessed the benefit of CCB and organic waste/product mixtures as supplemental soil/growth media for production of hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. x C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) sod. Growth media were applied at depths of 2 to 4 cm (200 to 400 m{sup 3}{center_dot}ha{sup -1}) and vegetatively established by sprigging. Cultural practices typical of commercial methods were employed over 99- or 114-day growth periods. Sod was monitored during these propagation cycles, then harvested, evaluated, and installed offsite in a typical lawn-establishment method. Results showed mixtures of CCB and biosolids as growth media increased yield of biomass, with both media and tissue having greater nutrient content than the control media. Volumetric water content of CCB-containing media significantly exceeded that of control media and soil included with a purchased bermudagrass sod. Once installed, sod grown on CCB-media did not differ in rooting strength from control or purchased sod. When applied as described, physicochemical characteristics of CCB-media are favorable and pose little environmental risk to soil or water resources.

  14. Catalytic Effect of Activated Carbon and Activated Carbon Fiber in Non-Equilibrium Plasma-Based Water Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanzong; Zheng, Jingtang; Qu, Xianfeng; Yu, Weizhao; Chen, Honggang

    2008-06-01

    Catalysis and regeneration efficiency of granular activated carbon (GAC) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) were investigated in a non-equilibrium plasma water treatment reactor with a combination of pulsed streamer discharge and GAC or ACF. The experimental results show that the degradation efficiency of methyl orange (MO) by the combined treatment can increase 22% (for GAC) and 24% (for ACF) respectively compared to pulsed discharge treatment alone, indicating that the combined treatment has a synergetic effect. The MO degradation efficiency by the combined treatment with pulsed discharge and saturated GAC or ACF can increase 12% and 17% respectively compared to pulsed discharge treatment alone. Both GAC and ACF show catalysis and the catalysis of ACF is prominent. Meanwhile, the regeneration of GAC and ACF are realized in this process. When H2O2 is introduced into the system, the utilization efficiency of ozone and ultraviolet light is improved and the regeneration efficiency of GAC and ACF is also increased.

  15. Catalytic Effect of Activated Carbon and Activated Carbon Fiber in Non-Equilibrium Plasma-Based Water Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanzong; Zheng Jingtang; Qu Xianfeng; Yu Weizhao; Chen Honggang

    2008-01-01

    Catalysis and regeneration efficiency of granular activated carbon (GAC) and activated carbon fiber (ACF) were investigated in a non-equilibrium plasma water treatment reactor with a combination of pulsed streamer discharge and GAC or ACF. The experimental results show that the degradation efficiency of methyl orange (MO) by the combined treatment can increase 22% (for GAC) and 24% (for ACF) respectively compared to pulsed discharge treatment alone, indicating that the combined treatment has a synergetic effect. The MO degradation efficiency by the combined treatment with pulsed discharge and saturated GAC or ACF can increase 12% and 17% respectively compared to pulsed discharge treatment alone. Both GAC and ACF show catalysis and the catalysis of ACF is prominent. Meanwhile, the regeneration of GAC and ACF are realized in this process. When H 2 O 2 is introduced into the system, the utilization efficiency of ozone and ultraviolet light is improved and the regeneration efficiency of GAC and ACF is also increased.

  16. Cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes urinary bladder activity by plasma vasopressin release in female rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafarchio, Eduardo M; da Silva, Luiz A; Auresco, Luciana C; Ogihara, Cristiana A; Almeida, Roberto L; Giannocco, Gisele; Luz, Maria C B; Fonseca, Fernando L A; Sato, Monica A

    2016-04-05

    The central control of the micturition is dependent on cortical areas and other ascending and descending pathways in the brain stem. The descendent pathways from the pons to the urinary bladder (UB) can be direct or indirect through medullary neurons (MN). Chemical stimulation with l-glutamate of MN known for their involvement in cardiovascular regulation evokes changes in pelvic nerves activities, which innervate the urinary bladder. Different neurotransmitters have been found in medullary areas; nevertheless, their involvement in UB control is few understood. We focused to investigate if cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata changes the urinary bladder activity. Carbachol (cholinergic agonist) or atropine (cholinergic antagonist) was injected into the 4thV in anesthetized female Wistar rats and the intravesical pressure (IP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR) and renal conductance (RC) were recorded for 30 min. Carbachol injection into the 4thV increased IP with peak response at 30 min after carbachol and yielded no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Atropine injection into the 4thV decreased IP and elicited no changes in MAP, HR and RC. Plasma vasopressin levels evaluated by ELISA kit assay increased after carbachol into the 4th V. Intravenous blockade of V1 receptors prior to carbachol into the 4thV abolished the increase in IP evoked by carbachol. Therefore, our findings suggest that cholinergic activation of neurons in the medulla oblongata by carbachol injections into the 4thV increases IP due to plasma vasopressin release, which acts in V1 receptors in the UB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity is related to insulin resistance : impaired acute lowering by insulin in obese Type II diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riemens, SC; van Tol, A; Sluiter, WJ; Dullaart, RPF

    Cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP) have important functions in high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. We determined the association of plasma CETP and PLTP activities (measured with exogenous' substrate assays) with insulin resistance, plasma

  18. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We propose a new approach to treat S. aureus inoculated on strawberries by PAW. • PAW could inactivate S. aureus on strawberries via the Log Reduction results, further confirmed by CLSM and SEM. • The short-lived ROS in PAW are considered the most important agents in inactivation process. • No significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. - Abstract: Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  19. Non-thermal plasma-activated water inactivation of food-borne pathogen on fresh produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Ruonan; Wang, Guomin; Tian, Ying; Wang, Kaile [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue, E-mail: zhangjue@pku.edu.cn [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-12-30

    Highlights: • We propose a new approach to treat S. aureus inoculated on strawberries by PAW. • PAW could inactivate S. aureus on strawberries via the Log Reduction results, further confirmed by CLSM and SEM. • The short-lived ROS in PAW are considered the most important agents in inactivation process. • No significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. - Abstract: Non-thermal plasma has been widely considered to be an effective method for decontamination of foods. Recently, numerous studies report that plasma-activated water (PAW) also has outstanding antibacterial ability. This study presents the first report on the potential of PAW for the inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) inoculated on strawberries. PAW treatments achieved a reduction of S. aureus ranging from 1.6 to 2.3 log at day-0 storage, while 1.7 to 3.4 log at day-4 storage. The inactivation efficiency depended on the plasma-activated time for PAW generation and PAW-treated time of strawberries inoculated with S. aureus. LIVE/DEAD staining and scanning electron microscopy results confirm that PAW could damage the bacterial cell wall. Moreover, optical emission spectra and oxidation reduction potential results demonstrate the inactivation is mainly attributed to oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species in PAW. In addition, no significant change was found in color, firmness and pH of the PAW treated strawberries. Thus, PAW can be a promising alternative to traditional sanitizers applied in the fresh produce industry.

  20. Time- and dose-dependent differential regulation of copper-zinc superoxide dismutase and manganese superoxide dismutase enzymatic activity and mRNA level by vitamin E in rat blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiani, Maliheh; Razi, Farideh; Golestani, Aboualfazl; Frouzandeh, Mehdi; Owji, Ali Akbar; Khaghani, Shahnaz; Ghannadian, Naghmeh; Shariftabrizi, Ahmad; Pasalar, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin E is the most important lipid-soluble antioxidant. Recently, it has been proposed as a gene regulator, and its gene modulation effects have been observed at different levels of gene expression and cell signaling. This study was performed to investigate the effects of vitamin E on the activity and expression of the most important endogenous antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase (SOD), in rat plasma. Twenty-eight male Sprauge-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: control group and three dosing groups. The control group received the vehicle (liquid paraffin), and the dosing groups received twice-weekly intraperitoneal injections of 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg of vitamin E ((±)-α-Tocopherol) for 6 weeks. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme assays were used to assess the levels of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD mRNA and enzyme activity levels in blood cells at 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks following vitamin E administration. Catalase enzyme activity and total antioxidant capacity were also assessed in plasma at the same time intervals. Mn-SOD activity was significantly increased in the 100 and 30 mg/kg dosing groups after 4 and 6 weeks, with corresponding significant increase in their mRNA levels. Cu/Zn-SOD activity was not significantly changed in response to vitamin E administration at any time points, whereas Cu/Zn-SOD mRNA levels were significantly increased after longer time points with high doses (30 and 100 mg/kg) of vitamin E. Catalase enzyme activity was transiently but significantly increased after 4 weeks of vitamin E treatment in 30 and 100 mg/kg dosing groups. Total antioxidant status was significantly increased after 4 and 6 weeks in the 100 mg/kg dosing group. Only the chronic administration of higher doses of alpha-tocopherol is associated with the increased activity and expression of Mn-SOD in rats. Cu/Zn-SOD activity and expression does not dramatically change in response to vitamin E.

  1. Association between arsenic exposure and plasma cholinesterase activity: a population based study in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Md Rezaul

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arsenic is a potent pollutant that has caused an environmental catastrophe in certain parts of the world including Bangladesh where millions of people are presently at risk due to drinking water contaminated by arsenic. Chronic arsenic exposure has been scientifically shown as a cause for liver damage, cancers, neurological disorders and several other ailments. The relationship between plasma cholinesterase (PChE activity and arsenic exposure has not yet been clearly documented. However, decreased PChE activity has been found in patients suffering liver dysfunction, heart attack, cancer metastasis and neurotoxicity. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the PChE activity in individuals exposed to arsenic via drinking water in Bangladesh. Methods A total of 141 Bangladeshi residents living in arsenic endemic areas with the mean arsenic exposure of 14.10 ± 3.27 years were selected as study subjects and split into tertile groups based on three water arsenic concentrations: low ( 265 μg/L. Study subjects were further sub-divided into two groups (≤50 μg/L and > 50 μg/L based on the recommended upper limit of water arsenic concentration (50 μg/L in Bangladesh. Blood samples were collected from the study subjects by venipuncture and arsenic concentrations in drinking water, hair and nail samples were measured by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS. PChE activity was assayed by spectrophotometer. Results Arsenic concentrations in hair and nails were positively correlated with the arsenic levels in drinking water. Significant decreases in PChE activity were observed with increasing concentrations of arsenic in water, hair and nails. The average levels of PChE activity in low, medium and high arsenic exposure groups were also significantly different between each group. Lower levels of PChE activity were also observed in the > 50 μg/L group compared to the ≤50 μg/L group. Moreover, PChE activity was

  2. Reduction of dietary saturated fatty acids correlates with increased plasma lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase activity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bérard, A M; Dabadie, H; Palos-Pinto, A; Dumon, M-F; Darmon, M

    2004-06-01

    Increased HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) concentrations have been associated with lower coronary heart disease risk. On the other hand, dietary fats are known to influence the fatty acid profile of plasma lipids, including phospholipids that are substrates of lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), an important enzyme in HDL metabolism. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between the saturated fatty acid (SFA) intake and LCAT activity. An interventional study was performed in a monk community of 25 men. A French monk community,