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Sample records for plasma prothrombin fragments

  1. Dietary factor VII activation does not increase plasma concentrations of prothrombin fragment 1+2 in patients with stable angina pectoris and coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Münster, A M; Marckmann, P

    2000-01-01

    for triglycerides, activated FVII (FVIIa), FVII protein concentration (FVII:Ag), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2), and soluble fibrin. Triglyceride levels increased from fasting levels on both diets, but they increased most markedly on the high-fat diet. FVIIa and FVIIa/FVII:Ag increased with the high-fat diet...... and decreased with the low-fat diet. For both diets, FVII:Ag and F1+2 decreased slightly. No postprandial changes were observed for soluble fibrin. Postprandial mean values of triglycerides, FVIIa, FVII:Ag, and FVIIa/FVII:Ag were significantly higher for the high-fat diet than for the low-fat diet. Our findings...... confirm that high-fat meals cause immediate activation of FVII. The clinical implication is debatable because FVII activation was not accompanied by an increase in plasma F1+2 concentrations in patients with severe atherosclerosis. However, a local thrombin generation on the plaque surface cannot...

  2. Urinary prothrombin fragment 1+2 in patients with venous thrombosis and myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Es, J.; Biere-Rafi, S.; Ahdi, M.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Meijers, J.C.M.; Gerdes, V.E.A.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with venous-thromboembolism (VTE) and myocardial infarction (MI) have elevated prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) levels. In patients with postoperative VTE, urinary F1+2 (uF1+2) was higher than in individuals without VTE. To explore the relationship between plasma and uF1+2 we performed a pil

  3. Plasma levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, factor VIII, prothrombin activation fragment 1+2, anticardiolipin, and antiprothrombin antibodies are risk factors for thrombosis in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molino, Daniela; De Santo, Natale G; Marotta, Rosa; Anastasio, Pietro; Mosavat, Mahrokh; De Lucia, Domenico

    2004-09-01

    Patients with end-stage renal disease are prone to hemorrhagic complications and simultaneously are at risk for a variety of thrombotic complications such as thrombosis of dialysis blood access, the subclavian vein, coronary arteries, cerebral vessel, and retinal veins, as well as priapism. The study was devised for the following purposes: (1) to identify the markers of thrombophilia in hemodialyzed patients, (2) to establish a role for antiphospholipid antibodies in thrombosis of the vascular access, (3) to characterize phospholipid antibodies in hemodialysis patients, and (4) to study the effects of dialysis on coagulation cascade. A group of 20 hemodialysis patients with no thrombotic complications (NTC) and 20 hemodialysis patients with thrombotic complications (TC) were studied along with 400 volunteer blood donors. Patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and those with nephrotic syndrome were excluded. All patients underwent a screening prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, fibrinogen (Fg), coagulation factors of the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, antithrombin III (AT-III), protein C (PC), protein S (PS), resistance to activated protein C, prothrombin activation fragment 1+2 (F1+2), plasminogen, tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA), plasminogen tissue activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1), anticardiolipin antibodies type M and G (ACA-IgM and ACA-IgG), lupus anticoagulant antibodies, and antiprothrombin antibodies type M and G (aPT-IgM and aPT-IgG). The study showed that PAI-1, F 1+2, factor VIII, ACA-IgM, and aPT-IgM levels were increased significantly over controls both in TC and NTC, however, they could distinguish patients with thrombotic complications from those without, being increased maximally in the former group. The novelty of the study is represented by the significant aPT increase that was observed in non-systemic lupus erythematosus hemodialysis patients, and particularly in those with thrombotic events. In addition

  4. Abnormal plasma prothrombin (PIVKA-II) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of abnormal prothrombin, or the protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) in 102 patients with hepatic disorders was measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. The concentration of PIVKA-II in the plasma was elevated in 11 out of 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and also in a patient with hepatoblastoma. There was no correlation between serum alpha-fetoprotein and plasma PIVKA-II levels. The PIVKA-II level was normal in 11 patients who had metastatic carcinoma or cholangiocellular carcinoma. Moreover, benign diseases of the liver did not cause an elevation in PIVKA-II. PIVKA-II might be an useful marker of hepatocellular carcinoma because, like alpha-fetoprotein, its level changes in close relation to the effects of treatment.

  5. Serum des-R prothrombin activation peptide fragment 2: a novel prognostic marker for disseminated intravascular coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Soie; Kim, Ji-Eun; Kim, Hyun Kyung; Yeon, Eun Hee; Shin, Yong Sung; Kim, Chul Woo

    2013-06-01

    Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is diagnosed based on the combination of predisposing underlying conditions and laboratory tests for plasma coagulation markers. Because the collection of blood plasma samples is a fastidious procedure, the serum sample method may be preferred for measurement of coagulation markers when feasible. The novel serum marker des-R prothrombin activation peptide fragment 2 (des-R F2) was measured using a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 181 patients suspected of having DIC. Thrombin generation potential was estimated with a calibrated automated thrombogram. Serum des-R F2 was generated with an in vitro clotting process within a serum separation tube after blood collection. Carboxypeptidase inhibitor inhibited the formation of des-R F2 during in vitro clotting. Low levels of prothrombin and thrombin generation potential resulted in low serum des-R F2 levels. Serum des-R F2 was significantly decreased in overt DIC. Levels of des-R F2 correlated with DIC severity and other coagulation markers. Of note, the decrease in serum des-R F2 levels was a significant marker for predicting mortality. The serum marker, des-R F2, can be used for the investigation of DIC severity and prognosis. It should be considered a useful marker, especially when only serum samples are available. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Multicentric evaluation of a new assay for prothrombin fragment F1+2 determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruhn, H D; Conard, J; Mannucci, M; Monteagudo, J; Pelzer, H; Reverter, J C; Samama, M; Tripodi, A; Wagner, C

    1992-10-01

    A multicenter study of a recently developed ELISA for the determination of prothrombin fragment F1+2 was performed in order to evaluate analytical and clinical aspects. Mean intra-assay and inter-assay reproducibility were found to be 11.0 and 12.6%, respectively. The measuring range covered by the calibration curve reaches from 0.04 to 10.0 nM/l F1+2. Testing 133 healthy subjects a reference range of 0.37 to 1.11 nM/l F1+2 (2.5-97.5 percentile) with a median of 0.66 nM/l F1+2 was calculated. Minor difficulties with blood sampling (venous occlusion for 2 min) did not affect F1+2 plasma concentrations. Significantly increased F1+2 levels were measured in patients with leukemia (p < 0.0001), severe liver disease (p < 0.005) and after myocardial infarction (p < 0.01). Elevated F1+2 concentration before the beginning of heparin therapy (1.25 nM/l) decreased to 0.77 nM/l (p < 0.0001) after 1 day of therapy. For patients in the stable phase of oral anticoagulant therapy decreasing F1+2 concentrations were measured with increasing INR. F1+2 levels were already significantly reduced in patients with INR < 2.0 (0.56 nM/l; p = 0.0005). Thus F1+2 determination may be helpful in identifying activation processes as well as in monitoring anticoagulant therapy.

  7. Differences in urinary prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 levels after total hip replacement in relation to venous thromboembolism and bleeding events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borris, L C; Breindahl, M; Lassen, M R;

    2008-01-01

    events. PATIENTS/METHODS: This study was conducted in parallel with a prospective, dose-finding study evaluating the efficacy and safety of different doses of rivaroxaban (Xarelto, Bayer HealthCare AG, Wuppertal, Germany) for thromboprophylaxis, relative to enoxaparin. Deep vein thrombosis was diagnosed......BACKGROUND: Prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 is excreted in urine (uF1 + 2) as a result of thrombin generation and, therefore, may be a useful marker of coagulation status. OBJECTIVES: To assess uF1 + 2 levels after total hip replacement (THR) in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) and bleeding...

  8. Fresh frozen plasma versus prothrombin complex concentrate in patients with intracranial haemorrhage related to vitamin K antagonists (INCH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steiner, Thorsten; Poli, Sven; Griebe, Martin

    2016-01-01

    of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) versus prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) in patients with VKA-ICH. METHODS: We did an investigator-initiated, multicentre, prospective, randomised, open-label, blinded-endpoint trial. Patients aged at least 18 years with VKA-ICH who presented within 12 h after symptom onset...

  9. Prothrombin fragment 1 + 2 (F1 + 2) in effluent is a useful marker for peritoneal permeability in peritoneal dialysis patients using neutral dialysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurada, Tsutomu; Kojima, Shigeki; Oishi, Daisuke; Koitabashi, Kenichiro; Miyamoto, Masahito; Shirai, Sayuri; Shibagaki, Yugo; Yasuda, Takashi; Sato, Takeo; Kimura, Kenjiro

    2011-01-01

    To clarify the influence of neutral dialysate (ND) on peritoneum, we examined changes in peritoneal permeability and in various markers of the coagulation and fibrinolytic system in effluent and the correlations between peritoneal permeability and those markers in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients using ND. We evaluated 14 patients (8 men, 6 women; mean age: 58.6 +/- 12.0 years) who started PD using ND. The peritoneal equilibration test (PET) was performed to assess dialysate-to-plasma ratio for creatinine (D/P Cr) as peritoneal permeability. Coagulation markers [thrombin-antithrombin complex, fibrin monomer (FM), prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1 + 2)] and fibrinolytic markers (fibrin degradation products, D-dimer) in effluent were also measured. At 2 years, FM in effluent was significantly lower (p = 0.006). The other markers and the D/P Cr did not change significantly. At the initiation of PD and at 2 years, D/P Cr was significantly correlated with F1 + 2 (r = 0.70 and 0.76 respectively, p permeability in PD patients using ND.

  10. Restoration of Normal Prothrombin Time/International Normalized Ratio With Fresh Frozen Plasma in Hypocoagulable Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Only, Arthur J; DeChristopher, Phillip J; Iqal, Omer; Fareed, Jawed

    2016-01-01

    Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is an effective reversal agent for hypocoagulable patients. Its proven efficacy continues to prompt its usage as both a prophylactic and a therapeutic therapy. Although published guidelines encouraging the appropriate administration of FFP exist, overutilization continues. The purpose of these ex vivo studies was to determine the effects of succeeding volumes of FFP supplementation on hypocoagulable plasma prothrombin time/international normalized ratio (PT/INR). By analyzing the decline in PT/INR with varying volumes of FFP, a minimal required volume of FFP could be identified representing the optimal volume to administer while still providing therapeutic effect. A total of 497 plasma samples were screened for elevated PT/INR values and 50 samples were selected for inclusion in this experiment. The initial PTs/INRs ranged from 12.5 to 43.4 seconds/1.42 to 4.91. Subsequent declines in PT/INR values were analyzed following addition of 50, 100, and 150 µL of FFP to a fixed volume of 250 µL of plasma (26.4 ± 5.318 seconds/2.99 ± 0.603, 13.3 ± 1.077 seconds/1.51 ± 0.122, 11.2 ± 0.712 seconds/1.27 ± 0.081, and 10.3 ± 0.533 seconds/1.16 ± 0.06, respectively). A nonlinear relationship between decline in INR values and percentage of FFP supplementation was demonstrated. The greatest effect on INR was obtained after supplementation with 50 µL (49%). Doubling and tripling the volume of FFP lead to significantly lower declines in INR (16% and 8%, respectively). Analysis of variance indicated a statistical significance with subsequent volume supplementation of FFP, but marginal clinical benefits exist between the PTs/INRs obtainable with increased FFP volume administration.

  11. Clinical evaluation of plasma abnormal prothrombin (PIVKA-II) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyama, S; Morishita, T; Sagara, K; Sato, T; Motohara, K; Matsuda, I

    1986-10-01

    The clinical usefulness of plasma abnormal prothrombin, defined as a protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II: PIVKA-II, as a tumor marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was evaluated. Plasma PIVKA-II concentration was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a monoclonal antibody specific for PIVKA-II. Forty-one (65%) out of 63 patients with HCC had an abnormal PIVKA-II level above 0.13 arbitrary units (AU)/ml; the level was above 0.3 AU/ml in 33 patients (52%) and above 0.5 AU/ml in 27 patients (43%). On the other hand, most of the 282 patients with various liver diseases other than HCC had normal or slightly elevated levels of PIVKA-II. Their values were all below 0.5 AU/ml, with the exception of 2 patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. The patients with PIVKA-II values above 0.5 AU/ml were strongly suspected of having HCC. Plasma PIVKA-II levels were not related to serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels, but were above 0.5 AU/ml in 14 (44%) out of the 32 patients whose serum AFP levels were below 400 ng/ml. In some patients with HCC, PIVKA-II was increased throughout the course of the disease, and in others it normalized after surgical resection of the tumor. We conclude that the plasma PIVKA-II assay by the ELISA method using a monoclonal antibody is a useful diagnostic tool for monitoring HCC, particularly in HCC patients with low AFP levels.

  12. Fragmento 1+2 da protrombina em indivíduos submetidos à angiografia coronariana Prothrombin fragment 1+2 in subjects undergoing coronary angiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana M. Lima

    2005-09-01

    transforms the prothrombin into thrombin and breaks up prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2. F1+2 plasma levels reflect the thrombin generation and can be used as in vivo markers of hypercoagulability since the thrombin is an unstable and easily degraded substance that cannot be directly measured in the plasma. The present study aims at determining the F1+2 plasma levels of a group of subjects undergoing coronary angiography, attempting to establish a possible correlation between this parameter and the severity of the coronary artery disease. F1+2 plasma levels were determined in blood samples of 17 subjects with absence of atheromatosis in coronary arteries (controls, 12 subjects presenting mild/moderate atheromatosis and 28 subjects presenting severe atheromatosis, using the Enzignost F1+2 (Behring® Diagnostics GmbH, Marburg, Germany diagnostic Kit. Significant differences between the averages for the three groups in respect to the evaluated parameters were not found. Therefore, F1+2 plasma level averages for the three groups did not point to a state of hypercoagulability in the studied population. However, 73.7% of the individuals were taking acetylsalicylic acid, which may have influenced the F1+2 plasma levels, considering that this medicine promotes the inhibition of the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase, diminishing the release of thromboxane A2 and the platelet aggregation. Therefore, it is presumed that platelet activation reduction could be contributing to a lower formation of thrombin and, consequently, diminishing the hypercoagulability potential.

  13. Acarboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) in cord plasma in the south of Thailand.

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    Laosombat, V; Kenpitak, K; Wongchanchailert, M; Wiriyasateinkul, A

    1993-05-01

    Acarboxy prothrombin or PIVKA-II (protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II) was used to determine the presence of vitamin deficiency in newborn infants. Of 230 cord blood samples assayed by using ELISA method, 34.8 per cent were positive for PIVKA-II 0.13-17 AU/ml. The positive rate for PIVKA-II was greater in infants of primigravida (50.7%) than in those of multigravida (27.9%). All infants received prophylactic vitamin K, and no infant with positive PIVKA-II in cord blood subsequently had clinical bleeding. Because of the high prevalence of vitamin K deficiency in newborn infants in the South of Thailand, all newborn infants should receive prophylactic vitamin K at birth.

  14. Mortality in vitamin K antagonist-related intracerebral bleeding treated with plasma or 4-factor prothrombin complex concentrate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majeed, Ammar; Meijer, Karina; Larrazabal, Ramiro; Arnberg, Fabian; Luijckx, Gert J.; Roberts, Robin S.; Schulman, Sam

    2014-01-01

    Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) can rapidly normalise prolonged prothrombin time, induced by vitamin K antagonists (VKA). We conducted a multicentre retrospective study to investigate whether reversal of VKA coagulopathy with 4-factor PCC improves the survival of patients with VKA-related int

  15. Comparison of plasma with whole blood prothrombin time and fibrinogen on the same instrument.

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    Amukele, Timothy K; Ferrell, Chris; Chandler, Wayne L

    2010-04-01

    We compared plasma with whole blood (WB) international normalized ratio (INR) and fibrinogen using the same instrument and reagents. WBINRs were 50% higher than plasma INRs. After increasing the WB sample volume 40% and adjusting the International Sensitivity Index, WBINRs were similar to plasma INRs [adjusted WBINR = 0.99(plasma INR) - 0.02; r(2) = 0.98; n = 155], but the average difference in WB vs plasma INR was 4-fold higher than duplicate plasma INRs. Variation in hematocrit was a major determinant of the accuracy of the WBINR, with increased error at high INRs. The WB fibrinogen assay was highly dependent on the sample hematocrit (r(2) = 0.83), even after the sample volume was adjusted. Accurate WB fibrinogen measurements required a mathematical hematocrit correction. We conclude that WBINR and fibrinogen assays can be performed on point-of-care or automated analyzers, but sample volume must be adjusted to account for hematocrit. Accuracy is limited by variations in hematocrit with worsening accuracy for samples with high INRs or low fibrinogen levels.

  16. Plasma abnormal prothrombin (PIVKA-II): a new and reliable marker for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takikawa, Y; Suzuki, K; Yamazaki, K; Goto, T; Madarame, T; Miura, Y; Yoshida, T; Kashiwabara, T; Sato, S

    1992-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical usefulness of a protein induced by vitamin K absence, antagonist-prothrombin (PIVKA-II), in detecting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) specifically in patients with liver cirrhosis, and the possible correlation between levels of PIVKA-II and pathological features of HCC. Plasma levels of PIVKA-II and alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) were measured in 628 patients with various diseases, including 253 with liver cirrhosis and 116 with HCC. PIVKA-II was detected (greater than or equal to 0.1 arbitrary unit/mL) in 54.3% of HCC and the concentration showed a positive correlation with the tumour size. As a screening test for the detection of HCC, PIVKA-II produced values comparable with those of AFP with a sensitivity, specificity and validity of 52.8, 98.8 and 51.6% respectively. Sixteen of 45 patients (37%) with HCC who had low AFP (less than 100 ng/mL) levels were positive for PIVKA-II. No apparent relationship, however, could be found between the levels of PIVKA-II and the aetiology or pathological findings of HCC. These results suggest that PIVKA-II can be a reliable marker for detecting HCC in patients with liver cirrhosis.

  17. Effect of storage conditions on prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and fibrinogen concentration on canine plasma samples

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    Casella, Stefania; Giannetto, Claudia; Giudice, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    The present study was to assess the effect of storage conditions on prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and fibrinogen concentration in blood samples of healthy dogs. Thirty-five dogs of various breeds were included in the study. Citrated blood samples were obtained and plasma was divided into four aliquots to assess selected clotting parameters by means of a coagulometer. The first aliquot was analysed within 1 h after collection, while the remaining 3 were stored at 8℃ for 4, 8 and 24 h, respectively. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance documented a significant decreasing effect on PT at 24 h compared to 8 h and on fibrinogen concentration after 8 and 24 h compared to sampling time and at 4 and 24 h compared to 8 h post sampling. In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that only fibrinogen appears prone to significant decrease. In fact, aPTT is not substantially affected by refrigeration for at least 24 h post sampling and PT showed a statistical difference that does not necessary indicate biological significance as the results obtained were within reference intervals for the dog. PMID:20458152

  18. Does point of care prothrombin time measurement reduce the transfusion of fresh frozen plasma in patients undergoing major surgery? The POC-OP randomized-controlled trial

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    Alberio Lorenzo

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bleeding is a frequent complication during surgery. The intraoperative administration of blood products, including packed red blood cells, platelets and fresh frozen plasma (FFP, is often live saving. Complications of blood transfusions contribute considerably to perioperative costs and blood product resources are limited. Consequently, strategies to optimize the decision to transfuse are needed. Bleeding during surgery is a dynamic process and may result in major blood loss and coagulopathy due to dilution and consumption. The indication for transfusion should be based on reliable coagulation studies. While hemoglobin levels and platelet counts are available within 15 minutes, standard coagulation studies require one hour. Therefore, the decision to administer FFP has to be made in the absence of any data. Point of care testing of prothrombin time ensures that one major parameter of coagulation is available in the operation theatre within minutes. It is fast, easy to perform, inexpensive and may enable physicians to rationally determine the need for FFP. Methods/Design The objective of the POC-OP trial is to determine the effectiveness of point of care prothrombin time testing to reduce the administration of FFP. It is a patient and assessor blind, single center randomized controlled parallel group trial in 220 patients aged between 18 and 90 years undergoing major surgery (any type, except cardiac surgery and liver transplantation with an estimated blood loss during surgery exceeding 20% of the calculated total blood volume or a requirement of FFP according to the judgment of the physicians in charge. Patients are randomized to usual care plus point of care prothrombin time testing or usual care alone without point of care testing. The primary outcome is the relative risk to receive any FFP perioperatively. The inclusion of 110 patients per group will yield more than 80% power to detect a clinically relevant relative risk

  19. Genetics Home Reference: prothrombin thrombophilia

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    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions prothrombin thrombophilia prothrombin thrombophilia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Prothrombin thrombophilia is an inherited disorder of blood clotting . Thrombophilia ...

  20. Prothrombin time (PT)

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    PT; Pro-time; Anticoagulant-prothrombin time; Clotting time: protime; INR; International normalized ratio ... PT is measured in seconds. Most of the time, results are given as what is called INR ( ...

  1. Plasma lipids and prothrombin time in rats fed palm oil and other commonly used fats in Egypt

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    Hussein, Mona M.

    1993-02-01

    Full Text Available Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a total period of 8 weeks on six diets that were different in the source of their fat content. The fat content was provided either, palm oil or palm olein or corn oil or hydrogenated fat, or frying palm oil and mixture of corn oil + hydrogenated fat in the ratio (1:1. The latter was given to the control group. Animals fed these various experimental diets showed statistically significant differences in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides content among all group. Increased HDL-cholesterol content was evident in animals fed on palm-olein and palm oil. The frying oil fed group showed lowest HDL-cholesterol content. In these experiments palm olein fed animals showed highest ratio of HDL-cholesterol to total cholesterol while the lowest ratio was shown in rats fed on frying oil. Prothrombin (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (PTT showed higher values In palm oil, palm olein and corn oil diets as compared to all groups with each other.

    Ratas Sprague-Dawley fueron alimentadas durante un periodo total de 8 semanas con seis dietas diferentes en su contenido graso. El contenido graso fue proporcionado por aceite de palma u oleína de palma o aceite de maíz o grasa hidrogenada o aceite de palma de fritura y mezcla de aceite de maíz + grasa hidrogenada en la relación (1:1. El último fue dado al grupo de control. Los animales alimentados con las diferentes dietas experimentales mostraron diferencias significativas estadísticamente en el contenido en colesterol y triglicéridos en suero entre todos los grupos. El aumento en contenido HDL-colesterol fue evidente en animales alimentados con oleína de palma y aceite de palma. El grupo alimentado con aceite de fritura mostró el más bajo contenido en HDL-colesterol. En estos experimentos, los animales alimentados con oleína de palma mostraron la mayor relación de HDL-colesterol a colesterol total, mientras que la relación más baja fue mostrada

  2. Low paediatric thrombin generation is caused by an attenuation of prothrombin conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Romy M W; Wagenvoord, Rob J; de Laat, H Bas; Monagle, Paul; Hemker, H Coenraad; Ignjatovic, Vera

    2016-06-01

    Thrombin generation (TG) is decreased in children. TG is determined by two underlying processes: the conversion of prothrombin to thrombin and the inactivation of thrombin. Therefore, lower TG capacity in children can either be caused by a reduction of prothrombin conversion, an increase of thrombin inactivation, or both. In 36 children and 8 adults, TG and the factors that determine thrombin inactivation (antithrombin, α2Macroglobulin (α2M) and fibrinogen) were measured. Prothrombin conversion, thrombin inhibitor complex formation, and the overall thrombin decay capacity were determined. In silico modelling was performed to determine the contribution prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation to deviant paediatric TG. Both the amount of prothrombin converted and the maximal prothrombin conversion rate are significantly reduced in children as compared to adults. This is partly due to the prothrombin levels being lower and partly to a lower prothrombin conversion rate. The overall thrombin decay capacity is not significantly different in children, but α2Macroglobulin plays a more important role than it does in adults. In silico experiments demonstrate that reduced prothrombin conversion and to a lesser extent elevated α2M levels provide an explanation for low TG in children. Young age has a dual effect on prothrombin conversion. Lower plasma prothrombin levels result in decreased prothrombin conversion but the rate of prothrombin conversion is also decreased, i. e. the development of prothrombinase is lower than in adults.

  3. Blood Coagulation Induced by Iranian Saw-Scaled Viper (Echis Carinatus Venom: Identification, Purification and Characterization of a Prothrombin Activator

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    Mahdi Babaie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Echis carinatus is one of the venomous snakes in Iran. The venom of Iranian Echis carinatus is a rich source of protein with various factors affecting the plasma protein and blood coagulation factor. Some of these proteins exhibit types of enzymatic activities. However, other items are proteins with no enzymatic activity.   Materials and Methods: In order to study the mechanism and effect of the venom on human plasma proteins, the present study has evaluated the effect of crude venom and all fractions. A procoagulant factor (prothrombin activator was isolated from the venom of the Iranian snake Echis carinatus with a combination of gel filtration (Sephadex G-75, ion-exchange chromatography (DEAE- Sepharose and reverse phase HPLC. Furthermore, proteolytic activity of the crude venom and all fractions on blood coagulation factors such as prothrombin time (PT was studied. Results: In the present study, the PT test was reduced from 13.4 s to 8.6 s when human plasma was treated with crude venom (concentraion of venom was 1 mg/ml. The purified procoagulant factor revealed a single protein band in SDS polyacrylamide electrophoresis under reducing conditions and its molecular weight was estimated at about 65 kDa. A single-band protein showed fragment patterns similar to those generated by the group A prothrombin activators, which convert prothrombin into meizothrombin independent of the prothrombinase complex. Conclusion: This study showed that the fraction which separated from Iranian snake Echis carinatus venom can be a prothrombin activators. It can be concluded that this fraction is a procoagulant factor.

  4. Thrombin generation, ProC(®)Global, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in thawed plasma stored for seven days and after methylene blue/light pathogen inactivation.

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    Thiele, Thomas; Hron, Gregor; Kellner, Sarah; Wasner, Christina; Westphal, Antje; Warkentin, Theodore E; Greinacher, Andreas; Selleng, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    Methylene blue pathogen inactivation and storage of thawed plasma both lead to changes in the activity of several clotting factors. We investigated how this translates into a global loss of thrombin generation potential and alterations in the protein C pathway. Fifty apheresis plasma samples were thawed and each divided into three subunits. One subunit was stored for 7 days at 4 °C, one was stored for 7 days at 22 °C and one was stored at 4 °C after methylene blue/light treatment. Thrombin generation parameters, ProC(®)Global-NR, prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were assessed on days 0 and 7. The velocity of thrombin generation increased significantly after methylene blue treatment (increased thrombin generation rate; time to peak decreased) and decreased after storage (decreased thrombin generation rate and peak thrombin; increased lag time and time to peak). The endogenous thrombin generation potential remained stable after methylene blue treatment and storage at 4 °C. Methylene blue treatment and 7 days of storage at 4 °C activated the protein C pathway, whereas storage at room temperature and storage after methylene blue treatment decreased the functional capacity of the protein C pathway. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time showed only modest alterations. The global clotting capacity of thawed plasma is maintained at 4 °C for 7 days and directly after methylene blue treatment of thawed plasma. Thrombin generation and ProC(®)Global are useful tools for investigating the impact of pathogen inactivation and storage on the clotting capacity of therapeutic plasma preparations.

  5. Prothrombin Segovia: a new congenital abnormality of prothrombin.

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    Rocha, E; Paramo, J A; Bascones, C; Fisac, P R; Cuesta, B; Fernandez, J

    1986-05-01

    A family with a new congenital dysprothrombinemia is presented. The propositus is a 21-yr-old man who presented simultaneously with hemartrosis of the left knee and an extensive hematoma following a minor trauma. Prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were prolonged. Prothrombin activity was very low when measured by biological assay using physiological activators (7% by one-stage method and 20% by two-stage method) or a Russel's viper venom-cephalin mixture (23%), Notechis scutatus scutatus venom (15%) and Echis carinatus venom (17%); in contrast, the level was found to be borderline to normal using Taipan viper venom (64%) and normal by both staphylocoagulase and immunologic methods. Family studies revealed consanguinity between the propositus' mother and father and both presented a 50% reduced prothrombin level when physiological activators or Echis carinatus viper venom were used. A line of identity between normal and abnormal prothrombin was observed on immunodiffusion. The migration of the abnormal prothrombin was less anodic and was not changed by the addition of calcium. The patient's serum showed 3 bands in the bidimensional immunoelectrophoresis system, whereas normal serum showed only 2 bands. The term prothrombin Segovia is proposed to define this new prothrombin abnormality.

  6. Intrauterine expression of prothrombin in the sprague-dawley rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillippe, Mark; Wolff, David; Saunders, Trevania; Thomas, Leandra; Chapa, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    Thrombin appears to underlie myometrial contractions in response to intrauterine bleeding. In a similar fashion, thrombin generated within the uterus in the absence of active bleeding could also produce contractions. These studies sought to determine whether functionally active prothrombin is expressed in the pregnant and nonpregnant rat uterus. Uteri were obtained from proestrus/estrus and timed-pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats. Western blots were performed using antithrombin antibodies. Immunohistochemical studies were performed using the same antibodies along with the Vector Elite ABC kit. Qualitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies were performed using rat prothrombin-specific oligonucleotide primers. In vitro uterine contraction studies were performed using Taipan snake venom (an exogenous prothrombinase) and components of the plasma prothrombinase complex (Factors Xa and V) with and without pretreatment with thrombin inhibitors (heparin or hirudin). The Western blots demonstrated prothrombin peptides in myometrial tissue from estrus and pregnant rats. The immunohistochemical studies confirmed prothrombin peptides in both the circular and longitudinal myometrium, along with the endometrium. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction studies demonstrated prothrombin mRNA in the endometrium and placenta, but not in the myometrial smooth muscle. The Taipan snake venom stimulated a significant increase in contractions, which were suppressed by pretreatment with heparin and hirudin. The Factor Xa and V complex also significantly stimulated uterine contractions, which were likewise inhibited by hirudin. These studies provide evidence supporting the expression of functionally active prothrombin in the pregnant and nonpregnant rat uterus. Based on the presence of its mRNA, prothrombin appears to be synthesized in the endometrium and placenta; in contrast, the myometrial smooth-muscle cells appear to sequester preformed prothrombin. These

  7. Bulk plasma fragmentation in a C4F8 inductively coupled plasma: A hybrid modeling study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Ru; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian; Bogaerts, Annemie

    2015-06-01

    A hybrid model is used to investigate the fragmentation of C4F8 inductive discharges. Indeed, the resulting reactive species are crucial for the optimization of the Si-based etching process, since they determine the mechanisms of fluorination, polymerization, and sputtering. In this paper, we present the dissociation degree, the density ratio of F vs. CxFy (i.e., fluorocarbon (fc) neutrals), the neutral vs. positive ion density ratio, details on the neutral and ion components, and fractions of various fc neutrals (or ions) in the total fc neutral (or ion) density in a C4F8 inductively coupled plasma source, as well as the effect of pressure and power on these results. To analyze the fragmentation behavior, the electron density and temperature and electron energy probability function (EEPF) are investigated. Moreover, the main electron-impact generation sources for all considered neutrals and ions are determined from the complicated C4F8 reaction set used in the model. The C4F8 plasma fragmentation is explained, taking into account many factors, such as the EEPF characteristics, the dominance of primary and secondary processes, and the thresholds of dissociation and ionization. The simulation results are compared with experiments from literature, and reasonable agreement is obtained. Some discrepancies are observed, which can probably be attributed to the simplified polymer surface kinetics assumed in the model.

  8. Four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate versus plasma for rapid vitamin K antagonist reversal in patients needing urgent surgical or invasive interventions: a phase 3b, open-label, non-inferiority, randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Joshua N; Refaai, Majed A; Milling, Truman J; Lewis, Brandon; Goldberg-Alberts, Robert; Hug, Bruce A; Sarode, Ravi

    2015-05-23

    Rapid reversal of vitamin K antagonist (VKA)-induced anticoagulation is often necessary for patients needing urgent surgical or invasive procedures. The optimum means of VKA reversal has not been established in comparative clinical trials. We compared the efficacy and safety of four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) with that of plasma in VKA-treated patients needing urgent surgical or invasive procedures. In a multicentre, open-label, phase 3b randomised trial we enrolled patients aged 18 years or older needing rapid VKA reversal before an urgent surgical or invasive procedure. We randomly assigned patients in a 1:1 ratio to receive vitamin K concomitant with a single dose of either 4F-PCC (Beriplex/Kcentra/Confidex; CSL Behring, Marburg, Germany) or plasma, with dosing based on international normalised ratio (INR) and weight. The primary endpoint was effective haemostasis, and the co-primary endpoint was rapid INR reduction (≤1·3 at 0·5 h after infusion end). The analyses were intended to evaluate, in a hierarchical fashion, first non-inferiority (lower limit 95% CI greater than -10% for group difference) for both endpoints, then superiority (lower limit 95% CI >0%) if non-inferiority was achieved. Adverse events and serious adverse events were reported to days 10 and 45, respectively. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00803101. 181 patients were randomised (4F-PCC n=90; plasma n=91). The intention-to-treat efficacy population comprised 168 patients (4F-PCC, n=87; plasma, n=81). Effective haemostasis was achieved in 78 (90%) patients in the 4F-PCC group compared with 61 (75%) patients in the plasma group, demonstrating both non-inferiority and superiority of 4F-PCC over plasma (difference 14·3%, 95% CI 2·8-25·8). Rapid INR reduction was achieved in 48 (55%) patients in the 4F-PCC group compared with eight (10%) patients in the plasma group, demonstrating both non-inferiority and superiority of 4F-PCC over plasma

  9. Cotiarinase is a novel prothrombin activator from the venom of Bothrops cotiara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Eduardo S; Garcia, Thalita C; Menezes, Milene C; Tashima, Alexandre K; Zelanis, André; Serrano, Solange M T

    2013-08-01

    Snake venom serine proteinases (SVSPs) may affect hemostatic pathways by specifically activating components involved in coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet aggregation or by unspecific proteolytic degradation. In this study, we purified and characterized an SVSP from Bothrops cotiara venom, named cotiarinase, which generated thrombin upon incubation with prothrombin. Cotiarinase was isolated by a two-step procedure including gel-filtration and cation-exchange chromatographies and showed a single protein band with a molecular mass of 29 kDa by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under reducing conditions. Identification of cotiarinase by mass spectrometric analysis revealed peptides that matched sequences of viperid SVSPs. Cotiarinase did not show fibrinogen-clotting, platelet-aggregating, fibrinogenolytic and factor X activating activities. Upon incubation with prothrombin the generation of thrombin was detected using the peptide substrate d-Phe-Pip-Arg-pNA. Moreover, mass spectrometric identification of prothrombin fragments generated by cotiarinase in the absence of co-factors (phospholipids, factor Va, factor Xa and Ca(2+) ions), indicated the limited proteolysis of this protein to release prothrombin 1, fragment 1 and thrombin. Cotiarinase is a novel SVSP that acts on prothrombin to release active thrombin that does not match any group of the current classification of snake venom prothrombin activators.

  10. Comparison between Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (PCC) and Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) for the Urgent Reversal of Warfarin in Patients with Mechanical Heart Valves in a Tertiary Care Cardiac Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariborz Farsad, Bahram; Golpira, Reza; Najafi, Hamideh; Totonchi, Ziae; Salajegheh, Shirin; Bakhshandeh, Hooman; Hashemian, Farshad

    2015-01-01

    Fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) reverse oral anticoagulants such as Warfarin. We compared the standard dosage of FFP and PCC in terms of efficacy and safety for patients with mechanical heart valves undergoing interventional procedures while receiving Warfarin. Fifty patients were randomized (25 for each group) with mechanical heart valves [international normalized ratio (INR) >2.5]. FFP dosage was administered based on body weight (10-15 mL/Kg), while PCC dosage was administered based on both body weight and target INR. INR measurements were obtained at different time after PCC and FFP infusion. The mean ± SD of INR pre treatment was not significantly different between the PCC and FFP groups. However, over a 48-hour period following the administration of PCC and FFP, 76% of the patients in the PCC group and only 20% of the patients in the FFP group reached the INR target. Five (20%) patients in the PCC group received an additional dose of PCC, whereas 17 (68%) patients in the FFP group received a further dose of FFP (P=0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in Hb and Hct before and during a 48-hour period after PCC and FFP infusion. As regards safety monitoring and adverse drug reaction screening in the FFP group, the INR was high (INR > 2.5) in 86% of the patients. There was no report of hemorrhage in both groups. PCC reverses anticoagulation both effectively and safely while having the advantage of obviating the need to extra doses.

  11. Dietary factor VII activation does not increase plasma concentrations of prothrombin fragment 1+2 in patients with stable angina pectoris and coronary atherosclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Münster, A M; Marckmann, P

    2000-01-01

    tissue factor, the cofactor of FVII, to circulating blood; therefore, thrombin formation in response to FVII activation is more likely to occur in such patients. This hypothesis was tested in a randomized crossover study of 30 patients (aged 43 to 70 years) with stable angina pectoris...

  12. Utility of recombinant Fragment C for assessment of anti-tetanus antibodies in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnan, Girija; Pedersen, Karl; Guenette, Denis; Sink, Joyce; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A.; Herbein, Joel; Gilchrist, Carol A.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-tetanus antibodies in biological samples are typically detected using an ELISA based on toxoided tetanus neurotoxin as antigen. We demonstrate that recombinantly produced Fragment C of the toxin heavy chain (rFragC) is an effective alternative antigen for assessment of tetanus- immune status in plasma samples. PMID:25749462

  13. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the accuracy of the prothrombin time assay of plasma coagulation factor II plus VII plus X activity in subjects infused with the drug. Influence of time and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, S.; Teisner, A.; Jensen, S.A.;

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The prothrombin time (PT) assay of factor II+VII+X activity is an important predictor of liver damage in paracetamol poisoned patients. It complicates interpretation of results that the antidote, acetylcysteine (NAC) depresses this activity. The aim was to investigate if NAC influences...

  14. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the accuracy of the prothrombin time assay of plasma coagulation factor II+VII+X activity in subjects infused with the drug. Influence of time and temperature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorsen, Sixtus; Teisner, Ane; Jensen, Søren Astrup;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The prothrombin time (PT) assay of factor II+VII+X activity is an important predictor of liver damage in paracetamol poisoned patients. It complicates interpretation of results that the antidote, acetylcysteine (NAC) depresses this activity. The aim was to investigate if NAC influences...

  15. IN SITU PLASMA MEASUREMENTS OF FRAGMENTED COMET 73P SCHWASSMANN–WACHMANN 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilbert, J. A.; Lepri, S. T.; Combi, M.; Zurbuchen, T. H. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Rubin, M., E-mail: jagi@umich.edu [Universität Bern, Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-12-10

    The interiors of comets contain some of the most pristine material in the solar system. Comet 73P/Schwassmann–Wachmann 3, discovered in 1930, is a Jupiter-family comet with a 5.34-year period. This comet split into 5 fragments in 1995 and disintegrated into nearly 70 major pieces in 2006. In 2006 May and June, recently ionized cometary particles originating from fragments including and surrounding some of these major objects were collected with the ACE/SWICS and Wind/STICS sensors. Due to a combination of the instrument characteristics and the close proximity of the fragments passing between those spacecraft and the Sun, unique measurements regarding the charge state composition and the elemental abundances of both cometary and heliospheric plasma were made during that time. The cometary material released from some of these fragments can be identified by the concentrations of water-group pickup ions having a mass-per-charge ratio of 16–18 amu e{sup −1}, indicating that while these fragments are small, they are still actively sublimating. We present an analysis of cometary composition, spatial distribution, and heliospheric interactions, with a focus on helium, C{sup +}/O{sup +}, and water-group ions.

  16. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Rastko D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important stages during particle combustion, such as particle devolatilisation and char combustion, are described with satisfying accuracy in existing commercial CFD codes that are extensively used as powerful tool for pulverized coal combustion and gasification modeling. However, during plasma coal gasification, high plasma temperature induces strong thermal stresses inside interacting coal particles. These stresses lead to “thermal shock” and extensive particle fragmentation during which coal particles with initial size of 50-100 m disintegrate into fragments of at most 5-10 m. This intensifies volatile release by a factor 3-4 and substantially accelerates the oxidation of combustible matter. Particle fragmentation, due to its small size and thus limited influence on combustion process is commonly neglected in modelling. The main focus of this work is to suggest novel approach to pulverized coal gasification under high temperature conditions and to implement it into commercial comprehensive code ANSYS FLUENT 14.0. Proposed model was validated against experimental data obtained in newly built pilot scale D.C plasma burner test facility. Newly developed model showed very good agreement with experimental results with relative error less than 10%, while the standard built-in gasification model had error up to 25%.

  17. Bulk plasma fragmentation in a C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductively coupled plasma: A hybrid modeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Shu-Xia; Zhang, Yu-Ru [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Research Group PLASMANT, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium); Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Bogaerts, Annemie [Research Group PLASMANT, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2015-06-28

    A hybrid model is used to investigate the fragmentation of C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductive discharges. Indeed, the resulting reactive species are crucial for the optimization of the Si-based etching process, since they determine the mechanisms of fluorination, polymerization, and sputtering. In this paper, we present the dissociation degree, the density ratio of F vs. C{sub x}F{sub y} (i.e., fluorocarbon (fc) neutrals), the neutral vs. positive ion density ratio, details on the neutral and ion components, and fractions of various fc neutrals (or ions) in the total fc neutral (or ion) density in a C{sub 4}F{sub 8} inductively coupled plasma source, as well as the effect of pressure and power on these results. To analyze the fragmentation behavior, the electron density and temperature and electron energy probability function (EEPF) are investigated. Moreover, the main electron-impact generation sources for all considered neutrals and ions are determined from the complicated C{sub 4}F{sub 8} reaction set used in the model. The C{sub 4}F{sub 8} plasma fragmentation is explained, taking into account many factors, such as the EEPF characteristics, the dominance of primary and secondary processes, and the thresholds of dissociation and ionization. The simulation results are compared with experiments from literature, and reasonable agreement is obtained. Some discrepancies are observed, which can probably be attributed to the simplified polymer surface kinetics assumed in the model.

  18. Evaluation of Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abnormal PT and APTT in untreated patients with diabetes mellitus. Keywords: Diabetes, Prothrombine ... may in turn enhance cardiovascular risk by increasing the likely hood of .... normalizes PT levels in diabetic patients (Standl et al,. 1996).

  19. Electron scattering by biomass molecular fragments: useful data for plasma applications?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridenti, Marco A.; Amorim Filho, Jayr; Brunger, Michael J.; da Costa, Romarly F.; Varella, Márcio T. do N.; Bettega, Márcio H. F.; Lima, Marco A. P.

    2016-08-01

    Recent data obtained for electron scattering by biomass molecular fragments, indicated that low-energy resonances may have an important role in the de-lignification of biomass through a plasma pre-treatment. To support these findings, we present new experimental evidence of the predicted dissociation pathways on plasma treatment of biomass. An important question is how accurate must the experimental and/or the theoretical data be in order to indicate that plasma modelings can be really useful in understanding plasma applications? In this paper, we initiate a discussion on the role of data accuracy of experimental and theoretical electron-molecule scattering cross sections in plasma modeling. First we review technological motivations for carrying out electron-molecule scattering studies. Then we point out the theoretical and experimental limitations that prevent us from obtaining more accurate cross sections. We present a few examples involving biomass molecular fragments, to illustrate theoretical inaccuracies on: resonances positions and widths, electronic excitation, superelastic cross sections from metastable states and due to multichannel effects on the momentum transfer cross sections. On the experimental side we briefly describe challenges in making absolute cross sections measurements with biomass species and radicals. And finally, through a simulation of a N2 plasma, we illustrate the impact on the simulation due to inaccuracies on the resonance positions and widths and due to multichannel effects on the momentum transfer cross sections. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Advances in Positron and Electron Scattering", edited by Paulo Limao-Vieira, Gustavo Garcia, E. Krishnakumar, James Sullivan, Hajime Tanuma and Zoran Petrovic.Supplementary material in the form of one pdf and two mp4 files available from the Journal web page at http://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2016-70272-8

  20. Fragmentation of electric currents in the solar corona by plasma flows

    CERN Document Server

    Nickeler, Dieter H; Wiegelmann, Thomas; Kraus, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    We consider a magnetic configuration consisting of an arcade structure and a detached plasmoid, resulting from a magnetic reconnection process, as is typically found in connection with solar flares. We study spontaneous current fragmentation caused by shear and vortex plasma flows. An exact analytical transformation method was applied to calculate self-consistent solutions of the nonlinear stationary MHD equations. The assumption of incompressible field-aligned flows implies that both the Alfven Mach number and the mass density are constant on field lines. We first calculated nonlinear MHS equilibria with the help of the Liouville method, emulating the scenario of a solar eruptive flare configuration with plasmoids and flare arcade. Then a Mach number profile was constructed that describes the upflow along the open magnetic field lines and implements a vortex flow inside the plasmoid. This Mach number profile was used to map the MHS equilibrium to the stationary one. We find that current fragmentation takes p...

  1. A prothrombin activator from Bothrops erythromelas (jararaca-da-seca) snake venom: characterization and molecular cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Márcia B; Schattner, Mirta; Ramos, Celso R R; Junqueira-de-Azevedo, Inácio L M; Guarnieri, Míriam C; Lazzari, María A; Sampaio, Claudio A M; Pozner, Roberto G; Ventura, Janaina S; Ho, Paulo L; Chudzinski-Tavassi, Ana M

    2003-01-01

    A novel prothrombin activator enzyme, which we have named 'berythractivase', was isolated from Bothrops erythromelas (jararaca-da-seca) snake venom. Berythractivase was purified by a single cation-exchange-chromatography step on a Resource S (Amersham Biosciences) column. The overall purification (31-fold) indicates that berythractivase comprises about 5% of the crude venom. It is a single-chain protein with a molecular mass of 78 kDa. SDS/PAGE of prothrombin after activation by berythractivase showed fragment patterns similar to those generated by group A prothrombin activators, which convert prothrombin into meizothrombin, independent of the prothrombinase complex. Chelating agents, such as EDTA and o -phenanthroline, rapidly inhibited the enzymic activity of berythractivase, like a typical metalloproteinase. Human fibrinogen A alpha-chain was slowly digested only after longer incubation with berythractivase, and no effect on the beta- or gamma-chains was observed. Berythractivase was also capable of triggering endothelial proinflammatory and procoagulant cell responses. von Willebrand factor was released, and the surface expression of both intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and E-selectin was up-regulated by berythractivase in cultured human umbilical-vein endothelial cells. The complete berythractivase cDNA was cloned from a B. erythromelas venom-gland cDNA library. The cDNA sequence possesses 2330 bp and encodes a preproprotein with significant sequence similarity to many other mature metalloproteinases reported from snake venoms. Berythractivase contains metalloproteinase, desintegrin-like and cysteine-rich domains. However, berythractivase did not elicit any haemorrhagic response. These results show that, although the primary structure of berythractivase is related to that of snake-venom haemorrhagic metalloproteinases and functionally similar to group A prothrombin activators, it is a prothrombin activator devoid of haemorrhagic activity. This is a feature

  2. Frequency of Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin Polymorphism in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Dehbozorgian

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal hemostasis requires balanced regulation of prothromboticand antithrombotic factors. Inherited alteration of factor Vand prothrombin gene, the G20210A mutation, increases the resistanceof factor V to degradation and booster production ofprothrombin respectively. These alterations can increase hypercoagulabilityleading to thrombotic consequences. We aimed toassess the frequencies of these mutations in a group of the populationof southern Iran. In total, 198 healthy volunteers with theage range of 1-64 years were selected and screened for factor VLeiden and prothrombin mutations using polymerase chain reactionand restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques.The carrier frequencies for factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutationin the studied cohort were 4.1% and 3.07%, respectively.In the studied area, the allele frequency of factor V ishigher than the prothrombin G20210A mutation (0.0204 v0.0153. According to the data and Hardy-Weinberger equation,the total risk of thrombosis caused by homozygosity andheterozygosity of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A mutationand compound heterozygosity of these mutations areabout 1 in 500 individuals.

  3. Prothrombin complex concentrate for reversal of vitamin K antagonist treatment in bleeding and non-bleeding patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Mathias; Wikkelsø, Anne; Lunde, Jens

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment with vitamin K antagonists is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Reversal therapy with prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) is used increasingly and is recommended in the treatment of patients with bleeding complications undertaking surgical interventions...... of prothrombin complex concentrate does not appear to reduce mortality or transfusion requirements but demonstrates the possibility of reversing vitamin K-induced coagulopathy without the need for transfusion of fresh frozen plasma. All included trials have high risk of bias and are underpowered to detect...

  4. Sperm nuclear DNA fragmentation rate is associated with differential protein expression and enriched functions in human seminal plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intasqui, Paula; Camargo, Mariana; Del Giudice, Paula T; Spaine, Deborah M; Carvalho, Valdemir M; Cardozo, Karina H M; Zylbersztejn, Daniel S; Bertolla, Ricardo P

    2013-10-01

    To analyse the proteomic profile of seminal plasma with the aim of identifying the proteins and post-genomic pathways associated with sperm DNA fragmentation. A cross-sectional study including 89 subjects from a human reproduction service was carried out. All semen samples were assessed for sperm DNA fragmentation using a comet assay. Results from 60 sperm were analysed using Komet 6.0.1 software and the 'Olive tail moment' variable was used to stratify these into low and high sperm DNA fragmentation groups. Seminal plasma proteins from the two groups were pooled and used for proteomic analysis. Quantitative data were used for functional enrichment studies. Seventy-two proteins were identified or quantified in seminal plasma. Of these, nine were differentially expressed in the low group and 21 in the high group. Forty-two proteins were conserved between these groups. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that sperm DNA fragmentation was related to functions such as lipoprotein particle remodelling and regulation, fatty acid binding and immune response. Proteins found exclusively in the low group may be involved in correcting spermatogenesis and/or improving sperm function. Proteins in the high group were associated with increased innate immune response, sperm motility and/or maturation and inhibition of mitochondrial apoptosis. Protein expression and post-genomic pathways of seminal plasma differ according to the rate of sperm DNA integrity. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  5. Human plasma platelet-activating factor acetylhydrolase. Oxidatively fragmented phospholipids as substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stremler, K E; Stafforini, D M; Prescott, S M; McIntyre, T M

    1991-06-15

    Human plasma platelet-activating factor (PAF) acetylhydrolase hydrolyzes the sn-2 acetyl residue of PAF, but not phospholipids with long chain sn-2 residues. It is associated with low density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, and is the LDL-associated phospholipase A2 activity that specifically degrades oxidatively damaged phospholipids (Stremler, K. E., Stafforini, D. M., Prescott, S. M., Zimmerman, G. A., and McIntyre, T. M. (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 5331-5334). To identify potential substrates, we synthesized phosphatidylcholines with sn-2 residues from two to nine carbon atoms long, and found the V/k ratio decreased as the sn-2 residue was lengthened: the C5 homolog was 50%, the C6 20%, while the C9 homolog was only 2% as efficient as PAF. However, the presence of an omega-oxo function radically affected hydrolysis: the half-life of the sn-2 9-aldehydic homolog was identical to that of PAF. We oxidized [2-arachidonoyl]phosphatidylcholine and isolated a number of more polar phosphatidylcholines. We treated these with phospholipase C, derivatized the resulting diglycerides for gas chromatographic/mass spectroscopic analysis, and found a number of diglycerides where the m/z ratio was consistent with a series of short to medium length sn-2 residues. We treated the polar phosphatidylcholines with acetylhydrolase and derivatized the products for analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. The liberated residues were more polar than straight chain standards and had m/z ratios from 129 to 296, consistent with short to medium chain residues. Therefore, oxidation fragments the sn-2 residue of phospholipids, and the acetylhydrolase specifically degrades such oxidatively fragmented phospholipids.

  6. Oral contraceptives and the prothrombin time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangrazzi, J; Roncaglioni, M C; Donati, M B

    1980-02-02

    Dr. De Teresa and others reported that mean prothrombin time ratio of 12 patients on long-term anticoagulation with warfarin was significantly higher when they were also taking oral contraceptives (OCs). A study of prothrombin complex activity was recently conducted in female rats treated with an estrogen-progestogen combination (lynestrenol 5 mg; mestranol 0.3 mg/kg body weight) which resulted in a 100% infertility in this species. After 1 treatment for only 1 estral cycle, OC-treated rats had a significantly longer Normotest clotting time (37.7+ or-0.5 sec) than control rats (31.0+or-0.4); the difference was even more notable after 10 cycles. Although this finding has not been reported in women on OCs, it may be that the estrogen-induced "lability" of the prothrombin complex occurs in humans only in special conditions, such as anticoagulation. Alternatively, liver dysfunction occurring among women on OCs may be responsible for reduced metabolism of warfarin, contributing to the effectiveness of the anticoagulation. Further pharmacology studies should be done to clarify the interaction between OCs and oral anticoagulants.

  7. Prothrombin Complex Concentrate Reduces Blood Product Utilization in Heart Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enter, Daniel H; Zaki, Anthony L; Marsh, Megan; Cool, Nikki; Kruse, Jane; Li, Zhi; Andrei, Adin-Cristian; Iddriss, Adam; McCarthy, Patrick M; Malaisrie, S Chris; Anderson, Allen; Rich, Jonathan D; Pham, Duc Thinh

    2017-08-22

    Current practices for the reversal of warfarin prior to cardiac surgery include the use of vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to reduce the risk of bleeding. Although the 2010 International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation guidelines acknowledge the use of PCC (Prothrombin Complex Concentrate), there is no clear consensus on its efficacy. The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of 4-factor Prothrombin Complex Concentrate (4-F PCC) administration in patients requiring warfarin reversal prior to heart transplantation by determining blood product utilization perioperatively. Twenty-one patients who received 4-F PCC for warfarin reversal prior to heart transplantation were compared to a similar cohort of 39 patients who did not receive 4-F PCC from January 2011 to July 2015. Blood product utilization was collected retrospectively for the 24-hour preoperative, intraoperative, and 48-hour postoperative periods. Patients receiving 4-F PCC required fewer blood products in all 3 time periods. In the 24-hour preoperative period, 22 patients (56%) in the control group and 2 patients (10%) in the 4-F PCC groups received blood products (p<0.001). Intraoperatively, all patients received blood products. The 4-F PCC group required fewer units of packed red blood cells (median 3 vs. 7 units, p<0.001) and FFP (median 4 vs. 9 units, p<0.001). In the 48-hour postoperative period, 20 patients (51%) in the control group and 5 patients (24%) in the 4-F PCC group received blood products (p=0.04). 4-F PCC is associated with reduced blood product utilization 24 hours preoperatively and intraoperatively. Historically, the majority of patients require FFP for warfarin reversal preoperatively. In this single-center study, a significant reduction in the need for FFP was demonstrated with the use of 4-F PCC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Characterization of Nuclease Activity in Human Seminal Plasma and its Relationship to Semen Parameters, Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; García-Peiró, Agustí; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María José; Navarro, Joaquima; Benet, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have shown that complementary biomarkers are needed in semen analysis to provide a more accurate diagnosis for couples with infertility problems. To our knowledge no study has been done to determine the relationships among nuclease activity in seminal plasma, semen parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation and male infertility. A total of 94 semen samples were collected according to WHO 2010 semen analysis parameters. Samples were analyzed using the single radial enzyme diffusion method for nuclease activity in seminal plasma, and alkaline and neutral Comet assay for sperm DNA fragmentation. Samples were obtained from 11 fertile donors with proven fertility, 17 patients with normozoospermia in an infertile couple, and 16 patients with asthenozoospermia, 19 with teratozoospermia, 21 with asthenoteratozoospermia and 10 with azoospermia. Nuclease activity analyzed in seminal plasma was higher in patients than in controls. It correlated with sperm motility and morphology, and sperm DNA fragmentation measured by the alkaline Comet assay. No correlation with sperm DNA fragmentation was measured by the neutral Comet assay. ROC curves to determine male infertility revealed 0.658 sensitivity, 0.727 specificity and 0.705 cm(2) AUC for the single radial enzyme diffusion method, 0.918, 1 and 0.994 cm(2) for the alkaline Comet assay, and 0.917, 0.250 and 0.373 cm(2), respectively, for the neutral Comet assay. Nuclease activity in seminal plasma corrected by sperm count is a good variable to predict male infertility. Results indicate that it could be a useful complementary parameter for male infertility diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 21 CFR 866.5735 - Prothrombin immunological test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prothrombin immunological test system. 866.5735 Section 866.5735 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... vitro coagulation studies classified under § 864.5425 of this chapter or prothrombin time tests...

  10. 21 CFR 864.7720 - Prothrombin consumption test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Prothrombin consumption test. 864.7720 Section 864.7720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... consumption test. (a) Identification. A prothrombin consumption tests is a device that measures the patient's...

  11. Oral heparin results in the appearance of heparin fragments in the plasma of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, A.K.; Lund, D.P.; Langer, R.; Folkman, J.

    1986-05-01

    We have previously shown that angiogenesis inhibition and tumor regression can be accomplished by combinations of heparin or heparin fragments with cortisone. Oral heparin was also effective in combination with cortisone. We now show that a single oral dose of (/sup 35/S)heparin or (/sup 3/H)heparin (15,000 units/kg) results in continuous release of radioactive material into the bloodstream for at least 12 hr. This is associated with the presence of anti-factor Xa activity at a level of approximately equal to 0.1 unit/ml. The radioactive material is identified as oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides by its behavior in chromatographic systems, its possession of anti-factor Xa activity, and the effect of treatment with bacterial heparinase. The heparin fragments are extensively metabolized to fragments without anti-factor Xa activity that are readily subject to urinary excretion.

  12. A reduction of prothrombin conversion by cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass shifts the haemostatic balance towards bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremers, Romy M W; Bosch, Yvonne P J; Bloemen, Saartje; de Laat, Bas; Weerwind, Patrick W; Mochtar, Bas; Maessen, Jos G; Wagenvoord, Rob J; Al Dieri, Raed; Hemker, H Coenraad

    2016-08-30

    Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is associated with blood loss and post-surgery thrombotic complications. The process of thrombin generation is disturbed during surgery with CPB because of haemodilution, coagulation factor consumption and heparin administration. We aimed to investigate the changes in thrombin generation during cardiac surgery and its underlying pro- and anticoagulant processes, and to explore the clinical consequences of these changes using in silico experimentation. Plasma was obtained from 29 patients undergoing surgery with CPB before heparinisation, after heparinisation, after haemodilution, and after protamine administration. Thrombin generation was measured and prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation were quantified. In silico experimentation was used to investigate the reaction of patients to the administration of procoagulant factors and/or anticoagulant factors. Surgery with CPB causes significant coagulation factor consumption and a reduction of thrombin generation. The total amount of prothrombin converted and the rate of prothrombin conversion decreased during surgery. As the surgery progressed, the relative contribution of α2-macroglobulin-dependent thrombin inhibition increased, at the expense of antithrombin-dependent inhibition. In silico restoration of post-surgical prothrombin conversion to pre-surgical levels increased thrombin generation excessively, whereas co-administration of antithrombin resulted in the normalisation of post-surgical thrombin generation. Thrombin generation is reduced during surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass because of a balance shift between prothrombin conversion and thrombin inactivation. According to in silico predictions of thrombin generation, this new balance increases the risk of thrombotic complications with prothrombin complex concentrate administration, but not if antithrombin is co-administered.

  13. Acarboxy prothrombin (PIVKA II) as a tumour marker for hepatocellular carcinoma and other liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamedein, A; Yousif-Kadaru, A G; Ahmed, S A; Saida, H; Zaki, Z A; Eldin; Fedail, S S

    1995-09-01

    The clinical usefulness of plasma abnormal prothrombin, defined as protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II: (PIVKA II) as a tumour marker for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and other liver diseases has been evaluated. PIVKA II concentrations were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibody that reacts with PIVKA II but does not cross-react with normal prothrombin. Seventy four patients (74%) out of 100 with HCC had abnormal PIVKA II levels above 0.5 AU/ml (median = 3.4 AU/ml). The level was above 1.0 AU/ml in 66 (66%) of the patients. In contrast the level of PIVKA II was low in patients with bilharzial periportal fibrosis (median = 0.09 AU/ml), patients with liver cirrhosis (median = 0.13 AU/ml), patients with hepatitis (median = 0.025 AU/ml), and essentially undetectable in all the 34 controls. The diagnostic ability of serum alphafoetoprotein (AFP) was also evaluated in these patients. AFP alone can diagnose 51% of the HCC cases. Of the remaining patients with low or negative AFP levels (65%) can be diagnosed using PIVKA II. Abnormal prothrombin is a potential marker for the laboratory diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  14. Novel fragmentation model for pulverized coal particles gasification in low temperature air thermal plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Rastko D.; Cvetinović Dejan B.; Stefanović Predrag Lj.; Škobalj Predrag D.; Marković Zoran J.

    2016-01-01

    New system for start-up and flame support based on coal gasification by low temperature air thermal plasma is planned to supplement current heavy oil system in Serbian thermal power plants in order to decrease air pollutions emission and operational costs. Locally introduced plasma thermal energy heats up and ignites entrained coal particles, thus starting chain process which releases heat energy from gasified coal particles inside burner channel. Important...

  15. Towards standardisation of cell-free DNA measurement in plasma: controls for extraction efficiency, fragment size bias and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonshire, Alison S; Whale, Alexandra S; Gutteridge, Alice; Jones, Gerwyn; Cowen, Simon; Foy, Carole A; Huggett, Jim F

    2014-10-01

    Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is becoming an important clinical analyte for prenatal testing, cancer diagnosis and cancer monitoring. The extraction stage is critical in ensuring clinical sensitivity of analytical methods measuring minority nucleic acid fractions, such as foetal-derived sequences in predominantly maternal cfDNA. Consequently, quality controls are required for measurement of extraction efficiency, fragment size bias and yield for validation of cfDNA methods. We evaluated the utility of an external DNA spike for monitoring these parameters in a study comparing three specific cfDNA extraction methods [QIAamp circulating nucleic acid (CNA) kit, NucleoSpin Plasma XS (NS) kit and FitAmp plasma/serum DNA isolation (FA) kit] with the commonly used QIAamp DNA blood mini (DBM) kit. We found that the extraction efficiencies of the kits ranked in the order CNA kit > DBM kit > NS kit > FA kit, and the CNA and NS kits gave a better representation of smaller DNA fragments in the extract than the DBM kit. We investigated means of improved reporting of cfDNA yield by comparing quantitative PCR measurements of seven different reference gene assays in plasma samples and validating these with digital PCR. We noted that the cfDNA quantities based on measurement of some target genes (e.g. TERT) were, on average, more than twofold higher than those of other assays (e.g. ERV3). We conclude that analysis and averaging of multiple reference genes using a GeNorm approach gives a more reliable estimate of total cfDNA quantity.

  16. FACTOR-XII FRAGMENT AND KALLIKREIN GENERATION IN PLASMA DURING INCUBATION WITH BIOMATERIALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERKAMP, KWHJ; VANOEVEREN, W

    Blood biocompatibility of medical devices is in many ways dependent on surface characteristics and biochemical blood material interactions. In this study, the contact system, in which the activation of factor XII and plasma kallikrein is included, is highlighted. This article describes a simple

  17. Prothrombin-activator (thromboplastin) generation in the blood of water snake (Natrix piscator).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, V M; Dube, B; Dube, R K; Agarwal, G P

    1981-12-23

    The generation of prothrombin-activator (thromboplastin) in water snake (Natrix piscator) is clearly delayed, compared to a mammalian system, but the final activity is well comparable to that in man, when homologous sources of "phospholipid" (erythrocyte-lysate) and of substrate plasma are employed in one stage "thromboplastin generation test". The use of heterologous source of either of the above reagents resulted in significantly longer clotting times; hence the need for homologous source of above reagents in the test is emphasized for comparative studies on animal haemostasis.

  18. Des-γ-Carboxy Prothrombin (DCP as a Potential Autologous Growth Factor for the Development of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Sheng Zhang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC.

  19. Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) as a potential autologous growth factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Sheng; Chu, Jia-Hui; Cui, Shu-Xiang; Song, Zhi-Yu; Qu, Xian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a prothrombin precursor produced in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Because of deficiency of vitamin K or γ-glutamyl carboxylase in HCC cells, the 10 glutamic acid (Glu) residues in prothrombin precursor did not completely carboxylate to γ-carboxylated glutamic acid (Gla) residues, leaving some Glu residues remained in N-terminal domain. These prothrombin precursors with Glu residues are called DCPs. DCP displays insufficient coagulation activity. Since Liebman reported an elevated plasma DCP in patients with HCC, DCP has been used in the diagnosis of HCC. Recently, its biological malignant potential has been specified to describe DCP as an autologous growth factor to stimulate HCC growth and a paracrine factor to integrate HCC with vascular endothelial cells. DCP was found to stimulate HCC growth through activation of the DCP-Met-JAK1-STAT3 signaling pathway. DCP might increase HCC invasion and metastasis through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) and the ERK1/2 MAPK signaling pathway. DCP has also been found to play a crucial role in the formation of angiogenesis. DCP could increase the angiogenic factors released from HCC and vascular endothelial cells. These effects of DCP in angiogenesis might be related to activation of the DCP-KDR-PLC-γ-MAPK signaling pathway. In this article, we summarized recent studies on DCP in biological roles related to cancer progression and angiogenesis in HCC.

  20. Fragmentation of bile duct stones: a prospective systematic in vitro evaluation of argon plasma coagulation, cryotechnology, and water-jet technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eickhoff, A; Koberstein, S; Rothsching, M; Gemmel, C; Eickhoff, J C; Riemann, J F; Enderle, M D

    2009-08-01

    Choledocholithiasis is a common disease in the West. Lithotripsy by mechanical methods using baskets and by laser or electrohydraulic methods varies in effectiveness. With argon plasma coagulation (APC), high temperatures are used for devitalization and fragmentation; cryogenic techniques use the selective controlled application of freeze-thaw cycles to devitalize pathological tissue; and the dissecting water jet exploits the high pressure action of a thin laminar jet. We aimed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of APC, cryotechnology, and the dissecting water jet as options for the fragmentation of bile duct stones. In an in vitro feasibility study, we evaluated the fragmentation of 120 bile duct stones treated with the three methods. Primary measures were assessment of the fragmentation rate, fragmentation effect, and energy application for each technology. Fragmentation was seen in only 10 % of stones treated cryogenically using liquid nitrogen. APC at a power setting of 30 - 50 W fragmented all the cholesterol stones, but results with hard pigment stones were unsatisfactory even at high energies of a 100 W setting and long application time. Using the water jet, all 40 stones (100 %) were cracked effectively and completely with a pressure of 10 - 50 bar. In this feasibility study, the first of its kind, only the water-jet device demonstrated efficient fragmentation of large bile duct stones in vitro. APC and cryotechnology are not suitable for the treatment of bile duct stones; the fragmentation rate with these methods was inadequate.

  1. Decreased activity of superoxide dismutase in the seminal plasma of infertile men correlates with increased sperm deoxyribonucleic acid fragmentation during the first hours after sperm donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowiak, Artur; Bakalczuk, Szymon; Bakalczuk, Grzegorz

    2015-07-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation varies between individuals and is more pronounced with increased patient age and time after sperm donation. The intensification of DNA fragmentation depends on the balance of the oxidoreductive system, which is regulated mainly by two enzymes - superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between sperm DNA fragmentation dynamics, fertility and seminal SOD and catalase activity. The study was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Non-Public Health Care Unit 'Ovum Reproduction and Andrology' in Lublin, Lublin, Poland, and covered 218 men aged 25-35 (85 fertile and 133 patients treated for infertility). Percentage of fragmented DNA was measured in a modified chromatin dispersion test at four time points after sperm donation (t = 0, 3, 6, 12 h). SOD and catalase activities were determined spectrophotometrically. We confirmed that the activity of SOD in the seminal plasma of men with reproductive disorders was lower compared with fertile men. Conversely, no significant correlations were found between fertility and catalase activity. Sperm DNA of infertile males was initially more fragmented than fertile male sperm DNA. SOD and catalase activity did not correlate with the degree of DNA fragmentation in fertile men. In men with reproductive disorders, the rate of DNA fragmentation was slow within first 3 h after sperm donation and then increased between 6 and 12 h. In this group of infertile men, those with higher SOD activity had a lower DNA fragmentation index (DFI) after 12 h, and a reduced rate of intensity of fragmentation from 6 to 12 h. Alternatively, higher catalase activity among men treated for infertility was accompanied by higher initial DFI and higher rate of DNA fragmentation from 6 to 12 h. These results highlight the importance of determining a proper time window between sperm donation and procedures of assisted reproductive technology. © 2015 American Society of

  2. Acarboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) as a marker of hepatoblastoma in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohara, K; Endo, F; Matsuda, I; Iwamasa, T

    1987-01-01

    We evaluated plasma PIVKA-II (protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist-II, acarboxy prothrombin) levels in three infants with hepatoblastoma as a tumor marker. PIVKA-II levels were highly elevated in all three patients. Vitamin K administration, performed in two patients, resulted in only moderate reduction of PIVKA-II levels. Chemotherapy against tumor cells reduced the PIVKA-II levels without exception. Immunohistochemical study of the liver tissue indicated the presence of PIVKA-II in the hepatoblastoma cell. These findings suggest that elevated PIVKA-II in these patients was not due to nutritional vitamin K deficiency, but to excess production of tumor cells. A measurement of plasma PIVKA-II may be useful as a new marker of hepatoblastoma.

  3. Effects of sugammadex on activated partial thromboplastin time and prothrombin time in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kam, Pieter-Jan; Grobara, Peter; Prohn, Marita; Höppener, Floris; Kluft, Cornelis; Burggraaf, Jacobus; Langdon, Ronald B; Peeters, Pierre

    2014-03-01

    To assess the impact of sugammadex on activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and international normalized ratio for prothrombin time (PT(INR)) in healthy subjects and characterize the concentration-dependency of sugammadex effects on APTT and prothrombin time (PT) in normal human plasma in vitro. Eight healthy subjects (18 - 45 years of age) were administered intravenous doses of 4 mg/kg sugammadex, 16 mg/kg sugammadex, or placebo in a randomized, placebo-controlled, three period cross-over trial. The primary endpoint was area under the curve from 2 to 60 minutes post-dose (AUC2-60min) for APTT and PT(INR). In vitro, the effects of sugammadex on APTT and PT were assessed in pooled normal human citrate plasma. In subjects dosed with 4 and 16 mg/kg sugammadex, geometric mean ratios (treated vs. placebo) for AUC2-60min were 1.085 (95% confidence interval, 0.888 - 1.325) and 1.019 (0.868 - 1.195), respectively, for APTT, and 1.047 (0.904 - 1.213) and 1.096 (0.953 - 1.261), respectively, for PT(INR). At individual timepoints, mean APTT and PT(INR) increased by up to 22% after 16 mg/kg sugammadex compared with placebo. All such increases occurred within 30 minutes post-dose. Sugammadex was generally well tolerated. In the in vitro experiments, addition of sugammadex to plasma resulted in limited, concentration dependent increases in both APTT and PT. At 200 μg/mL (the mean maximum concentration reached therapeutically), the relative increases were 29% and 19%, respectively. Administration of sugammadex is associated with a dose-related, limited and transient prolongation of APTT and PT(INR) that is unlikely to be of clinical relevance.

  4. Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin Mutations in South of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Karimi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: Factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutation are not common but they are involved in pediatric thrombosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of factor V Leiden & prohtrombin mutation in healthy population of Shiraz, south of Iran. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study 195 healthy people (97 female and 98 male were randomly selected. Peripheral white blood cells obtained from 5 ml blood contained 1-2 mg/ml K2- EDTA. Genomic DNA extraction was performed following the protocol described by Miller et al. PCR amplification was carried out in 25μl reaction volume containing 0.5 units Taq polymerase, 200μM dNTP, 500 μM of each of the previously described primers. After initial denaturation, 35 cycles at 95◦c for 30s, and 72◦c for 20s and followed extention by 72 for 10 min were performed. About 10μl of PDR product was digested with MNI I or Mbo restriction enzymes. Results: In this study we determined factor V Leiden in 8 (4.1% and prothrombin mutation in 6 individual (3.07% of 198 cases in heterozygous form. No homozygous was seen for any of the mutations. Only one case presented a double heterozygous for factor V and prothrombin in this cohort. Conclusion: Several studies of factor V leiden and prothrombin mutations in the East of Asia showed the higher frequency of these mutations in Iran.

  5. Hypochlorite-induced oxidation of proteins in plasma: formation of chloramines and nitrogen-centred radicals and their role in protein fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, M J

    1999-06-01

    Activated phagocyte cells generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of H2O2 and the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Plasma proteins are major targets for HOCl, although little information is available about the mechanism(s) of oxidation. In this study the reaction of HOCl (at least 50 microM) with diluted fresh human plasma has been shown to generate material that oxidizes 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid; these oxidants are believed to be chloramines formed from the reaction of HOCl with protein amine groups. Chloramines have also been detected with isolated plasma proteins treated with HOCl. In both cases chloramine formation accounts for approx. 20-30% of the added HOCl. These chloramines decompose in a time-dependent manner when incubated at 20 or 37 degrees C but not at 4 degrees C. Ascorbate and urate remove these chloramines in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, with the former being more efficient. The reaction of fresh diluted plasma with HOCl also gives rise to protein-derived nitrogen-centred radicals in a time- and HOCl-concentration-dependent manner; these have been detected by EPR spin trapping. Identical radicals have been detected with isolated HOCl-treated plasma proteins. Radical formation was inhibited by excess methionine, implicating protein-derived chloramines (probably from lysine side chains) as the radical source. Plasma protein fragmentation occurs in a time- and HOCl-concentration-dependent manner, as evidenced by the increased mobility of the EPR spin adducts, the detection of further radical species believed to be intermediates in protein degradation and the loss of the parent protein bands on SDS/PAGE. Fragmentation can be inhibited by methionine and other agents (ascorbate, urate, Trolox C or GSH) capable of removing chloramines and reactive radicals. These results are consistent with protein-derived chloramines, and the radicals derived from them, as contributing agents in HOCl-induced plasma protein oxidation.

  6. Prevalence of factor V G1691A (Leiden) and prothrombin G20210A polymorphisms among apparently healthy Jordanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusier, Mohamad K; Radaideh, Abdelrahman M; Ababneh, Nida'a A; Qaqish, Bara'ah M; Alzoubi, Renad; Khader, Yousef; Mersa, Janet Y; Irshaid, Nidal M; El-Khateeb, Mohammed

    2007-10-01

    Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A are related genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). Analysis for both mutations is increasingly being performed on patients exhibiting hypercoagulability. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of factor V Leiden (FVL), prothrombin-G20210A (PT-G20210A) polymorphisms and their coexistence among apparently healthy Jordanians. One thousand apparently healthy individuals from representative regions of Jordan with no previous history of VTE participated in this study. The mean age of participants was 28.5+/-6.4 years (age range 18-45 years). Two hundred and eighteen subjects were APC resistant with an APC-R mean of 85.52+/-15.35 seconds; the non-resistant subjects had an APC-R mean of 159.90+/-26.96 seconds. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the simultaneous detection of FVL and prothrombin G20210A was used to analyze the 218 DNA samples that were APC-R resistant. Both mutations generate HindIII RFLPs and the prothrombin amplicon contains an invariant HindIII recognition sites. The multiplex PCR-RFLP of Factor V for those 218-samples was: 41 wild-type, 169 heterozygous mutant, and eight homozygous mutant individuals. For prothrombin G20210A, the multiplex PCR-RFLP identified 215 wild-type and three heterozygous mutant individuals. Factor V positive individuals (n=50) had a mean F-V activity of 78.04%+/-25.81. F-V activity among wild type (n=41), F-V Leiden heterozygous (n=169) and F-V Leiden homozygous (n=8) were 92.93%+/-16.17, 87.02%+/-15.21 and 96.14%+/-12.32, respectively. Factor II positive subjects (n=47) had a mean factor II activity of 127.96%+/-21.37. F-II activity among carriers (heterozygous, n=3) and non-carriers (normal, n=215) of PT-G20210A mutation were 107.67%+/-9.29 and 105.00%+/-17.79, respectively. The prevalence of FVL was 21.8% and there is a little likelihood of the co-inheritance of the FVL and PT-G20210A among

  7. Increased levels of plasma p3-alcα35, a major fragment of Alcadeinα by γ-secretase cleavage, in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omori, Chiori; Kaneko, Madoka; Nakajima, Etsuko; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Waragai, Masaaki; Maeda, Masahiro; Morishima-Kawashima, Maho; Saito, Yuhki; Nakaya, Tadashi; Taru, Hidenori; Yamamoto, Tohru; Asada, Takashi; Hata, Saori; Suzuki, Toshiharu

    2014-01-01

    p3-Alcα is a metabolic fragment of Alcadeinα (Alcα). Similar to the generation of the p3 fragment from amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) processing, Alcα is cleaved by α- and γ-secretases, leading to the secretion of p3-Alcα peptides into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). p3-Alcα is also detected in the plasma, similar to amyloid-β (Aβ), which is a metabolic fragment of AβPP cleaved by amyloidogenic β- and γ-secretases. Because p3-Alcα is a non-aggregatable and stable peptide, unlike aggregatable Aβ and metabolically labile p3 of AβPP, the changes of p3-Alcα in quality and/or quantity in CSF and plasma are expected to be a marker for assessing alteration of substrate cleavage by γ-secretase, such as Aβ generation from AβPP. The present study describes a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for quantifying levels of p3-Alcα35, the major form of the p3-Alcα species, and examines levels of p3-Alcα35 in the plasma of three independent Japanese cohorts. In two of the three cohorts, the p3-Alcα35 levels were significantly increased with a concomitant decrease in the Mini-Mental State Examination score, or in clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, when compared with age-matched non-demented subjects. The values were significantly lower in AD subjects who were administered donepezil, when compared to AD subjects without donepezil treatment. The increase in plasma p3-Alcα35 levels may indicate an endophenotype in subjects in whom AD is due to a progressing cognitive impairment in subjects with a γ-secretase malfunction, or a disorder of the clearance of peptides.

  8. Effect of acetylcysteine on prothrombin index in paracetamol poisoning without hepatocellular injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Lars E; Knudsen, Tore Tveit; Dalhoff, Kim

    2002-01-01

    Acetylcysteine treatment reduces liver damage after paracetamol overdose, but can affect the prothrombin index, which is used to assess the progress of overdose patients. We aimed to assess retrospectively the effect of intravenous acetylcysteine on the prothrombin index in patients with paraceta......Acetylcysteine treatment reduces liver damage after paracetamol overdose, but can affect the prothrombin index, which is used to assess the progress of overdose patients. We aimed to assess retrospectively the effect of intravenous acetylcysteine on the prothrombin index in patients...... with paracetamol poisoning without signs of hepatocellular injury. Prothrombin index had been recorded before, and serially during, acetylcysteine treatment in 87 patients. After initiation of treatment, prothrombin index decreased (mean 0.33, 95% CI 0.29-0.38) in all patients, and was strongly associated...... with the start of acetylcysteine infusion. In patients with uncomplicated paracetamol poisoning, a fall in this index might be misinterpreted as a sign of liver failure, leading to prolonged treatment time....

  9. Comparison of prothrombin time tests used in the monitoring of edoxaban and their evaluation as indicators of the reversal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iba, Toshiaki; Emmi, Mari; Hiki, Makoto; Nagayama, Masataka; Aihara, Koichiro; Tabe, Yoko; Yuri, Maiko; Ohsaka, Akimichi

    2016-06-01

    Clinical demand for the prompt assessment of the activity of direct-acting factor Xa inhibitors in the emergency care setting is increasing. In the present study, we examined whether prothrombin time (PT) tests can serve as a clinically useful indicator of anti-factor Xa activity. In the first series, the in vitro effect of edoxaban on PT was evaluated by spiking human plasma with edoxaban and measuring PT using three different commercial PT tests. In the second series, the reversal effect of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) and activated PCC (aPCC) in edoxaban-spiked plasma was evaluated. In the third series, PT of plasma samples from patients administered either 15 or 30 mg/day of edoxaban was assessed, and the results were compared with edoxaban concentrations determined by a calibrated anti-factor Xa activity assay. The spike test revealed that all PT reagents positively correlated with edoxaban. The sensitivity to edoxaban varied among the three reagents and Triniclot(®) Excel S showed the best performance. Prolonged PT by edoxaban was reversed by PCC and aPCC in a dose-dependent manner; however, complete reversal was not achieved. Positive correlation between anti-factor Xa activity and PT was shown in the clinical samples at the edoxaban range from 0 to >300 ng/mL.

  10. Reversing Antisense Oligonucleotide Activity with a Sense Oligonucleotide Antidote: Proof of Concept Targeting Prothrombin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Jeff R; Zhao, Chenguang; Zhang, Hong; MacLeod, A Robert; Guo, Shuling; Monia, Brett P

    2015-12-01

    The tissue half-life of second-generation antisense oligonucleotide drugs (ASOs) is generally longer than traditional small molecule therapeutics. Thus, a strategy to reverse the activity of antisense drugs is warranted in certain settings. In this study, we describe a strategy employing the administration of a complementary sense oligonucleotide antidote (SOA). As a model system we have chosen to target the coagulation factor and antithrombotic drug target, prothrombin, to assess the feasibility of this approach. ASO targeting mouse prothrombin specifically suppressed >90% hepatic prothrombin mRNA levels and circulating prothrombin protein in mice. These effects were dose- and time-dependent, and as expected produced predictable increases in anticoagulation activity [prothrombin time/activated partial thromboplastin time (PT/aPTT)]. Treatment with prothrombin SOAs resulted in a dose-dependent reversal of ASO activity, as measured by a return in prothrombin mRNA levels and thrombin activity, and normalization of aPTT and PT. The antithrombotic activity of prothrombin ASOs was demonstrated in a FeCl3-induced thrombosis mouse model, and as predicted for this target, the doses required for antithrombotic activity were also associated with increased bleeding. Treatment with SOA was able to prevent prothrombin ASO-induced bleeding in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrate for the first time the utility of SOAs to selectively and specifically reverse the intracellular effects of an antisense therapy.

  11. Blood splash in lambs-a preliminary study using the one-stage prothrombin time test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restall, D J

    1981-02-01

    Lambs from a flock in which a high incidence of blood splash had been detected were examined using the one-stage prothrombin test. For comparison lambs from a commercial slaughter line were also examined. All the affected lambs and 35·4% from the slaughter line had extended prothrombin times, and a relationship between extended prothrombin times and the occurrence of blood splash was established. Investigation of the pastures grazed by the affected flock showed the presence of coumarin producing plants and grasses. Some coumarin drugs prolong one-stage prothrombin times, and more importantly, induce capillary fragility, thus predisposing animals to blood splash.

  12. The effects of insulin-like growth factorI (IGF I) complex from seminal plasma on capacitation, membrane integrity andDNA fragmentation in goat spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suherni Susilowati; Indah Norma Triana; Abdul Malik

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the effects of the insulin-like growth factor I (IGF I) complex from seminal plasma on capacitation, membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation.Methods:A total of 0.5 mL of fresh semen was added to 1 mL of Bracket-Oliphant (BO) medium, and the sample was then centrifuged at a speed of 1 800 rpm for 10 minutes. The samples were analyzed before and after centrifugation for sperm viability, motility, membrane integrity and capacitation. The centrifuged samples were divided into three groups, each consisting of 3í 106spermatozoa. BO medium was added to group 1, BO ¬+ 12 ng IGF I complex medium was added to group 2, and 12 ng IGF I complex was added to group 3. Then, the samples were incubated for 15 minutes. Results:The result showed that sperm motility, viability and membrane integrity were significantly lower (P<0.05) after centrifugation. Furthermore, the sperm capacitation was significantly increased (P<0.05) after centrifugation. The percentages of sperm capacitation, membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation were significantly different (P< 0.05) in all media, including BO, BO + IGF-I complex and the IGF-I complex alone. Conclusions:Sperm quality include motility, viability and membrane integrity were lower after centrifugation. whereas DNA fragmentation after incubation in the IGF-I complex medium also was lower compared to that of specimens in the BO and BO + IGF-I complex media.

  13. Levels of acarboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) and coagulation factors in warfarin-treated patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umeki, S; Umeki, Y

    1990-04-01

    PIVKA-II (protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonists-II) was determined and compared with other coagulation factors in normal subjects and patients treated with the anticoagulant warfarin. In 18 (60%) of 30 patients treated with warfarin, PIVKA-II values were 1 microgram/ml or more, although they were less than 1 microgram/ml in all 39 normal subjects (100%). In patients treated with warfarin, values of prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time were significantly higher than those in normal subjects. However, values of hepaplastintest (normotest) and thrombotest in the patients were greatly lower than those in normal subjects. There were no significant differences between bleeding time or plasma fibrinogen values in the patients and normal subjects. The values of PIVKA-II were inversely correlated (P less than 0.01) with those of hepaplastintest and thrombotest. The measurement of PIVKA-II in the plasma should be useful in detecting vitamin K-deficient status among haemorrhagic disorders.

  14. Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II)-producing mediastinal embryonal carcinoma with features of hepatoid differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yasuyuki; Tomita, Katsuyuki; Hashimoto, Kiyoshi; Shigeoka, Yasushi; Watanabe, Masanari; Yamasaki, Akira; Shimizu, Eiji

    2005-01-01

    The case of a 48-year-old man with primary nonseminomatous embryonal carcinoma at the posterior mediastinum is described. The patient displayed extremely high plasma levels of Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) (4040 mAU/ml). Ultrasonography and dynamic computed tomography ruled out hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) or liver metastasis. After preoperative systemic chemotherapy, total tumor resection was performed. Postoperatively, the plasma levels of PIVKA-II returned to within the normal range (24 mAU/ml). An immnohistochemical study using anti-PIVKA-II monoclonal antibody revealed the cytoplasmic expression of PIVK4-II in the carcinoma cells. These results indicate that tumor cells, which are manifested as hepatoid differentiation, may produce PIVKA-II. This case seems to be the first case reported in which PIVKA-II was produced by nonseminomatous mediastinal embryonal carcinoma without HCC or liver metastasis.

  15. A novel prothrombin time method to measure all non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants (NOACs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Tomas L; Arbring, Kerstin; Wallstedt, Maria; Rånby, Mats

    2017-09-11

    There is a clinical need for point-of-care (POC) methods for non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants (NOACs). We modified a routine POC procedure: Zafena's Simple Simon™ PT-INR, a room-temperature, wet-chemistry prothrombin time method of the Owren-type. To either increase or decrease NOAC interference, two assay variants were devised by replacing the standard 10 µL end-to-end capillary used to add the citrated plasma sample to 200 µL of prothrombin time (PT) reagent by either a 20 µL or a 5 µL capillary. All assay variants were calibrated to show correct PT results in plasma samples from healthy and warfarin-treated persons. For plasmas spiked with dabigatran, apixaban, or rivaroxaban, the 20 µL variant showed markedly higher PT results than the 5 µL. The effects were even more pronounced at room temperature than at +37 °C. In plasmas from patients treated with NOACs (n = 30 for each) there was a strong correlation between the PT results and the concentration of NOACs as determined by the central hospital laboratory. For the 20 µL variant the PT response of linear correlation coefficient averaged 0.90. The PT range was INR 1.1-2.1 for dabigatran and apixaban, and INR 1.1-5.0 for rivaroxaban. Using an INR ratio between the 20 µL and 5 µL variants (PTr20/5) made the NOAC assay more robust and independent of the patient sample INR value in the absence of NOAC. Detection limits were 80 µg/L for apixaban, 60 µg/L for dabigatran, and 20 µg/L for rivaroxaban. A wet-chemistry POC PT procedure was modified to measure the concentrations of three NOACs using a single reagent.

  16. Clinical impact of factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR C677T mutations among sickle cell disease patients of Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishank, Sudhansu Sekhar; Singh, Mendi Prema Shyam Sunder; Yadav, Rajiv

    2013-11-01

    It is known that patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) present activation of the blood coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, especially during vaso-occlusive crises and also during the steady state of the disease. We determined whether the presence of the factor prothrombin gene G20210A variant, factor V gene G1691A mutation (factor V Leiden), and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphisms may be risk factors for vascular complications in individuals with SCD. The study involved 150 patients with sickle cell anemia and 150 healthy controls of Central India. Genotyping of three thrombophilic mutations was carried out by PCR-RFLP methods using MnlI, Hind III, and Hinf I, respectively, for factor V Leiden, prothrombin, and MTHFR mutations. Patients with SCD had significantly higher prevalence of mutant variants of MTHFR gene (28.0% heterozygotes and 14.6% homozygotes) and FVL gene (14.6% heterozygotes) as compared to normal/control individuals, but complete absence of mutant variants of prothrombin gene. The patients with SCD having mutant variants of MTHFR and FVL genes showed higher incidence of pain in chest, abdomen, and bone joints along with early age of onset of clinical manifestations as well as frequent dependence on blood transfusion than those patients with SCD having wild variants of these thrombotic genes. As compared to control subjects, SCD individuals having mutant variants of FVL and MTHFR genes had significant association with higher levels of prothrombin fragment (F1+2), D-dimer, thrombin-antithrombin (TAT), and lower level of protein C. MTHFR C677T and FVL G1691A polymorphisms may be risk factors for increased vascular complications in patient with SCD. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Generation of a 90 000 molecular weight fragment from human plasma angiotensin-I-converting enzyme by enzymatic or alkaline hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yotsumoto, H; Lanzillo, J J; Fanburg, B L

    1983-12-12

    A catalytically active Mr 90 000 fragment was generated from native Mr 140 000 human plasma angiotensin-I-converting enzyme after treatment with reagents that induced a perturbation of the native tertiary conformation. Treatment of converting enzyme with 6 M urea produced an aggregation of molecules that was susceptible to proteolysis by either trypsin, chymotrypsin or Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase to generate the Mr 90 000 converting enzyme. Also, 1 M ammonium hydroxide, pH 11.3, or 0.01 M sodium hydroxide, pH 11.3, cleaved converting enzyme to the Mr 90 000 fragment. Degradation was not an autocatalytic phenomenon, since it was not prevented by inhibition of converting enzyme with EDTA. The enzymatically mediated, but not the alkaline mediated, cleavage was inhibited by specific converting enzyme inhibitors captopril and Merck L-154,826. This suggests that captopril and Merck L-154,826 can prevent converting-enzyme degradation by preserving a conformation that does not have sites exposed to proteolytic enzymes. This conformation may mimic the native conformation which is quite resistant to serine proteinases.

  18. MASP-1 Induced Clotting--The First Model of Prothrombin Activation by MASP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenz Jenny

    Full Text Available Mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1, a protein of the complement lectin pathway, resembles thrombin in terms of structural features and substrate specificity. Due to its interplay with several coagulation factors, it has the ability to induce fibrin clot formation independent of the usual coagulation activation pathways. We have recently shown that MASP-1 activates prothrombin and identified arginine (R 155, R271, and R393 as potential cleavage sites. FXa cleaves R320 instead of R393, and thrombin cleaves R155 and R284 in prothrombin. Here we have used three arginine-to-glutamine mutants of prothrombin, R271Q, R320Q, R393Q and the serine-to-alanine active site mutant S525A to investigate in detail the mechanism of MASP-1 mediated prothrombin activation. Prothrombin wildtype and mutants were digested with MASP-1 and the cleavage products were analysed by SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequencing. A functional clotting assay was performed by thrombelastography. We have found that MASP-1 activates prothrombin via two simultaneous pathways, either cleaving at R271 or R393 first. Both pathways result in the formation of several active alternative thrombin species. Functional studies confirmed that both R393 and R320 are required for prothrombin activation by MASP-1, whereas R155 is not considered to be an important cleavage site in this process. In conclusion, we have described for the first time a detailed model of prothrombin activation by MASP-1.

  19. Three versus four-factor prothrombin complex concentrates for "factor-based" resuscitation in a porcine hemorrhagic shock model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Donald Michael; Lallemand, Michael Scott; McClellan, John Mason; Smith, Joshua Porter; Marko, Shannon T; Eckert, Matthew J; Martin, Matthew J

    2017-07-12

    Bleeding is a leading cause of preventable death following severe injury. Prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) treat inborn coagulation disorders and reverse oral anticoagulants, but are proposed for use in "factor-based" resuscitation strategies. Few studies exist for this indication in acidosis, or that compare 3-factor (3PCC) versus 4-factor (4PCC) products. We aimed to assess and compare their safety and efficacy in a porcine model of severe hemorrhagic shock and coagulopathy. Twenty-five adult Yorkshire swine underwent 35% volume hemorrhage, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and protocolized crystalloid resuscitation. Seventeen animals were randomized at 4 hours following model creation to receive a 45-IU/kg dose of either 3PCC or 4PCC. An additional 8 animals received autologous plasma transfusion prior to 4PCC to better characterize response to PCC. Individual factor levels were drawn at 4 and 6 hours. The model created significant acidosis with mean pH 7.21 and lactate of 9.6 mmol/L. Following PCC, 66.7% of 3PCC animals and 25% of 4PCC animals (regardless of plasma administration) developed consumptive coagulopathy. The animals that developed consumptive coagulopathy had manifested the "lethal triad" with lower temperatures (36.3 vs. 37.8°C), increased acidosis (pH 7.14 vs. 7.27, base excess -12.1 vs. -6.5 mEq/L), and worse coagulopathy (prothrombin time 17.1 vs. 14.6 seconds, fibrinogen 87.9 vs. 124.1 mg/dL) (all pfactors with transient improvement of prothrombin time, but there was significant depletion of fibrinogen and platelets with no lasting improvement of coagulopathy. PCC failed to correct coagulopathy and was associated with fibrinogen and platelet depletion. Of greater concern, PCC administration resulted in consumptive coagulopathy in the more severely ill animals. The incidence of consumptive coagulopathy was markedly increased with 3PCC versus 4PCC, and these products should be used with caution in this setting. II, therapeutic.

  20. Prevalence of factor Ⅴ Leiden and prothrombin G20210A in patients with gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra Battistelli; Massimo Stefanoni; Alberto Genovese; Aurelio Vittoria; Roberto Cappelli; Franco Roviello

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the prevalence of the two commonest thrombophilic mutations, factor Ⅴ Leiden and prothrombin G20210A, in patients with gastric cancer.METHODS: One hundred and twenty-one patients with primary gastric carcinoma and 130 healthy subjects,comparable for age and sex, were investigated. Factor Ⅴ Leiden was detected by using polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme digestion, and prothrombin G20210A gene mutation by allele-specific PCR.RESULTS: Among the 121 cancer patients, factor Ⅴ Leiden was found in 4 cases (GA genotype: 3.3%) and prothrombin G20210A in 10 cases (GA genotype: 8.3%).Of the 130 control subjects, factor Ⅴ Leiden was detected in 6 cases (GA genotype: 4.6%) and prothrombin G20210A in 8 cases (GA genotype: 6.1%). No double heterozygous carriers of both mutations were found in either group. The prevalence of both factor Ⅴ Leiden and prothrombin G20210A variant was not statistically different between the cancer patients and the healthy subjects.CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that, in gastric cancer, the risk factors of thrombophilic cancer state are on acquired rather than on a genetic basis and that prothrombin G20210A does not seem to be a cofactor in gastric cancer pathogenesis.

  1. A review of the clinical utility of INR to monitor and guide administration of prothrombin complex concentrate to orally anticoagulated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sølbeck, Sacha; Ostrowski, Sisse R; Johansson, Pär I

    2012-01-01

    the initiation steps of the haemostatic process. The objective of the present review was to reassess the evidence for using INR as a tool to guide administration of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) to OAC patients. A Medline and Cochrane database search was conducted using the following keywords...... evidence for the usefulness of INR as a tool to monitor and guide reversal of OAC induced coagulopathy in patients with PCC, which is expected given that it is a plasma-based assay only reflecting a limited part of the haemostatic process....

  2. Emergency management of major bleeding in a case of maxillofacial trauma and anticoagulation: utility of prothrombin complex concentrates in the shock room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Morotti

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Life-threatening bleeding in anticoagulation with Warfarin is an emergency challenging issue. Several approaches are available to treat bleeding in either over-anticoagulation or propeanticoagulation, including vitamin K, fresh frozen plasma and prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC administration. In coexisting trauma-induced bleeding and anticoagulation, reversal of anticoagulation must be a rapid and highly effective procedure. Furthermore the appropriate treatment must be directly available in each shock rooms to guarantee the rapid management of the emergency. PCC require a simple storage, rapid accessibility, fast administration procedures and high effectiveness. Here we report the utility of PCC in management of a craniofacial trauma in proper-anticoagulation.

  3. A case of catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome complicated with systemic lupus erythematosus, double positive for anti-cardiolipin/β₂ glycoprotein I and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin autoantibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Eri; Saito, Kazuyoshi; Hirata, Shintaro; Atsumi, Tatsuya; Koike, Takao; Tanaka, Yoshiya

    2012-09-01

    A 16-year-old male with severe thrombocytopenia and progressive multiple organ infarctions was diagnosed as having catastrophic antiphospholipid syndrome (CAPS) complicated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and was successfully treated with combination of anticoagulants, corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and intravenous cyclophosphamide. Antibodies to phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (PS/PT) complex and cardiolipin (CL)/β(2)-glycoprotein I (β(2)GPI) were simultaneously detected, indicating that the different pathways of both PS/PT and CL/β(2)GPI might be associated with the radical manifestation of CAPS.

  4. Deceptive prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times in alcoholic cirrhosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirikonda, P. R.; Spillert, C. R.; Koneru, B.; Ponnudurai, R.; Wilson, D. J.; Lazaro, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    It is believed that perioperative hemorrhage, in the hepatoportal area, results from a coagulopathy. This study determined if this could be quantitated by a modified recalcification time (MRT) test developed in our laboratory. Unlike prothrombin (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin times (APTT), the MRT is performed with whole blood to ensure the role of blood cells and chemicals (particularly tissue factor, a potent procoagulant) in the coagulation process. Candidates for liver transplantation (n = 11) were studied. Samples (5 mL) of citrated venous blood were obtained from the patients. Aliquots (1 mL) from these samples were divided into groups of vials labeled C, S, and E. Groups C and S received 20 microL saline and group E, 20 microL of saline containing 10 micrograms of Escherichia coli endotoxin (055: B5W). Vial C was incubated for 10 minutes and vials S and E for 120 minutes, all at 37 degrees C. Then, the MRT was determined on 300 microL of blood from each vial after adding 40 microL of 0.1M calcium chloride. Mean MRT values (minutes +/- standard deviation) for C (MRTC), for S (MRTS), and for E (MRTE) were compared with like values from healthy controls (n = 29). Despite prolonged PT and APTT values, MRT values were shortened in patients with cirrhosis. This hypercoagulability detected by the MRT exonerates a hemorrhagic coagulopathy and possibly implicates widened and thinned gaps in the walls of the portal venous tributaries as the cause of perioperative hemorrhage. PMID:8667440

  5. Quantum fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    1993-01-01

    Phenomenological and theoretical aspects of fragmentation for elementary particles (resp. nuclei) are discussed. It is shown that some concepts of classical fragmentation remain relevant in a microscopic framework, exhibiting non-trivial properties of quantum relativistic field theory (resp. lattice percolation). Email contact: pesch@amoco.saclay.cea.fr

  6. Fragmented Authoritarianism or Integrated Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brødsgaard, Kjeld Erik

    of these business leaders prompts the question of whether we are seeing the development of distinct interest groups that could challenge Party and state authority and create a fragmented polity. However, through the nomenklatura system the Party has an important instrument of control to wield over business groups...... and the Party-state, I suggest the notion of integrated fragmentation....

  7. Anti-prothrombin (aPT) and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) antibodies and the risk of thrombosis in the antiphospholipid syndrome. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciascia, Savino; Sanna, Giovanni; Murru, Veronica; Roccatello, Dario; Khamashta, Munther A; Bertolaccini, Maria Laura

    2014-02-01

    Antibodies to prothrombin are detected by directly coating prothrombin on irradiated ELISA plates (aPT) or by using the phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex as antigen (aPS/PT). Although these antibodies have both been associated with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and a correlation between the two assays have been reported, it seems that aPT and aPS/PT belong to different populations of autoantibodies. It was our objective to systematically review the available evidence on aPT and aPS/PT antibodies and the risk of thrombosis in APS. Medline-reports published between 1988 and 2013 investigating aPT and aPS/PT as a risk factor for thrombosis were included. Whenever possible, antibody isotype(s) and site of thrombosis were analysed. This systematic review is based on available data from more than 7,000 patients and controls from 38 studies analysing aPT and 10 aPS/PT. Antibodies to prothrombin (both aPT and aPS/PT) increased the risk of thrombosis (odds ratio [OR] 2.3; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.72-3.5). aPS/PT seemed to represent a stronger risk factor for thrombosis, both arterial and/or venous than aPT (OR 5.11; 95%CI 4.2-6.3 and OR 1.82; 95%CI 1.44-2.75, respectively). In conclusion, routine measurement of aPS/PT (but not aPT) might be useful in establishing the thrombotic risk of patients with previous thrombosis and/or systemic lupus erythematosus. Their inclusion as laboratory criteria for the APS should be indisputably further explored.

  8. Association of factor V Leiden, Janus kinase 2, prothrombin, and MTHFR mutations with primary Budd-Chiari syndrome in Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sebay, Hatem M; Safan, Manal A; Daoud, Ashraf A; Tayel, Safaa I; Nouh, Mohamed A; El Shafie, Shymaa

    2016-01-01

    Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is defined as obstruction of hepatic venous outflow anywhere from the small hepatic veins to the suprahepatic inferior vena cava. The pathogenesis of BCS is still not fully understood. This study aimed to evaluate the association of factor V Leiden (FVL), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), prothrombin, and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) mutations with primary BCS. The study was carried out on 35 patients with primary BCS and 15 age and gender matched healthy individuals as a control group. Genotyping of FVL, prothrombin, and MTHFR mutations was determined by GENEQUALITY AB-THROMBO TYPE kit based on the reverse hybridization principle. JAK2 mutation was determined by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. There was a statistically significant difference between patients and controls regarding FVL, MTHFR C677T, and MTHFR A1298C mutations with odds ratio of 1.83, 2.0, and 1.79, respectively. Hetero MTHFR C677T, hetero FVL, and hetero MTHFR A1298C were the most common etiological factors being responsible for 57.1, 42.9, and 42.9% of primary BCS cases, respectively. It could be concluded that BCS is a multifactorial disease; in the current study, MTHFR C677T mutation was the most common cause of disease. Identification of one cause of BCS should not eliminate investigations for detection of other etiological factors. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Successful living donor kidney transplantation in a patient with prothrombin gene mutation: Case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a patient with known prothrombin gene mutation and a history of prior vascular events, who underwent living donor kidney transplantation. Given the presumed elevated risk of complication from known prothrombin mutation, clinical management was directed towards optimizing living donor allograft function.

  10. Laser-induced europium(III) luminescence as a probe of the metal ion mediated association of human prothrombin with phospholipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhee, M J; Horrocks, W D; Kosow, D P

    1982-09-14

    7F0 leads to 5D0 excitation spectroscopy of Eu(III) has been used to investigate the Eu(III) and phospholipid binding properties of human prothrombin. The results indicate that human prothrombin contains four high-affinity Eu(III) binding sites which are distributed into two classes of binding sites. When 4 equiv of Eu(III) is bound to prothrombin, the prothrombin is capable of binding to phospholipid vesicles. The deuterium isotope effect on the lifetime of the Eu(III)-prothrombin complex and the Eu(III)-prothrombin-phospholipid complex was used to determine the number of water molecules coordinated to the Eu(III). In both complexes, each of the Eu(III)'s coordinated to 2.5 +/- 0.5 water molecules. These results indicate that the binding of the Eu(III)-prothrombin complex to the phospholipid does not require the formation of a prothrombin-Eu(III)-phospholipid bridge.

  11. Magma Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonnermann, Helge M.

    2015-05-01

    Magma fragmentation is the breakup of a continuous volume of molten rock into discrete pieces, called pyroclasts. Because magma contains bubbles of compressible magmatic volatiles, decompression of low-viscosity magma leads to rapid expansion. The magma is torn into fragments, as it is stretched into hydrodynamically unstable sheets and filaments. If the magma is highly viscous, resistance to bubble growth will instead lead to excess gas pressure and the magma will deform viscoelastically by fracturing like a glassy solid, resulting in the formation of a violently expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. In either case, fragmentation represents the conversion of potential energy into the surface energy of the newly created fragments and the kinetic energy of the expanding gas-pyroclast mixture. If magma comes into contact with external water, the conversion of thermal energy will vaporize water and quench magma at the melt-water interface, thus creating dynamic stresses that cause fragmentation and the release of kinetic energy. Lastly, shear deformation of highly viscous magma may cause brittle fractures and release seismic energy.

  12. A simple method to discriminate between beta(2)-glycoprotein I- and prothrombin-dependent lupus anticoagulants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simmelink, MJA; Derksen, RHWM; Arnout, J; De Groot, PG

    2003-01-01

    Lupus anticoagulants (LAC) are a heterogeneous group of autoantibodies that prolong phospholipid-dependent clotting assays. The autoantibodies that cause LAC activity are predominantly directed against beta(2)-glycoprotein I (beta(2)GPI) or prothrombin. In the present study, we describe a method to

  13. Prothrombin complex concentrate in the reduction of blood loss during orthotopic liver transplantation : PROTON-trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arshad, Freeha; Ickx, Brigitte; van Beem, Rachel T.; Polak, Wojciech; Grune, Frank; Nevens, Frederik; Ilmakunnas, Minna; Koivusalo, Anna-Maria; Isoniemi, Helena; Strengers, Paul F. W.; Groen, Henk; Hendriks, Herman G. D.; Lisman, Ton; Pirenne, Jacques; Porte, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In patients with cirrhosis, the synthesis of coagulation factors can fall short, reflected by a prolonged prothrombin time. Although anticoagulants factors are decreased as well, blood loss during orthotopic liver transplantation can still be excessive. Blood loss during orthotopic liver

  14. Prothrombin complex concentrate in the reduction of blood loss during orthotopic liver transplantation: PROTON-trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F. Arshad (Freeha); B. Ickx (Brigitte); R.T. van Beem (Rachel); W.G. Polak (Wojciech); F. Grüne (Frank); F. Nevens (Frederik); M. Ilmakunnas (Minna); A.M. Koivusalo (Anna-Maria); H. Isoniemi (Helena); P.F.W. Strengers; H.J.M. Groen (Henk); H.G.D. Hendriks (Herman); T. Lisman (Ton); J. Pirenne (Jacques); R.J. Porte (Robert)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractBackground: In patients with cirrhosis, the synthesis of coagulation factors can fall short, reflected by a prolonged prothrombin time. Although anticoagulants factors are decreased as well, blood loss during orthotopic liver transplantation can still be excessive. Blood loss during

  15. Framing Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    , contain distinctive architectural traits, not only based on rational repetition, but also supporting composition and montage as dynamic concepts. Prefab architecture is an architecture of fragmentation, individualization and changeability, and this sets up new challenges for the architect. This paper...... into separate parts or systems: skeleton, skin, services, internal cladding, etc. Each building part/system is being conceived, produced, delivered and maintained by different construction companies. Basically the building is being fragmented into separate parts living their separate lives. The architect has...... to create architectural meaning and give character to an architecture of fragmentation. Layers are both seen as conceptual as well as material frames which define certain strong properties or meanings in the architectural work. Defining layers is a way of separating and organizing; it both defines...

  16. Liver and plasma levels of descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) in vitamin K deficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harauchi, T; Takano, K; Matsuura, M; Yoshizaki, T

    1986-04-01

    Descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) is a precursor of prothrombin without biological activity, and it increases with vitamin K deficiency. We studied the time course changes in liver and plasma levels of PIVKA II during the progress of vitamin K deficiency in rats. Good correlation was observed between liver PIVKA II and plasma PIVKA II and between liver or plasma PIVKA II and plasma prothrombin in experiments in which rats were fed a vitamin K-deficient diet. Feeding of a vitamin K-deficient diet or fasting caused marked increases in liver and plasma PIVKA II in male rats and a weaker response in female rats. Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, caused an abrupt increase in liver PIVKA II, but the increase in plasma PIVKA II was delayed about 3 hr. Plasma prothrombin decreased from about 30 min later. Factor VII decreased similarly to prothrombin, and changes in the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were slower than the changes in these substances. Sex differences were not seen in these warfarin actions. These observations indicate that liver and plasma PIVKA II are sensitive markers of vitamin K deficiency in rats, and assay of PIVKA II can be useful for analyzing the action mechanism of drugs which influence blood coagulation.

  17. Safety and efficacy of prothrombin complex concentrate as first-line treatment in bleeding after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappabianca, Giangiuseppe; Mariscalco, Giovanni; Biancari, Fausto; Maselli, Daniele; Papesso, Francesca; Cottini, Marzia; Crosta, Sandro; Banescu, Simona; Ahmed, Aamer B; Beghi, Cesare

    2016-01-06

    Bleeding after cardiac surgery requiring surgical reexploration and blood component transfusion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Although prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) has been used satisfactorily in bleeding disorders, studies on its efficacy and safety after cardiopulmonary bypass are limited. Between January 2005 and December 2013, 3454 consecutive cardiac surgery patients were included in an observational study aimed at investigating the efficacy and safety of PCC as first-line coagulopathy treatment as a replacement for fresh frozen plasma (FFP). Starting in January 2012, PCC was introduced as solely first-line treatment for bleeding following cardiac surgery. After one-to-one propensity score-matched analysis, 225 pairs of patients receiving PCC (median dose 1500 IU) and FFP (median dose 2 U) were included. The use of PCC was associated with significantly decreased 24-h post-operative blood loss (836 ± 1226 vs. 935 ± 583 ml, p surgery setting, the use of PCC compared with FFP was associated with decreased post-operative blood loss and RBC transfusion requirements. However, PCC administration may be associated with a higher risk of post-operative AKI.

  18. An unusual cause of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis: prothrombin G20210A gene mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porres-Aguilar, Mateo; Square, Jaime H; Storey, Raul; Rodriguez-Dunn, Simon; Mohamed-Aly, Mohamed S

    2007-09-01

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis represents less than 1% of all strokes, being an uncommon entity with a wide spectrum of clinical scenarios. We present a 45-year-old Hispanic female with a history of long-term oral contraceptive use who was diagnosed with cerebral venous sinus thrombosis due to a heterozygous carrier mutation in the prothrombin G20210A gene. The patient was successfully managed with intravenous heparin with favorable clinical results without adverse effects. The prevalence of inherited primary thrombophilia increases with additional risk factors such as the use of oral contraceptives that can trigger or prothrombotic events in any vascular bed. An increased prevalence in the prothrombin G20210 gene mutation has been demonstrated in the Mexican-Mestizo population. Controversy exists regarding therapy of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis; according to experts, heparin remains the cornerstone of therapy with acceptable outcomes. More clinical trials are required to evaluate long-term outcomes in this subgroup of patients.

  19. Four methods compared for measuring des-carboxy-prothrombin (PIVKA-II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widdershoven, J; van Munster, P; De Abreu, R; Bosman, H; van Lith, T; van der Putten-van Meyel, M; Motohara, K; Matsuda, I

    1987-11-01

    PIVKA-II (Protein Induced by Vitamin K Absence) is abnormal des-carboxylated prothrombin, which is present in vitamin K deficiency or in patients using warfarin. With a sensitive method for PIVKA-II, biochemical vitamin K deficiency can be established before clinical symptoms occur. We give an overview of methods used to detect PIVKA-II, and four selected methods are inter-compared: (a) measuring total factor II including PIVKA-II by using Echis carinatus snake venom as an activator of prothrombin; (b) measuring PIVKA-II by using snake venom as an activator of factor II after adsorption of functional factor II onto barium sulfate; (c) electrophoresis-immunofixation method; and (d) enzyme immunoassay. We found d to be the most sensitive and reliable method for PIVKA-II.

  20. The influence of N-acetylcysteine on the measurement of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, S; Hansen, A B

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether the infusion of N-acetylcysteine decreased the measurement of prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) in healthy persons. N-acetylcysteine was administered intraveneously 10 mg kg-1 as a loading dose and then at a rate of 10...... mg kg-1 h-1 for 32 h in six male subjects. The intrinsic, extrinsic and common pathway of coagulation were monitored with activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), and prothrombin time, respectively. In addition, the extrinsic coagulation pathway was monitored with the clotting activity of single...... factors II, VII, and X. No effect on the intrinsic coagulation pathway was observed. There was a significant and rapid decrease in prothrombin time. Coagulation factors II, VII and X, the three components of prothrombin time, decreased significantly to different degrees. We conclude that infusion of N...

  1. Assessment of thrombogenicity of activated and non-activated prothrombin concentrates in a rat model.

    OpenAIRE

    Silberman, S.; Fareed, J; Walenga, J.

    1986-01-01

    In vitro clotting activity of rats injected with different preparations of prothrombin concentrates was measured. Animals rendered deficient in vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors by early coumadin (warfarin) pretreatment, followed by injections of concentrate preparations were also evaluated. Findings indicate a dose-related response in abnormal coagulation changes demonstrable with each preparation and lack of protection of intravascular coagulation by coumadin anticoagulation. Furtherm...

  2. Prothrombin fragment 1+2 in urine as an indicator of sustained coagulation activation after total hip arthroplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borris, L.C.; Breindahl, M.; Ryge, C.

    2007-01-01

    and to examine the association between the uF1 + 2 concentrations and risk of vascular thrombotic complications (VTC) or death. Finally, we sought to define a cut-off concentration value that could be used to identify patients with a sustained uF1 + 2 elevation after the first postoperative week. The urine...... samples were analysed by ELISA. In both studies thromboprophylaxis was used for at least 7 days after the operation. Results: The operative trauma resulted in elevation of the uF1 + 2 level in all patients compared with the preoperative level and levels in the healthy volunteers. Ten out of 113 patients...

  3. Bespoke Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse Aagaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    The Ph.D. -project Bespoke Fragments seeks to explore and utilise the space emerging between the potentials of digital drawing and fabrication and the field of materials and their properties and capacities. Within this span, the project is situated in a shuttling between the virtual and the actual......, the emergence of virtual space is no longer limited to the computer's digital world, but extends into the materials' world. Creation and uncertainty are allowed as virtual parameters in both the digital and reality. Based on this notion the project suggests utilising that exact potential to develop...

  4. The effects of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I complex from seminal plasma on capacitation, membrane integrity and DNA fragmentation in goat spermatozoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suherni Susilowati

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Sperm quality include motility, viability and membrane integrity were lower after centrifugation. Whereas DNA fragmentation after incubation in the IGF-I complex medium also was lower compared to that of specimens in the BO and BO + IGF-I complex media.

  5. The role of prothrombin complex concentrates in reversal of target specific anticoagulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babilonia, Katrina; Trujillo, Toby

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several years a new era for patients requiring anticoagulation has arrived. The approval of new target specific oral anticoagulants offers practitioners several advantages over traditionally used vitamin K antagonist agents including predictable pharmacokinetics, rapid onset of action, comparable efficacy and safety, all without the need for routine monitoring. Despite these benefits, hemorrhagic complicates are inevitable with any anticoagulation treatment. One of the major disadvantages of the new oral anticoagulants is lack of specific antidotes or reversal agents for patients with serious bleeding or need for urgent surgery. As use of the new target specific oral anticoagulants continues to increase, practitioners will need to understand both the pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetic properties of the agents, as well as, the available literature with use of non-specific therapies to reverse anticoagulation. Four factor prothrombin complex concentrates have been available for several years in Europe, and recently became available in the United States with approval of Kcentra. These products have shown efficacy in reversing anticoagulation from vitamin K antagonists, however their usefulness with the new target specific oral anticoagulants is poorly understood. This article will review the properties of dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban, as well as the limited literature available on the effectiveness of prothrombin complex concentrates in reversal of their anticoagulant effects. Additional studies are needed to more accurately define the role of prothrombin complex concentrates in patients with life threatening bleeding or who require emergent surgery, as current data is both limited and conflicting.

  6. Purification and characterization of a prothrombin-activating protease from Nephila clavata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Han-Seung; Park, Gun-Chun; Cho, Woo Ri; Tak, Eunsik; Paik, Seung R; Chang, Chung-Soon

    2002-03-01

    We report upon the purification and characterization of a novel prothrombin-activating enzyme from the body fluid (total homogenates of isolated digestive tract without eggs, spinnerets and silk glands) of the spider, Nephila clavata by a combination of acetone fractionation, ion exchange, and Soybean trypsin inhibitor-Sepharose chromatography. Analysis of the purified enzyme with SDS-PAGE and gel filtration revealed a single polypeptide chain with an apparent molecular weight of 24kDa. The proteolytic activity of the enzyme was stable up to 50 degrees C, however, it became unstable over 55 degrees C. The enzyme had an optimum pH of 8, and Ca(2+) was not required for the enzyme activity. According to inhibition profiles obtained with several serine protease inhibitors such as PMSF and benzamidine, the purified protease is a member of the serine proteases. Bz-Ile-Glu(gamma-OR)- Gly-Arg-pNA and Z-Arg-Gly-Arg-pNA which are known as substrates for factor Xa, were hydrolyzed favorably by the enzyme. And the Nephila protease could produce thrombin from prothrombin at nM range, and form the turbid ring using fibrinogen-agarose plate. The results obtained confirmed that the purified protease is a potent prothrombin-activating activity belonging to the family of serine protease.

  7. Increased prothrombin, apolipoprotein A-IV, and haptoglobin in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with Huntington's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Chu Huang

    Full Text Available Huntington's disease (HD is a progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by an unstable CAG trinucleotide repeat expansion. The need for biomarkers of onset and progression in HD is imperative, since currently reliable outcome measures are lacking. We used two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry to analyze the proteome profiles in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF of 6 pairs of HD patients and controls. Prothrombin, apolipoprotein A-IV (Apo A-IV and haptoglobin were elevated in CSF of the HD patients in comparison with the controls. We used western blot as a semi-quantified measurement for prothrombin and Apo A-IV, as well as enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for measurement of haptoglobin, in 9 HD patients and 9 controls. The albumin quotient (Qalb, a marker of blood-brain barrier (BBB function, was not different between the HD patients and the controls. The ratios of CSF prothrombin/albumin (prothrombin/Alb and Apo A-IV/albumin (Apo A-IV/Alb, and haptoglobin level were significantly elevated in HD. The ratio of CSF prothrombin/Alb significantly correlated with the disease severity assessed by Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS. The results implicate that increased CSF prothrombin, Apo A-IV, and haptoglobin may be involved in pathogenesis of HD and may serve as potential biomarkers for HD.

  8. Plasma PIVKA proteins in rabbits given warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivelin, A; Rao, L V; Rapaport, S I

    1996-06-01

    The presence of partially carboxylated forms of the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors (PIVKA) was evaluated in the plasma of rabbits treated with warfarin. Excess antigen over activity as measured in rabbit specific assays was taken as evidence for PIVKA. Our data confirm a previous report of the absence of plasma PIVKA prothrombin. In contrast, plasma PIVKA factors VII, IX, and X were demonstrable. A striking excess of plasma factor IX antigen over activity was measured and a large fraction of the factor IX antigen persisted in the plasma after its adsorption with barium citrate.

  9. Analytic validity of genetic tests to identify factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emadi, Ashkan; Crim, Matthew T; Brotman, Daniel J; Necochea, Alejandro J; Samal, Lipika; Wilson, Lisa M; Bass, Eric B; Segal, Jodi B

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study is to systematically review methods for detecting Factor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A. English-language literature from MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Library, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo(c), 2000-December 2008. Studies assessed methods for detection of these mutations in at least 10 human blood samples and reported concordance, discordance, or reproducibility. Two investigators abstracted data on the sample selection criteria, test operators, DNA extraction, experimental test, reference standard, commercial instruments, concordance rates, explanation of any discordance, and whether discordance resolved after repetition. We assessed strength of the evidence using the GRADE criteria. We reviewed 7,777 titles and included 66 articles. The majority of the reviewed studies used PCR-RFLP or AS-PCR as the reference standard. The studies demonstrated that commercially available and precommercial tests have high analytic validity with all having greater than 99% concordance with the reference standard. With a few exceptions, discordance resolved with repetition of the test, suggesting operator or administrative errors were responsible for the discordant results. In the quality assurance studies, greater than 98% of laboratories demonstrated high, even perfect, accuracy when asked to diagnose a sample with a known mutation. The majority of errors came from a limited number of laboratories. Although not all methods may be accurate, there is high-grade evidence that genetic tests for the detection of FVL and prothrombin G20210A have excellent analytic validity. There is high-grade evidence that most, but not all, clinical laboratories test for FVL and prothrombin G20210A accurately.

  10. The effects of vitamin K on the generation of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakon, M; Monden, M; Gotoh, M; Kobayashi, K; Kanai, T; Umeshita, K; Endoh, W; Mori, T

    1991-03-01

    The clinical significance of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (PIVKA-II) in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) was investigated in 112 patients with and without vitamin K administration. The positivity rate of PIVKA-II was significantly decreased in patients receiving vitamin K (28.5%), compared with those without vitamin K administration (54.5%, p less than 0.05). The plasma levels of vitamin K derivatives [phylloquinone (VK1), menaquinone-4 (MK4), and menaquinone-7 (MK7)] measured were not decreased in patients with HCC, but were significantly increased in MK4 and VK1 + MK4 + MK7. The amount of PIVKA-II in plasma did not correlate with the plasma levels of vitamin K derivatives. However, PIVKA-II was decreased by the administration of vitamin K, and all of the six patients with more than 5.0 ng/ml of VK1 + MK4 + MK7 were within normal limits, whereas half of 32 patients with less than that had abnormal levels of PIVKA-II. Thus, it was suggested that PIVKA-II was not elevated due to vitamin K deficiency, but might result from the impaired metabolism or availability of vitamin K in the tumor. Therefore, PIVKA-II should be measured without vitamin K administration.

  11. The progress on preparation of human prothrombin complex concentrates%人凝血酶原复合物制备工艺研究现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包正琦(综述); 何彦林(审校)

    2013-01-01

    Prothrombin complex concentrates are haemostatic blood products containing four vitamin K -dependent clotting factors (II, VII, IX and X).It is produced by ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE Sephadex A-50 resin from large pool plasma.Preparation technology,the choose of materials,quality control and optimization of critical parameters play a critical role in quality control of PCC .This paper mainly summarizes the preparation of PCC technology conditions , materi-als, critical parameters and the control strategy of coagulation factor activation .%人凝血酶原复合物( Prothrombin complex concentrates ,PCC)是一种含有凝血因子II、VII、IX、X四种维生素K依赖性凝血因子,能够促进血液凝固的血浆蛋白制剂。目前,多数生产厂家采用DEAE Sephadex A-50凝胶从混合血浆中制备PCC。 PCC制备工艺的选择、制备原料的挑选及质量控制、关键工艺参数的优化及控制等方面对PCC制品的质量至关重要。因此,主要对PCC的制备工艺、制备原料、关键工艺参数的优化及生产过程中凝血因子活化的控制策略进行了综述。

  12. Fatal outcome in bacteremia is characterized by high plasma cell free DNA concentration and apoptotic DNA fragmentation: a prospective cohort study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reetta Huttunen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Recent studies have shown that apoptosis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of sepsis. High plasma cell free DNA (cf-DNA concentrations have been shown to be associated with sepsis outcome. The origin of cf-DNA is unclear. METHODS: Total plasma cf-DNA was quantified directly in plasma and the amplifiable cf-DNA assessed using quantitative PCR in 132 patients with bacteremia caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, ß-hemolytic streptococcae or Escherichia coli. The quality of cf-DNA was analyzed with a DNA Chip assay performed on 8 survivors and 8 nonsurvivors. Values were measured on days 1-4 after positive blood culture, on day 5-17 and on recovery. RESULTS: The maximum cf-DNA values on days 1-4 (n = 132 were markedly higher in nonsurvivors compared to survivors (2.03 vs 1.26 ug/ml, p1.52 ug/ml remained an independent risk factor for case fatality in a logistic regression model. Qualitative analysis of cf-DNA showed that cf-DNA displayed a predominating low-molecular-weight cf-DNA band (150-200 bp in nonsurvivors, corresponding to the size of the apoptotic nucleosomal DNA. cf-DNA concentration showed a significant positive correlation with visually graded apoptotic band intensity (R = 0.822, p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma cf-DNA concentration proved to be a specific independent prognostic biomarker in bacteremia. cf-DNA displayed a predominating low-molecular-weight cf-DNA band in nonsurvivors corresponding to the size of apoptotic nucleosomal DNA.

  13. Fragmentation and Hadronization

    OpenAIRE

    Webber, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data, theoretical ideas and models concerning jet fragmentation and the hadronization process are reviewed, concentrating on the following topics: factorization and small-x resummation of fragmentation functions, hadronization models, single-particle yields and spectra in Z decay, comparisons between quark and gluon jets, current and target fragmentation in deep inelastic scattering, heavy quark fragmentation, Bose-Einstein correlations and WW fragmentation.

  14. Molecular characterization of factor V leiden G1691A and prothrombin G20210A mutations in Saudi newborns with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawish, Gihan E-H

    2011-10-01

    This study examined a possible association between the mutations related to Factor V Leiden and Factor II (prothrombin) and stroke in Saudi neonates. A multiplex PCR was established to detect Factor V Leiden G1691A and prothrombin G20210A mutations in 72 neonatal stroke subjects and 70 healthy adult controls with no family history of thromboembolic diseases. The frequency of the homozygous normal genotype (GG) of both genes was found to be significantly lower in the stroke subjects than in the controls (P Factor II heterozygous mutant form (GA) and the homozygous normal Factor V (GG) (P Factor V and the homozygous normal Factor II genotypes (GG) (P = 0.0) than controls. The study concluded that prothrombin and Factor V Leiden may be important risk factors for neonatal stroke in Saudi children.

  15. Different outcome of six homozygotes for prothrombin A20210A gene variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angiolillo Antonella

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Prothrombin G20210A gene variant (FII G20210A is a risk factor for venous thrombotic disease while conflicting results have been reported for the risk of arterial thrombotic events. However, vascular episodes were absent in up to 40% of the 67 homozygotes for the G20210A described so far, which indicates that the clinical expression depends on additional risk/trigger factors. We describe six homozygotes for the G20210A variant, among which the first pair of siblings (cases n. 3 and 4 reported so far that displayed a strongly heterogeneous clinical outcome. Case 1, a female of 27 years, developed a full thrombosis of common femoral, superficial and popliteal veins. She assumed oral contraceptives in the last two years. Case n. 2, 34 years old, suffered of recurrent pregnancy loss in absence of any causative alteration. Cases n. 3 and n. 5 experienced arterial thrombotic disease, i.e., juvenile myocardial infarction (40 years old and stroke (48 years old, respectively, in absence of other risk factors. Finally, cases n. 4 and 6 identified as homozygotes for the FII G20210A variant being consanguineous of symptomatic subjects bearing the variant, did not experience any episode of venous nor arterial disease. Both of them have chronic liver disease with an impairement of the prothrombin time INR. Thus, homozygotes for the G20210A are at risk for arterial (in addition to venous thromobotic events; chronic liver disease might modulate this risk.

  16. On the use of prothrombin complex concentrate in patients with coagulopathy requiring tooth extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Yoshinari; Niwa, Hitoshi; Nakatani, Takeshi

    2010-12-01

    In patients on high-level anticoagulant therapy (prothrombin time-international normalized ratio [PT-INR] ≥ 4.5), surgical procedures can be carried out with bridging therapy using heparin. However, surgical treatment options are severely limited in patients on high-level anticoagulant therapy and who have heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), as heparin use is contraindicated. We performed tooth extraction using prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) in 2 HIT patients on high-level anticoagulation therapy (PT-INR ≥ 4.5). Five hundred units of PCC were administered intravenously, and after 15 minutes, it was confirmed that PT-INR was less than 2.0. Tooth extraction was then performed and sufficient local hemostasis was achieved. At 3 hours after tooth extraction, PT-INR was 2.0 or higher and later increased to 4.0 or higher, but postoperative bleeding was mostly absent. When performing tooth extraction in HIT patients on high-level anticoagulant therapy, favorable hemostatic management was achieved through sufficient local hemostasis and transient warfarin reversal using PCC.

  17. High Efficacy but Low Potency of δ-Opioid Receptor-G Protein Coupling in Brij-58-Treated, Low-Density Plasma Membrane Fragments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Roubalova

    Full Text Available HEK293 cells stably expressing PTX-insensitive δ-opioid receptor-Gi1α (C351I fusion protein were homogenized, treated with low concentrations of non-ionic detergent Brij-58 at 0°C and fractionated by flotation in sucrose density gradient. In optimum range of detergent concentrations (0.025-0.05% w/v, Brij-58-treated, low-density membranes exhibited 2-3-fold higher efficacy of DADLE-stimulated, high-affinity [32P]GTPase and [35S]GTPγS binding than membranes of the same density prepared in the absence of detergent. The potency of agonist DADLE response was significantly decreased. At high detergent concentrations (>0.1%, the functional coupling between δ-opioid receptors and G proteins was completely diminished. The same detergent effects were measured in plasma membranes isolated from PTX-treated cells. Therefore, the effect of Brij-58 on δ-opioid receptor-G protein coupling was not restricted to the covalently bound Gi1α within δ-opioid receptor-Gi1α fusion protein, but it was also valid for PTX-sensitive G proteins of Gi/Go family endogenously expressed in HEK293 cells. Characterization of the direct effect of Brij-58 on the hydrophobic interior of isolated plasma membranes by steady-state anisotropy of diphenylhexatriene (DPH fluorescence indicated a marked increase of membrane fluidity. The time-resolved analysis of decay of DPH fluorescence by the "wobble in cone" model of DPH motion in the membrane indicated that the exposure to the increasing concentrations of Brij-58 led to a decreased order and higher motional freedom of the dye.Limited perturbation of plasma membrane integrity by low concentrations of non-ionic detergent Brij-58 results in alteration of δ-OR-G protein coupling. Maximum G protein-response to agonist stimulation (efficacy is increased; affinity of response (potency is decreased. The total degradation plasma membrane structure at high detergent concentrations results in diminution of functional coupling between

  18. Do Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A Mutations Predict Recurrent Venous Thromboembolism in Older Patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méan, Marie; Limacher, Andreas; Stalder, Odile; Angelillo-Scherrer, Anne; Alberio, Lorenzo; Fontana, Pierre; Beer, Hans-Jürg; Rodondi, Nicolas; Lämmle, Bernhard; Aujesky, Drahomir

    2017-10-01

    The value of genetic thrombophilia testing in elderly patients with an unprovoked venous thromboembolism is unclear. We assessed whether the Factor V Leiden and the prothrombin G20210A mutation are associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism in elderly patients in a prospective multicenter cohort study. We genotyped the Factor V Leiden and the prothrombin G20210A mutation in 354 consecutive in- and outpatients aged ≥65 years with a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism from 9 Swiss hospitals. Patients and managing physicians were blinded to testing results. The outcome was recurrent symptomatic venous thromboembolism during follow-up. We examined the association between the Factor V Leiden and the prothrombin G20210A mutation and venous thromboembolism recurrence using competing risk regression, adjusting for age, sex, and periods of anticoagulation as a time-varying covariate. Overall, 9.0% of patients had a Factor V Leiden and 3.7% had a prothrombin G20210A mutation. At 36 months of follow-up, patients with a Factor V Leiden and a prothrombin G20210A mutation had a cumulative incidence of recurrent venous thromboembolism of 12.9% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.1%-30.8%) and 18.5% (95% CI, 4.9%-56.5%), respectively, compared with 16.7% (95% CI, 12.5%-22.1%) of patients without mutation (P = .91 by the log-rank test). After adjustment, neither the Factor V Leiden (sub-hazard ratio 0.98; 95% CI, 0.35-2.77) nor the prothrombin G20210A mutation (sub-hazard ratio 1.15; 95% CI, 0.25-5.19) was associated with recurrent venous thromboembolism. Our results suggest that testing for genetic thrombophilia may not be beneficial in elderly patients with a first unprovoked venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prevalence of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutation in a large French population selected for nonthrombotic history: geographical and age distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazoyer, Elisabeth; Ripoll, Laurent; Gueguen, René; Tiret, Laurence; Collet, Jean-Philippe; dit Sollier, Claire Bal; Roussi, Jacqueline; Drouet, Ludovic

    2009-10-01

    Among inherited risk factors for venous thrombosis, the most common are the FV-G1691A and FII-G20210A polymorphisms. The FV-G1691A polymorphism is preferentially observed in Europe, with differences between European countries. The FII-G20210A polymorphism is observed all over the world. The study was designed to compare the prevalence of the FV-G1691A and FII-G20210A polymorphisms in a large French population of unrelated individuals with no thrombotic disease history and to determine the age and geographical distributions. Over a period of 18 months, 6154 individuals were included throughout France and FV-G1691A and FII-G20210A polymorphisms were determined. The FV-G1691A prevalence was 3.84% (95% confidence interval 3.35-4.33) and the FII-G20210A prevalence was 3.07% (95% CI 2.63-3.51). A north-east/south-west gradient was observed in the FV-G1691A geographical distribution. No difference was observed in the geographical distribution of FII-G20210A polymorphism nor in the age distribution of the two polymorphisms. The prevalence of the two polymorphisms was similar whatever the blood group (O or non-O). Plasma D-dimers were significantly higher in healthy individuals with FV-G1691A but not in individuals with FII-G20210A. Thirty percent of variation in plasma prothrombin level was explained by environmental factors (serum cholesterol, age, oral contraception, hormonal replacement therapy, body mass index, sex) and genetic factors (FII-G20210A). As expected, individuals with FII-G20210A displayed higher plasma prothrombin level compared with individuals with wild type. However, this was not associated with a modification of the fibrin clot elastic modulus. This study shows a differential distribution of the two polymorphisms among the French territory. These polymorphisms confer a very mild hypercoagulable state as shown by the limited increased in basal D-dimers in mutated FV-G1691A populations and only a trend that does not reach statistical significance for FII

  20. A Multiplex Allele Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MAS-PCR) for the Detection of Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagheri, Morteza; Rad, Isa Abdi

    2011-01-01

    In order to determine the frequencies of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A point mutations in the Iranian population with Azeri Turkish origin. 120 unrelated individuals from general population randomly selected and were examined for factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations using a multiplex allele specific polymerase chain reaction (MAS-PCR) assayOutcomes: The frequency of prothrombin G20210A mutation was 2.08%, which means 5 chromosomes out of 240 chromosomes had prothrombin G20210A mutation. The distribution of prothrombin 20210 GG, GA, AA genotypes and prothrombin 20210A allele were 37(92.5%), 3(7.5%), 0(0%) and 3(3.75%) in males and 78(97.5%), 2(2.5%), 0(0%) and 2(1.25%) in females, respectively. Factor V Leiden was not found in our tested group (zero chromosomes out of 240 chromosomes). Analysis of the observed frequencies in the studied groups indicates that there is no statistically significant difference between females and males, regarding prothrombin G20210A mutation (p value>0.05). This is the first study in its own kind in this population and implies that the frequency of Factor V Leiden G1691A (R506Q, FV-Leiden) allele is extremely low but the prothrombin G20210A mutation is more frequent in the tested group.

  1. Elevated Plasma C-Terminal Endothelin-1 Precursor Fragment Concentrations Are Associated with Less Anxiety in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors. Results from the Observational DIAST-CHF Study.

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    Thomas Meyer

    Full Text Available The role of endothelin-1 (ET-1 in the neurobiology of anxiety is unknown, therefore, we assessed in the observational multicenter DIAST-CHF study whether the C-terminal ET-1 precursor fragment (CT-proET-1 is linked to anxiety.Plasma concentrations of CT-proET-1 were measured in a total of 1,410 patients presenting with cardiovascular risk factors (mean age 66.91±8.2 years, 49.3% males, mean left ventricular ejection fraction 60.0±8.2% who had completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS questionnaire.Among the total study cohort (n = 1,410, there were 118 subjects (8.4% with an HADS anxiety score above the cut-off level of 11 suggestive of clinically relevant anxiety. Plasma CT-proET-1 levels were significantly lower in the group of anxious patients as compared to non-anxious patients (p = 0.013. In regression models adjusted for sex, age, systolic blood pressure, and diameters of left atrium and ventricle, plasma CT-proET-1 was again linked to anxiety (Exp(β = 0.247, 95%-confidence interval [95%-CI] = 0.067-0.914, p = 0.036. Given the high prevalence of depressive disorders in anxious patients, we additionally included the HADS depression score as an independent variable in the models and found that CT-proET-1 remained a significant predictor of anxiety, independent of comorbid depression (Exp(β = 0.114, 95%-CI = 0.023-0.566, p = 0.008.Our data from a population-based study in outpatients with cardiovascular risk factors revealed that circulating CT-proET-1 levels are negatively associated with anxiety. Further investigations are required to clarify the putative anxiolytic effect of ET-1 or its precursor molecules in humans and to decipher its mechanistic pathways.

  2. Use of Prothrombin Complex Concentrate in Patients during Heart Transplantation after Implantation of a Left Ventricular Mechanical Support System

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    V. V. Lomivorotov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heart transplantation in patients after implantation of mechanical cardiac support devices entails an extremely high risk for perioperative bleeding. Recombinant activated coagulation factor VII is presently used to reduce the volume of bleeding in this patient group. There are parallel data on its administration-induced thromboembolic events in the literature. This paper describes a case of using a prothrombin complex concentrate in a patient during explantation of a left ventricular bypass system and subsequent orthotopic heart transplantation in the presence of significant hypocoagulation. At the end of a surgery, 1200 IU of the agent was used at a remaining bleeding rate of more than 1000 ml/hour. Within the first 24 hours after surgery, the rate of discharge drainage was less than 100 ml/hour. A control plain chest X-ray study revealed massive left-sided hydrothorax on day 2 postsurgery. The left pleural cavity was revised under thoracoscopic guidance and 1000 ml of blood clots were evacuated. Although the administration of prothrombin complex concentrate did not guard against re-intervention, its use seems a promising strategy in life-threatening bleedings in patients after explantation of mechanical cardiac support devices. Further multicenter investigations are required to determine the efficacy and safety of prothrom-bin complex concentration in cardiac surgery. Key words: Recombinant activated coagulation factor VII, prothrombin complex concentration, mechanical cardiac support device, orthotopic heart transplantation.

  3. Portal Vein Thrombosis due to Prothrombin Gene Mutation following Sleeve Gastrectomy

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    Murad Baba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Portomesenteric thrombosis is increasingly recognized as a complication of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG. It often presents with abdominal pain. We present a mother and her son who both developed portal vein thrombosis (PVT after LSG. Case Description. A 43-year-old woman presented complaining of sudden severe abdominal pain, two weeks after she had uncomplicated laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis with IV contrast showed portal vein thrombosis and SMV thrombosis. Two weeks later her son had the same LSG for morbid obesity and presented with the same clinical picture. Thrombophilia workup showed heterozygous prothrombin gene mutation. Conclusions. A high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose PVT; although rare, it can be potentially lethal. Anticoagulation therapy should be initiated immediately to limit the morbidities and improve the outcome. Patients with family history of thrombophilia should be investigated prior to any bariatric surgery and nonsurgical alternative treatments for morbid obesity should be strongly encouraged.

  4. Significance of Des-gamma-carboxy Prothrombin Production in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

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    Yamamoto,Kazuhide

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Serum des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP is commonly used to detect hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC. This review focuses on the clinical features of DCP-positive HCC and the molecular function of DCP in HCC. DCP-positive HCC demonstrates more aggressive clinicopathological features than DCP-negative HCC. Analysis of the biological effects of DCP revealed that DCP acts as a growth factor in both an autocrine and paracrine manner. DCP stimulates HCC cell proliferation through the Met-Janus kinase 1-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling pathway, whereas for vascular endothelial cells, it stimulates cell proliferation and migration through the kinase insert domain receptor-phospholipase C-gamma-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway.

  5. Prothrombin complex concentrate use in coagulopathy of lethal brain injuries increases organ donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Bellal; Aziz, Hassan; Pandit, Viraj; Hays, Daniel; Kulvatunyou, Narong; Tang, Andrew; Wynne, Julie; O' Keeffe, Terence; Green, Donald J; Friese, Randall S; Gruessner, Rainer; Rhee, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Coagulopathy is a defined barrier for organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. The purpose of this study was to document our experience with the use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to facilitate organ donation in patients with lethal traumatic brain injuries. We performed a 4-year retrospective analysis of all patients with devastating gunshot wounds to the brain. The data were analyzed for demographics, change in international normalized ratio (INR), and subsequent organ donation. The primary end point was organ donation. Eighty-eight patients with lethal traumatic brain injury were identified from the trauma registry of whom 13 were coagulopathic at the time of admission (mean INR 2.2 ± 0.8). Of these 13 patients, 10 patients received PCC in an effort to reverse their coagulopathy. Mean INR before PCC administration was 2.01 ± 0.7 and 1.1 ± 0.7 after administration (P brain injuries.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of myocardial infarction during prothrombin complex concentrate therapy of hemophilia A

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    Gruen, D.R. [Dept. of Radiology, The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Winchester, P.H. [Dept. of Radiology, The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Brill, P.W. [Dept. of Radiology, The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ramirez, E. [Dept. of Radiology, The New York Hospital-Cornell Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    1997-03-01

    In patients with hemophilia, prothrombin complex concentrates (PCCs) have been successfully used to bypass inhibitors to fctor VIII during bleeding episodes. The use of PCCS, including FEIBA (factor eight inhibitor bypassing activity), has been associated with thromboembolic complications. Myocardial infarction (MI) is a rare but serious complication, reported in 13 previous cases, six in the pediatric age group. In all four patients who died during the acute MI, autopsy revealed extensive myocardial hemorrhage. The hearts of three other patients examined at least 5 months after the acute MI showed no evidence of prior hemorrhage. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging has been shown to be able to evaluate the sequelae of myocardial infarction in adults with coronary artery disease and in children with Kawasaki syndrome. We report the first case of the used of MR imaging in the evaluation of myocardial damage during the acute stage of a FEIBA-associated MI in a 10-year-old boy. (orig.)

  7. Association between prothrombin gene polymorphisms and hereditary thrombophilia in Xinjiang Kazakhs population.

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    Ge, Xiao-Hu; Zhu, Feng; Wang, Bing-Lin; Wang, Chang-Min; Zhu, Bing; Guan, Sheng; Ci, Hong-Bo; Sai, Li-Mu; Jiang, Xiao-Kui; Ren, Hao; Fang, Qing-Bo; Tian, Guang-Lei

    2014-03-01

    To assess the association between polymorphisms of prothrombin gene and hereditary thrombophilia in Xinjiang Kazakhs population. Through cross-sectional investigation, permanent Kazakh population of Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture was selected as the study object to measure their antithrombin III (AT-III), protein C, protein S activity and activated C protein resistance value, thus defining the situation of the crowd's hereditary thrombophilia. Sequenom Massarray detection technology was used to conduct a genotype test of the six sites selected by the case and control groups. Haploview software was used to perform linkage disequilibrium analysis of the six sites, and the impact of the interaction between genetic variations and environment on hereditary thrombophilia was researched by the use of sum model. A total of 1005 Kazakh volunteers participated in the test (332 men and 673 women), average age (41.13 ± 11.50) years; the prevalence of hereditary thrombophilia in Xinjiang Kazakh population was 31.0%, and the prevalence of AT-III deficiency, protein C deficiency, protein S deficiency and activated protein C resistance was 16.4, 14.9, 20.6 and 7.8%, respectively. The difference in allele frequency of the hereditary thrombophilia patient group at rs3136447 and rs5896 sites was statistically significant (P = 0.0483 and P = 0.0302, respectively). rs5896 and rs2070852 had high linkage disequilibrium (r = 0.99), and constituted a single-domain block 1. The rs3136447 and the rs5896 polymorphisms located in the region of the prothrombin gene may be associated with hereditary thrombophilia in the Xinjiang Kazakhs population. There is additive interactive effect of rs5896 polymorphism (CT + TT) and smoke on hereditary thrombophilia.

  8. Clinical factors influencing normalization of prothrombin time after stopping warfarin: a retrospective cohort study

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    Zondag Michelle

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anticoagulation with warfarin should be stopped 4–6 days before invasive procedures to avoid bleeding complications. Despite this routine, some patients still have high International Normalized Ratio (INR values on the day of surgery and the procedure may be cancelled. We sought to identify easily available clinical characteristics that may influence the rate of normalization of prothrombin time when warfarin is stopped before surgery or invasive procedures. Methods Clinical data were collected retrospectively from consecutive cases from two cohorts, who stopped warfarin 6 days before surgery. An INR value of 1.6 or higher on the day of surgery or requirement for reversal with vitamin K the day before surgery were criteria for slow return (S to normal INR. Results Of 202 patients, 14 (7% were classified as S. Eight of the S-patients required reversal with vitamin K one day before surgery and in another case surgery was cancelled due to high INR. Baseline INR was the only variable significantly associated with classification as S in stepwise logistic regression analysis (p = 0.003. The odds ratio for being in the normal group was 0.27 (95% confidence interval 0.12–0.62 for each unit baseline INR increased. The positive predictive value of baseline INR with a cut off at > 3.0 was only 15% and for INR > 3.5 it was 33%. Conclusion Baseline INR, but not the size of the maintenance dose, is associated with the rate of normalization of prothrombin time after stopping warfarin, but it has limited utility as predictor in clinical practice. Whenever normal hemostasis is considered crucial for the safety, the INR should be checked again before the invasive procedure.

  9. Des-Gamma-Carboxy Prothrombin (DCP Antagonizes the Effects of Gefitinib on Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

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    Yu-Sheng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP, an aberrant prothrombin produced by hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells, is known as a marker for HCC. Recent studies indicated that high levels of DCP are associated with the malignant potential of HCC. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association of DCP with gefitinib treatment failure in HCC and whether DCP counteracts gefitinib-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis of HCC. Methods: The experiments were performed in HCC cell lines HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5. The effects of gefitinib on HCC in the presence or absence of DCP were evaluated by the 3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Apoptotic cells were identified by Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Western blotting was performed to analyze the expressions of molecules related to the apoptotic caspase-dependent pathway and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR pathway. Results: Gefitinib inhibited HCC cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HCC cells. The effects of gefitinib on HCC cells were antagonized by DCP. In the presence of DCP, HCC cells were resistant to the gefitinib-induced inhibition of proliferation and stimulation of apoptosis. DCP prevented the activation of the apoptotic caspase-dependent pathway induced by gefitinib. These antagonistic effects of DCP also arose from its ability to up-regulate EGFR, c-Met and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF in HCC cells. Conclusion: DCP antagonized gefitinib-induced HCC cell growth inhibition by counteracting apoptosis and up-regulating the EGFR pathway. High levels of DCP might thus lead to low response rates or possibly no response to gefitinib in patients with HCC.

  10. Anti-phosphatidylserine-prothrombin antibodies are associated with outcome in a TIA cohort

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    Michael T Mullen

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLs have been associated with thrombosis in the antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS and with atherosclerotic vascular events in patients without APS. We examined the significance of aPLs in transient ischemic attack (TIA.Patients/Methods: Patients with TIA <48 hours from symptom onset were prospectively enrolled. Traditional aPLs, including anti-cardiolipin (aCL and β2-glycoprotein-I (β2GPI, and newer aPLs, including anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT, β2GPI Domain 4/5 and β2GPI Domain 1 were measured. Primary outcome was a composite of stroke or death within 90 days or identification of a high-risk stroke mechanism. Secondary outcomes were stroke or death and the presence of clinical/sub-clinical atherosclerosis. Results: Over 4.5 years, 167 patients were enrolled. 41 patients (25% had the composite endpoint. Antibodies were measured in 158 subjects. aPS/PT IgG antibodies were significantly associated with stroke/death (OR 16.3 95% CI 2.3-116.7 p=0.005 and were non-significantly associated with the composite endpoint (OR 4.7 95% CI 0.8-29.2 p=0.10. In multivariate analysis adjusting for ABCD2 risk score, aPS/PT IgG remained associated with stroke/death (OR 15.7 95% CI 2.0-125.6 p=0.009. Other aPLs were not associated with clinical outcome and no association between APLs and atherosclerosis was identifed. Conclusion: In contrast to other aPLs, anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin IgG antibodies are independently associated with stroke or death in patients with TIA.

  11. The use of contrast-enhanced ultrasound in the treatment of limb pseudoaneurysm with percutaneous prothrombin injection

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    Zhong CHEN

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the safety and effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS-guided percutaneous injection of prothrombin for the treatment of limb pseudoaneurysm (PSA. Methods Sixteen cases of lower limb pseudoaneurysms were treated with contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS-guided percutaneous injection of prothrombin, and the size of the pseudoaneurysm, width and length of the pseudoaneurysm neck, times for compression, duration of each compression, and dose of prothrombin injection were recorded. Results In 16 pseudoaneurysm patients, there were 20 pseudoaneurysm sacs in total. One pseudoaneurysm sac was present in 13 patients, 2 sacs were present in 2, and there were 3 sacs in one patient. The mean maximum diameter of the sacs was 41.1±11.9mm. The mean width and length of these pseudoaneurysm necks were 1.9±0.5mm and 4.4±2.3mm respectively. During the process of treatment, the mean duration for compression was 6.0±2.0min, and the mean number of times of compression was 1.2±0.4. The mean dose of prothrombin injection was 411.5±118.8U. The cure rate with one-injection was 100% (16/16, and the recurrence rate was 0%. No complications was observed. Conclusions CEUS-guided percutaneous injection of prothrombin for the treatment of lower limb pseudoaneurysms is safe and effective. The size of the pseudoaneurysm sac and length of the pseudoaneurysm neck are important factors that may affect the result of the treatment. Timely recompression is an important step for increasing the cure rate. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2014.01.09

  12. Primary thrombophilia in Mexico. II. Factor V G1691A (Leiden), prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase C677T polymorphism in thrombophilic Mexican mestizos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Argüelles, G J; Garcés-Eisele, J; Reyes-Núñez, V; Ramírez-Cisneros, F J

    2001-01-01

    We have shown that in Mexican mestizo patients with clinical features of primary thrombophilia, 39% have activated protein C resistance phenotype, 5% protein C deficiency, and 2% protein S deficiency. In the present study, in a group of 37 thrombophilic Mexicans and 50 normal controls, we assessed the factor V G1691A (Leiden), the prothrombin G20210A, and the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T gene polymorphisms. Four patients were found to be heterozygous for factor V Leiden, 5 heterozygous for the prothrombin 20210, 16 heterozygous, and 6 homozygous for the MTHFR 677. There were four individuals with co-segregation of alleles: two heterozygotes for the factor V Leiden/prothrombin 20210, one heterozygote for prothrombin 20210/MTHFR 677, and one heterozygote for prothrombin 20210/homozygote for MTHFR 677. For factor V Leiden, prothrombin 20210, and MTHFR 677 mutations, the allele frequencies were respectively 1% (+/-0.2%, alpha = 0.05), 7.66 (P mestizo thrombophilic patients, the low prevalence of the factor V Leiden mutation (10.8%) and the high prevalence of the prothrombin 20210 mutation (13.5%) contrast with those identified in Caucasian thrombophilic patients (21% and 6%, respectively; P mestizo patients.

  13. New information on photon fragmentation functions

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    Klasen, M

    2014-01-01

    Thermal photons radiated in heavy-ion collisions represent an important signal for a recently discovered new state of matter, the deconfined quark-gluon plasma. However, a clean identification of this signal requires precise knowledge of the prompt photons produced simultaneously in hard collisions of quarks and gluons, mostly through their fragmentation. In this Letter, we demonstrate that PHENIX data on photons produced in proton-proton collisions with low transverse momenta allow to extract new information on this fragmentation process. In particular, these data favor one parameterization (BFG II) over the two other frequently used photon fragmentation functions (BFG I and GRV NLO).

  14. Prealbumina, precalicreína e protrombina na forma hepatesplênica da esquistossomose: catabolismo aumentado de proteínas da coagulação? Prealbumin, prekallikrein and prothrombin in hepatosplenic schistosomiasis: increased turnover of the clotting proteins?

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    Nora Manoukian

    1984-10-01

    Full Text Available No plasma de 20 doentes portadores da forma hepatesplênica da esquistossomose mansônica, assim como no de 18 indivíduos normais, foram avaliados pré-albumina, precalicreína (atividade amidolítica e protrombina-antígeno. Os valores da concentração plasmática de pré-albumina obtidos no grupo controle permitiram que se estabelecesse um intervalo de referência (0,5 — 99,5% de 97 — 389 mg/I. Valores anormalmente diminuídos de pré-albumina encontrados em 2 dos doentes indicaram nestes uma disfunção hepatocítica de síntese protêica. Nos 18 doentes restantes a média da pré-albumina (232 ± 13 mg/l não diferiu (p > 0,05 da do grupo controle (243 ± 11 mg/l enquanto as médias da atividade de pró-calicreina (34 ± 1 μKat/l e protrombina (81 ± 3,0 mg/l estavam significativamente diminuídos no grupo de esquistossomóticos (p Prealbumin, prekallikrein and prothrombin were evaluated in 20 patients with the hepatosplenic form of schistosomiasis and in 18 subjects of a control group. With the prealbumin concentration values obtained in the latter group a reference interval (0.5 — 99.5% of 97 to 389 mg/L was calculated and plasma levels below 97 mg/L assessed in 2 patients a deficiency in hepatic synthetic capacity. Mean (± SEM prealbumin concentration in the 18 remaining patients (232 ± 13 mg/L did not differ (p > 0.05 from that of the control group (243 ± 11 mg/L. Otherwise these 18 patients had both mean plasma prekallikrein (34 ± 1.3 /μKat/L and prothrombin-antigen (81 ± 3 mg/L concentrations lower (p < 0.01 than those of the control group (40 ± 1.4 μKat/L and 100 ± 3 mg/L, respectively. The present findings do not necessarily rule out the possibility that prekallikrein and prothrombin may asses a minimal hepatocellular damage earlier than prealbumin; but, since the latter protein have a shorter half-life than the formers and is a reliable index of hepatic synthetic capacity, the present report supports the hypothesis

  15. Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Allin, Kristine H; Dahl, Morten; Gyntelberg, Finn; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-03-19

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to be an important genetic determinant of venous and arterial thrombosis in genome-wide association studies. We tested the hypothesis that ABO blood type alone and in combination with mutations in factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A is associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction in the general population. We used data from 2 Danish studies that followed members of the general public from 1977 through 2010. We obtained the genotype of 66 001 white participants for ABO blood type, factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and population attributable risk. Our main outcome measures were venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction. The multivariable adjusted HR for venous thromboembolism was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.5) for non-O blood type (v. O blood type). For the factor V Leiden R506Q mutation, the adjusted HR was 2.2 (95% CI 2.0-2.5) for heterozygous participants and 7.0 (95%CI 4.8-10) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). For prothrombin G20210A, the adjusted HR was 1.5 (95%CI 1.2-1.9) for heterozygous participants and 11 (95% CI 2.8-44) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). When we combined ABO blood type and factor V Leiden R506Q or prothrombin G20210A genotype, there was a stepwise increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism (trend, pfactor V Leiden R506Q and 1% for prothrombin G20210A. Multivariable adjusted HRs for myocardial infarction by genotypes did not differ from 1.0. ABO blood type had an additive effect on the risk of venous thromboembolism when combined with factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations; blood type was the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in the general population.

  16. Management of Bleeding in Post-liver Disease, Surgery and Biopsy in Patients With High Uncorrected International Normalized Ratio With Prothrombin Complex Concentrate: An Iranian Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parand, Alireza; Honar, Naser; Aflaki, Khashayar; Imanieh, Mohammad Hadi; Haghighat, Mahmood; Cohan, Nader; Haghpanah, Sezaneh; Marietta, Marco; Serati, Zahra; Haghbin, Saeedeh; Karimi, Mehran

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) in the management of bleeding in patients with liver disease and patients undergoing surgery or biopsy who had a high uncorrected international normalized ratio (INR). In this study, we examined an Iranian sample and investigated the efficacy of PCC to manage bleeding in patients with liver disease and also patients with high uncorrected INR who were scheduled for surgery or biopsy. A total of 25 patients including 16 patients with post-liver disease bleeding (group 1) and 9 patients with high uncorrected INR who were scheduled for surgery or biopsy (group 2) were enrolled. All patients were treated with 25 IU/kg PCC, and efficacy was defined as any reduction in or cessation of bleeding episodes and correction of INR before surgery or biopsy. The patients were also evaluated for any adverse effects. INR decreased significantly in both groups of patients, with no bleeding episodes during or after the study in group 1 and during or after surgery/biopsy in group 2. All patients tolerated the therapy well without any significant adverse effects. The efficacy of PCC therapy was satisfactory in this study. PCC therapy in patients with liver disease and patients undergoing surgery or biopsy seems to be effective and safe, and may be a good treatment strategy for these patients, if fresh frozen plasma or vitamin K are not effective.

  17. Thermodynamical string fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nadine; Sjöstrand, Torbjörn

    2017-01-01

    The observation of heavy-ion-like behaviour in pp collisions at the LHC suggests that more physics mechanisms are at play than traditionally assumed. The introduction e.g. of quark-gluon plasma or colour rope formation can describe several of the observations, but as of yet there is no established paradigm. In this article we study a few possible modifications to the Pythia event generator, which describes a wealth of data but fails for a number of recent observations. Firstly, we present a new model for generating the transverse momentum of hadrons during the string fragmentation process, inspired by thermodynamics, where heavier hadrons naturally are suppressed in rate but obtain a higher average transverse momentum. Secondly, close-packing of strings is taken into account by making the temperature or string tension environment-dependent. Thirdly, a simple model for hadron rescattering is added. The effect of these modifications is studied, individually and taken together, and compared with data mainly from the LHC. While some improvements can be noted, it turns out to be nontrivial to obtain effects as big as required, and further work is called for.

  18. Thermodynamical String Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    The observation of heavy-ion-like behaviour in pp collisions at the LHC suggests that more physics mechanisms are at play than traditionally assumed. The introduction e.g. of quark-gluon plasma or colour rope formation can describe several of the observations, but as of yet there is no established paradigm. In this article we study a few possible modifications to the Pythia event generator, which describes a wealth of data but fails for a number of recent observations. Firstly, we present a new model for generating the transverse momentum of hadrons during the string fragmentation process, inspired by thermodynamics, where heavier hadrons naturally are suppressed in rate but obtain a higher average transverse momentum. Secondly, close-packing of strings is taken into account by making the temperature or string tension environment-dependent. Thirdly, a simple model for hadron rescattering is added. The effect of these modifications is studied, individually and taken together, and compared with data mainly from...

  19. Prothrombin and risk of venous thromboembolism, ischemic heart disease and ischemic cerebrovascular disease in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weischer, Maren; Juul, Klaus; Zacho, Jeppe

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypotheses that Prothrombin G20210A heterozygosity associate with increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and ischemic cerebrovascular disease (ICVD) in the general population and re-tested risk of IHD and ICVD in two case......-control studies. METHODS: 9231 individuals from the Danish general population were followed for VTE (VTE=DVT+PE), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), IHD, myocardial infarction (MI), ICVD, and ischemic stroke (IS) for a median of 24 years. Case-control studies included 2461 IHD cases and 867.......0(1.0-3.8) for MI, 1.4(0.7-3.1) for ICVD, and 2.1(0.8-5.4) for IS. CONCLUSION: Prothrombin G20210A heterozygosity alone and in combination with Factor V Leiden R506Q heterozygosity predicts 1.5 and 6.0 fold risk of IHD compared to non-carriers....

  20. [Recurrent vascular access trombosis associated with the prothrombin mutation G20210A in a adult patient in haemodialysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, L F; Coll, E; Monteagudo, I; Collado, S; López-Pedret, J; Cases, A

    2005-01-01

    Vascular access-related complications are a frequent cause of morbidity in haemodialysis patients and generate high costs. We present the case of an adult patient with end-stage renal disease and recurrent vascular access thrombosis associated with the prothrombin mutation G20210A and renal graft intolerance. The clinical expression of this heterozygous gene mutation may have been favoured by inflammatory state, frequent in dialysis patients. In this patient, the inflammatory response associated with the renal graft intolerance would have favored the development of recurrent vascular access thrombosis in a adult heterozygous for prothrombin mutation G20210A. In the case of early dysfunction of haemodialysis vascular access and after ruling out technical problems, it is convenient to carry out a screening for thrombophilia.

  1. Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Allin, Kristine H; Dahl, Morten

    2013-01-01

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to be an important genetic determinant of venous and arterial thrombosis in genome-wide association studies. We tested the hypothesis that ABO blood type alone and in combination with mutations in factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A is associated...... with the risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction in the general population....

  2. Outcome of Patients with Venous Thromboembolism and Factor V Leiden or Prothrombin 20210 Carrier Mutations During the Course of Anticoagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoran, Inna; Papadakis, Manolis; Brenner, Benjamin; Fidalgo, Ángeles; Rivas, Agustina; Wells, Philip S; Gavín, Olga; Adarraga, María Dolores; Moustafa, Farès; Monreal, Manuel

    2017-04-01

    Individuals with factor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A mutations are at a higher risk to develop venous thromboembolism. However, the influence of these polymorphisms on patient outcome during anticoagulant therapy has not been consistently explored. We used the Registro Informatizado de Enfermedad TromboEmbólica database to compare rates of venous thromboembolism recurrence and bleeding events occurring during the anticoagulation course in factor V Leiden carriers, prothrombin mutation carriers, and noncarriers. Between March 2001 and December 2015, 10,139 patients underwent thrombophilia testing. Of these, 1384 were factor V Leiden carriers, 1115 were prothrombin mutation carriers, and 7640 were noncarriers. During the anticoagulation course, 160 patients developed recurrent deep vein thrombosis and 94 patients developed pulmonary embolism (16 died); 154 patients had major bleeding (10 died), and 291 patients had nonmajor bleeding. On multivariable analysis, factor V Leiden carriers had a similar rate of venous thromboembolism recurrence (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-1.64), half the rate of major bleeding (adjusted HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.25-0.99) and a nonsignificantly lower rate of nonmajor bleeding (adjusted HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.43-1.01) than noncarriers. Prothrombin mutation carriers and noncarriers had a comparable rate of venous thromboembolism recurrence (adjusted HR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.68-1.48), major bleeding (adjusted HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.42-1.34), and nonmajor bleeding events (adjusted HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.77-1.57). During the anticoagulation course, factor V Leiden carriers had a similar risk for venous thromboembolism recurrence and half the risk for major bleeding compared with noncarriers. This finding may contribute to decision-making regarding anticoagulation duration in selected factor V Leiden carriers with venous thromboembolism. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Effects of Tramadol Coadministration on Prothrombin Time-International Normalized Ratio in Patients Receiving Warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosono, Tomomi; Kondo, Aiko; Kambayashi, Yasuyuki; Homma, Masato

    2017-01-01

     Several case studies have reported a possible drug interaction between warfarin and tramadol where tramadol coadministration enhanced the antithrombotic effects of warfarin. To assess this drug interaction, changes in prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) before and after tramadol coadministration were investigated in patients receiving warfarin. For this study, we examined 54 patients (male/female: 22/32, 68.4±12.7 years) who were being treated with warfarin for deep vein thrombosis, atrial fibrillation, arteriosclerosis obliterans, congestive heart failure, and other vascular diseases. Significant increases in PT-INR were observed 9.5 (1-118) d after coadministration of tramadol (1.81±0.56 vs. 2.47±1.10, ptramadol were compared with other groups of patients to find drug interaction risk factors. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower levels of albumin (3.5 g/dL or less) [odds ratio (OR) 22.1; 95%CI 2.9-169.9]; lower eGFR (50 mL/min or less) (OR 7.7; 95%CI 1.4-42.0); and PT-INR before tramadol coadministration (OR 38.2; 95%CI 3.7-397.6) were characteristic of the PT-INR increased group. These results suggest that tramadol coadministration enhanced the antithrombotic effects of warfarin in patients with higher PT-INR, lower albumin levels and decreased renal function as the risk factors for this drug interaction.

  4. [False positive serum des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin after resection of hepatocellular carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramatsu, Kumiko; Tanaka, Yasuhito; Takagi, Kazumi; Iida, Takayasu; Takasaka, Yoshimitsu; Mizokami, Masashi

    2007-04-01

    Measurements of serum concentrations of des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin (PIVKA-II) are widely used for diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, when we evaluated the correlation of PIVKA-II between two commercially available PIVKA-II immunoassay kits (Lumipulse f vs. Picolumi) to introduce it in our hospital, false high values of PIVKA-II were observed in Lumipulse assay. Four(4%) of 100 serum samples showed false high values, and all of them were obtained from patients less than 2 month after curative resection of HCC. Examining additional 7 patients with HCC resection, serum samples from the 5 patients had the same trend. To elucidate the non-specific reaction by Lumipulse assay which utilized alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzymatic reaction, inhibition assays by various absorbents such as inactive ALP and IgM antibodies were performed. Excess of inactive ALP reduced the high values of PIVKA-II. Note that anti-bleeding sheets (fibrinogen combined drug), which included bovine thrombin, were directly attached on liver of all patients with HCC resection in this study. As the sheets also contaminate ALP and probably produce IgM antibodies to ALP, the IgM may cross-react with anti-PIVKA-II antibodies directly. Taken together, it was suggested that produced antibodies against ALP derived from anti-bleeding sheets led false high values of PIVKA-II in the patients with HCC resection.

  5. Management of the Bleeding Patient Receiving New Oral Anticoagulants: A Role for Prothrombin Complex Concentrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. Baumann Kreuziger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ease of dosing and simplicity of monitoring make new oral anticoagulants an attractive therapy in a growing range of clinical conditions. However, newer oral anticoagulants interact with the coagulation cascade in different ways than traditional warfarin therapy. Replacement of clotting factors will not reverse the effects of dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban. Currently, antidotes for these drugs are not widely available. Fortunately, withholding the anticoagulant and dialysis are freqnently effective treatments, particularly with rivaroxaban and dabigatran. Emergent bleeding, however, requires utilization of Prothrombin Complex Concentrates (PCCs. PCCs, in addition to recombinant factor VIIa, are used to activate the clotting system to reverse the effects of the new oral anticoagulants. In cases of refractory or emergent bleeding, the recommended factor concentrate in our protocols differs between the new oral anticoagulants. In patients taking dabigatran, we administer an activated PCC (aPCC [FELBA] due to reported benefit in human in vitro studies. Based on human clinical trial evidence, the 4-factor PCC (Kcentra is suggested for patients with refractory rivaroxaban- or apixaban-associated hemorrhage. If bleeding continues, recombinant factor VIIa may be employed. With all of these new procoagulant agents, the risk of thrombosis associated with administration of factor concentrates must be weighed against the relative risk of hemorrhage.

  6. A novel prothrombin time assay for assessing the anticoagulant activity of oral factor Xa inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Yu Chen; Wang, Zhaoqing; Knabb, Robert M

    2013-09-01

    Conventional prothrombin time (PT) assays have limited sensitivity and dynamic range in monitoring the anticoagulant activity of direct factor Xa inhibitors. Hence, new assays are needed. We modified a PT assay by adding calcium chloride (CaCl2) to the thromboplastin reagent to increase assay dynamic range and improve sensitivity. Effects of calcium and sodium ion concentrations, and sample handling, were evaluated to optimize assay performance. Increasing concentrations of calcium ions produced progressive increases in PT across the factor Xa inhibitor concentrations of 0 to 2500 nmol/L for razaxaban and apixaban. The greatest effect was seen when the thromboplastin reagent was diluted 1:2.25 with 100 mmol/L CaCl2 (thus selected for routine use). The optimized assay showed an interassay precision of 1.5 to 9.3 percentage coefficient of variation (%CV) for razaxaban and 3.1 to 4.6 %CV for apixaban. We conclude that the modified PT assay is likely to be suitable as a pharmacodynamic marker for activity at therapeutic concentrations of factor Xa inhibitors.

  7. Antibodies to Phosphatidylserine/Prothrombin Complex in Antiphospholipid Syndrome: Analytical and Clinical Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Lisa K; Willis, Rohan; Harris, E Nigel; Branch, Ware D; Tebo, Anne E

    2016-01-01

    Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder characterized by thrombosis and/or pregnancy-related morbidity accompanied by persistently positive antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL). Current laboratory criteria for APS classification recommend testing for lupus anticoagulant as well as IgG and IgM anticardiolipin, and beta-2 glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) antibodies. However, there appears to be a subset of patients with classical APS manifestations who test negative for the recommended criteria aPL tests. While acknowledging that such patients may have clinical features that are not of an autoimmune etiology, experts also speculate that these "seronegative" patients may test negative for relevant autoantibodies as a result of a lack of harmonization and/or standardization. Alternatively, they may have aPL that target other antigens involved in the pathogenesis of APS. In the latter, autoantibodies that recognize a phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (PS/PT) complex have been reported to be associated with APS and may have diagnostic relevance. This review highlights analytical and clinical attributes associated with PS/PT antibodies, taking into consideration the performance characteristics of criteria aPL tests in APS with specific recommendations for harmonization and standardization efforts.

  8. Diagnostic Performance of Des-γ-carboxy Prothrombin for Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Zhu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There have been many reports on des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP as a promising serum marker in the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; however, the results are inconsistent and even conflicting. Methods. This meta-analysis was performed to investigate the performance of DCP in the diagnosis of HCC. Following a systematic review of relevant studies, Meta-DiSc 1.4 software was used to extract data and to calculate the overall sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR, negative likelihood ratio (NLR, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR. Data are presented as forest plots and summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC analysis was used to summarize the overall test performance. Results. Twelve studies were included in our meta-analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity, PLR, and NLR of DCP for the detection of HCC in the studies included were 71% (95%CI: 68%–73%, 84% (95%CI: 83%–86%, 6.48 (95%CI: 4.22–9.93, and 0.33 (95%CI: 0.25–0.43, respectively. The area under the SROC curve was 0.8930 and the Q index was 0.8238. Significant heterogeneity was found. Conclusion. This meta-analysis indicated that DCP had moderate diagnostic accuracy in HCC. Further studies with rigorous design, large sample size, and mmultiregional cooperation are needed in the future.

  9. Risk of recurrent venous thrombosis in homozygous carriers and double heterozygous carriers of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijfering, Willem M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Veeger, Nic J G M; Hamulyák, Karly; Prins, Martin H; Büller, Harry R; van der Meer, Jan

    2010-04-20

    Homozygous or double heterozygous factor V Leiden and/or prothrombin G20210A is a rare inherited thrombophilic trait. Whether individuals with this genetic background have an increased risk of recurrent venous thrombosis is uncertain. A case-control design within a large cohort of families with thrombophilia was chosen to calculate the risk of recurrent venous thrombosis in individuals with homozygosity or double heterozygosity of factor V Leiden and/or prothrombin G20210A. Cases were individuals with recurrent venous thrombosis, and controls were those with only 1 venous thrombosis. The cohort consisted of 788 individuals with venous thrombosis; 357 had factor V Leiden, 137 had prothrombin G20210A, 27 had factor V Leiden and/or prothrombin G20210A homozygosity, and 49 had double heterozygosity for both mutations. We identified 325 cases with recurrent venous thrombosis and 463 controls with only 1 venous thrombosis. Compared with noncarriers, crude odds ratio for recurrence was 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.9 to 1.6) for heterozygous carriers of factor V Leiden, 0.7 (95% confidence interval, 0.4 to 1.2) for prothrombin G20210A, 1.2 (95% confidence interval, 0.5 to 2.6) for homozygous carriers of factor V Leiden and/or prothrombin G20210A, and 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.6 to 1.9) for double heterozygotes of both mutations. Adjustments for age, sex, family status, first event type, and concomitance of natural anticoagulant deficiencies did not alter the risk estimates. In this study, individuals with homozygous factor V Leiden and/or homozygous prothrombin G20210A or double heterozygous carriers of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A did not have a high risk of recurrent venous thrombosis.

  10. The risk of early mortality of polytrauma patients associated to ISS, NISS, APACHE II values and prothrombin time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mica, Ladislav; Rufibach, Kaspar; Keel, Marius; Trentz, Otmar

    2013-01-01

    The early hemodynamic normalization of polytrauma patients may lead to better survival outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic quality of trauma and physiological scores from widely used scoring systems in polytrauma patients. In total, 770 patients with ISS > 16 who were admitted to a trauma center within the first 24 hours after injury were included in this retrospective study. The patients were subdivided into three groups: those who died on the day of admission, those who died within the first three days, and those who survived for longer than three days. ISS, NISS, APACHE II score, and prothrombin time were recorded at admission. The descriptive statistics for early death in polytrauma patients who died on the day of admission, 1-3 days after admission, and > 3 days after admission were: ISS of 41.0, 34.0, and 29.0, respectively; NISS of 50.0, 50.0, and 41.0, respectively; APACHE II score of 30.0, 25.0, and 15.0, respectively; and prothrombin time of 37.0%, 56.0%, and 84%, respectively. These data indicate that prothrombin time (AUC: 0.89) and APACHE II (AUC: 0.88) have the greatest prognostic utility for early death. The estimated densities of the scores may suggest a direction for resuscitative procedures in polytrauma patients. "Retrospektive Analysen in der Chirurgischen Intensivmedizin"StV01-2008.

  11. Clinical characteristics of patients with factor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A and a first episode of venous thromboembolism. Findings from the RIETE Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadelha, Telma; Roldán, Vanessa; Lecumberri, Ramón; Trujillo-Santos, Javier; del Campo, Raquel; Poggio, Renzo; Monreal, Manuel

    2010-10-01

    The clinical characteristics of patients with factor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A presenting with a first episode of venous thromboembolism (VTE) have not been thoroughly studied. RIETE is an ongoing registry of consecutive patients with acute VTE. We compared the clinical characteristics of patients with factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, or no thrombophilia, at presentation with a first episode of VTE. As of May 2009, 22428 patients had been enrolled with a first episode of VTE. Of these, 345 had factor V Leiden, 261 had prothrombin G20210A, and 2399 tested negative. Sixty-two percent of the VTE episodes in women with factor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A (40% in men) were associated with an acquired risk factor. Among women, pregnancy or contraceptive use accounted for 63% and 67% of such risk factors. Patients with factor V Leiden presented with pulmonary embolism (PE) less likely than those with prothrombin G20210A (31% vs. 51%; pFactor V Leiden presented with hypoxaemia (Sat O(2) levelsfactor V Leiden or prothrombin G20210A were associated with an acquired risk factor (mostly pregnancy or contraceptive use). Only 4.5% of patients with factor V Leiden presenting with acute PE had hypoxaemia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Therapeutic concordance of two portable monitors and two routine automatic oral anticoagulant monitoring systems using as reference the manual prothrombin time technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacas, Marta; Lafuente, Pedro José; Unanue, Iciar; Santos, Mónica; Iriarte, Jose Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Two models of capillary blood prothrombin time (PT) monitoring systems were evaluated for analytical performance and then compared with two routine PT systems using the reference manual technique and a high-sensitivity thromboplastin. Two sets of 60 and 80 plasmas were analyzed from anticoagulated patients stabilized over 3 months in an INR range 2-3.5 for therapy. Capillary PT determination was performed in two portable monitors, CoaguChek S and CoaguChek PT (Roche Diagnostics), and plasma automatic methods were Neoplastine/STA (Diagnostics Stago) and PT-FibrinogenHsPlus/ACL7000 (Instrumental Laboratories). Thromboplastin Bilbao (TBi), an in-house high-sensitivity rabbit thromboplastin (ISI=1.08), recommended as the reference reagent by an External Spanish Oral Anticoagulant Quality Assessment, was used in the PT manual technique. The two monitors' coefficients of correlation with the reference system were 0.74 for CoaguChek S and 0.81 for CoaguChek PT. The automatic routine systems showed a correlation of 0.92 (Neoplastine/STA) and 0.91 (PT-FbHsPlus/ACL7000). Clinical agreement expressed as the percentage of simple correlation ranged between 75.0% (CoaguChek S) and 88.9% (Neoplastine/STA). The systems having the best kappa index with the manual technique were CoaguChek PT (71.9%) and the Neoplastine/STA system (73%). The routine PT management systems exhibited better correlation and percentage of concordance when using the TBi/manual technique than did the portable monitors, which moreover performed unequally in this regard.

  13. Mechanisms in Impact Fragmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Wittel, Falk K.; Carmona, Humberto A.; Kun, Ferenc; Herrmann, Hans J.

    2015-01-01

    The brittle fragmentation of spheres is studied numerically by a 3D Discrete Element Model. Large scale computer simulations are performed with models that consist of agglomerates of many spherical particles, interconnected by beam-truss elements. We focus on a detailed description of the fragmentation process and study several fragmentation mechanisms involved. The evolution of meridional cracks is studied in detail. These cracks are found to initiate in the inside of the specimen with quasi...

  14. DNA fragmentation in apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Cleavage of chromosomal DNA into oligonucleosomal size fragments is an integral part of apoptosis. Elegant biochemical work identified the DNA fragmentation factor (DFF) as a major apoptotic endonuclease for DNA fragmentation in vitro. Genetic studies in mice support the importance of DFF in DNA fragmentation and possibly in apoptosis in vivo. Recent work also suggests the existence of additional endonucleases for DNA degradation. Understanding the roles of individual endonucleases in apoptosis, and how they might coordinate to degrade DNA in different tissues during normal development and homeostasis, as well as in various diseased states, will be a major research focus in the near future.

  15. Diagnostic value of antibodies to phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex for antiphospholipid syndrome in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lei; Li, Chun; Liu, Na; Yang, Xin; Jia, R L; Mu, Rong; Su, Yin; Li, Z G

    2017-02-01

    To evaluate the diagnosis value of antibodies to phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex (aPS/PT) in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and to determine the clinical features of APS patients with avidity of aPS/PT. Serum samples were collected from 108 APS patients. Sixty patients with pregnancy morbidity, 37 patients with thrombosis without a history of autoimmune diseases, and 89 healthy blood donors were included as the control group. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was performed to detect the concentration of aPS/PT, including IgG/M, IgG, and IgM forms, in the same serum sample. The chi-square (χ2) test was used to examine the difference of frequencies of antibodies in APS patients and patients with other diseases. Spearman correlation analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between aPS/PT and other clinical/laboratory parameters. aPS/PT was detectable in 68 (63.0%) of the 108 APS patients, 12 (13.2%) of the 91 disease control patients and 1 (1.1%) of the healthy controls. It was strongly correlated with the activity of lupus anticoagulant (LA) (OR 15.952, 95% CI 7.132-35.678; P < 0.001). The frequency of aPS/PT was 56.9% in anti-cardiolipid antibody (aCL)-negative, 60.5% anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibody (aβ2GPI)-negative, and 50.0% in both aCL and aβ2GPI negative APS patients. The IgG aPS/PT was significantly associated with arterial and venous thrombosis. The aPS/PT antibody could play an important role in the diagnosis of APS, especially in patients with negative aCL and aβ2GPI. It was positively related to thrombotic events in APS.

  16. Anti-Phosphatidylserine/Prothrombin Antibodies Are Associated with Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polona Žigon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To determine the prevalence and clinical association of anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies (aPS/PT in patients with a history of pregnancy complications relevant to antiphospholipid syndrome (APS. Materials and Methods. Two hundred and eleven patients with a history of (a three or more consecutive miscarriages before 10th week of gestation (WG (n=64, (b death of a morphologically normal fetus beyond 10th WG (n=72, (c premature birth of a morphologically normal neonate before 34th WG due to eclampsia, preeclamsia and placental insufficiency (n=33, and (d less than three unexplained consecutive miscarriages before 10th WG (n=42. Subjects sera were analyzed for lupus anticoagulant (LA, anti-cardiolipin (aCL, anti-β2-glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI, and aPS/PT antibodies. Results. 41/169 (24.3% of patients were positive for at least one measured aPL. The highest prevalence was found for aPS/PT and aCL (13.0% and 12.4%, resp. followed by LA (7.7% and anti-β2GPI (7.1%. 11/169 with APS-related obstetric manifestations had only aPS/PT. 17.8% of patients were positive for LA or aCL and/or anti-β2GPI; however when adding the aPS/PT results, an additional 7% of patients could be evaluated for APS. Conclusion. aPS/PT are associated with recurrent early or late abortions and with premature delivery irrespective of other aPL.

  17. Meta-analysis of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A polymorphism in migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2015-01-01

    Migraine is a frequent and disabling condition, which exhibits a substantial genetic background and is frequently associated with abnormalities of primary and secondary hemostasis. We performed a systematic literature search and a meta-analysis of available data about the potential associations between migraine and factor V (FV) Leiden or prothrombin (FII) G20210A gene polymorphism. The final number of studies included was 15 (all cross-sectional) about migraine and FV Leiden, and 12 (all cross-sectional) about migraine and FII G20210A polymorphism, with broad inter-study heterogeneity (I², 82 and 85%). The cumulative prevalence of the FV 1691A allele was found to be similar between cases (n = 1450; 4.9%) and controls (n = 3468; 4.7%; P = 0.74). The cumulative prevalence of the FII 20210A allele was also found to be similar between cases (n = 1226; 4.2%) and controls (n = 3144; 4.5%; P = 0.59). Nevertheless, sub-analysis of studies in adults and children revealed that both polymorphisms were not associated with migraine in adults, but FV Leiden and the FII 20210A allele were approximately two-fold more prevalent in children with migraine than in those without. In conclusion, despite migraine exhibits a clear neurovascular origin and is frequently associated with thrombotic disorders, isolate thrombophilic mutations seem to play a negligible pathogenetic role in this condition in adults, whereas the increased prevalence of FV Leiden and the FII 20210A allele in children with migraine deserves further scrutiny.

  18. Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin as an important prognostic indicator in patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichi Hakamada; Norihisa Kimura; Takuya Miura; Hajime Morohashi; Keinosuke Ishido; Masaki Nara; Yoshikazu Toyoki; Shunji Narumi; Mutsuo Sasaki

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To clarify the effect of a high des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) level on the invasiveness and prognosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS:Among 142 consecutive patients with known DCP levels,who underwent hepatectomy because of hepatocellular carcinoma,85 patients met the criteria for small hepatocellular carcinoma,i.e.one≤5 cm sized single tumor or no more than three≤3 cm sized tumors.RESULTS:The overall survival rate of the 142 patients was 92.1% for 1 year,69.6% for 3 years,and 56.9% for 5 years.Multivariate analysis showed that microscopic vascular invasion (P = 0.03) and serum DCP≥400mAU/mL (P = 0.02) were independent prognostic factors.In the group of patients who met the criteria for small hepatocellular carcinoma,DCP≥400 mAU/mL was found to be an independent prognostic factor for recurrence-free (P = 0.02) and overall survival (P = 0.0005).In patients who did not meet the criteria,the presence of vascular invasion was an independent factor for recurrence-free (P = 0.02) and overall survivals (P = 0.01).In 75% of patients with small hepatocellular carcinoma and high DCP levels,recurrence occurred extrahepatically.CONCLUSION:For small hepatocellular carcinoma,a high preoperative DCP level appears indicative for tumor recurrence.Because many patients with a high preoperative DCP level develop extrahepatic recurrence,it is necessary to screen the whole body.

  19. Plasma lipids and prothrombin time in rats fed palm oil and other commonly used fats in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Mona M.; Salama, Fawzy M.; Ebada, Karina M.

    1993-01-01

    Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for a total period of 8 weeks on six diets that were different in the source of their fat content. The fat content was provided either, palm oil or palm olein or corn oil or hydrogenated fat, or frying palm oil and mixture of corn oil + hydrogenated fat in the ratio (1:1). The latter was given to the control group. Animals fed these various experimental diets showed statistically significant differences in serum cholesterol and serum triglycerides content amo...

  20. Missense mutations in the gene encoding prothrombin corresponding to Arg596 cause antithrombin resistance and thrombomodulin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Yuki; Murata, Moe; Kozuka, Toshihiro; Nakata, Yukiko; Hasebe, Ryo; Tamura, Shogo; Takagi, Akira; Matsushita, Tadashi; Saito, Hidehiko; Kojima, Tetsuhito

    2016-11-30

    Antithrombin (AT) and thrombomodulin (TM) play important roles in the process of natural anticoagulation in vivo. Recently, we reported that the prothrombin Yukuhashi mutation (p.Arg596Leu) was associated with AT and TM resistance-related thrombophilia. To assess the AT and TM resistances associated with other missense mutations by single base substitution in the Arg596 codon, we generated recombinant variants (596Gln, 596Trp, 596Gly, and 596Pro) and investigated the effects on AT and TM anticoagulant functions. All variants except 596Pro were secreted in amounts comparable to that of the wild-type but exhibited variable procoagulant activities. After a 30-minute inactivation by AT, the relative residual activity of wild-type thrombin decreased to 15 ± 4.0 %, in contrast to values of all variants were maintained at above 80 %. The thrombin-AT complex formation, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, was reduced with all tested variants in the presence and absence of heparin. In the presence of soluble TM (sTM), the relative fibrinogen clotting activity of wild-type thrombin decreased to 16 ± 0.12 %, whereas that of tested variants was 37 %-56 %. In a surface plasmon resonance assay, missense Arg596 mutations reduced thrombin-TM affinity to an extent similar to the reduction of fibrinogen clotting inhibition. In the presence of sTM or cultured endothelial-like cells, APC generation was enhanced differently by variant thrombins in a thrombin-TM affinity-dependent manner. These data indicate that prothrombin Arg596 missense mutations lead to AT and TM resistance in the variant thrombins and suggest that prothrombin Arg596 is important for AT- and TM-mediated anticoagulation.

  1. Kinetics of the activation of human prothrombin by human coagulation factor Xa. Initial rate studies in the presence of Ca2+ and phospholipid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosow, D P; Orthner, C L

    1979-10-10

    Steady state kinetic studies have been performed to investigate the formation of thrombin from prothrombin by human coagulation Factor Xa in the presence of Ca2+ and phospholipid. The concentration of ligand which gives 50% of the maximum velocity (K0.5) is 2.3 mM for Ca2+, 7.4 microM for phospholipid, and 0.006 microM for prothrombin. Hill plots of the Ca2+ enhancement of the reaction give a Hill coefficient of 3.1, indicating positive cooperativity. The initial velocity patterns are consistent with an ordered addition of reactants with phospholipid as the second reactant to bind to the enzyme. Although our results do not differentiate between Ca2+ or the prothrombin substrate as the first reactant to bind to Factor Xa, it is established that Ca2+ can bind to Factor Xa in the absence of the other reactants. Thus, the most probable order of addition of reactants is Ca2+, phospholipid, and the prothrombin substrate. Plots of (v)-1 versus (prothrombin)-1 or (v)-1 versus [(Ca2+)3]-1 at several constant concentrations of phospholipid indicate that the major effect of phospholipid is to increase the turnover number of Factor Xa.

  2. String fragmentation; La fragmentation des cordes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drescher, H.J.; Werner, K. [Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees - SUBATECH, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France)

    1997-10-01

    The classical string model is used in VENUS as a fragmentation model. For the soft domain simple 2-parton strings were sufficient, whereas for higher energies up to LHC, the perturbative regime of the QCD gives additional soft gluons, which are mapped on the string as so called kinks, energy singularities between the leading partons. The kinky string model is chosen to handle fragmentation of these strings by application of the Lorentz invariant area law. The `kinky strings` model, corresponding to the perturbative gluons coming from pQCD, takes into consideration this effect by treating the partons and gluons on the same footing. The decay law is always the Artru-Menessier area law which is the most realistic since it is invariant to the Lorentz and gauge transformations. For low mass strings a manipulation of the rupture point is necessary if the string corresponds already to an elementary particle determined by the mass and the flavor content. By means of the fragmentation model it will be possible to simulate the data from future experiments at LHC and RHIC 3 refs.

  3. Fragmentation trees reloaded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böcker, Sebastian; Dührkop, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Untargeted metabolomics commonly uses liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to measure abundances of metabolites; subsequent tandem mass spectrometry is used to derive information about individual compounds. One of the bottlenecks in this experimental setup is the interpretation of fragmentation spectra to accurately and efficiently identify compounds. Fragmentation trees have become a powerful tool for the interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data of small molecules. These trees are determined from the data using combinatorial optimization, and aim at explaining the experimental data via fragmentation cascades. Fragmentation tree computation does not require spectral or structural databases. To obtain biochemically meaningful trees, one needs an elaborate optimization function (scoring). We present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees, transforming the combinatorial optimization into a Maximum A Posteriori estimator. We demonstrate the superiority of the new scoring for two tasks: both for the de novo identification of molecular formulas of unknown compounds, and for searching a database for structurally similar compounds, our method SIRIUS 3, performs significantly better than the previous version of our method, as well as other methods for this task. SIRIUS 3 can be a part of an untargeted metabolomics workflow, allowing researchers to investigate unknowns using automated computational methods.Graphical abstractWe present a new scoring for computing fragmentation trees from tandem mass spectrometry data based on Bayesian statistics. The best scoring fragmentation tree most likely explains the molecular formula of the measured parent ion.

  4. Homozygous factor V Leiden and double heterozygosity for factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saemundsson, Ymir; Sveinsdottir, Signý Vala; Svantesson, Henrik; Svensson, Peter J

    2013-10-01

    The most common forms of familial thrombophilia are factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin mutation (PTM). Homozygous FVL and PTM have long been feared conditions thought to cause high rates of morbidity and mortality. To analyse clinical features in patients with homozygous FVL and PTM, as well as patients with double heterozygosity for FVL and PTM. All patients with homozygous FVL, PTM or double heterozygosity in the MATS database of 1465 consecutive unselected patients were analysed regarding age at inclusion venous thromboembolism (VTE), age at first thrombosis, recurrence, clinical course and acquired risk factors. We found 36 patients homozygous for FVL. Patients homozygous for FVL were younger than controls at group level (56 ± 18 vs. 63 ± 17, p < 0.02). Homozygous women were younger than female controls (50 ± 19 vs. 63 ± 18, p < 0.002). No difference was observed when comparing male subjects. Women were younger than men at inclusion thrombosis (50 ± 19 vs. 65 ± 14, p < 0.02) and at first thrombosis (47 ± 19 vs. 64 ± 14, p < 0.01). Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) was seen in 33 patients (92 %), 6 (17 %) had pulmonary embolism (PE) and 3 (8 %) had combined DVT and PE. PE was less frequent in homozygous FVL women compared to female controls (p < 0.03). VTE recurred in 3 subjects during the duration of the study. Odds ratio for VTE in homozygous FVL patients compared to controls was 13.9 (95 % CI 9.9-19.7). We found no subjects with homozygous PTM. Double heterozygosity for FVL and PTM was seen in 12 subjects. There was no difference in age at inclusion VTE between double heterozygotes and controls (59 ± 16 vs. 63 ± 17, ns.). DVT was seen in 92 % at inclusion, 8 % had PE. Mean age at first VTE was 52 ± 17 (27-82). Consecutive homozygous FVL patients had a higher age at first thrombosis than previously described. Homozygous females are affected at an earlier age than homozygous men and female controls. It seems that

  5. Fragmentation of monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasak, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Fragmentation is a degradation pathway ubiquitously observed in proteins despite the remarkable stability of peptide bond; proteins differ only by how much and where cleavage occurs. The goal of this review is to summarize reports regarding the non-enzymatic fragmentation of the peptide backbone of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). The sites in the polypeptide chain susceptible to fragmentation are determined by a multitude of factors. Insights are provided on the intimate chemical mechanisms that can make some bonds prone to cleavage due to the presence of specific side-chains. In addition to primary structure, the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures have a significant impact in modulating the distribution of cleavage sites by altering local flexibility, accessibility to solvent or bringing in close proximity side chains that are remote in sequence. This review focuses on cleavage sites observed in the constant regions of mAbs, with special emphasis on hinge fragmentation. The mechanisms responsible for backbone cleavage are strongly dependent on pH and can be catalyzed by metals or radicals. The distribution of cleavage sites are different under acidic compared to basic conditions, with fragmentation rates exhibiting a minimum in the pH range 5–6; therefore, the overall fragmentation pattern observed for a mAb is a complex result of structural and solvent conditions. A critical review of the techniques used to monitor fragmentation is also presented; usually a compromise has to be made between a highly sensitive method with good fragment separation and the capability to identify the cleavage site. The effect of fragmentation on the function of a mAb must be evaluated on a case-by-case basis depending on whether cleavage sites are observed in the variable or constant regions, and on the mechanism of action of the molecule. PMID:21487244

  6. Embedded Fragments Registry (EFR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — In 2009, the Department of Defense estimated that approximately 40,000 service members who served in OEF/OIF may have embedded fragment wounds as the result of small...

  7. Fragmentation in Biaxial Tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, G H; Archbold, G C; Hurricane, O A; Miller, P L

    2006-06-13

    We have carried out an experiment that places a ductile stainless steel in a state of biaxial tension at a high rate of strain. The loading of the ductile metal spherical cap is performed by the detonation of a high explosive layer with a conforming geometry to expand the metal radially outwards. Simulations of the loading and expansion of the metal predict strain rates that compare well with experimental observations. A high percentage of the HE loaded material was recovered through a soft capture process and characterization of the recovered fragments provided high quality data, including uniform strain prior to failure and fragment size. These data were used with a modified fragmentation model to determine a fragmentation energy.

  8. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J.; Fedder, J

    2017-01-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated....... In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling...... (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage...

  9. Fragmentation Main Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The fragmentation model combines patch size and patch continuity with diversity of vegetation types per patch and rarity of vegetation types per patch. A patch was...

  10. Thermodynamics of fragment binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenczy, György G; Keserű, György M

    2012-04-23

    The ligand binding pockets of proteins have preponderance of hydrophobic amino acids and are typically within the apolar interior of the protein; nevertheless, they are able to bind low complexity, polar, water-soluble fragments. In order to understand this phenomenon, we analyzed high resolution X-ray data of protein-ligand complexes from the Protein Data Bank and found that fragments bind to proteins with two near optimal geometry H-bonds on average. The linear extent of the fragment binding site was found not to be larger than 10 Å, and the H-bonding region was found to be restricted to about 5 Å on average. The number of conserved H-bonds in proteins cocrystallized with multiple different fragments is also near to 2. These fragment binding sites that are able to form limited number of strong H-bonds in a hydrophobic environment are identified as hot spots. An estimate of the free-energy gain of H-bond formation versus apolar desolvation supports that fragment sized compounds need H-bonds to achieve detectable binding. This suggests that fragment binding is mostly enthalpic that is in line with their observed binding thermodynamics documented in Isothermal Titration Calorimetry (ITC) data sets and gives a thermodynamic rationale for fragment based approaches. The binding of larger compounds tends to more rely on apolar desolvation with a corresponding increase of the entropy content of their binding free-energy. These findings explain the reported size-dependence of maximal available affinity and ligand efficiency both behaving differently in the small molecule region featured by strong H-bond formation and in the larger molecule region featured by apolar desolvation.

  11. The diverse applications of plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mukul; Dubey, Shivani; Darwhekar, Gajanan; Jain, Sudhir Kumar

    2015-07-01

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  12. The diverse applications of plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Mukul, E-mail: mukulsharma@acropolis.edu.in; Darwhekar, Gajanan, E-mail: gdarwhekar@acropolis.edu.in [Acropolis Institute of Pharmaceutical Education & Research, Indore MP India (India); Dubey, Shivani, E-mail: dubeyshivani08@rediffmail.com [Mata Gujri College of Professional Studies, Indore MP India (India); Jain, Sudhir Kumar, E-mail: sudhirkjain1@rediffmail.com [School of Studies in Microbiology, Vikram University, Ujjain MP India (India)

    2015-07-31

    Plasma being the fourth state of matter has always been an attraction for Physicists and Chemists. With the advent of time, plasma energy has been recognized in having widening horizons in the field of Biomedical Sciences. Plasma medicine can be subdivided into three main fields; Non-thermal atmospheric-pressure direct plasma for medical therapy; Plasma-assisted modification of bio-relevant surfaces and Plasma-based bio-decontamination and sterilization. The basis of the research is that as it has free carrier molecules, it has the ability to target specific cells and regulate functions like wound healing. Plasma does not harm healthy human cells but can kill bacteria and possibly even cancer cells to help treat various diseases. Nosocomial infection control, prevention and containment of contagious diseases, disinfection of medical devices, surface treatment (heat and UV sensitive surfaces) are research of interest. Recent success in generating plasma at very low temperature ie. Cold plasma makes the therapy painless. It has the ability to activate cellular responses and important mechanisms in the body. They target specific molecules such as prothrombin for blood coagulation, cytokines for killing bacteria, and angiogenesis for tissue regeneration. Plasma has bactericidal, fungicidal and virucidal properties. Plasma technology has flourishing future in diverse fields like Textiles, Nanofabrication, Automotives, Waste management, Microbiology, Food Hygiene, Medical Science like Skin treatments, sterilisation of wounds, Hand disinfection, Dental treatments etc. Food hygiene using plasma can be achieved in disinfection of food containers, food surface disinfection, hygiene in food handling, preparation and packaging. Therefore Plasma is most promising field for budding Scientist for fluorishing research in Biological Sciences.

  13. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter R Underhill

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively. Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively. Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  14. Fragment Length of Circulating Tumor DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underhill, Hunter R; Kitzman, Jacob O; Hellwig, Sabine; Welker, Noah C; Daza, Riza; Baker, Daniel N; Gligorich, Keith M; Rostomily, Robert C; Bronner, Mary P; Shendure, Jay

    2016-07-01

    Malignant tumors shed DNA into the circulation. The transient half-life of circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) may afford the opportunity to diagnose, monitor recurrence, and evaluate response to therapy solely through a non-invasive blood draw. However, detecting ctDNA against the normally occurring background of cell-free DNA derived from healthy cells has proven challenging, particularly in non-metastatic solid tumors. In this study, distinct differences in fragment length size between ctDNAs and normal cell-free DNA are defined. Human ctDNA in rat plasma derived from human glioblastoma multiforme stem-like cells in the rat brain and human hepatocellular carcinoma in the rat flank were found to have a shorter principal fragment length than the background rat cell-free DNA (134-144 bp vs. 167 bp, respectively). Subsequently, a similar shift in the fragment length of ctDNA in humans with melanoma and lung cancer was identified compared to healthy controls. Comparison of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA between a melanoma patient and healthy controls found that the BRAF V600E mutant allele occurred more commonly at a shorter fragment length than the fragment length of the wild-type allele (132-145 bp vs. 165 bp, respectively). Moreover, size-selecting for shorter cell-free DNA fragment lengths substantially increased the EGFR T790M mutant allele frequency in human lung cancer. These findings provide compelling evidence that experimental or bioinformatic isolation of a specific subset of fragment lengths from cell-free DNA may improve detection of ctDNA.

  15. Preoperative screening for coagulopathy using prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time in patients requiring primary cranial vault remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genecov, David G; Por, Yong-Chen; Barcelo, Carlos Raul; Salyer, Kenneth E; Mulne, Arlynne F; Morad, Ammar B

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of abnormal preoperative screening prothrombin time and partial thromboplastin time in patients listed for primary cranial vault remodeling that required hematologic workup and their diagnoses and subsequent management. This retrospective analysis was performed from January of 2000 to December of 2003 at the International Craniofacial Institute, Dallas, Texas, on a total of 168 patients. All patients had a normal prothrombin time. Abnormally raised partial thromboplastin time was found in six patients (prevalence of 3.57 percent), one who had factor XI deficiency, one who had a borderline factor XI deficiency and circulating inhibitor, one who had an intermittent factor XI deficiency and circulating inhibitor, one who had a borderline von Willebrand's disease with low factor XII, and the remaining two who had a circulating inhibitor of coagulation. Of these six patients, the perioperative management was altered in four of five patients, and one patient declined surgery out of fear of surgical morbidity. The surgery of one patient was aborted intraoperatively because of abnormal bleeding without clot formation after the calvarial burr holes had been drilled. The mean blood loss was 183 ml for the four patients with completed surgery and 100 ml for one patient. The authors conclude that even though the prevalence of abnormal screening partial thromboplastin time in these patients was low (3.57 percent), detection of an abnormal result required preoperative correction of coagulopathy in 80 percent of cases.

  16. Antibodies Against Annexin V and Prothrombin, Their Correlation with Other Anti-phospholipid Antibodies in Recurrent Pregnancy Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Objective To study the findings of serum antibodies against annexin V, prothrombin,ph-inositol, ph-acid, ph-ethanolamine, ph-serine, ph-glycerol, cardiolipin, and beta2-glycoprotein I and analyze the trophoblast annexin V receptorsMethods Sera from 156 patients aged 26-41 years with recurrent pregnancy loss (3-7 times) were investigated. Eighty-four fertile healthy women aged 24-38 years were included in a control group. ELISA methods were used for detecting a panel of sera anti-phospholipid antibodies. Immunolocalization of annexin Vreceptors in 143trophoblast specimens of 156patients was investigated by the immunofluorescence technique using Annexin V-FITC, Apoptosis and Annexin V-CY3 commercial kits.Results Positivity for anti-phospholipid antibodies mainly against ph-serine, phethanolamine, and ph-inositol was found together in 80. 8% (126 out of 156 patients),anti-prothrombin antibodies in 12% (18), and anti-annexin Vantibodies in 13. 5%(21) women. No significant levels of anti-phospholipid antibodies were found in 6controls. Placenta immunohistopathology also exhibited some changes manifested by the presence of apoptotic and necrotic cells in trophoblast, and very few microthrombotization in some intervillous spaces.Conclusion Our detailed study demonstrated the prevalence of majority of antiphospholipid antibodies as a high risk factor for repeated reproductive failure. Very low microthrombosis in placentas could be explained by the changes of haemocoagulation properties out of uterus.

  17. Biological and environmental conditionings for a sperm DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Iwona; Witczak, Mariusz; Wdowiak, Artur

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the presented study was determination of the effect of selected agents on sperm DNA fragmentation--superoxide dismutase in seminal plasma, the patients' age, and burdening with the tobacco smoking habit. An attempt was also undertaken to evaluate the effect of DNA fragmentation on the effectiveness of infertility treatment. The study covered 186 men who received treatment due to infertility. The database and statistical analyses were performed using computer software STATISTICA 7.1. A relationship was observed between sperm DNA fragmentation and superoxide dismutase activity, the higher the SOD activity, the lower the percentage of sperm fragmentation (rs=-0.324; P=0.000; r = -0.2110). A statistical relationship was found between sperm DNA fragmentation and the percentage of pregnancies obtained during the first year of treatment--patients with the lower DFI more frequently became fathers during the first year of trying, compared to the remainder (t=2.51; P=0.013). A statistically significant relationship was confirmed (rs=-0.370; P=0.000) consisting in an increase in the DFI with respondents' age. No significant differences were noted between the DFI and the tobacco smoking habit (Chi2=0.29; P=0.926). The percentage of sperm DNA fragmentation was inversely proportional to superoxide dismutase activity in seminal plasma. DNA fragmentation becomes intensified with patients' age. Cigarette smoking has no effect on sperm DNA fragmentation. DNA fragmentation exerts an effect on the effectiveness of infertility treatment.

  18. Effective reversal of edoxaban-associated bleeding with four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate in a rabbit model of acute hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzog, Eva; Kaspereit, Franz; Krege, Wilfried; Doerr, Baerbel; Mueller-Cohrs, Jochen; Pragst, Ingo; Morishima, Yoshiyuki; Dickneite, Gerhard

    2015-02-01

    Edoxaban is an oral, selective direct factor Xa inhibitor approved in Japan for venous thromboembolism prevention after orthopedic surgery. Data are lacking regarding reversal strategies for edoxaban; this study assessed whether four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (Beriplex/Kcentra; CSL Behring GmbH, Marburg, Germany) can effectively reverse its effects on hemostasis using a previously described rabbit model. The study comprised assessments of thrombin generation in vitro, pharmacokinetic parameters, and edoxaban reversal in vivo. In a blinded in vivo stage, a standardized kidney incision was performed in animals (n = 11 per group) randomized to receive vehicle + saline, edoxaban (1,200 μg/kg) + saline, or edoxaban (1,200 μg/kg) + four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (50 IU/kg). Animals were monitored for treatment impact on hemostasis and coagulation parameters. Data are median (range). Statistical tests were adjusted for multiple testing. Edoxaban administration increased blood loss (30 [2 to 44] ml) and time to hemostasis (23 [8.5 to 30.0] min) compared with the control group (3 [1 to 8] ml and 3 [2.0 to 5.0] min, respectively). Biomarkers of coagulation (prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, whole blood clotting time) and thrombin generation parameters (e.g., peak thrombin, endogenous thrombin potential, lag time) were also affected by edoxaban. Administration of four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate significantly reduced time to hemostasis (to 8 [6.5 to 14.0] min, observed P < 0.0001) and total blood loss (to 9 [4 to 22] ml, observed P = 0.0050) compared with the edoxaban + saline group. Of the biomarkers tested, prothrombin time, whole blood clotting time, and endogenous thrombin potential correlated best with clinical parameters. In a rabbit model of hemostasis, four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate administration significantly decreased edoxaban-associated hemorrhage.

  19. New information on photon fragmentation functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, Michael; König, Florian

    2014-08-01

    Thermal photons radiated in heavy-ion collisions represent an important signal for a recently discovered new state of matter, the deconfined quark-gluon plasma. However, a clean identification of this signal requires precise knowledge of the prompt photons produced simultaneously in hard collisions of quarks and gluons, mostly through their fragmentation. In this paper, we demonstrate that PHENIX data on photons produced in proton-proton collisions with low transverse momenta allow to extract new information on this fragmentation process. While existing data do not yet convincingly favor one parameterization (BFG II) over the two other frequently used photon fragmentation functions (BFG I and GRV NLO), the data sets recorded by PHENIX and STAR at BNL RHIC in 2013 with tenfold higher statistics should allow for such an analysis.

  20. New information on photon fragmentation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, Michael; Koenig, Florian [Westfaelische Wilhelms-Universitaet Muenster, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Muenster (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Thermal photons radiated in heavy-ion collisions represent an important signal for a recently discovered new state of matter, the deconfined quark-gluon plasma. However, a clean identification of this signal requires precise knowledge of the prompt photons produced simultaneously in hard collisions of quarks and gluons, mostly through their fragmentation. In this paper, we demonstrate that PHENIX data on photons produced in proton-proton collisions with low transverse momenta allow one to extract new information on this fragmentation process. While existing data do not yet convincingly favor one parameterization (BFG II) over the two other frequently used photon fragmentation functions (BFG I and GRV NLO), the data sets recorded by PHENIX and STAR at BNL RHIC in 2013 with tenfold higher statistics should allow for such an analysis. (orig.)

  1. The effect of the administration of vitamin K2 to the pregnant women on the activities of prothrombin group in cord blood.

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDN) is a hemorrhage at the neonatal period. The most dangerous form of HDN is intracranial bleeding which may be fatal. The most frequent cause of HDN is deficiency of vitamin K dependent factors or prothrombin group.Objective: The aim of the study is to know the effect of the administration of vitamin K2 to the pregnant women on the activities of prothrombin gourp in cord blood.Methods: This was experimental design. Forty pregnant women were e...

  2. Impaired plasma lipid profiles in acute hepatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongzhong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study examined plasma lipid profiles in thirty patients suffered from acute viral hepatitis. Patients' blood samples were collected at both the debut and recovery of diseases. Thirty sex and age matched normal subjects were included as controls. Plasma total triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI, apolipoprotein B (ApoB, lipoprotein (a (Lp(a, blood coagulation status including prothrombin complex activity and activated partial tromboplastin time (APTT, and hepatic functions were determined by the automatic biochemical analytical instrument. It demonstrated that plasma levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C and apoAI were significantly lower in the patients at the acute phase of hepatitis than those in normal subjects, whereas plasma levels of TG and LDL-C were obviously higher in the patients than in normal subjects (P

  3. Local verification and assignment of mean normal prothrombin time and International Sensitivity Index values across various instruments: recent experience and outcome from North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tange, Julie I; Grill, Diane; Koch, Christopher D; Ybabez, Roxanne J; Krekelberg, Benjamin J; Fylling, Kara A; Wiese, Cynthia R; Baumann, Nikola A; Block, Darci R; Karon, Brad S; Chen, Dong; Pruthi, Rajiv K

    2014-02-01

    Warfarin dosing relies on accurate measurements of international normalized ratio (INR), which is calculated from the prothrombin time (PT), International Sensitivity Index international sensitivity index (ISI) of the thromboplastin, and the geometric mean of normal PT (MNPT). However, ISI assignments of certain reagent/instrument combinations are frequently unavailable, especially when the reagent and instrument are not from the same manufacturer. The effort to be in compliance with widely endorsed Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines by locally verifying or assigning an ISI to an unsupported reagent/instrument combination is further hindered by the lack of US Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved certified plasmas designated for a particular reagent/instrument combination. The objectives of the study include development of a process to verify/assign ISI and MNPT of a single thromboplastin reagent from one manufacturer across multiple instruments including several from another manufacturer and across several campuses of a single institution, the Mayo Clinic. In this study, RecombiPlasTin 2G (R2G), was evaluated on the ACL TOP 700 (IL), STA-R Evolution, STA Compact, and STA Satellite. Random normal donor samples (n = 25) were used to verify/assign MNPT. A subset of the normal donors (n = 8) and 13 warfarin pools (INR range: 1.3-3.9), created from stable warfarin patient plasma, were used for ISI verification/assignment. The manufacturer's assigned ISI was first verified on the ACL TOP 700 (reference method), then assigned on three unsupported instruments using orthogonal regression analysis. The MNPT and manufacturer assigned ISI (11.0, 0.95) were verified on the ACL TOP 700 and subsequently assigned on the STA-R Evolution (11.6, 1.04); STA Compact (11.5, 1.02); and STA Satellite (10.9, 0.99). Linear correlations of the INR results from all the four instruments demonstrated an r2 > 0.99. This process provides a reproducible approach

  4. Fluctuations of fragment observables

    CERN Document Server

    Gulminelli, F

    2006-01-01

    This contribution presents a review of our present theoretical as well as experimental knowledge of different fluctuation observables relevant to nuclear multifragmentation. The possible connection between the presence of a fluctuation peak and the occurrence of a phase transition or a critical phenomenon is critically analyzed. Many different phenomena can lead both to the creation and to the suppression of a fluctuation peak. In particular, the role of constraints due to conservation laws and to data sorting is shown to be essential. From the experimental point of view, a comparison of the available fragmentation data reveals that there is a good agreement between different data sets of basic fluctuation observables, if the fragmenting source is of comparable size. This compatibility suggests that the fragmentation process is largely independent of the reaction mechanism (central versus peripheral collisions, symmetric versus asymmetric systems, light ions versus heavy ion induced reactions). Configurationa...

  5. Fragments of Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Steen Ledet

    Time travel films necessarily fragment linear narratives, as scenes are revisited with differences from the first time we saw it. Popular films such as Back to the Future mine comedy from these visitations, but there are many different approaches. One extreme is Chris Marker's La Jetée - a film...... made almost completely of still images, recounting the end of the world. These stills can be viewed as fragments that have survived the end of the world and now provide the only access to the events that occured. Shane Carruth's Primer has a different approach to time travel, the narrative diegesis...

  6. The Serendipity of Fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leixnering, Stephan; Meyer, Renate E.

    , it was the central government’s task to coordinate, steer and control the newly emerged decentralized organizations. This raises questions about the overall design of the public sector at present. Our paper engages with the prevalent public governance phenomenon of fragmentation from a design perspective in order...... form of organizing between networks and formal organization: lacking a single center and featuring multiplex and multifaceted relations within the politico-administrative apparatus and between government and PSOs, high fragmentation, local and robust action, but latent structures of significant formal...

  7. IMPACT fragmentation model developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorge, Marlon E.; Mains, Deanna L.

    2016-09-01

    The IMPACT fragmentation model has been used by The Aerospace Corporation for more than 25 years to analyze orbital altitude explosions and hypervelocity collisions. The model is semi-empirical, combining mass, energy and momentum conservation laws with empirically derived relationships for fragment characteristics such as number, mass, area-to-mass ratio, and spreading velocity as well as event energy distribution. Model results are used for several types of analysis including assessment of short-term risks to satellites from orbital altitude fragmentations, prediction of the long-term evolution of the orbital debris environment and forensic assessments of breakup events. A new version of IMPACT, version 6, has been completed and incorporates a number of advancements enabled by a multi-year long effort to characterize more than 11,000 debris fragments from more than three dozen historical on-orbit breakup events. These events involved a wide range of causes, energies, and fragmenting objects. Special focus was placed on the explosion model, as the majority of events examined were explosions. Revisions were made to the mass distribution used for explosion events, increasing the number of smaller fragments generated. The algorithm for modeling upper stage large fragment generation was updated. A momentum conserving asymmetric spreading velocity distribution algorithm was implemented to better represent sub-catastrophic events. An approach was developed for modeling sub-catastrophic explosions, those where the majority of the parent object remains intact, based on estimated event energy. Finally, significant modifications were made to the area-to-mass ratio distribution to incorporate the tendencies of different materials to fragment into different shapes. This ability enabled better matches between the observed area-to-mass ratios and those generated by the model. It also opened up additional possibilities for post-event analysis of breakups. The paper will discuss

  8. Patient-specific errors in agreement between International Normalized Ratios measured by a whole blood coagulometer and by a routine plasma-based method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attermann, Jørn; Andersen, Niels T; Korsgaard, Helle; Maegaard, Marianne; Hasenkam, J Michael

    2004-04-01

    We applied a new statistical method to improve comparisons between systems measuring prothrombin time (PT) by splitting disagreement into systematic errors, which can be eliminated, and random errors, which can not. We found that the disagreement between International Normalized Ratio (INR) measurements based on plasma and whole blood was significantly patient-dependent.

  9. An observational, prospective, two-cohort comparison of a fixed versus variable dosing strategy of prothrombin complex concentrate to counteract vitamin K antagonists in 240 bleeding emergencies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khorsand, Nakisa; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; van Hest, Reinier M.; Ypma, Paula F.; Heidt, Jeroen; Meijer, Karina

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite years of experience with vitamin K antagonist-associated bleeding events, there is still no evidence to help identify the optimal treatment with prothrombin complex concentrates. Variable dosing and fixed dose strategies are being used. In this observational prospective two-cohort

  10. Risk of Recurrent Venous Thrombosis in Homozygous Carriers and Double Heterozygous Carriers of Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lijfering, Willem M.; Middeldorp, Saskia; Veeger, Nic J. G. M.; Hamulyak, Karly; Prins, Martin H.; Bueller, Harry R.; van der Meer, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Background-Homozygous or double heterozygous factor V Leiden and/or prothrombin G20210A is a rare inherited thrombophilic trait. Whether individuals with this genetic background have an increased risk of recurrent venous thrombosis is uncertain. Methods and Results-A case-control design within a lar

  11. Risk of Budd-Chiari syndrome associated with factor V Leiden and G20210A prothrombin mutation: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peijin Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Various studies have demonstrated that factor V Leiden (FVL and G20210A prothrombin mutation contribute to the risk of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS, while other studies provided conflicting findings. In order to derive more precise estimations of the relationships, a meta-analysis was performed. METHODS: Eligible articles were identified through search of databases including Pubmed, Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM, Chinese, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI, Chinese. Odd ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs were calculated using random- or fixed- model. RESULTS: Finally, twelve studies were included for FVL and nine studies were included for G20210A prothrombin mutation. With respect to FVL, significantly increased BCS risk was found in the overall population (OR = 6.29, 95%CI = 4.23-9.36. Subgroup analyses suggested that FVL was associated with an increased risk of BCS in the population with high background mutation prevalence (>1% in the normal population. No significant association was found between BCS and G20210A prothrombin mutation (OR = 1.78, 95%CI = 0.77-4.11. CONCLUSION: The presence of FVL should be evaluated in patients with BCS. Conversely, G20210A prothrombin mutation is not significantly associated with risk of BCS. Large-scale well designed studies are necessary to be conducted to further confirm or refute the observed association.

  12. Factor V Leiden 1691G/A and prothrombin gene 20210G/A polymorphisms as prothrombotic markers in adult Egyptian acute leukemia patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sissy, Azza Hamdy; El Sissy, Maha H; Elmoamly, Shereef

    2014-11-01

    Factor V Leiden 1691G/A and prothrombin gene 20210G/A mutations are the most common genetic defects leading to thrombosis. This work aimed to study the FV Leiden and the prothrombin gene polymorphism in adult Egyptian patients with acute leukemia and their importance in thrombophilia screening. The study included 76 patients with acute leukemia and 100 healthy controls. Genotyping was done by real-time polymerase chain reaction technique. For factor V Leiden, the frequency of G/A mutation conferred more than 2.5-fold of increased risk of (OR 2.639 95 % CI 1.045-6.669). The frequency of factor V Leiden combined (G/A + A/A) genotypes conferred 2.83-fold of increased risk (OR 2.828, CI 1.13-7.075), The A allele conferred almost threefold increased risk (OR 2.824, 95 % CI 1.175-6.785). Despite higher frequency in patients compared to controls, there was no risk of association between prothrombin gene mutation and acute leukemia in adult Egyptians nor was there between combined genotypes of prothrombin gene mutation and factor V Leiden.

  13. Risk of venous thromboembolism associated with single and combined effects of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin 20210A and Methylenetethraydrofolate reductase C677T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Benedetto; De Stefano, Valerio; Leoncini, Emanuele

    2013-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors interact in determining the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The risk associated with the polymorphic variants G1691A of factor V (Factor V Leiden, FVL), G20210A of prothrombin (PT20210A) and C677T of methylentetrahydrofolate reductase (C677T MTHFR) genes ha...

  14. Mesenteric vein thrombosis in a patient heterozygous for factor V Leiden and G20210A prothrombin genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmacharya, Paras; Aryal, Madan Raj; Donato, Anthony

    2013-11-21

    Mesenteric venous thrombosis (MVT) is a rare but life threatening form of bowel ischemia. It is implicated in 6%-9% of all cases of acute mesenteric ischemia. The proportion of patients with primary (or idiopathic) MVT varies from 0% to 49%, with a decrease in frequency secondary to more recent availability of newer investigations for hypercoagulability. The presence of factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin G20210A mutations (PGM) have been well documented in these cases. However, there have been scarce case reports describing MVT in heterozygotes of both these mutations occurring simultaneously and its implications on long term management. Our case describes acute MVT in a previously asymptomatic young patient with no prior history of venous thromboembolism. The patient was found to be heterozygous for FVL and PGM and treated with lifelong anticoagulation with warfarin (goal international normalized ratio: 2-3) and avoidance of hormonal contraceptives.

  15. Fragmented Work Stories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humle, Didde Maria; Reff Pedersen, Anne

    2015-01-01

    by exploring how different types of fragmentation create meanings. This is done by studying the work stories of job and personnel consultants and by drawing on the results of a narrative, ethnographic study of a consultancy. The analysis demonstrates how work stories are social practices negotiated, retold...

  16. Picking Up (On) Fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Phil

    2015-01-01

    abstractThis article discusses the implications for archival and media archaeological research and reenactment artwork relating to a recent arts practice project: reenacttv: 30 lines / 60 seconds. It proposes that archival material is unstable but has traces and fragments that are full of creative p

  17. Fragments of the Past

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Szende

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With travel being made more accessible throughout the decades, the hospitality industry constantly evolved their practices as society and technology progressed. Hotels looked for news ways up service their customers, which led to the invention of the Servidor in 1918. Once revolutionary innovations have gone extinct, merely becoming fragments of the past.

  18. Cryobiology of coral fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagedorn, Mary; Farrell, Ann; Carter, Virginia L

    2013-02-01

    Around the world, coral reefs are dying due to human influences, and saving habitat alone may not stop this destruction. This investigation focused on the biological processes that will provide the first steps in understanding the cryobiology of whole coral fragments. Coral fragments are a partnership of coral tissue and endosymbiotic algae, Symbiodinium sp., commonly called zooxanthellae. These data reflected their separate sensitivities to chilling and a cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide) for the coral Pocillopora damicornis, as measured by tissue loss and Pulse Amplitude Modulated fluorometry 3weeks post-treatment. Five cryoprotectant treatments maintained the viability of the coral tissue and zooxanthellae at control values (1M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0h exposures, and 1.5M dimethyl sulfoxide at 1.0 and 1.5h exposures, P>0.05, ANOVA), whereas 2M concentrations did not (Pcoral tissue, but not in the zooxanthellae. During the winter when the fragments were chilled, the coral tissue remained relatively intact (∼25% loss) post-treatment, but the zooxanthellae numbers in the tissue declined after 5min of chilling (Pcoral tissue (∼75% loss) and zooxanthellae numbers declined in response to chilling alone (Pcoral against tissue loss after 45min of cryoprotectant exposure (P>0.05, ANOVA), but it did not protect against the loss of zooxanthellae (Pcoral fragment complex and future cryopreservation protocols must be guided by their greater sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Picking Up (On) Fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, Phil

    2015-01-01

    abstractThis article discusses the implications for archival and media archaeological research and reenactment artwork relating to a recent arts practice project: reenacttv: 30 lines / 60 seconds. It proposes that archival material is unstable but has traces and fragments that are full of creative p

  20. Wildlife habitat fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John. Lehmkuhl

    2005-01-01

    A primary issue in forest wildlife management is habitat fragmentation and its effects on viability, which is the "bottom line" for plant and animal species of conservation concern. Population viability is the likelihood that a population will be able to maintain itself (remain viable) over a long period of time-usually 100 years or more. Though it is true...

  1. Clinical significance of factor V leiden and prothrombin G20210A-mutations in cerebral venous thrombosis - comparison with arterial ischemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beye, Aida; Pindur, Gerhard

    2017-08-28

    Cerebrovascular diseases are considered in a different way concerning their etiology with regard to arterial and venous occlusion. The role of thrombophilia in this context remains undetermined. For this reason, a case-control study was conducted including a total of 202 patients (154 females, 48 males) aged from 18 to 76 years (mean: 39.8 years) suffering either from cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (n = 101) or from arterial ischemic stroke (n = 101). Study groups were evaluated on the basis of age- and gender-matched pairs. Gene mutations of factor V-1691 (factor V Leiden) and prothrombin-20210 being considered as the most common thrombophilia markers were analyzed in this study. Factor V Leiden-mutations were found in 16.8% of patients with cerebral sinus venous thrombosis (CVT) and in 17.8% of patients with arterial ischemic stroke (AIS), which was significantly more frequent than in controls at a rate of 4.95% (ORs: 3.89 and 4.16). Prothrombin-mutations were significantly more frequent in CVT at a rate of 14.9% versus 2.97% in controls (OR: 5.70). This does not apply for AIS showing a rate of 4.95% prothrombin-mutations. Rates of factor V Leiden-mutations are not different in CVT compared with AIS. In contrast, however, prothrombin-mutations were significantly more frequent in CVT than in AIS with a rate of 14.9% versus 4.95% (OR 3.35). Furthermore, 3 cases with combined heterozygosity of factor V Leiden- and prothrombin-mutation have been identified in CVT, but not in AIS or controls. All of the above mentioned mutations were exclusively heterozygous. We conclude from these data that thrombophilia in terms of factor V Leiden genotype is a risk factor for both CVT and AIS in equal measure. In contrast, prothrombin-20210-mutations were different playing a significant role in the pathogenesis of cerebral sinus vein- thrombosis, but not in arterial ischemic stroke. Also, the combined occurrence of heterozygous prothrombin- and factor V Leiden

  2. Phenotypic presentation of thrombophilia in double heterozygote for factor v leiden and prothrombin 20210 G>A mutations: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagorni-Obradović Ljudmila

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Physicians usually do not suspect pulmonary thromboembolism in younger patients except in those who have thrombophilia. In those latter patients some special conditions such as trauma or surgery may provoke the disease. In some adult persons, thrombophilia may still remain unrecognized, until appearance of additional conditions influence development of thrombosis. A 55-year-old Caucasian female, non-smoker, experienced sudden chest pain and hemoptysis without chest trauma. History taking revealed type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypothyroidism. She was overweight with body mass index 29.0. The review of the family history revealed that her father and mother died of brain infarction, while her 22-year-old son and 24-year-old daughter were healthy. Due to suspicion for thrombosis, multi-slice computerized tomography thorax scan was done and pulmonary embolism was diagnosed. Although without clear risk factor for thrombosis in our patient, we performed laboratory investigation for congenital thrombophilia. Genetic analysis showed double heterozygous for factor V Leiden and prothrombin 20210 G>A mutations. Congenital thrombophilia was risk factor for thrombosis in our patient but haemostatic imbalance was not previously clinically recognized. She had two pregnancies without complications. Appearance of other associative factors such as endocrine disorders - hypothyroidism and metabolic syndrome with diabetes type 2, and overweigh were additional potential triggers for clinical manifestation of pulmonary thromboembolism in her adult age. Her children underwent genetic analysis, too. The son was also double heterozygous for factor V Leiden and prothrombin 20210 G>A mutations, while daughter was heterozygous for factor V Leiden, and none had clinical signs of thrombosis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. ON175081 i br. ON 175091

  3. [Ratio of erythrocyte and plasma in massive blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Hui; Liu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Gui, Rong

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the suitable ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte by retrospective analysis of coagulation in patients with massive blood transfusion. The clinical data of 151 cases with massive blood transfusion from January 2011 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. According to coagulation, patients were divided into coagulation normal group (138 cases) and coagulation dysfunction group (13 cases). Based on the ratio of 1:1 of fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte, the patients were divided into high plasma group(2:1), medium plasma group (1:1) and low plasma (transfusion. The results showed that prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) were prolonged, fibrinogen (FIB) level decreased significantly (all P transfusion 24 h; the high plasma and the medium plasma group of coagulation normal group had no significant changes in coagulation (P > 0.05); prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen level in the medium plasma and low plasma subgroup of coagulation dysfunction group after massive transfusion was still in abnormal levels (P > 0.05), coagulation function in high plasma subgroup was improved significantly (P transfusion, the ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte is recommended to be 2:1 in patients of coagulation dysfunction in order to improve the patient's coagulation function and to reduce the incidence of adverse event, the ratio of fresh frozen plasma to erythrocyte is recommended to be 1:1 in patients with normal coagulation so as to reduce the dilutional coagulopathy and hypervolemia of blood.

  4. Platelet Rich Plasma and Knee Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikel Sánchez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In orthopaedic surgery and sports medicine, the knee joint has traditionally been considered the workhorse. The reconstruction of every damaged element in this joint is crucial in achieving the surgeon’s goal to restore the knee function and prevent degeneration towards osteoarthritis. In the last fifteen years, the field of regenerative medicine is witnessing a boost of autologous blood-derived platelet rich plasma products (PRPs application to effectively mimic and accelerate the tissue healing process. The scientific rationale behind PRPs is the delivery of growth factors, cytokines, and adhesive proteins present in platelets and plasma, as well as other biologically active proteins conveyed by the plasma such as fibrinogen, prothrombin, and fibronectin; with this biological engineering approach, new perspectives in knee surgery were opened. This work describes the use of PRP to construct and repair every single anatomical structure involved in knee surgery, detailing the process conducted in ligament, meniscal, and chondral surgery.

  5. Electroeluting DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarzosa-Alvarez, Ana L; Sandoval-Cabrera, Antonio; Torres-Huerta, Ana L; Bermudez-Cruz, Rosa M

    2010-09-05

    Purified DNA fragments are used for different purposes in Molecular Biology and they can be prepared by several procedures. Most of them require a previous electrophoresis of the DNA fragments in order to separate the band of interest. Then, this band is excised out from an agarose or acrylamide gel and purified by using either: binding and elution from glass or silica particles, DEAE-cellulose membranes, "crush and soak method", electroelution or very often expensive commercial purification kits. Thus, selecting a method will depend mostly of what is available in the laboratory. The electroelution procedure allows one to purify very clean DNA to be used in a large number of applications (sequencing, radiolabeling, enzymatic restriction, enzymatic modification, cloning etc). This procedure consists in placing DNA band-containing agarose or acrylamide slices into sample wells of the electroeluter, then applying current will make the DNA fragment to leave the agarose and thus be trapped in a cushion salt to be recovered later by ethanol precipitation.

  6. Argatroban-coupled Affi-Gel matrix for the purification of thrombin from plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkowitz, Jerry B

    2005-10-01

    Sometimes it is necessary to obtain thrombin from limited amounts of human plasma for laboratory assay. None of the available purification methods easily deals with this subject. The procedure described in the present paper uses a readily available pharmaceutical agent, argatroban, to construct an affinity matrix. Argatroban has a high affinity for thrombin and its thrombin binding is reversible. Prothrombin derived from a Ba(2+) precipitate of human plasma is used as the starting material. The crude prothrombin can be bulk activated to thrombin using taipan-snake (Oxyuranus scutellatus) venom and bound to the argatroban-coupled matrix without further processing steps. The thrombin product eluted from the argatroban matrix is very pure as judged by high specific activity and by electrophoresis. This purification scheme is rapid, yielding purified thrombin within 2 days.

  7. Heavy meson fragmentation at LHC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gomshi Nobary

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available   Large Hadron Collider (LHC at CERN will provide excellent opportunity to study the production and decay of heavy mesons and baryons with high statistics. We aim at the heavy mesons in this work and calculate their fragmentation functions consistent with this machine and present their total fragmentation probabilities and average fragmentation parameters.

  8. SCALING AND 4-QUARK FRAGMENTATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOLTEN, O; BOSVELD, GD

    1991-01-01

    The conditions for a scaling behaviour from the fragmentation process leading to slow protons are discussed- The scaling referred to implies that the fragmentation functions depend on the light-cone momentum fraction only. It is shown that differences in the fragmentation functions for valence- and

  9. Plasma and Plasma Protein Product Transfusion: A Canadian Blood Services Centre for Innovation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Al-Habsi, Khalid S; Golder, Mia; Walsh, Geraldine M; Sheffield, William P

    2015-07-01

    Plasma obtained via whole blood donation processing or via apheresis technology can either be transfused directly to patients or pooled and fractionated into plasma protein products that are concentrates of 1 or more purified plasma protein. The evidence base supporting clinical efficacy in most of the indications for which plasma is transfused is weak, whereas high-quality evidence supports the efficacy of plasma protein products in at least some of the clinical settings in which they are used. Transfusable plasma utilization remains composed in part of applications that fall outside of clinical practice guidelines. Plasma contains all of the soluble coagulation factors and is frequently transfused in efforts to restore or reinforce patient hemostasis. The biochemical complexities of coagulation have in recent years been rationalized in newer cell-based models that supplement the cascade hypothesis. Efforts to normalize widely used clinical hemostasis screening test values by plasma transfusion are thought to be misplaced, but superior rapid tests have been slow to emerge. The advent of non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants has brought new challenges to clinical laboratories in plasma testing and to clinicians needing to reverse non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants urgently. Current plasma-related controversies include prophylactic plasma transfusion before invasive procedures, plasma vs prothrombin complex concentrates for urgent warfarin reversal, and the utility of increased ratios of plasma to red blood cell units transfused in massive transfusion protocols. The first recombinant plasma protein products to reach the clinic were recombinant hemophilia treatment products, and these donor-free equivalents to factors VIII and IX are now being supplemented with novel products whose circulatory half-lives have been increased by chemical modification or genetic fusion. Achieving optimal plasma utilization is an ongoing challenge in the interconnected

  10. Picking Up (On Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phil Ellis

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the implications for archival and media archaeological research and reenactment artwork relating to a recent arts practice project: reenacttv: 30 lines / 60 seconds. It proposes that archival material is unstable but has traces and fragments that are full of creative potential to re-think and re-examine past media historical events through a media archaeological approach to reenactment. The article contains images and links to videos from the final reenactment artworks as well as from rehearsals in Vienna and Bradford.

  11. An Archeology of Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald L. Bruns

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This is a short (fragmentary history of fragmentary writing from the German Romantics (F. W. Schlegel, Friedrich Hölderlin to modern and contemporary concrete or visual poetry. Such writing is (often deliberately a critique of the logic of subsumption that tries to assimilate whatever is singular and irreducible into totalities of various categorical or systematic sorts. Arguably, the fragment (parataxis is the distinctive feature of literary Modernism, which is a rejection, not of what precedes it, but of what Max Weber called “the rationalization of the world” (or Modernity whose aim is to keep everything, including all that is written, under surveillance and control.

  12. Generic behaviours in impact fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sator, N.; Mechkov, S.; Sausset, F. [Paris-6 Univ. Pierre et Marie Curie, Lab. de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, UMR CNRS 7600, 75 - Paris (France); Mechkov, S. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Lab. de Physique Statistique, 75 - Paris (France)

    2008-02-15

    From atomic nuclei to supernovae, including plates and rocks, every cohesive system can be broken into fragments, provided that the deposited energy is sufficiently large compared to its cohesive energy. We present a simple numerical model for investigating the general properties of fragmentation. By use of molecular dynamics simulations, we study the impact fragmentation of a solid disk of interacting particles with a wall. Regardless of the particular form of the interaction potential, the fragment size distribution exhibits a power law behaviour with an exponent that increases logarithmically with the energy deposited in the system, in agreement with experiments. We expect this behaviour to be generic in fragmentation phenomena. (authors)

  13. Combined heterozygosity of factor V leiden and the G20210A prothrombin gene mutation in a patient with cerebral cortical vein thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X Y; Gabig, T G; Bang, N U

    2000-07-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare type of stroke with a variety of causes. Several reports have suggested that either factor V Leiden or G20210A prothrombin gene mutation is associated with an increased risk of CVT. The genetic thrombophilias are typically associated with other predisposing factors. We report a unique case of CVT in a patient with both the factor V Leiden and the G20210A prothrombin gene mutations without other identifiable precipitating factors in a 28-year-old white male in good health. MRI and cerebral arterial angiography showed cerebral cortical venous thrombosis. This case suggests that combined heterozygous individuals may be particularly prone to spontaneous thrombosis, like CVT.

  14. Increasing concentrations of prothrombin complex concentrate induce disseminated intravascular coagulation in a pig model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grottke, Oliver; Braunschweig, Till; Spronk, Henri M H; Esch, Stephanie; Rieg, Annette D; van Oerle, Rene; ten Cate, Hugo; Fitzner, Christina; Tolba, Rene; Rossaint, Rolf

    2011-08-18

    Despite increasing use of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) to treat hemorrhage-associated coagulopathy, few studies have investigated PCC in trauma, and there is a particular lack of safety data. This study was performed to evaluate PCC therapy in a porcine model of coagulopathy with blunt liver injury. Coagulopathy was induced in 27 anesthetized pigs by replacing approximately 70% blood volume with hydroxyethyl starch 130/0.4 and Ringer's lactate solution; erythrocytes were collected and retransfused. Ten minutes after trauma, animals randomly received PCC (35 or 50 IU/kg) or saline. Coagulation parameters including thromboelastometry, thrombin generation, and blood loss were monitored for 2 hours. Internal organs were examined macroscopically and histologically to determine the presence of emboli and assess liver injury. Total blood loss was significantly lower and survival was higher in both PCC groups versus the control group (P < .05). These outcomes appeared to be dose-independent. Thromboembolism was found in all animals treated with 50 IU/kg PCC; 44% also showed signs of disseminated intravascular coagulation. Liver injury was similar in all animals. In conclusion, 35 IU/kg PCC safely improved coagulation and attenuated blood loss. However, the higher dose of PCC (50 IU/kg) appeared to increase the risk of thromboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation.

  15. 异常凝血酶原和肝细胞癌%Des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin and Hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁联文; 唐伟; 幕内·雅敏

    2002-01-01

    目前肝细胞癌(hepatocellular carcinoma,HCC)的诊断主要有影像学诊断和血清肿瘤标志物的检测.异常凝血酶原(des-gamma-carboxy-prothrombin,DCP)又被称为PIVKA-Ⅱ(protein induced by vita-min K absence or antagonist-Ⅱ),与AFP(alpha-fetoprotein)和AFP-L3(alpha-fetoprotein L3 fraction)一样被认为是一种很有价值的肝细胞癌血清肿瘤标志物.在HCC的检测诊断上,它们之间无明显相关关系,而表现为一定的互补性,结合影像学诊断,动态观测HCC高危(肝炎、肝硬化)人群,这些血清肿瘤标志物有助于HCC的早期发现,同时对HCC的手术疗效的评价、预后的估评有着一定的指导意义.

  16. Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR Mutation in Patients with Preeclamsia, Intrauterine Growth Restriction and Placental Abruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livrinova, Vesna; Lega, Marija Hadzi; Dimcheva, Anita Hristova; Samardziski, Igor; Isjanovska, Rozalinda

    2015-12-15

    Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin and MTHFR gene mutation, could have an influence in pregnancy with adverse outcome Preeclamsia, IUGR and Placental abruption. The aim of this study is to investigate the presence of above mentioned inherited thrombophilias and its statistical significance, distribution among the complicated and normal pregnancy, and relative risk for carrier of mutation to develop preeclampsia, IUGR and placental abruption. Prospective cohort study is implemented at University Clinic for Obstetric and Gynecology in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia. The study included 109 delivered patients: 40 with preeclapmsia, 22 with IUGR, 17 with placental abruption and 30 as control group with normal pregnancy. The amount of 3 ml venous blood has been used for detection of these point mutations using ThromboStrip -Opegen, QIAGEN kit manufactured for thrombotic risk. The highest frequency was found: in the group with preeclampsia 35% were MTHFR homozygous, IUGR -MTHFR heterozygous 45%, Placental abruption- 52.9% MTHFR heterozygous, and in the control group without thrombophilia 56.7%. There were combined thrombophilia in 3 patients. There aren`t statistical significance in presence of thrombophilia among groups (p > 0.05). Statistical significance (p Factor V Leiden heterozygous was 4.50 (0.47Factor V Leiden for placental abruption. Further investigations with more patients are warranted.

  17. Possible incorrect genotyping of heterozygous factor V Leiden and Prothrombin 20210 gene mutations by the GeneXpert assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marturano, Alessandro; Bury, Loredana; Gresele, Paolo

    2014-08-05

    The GeneXpert analyzer is a hands-off system for the detection of Factor V Leiden and of Prothrombin G20210A (GPRO) gene thrombophilic mutations. Although the system is efficient and easy to use, we report the rare possibility of incorrect genotyping. 1648 samples were evaluated using the GeneXpert HemosIL Factor II and Factor V assay: 1319 were freshly analyzed while 329 were frozen, thawed and diluted with saline prior to analysis to avoid clogging of the instrument syringe. Two samples, both heterozygous, one for the factor V Leiden and the other for the GPRO gene, were incorrectly genotyped as homozygous for the relative mutation. Inspection of the Ct values and amplification curves and genotyping with PCR revealed the correct genotype as heterozygous for factor V Leiden and GPRO mutation. The GeneXpert HemosIL Factor II and Factor V assay is an automated, fast genotyping assay requiring almost no sample manipulation, advantageous characteristics if compared with other PCR-based methods. However, an inattentive use of it can generate incorrect diagnosis. A careful handling of the sample, in particular correct dilution of frozen/thawed samples before analysis, and the inspection of the amplification curves and Ct values are required to avoid artifacts. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Diagnostic performance of des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) for hepatocellular carcinoma: a bivariate meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, P; Li, M; Tian, Q B; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2012-01-01

    Serum markers are needed to be developed to specifically diagnose Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Des-γ-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) is a promising tool with limited expense and widely accessibility, but the reported results have been controversial. In order to review the performance of DCP for the diagnosis of HCC, the meta-analysis was performed. After a systematic review of relevant studies, the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios (PLR and NLR, respectively) were pooled using a bivariate meta-analysis. Potential between-study heterogeneity was explored by meta-regression model. The post-test probability and the likelihood ratio scattergram to evaluate clinical usefulness were calculated. Based on literature review of 20 publications, the overall sensitivity, specificity, PLR and NLR of DCP for the detection of HCC were 67% (95%CI, 58%-74%), 92% (95%CI, 88%-94%), 7.9 (95%CI, 5.6-11.2) and 0.36 (95%CI, 0.29-0.46), respectively. The area under the bivariate summary receiving operating characteristics curve was 0.89 (95%CI, 0.85-0.92). Significant heterogeneity was present. In conclusion, the major role of DCP is the moderate confirmation of HCC. More prospective studies of DCP are needed in future.

  19. Prothrombin complex concentrate administration for bleeding associated with non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants: The SAMURAI-NVAF study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Sohei; Sato, Shoichiro; Todo, Kenichi; Okada, Yasushi; Furui, Eisuke; Matsuki, Takayuki; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Koga, Masatoshi; Takahashi, Jun C; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki; Arihiro, Shoji; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2017-04-15

    Antidotes appropriate for non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are not yet in widespread clinical use. Efficacy of prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC) in NOAC-associated bleeding remains unclarified. Ten NOAC users (4 women, median 74years old) who developed major bleeding and received PCC were prospectively enrolled. Eight single-center NOAC users (0 women, median 74years old) with intracerebral hemorrhage, who over the same period did not receive PCC, were studied for comparison. Of the 10 PCC-treated patients, 8 developed intracerebral hemorrhage, 1 developed subdural hematoma, and another developed gastrointestinal bleeding. The median size of intracerebral hemorrhage was 8mL, relatively lower than the reported size for patients without NOACs. Patients received a median of 1000IU or 16IU/kg of PCC. Before and 1h after PCC administration, the median PT-INR changed from 1.41 to 1.09 (pbleeding and were given relatively low doses of PCC. The effect of PCC on early cessation of bleeding was unclear, while the therapy did not trigger thromboembolic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of blood collection systems on the prothrombin time and international sensitivity index determined with human and rabbit thromboplastin reagents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Besselaar, Anton M H P; Hoekstra, Martha M C L; Witteveen, Evelina; Didden, Jan H; van der Meer, Felix J M

    2007-05-01

    Three brands of blood collection tubes were studied for their influence on the prothrombin time (PT) and international sensitivity index (ISI) for 5 commercial thromboplastin reagents. With all reagents, PTs were shorter in Vacutainer (Becton Dickinson Vacutainer Systems, Plymouth, England) samples than in S-Monovette (Sarstedt, Nümbrecht, Germany) or Venosafe (Terumo Europe, Leuven, Belgium) samples. ISI values were higher with Vacutainer samples than with S-Monovette or Venosafe samples. The ISI differences between the tubes were small for Thromborel-S (2.1%; Dade Behring, Marburg, Germany) and Hepato Quick (1.1%; Diagnostica Stago, Asnières, France; Roche Diagnostics Nederland, Almere, the Netherlands) but greater for Neoplastin Plus (5.5%; Diagnostica Stago; Roche Diagnostics Nederland), Simplastin HTF (8.3%; bioMérieux, Durham, NC), and Innovin (8.8%; Dade Behring). The PT and ISI differences between the tubes could be explained mostly by the effect of magnesium ion contamination in the sodium citrate solutions. When PT ratios were transformed into international normalized ratios (INRs) using crossover ISI (ie, samples collected with one type of tube and ISI determined with another collection system for the PT reagent), the differences in mean INRs could be approximately 10%. For ISI calibration of reference thromboplastins, blood collection tubes should be used with minimal divalent metal ion contamination of the citrate solution.

  1. An observational, prospective, two-cohort comparison of a fixed versus variable dosing strategy of prothrombin complex concentrate to counteract vitamin K antagonists in 240 bleeding emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorsand, Nakisa; Veeger, Nic J G M; van Hest, Reinier M; Ypma, Paula F; Heidt, Jeroen; Meijer, Karina

    2012-10-01

    Despite years of experience with vitamin K antagonist-associated bleeding events, there is still no evidence to help identify the optimal treatment with prothrombin complex concentrates. Variable dosing and fixed dose strategies are being used. In this observational prospective two-cohort study, we aimed to assess the non-inferiority of a low fixed PCC dose (1,040 IU Factor IX) compared to the registered variable dosing regimen based on baseline International Normalized Rate, bodyweight, and target International Normalized Rate, to counteract vitamin K antagonists in a bleeding emergency in a daily clinical practice setting. Non-inferiority of the fixed prothrombin complex concentrate dose was hypothesized with a margin of 4%. Main end points were proportion of patients reaching the target International Normalized Rate (complex concentrate treatment, and successful clinical outcome. Target International Normalized Rate was reached in 92% of the fixed dose patients (n=101) versus 95% of variable dose patients (n=139) resulting in a risk difference of -2.99% (90% CI: - 8.6 to 2.7) (non-inferiority not confirmed). Clinical outcome was successful in 96% and 88% of fixed versus variable dose, respectively, with a risk difference of 8.3% (90% CI: 2.7-13.9; non-inferiority confirmed). Although a lower fixed prothrombin complex concentrate dose was associated with successful clinical outcome, fewer patients reached the target International Normalized Rate.

  2. Concomitant homozygosity for the prothrombin gene variant with mild deficiency of antithrombin III in a patient with multiple hepatic infarctions: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macheta M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Hereditary causes of visceral thrombosis or thrombosis should be sought among young patients. We present a case of a young man presenting with multiple hepatic infarctions resulting in portal hypertension due to homozygosity of the prothrombin gene mutation not previously described in literature. Case presentation A 42-year-old Caucasian man with a previous history of idiopathic deep vein thrombosis 11 years earlier presented with vague abdominal pains and mildly abnormal liver function tests. An ultrasound and computed tomography scan showed evidence of hepatic infarction and portal hypertension (splenic varices. A thrombophilia screen confirmed a homozygous mutation for the prothrombin gene mutation, with mildly reduced levels of anti-thrombin III (AT III. Subsequent testing of his father and brother revealed heterozygosity for the same gene mutation. Conclusion Hepatic infarction is unusual due to the rich dual arterial and venous blood supply to the liver. In the absence of an arterial or haemodynamic insult causing hepatic infarction, a thrombophilia should be considered. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a hepatic infarction due to homozygosity of the prothrombin gene mutation. It is unclear whether homozygotes have a higher risk of thrombosis than heterozygotes. In someone presenting with a first thrombosis with this mutation, the case for life-long anticoagulation is unclear, but it may be necessary to prevent a second and more severe second thrombotic event, as occurred in this case.

  3. The frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations in Slovak and Roma (Gypsy) ethnic group of Eastern Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bôžiková, Alexandra; Gabriková, Dana; Sovičová, Adriana; Behulová, Regina; Mačeková, Soňa; Boroňová, Iveta; Petrejčíková, Eva; Soták, Miroslav; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Bernasovský, Ivan

    2012-10-01

    Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A are the two most prevalent causes of inherited thrombophilia. The prevalence of these mutations varies widely in healthy Caucasian population. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations in Slovak and Roma ethnic group from Eastern Slovakia. We analyzed 540 asymptomatic individuals (269 individuals of Slovak ethnicity and 271 individuals of Roma ethnicity) by real-time PCR method. The detected allele frequencies were 2.97 versus 6.64 % for factor V Leiden (p = 0.0049), and 0.74 versus 0.92 % for prothrombin mutation (p = 0.7463) in Slovak and Roma population, respectively. The Roma ethnic group had significantly higher prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation when compared to Slovak ethnic group. The allele frequency of factor V Leiden in ethnic Romanies from Eastern Slovakia was one of the highest in Europe. Our results confirm an uneven geographical and ethnic distribution of factor V Leiden.

  4. Elevated levels of antibodies against phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex and/or cardiolipin associated with infection and recurrent purpura in a child: a forme fruste of antiphospholipid syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Yuri; Mayumi, Nobuko; Inaba, Motoyuki; Igarashi, Touru; Katagiri, Ichigen; Kawana, Seiji

    2015-07-15

    Antiphospholipid syndrome is an autoimmune disorder characterized by the occurrence of venous and arterial thrombosis, as well as morbidity in pregnancy, in the presence of anti-phospholipid antibodies. The diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome is usually established based on clinical and laboratory findings by strictly following the 2006 Sapporo classification. However, the diagnosis remains challenging owing to the ongoing debates on the serological criteria. We report a case we describe as forme fruste antiphospholipid syndrome in which these criteria were not fulfilled. Purpura appeared repeatedly in a female infant starting from the age of 6 months and following episodes of upper respiratory infections and vaccinations. The levels of anti-cardiolipin IgG antibodies and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex antibodies were elevated in accordance with these events. Histopathological evaluation revealed multiple small vessel thrombi in the dermis and adipose tissue. After 2 weeks of treatment with aspirin and heparin, the cutaneous symptoms subsided. Infection has long been associated with antiphospholipid syndrome, and anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies are considered a new marker for the diagnosis of antiphospholipid syndrome. Forme fruste antiphospholipid syndrome should be considered even if the antiphospholipid syndrome diagnostic criteria are not completely fulfilled, especially in the presence of elevated levels of anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies and known preceding infections.

  5. EFFECT OF METHANOLIC SEED EXTRACT OF PERSEA AMERICANA(AVOCADO PEAR ON PROTHROMBIN TIME AND ACTIVATED PARTIAL THROMBOPLASTIN TIME IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Twenty (20 adult albino mice were used in the study to determine the effect of methanolic seed extract of Persea Americana on prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT test. The mice were obtained and kept for 2 weeks to acclimatize. They were weighed and divided into 5 groups. Group A served as control without the extract. Groups B to E were orally administered with graded doses of 200mg, 400 mg, 800 mg and 1600mg/kg body weight per mice daily for 28 days. Blood samples were collected through the median canthus into ti-sodium citrate anticoagulant containers for the analysis of PT and APTT, using standard operative procedure. The analysis was carried out at the Haematology Laboratory of University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH Enugu. The results showed a prolonged APTT time at all the doses of the extract when compared with the control (P and lt;0.05. The prothrombin time at the dosage of 200mg/kg did not differ when compared with the control (P and gt;0.05. The increase in PT and APTT was dose dependent. This result pattern suggests that the extract causes prolonged prothrombin time and APTT at various concentrations possibly due to its high potassium content. The extract can be recommended in anticoagulant therapy since it prolongs PT and APTT.

  6. Thrombin generation capacity of prothrombin complex concentrate in an in vitro dilutional model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Grottke

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The use of PCC for the treatment of trauma-induced coagulopathy potentially increase the risk of thromboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation, which is addressed to an imbalance of both pro- and anticoagulants. As PCCs differ in composition, we used an in vitro dilutional approach to assess the overall thrombin generation of five different PCCs through various laboratory assays. METHODS: The vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors, heparin, and antithrombin were assessed in five commercially available PCCs. The procoagulant potential of the PCCs was assessed in plasma and whole blood from 4 healthy donors by means of classical coagulation assays, thrombin generation assay and thromboelastometry. In order to reflect coagulopathy, whole blood was diluted to 80, 60, 40, and 20% with Ringer's lactate solution. RESULTS: The five different PCCs were characterised by comparable levels of factors II, VII, IX and X (all around 20-30 IU/mL, whereas the heparin (0 to 17.6 IU/mL and antithrombin (0.06 to 1.29 IU/mL levels were remarkably different between manufactures. In vitro dilution of blood induced a prolongation of the PT and aPTT, and attenuation of thrombin generation and ExTem induced thromboelastometry. Overall, non- or low-heparin containing PCCs restored the in vitro dilutional coagulopathy, whereas PCCs containing heparin have an anticoagulant effect. The thrombin generation assay showed to be the most sensitive method for assessment of PCC effects. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that most available PCCs are not balanced regarding their pro- and anticoagulants. The effect of measured differences in thrombin generation among different PCCs requires further investigations to elaborate the clinical meaning of this finding in the treatment of trauma induced coagulopathy.

  7. Stone fragmentation by ultrasound

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S K Shrivastava; Kailash

    2004-08-01

    The presence of kidney stone in the kidney causes discomfort to patients. Hence, removal of such stones is important which is commonly done these days, non-destructively, with lithotripters without surgery. Commercially, lithotripters like extra-corporeal shock wave lithotripters (ESWL) made by Siemens etc are in routine use. These methods are very cumbersome and expensive. Treatment of the patients also takes comparatively more time because of more number of sittings. Some delicate nerves and fibres in the surrounding areas of the stones present in the kidney are also damaged by high ultrasonic intensity used in such systems. In the present work, enhancement of the kidney stone fragmentation by using ultrasound is studied. The cavitation bubbles are found to implode faster, with more disintegration efficiency of the lithotripters, which give better treatment to the patients.

  8. Atrial natriuretic peptides in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Holst Hansen, Lasse; Terzic, Dijana

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of cardiac natriuretic peptides in plasma has gained a diagnostic role in the assessment of heart failure. Plasma measurement is though hampered by the marked instability of the hormones, which has led to the development of analyses that target N-terminal fragments from the prohormone....... These fragments are stable in plasma and represent surrogate markers of the actual natriuretic hormone. Post-translational processing of the precursors, however, is revealing itself to be a complex event with new information still being reported on proteolysis, covalent modifications, and amino acid...

  9. [Transfusion of plasma: products-indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoudi, R

    2013-05-01

    The use of therapeutic plasma has increased in France by more than 40% since 2002. This growth may be explained by the improvement in transfusion safety, the diminution of the risk of transmission of pathogens and the regained confidence of the physicians in blood products. Therapeutic plasma also benefits from additional procedures to reduce infectious (securisation) or immunological risks (selection of blood donors). Its application in massive transfusions has undergone a significant evolution over the last few years. A proactive attitude favouring early and important use of plasma on the basis of pre-established protocols is advocated henceforth. The prescription of therapeutic plasma for other indications must be guided by the results of biological tests and an evaluation of the haemorrhagic risk. Despite regular updating of the guidelines for good transfusion practice, plasma is still sometimes prescribed for prophylactic purposes in situations where the biological and/or clinical criteria do not justify it. Moreover, it is not recommended to use fresh frozen plasma in cases of deficiency of coagulation factors if the specific concentrates are available as intravenous fluids. Complementary clinical studies will be necessary to evaluate, in certain indications, the real benefits of the transfusion of plasma and the interest of replacing it by concentrates of coagulant factors (fibrinogen, prothrombin complex).

  10. Quantitative analysis of erythromycylamine in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and its application in a bioequivalence study of dirithromycin enteric-coated tablets with a special focus on the fragmentation pattern and carryover effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hua-Lin; Wang, Feng; Li, Huan-De; Peng, Wen-Xing; Zhu, Rong-Hua; Deng, Yang; Jiang, Pei; Yan, Miao; Hu, Si-Miao; Lei, Su-Yun; Chen, Chang

    2014-02-01

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the quantification of erythromycylamine, which is the predominant active metabolite of dirithromycin in human plasma. After solid-phase extraction, the analyte and internal standard (IS) were separated by using an isocratic mobile phase consisting of 20 mM ammonium acetate (pH 3.9, adjusted with formic acid)-acetonitrile (75:25, v/v) on a Phenyl-Hexyl column (150 × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) and then analyzed in positive ion mode under electrospray ionization. Azithromycin was selected as the IS because it has the most similar mass spectrometric and chromatographic behaviors to the analyte. The respective multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) transitions, m/z 368.5>83.2 for erythromycylamine and m/z 375.4>115.2 for IS were chosen to achieve high sensitivity and selectivity in determination. A more acidic mobile phase (pH 3.9) than those of previous reports and a special needle wash (ethylene glycol-acetonitrile-water, 50:30:20, v/v/v, adjusted to pH 3.9 using formic acid) were used to eliminate the carryover effects of the two macrolides. The method exhibited a linear dynamic range of 0.5-440.0 ng/mL for erythromycylamine in human plasma (r=0.9999). The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) and limit of detection (LOD) were 0.5 and 0.05 ng/mL, respectively. The mean extraction recoveries were higher than 94.0% for the analyte and IS. The intra- and inter-day precisions ranged from 1.4 to 5.4% and from 1.6 to 4.0%, respectively. The accuracy varied between 91.2 and 101.2%. The established method was successfully applied to analyze the human plasma samples from 24 healthy subjects in a bioequivalence study of two dirithromycin enteric-coated formulations.

  11. CONTROL OF FRAGMENTATION BY BLASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Branko Božić

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The degree of fragmentation influences the economy of the excavation operations. Characteristics of blasted rock such as fragment size, volume and mass are fundamental variables effecting the economics of a mining operation and are in effect the basis for evaluating the quality of a blast. The properties of fragmentation, such as size and shape, are very important information for the optimization of production. Three factors control the fragment size distribution: the rock structure, the quantity of explosive and its distribution within the rock mass. Over the last decade there have been considerable advances in our ability to measure and analyze blasting performance. These can now be combined with the continuing growth in computing power to develop a more effective description of rock fragmentation for use by future blasting practitioners. The paper describes a view of the fragmentation problem by blasting and the need for a new generation of engineering tools to guide the design and implementation of blasting operations.

  12. The Fission-fragment Spectrometer VERDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, M. O.; Oberstedt, S.

    VERDI (VElocity foR Direct particle Identification) is a fission-fragment spectrometer presently under construction at the Joint Research Centre IRMM. It will allow measuring the kinetic energy and the velocity of both fission fragments simultaneously. The velocity information provide information about the pre-neutron mass of each fission fragment when isotropic prompt-neutron emission from the fragments is assumed. The kinetic energy, in complement of the velocity, will provide us with the post-neutron mass. From the difference between pre- and post-neutron masses the number of neutrons emitted by each fragment may be deter- mined. Knowledge of this quantity as a function of the total kinetic energy will contribute to the understanding of how the available excitation energy is shared between both fission fragments at scission. The contemplated pre-neutron mass resolving power, A/ΔA, of at least 126 requires a time-of-flight (TOF) resolution better than 200 ps (FWHM) and an energy resolution, ΔE/E of 0.3% for a post-neutron mass. The VERDI spectrometer provides the best compromise between geometrical efficiency and time of flight. It consists of an electron detector located very close to the fissionable target and a double array of silicon detectors located 50 cm away on both sides of the target. Each silicon detector has an area of 450 mm2 and is made from neutron transmutation-doped (NTD) silicon to reduce rise-time variation, to minimize pulse height defect and to reduce the plasma delay time. The intrinsic timing resolution of the electron detector was determined, using a 241Am alpha source (Eα = 5.49 MeV), against a previously characterized single-crystal diamond to σ = 140 ps. The timing resolution of the NTD silicon detectors was determined using the spontaneous fission of 252Cf in conjunction with Monte-Carlo simulations to σNTD = 150 ps. With the present timing resolution, σTOF VERDI is already close to the set goals. The excellent timing properties

  13. Factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase mutations and stillbirth: the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Robert M; Saade, George R; Thorsten, Vanessa; Parker, Corette B; Reddy, Uma M; Drews-Botsch, Carey; Conway, Deborah; Coustan, Donald; Dudley, Donald J; Bukowski, Radek; Rowland Hogue, Carol J; Pinar, Halit; Varner, Michael W; Goldenberg, Robert; Willinger, Marian

    2016-10-01

    An evaluation for heritable thrombophilias is recommended in the evaluation of stillbirth. However, the association between thrombophilias and stillbirth remains uncertain. We sought to assess the association between maternal and fetal/placental heritable thrombophilias and stillbirth in a population-based, case-control study in a geographically, racially, and ethnically diverse population. We conducted secondary analysis of data from the Stillbirth Collaborative Research Network, a population-based case-control study of stillbirth. Testing for factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase C677T and A1298C, and plasminogen activating inhibitor (PAI)-1 4G/5G mutations was done on maternal and fetal (or placental) DNA from singleton pregnancies. Data analyses were weighted for oversampling and other aspects of the design. Odds ratios (OR) were generated from univariate models regressing stillbirth/live birth status on each thrombophilia marker. Results were available for ≥1 marker in 488 stillbirths and 1342 live birth mothers and 405 stillbirths and 990 live birth fetuses. There was an increased odds of stillbirth for maternal homozygous factor V Leiden mutation (2/488; 0.4% vs 1/1380; 0.0046%; OR, 87.44; 95% confidence interval, 7.88-970.92). However, there were no significant differences in the odds of stillbirth for any other maternal thrombophilia, even after stratified analyses. Fetal 4G/4G PAI-1 (OR, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.43-0.91) was associated with decreased odds of stillbirth. Other fetal thrombophilias were similar among groups. Most maternal and fetal thrombophilias were not associated with stillbirth. Maternal factor V Leiden was weakly associated with stillbirth, and the fetal PAI-1 4G/4G polymorphism was associated with live birth. Our data do not support routine testing for heritable thrombophilias as part of an evaluation for possible causes of stillbirth. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 4G/5G polymorphism, factor V Leiden, prothrombin mutations and the risk of VTE recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Kristina; Wang, Xiao; Svensson, Peter J; Sundquist, Jan; Hedelius, Anna; Larsson Lönn, Sara; Zöller, Bengt; Memon, Ashfaque A

    2015-11-25

    Plasminogen-activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 is an important inhibitor of the plasminogen/plasmin system. PAI-1 levels are influenced by the 4G/5G polymorphism in the PAI-1 promoter. We investigated the relationship between the PAI-1 polymorphism and VTE recurrence, and its possible modification by factor V Leiden (FVL) and prothrombin (PTM) mutations. Patients (n=1,069) from the Malmö Thrombophilia Study were followed from discontinuation of anticoagulant treatment until diagnosis of VTE recurrence or the end of the study (maximum follow-up 9.8 years). One hundred twenty-seven patients (11.9 %) had VTE recurrence. PAI-1 was genotyped by TaqMan PCR. Cox regression analysis adjusted for age, sex and acquired risk factors of VTE showed no evidence of an association between PAI-1 genotype and risk of VTE recurrence in the study population as a whole. However, by including an interaction term in the analysis we showed that FVL but not PTM modified the effect of PAI-1 genotype: patients with the 4G allele plus FVL had a higher risk of VTE recurrence [hazard ratio (HR) =2.3, 95 % confidence interval (CI) =1.5-3.3] compared to patients with the 4G allele but no FVL (reference group) or FVL irrespective of PAI-1 genotype (HR=1.8, 95 % CI=1.3-2.5). Compared to reference group, 5G allele irrespective of FVL was associated with lower risk of VTE recurrence only when compared with 4G allele together with FVL. In conclusion, FVL has a modifying effect on PAI-1 polymorphism in relation to risk of VTE recurrence. The role of PAI-1 polymorphism as a risk factor of recurrent VTE may be FVL dependent.

  15. Fragmentation Considered Poisonous

    CERN Document Server

    Herzberg, Amir

    2012-01-01

    We present practical poisoning and name-server block- ing attacks on standard DNS resolvers, by off-path, spoofing adversaries. Our attacks exploit large DNS responses that cause IP fragmentation; such long re- sponses are increasingly common, mainly due to the use of DNSSEC. In common scenarios, where DNSSEC is partially or incorrectly deployed, our poisoning attacks allow 'com- plete' domain hijacking. When DNSSEC is fully de- ployed, attacker can force use of fake name server; we show exploits of this allowing off-path traffic analy- sis and covert channel. When using NSEC3 opt-out, attacker can also create fake subdomains, circumvent- ing same origin restrictions. Our attacks circumvent resolver-side defenses, e.g., port randomisation, IP ran- domisation and query randomisation. The (new) name server (NS) blocking attacks force re- solver to use specific name server. This attack allows Degradation of Service, traffic-analysis and covert chan- nel, and also facilitates DNS poisoning. We validated the attac...

  16. An Algebra for Program Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Bent Bruun; Madsen, Ole Lehrmann; Møller-Pedersen, Birger

    1985-01-01

    Program fragments are described either by strings in the concrete syntax or by constructor applications in the abstract syntax. By defining conversions between these forms, both may be intermixed. Program fragments are constructed by terminal and nonterminal symbols from the grammar and by variab...

  17. Complete axiomatizations for XPath fragments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, B.; Litak, T.; Marx, M.

    2010-01-01

    We provide complete axiomatizations for several fragments of Core XPath, the navigational core of XPath 1.0 introduced by Gottlob, Koch and Pichler. A complete axiomatization for a given fragment is a set of equivalences from which every other valid equivalence is derivable; equivalences can be thou

  18. High fragmentation characterizes tumour-derived circulating DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Mouliere

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Circulating DNA (ctDNA is acknowledged as a potential diagnostic tool for various cancers including colorectal cancer, especially when considering the detection of mutations. Certainly due to lack of normalization of the experimental conditions, previous reports present many discrepancies and contradictory data on the analysis of the concentration of total ctDNA and on the proportion of tumour-derived ctDNA fragments. METHODOLOGY: In order to rigorously analyse ctDNA, we thoroughly investigated ctDNA size distribution. We used a highly specific Q-PCR assay and athymic nude mice xenografted with SW620 or HT29 human colon cancer cells, and we correlated our results by examining plasma from metastatic CRC patients. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Fragmentation and concentration of tumour-derived ctDNA is positively correlated with tumour weight. CtDNA quantification by Q-PCR depends on the amplified target length and is optimal for 60-100 bp fragments. Q-PCR analysis of plasma samples from xenografted mice and cancer patients showed that tumour-derived ctDNA exhibits a specific amount profile based on ctDNA size and significant higher ctDNA fragmentation. Metastatic colorectal patients (n = 12 showed nearly 5-fold higher mean ctDNA fragmentation than healthy individuals (n = 16.

  19. Driven fragmentation of granular gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz Hidalgo, Raúl; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio

    2008-06-01

    The dynamics of homogeneously heated granular gases which fragment due to particle collisions is analyzed. We introduce a kinetic model which accounts for correlations induced at the grain collisions and analyze both the kinetics and relevant distribution functions these systems develop. The work combines analytical and numerical studies based on direct simulation Monte Carlo calculations. A broad family of fragmentation probabilities is considered, and its implications for the system kinetics are discussed. We show that generically these driven materials evolve asymptotically into a dynamical scaling regime. If the fragmentation probability tends to a constant, the grain number diverges at a finite time, leading to a shattering singularity. If the fragmentation probability vanishes, then the number of grains grows monotonously as a power law. We consider different homogeneous thermostats and show that the kinetics of these systems depends weakly on both the grain inelasticity and driving. We observe that fragmentation plays a relevant role in the shape of the velocity distribution of the particles. When the fragmentation is driven by local stochastic events, the long velocity tail is essentially exponential independently of the heating frequency and the breaking rule. However, for a Lowe-Andersen thermostat, numerical evidence strongly supports the conjecture that the scaled velocity distribution follows a generalized exponential behavior f(c) approximately exp(-cn) , with n approximately 1.2 , regarding less the fragmentation mechanisms.

  20. Effects of hemoperfusion adsorption and/or plasma exchange in treatment of severe viral hepatitis:A comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nian-Hai He; Ying-Jie Wang; Ze-Wen Wang; Jun Liu; Jia-Jia Li; Guo-Dong Liu; Yu-Ming Wang

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Non-bioartificial liver has been applied to clinic for quite a long time, but the reported efficacy has been very different. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of hemoperfusion adsorption, plasma exchange and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption in treatment of severe viral hepatitis.METHODS: Seventy-five patients with severe viral hepatitis were treated with hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (24cases), plasma exchange therapy (17 cases) and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (34 cases).The data of liver function, renal function, blood routine test,prothrombin time (PT) and prothrombin activity (PTa) preand post-therapy were analyzed.RESULTS: Clinical symptoms of patients improved after treatment. The levels of aminotransferase, total bilirubin,direct bilirubin decreased significantly after 3 therapies (P<0.05 or P<0.01). PT, the level of total serum protein decreased significantly and PTa increased significantly after plasma exchange therapy and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (P<0.05 or P<0.01). The side effects were few and mild in all patients.CONCLUSION: Three therapies were effective in the treatment of severe viral hepatitis. Plasma exchange therapy and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy are better than hemoperfusion adsorption therapy.

  1. Effects of hemoperfusion adsorption and/or plasma exchange in treatment of severe viral hepatitis: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Nian-Hai; Wang, Ying-Jie; Wang, Ze-Wen; Liu, Jun; Li, Jia-Jia; Liu, Guo-Dong; Wang, Yu-Ming

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Non-bioartificial liver has been applied to clinic for quite a long time, but the reported efficacy has been very different. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of hemoperfusion adsorption, plasma exchange and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption in treatment of severe viral hepatitis. METHODS: Seventy-five patients with severe viral hepatitis were treated with hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (24 cases), plasma exchange therapy (17 cases) and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (34 cases). The data of liver function, renal function, blood routine test, prothrombin time (PT) and prothrombin activity (PTa) pre-and post-therapy were analyzed. RESULTS: Clinical symptoms of patients improved after treatment. The levels of aminotransferase, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin decreased significantly after 3 therapies (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). PT, the level of total serum protein decreased significantly and PTa increased significantly after plasma exchange therapy and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). The side effects were few and mild in all patients. CONCLUSION: Three therapies were effective in the treatment of severe viral hepatitis. Plasma exchange therapy and plasma exchange plus hemoperfusion adsorption therapy are better than hemoperfusion adsorption therapy. PMID:15069730

  2. The spectroscopy of fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, W.R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester, M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Collaboration: La Direction des Sciences de la Matiere du CEA (FR); Le Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique de Belgique (BE)

    1998-12-31

    High-resolution measurements on {gamma} rays from fission fragments have provided a rich source of information, unobtainable at the moment in any other way, on the spectroscopy of neutron-rich nuclei. In recent years important data have been obtained on the yrast- and near yrast-structure of neutron-rich fission fragments. We discuss the scope of measurements which can be made on prompt gamma rays from secondary fission fragments, the techniques used in the experiments and some results recently obtained. (author) 24 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. [Evaluation of a new portable device for measuring prothrombin time-internatinal normalized ratio; comparison between the conventional method and the new CoagCheck XS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K; Hashimoto, K; Sakamoto, Y; Okuyama, H; Kawada, N; Inoue, T

    2008-07-01

    We evaluated a new portable device (CoaguCheck XS) for measuring the prothrombin time-international normalized ratio (PT-INR) in 63 patients after cardiac surgery, and compared the results with those of the conventional method. There was a good correlation between the PT-INR values measured conventionally and those obtained with the CoaguCheck XS. This new device was easy to use, data were obtained rapidly, and the results were reliable. The CoaguCheck XS will be particularly useful for outpatients. PT-INR self-management is expected to be introduced as soon as health insurance coverage is obtained.

  4. Prothrombin G20210A mutation is associated with young-onset stroke: the genetics of early-onset stroke study and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baijia; Ryan, Kathleen A; Hamedani, Ali; Cheng, Yuching; Sparks, Mary J; Koontz, Deborah; Bean, Christopher J; Gallagher, Margaret; Hooper, W Craig; McArdle, Patrick F; O'Connell, Jeffrey R; Stine, O Colin; Wozniak, Marcella A; Stern, Barney J; Mitchell, Braxton D; Kittner, Steven J; Cole, John W

    2014-04-01

    Although the prothrombin G20210A mutation has been implicated as a risk factor for venous thrombosis, its role in arterial ischemic stroke is unclear, particularly among young adults. To address this issue, we examined the association between prothrombin G20210A and ischemic stroke in a white case-control population and additionally performed a meta-analysis. From the population-based Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study, we identified 397 individuals of European ancestry aged 15 to 49 years with first-ever ischemic stroke and 426 matched controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) in the entire population and for subgroups stratified by sex, age, oral contraceptive use, migraine, and smoking status. A meta-analysis of 17 case-control studies (n=2305 cases <55 years) was also performed with and without GEOS data. Within GEOS, the association of the prothrombin G20210A mutation with ischemic stroke did not achieve statistical significance (OR=2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.9-6.5; P=0.07). However, among adults aged 15 to 42 years (younger than median age), cases were significantly more likely than controls to have the mutation (OR=5.9; 95% CI=1.2-28.1; P=0.03), whereas adults aged 42 to 49 years were not (OR=1.4; 95% CI=0.4-5.1; P=0.94). In our meta-analysis, the mutation was associated with significantly increased stroke risk in adults ≤55 years (OR=1.4; 95% CI=1.1-1.9; P=0.02), with significance increasing with addition of the GEOS results (OR=1.5; 95% CI=1.1-2.0; P=0.005). The prothrombin G20210A mutation is associated with ischemic stroke in young adults and may have an even stronger association among those with earlier onset strokes. Our finding of a stronger association in the younger young adult population requires replication.

  5. The Frequency of Factor V Leiden, Prothrombin G20210A and Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase C677T Mutations in Migraine Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhsen Öcal

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Migraine is an independent risk factor for ischemic stroke, but its pathophysiology is still unclear. Genetic factors that predispose patients to thrombosis have been studied in patients with migraine to highlight the pathogenesis, but the results remain controversial. In this study, the frequencies of factor V Leiden (FVL, prothrombin (Pt G20210A and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR C677T mutations were investigated. METHODS: One hundred and sixty patients aged of 15 to 55 years with no history of systemic disease and who had been diagnosed as migraine according to the International Headache Society (IHS diagnostic criteria at Baskent University Hospital Neurology Outpatient Clinics were investigated for FVL, Pt G20210A and MTHFR C677T mutations from their genomic DNA, and the results were compared with those of healthy controls. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty five (96.9% of 160 migraine patients were homozygote normal, 5 (3.1% were heterozygote and none of them were homozygote mutant for FVL. The control group had 9.8% heterozygote individuals but the difference between the percentages was not statistically significant (p> 0.05. There were no homozygote mutant individuals in the Turkish population study in normal subjects like our study. Thirty nine (24.4% of 160 migraine patients were heterozygote and 8 (5% were homozygote mutant for MTHFR C677T. The control group had 37 (34.9% heterozygote and 6 (5.6% homozygote mutant individuals. The difference between the percentages was not statistically significant (p= 0.15. Three (1.9% of 160 migraine patients were heterozygote and 5 (2.9% of the control group were heterozygote mutant for Pt G20210A mutation. The control group had 37 (34.9% heterozygote and 6 (5.6% homozygote mutant individuals. The difference between the percentages was not statistically significant (p= 0.420. CONCLUSION: Our study indicates that FVL, Pt G20210A and MTHFR C677T gene mutations, which are considered

  6. Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time Testing: A Comparative Effectiveness Study in a Million-Patient Sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manu N Capoor

    Full Text Available A substantial fraction of all American healthcare expenditures are potentially wasted, and practices that are not evidence-based could contribute to such waste. We sought to characterize whether Prothrombin Time (PT and activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT tests of preoperative patients are used in a way unsupported by evidence and potentially wasteful.We evaluated prospectively-collected patient data from 19 major teaching hospitals and 8 hospital-affiliated surgical centers in 7 states (Delaware, Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania and the District of Columbia. A total of 1,053,472 consecutive patients represented every patient admitted for elective surgery from 2009 to 2012 at all 27 settings. A subset of 682,049 patients (64.7% had one or both tests done and history and physical (H&P records available for analysis. Unnecessary tests for bleeding risk were defined as: PT tests done on patients with no history of abnormal bleeding, warfarin therapy, vitamin K-dependent clotting factor deficiency, or liver disease; or aPTT tests done on patients with no history of heparin treatment, hemophilia, lupus anticoagulant antibodies, or von Willebrand disease. We assessed the proportion of patients who received PT or aPTT tests who lacked evidence-based reasons for testing.This study sought to bring the availability of big data together with applied comparative effectiveness research. Among preoperative patients, 26.2% received PT tests, and 94.3% of tests were unnecessary, given the absence of findings on H&P. Similarly, 23.3% of preoperative patients received aPTT tests, of which 99.9% were unnecessary. Among patients with no H&P findings suggestive of bleeding risk, 6.6% of PT tests and 7.1% of aPTT tests were either a false positive or a true positive (i.e. indicative of a previously-undiagnosed potential bleeding risk. Both PT and aPTT, designed as diagnostic tests, are apparently used as screening tests

  7. Surface Sulfonation of Polyvinyl Chloride by Plasma for Antithrombogenicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘鹏; 陈亚芍

    2004-01-01

    To enhance the blood compatibility of Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) film, the film was modified by SO2/O2 gas plasma treatment. The effect of surface sulfonation of PVC treated by various SO2/O2 gas plasma depended on the volume ratio O2/(SO2 + 02). When the volumeratio was 0.5, the effect of sulfonation was the best. Sulfonic acid groups were specifically and efficiently introduced onto the PVC surface, which was proved by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transfer Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface microstructure of modified PVC film was studied with scanning electron microscopy (SEM).The antithrombogenicity of the samples was determined by the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), thrombin time (TT) and plasma recalcification time (PRT)tests and platelet adhesion experiment. The results indicated that the antithrombogenicity of modified PVC was improved remarkably.

  8. Fragment Screening of Human Aquaporin 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet To

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aquaporins (AQPs are membrane proteins that enable water transport across cellular plasma membranes in response to osmotic gradients. Phenotypic analyses have revealed important physiological roles for AQPs, and the potential for AQP water channel modulators in various disease states has been proposed. For example, AQP1 is overexpressed in tumor microvessels, and this correlates with higher metastatic potential and aggressiveness of the malignancy. Chemical modulators would help in identifying the precise contribution of water channel activity in these disease states. These inhibitors would also be important therapeutically, e.g., in anti-cancer treatment. This perceived importance contrasts with the lack of success of high-throughput screens (HTS to identify effective and specific inhibitors of aquaporins. In this paper, we have screened a library of 1500 “fragments”, i.e., smaller than molecules used in HTS, against human aquaporin (hAQP1 using a thermal shift assay and surface plasmon resonance. Although these fragments may not inhibit their protein target, they bound to and stabilized hAQP1 (sub mM binding affinities (KD, with an temperature of aggregation shift ΔTagg of +4 to +50 °C in a concentration-dependent fashion. Chemically expanded versions of these fragments should follow the determination of their binding site on the aquaporin surface.

  9. Lack of association between factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A polymorphisms in Tunisian subjects with a history of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berredjeb Ben Slama, Dhouha; Fekih-Mrissa, Najiba; Haggui, Abdeddayem; Nsiri, Brahim; Baraket, Nadia; Haouala, Habib; Gritli, Nasreddine

    2013-01-01

    Myocardial infarction is a multifactorial disease. It is provoked by occlusions in the coronary arteries resulting from exposure to multiple risk factors. To study the risk of myocardial infarction associated with the gene polymorphisms of factor V Leiden and factor II (G20210A). Cases consisted of 100 myocardial infarction patients who were hospitalized in the Principal Military Hospital of Tunis and 200 control subjects with no history of myocardial infarction. The prevalence of the factor V Leiden was higher in myocardial infarction patients (9%) than in control subjects (6%) with an OR=1.55 (95% CI=0.58-4.12), whereas the prevalence of prothrombin G20210A mutation was 3% and 2.5% in the patient and control groups, respectively [OR=1.21 (95% CI=0.22-5.94)]. Our results indicate that neither factor V Leiden nor the prothrombin G20210A contributed to the risk factors for myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Erythrocyte Fragment Count Predicts Hemolysis in Roller Pumps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Jun-qiang; XU Shi-wei; CHEN Fang; DING Min-jun

    2007-01-01

    Hemolysis in blood pumps has been measured by various in vitro test methods, in which normalized index of hemolysis (NIH) was established. As NIH is complicated and difficult to calculate, erythrocyte fragment count is proposed in the present study to predict hemolysis in roller pumps. Methods: Five paired in vitro tests wereconducted using the POLYSTAN pediatric pump(group A) and COBE pump(group B). Ten whole blood samples (400 ml ) were circled in the roller pump for 16 h. Erythrocyte fragments count and plasma-free hemoglobin (FHb) were measured before pumping and every two hours through circulation after four-hour-pumping. The morphological changes of erythrocyte were observed by scanning electron microscope. Results: The two groups' EFC and FHb levels were increased linearly during a long duration of pumping and linear regression of erythrocyte fragments count and plasma-free hemoglobin were correlated. Conclusion: Erythrocyte fragments count could be used as an index in evaluating the in vitro hemolytic properties of blood pumps.

  11. The effect of sample size on fresh plasma thromboplastin ISI determination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poller, L; Van Den Besselaar, A M; Jespersen, J;

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of reduction of numbers of fresh coumarin and normal plasmas has been studied in a multicentre manual prothrombin (PT) calibration of high international sensitivity index (ISI) rabbit and low ISI human reference thromboplastins at 14 laboratories. The number of calibrant plasmas...... was reduced progressively by a computer program which generated random numbers to provide 1000 different selections for each reduced sample at each participant laboratory. Results were compared with those of the full set of 20 normal and 60 coumarin plasma calibrations. With the human reagent, 20 coumarins...... and seven normals still achieved the W.H.O. precision limit (3% CV of the slope), but with the rabbit reagent reduction coumarins with 17 normal plasmas led to unacceptable CV. Little reduction of numbers from the full set of 80 fresh plasmas appears advisable. For maximum confidence, when calibrating...

  12. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Cheng; Tsang, M B; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear energy released by splitting Uranium and Thorium isotopes into two, three, four, up to eight fragments with nearly equal size are studied. We found that the energy released come from equally splitting the $^{235,238}$U and $^{230,232}$Th nuclei into to three fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model is employed to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for the excited nuclei. Weighing the the probability distributions of fragments multiplicity at different excitation energies for the $^{238}$U nucleus, we found that an excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u is optimal for the $^{235}$U, $^{238}$U, $^{230}$Th and $^{232}$Th nuclei to release nuclear energy of about 0.7-0.75 MeV/u.

  13. Investigation of the selectivity of thrombin-binding aptamers for thrombin titration in murine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapaidze, Ana; Hérault, Jean-Pascal; Herbert, Jean-Marc; Bancaud, Aurélien; Gué, Anne-Marie

    2016-04-15

    Detection of thrombin in plasma raises timely challenges to enable therapeutic management of thrombosis in patients under vital threat. Thrombin binding aptamers represent promising candidates as sensing elements for the development of real-time thrombin biosensors; however implementation of such biosensor requires the clear understanding of thrombin-aptamer interaction properties in real-like environment. In this study, we used Surface Plasmon Resonance technique to answer the questions of specificity and sensitivity of thrombin detection by the thrombin-binding aptamers HD1, NU172 and HD22. We systematically characterized their properties in the presence of thrombin, as well as interfering molecular species such as the thrombin precursor prothrombin, thrombin in complex with some of its natural inhibitors, nonspecific serum proteins, and diluted plasma. Kinetic experiments show the multiple binding modes of HD1 and NU172, which both interact with multiple sites of thrombin with low nanomolar affinities and show little specificity of interaction for prothrombin vs. thrombin. HD22, on the other hand, binds specifically to thrombin exosite II and has no affinity to prothrombin at all. While thrombin in complex with some of its inhibitors could not be recognized by any aptamer, the binding of HD1 and NU172 properties is compromised by thrombin inhibitors alone, as well as with serum albumin. Finally, the complex nature of plasma was overwhelming for HD1, but we define conditions for the thrombin detection at 10nM range in 100-fold diluted plasma by HD22. Consequently HD22 showed key advantage over HD1 and NU172, and appears as the only alternative to design an aptasensor.

  14. Hands as markers of fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Barnard

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Margaret Atwood is an internationally read, translated, and critiqued writer whose novels have established her as one of the most esteemed authors in English (McCombs & Palmer, 1991:1. Critical studies of her work deal mainly with notions of identity from psychoanalytical perspectives. This study has identified a gap in current critical studies on Atwood’s works, namely the challenging of textual unity which is paralleled in the challenging of the traditional (single narrative voice. The challenging of textual unity and the single narrative voice brings about the fragmentation of both. This article will focus on the role that hands play as markers of fragmentation in “The Blind Assassin” (2000. In the novel, the writing hand destabilises the narrative voice, since it is not connected to the voice of a single author. If the author of the text – the final signified – is eliminated, the text becomes fragmentary and open, inviting the reader to contribute to the creation of meaning. Hands play a signficant role in foregrounding the narrator’s fragmented identity, and consequently, the fragmentation of the text. We will investigate this concept in the light of Roland Barthes’ notion of the scriptor, whose hand is metaphorically severed from his or her “voice”. Instead of the text being a unified entity, it becomes unstable and it displays the absence of hierarchical textual levels. Based mainly on Barthes’ writings, this article concludes that hands foreground the narrator’s fragmented identity, which is paralleled in the fragmented text.

  15. Acute effects of N-terminal progastrin fragments on gastric acid secretion in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hansen, Carsten P; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2017-03-01

    We previously identified an N-terminal fragment of progastrin in human antrum and plasma, where it circulates in high concentrations. In this study, we examined the effects of N-terminal progastrin fragments on gastric acid secretion by infusion in healthy individuals. Increasing doses of progastrin fragment 1-35 were infused intravenously during constant gastric acid stimulation by gastrin-17. In addition, the effects of progastrin fragment 1-35, fragment 6-35, and fragment 1-19 on gastrin-17 stimulated acid secretion were tested. The gastrin-17 stimulated acid secretion decreased 30% after administration of a high dose of progastrin fragment 1-35 (P < 0.05). In extension, a 1-h infusion of fragment 1-35 also decreased gastric acid output. In contrast, fragment 6-35 did not affect acid secretion, and a single infusion of gastrin-17 alone did not reveal fading of gastric acid output during the time course of the experiments. The results show that N-terminal fragments of progastrin may acutely affect gastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in vivo. Structure-function analysis suggests that the N-terminal pentapeptide of progastrin is required for the effect.

  16. Perioperative coagulation management--fresh frozen plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kor, Daryl J; Stubbs, James R; Gajic, Ognjen

    2010-03-01

    Clinical studies support the use of perioperative fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in patients who are actively bleeding with multiple coagulation factor deficiencies and for the prevention of dilutional coagulopathy in patients with major trauma and/or massive haemorrhage. In these settings, current FFP dosing recommendations may be inadequate. However, a substantial proportion of FFP is transfused in non-bleeding patients with mild elevations in coagulation screening tests. This practice is not supported by the literature, is unlikely to be of benefit and unnecessarily exposes patients to the risks of FFP. The role of FFP in reversing the effects of warfarin anticoagulation is dependent on the clinical context and availability of alternative agents. Although FFP is commonly transfused in patients with liver disease, this practice needs broad reconsideration. Adverse effects of FFP include febrile and allergic reactions, transfusion-associated circulatory overload and transfusion-related acute lung injury. The latter is the most serious complication, being less common with the preferential use of non-alloimmunised, male-donor predominant plasma. FP24 and thawed plasma are alternatives to FFP with similar indications for administration. Both provide an opportunity for increasing the safe plasma donor pool. Although prothrombin complex concentrates and factor VIIa may be used as alternatives to FFP in a variety of specific clinical contexts, additional study is needed.

  17. Phenomenology of Dihadron Fragmentation Function

    CERN Document Server

    Courtoy, A

    2016-01-01

    We report on the phenomenological results obtained through Dihadron Fragmentation Functions related processes. In 2015, an update on the fitting techniques for the Dihadron Fragmentation Functions has led to an improved extraction of the transversity PDF and, as a consequence, the nucleon tensor charge. We discuss the impact of the determination of the latter on search for physics Beyond the Standard Model, focusing on the error treatment. We also comment on the future of the extraction of the subleading-twist PDF $e(x)$ from JLab soon-to-be-released Beam Spin Asymmetry data.

  18. Transversity and dihadron fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bacchetta, A; Bacchetta, Alessandro; Radici, Marco

    2005-01-01

    The observation of the quark transversity distribution requires another soft object sensitive to the quark's transverse spin. Dihadron fragmentation functions represent a convenient tool to analyze partonic spin, which can influence the angular distribution of the two hadrons. In particular, the so-called interference fragmentation functions can be used to probe transversity both in semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering as well as proton-proton collisions. We discuss two single-spin asymmetries sensitive to transversity in the these two processes, at leading twist and leading order in alpha_S.

  19. RIA Fragmentation Line Beam Dumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, W

    2003-08-08

    The Rare Isotope Accelerator project involves generating heavy-element ion beams for use in a fragmentation target line to produce beams for physics research. The main beam, after passing through the fragmentation target, may be dumped into a beam dump located in the vacuum cavity of the first dipole magnet. For a dump beam power of 100 kW, cooling is required to avoid excessive high temperatures. The proposed dump design involves rotating cylinders to spread out the energy deposition and turbulent subcooled water flow through internal water cooling passages to obtain high, nonboiling, cooling rates.

  20. A thermodynamic theory of dynamic fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yew, Ching H. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States); Taylor, P.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-08-01

    We present a theory of dynamic fragmentation of brittle materials based on thermodynamic arguments. We recover the expressions for average fragment size and number as originally derived by Grady. We extend the previous work by obtaining descriptions of fragment size distribution and compressibility change due to the fragmentation process. The size distribution is assumed to be proportional to the spectral power of the strain history and a sample distribution is presented for a fragmentation process corresponding to a constant rate strain history. The description of compressibility change should be useful in computational studies of fragmentation. These results should provide insight into the process of fragmentation of brittle materials from hypervelocity impact.

  1. Population pressure and farm fragmentation:

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    small but farms are further fragmented into diminutive size fields due to ... terms of household characteristics; land use and performance indicators; technology adoption .... 'best' unit of measurement of farm size, and size of enterprises within farms will ..... less common, accounting for 18 percent (3 percent) and 10 percent (7.

  2. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Souza, S.R. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro Cidade Universitária, Caixa Postal 68528, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Tsang, M.B. [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory and Physics and Astronomy Department, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Zhang, Feng-Shou, E-mail: fszhang@bnu.edu.cn [The Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing 100875 (China); Center of Theoretical Nuclear Physics, National Laboratory of Heavy Ion Accelerator of Lanzhou, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2016-08-15

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for {sup 230,232}Th and {sup 235,238}U are around 0.7–0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  3. Nuclear energy release from fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cheng; Souza, S. R.; Tsang, M. B.; Zhang, Feng-Shou

    2016-08-01

    It is well known that binary fission occurs with positive energy gain. In this article we examine the energetics of splitting uranium and thorium isotopes into various numbers of fragments (from two to eight) with nearly equal size. We find that the energy released by splitting 230,232Th and 235,238U into three equal size fragments is largest. The statistical multifragmentation model (SMM) is applied to calculate the probability of different breakup channels for excited nuclei. By weighing the probability distributions of fragment multiplicity at different excitation energies, we find the peaks of energy release for 230,232Th and 235,238U are around 0.7-0.75 MeV/u at excitation energy between 1.2 and 2 MeV/u in the primary breakup process. Taking into account the secondary de-excitation processes of primary fragments with the GEMINI code, these energy peaks fall to about 0.45 MeV/u.

  4. The Fragmentation of Literary Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Syllabi from some 20 colleges and universities were reviewed with prominent English and literature departments and a discussion was held with a number of professors who teach literary theory. It is suggested that devolution and fragmentation of theory might be a survival strategy, an adaptation to the new realties of academic institutions.

  5. Fragmented nature : consequences for biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Han; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  6. Fragmented nature: consequences for biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; Ritchie, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  7. Fragmented nature : consequences for biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Han; Ritchie, Mark E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  8. Fragmented nature: consequences for biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, H.; Ritchie, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    We discuss how fragmentation of resources and habitat operate differently on species diversity across spatial scales, ranging from positive effects on local species coexistence to negative effect on intermediate spatial scales, to again positive effects on large spatial and temporal scales. Species

  9. The elevated homocysteine stimulates changes of haemostatic function of plasma isolated from breast cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kedzierska, Magdalena; Malinowska, Joanna; Glowacki, Rafal; Olas, Beata; Bald, Edward; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Piekarski, Janusz

    2011-09-01

    The aim of our study was to explain the effect of elevated homocysteine (measured by HPLC) on haemostatic activity of plasma from breast cancer patients (fibrin polymerization and lysis; the thrombin and prothrombin time), because homocysteine (Hcys) induces changes in haemostasis, as well blood clotting as fibrinolysis. Patients were hospitalized in Department of Oncological Surgery, Medical University of Lodz, Poland. All patients have not had preadjuvant therapy, and samples from patients were taken before surgery. We observed that changes of selected parameters of haemostatic properties of plasma, e.g., the prothrombin time and thrombin time were prolonged in plasma from invasive breast cancer when compared with the control group (healthy subjects) and patients with benign breast diseases. Our results showed also that the correlation between the increased amount of Hcys and changes of selected parameters of haemostasis in invasive breast cancer patients exists. Considering the data presented in this study, we suggest that the elevated Hcys in invasive breast cancer patients may induce the changes of haemostatic properties of plasma isolated from these patients.

  10. Factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and deficiencies in coagulation inhibitors associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome and portal vein thrombosis: results of a case-control study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.L.A. Janssen (Harry); J.P. Vandenbroucke; F.R. Rosendaal (Frits); B. van Hoek (Bart); J.R. Meinardi; F.P. Vleggaar (Frank); S.H. van Uum; E.B. Haagsma (Els); F.J.M. van der Meer; J. van Hattum (Jan); R.A. Chamuleau; R.P.R. Adang (Rob)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn a collaborative multicenter case-control study, we investigated the effect of factor V Leiden mutation, prothrombin gene mutation, and inherited deficiencies of protein C, protein S, and antithrombin on the risk of Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) and portal vein thrombosi

  11. The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frégeau, M. O.; Bryś, T.; Gamboni, Th.; Geerts, W.; Oberstedt, S.; Oberstedt, A.; Borcea, R.

    2013-12-01

    The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF) technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time-of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD) diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD) show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution.

  12. The VERDI fission fragment spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frégeau M.O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The VERDI time-of-flight spectrometer is dedicated to measurements of fission product yields and of prompt neutron emission data. Pre-neutron fission-fragment masses will be determined by the double time-of-flight (TOF technique. For this purpose an excellent time resolution is required. The time of flight of the fragments will be measured by electrostatic mirrors located near the target and the time signal coming from silicon detectors located at 50 cm on both sides of the target. This configuration, where the stop detector will provide us simultaneously with the kinetic energy of the fragment and timing information, significantly limits energy straggling in comparison to legacy experimental setup where a thin foil was usually used as a stop detector. In order to improve timing resolution, neutron transmutation doped silicon will be used. The high resistivity homogeneity of this material should significantly improve resolution in comparison to standard silicon detectors. Post-neutron fission fragment masses are obtained form the time-of-flight and the energy signal in the silicon detector. As an intermediary step a diamond detector will also be used as start detector located very close to the target. Previous tests have shown that poly-crystalline chemical vapour deposition (pCVD diamonds provides a coincidence time resolution of 150 ps not allowing complete separation between very low-energy fission fragments, alpha particles and noise. New results from using artificial single-crystal diamonds (sCVD show similar time resolution as from pCVD diamonds but also sufficiently good energy resolution.

  13. The prothrombin time/international normalised ratio (PT/INR) line: derivation of local INR with commercial thromboplastins and coagulometers – two independent studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poller, Leon; Ibrahim, S.; Keown, M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The WHO scheme for prothrombin time (PT) standardization has been limited in application, because of its difficulties in implementation, particularly the need for mandatory manual PT testing and for local provision of thromboplastin international reference preparations (IRP). Methods...... thromboplastins and coagulometers. INRs were compared with manual certified values with thromboplastin IRP from expert centres and in the second study also with INRs from local ISI calibrations. Results: In the first study with the PT/INR Line, 8.7% deviation from certified INRs was reduced to 1.1% with human.......5% with bovine/combined reagents with local ISI calibrations and to 2.9% with the PT/INR Line. Mean INR dispersion was reduced with all thromboplastins and automated systems using the PT/INR Line. Conclusions: The procedure using the PT/INR Line provides reliable INR derivation without the need for WHO ISI...

  14. Antibodies to phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex in suspected antiphospholipid syndrome in the absence of antibodies to cardiolipin or Beta-2-glycoprotein I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanfelippo, M J; Joshi, A; Schwartz, Sl; Meister, J A; Goldberg, J W

    2013-11-01

    Antibodies to phosphatidylserine/prothrombin (aPS/PT) complex were measured in 728 serum specimens from patients suspected of having antiphospholipid syndrome (APS), but without diagnostic elevations in the levels of antibodies to cardiolipin or Beta-2 Glycoprotein 1 (β2-GP1). Of the 728 specimens, 41 had elevated levels of aPS/PT. Thrombotic events occurred in 11 of the 22 patients with accessible medical histories. Six of the patients with accessible medical records also had laboratory evidence of the lupus anticoagulant. The identification of aPS/PT in patients without evidence of antibodies to cardiolipin, β2-GP1, or the lupus anticoagulant can contribute to the identification of APS in patients that may go undetected with current testing methods.

  15. Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.H. Riitters

    2009-01-01

    Effective resource management takes into account the administrative and biophysical settings within which natural resources occur. A setting may be described in many ways; for example, by forest land ownership, by reserved and roadless designation, or by the distribution of human populations in relation to forest (chapter 3). The physical arrangement of forest in a...

  16. The Prothrombin G20210A Mutation is Associated with Young-Onset Stroke: The Genetics of Early Onset Stroke Study and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Baijia; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Hamedani, Ali; Cheng, Yuching; Sparks, Mary J.; Koontz, Deborah; Bean, Christopher J.; Gallagher, Margaret; Hooper, W. Craig; McArdle, Patrick F.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Stine, O. Colin; Wozniak, Marcella A.; Stern, Barney J.; Mitchell, Braxton D.; Kittner, Steven J.; Cole, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Although the prothrombin G20210A mutation has been implicated as a risk factor for venous thrombosis, its role in arterial ischemic stroke is unclear, particularly among young-adults. To address this issue, we examined the association between prothrombin G20210A and ischemic stroke in a Caucasian case-control population and additionally performed a meta-analysis Methods From the population-based Genetics of Early Onset Stroke (GEOS) study we identified 397 individuals of European ancestry aged 15-49 years with first-ever ischemic stroke and 426 matched-controls. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios in the entire population and for subgroups stratified by gender, age, oral contraceptive use, migraine and smoking status. A meta-analysis of 17 case-control studies (n=2305 cases stroke did not achieve statistical significance (OR=2.5,95%CI=0.9-6.5,p=0.07). However, among adults aged 15-42 (younger than median age), cases were significantly more likely than controls to have the mutation (OR=5.9,95%CI=1.2-28.1,p=0.03), whereas adults ages 42-49 were not (OR=1.4,95%CI=0.4-5.1,p=0.94). In our meta-analysis, the mutation was associated with significantly increased stroke risk in adults stroke in young-adults and may have an even stronger association among those with earlier onset strokes. Our finding of a stronger association in the younger-young adult population requires replication. PMID:24619398

  17. The relationship between factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR mutations and the first major thrombotic episode in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trifa, Adrian P; Cucuianu, Andrei; Popp, Radu A; Coadă, Camelia A; Costache, Roxana M; Militaru, Mariela S; Vesa, Ştefan C; Pop, Ioan V

    2014-02-01

    Arterial and venous thrombosis are the most frequent complications in patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia. We sought to demonstrate a possible contribution of the factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677 C > T and 1298 A > C mutations to the thrombotic risk in patients with polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia along with other biological features of these patients. We included 86 patients with polycythemia vera, of which 34 (39.5 %) had major thrombosis and 95 patients with essential thrombocythemia, of which 22 (23.1 %) had major thrombosis. In the whole cohort of patients, only the factor V Leiden mutation was significantly associated with both arterial and venous thrombosis in univariate and multivariate analysis (odds ratio (OR) = 4.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.5-12.5; p = 0.008 and OR = 4.3; 95 % CI = 1.2-15.9; p = 0.02, respectively). Other factors significantly associated with thrombosis in both univariate and multivariate analysis were male sex (OR = 2.8, 95 % CI = 1.4-5.4, p = 0.002 and OR = 3.5, 95 % CI = 1.6-7.6, p = 0.002, respectively) and the JAK2 V617F mutation (OR = 5.5, 95 % CI = 2.1-15, p = 0.0001 and OR = 6.9, 95 % CI = 2.2-21.2, p = 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, among the four mutations analyzed (factor V Leiden, prothrombin G20210A, and MTHFR 677 C > T and 1298 A > C), only factor V Leiden is a major contributor to thrombosis in polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.

  18. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  19. Efficient and accurate fragmentation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruitt, Spencer R; Bertoni, Colleen; Brorsen, Kurt R; Gordon, Mark S

    2014-09-16

    Conspectus Three novel fragmentation methods that are available in the electronic structure program GAMESS (general atomic and molecular electronic structure system) are discussed in this Account. The fragment molecular orbital (FMO) method can be combined with any electronic structure method to perform accurate calculations on large molecular species with no reliance on capping atoms or empirical parameters. The FMO method is highly scalable and can take advantage of massively parallel computer systems. For example, the method has been shown to scale nearly linearly on up to 131 000 processor cores for calculations on large water clusters. There have been many applications of the FMO method to large molecular clusters, to biomolecules (e.g., proteins), and to materials that are used as heterogeneous catalysts. The effective fragment potential (EFP) method is a model potential approach that is fully derived from first principles and has no empirically fitted parameters. Consequently, an EFP can be generated for any molecule by a simple preparatory GAMESS calculation. The EFP method provides accurate descriptions of all types of intermolecular interactions, including Coulombic interactions, polarization/induction, exchange repulsion, dispersion, and charge transfer. The EFP method has been applied successfully to the study of liquid water, π-stacking in substituted benzenes and in DNA base pairs, solvent effects on positive and negative ions, electronic spectra and dynamics, non-adiabatic phenomena in electronic excited states, and nonlinear excited state properties. The effective fragment molecular orbital (EFMO) method is a merger of the FMO and EFP methods, in which interfragment interactions are described by the EFP potential, rather than the less accurate electrostatic potential. The use of EFP in this manner facilitates the use of a smaller value for the distance cut-off (Rcut). Rcut determines the distance at which EFP interactions replace fully quantum

  20. Valores de referência do tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa em cães Reference ranges of prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos Lopes

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Os fatores de coagulação são parte integrante da hemostasia normal, e tanto as coagulopatias hereditárias como adquiridas que envolvem este sistema são de grande importância veterinária, geralmente evidenciadas por manifestações clínicas, tais como, petéquias, equimoses, hematomas e sangramentos tardios. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo a determinação dos valores de referência do tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa, por métodos manuais. Para tanto, utilizou-se "kits" para dosagens humanas, devido à inexistência de produtos similares de uso específico veterinário. Foram utilizados 40 cães clinicamente sadios, sem raça definida, machos ou fêmeas, de diferentes idades. As amostras sanguíneas foram de 2,5ml cada, colhidas por venopunção cefálica e acondicionadas em tubos de centrífuga contendo 0,25ml de citrato de sódio a 3,8%. O plasma foi imediatamente separado por centrifugação e as determinações de TP e TTPa foram realizadas utilizando-se "kits" comerciais "HemoStat Thromboplastin-SIª" e "HemoStat aPTT-El b", respectivamente. Os resultados obtidos foram de 6,87 ± 1,4 segundos para o TP com valores mínimo e máximo de 4,07 e 9,67, respectivamente, e de 15,10 ± 1,6 segundos para TTPa com valores mínimo e máximo de 11,9 e 18,3, respectivamente. Conclui-se, que os valores obtidos neste trabalho podem ser utilizados como referência. Os reagentes utilizados para plasma humano podem ser empregados para o plasma de cães.The coagulation factors are part of normal hemostasis, and both hereditary and acquired coagulopathies that involve this system have an important role in veterinary medicine, generally evidenced by clinical signs such as: petechias, ecchymosis, hematomas and late hemorrhagies. The objective of this experiment was to determine reference range values of prothrombin time (PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT, for manual methods. Human commercial

  1. Evaluation of effect of selected trace elements on dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wdowiak, Artur; Bakalczuk, Grzegorz; Bakalczuk, Szymon

    2015-12-31

    Lead and cadmium can lead to negative effects on sperm chromatin DNA integrity. Copper, zinc and selenium are essential components of many enzymes which are important for reproduction. The aim of this research was to evaluate the influence of lead, cadmium, zinc, copper and selenium on the dynamics of semen DNA fragmentation. The present study concerned 85 fertile and 131 infertile men aged 25-35. DNA fragmentation in the samples was determined after 3 h, 6 h and 12 h. The Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Se measurements were performed by the electrothermal-atomic absorption spectrometry method. We found that sperm DNA fragmentation was a dynamic process which was intensified with an increase in the level of lead in seminal plasma. The levels of lead and cadmium were higher in seminal plasma of infertile men, compared to fertile men. The levels of zinc, copper and selenium in seminal plasma were higher in men with proven fertility, compared to infertile men, and did not exert a significant effect on the dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation. The level of cadmium had no significant effect on intensification of sperm DNA fragmentation in time. Reports in the literature which concern the effect of trace elements on human reproduction are equivocal. The present study confirmed an unfavourable effect, especially that of lead, on the dynamics of sperm DNA fragmentation; however, these studies need to be expanded and continued in the future.

  2. Fragmentation in the biopharmaceutical industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldsmith, Andrew D; Varela, Francisco E

    2017-02-01

    The large number of biopharmaceutical mergers and acquisitions (M&A) that occurred over the past decade has generated questions about whether the industry is consolidating around too-few players, negatively impacting both the number of medicines developed and overall innovation. However, closer examination of the level of biopharmaceutical consolidation by prescription sales shows that the industry was more fragmented in 2015 than in 2003. The trend towards increasing fragmentation is also observed across noncommercial and independent metrics over the same time period. The number and size of M&A deals has masked an active and competitive marketplace in which market growth and the number of companies entering the market exceeded the apparent reduction in the number of players caused by acquisitions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, Laura, E-mail: bandura@anl.gov [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Erdelyi, Bela [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Hausmann, Marc [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Kubo, Toshiyuki [RIKEN Nishina Center, RIKEN, Wako (Japan); Nolen, Jerry [Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Portillo, Mauricio [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Sherrill, Bradley M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Lab, Michigan State University, 1 Cyclotron, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  4. Fragment separator momentum compression schemes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, L.; Erdelyi, B.; Hausmann, M.; Kubo, T.; Nolen, J.; Portillo, M.; Sherrill, B.M. (Physics); (MSU); (Northern Illinois Univ.); (RIKEN)

    2011-07-21

    We present a scheme to use a fragment separator and profiled energy degraders to transfer longitudinal phase space into transverse phase space while maintaining achromatic beam transport. The first order beam optics theory of the method is presented and the consequent enlargement of the transverse phase space is discussed. An interesting consequence of the technique is that the first order mass resolving power of the system is determined by the first dispersive section up to the energy degrader, independent of whether or not momentum compression is used. The fragment separator at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams is a specific application of this technique and is described along with simulations by the code COSY INFINITY.

  5. Fragment correlations from NAUTILUS multidetector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizard, G. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire

    1995-12-31

    It is shown on a few examples how heavy fragment correlations, induced either by conservation laws or by Coulomb interaction can bring physical information on nuclear reactions. All the experimental data discussed have been obtained at GANIL using the NAUTILUS gaseous multi detectors DELF and XYZT, which - due to their good spatial and time resolution and their large solid angle coverage - have proved to be efficient tools for multifragment correlation studies. Different reactions of Ar, Kr, Xe, and Pb beams on Au targets are discussed. It is shown that velocity and angular correlations between fragments provide a powerful clock to scrutinize the details of the hot nuclei decay history. (K.A.). 18 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Fragmentation in filamentary molecular clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Contreras, Yanett; Rathborne, Jill M; Sanhueza, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    Recent surveys of dust continuum emission at sub-mm wavelengths have shown that filamentary molecular clouds are ubiquitous along the Galactic plane. These structures are inhomogeneous, with over-densities that are sometimes associated with infrared emission and active of star formation. To investigate the connection between filaments and star formation, requires an understanding of the processes that lead to the fragmentation of filaments and a determination of the physical properties of the over-densities (clumps). In this paper, we present a multi-wavelength study of five filamentary molecular clouds, containing several clumps in different evolutionary stages of star formation. We analyse the fragmentation of the filaments and derive the physical properties of their clumps. We find that the clumps in all filaments have a characteristic spacing consistent with the prediction of the `sausage' instability theory, regardless of the complex morphology of the filaments or their evolutionary stage. We also find t...

  7. Fragmentering og korridorer i landskabet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammershøj, M.; Madsen, A. B.

    , at fragmentering af habitater resulterer i en reduktion og isolering af mange plante- og dyrepopulationer. Det er desuden vist, at korridorer har en funktion som habitater, hvilket er medvirkende til, at et område med korridorer kan huse flere arter og individer end et tilsvarende område uden korridorer. Der......Rapporten indeholder en litteraturudredning, der er baseret på en bearbejdning af den tilgængelige nationale og internationale litteratur omhandlende fragmentering og korridorer på det botaniske og zoologiske område. I alt 1.063 titler ligger til grund for udredningen. Udredningen har vist...... mangler dog entydige beviser for, at korridorer kan være af afgørende betydning for rekolonisering af habitater, i hvilke en given art er forsvundet. Afslutningsvis gives en liste med forskningsbehov samt en række anbefalinger....

  8. Asymmetry effects in fragment production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Kaur, Varinderjit

    2016-05-01

    The production of different fragments has been studied by taking into account the mass asymmetry of the reaction and employing the momentum dependent interactions. Two different set of asymmetric reactions have been analyzed while keeping Atotal fixed using soft momentum dependent equation of state. Our results indicate that the impact of momentum dependent interactions is different in lighter projectile systems as compared to heavier ones. The comparative analysis of IQMD simulations with the experimental data in case of heavier projectile and lighter target system for the reaction of 197Au+27Al (η = 0.7) at E = 600 MeV/nucleon shows that with the inclusion of MDI we are able, upto some extent, to reproduce the experimental universality of rise and fall of intermediate mass fragments (IMFs).

  9. The fragmentation of Kosmos 2163

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    On 6 Dec. 1991 Kosmos 2163, a maneuverable Soviet spacecraft which had been in orbit for 58 days, experienced a major breakup at an altitude of approximately 210 km. Although numerous pieces of debris were created, the fragments decayed rapidly leaving no long-term impact on the near-Earth environment. The assessed cause of the event is the deliberate detonation of an explosive device. Details of this event are presented.

  10. Modeling of Fragmentation of Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Parul; Prabhu, Dinesh K.; Carlozzi, Alexander; Hart, Kenneth; Bryson, Katie; Sears, Derek

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to understand fragmentation and fracture of a given asteroid and mechanisms of break-up. The focus of the present work is to develop modeling techniques for stony asteroids in 10m-100m range to answer two questions: 1) What is the role of material makeup of an asteroid in the stress distribution? 2)How is stress distribution altered in the presence of pre-existing defects?

  11. Fragmentation measurement using image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhang Sereshki

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, first of all, the existing problems in fragmentation measurement are reviewed for the sake of its fast and reliable evaluation. Then, the available methods used for evaluation of blast results are mentioned. The produced errors especially in recognizing the rock fragments in computer-aided methods, and also, the importance of determination of their sizes in the image analysis methods are described. After reviewing the previous work done, an algorithm is proposed for the automated determination of rock particles’ boundary in the Matlab software. This method can determinate automatically the particles boundary in the minimum time. The results of proposed method are compared with those of Split Desktop and GoldSize software in two automated and manual states. Comparing the curves extracted from different methods reveals that the proposed approach is accurately applicable in measuring the size distribution of laboratory samples, while the manual determination of boundaries in the conventional software is very time-consuming, and the results of automated netting of fragments are very different with the real value due to the error in separation of the objects.

  12. Residual Fragments after Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaan Özdedeli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Clinically insignificant residual fragments (CIRFs are described as asymptomatic, noninfectious and nonobstructive stone fragments (≤4 mm remaining in the urinary system after the last session of any intervention (ESWL, URS or PCNL for urinary stones. Their insignificance is questionable since CIRFs could eventually become significant, as their presence may result in recurrent stone growth and they may cause pain and infection due to urinary obstruction. They may become the source of persistent infections and a significant portion of the patients will have a stone-related event, requiring auxilliary interventions. CT seems to be the ultimate choice of assessment. Although there is no concensus about the timing, recent data suggests that it may be performed one month after the procedure. However, imaging can be done in the immediate postoperative period, if there are no tubes blurring the assessment. There is some evidence indicating that selective medical therapy may have an impact on decreasing stone formation rates. Retrograde intrarenal surgery, with its minimally invasive nature, seems to be the best way to deal with residual fragments.

  13. 凝血酶原基因G20210A突变检测对肺血栓栓塞症的预测价值%Predictive value of prothrombin G20210A mutation detection in pulmonary thromboembolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张佳; 赵凤芹; 谭平; 季红

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨凝血酶原基因 G20210A(FⅡG20210A)突变在中国东北地区肺血栓栓塞症(PTE)患者中的发生频率,阐明检测该突变基因对中国东北地区人群 PTE的预测价值。方法:选择经核素肺灌注显像和(或)螺旋CT肺动脉造影(CTPA)结合临床症状确诊的PTE患者60例(病例组)和同期来自相同地区、性别和年龄相匹配的正常健康人80名(对照组)。应用蛋白酶消化及乙醇抽提获得2组研究对象的 DNA。采用聚合酶链式反应(PCR)、HindⅢ限制性内切酶片段多态性分析(RFLP )和琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测病例组和对照组研究对象FⅡG20210A基因突变情况。结果:经HindⅢ酶切后,病例组仅出现407和99 bp 2个条带,FⅡG20210A突变频率为0%,与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);病例组和对照组均未发现 FⅡG20210A基因杂合子或纯合子突变。结论:FⅡ G20210A基因突变在我国东北地区 PTE患者中发生率低,FⅡG20210A基因突变检测可能对中国东北地区人群 PTE无预测价值。%Objective To study the incidence frequency of prothrombin G20210A (FⅡ G20210A)mutation in the patients with pulmonary thromboembolism(PTE)in northeast China,and to clarify the predictive value of FⅡG20210A mutation detection in PTE of the population in northeast China.Methods 60 PTE patients(PTE group) and 80 sex-matched healthy controls(control group)from the same geographic area were selected.All the patients were diagnosed by lung ventilation/perfusion scan and/or multi-slice CT pulmonary angiography(CTPA)as well as medical history.The genome DNA was extracted from the whole blood using alcohol.Polymerase chain reaction (PCR),restriction fragment length polymorphisms(RFLP)analysis with HindⅢ restriction enzyme and sepharose gel electrophoresis were used to identify the F Ⅱ G20210A mutation in PTE group and control group. Results After digested by Hind

  14. Mass spectrometric detection, identification, and fragmentation of arseno-phytochelatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmied-Tobies, Maria I H; Arroyo-Abad, Uriel; Mattusch, Jürgen; Reemtsma, Thorsten

    2014-11-01

    Phytochelatins (PC) are cystein-rich oligopeptides in plants for coordination with toxic metals and metalloids via their thiol groups. The composition, structure, and mass spectrometric fragmentation of arseno-PC (As-PC) with PC of different degree of oligomerization (PC2-PC5) in solution were studied using liquid chromatography coupled in parallel to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. As-PC were detected from As(PC2) to As(PC5) with an increasing number of isomers that differ in the position of thiol groups bound to As. Thermodynamic modeling supported the identification process in case of these isomers. Mass spectrometric fragmentation of the As-PC does not follow the established pattern of peptides but is governed by the formation of series of As-containing annular cations, which coordinate to As via S, N, or O. Structure proposals for 30 As-PC fragment ions in the range m/z 147.92 to m/z 1290.18 are elaborated. Many of these fragment ions are characteristic to several As-PC and may be suited for a screening for As-PC in plant extracts. The mass spectrometric data offer the perspective for a future more sensitive determination of As-PC by means of liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry with multiple reaction monitoring.

  15. Laser lithotripsy with the Ho:YAG laser: fragmentation process revealed by time-resolved imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Franz R.; Beghuin, Didier; Delacretaz, Guy P.; Venzi, Giordano; Jichlinski, Patrice; Rink, Klaus; Leisinger, Hans-Juerg; Graber, Peter

    1998-07-01

    Improvements of endoscopic techniques have renewed the interest of urologists in laser lithotripsy in recent years. Laser energy can be easily transmitted through flexible fibers thereby enabling different surgical procedures such as cutting, coagulating and lithotripsy. The Ho:YAG laser offers multiple medical applications in Urology, among them stone fragmentation. However, the present knowledge of its fragmentation mechanism is incomplete. The objective was therefore to analyze the fragmentation process and to discuss the clinical implications related to the underlying fragmentation mechanism. The stone fragmentation process during Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy was observed by time resolved flash video imaging. Possible acoustic transient occurrence was simultaneously monitored with a PVDF-needle hydrophone. Fragmentation was performed on artificial and cystine kidney stones in water. We observed that though the fragmentation process is accompanied with the formation of a cavitation bubble, cavitation has only a minimal effect on stone fragmentation. Fragment ejection is mainly due to direct laser stone heating leading to vaporization of organic stone constituents and interstitial water. The minimal effect of the cavitation bubble is confirmed by acoustic transients measurements, which reveal weak pressure transients. Stone fragmentation with the Holmium laser is the result of vaporization of interstitial (stone) water and organic stone constituents. It is not due to the acoustic effects of a cavitation bubble or plasma formation. The fragmentation process is strongly related with heat production thereby harboring the risk of undesired thermal damage. Therefore, a solid comprehension of the fragmentation process is needed when using the different clinically available laser types of lithotripsy.

  16. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  17. Augmenting Tractable Fragments of Abstract Argumentation

    CERN Document Server

    Ordyniak, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    We present a new and compelling approach to the efficient solution of important computational problems that arise in the context of abstract argumentation. Our approach makes known algorithms defined for restricted fragments generally applicable, at a computational cost that scales with the distance from the fragment. Thus, in a certain sense, we gradually augment tractable fragments. Surprisingly, it turns out that some tractable fragments admit such an augmentation and that others do not. More specifically, we show that the problems of credulous and skeptical acceptance are fixed-parameter tractable when parameterized by the distance from the fragment of acyclic argumentation frameworks. Other tractable fragments such as the fragments of symmetrical and bipartite frameworks seem to prohibit an augmentation: the acceptance problems are already intractable for frameworks at distance 1 from the fragments. For our study we use a broad setting and consider several different semantics. For the algorithmic results...

  18. An ex vivo evaluation of efficacy of refrigerated canine plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grochowsky, Adam R; Rozanski, Elizabeth A; de Laforcade, Armelle M; Sharp, Claire R; Meola, Dawn M; Schavone, Jessica J; Brooks, Majory B

    2014-01-01

    To determine thawing times of fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and to evaluate the activity of hemostatic proteins (coagulation factors V, VII, VIII, IX, X, and fibrinogen), clotting times (prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time), and sterility of canine plasma stored refrigerated. Prospective laboratory-based study. Veterinary teaching hospital blood bank. Phase 1: Six units of canine FFP were retrieved from the blood bank and thawed individually in a warm water bath. Time for thaw was recorded in minutes and reported as mean ± SD. Phase 2: One unit of fresh whole blood was collected from 9 dogs and processed routinely. Resulting plasma was divided into 2 aliquots, 1 stored as refrigerated plasma (RP) and 1 as frozen plasma. Samples from the RP were taken at 0, 1, 5, 7, and 14 days and from the FFP at days 0 and 14 for determination of clotting factor activity (V, VII, VIII, IX, and X and fibrinogen) and clotting times. Coagulation factors and clotting times were analyzed using a mixed effects linear model for ANOVA, comparing changes over time as well as differences between groups. For all comparisons, a P value of coagulation factor activity in canine plasma. The use of RP, therefore, may be a viable option in high-volume veterinary hospitals for rapid correction of coagulopathy in critical care patients. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2014.

  19. Changes of IL-8 and IL-8 mRNA after blast-fragment combined injury in dogs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jia-chuan; YANG Zhi-huan; DONG Hong; FENG Gong; LI Xiao-yan; YIN You-guo

    2001-01-01

    To explore the characteristics and the mechanism of the blast-fragment combined injury.Methods: After the dogs were inflicted with high-velocity fragment injury on their left hindlimbs after blast injury,the IL-8 in the plasma and lung tissue supernatants were assayed with ELISA, and the expression of IL-8 mRNA in lung tissue was detected with in situ hybridization. Results: The levels of IL-8 in plasma and lung tissues were increased after blast, high velocity fragment and blast-fragment combined injuries respectively. IL-8 mRNA were upregulated after injuries. Conclusion: IL-8 may play a role in the occurrence and development of lung injury.Detecting the plasma levels of IL-8 may be quite helpful to estimate the injury.

  20. Energy-loss distributions of fission fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidovich, N.N.; Nakhutin, I.E.; Shatunov, V.G.

    1976-03-05

    The f-f coincidence method was used to investigate the change in the form of the energy-loss distributions of Cf/sup 252/ fission fragments in air, down to fragment energies approx.0.8 MeV. A theoretical model is considered for the estimate of the mean-squared deviations of the fragment energy-loss distributions. (AIP)

  1. Self-organized criticality in fragmenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, L.; Dimon, P.; Bohr, J.

    1993-01-01

    The measured mass distributions of fragments from 26 fractured objects of gypsum, soap, stearic paraffin, and potato show evidence of obeying scaling laws; this suggests the possibility of self-organized criticality in fragmenting. The probability of finding a fragment scales inversely to a power...

  2. Low pressure microfluidic-based DNA fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Bomer, Johan G.; Jin, Mingliang; Carlen, Edwin; van den Berg, Albert

    2011-01-01

    We report a low-pressure microfluidic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation device based on a combination of me-chanical hydrodynamic shearing and low temperature sample heating. Conventional DNA fragmentation based on hydrody-namic shearing is capable of achieving fragment lengths (FL) < 10k bp

  3. Scaling and four-quark fragmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, O.; Bosveld, G. D.

    1991-01-01

    The conditions for a scaling behaviour from the fragmentation process leading to slow protons are discussed. The scaling referred to implies that the fragmentation functions depend on the light-cone momentum fraction only. It is shown that differences in the fragmentation functions for valence- and

  4. Spermatozoal cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector A (CIDEA) gene expression and DNA fragmentation in infertile men with metabolic syndrome and normal seminogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsamanoudy, Ayman Z; Abdalla, Hussein Abdelaziz; Hassanien, Mohammed; Gaballah, Mohammad A

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to investigate spermatozoal cell death-inducing DNA fragmentation factor-α-like effector A (CIDEA) gene expression and DNA fragmentations in the spermatozoa of men diagnosed with metabolic syndrome (MS) who have normal seminograms with unexplained infertility, and to correlate these parameters with seminal glucose concentration. This study included 120 participants: 75 male subjects with MS (38 fertile and 37 infertile), and a control group of 45 fertile males without MS. HOMA-IR, semen analysis, and biochemical measurement of seminal plasma insulin and glucose levels were carried out. Spermatozoal insulin gene and CIDEA gene expressions were performed by the RT-PCR method. The percentage of spermatozoal DNA fragmentation was also estimated. The spermatozoal insulin and CIDEA gene expression, as well as the DNA fragmentation, were significantly higher in the infertile MS group than in the fertile MS group, and significantly higher in both the MS groups than in the control group. Seminal glucose concentration showed significant positive correlations with seminal insulin level, spermatozoa insulin, CIDEA gene expression, and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between spermatozoa CIDEA gene expression and DNA fragmentation. It can be concluded that MS may affect male fertility at the molecular level, through its possible inducing effect of spermatozoa CIDEA and insulin gene expression, DNA fragmentation, and increased seminal glucose.

  5. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-05-31

    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  6. Isoscaling of projectile-like fragments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Chen; Chen Jin-Hui; Guo Wei; Ma Chun-Wang; Ma Guo-Liang; Su Qian-Min; Yan Ting-Zhi; Zuo Jia-Xu; Ma Yu-Gang; Fang De-Qing; Cai Xiang-Zhou; Chen Jin-Gen; Shen Wen-Qing; Tian Wen-Dong; Wang Kun; Wei Yi-Bin

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the isotopic and isotonic distributions of projectile fragmentation products have been simulated by a modified statistical abrasion-ablation model and the isoscaling behaviour of projectile-like fragments has been discussed. The isoscaling parameters α andβ have been extracted respectively, for hot fragments before evaporation and cold fragments after evaporation. It looks that the evaporation has stronger effect on α than β. For cold fragments,a monotonic increase of α and |β| with the increase of Z and N is observed. The relation between isoscaling parameter and the change of isospin content is discussed.

  7. Triggered fragmentation in gravitationally unstable discs: forming fragments at small radii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meru Farzana

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We carry out three dimensional radiation hydrodynamical simulations of gravitationally unstable discs using to explore the movement of mass in a disc following its fragmentation. Compared to a more quiescent state before it fragments, the radial velocity of the gas increases by up to a factor of ≈ 2 – 3 after fragmentation. While the mass movement occurs both inwards and outwards, the inwards motion can cause the inner spirals to be suciently dense that they may become unstable and potentially fragment. Consequently, the dynamical behaviour of fragmented discs may cause subsequent fragmentation at smaller radii after an initial fragment has formed in the outer disc.

  8. Analysis of Transmissions Scheduling with Packet Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nir Menakerman

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We investigate a scheduling problem in which packets, or datagrams, may be fragmented. While there are a few applications to scheduling with datagram fragmentation, our model of the problem is derived from a scheduling problem present in data over CATV networks. In the scheduling problem datagrams of variable lengths must be assigned (packed into fixed length time slots. One of the capabilities of the system is the ability to break a datagram into several fragments. When a datagram is fragmented, extra bits are added to the original datagram to enable the reassembly of all the fragments. We convert the scheduling problem into the problem of bin packing with item fragmentation, which we define in the following way: we are asked to pack a list of items into a minimum number of unit capacity bins. Each item may be fragmented in which case overhead units are added to the size of every fragment. The cost associated with fragmentation renders the problem NP-hard, therefore an approximation algorithm is needed. We define a version of the well-known Next-Fit algorithm, capable of fragmenting items, and investigate its performance. We present both worst case and average case results and compare them to the case where fragmentation is not allowed.

  9. Impact of numerical models on fragmentation processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renouf, Mathieu; Gezahengn, Belien; Abbas, Micheline; Bourgeois, Florent

    2013-06-01

    Simulated fragmentation process in granular assemblies is a challenging problem which date back the beginning of the 90'. If first approaches have focus on the fragmentation on a single particle, with the development of robust, fast numerical method is is possible today to simulated such process in a large collection of particles. But the question of the fragmentation problem is still open: should the fragmentation be done dynamically (one particle becoming two fragments) and according which criterion or should the fragment paths be defined initially and which is the impact of the discretization and the model of fragments? The present contribution proposes to investigate the second aspect i.e. the impact of fragment modeling on the fragmentation processes. First to perform such an analysis, the geometry of fragments (disks/sphere or polygon/polyhedra), their behavior (rigid/deformable) and the law governing their interactions are investigated. Then such model will be used in a grinding application where the evolution of fragments and impact on the behavior of the whole packing are investigate.

  10. The formation of planets by disc fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stamatellos Dimitris

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available I discuss the role that disc fragmentation plays in the formation of gas giant and terrestrial planets, and how this relates to the formation of brown dwarfs and low-mass stars, and ultimately to the process of star formation. Protostellar discs may fragment, if they are massive enough and can cool fast enough, but most of the objects that form by fragmentation are brown dwarfs. It may be possible that planets also form, if the mass growth of a proto-fragment is stopped (e.g. if this fragment is ejected from the disc, or suppressed and even reversed (e.g by tidal stripping. I will discuss if it is possible to distinguish whether a planet has formed by disc fragmentation or core accretion, and mention of a few examples of observed exoplanets that are suggestive of formation by disc fragmentation.

  11. Reframing landscape fragmentation's effects on ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Matthew G E; Suarez-Castro, Andrés F; Martinez-Harms, Maria; Maron, Martine; McAlpine, Clive; Gaston, Kevin J; Johansen, Kasper; Rhodes, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    Landscape structure and fragmentation have important effects on ecosystem services, with a common assumption being that fragmentation reduces service provision. This is based on fragmentation's expected effects on ecosystem service supply, but ignores how fragmentation influences the flow of services to people. Here we develop a new conceptual framework that explicitly considers the links between landscape fragmentation, the supply of services, and the flow of services to people. We argue that fragmentation's effects on ecosystem service flow can be positive or negative, and use our framework to construct testable hypotheses about the effects of fragmentation on final ecosystem service provision. Empirical efforts to apply and test this framework are critical to improving landscape management for multiple ecosystem services.

  12. Extraction of 16th Century Calender Fragments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jakob Povl; Etheridge, Christian

    at the Cultural Heritage & Archaeometric Research Team, SDU. Upon finding medieval manuscript fragments in the university library’s special collections, scholars at the Centre for Medieval Literature are consulted. In most cases, digital pictures of the finds will circulate in the international community...... of medieval scholars. Thousands of 16th and 17th Century books are stored in the University Library of Southern Denmark. One out of five of these books is expected to contain medieval manuscript fragments or fragments of rare prints, e.g. incunabula....... fragments may require extensive use of Big Data and other forms of analysis in order to be identified. Usually, the university library prefers not to remove the fragments from their “fragment carriers”. In order to read fragments that are only partially visible or invisible, x-ray technology may be deployed...

  13. Dihadron Fragmentation Functions and Transversity

    CERN Document Server

    Radici, Marco; Bacchetta, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    We present preliminary results for an updated extraction of the transversity parton distribution based on the analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized targets in collinear factorization. Data for proton and deuteron targets by HERMES and COMPASS allow for a flavor separation of the valence components of transversity, while di-hadron fragmentation functions are taken from the semi-inclusive production of two pion pairs in back-to-back jets in $e^+ e^-$ annihilation. The latter data from Belle have been reanalyzed using the replica method and a more realistic estimate of the uncertainties on the chiral-odd interference fragmentation function has been obtained. After encoding this piece of information into the deep-inelastic scattering cross section, the transversity has been re-extracted by using the most recent and more precise COMPASS data for proton target. This picture represents the current most realistic estimate of the uncertainties on our knowledge of tran...

  14. Dihadron Fragmentation Functions and Transversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radici Marco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present preliminary results for an updated extraction of the transversity parton distribution based on the analysis of pion-pair production in deep-inelastic scattering off transversely polarized targets in collinear factorization. Data for proton and deuteron targets by HERMES and COMPASS allow for a flavor separation of the valence components of transversity, while di-hadron fragmentation functions are taken from the semi-inclusive production of two pion pairs in back-to-back jets in e+e− annihilation. The latter data from Belle have been reanalyzed using the replica method and a more realistic estimate of the uncertainties on the chiral-odd interference fragmentation function has been obtained. After encoding this piece of information into the deep-inelastic scattering cross section, the transversity has been re-extracted by using the most recent and more precise COMPASS data for proton target. This picture represents the current most realistic estimate of the uncertainties on our knowledge of transversity. The preliminary results indicate that the valence up component seems smaller and with a narrower error band than in previous extraction.

  15. Efeito de alguns curares naturais e da d-Tubocurarina retardando o tempo de coagulação e o tempo de protombina do sangue humano Natural curares and d-Tubocuratine effects on human blood clothing time and prothrombine time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Canali

    1967-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author points out to a old question of about 200 years ago in wich two kinds of opinions were discussed. BANCROFT and FONTANA in one hand atributes for the Indian arrow poison (curare the propriety of uncoagulate the blood, and C. BEBNAHDJ, B. RODRIGUES and others made an contradictory opinion upon this subject. In our experiments, we utilized 4 curares samples from indians who lives near the Brazilian border at Colombia, the famous Ticunas poison, and the alkaloid d-Tubocurarine. These poisons were added in form of emulsion in saline to the blood and blood plasma in order to perform two kinds of experiments. In one serie of experiments we observed the effect of curare on human blood coagulation time according to LEE-WHITE technic puting 0.5 ml of the various poisons emulsions previously into the tube. By this method, we have found that the emulsion containing 0.1 g of the poison in 10 ml saline was the most effective (Table II, therefore we used this curare emulsion concentration in the other serie of experiments, in which we tested the action of these venoms on the human blood plasma prothrombins time, (Quick Technic adding 0.1 ml of the saline poison emulsion to each 0.1 ml of human blood plasma. Results from these experiments can be seen on Table II. These experiments we have tried on one sample of human blood plasma plus the differents curares samples; and in another opportunity four samples of human blood plasma were tried with the curare from Ticunas indians (the most effective in this respect. Results from these experiments may be seen on Table III. All the poison tried in our experiments was previously tested on toads legs (B. crucifer to verify his curares action. All times obtained with the experiments above, show highly significant results (P<001 when compared with the blood and blood plasma mixed with in the same volume of saline. Our results, point out that BANCROFT and FONTANA views upon the effect of curare on

  16. Single chain Fab (scFab fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenneis Mariam

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The connection of the variable part of the heavy chain (VH and and the variable part of the light chain (VL by a peptide linker to form a consecutive polypeptide chain (single chain antibody, scFv was a breakthrough for the functional production of antibody fragments in Escherichia coli. Being double the size of fragment variable (Fv fragments and requiring assembly of two independent polypeptide chains, functional Fab fragments are usually produced with significantly lower yields in E. coli. An antibody design combining stability and assay compatibility of the fragment antigen binding (Fab with high level bacterial expression of single chain Fv fragments would be desirable. The desired antibody fragment should be both suitable for expression as soluble antibody in E. coli and antibody phage display. Results Here, we demonstrate that the introduction of a polypeptide linker between the fragment difficult (Fd and the light chain (LC, resulting in the formation of a single chain Fab fragment (scFab, can lead to improved production of functional molecules. We tested the impact of various linker designs and modifications of the constant regions on both phage display efficiency and the yield of soluble antibody fragments. A scFab variant without cysteins (scFabΔC connecting the constant part 1 of the heavy chain (CH1 and the constant part of the light chain (CL were best suited for phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. Beside the expression system E. coli, the new antibody format was also expressed in Pichia pastoris. Monovalent and divalent fragments (DiFabodies as well as multimers were characterised. Conclusion A new antibody design offers the generation of bivalent Fab derivates for antibody phage display and production of soluble antibody fragments. This antibody format is of particular value for high throughput proteome binder generation projects, due to the avidity effect and the possible use of

  17. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  18. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  19. Maternal factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations do not seem to contribute to the occurrence of two or more than two consecutive miscarriages in Caucasian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Kristin; Beuter-Winkler, Petra; Hackethal, Andreas; Strowitzki, Thomas; Toth, Bettina; Bohlmann, Michael K

    2013-12-01

    We analysed the prevalence of the most common hereditary thrombophilia (hTP) - factor V Leiden (FVL) mutation, prothrombin 20210 G>A substitution (PT) - and the 677 C>T replacement in the 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in Caucasian patients with a history of two and more consecutive recurrent miscarriages (RMs) as compared to healthy controls with an identical ethnic background and at least one live birth. A multicenter analysis of three hTP was performed in 641 RM patients identically screened at specialized university centres. The study groups consisted of 240 patients with 2 (1) and 401 patients with >2 miscarriages (2) and were compared with 157 controls. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of the hTP between RM patients and controls nor within the two study groups. Subgroup analysis showed that the homozygous MTHFR polymorphism was significantly more prevalent in the study group 2 as compared to study group 1 (13.9 versus 7.9%, P = 0.02). In Caucasians, maternal FVL or PT mutations do not seem to contribute to the pathophysiology of RM, irrespective of the number of miscarriages. However, the role of the homozygous MTHFR polymorphism merits further investigation. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Factor V G1691A (Leiden and prothrombin G20210A gene mutation status, and thrombosis in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Soyer

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to examine Factor V G1691A (Leiden (FVL and prothrombin G20210A (PT gene mutation status, and their relationship with thrombosis in patients with chronic myeloproliferative disorders (CMPDs.Materials and Methods: The study included 160 patients with a CMPD that were regularly followed-up between 1993 and 2009. FVL and PT mutation status was established based on blood samples analyzed via PCR using specific primers.Results: The frequency of FVL and PT mutation was 12.5% and 4.4%, respectively. In total, 27 episodes of thrombosis occurred in 24 (15% of the patients, and there wasn’t an association between the observed thrombotic events, and FVL or PT mutations. Hepatic vein thrombosis was noted in 3 patients that had FVL mutation, of which 1 also had PT mutation.Conclusion: We did not observe a relationship between thrombosis, and FVL or PT mutations in CMPD patients; however, 3 of the patients that had hepatic vein thrombosis also had FVL mutation. Larger studies are needed to more clearly determine if all CMPD patients with hepatic vein thrombosis need be investigated for FVL and PT mutation.

  1. Thrombophilic risk of individuals with rare compound factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A polymorphisms: an international case series of 100 individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Ming Y; Deal, Allison M; Kim, Steven; Musty, Michael D; Conard, Jacqueline; Simioni, Paolo; Dutrillaux, Fabienne; Eid, Suhair S; Middeldorp, Saskia; Halbmayer, Walter M; Boneu, Bernard; Moia, Marco; Moll, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    The risk of thrombosis in individuals with rare compound thrombophilias, homozygous factor V Leiden (FVL) plus heterozygous prothrombin G20210A (PTM), homozygous PTM plus heterozygous FVL, and homozygous FVL plus homozygous PTM, is unknown. We identified, worldwide, individuals with these compound thrombophilias, predominantly through mailing members of the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis. Physicians were sent a clinical questionnaire. Confirmatory copies of the genetic results were obtained. One hundred individuals were enrolled; 58% were female. Seventy-one individuals had a venous thrombosis (includes superficial and deep vein thrombosis, and pulmonary embolism), 4 had an arterial thrombosis and 6 had both. Nineteen individuals had never had a thrombotic event. Thrombosis-free survival curves demonstrated that 50% of individuals had experienced a thrombotic event by 35 yrs of age, while 50% had a first venous thromboembolic event (VTE; includes all venous thrombosis except superficial thrombosis) by 41 yrs of age; 38.2% of first VTEs were unprovoked. 37% of patients had at least one VTE recurrence. Seventy percent of first pregnancies carried to term and not treated with anticoagulation were thrombosis-free. In conclusion, patients with these rare compound thrombophilias are not exceedingly thrombogenic, even though they have a substantial risk for VTE. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Rapid Regression of Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma Associated with Elevation of Des-Gamma-Carboxy Prothrombin after Short-Term Treatment with Sorafenib – A Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahide Nakazawa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sorafenib is the first molecular-targeted agent that is effective for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, with prolongation of survival. However, a complete response is very rare, and rapid regression of HCC after short-term treatment with sorafenib has not been reported previously. Case Reports: We describe 2 patients with advanced multiple HCC who received sorafenib for short periods of 1 or 2 weeks, respectively. Longer treatment was precluded by the development of hepatic failure as an adverse event of sorafenib. Results: HCC rapidly regressed, and both patients had a partial response (PR, despite short-term treatment. Furthermore, an early elevation of des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP was temporarily seen in both patients, with no elevation of alpha-fetoprotein. Conclusions: Sorafenib can induce rapid regression of advanced HCC even after short-term treatment, and the initial response of HCC was identical in both patients. Since early elevation of DCP was observed in our patients with PR, DCP might be a predictive biomarker of anti-tumor response. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying the effectiveness of sorafenib, including the alteration of DCP.

  3. Fluid fragmentation from hospital toilets

    CERN Document Server

    Traverso, G; Lu, C -C; Maa, R; Langer, R; Bourouiba, L

    2013-01-01

    Hospital-acquired infections represent significant health and financial burdens to society. Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) is a particularly challenging bacteria with the potential to cause severe diarrhea and death. One mode of transmission for C. difficile, as well as other pathogens, which has received little attention is the potential air contamination by pathogen-bearing droplets emanating from toilets. In the fluid dynamics video submitted to the APS DFD Gallery of Fluid Motion 2013, we present flow visualizations via high-speed recordings showing the capture of the product of the fluid fragmentation generated by hospital toilet high-pressure flushes. Important quantities of both large and small droplets are observed. We illustrate how high-pressure flushes and cleaning products currently used in hospital toilets result in aggravating, rather than alleviating, the suspension and recirculation of tenacious airborne pathogen-bearing droplets.

  4. Fragmentation in Carbon Therapy Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Charara, Y M

    2010-01-01

    The state of the art Monte Carlo code HETC-HEDS was used to simulate spallation products, secondary neutron, and secondary proton production in A-150 Tissue Equivalent Plastic phantoms to investigate fragmentation of carbon therapy beams. For a 356 MeV/Nucleon carbon ion beam, production of charged particles heavier than protons was 0.24 spallation products per incident carbon ion with atomic numbers ranging from 1 through 5 (hydrogen to boron). In addition, there were 4.73 neutrons and 2.95 protons produced per incident carbon ion. Furthermore, as the incident energy increases, the neutron production rate increases at a rate of 20% per 10 MeV/nucleon. Secondary protons were created at a rate between 2.62-2.87 per carbon ion, while spallation products were created at a rate between 0.20-0.24 per carbon ion.

  5. Nonlinear Inflaton Fragmentation after Preheating

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G N; Felder, Gary N.; Kofman, Lev

    2007-01-01

    We consider the nonlinear dynamics of inflaton fragmentation during and after preheating in the simplest model of chaotic inflation. While the earlier regime of parametric resonant particle production and the later turbulent regime of interacting fields evolving towards equilibrium are well identified and understood, the short intermediate stage of violent nonlinear dynamics remains less explored. Lattice simulations of fully nonlinear preheating dynamics show specific features of this intermediate stage: occupation numbers of the scalar particles are peaked, scalar fields become significantly non-gaussian and the field dynamics become chaotic and irreversible. Visualization of the field dynamics in configuration space reveals that nonlinear interactions generate non-gaussian inflaton inhomogeneities with very fast growing amplitudes. The peaks of the inflaton inhomogeneities coincide with the peaks of the scalar field(s) produced by parametric resonance. When the inflaton peaks reach their maxima, they stop ...

  6. Formation and plasma circulation of solar prominences

    CERN Document Server

    Xia, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Solar prominences are long-lived cool and dense plasma curtains in the hot and rarefied outer solar atmosphere or corona. The physical mechanism responsible for their formation and especially for their internal plasma circulation has been uncertain for decades. The observed ubiquitous down flows in quiescent prominences are difficult to interpret as plasma with high conductivity seems to move across horizontal magnetic field lines. Here we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of prominence formation and evolution in an elongated magnetic flux rope as a result of in-situ plasma condensations fueled by continuous plasma evaporation from the solar chromosphere. The prominence is born and maintained in a fragmented, highly dynamic state with continuous reappearance of multiple blobs and thread structures that move mainly downward dragging along mass-loaded field lines. The prominence plasma circulation is characterized by the dynamic balance between the drainage of prominence plasma back to the chromos...

  7. High yield DNA fragmentation using cyclical hydrodynamic shearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Spang, Peter; Roeser, Tina; Nieto, Benjamin; Guasch, Francesc; Corbera, Antoni Homs; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We report a new DNA fragmentation technique that significantly simplifies conventional hydrodynamic shearing fragmentation by eliminating the need for sample recirculation while maintaining high fragmentation yield and low fragment length variation, and therefore, reduces instrument complexity and c

  8. High yield DNA fragmentation using cyclical hydrodynamic shearing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shui, Lingling; Sparreboom, Wouter; Spang, Peter; Roeser, Tina; Nieto, Benjamin; Guasch, Francesc; Corbera, Antoni Homs; van den Berg, Albert; Carlen, Edwin

    2013-01-01

    We report a new DNA fragmentation technique that significantly simplifies conventional hydrodynamic shearing fragmentation by eliminating the need for sample recirculation while maintaining high fragmentation yield and low fragment length variation, and therefore, reduces instrument complexity and

  9. Generalized fragmentation functions for fractal jet observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Benjamin T.; Procura, Massimiliano; Thaler, Jesse; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Zhou, Kevin

    2017-06-01

    We introduce a broad class of fractal jet observables that recursively probe the collective properties of hadrons produced in jet fragmentation. To describe these collinear-unsafe observables, we generalize the formalism of fragmentation functions, which are important objects in QCD for calculating cross sections involving identified final-state hadrons. Fragmentation functions are fundamentally nonperturbative, but have a calculable renormalization group evolution. Unlike ordinary fragmentation functions, generalized fragmentation functions exhibit nonlinear evolution, since fractal observables involve correlated subsets of hadrons within a jet. Some special cases of generalized fragmentation functions are reviewed, including jet charge and track functions. We then consider fractal jet observables that are based on hierarchical clustering trees, where the nonlinear evolution equations also exhibit tree-like structure at leading order. We develop a numeric code for performing this evolution and study its phenomenological implications. As an application, we present examples of fractal jet observables that are useful in discriminating quark jets from gluon jets.

  10. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  11. Comparing Fragmentation Functions in Pb-Pb Collisions using JEWEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Harrison

    2016-09-01

    Collisions between lead nuclei at relativistic speeds create a hot, dense state of deconfined quark matter called the quark gluon plasma (QGP). Due to its extreme density, temperature, and abundance of color charge, the QGP gives us a unique opportunity to study strong interactions and test the limits of QCD. Collisions between nuclei produce jets, clusters of particles hadronized from an energetic parton. Jets produced in heavy ion collisions must travel through the energetic and dense QGP, which changes the structure and momenta of the jets, a phenomenon known as jet quenching. By analyzing the changes in hadron fragmentation and momenta, we probe the properties and structure of the QGP. To analyze the jet fragmentation, we simulated lead-lead collisions with JEWEL, a modification to the Monte-Carlo (MC) generator PYTHIA6, and compared the results with ATLAS data at 2.76 TeV and 5 TeV. These comparisons between the ATLAS data and the MC simulation are important for understanding jet quenching in heavy ion collisions. This poster gives an overview of the results of the simulation and how they compare with ATLAS data on fragmentation.

  12. Quantifying three dimensional reconnection in fragmented current layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyper, P. F., E-mail: peter.f.wyper@nasa.gov; Hesse, M., E-mail: michael.hesse-1@nasa.gov [Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    There is growing evidence that when magnetic reconnection occurs in high Lundquist number plasmas such as in the Solar Corona or the Earth's Magnetosphere it does so within a fragmented, rather than a smooth current layer. Within the extent of these fragmented current regions, the associated magnetic flux transfer and energy release occur simultaneously in many different places. This investigation focusses on how best to quantify the rate at which reconnection occurs in such layers. An analytical theory is developed which describes the manner in which new connections form within fragmented current layers in the absence of magnetic nulls. It is shown that the collective rate at which new connections form can be characterized by two measures; a total rate which measures the true rate at which new connections are formed and a net rate which measures the net change of connection associated with the largest value of the integral of E{sub ||} through all of the non-ideal regions. Two simple analytical models are presented which demonstrate how each should be applied and what they quantify.

  13. Statistical study of auroral fragmentation into patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Ayumi; Shiokawa, Kazuo; Otsuka, Yuichi; Oyama, Shin-ichiro; Nozawa, Satonori; Hori, Tomoaki; Lester, Mark; Johnsen, Magnar Gullikstad

    2015-08-01

    The study of auroral dynamics is important when considering disturbances of the magnetosphere. Shiokawa et al. (2010, 2014) reported observations of finger-like auroral structures that cause auroral fragmentation. Those structures are probably produced by macroscopic instabilities in the magnetosphere, mainly of the Rayleigh-Taylor type. However, the statistical characteristics of these structures have not yet been investigated. Here based on observations by an all-sky imager at Tromsø (magnetic latitude = 67.1°N), Norway, over three winter seasons, we statistically analyzed the occurrence conditions of 14 large-scale finger-like structures that developed from large-scale auroral regions including arcs and 6 small-scale finger-like structures that developed in auroral patches. The large-scale structures were seen from midnight to dawn local time and usually appeared at the beginning of the substorm recovery phase, near the low-latitude boundary of the auroral region. The small-scale structures were primarily seen at dawn and mainly occurred in the late recovery phase of substorms. The sizes of these large- and small-scale structures mapped in the magnetospheric equatorial plane are usually larger than the gyroradius of 10 keV protons, indicating that the finger-like structures could be caused by magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. However, the scale of small structures is only twice the gyroradius of 10 keV protons, suggesting that finite Larmor radius effects may contribute to the formation of small-scale structures. The eastward propagation velocities of the structures are -40 to +200 m/s and are comparable with those of plasma drift velocities measured by the colocating Super Dual Auroral Radar Network radar.

  14. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José A. Centeno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU, tungsten (W, lead (Pb, and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS, and confocal laser Raman

  15. Embedded fragments from U.S. military personnel--chemical analysis and potential health implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, José A; Rogers, Duane A; van der Voet, Gijsbert B; Fornero, Elisa; Zhang, Lingsu; Mullick, Florabel G; Chapman, Gail D; Olabisi, Ayodele O; Wagner, Dean J; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Potter, Benjamin K

    2014-01-23

    The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD) directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU), tungsten (W), lead (Pb), and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and confocal laser Raman microspectroscopy (CLRM). Quantitative chemical

  16. Embedded Fragments from U.S. Military Personnel—Chemical Analysis and Potential Health Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centeno, José A.; Rogers, Duane A.; van der Voet, Gijsbert B.; Fornero, Elisa; Zhang, Lingsu; Mullick, Florabel G.; Chapman, Gail D.; Olabisi, Ayodele O.; Wagner, Dean J.; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Potter, Benjamin K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The majority of modern war wounds are characterized by high-energy blast injuries containing a wide range of retained foreign materials of a metallic or composite nature. Health effects of retained fragments range from local or systemic toxicities to foreign body reactions or malignancies, and dependent on the chemical composition and corrosiveness of the fragments in vivo. Information obtained by chemical analysis of excised fragments can be used to guide clinical decisions regarding the need for fragment removal, to develop therapeutic interventions, and to better anticipate future medical problems from retained fragment related injuries. In response to this need, a new U.S Department of Defense (DoD) directive has been issued requiring characterization of all removed fragments to provide a database of fragment types occurring in combat injuries. Objectives: The objective of this study is to determine the chemical composition of retained embedded fragments removed from injured military personnel, and to relate results to histological findings in tissue adjacent to fragment material. Methods: We describe an approach for the chemical analysis and characterization of retained fragments and adjacent tissues, and include case examples describing fragments containing depleted uranium (DU), tungsten (W), lead (Pb), and non-metal foreign bodies composed of natural and composite materials. Fragments obtained from four patients with penetrating blast wounds to the limbs were studied employing a wide range of chemical and microscopy techniques. Available adjacent tissues from three of the cases were histologically, microscopically, and chemically examined. The physical and compositional properties of the removed foreign material surfaces were examined with energy dispersive x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser ablation inductively-coupled plasma mass-spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), and confocal laser Raman

  17. Fragmentation processes during explosion welding (review)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinberg, B. A.; Ivanov, M. A.; Rybin, V. V.; Elkina, O. A.; Patselov, A. M.; Antonova, O. V.; Inozemtsev, A. V.; Tolmachev, T. P.

    2013-10-01

    The fragmentation during explosion welding is briefly reviewed. Fragmentation of partitioning type (FPT), which consists in partitioning into particles that either fly away or join each other, is detected. FPT is an analog of the fragmentation during an explosion that was studied by Mott. In both cases, the flight of particles (fragments) takes place, and the integrity of the material is retained in FPT. FPT is a powerful channel for the dissipation of supplied energy, since the surface of flying particles has a large total area.

  18. Molecular energies from an incremental fragmentation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meitei, Oinam Romesh; Heßelmann, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    The systematic molecular fragmentation method by Collins and Deev [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 104104 (2006)] has been used to calculate total energies and relative conformational energies for a number of small and extended molecular systems. In contrast to the original approach by Collins, we have tested the accuracy of the fragmentation method by utilising an incremental scheme in which the energies at the lowest level of the fragmentation are calculated on an accurate quantum chemistry level while lower-cost methods are used to correct the low-level energies through a high-level fragmentation. In this work, the fragment energies at the lowest level of fragmentation were calculated using the random-phase approximation (RPA) and two recently developed extensions to the RPA while the incremental corrections at higher levels of the fragmentation were calculated using standard density functional theory (DFT) methods. The complete incremental fragmentation method has been shown to reproduce the supermolecule results with a very good accuracy, almost independent on the molecular type, size, or type of decomposition. The fragmentation method has also been used in conjunction with the DFT-SAPT (symmetry-adapted perturbation theory) method which enables a breakdown of the total nonbonding energy contributions into individual interaction energy terms. Finally, the potential problems of the method connected with the use of capping hydrogen atoms are analysed and two possible solutions are supplied.

  19. A Note on Convex Renorming and Fragmentability

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Mirmostafaee

    2005-05-01

    Using the game approach to fragmentability, we give new and simpler proofs of the following known results: (a) If the Banach space admits an equivalent Kadec norm, then its weak topology is fragmented by a metric which is stronger than the norm topology. (b) If the Banach space admits an equivalent rotund norm, then its weak topology is fragmented by a metric. (c) If the Banach space is weakly locally uniformly rotund, then its weak topology is fragmented by a metric which is stronger than the norm topology.

  20. Coagulation profile of liquid-state plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Robert C; Marshall, Carol; Dwyre, Denis M; Gresens, Chris; Davis, Diana; Scherer, Lynette; Taylor, Douglas

    2013-03-01

    Use of liquid plasma (LP) has been reported as early as the mid 1930s. Unlike fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), LP is maintained at 1 to 6°C for up to 40 days after collection and processing. Despite its approved use by the US Food and Drug Administration, the coagulation profile of LP is incompletely described. In this study we evaluate the coagulation profile of LP stored up to 30 days. LP was prepared by removing plasma from nonleukoreduced whole blood within 24 hours of collection. Three LP units from each ABO group were collected and stored at 1 to 6°C. Plasma aliquots were obtained at Postcollection Days 1 to 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 and then stored at -70°C. Each aliquot was tested for prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and other coagulation and fibrinolytic factors. There was a significant decrease in Factor (F)V, FVII, FVIII, von Willebrand factor (VWF), protein S (PS) activity, and endogenous thrombin potential on Day 15 compared with Day 1. No significant difference was observed for PS antigen, D-dimer, or thrombin-antithrombin complex. At least 50% activity of all measured factors was noted on Day 15, compared to Day 1. Considerable heterogeneity was observed between the different blood groups for FVII, FVIII, and VWF. These data demonstrate that LP maintains at least 50% of factor activity and thrombin-generating capacity up to 15 days of refrigerated storage. It may be more appropriate to limit LP storage and supplement with FFP when used for management of massively bleeding patients. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Particles formation in an expanding plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lescoute, E.; Hallo, L.; Chimier, B.; Tikhonchuk, V.T.; Stenz, C. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., CELIA, CNRS-CEA, 33 - Talence (France); Hebert, D.; Chevalier, J.M.; Rullier, J.L.; Palmier, S. [CEA Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2009-08-15

    Interaction of a laser beam with a target generates a high velocity expanding plasma plume, solid debris and liquid nano- and micro-particles. They are produced from plasma recombination and vapor condensation and can be deposited on optical elements located nearby the target. Two distinct kinds of particles were observed depending on the temperature achieved in the plasma plume: large micrometer-size fragments for temperatures lower than the critical temperature, and very small nanometer-size particles for higher temperatures. The paper presents experimental observations of fragments and nano-particles in plasma plumes and a comparison with models. A good agreement has been found for nano-particle sizes and distributions. This simple modeling can also be used for nuclei production in the nanosecond time scale. Our estimates show that particle size can be correlated to laser wavelength and fluences.

  2. Vectors and methods for recombinant production of uPA-binding fragments of the human urokinase-type plasminogen receptor (uPAR)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    Activation of plasminogen to plasma is inhibited by preventing the binding of a receptor binding form of urokinase-type plasminogen activator to a urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in a mammal, thereby preventing the urokinase-type plasminogen activator from converting plasminogen int...... into plasmin. DNA fragments which encode for soluble, active fragments of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator are provided....

  3. Governmental Fragmentation in Metropolitan Detroit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davis, Kristal D.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available At its population peak in the 1950’s, Detroit, Michigan was inhabited by almost two million residents and served as the car capital of the country. Today, however, the population has dropped by more than fifty percent. With the loss of Detroit residents to surrounding cities and counties, the wedge between Detroit and the suburbs has grown wider. Detroit, once considered the crown jewel of the state of Michigan, is now treated as an immovable stain by its surrounding municipalities. What this means for the metro Detroit area is a high level of governmental fragmentation, preventing economic opportunities for both the city and its suburbs. This is especially unfortunate for the economy of the metro Detroit area because of the current economic crisis in the state of Michigan. With the state’s long tradition of home rule and pride in autonomous, municipal decision-making, municipalities in the metro Detroit area might better realize economic opportunities and the relief they can bring to their own local economies by not only collaborating with the city of Detroit, but with neighboring cities as well.

  4. The effect of different methods of leucoreduction on plasma coagulation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboul Enein, Azza A; Abdel Rahman, Hala A; Abdel Maged, Mohamed M M; El Sissy, Maha H

    2017-03-01

    Removal of leucocytes from blood products, namely leucoreduction, improves the safety of blood transfusion by reducing adverse events associated with the incidental transfusion of leucocytes. Coagulation factors might be compromised during leucoreduction because of exposure of plasma to a variety of filter materials. The aim of the current study was to assess the effect of different methods of prestorage leucofiltration (apheresis and whole blood filters) on prothrombin time, international normalized ratio, partial thromboplastin time and factors V and VIII. There was a significant prolongation of prothrombin time as well as elevation of international normalized ratio in plasma after leucoreduction (14.5 ± 0.7 s vs. 13.9 ± 0.7 s, P = 0.008 and 1.14 ± 0.07 vs. 1.09 ± 0.07, P = 0.005, respectively). Also, there was a statistically significant prolongation of activated partial thromboplastin time in nonleucoreduced plasma (55.6 ± 9.9 s vs. 43.2 ± 12.8 s, P = 0.001). There was no significant filtration effect on factors V and VIII levels. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in factors V and VIII levels between plasma filtered by inline whole blood filters and apheresis machine. Leucodepleted plasma originating from both inline whole blood filter and apheresis machine maintained satisfactory levels of factors V and VIII.

  5. On the fragmentation of biomolecules: fragmentation of alanine dipeptide along the polypeptide chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Yakubovich, Alexander; Solov'yov, Andrey

    2006-01-01

    . The fragmentation of dipeptide along the polypeptide chain, as well as the interaction between alanines, has been considered. The energy of the system has been analyzed as a function of the distance between fragments for all possible dipeptide fragmentation channels. Analysis of the energy barriers makes...... it possible to estimate the characteristic fragmentation times and to determine the degree of applicability of classical electrodynamics for describing the system energy....

  6. Modelling distribution functions and fragmentation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, J; Mulders, P J

    1995-01-01

    We present examples for the calculation of the distribution and fragmentation functions using the representation in terms of non-local matrix elements of quark field operators. As specific examples, we use a simple spectator model to estimate the leading twist quark distribution functions and the fragmentation functions for a quark into a nucleon or a pion.

  7. The Family Circle: A Study in Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronfenbrenner, Urie

    1976-01-01

    Presents data describing the fragmentation of the family, suggests causes for the fragmentation, and offers suggestions for reversing the trend. The suggestions focus on day care, part-time employment practices, enhancing the position of women, and work and responsibility. (IRT)

  8. The Stellar IMF from turbulent fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padoan, P.; Nordlund, A.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper they conclude that turbulent fragmentation is unavoidable in super-sonically turbulent molecular clouds, and given the success of the present model to predict the observed shape of the Stellar IMF, they conclude that turbulent fragmentation is essential to the origin of the stellar IMF.

  9. Baculovirus display of functional antibody Fab fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takada, Shinya; Ogawa, Takafumi; Matsui, Kazusa; Suzuki, Tasuku; Katsuda, Tomohisa; Yamaji, Hideki

    2015-08-01

    The generation of a recombinant baculovirus that displays antibody Fab fragments on the surface was investigated. A recombinant baculovirus was engineered so that the heavy chain (Hc; Fd fragment) of a mouse Fab fragment was expressed as a fusion to the N-terminus of baculovirus gp64, while the light chain of the Fab fragment was simultaneously expressed as a secretory protein. Following infection of Sf9 insect cells with the recombinant baculovirus, the culture supernatant was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using antigen-coated microplates and either an anti-mouse IgG or an anti-gp64 antibody. A relatively strong signal was obtained in each case, showing antigen-binding activity in the culture supernatant. In western blot analysis of the culture supernatant using the anti-gp64 antibody, specific protein bands were detected at an electrophoretic mobility that coincided with the molecular weight of the Hc-gp64 fusion protein as well as that of gp64. Flow cytometry using a fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated antibody specific to mouse IgG successfully detected the Fab fragments on the surface of the Sf9 cells. These results suggest that immunologically functional antibody Fab fragments can be displayed on the surface of baculovirus particles, and that a fluorescence-activated cell sorter with a fluorescence-labeled antigen can isolate baculoviruses displaying specific Fab fragments. This successful baculovirus display of antibody Fab fragments may offer a novel approach for the efficient selection of specific antibodies.

  10. Pollen and gene flow in fragmented habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, Manja M.; Velterop, Odilia; van Andel, Jelte

    1998-01-01

    . Habitat fragmentation affects both plants and pollinators. Habitat fragmentation leads to changes in species richness, population number and size, density, and shape, thus to changes in the spatial arrangement of flowers. These changes influence the amount of food for flower-visiting insects and t

  11. Pollen and gene flow in fragmented habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwak, Manja M.; Velterop, Odilia; van Andel, Jelte

    1998-01-01

    . Habitat fragmentation affects both plants and pollinators. Habitat fragmentation leads to changes in species richness, population number and size, density, and shape, thus to changes in the spatial arrangement of flowers. These changes influence the amount of food for flower-visiting insects and t

  12. INTERMITTENCY, A TEST FOR STRING FRAGMENTATION PROCESSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHOLTEN, O

    The Artru-Mennessier and the string fragmentation procedure as implemented in the code VENUS have been compared. The two fragmentation prescriptions predict a similar rapidity spectrum including its energy dependence and event multiplicities, but give rise to very different intermittency results.

  13. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  14. The association of factor V leiden and prothrombin gene mutation and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc A Rodger

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Factor V Leiden (FVL and prothrombin gene mutation (PGM are common inherited thrombophilias. Retrospective studies variably suggest a link between maternal FVL/PGM and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications including pregnancy loss, small for gestational age, pre-eclampsia and placental abruption. Prospective cohort studies provide a superior methodologic design but require larger sample sizes to detect important effects. We undertook a systematic review and a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to estimate the association of maternal FVL or PGM carrier status and placenta-mediated pregnancy complications. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A comprehensive search strategy was run in Medline and Embase. Inclusion criteria were: (1 prospective cohort design; (2 clearly defined outcomes including one of the following: pregnancy loss, small for gestational age, pre-eclampsia or placental abruption; (3 maternal FVL or PGM carrier status; (4 sufficient data for calculation of odds ratios (ORs. We identified 322 titles, reviewed 30 articles for inclusion and exclusion criteria, and included ten studies in the meta-analysis. The odds of pregnancy loss in women with FVL (absolute risk 4.2% was 52% higher (OR = 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.19 as compared with women without FVL (absolute risk 3.2%. There was no significant association between FVL and pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.23, 95% CI 0.89-1.70 or between FVL and SGA (OR = 1.0, 95% CI 0.80-1.25. PGM was not associated with pre-eclampsia (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 0.79-1.99 or SGA (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.92-1.70. CONCLUSIONS: Women with FVL appear to be at a small absolute increased risk of late pregnancy loss. Women with FVL and PGM appear not to be at increased risk of pre-eclampsia or birth of SGA infants. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary.

  15. An evaluation of patient self-testing competency of prothrombin time for managing anticoagulation: pre-randomization results of VA Cooperative Study #481--The Home INR Study (THINRS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolor, Rowena J; Ruybalid, R Lynne; Uyeda, Lauren; Edson, Robert G; Phibbs, Ciaran; Vertrees, Julia E; Shih, Mei-Chiung; Jacobson, Alan K; Matchar, David B

    2010-10-01

    Prior studies suggest patient self-testing (PST) of prothrombin time (PT) can improve the quality of anticoagulation (AC) and reduce complications (e.g., bleeding and thromboembolic events). "The Home INR Study" (THINRS) compared AC management with frequent PST using a home monitoring device to high-quality AC management (HQACM) with clinic-based monitoring on major health outcomes. A key clinical and policy question is whether and which patients can successfully use such devices. We report the results of Part 1 of THINRS in which patients and caregivers were evaluated for their ability to perform PST. Study-eligible patients (n = 3643) were trained to use the home monitoring device and evaluated after 2-4 weeks for PST competency. Information about demographics, medical history, warfarin use, medications, plus measures of numeracy, literacy, cognition, dexterity, and satisfaction with AC were collected. Approximately 80% (2931 of 3643) of patients trained on PST demonstrated competency; of these, 8% (238) required caregiver assistance. Testers who were not competent to perform PST had higher numbers of practice attempts, higher cuvette wastage, and were less able to perform a fingerstick or obtain blood for the cuvette in a timely fashion. Factors associated with failure to pass PST training included increased age, previous stroke history, poor cognition, and poor manual dexterity. A majority of patients were able to perform PST. Successful home monitoring of PT with a PST device required adequate levels of cognition and manual dexterity. Training a caregiver modestly increased the proportion of patients who can perform PST.

  16. Long-term effects of fragmentation and fragment properties on bird species richness in Hawaiian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Flaspohler; Christian P. Giardina; Gregory P. Asner; Patrick Hart; Jonathan Price; Cassie Ka’apu Lyons; Xeronimo. Castaneda

    2010-01-01

    Forest fragmentation is a common disturbance affecting biological diversity, yet the impacts of fragmentation on many forest processes remain poorly understood. Forest restoration is likely to be more successful when it proceeds with an understanding of how native and exotic vertebrates utilize forest patches of different size. We used a system of forest fragments...

  17. Aspects of haemostatic function in healthy subjects with microalbuminuria--a potential atherosclerotic risk factor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J S; Myrup, B; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1995-01-01

    .6 micrograms/min): Coagulation factors: blood platelet count and mean volume, plasma Factor VII antigen concentration and coagulant activity, and plasma concentrations of prothrombin fragment 1 + 2, thrombin-antithrombin III complexes, fibrinogen, and fibrinopeptide A; fibrinolytic and endothelial factors...

  18. CLP-based protein fragment assembly

    CERN Document Server

    Palu', Alessandro Dal; Fogolari, Federico; Pontelli, Enrico; 10.1017/S1471068410000372

    2010-01-01

    The paper investigates a novel approach, based on Constraint Logic Programming (CLP), to predict the 3D conformation of a protein via fragments assembly. The fragments are extracted by a preprocessor-also developed for this work- from a database of known protein structures that clusters and classifies the fragments according to similarity and frequency. The problem of assembling fragments into a complete conformation is mapped to a constraint solving problem and solved using CLP. The constraint-based model uses a medium discretization degree Ca-side chain centroid protein model that offers efficiency and a good approximation for space filling. The approach adapts existing energy models to the protein representation used and applies a large neighboring search strategy. The results shows the feasibility and efficiency of the method. The declarative nature of the solution allows to include future extensions, e.g., different size fragments for better accuracy.

  19. The politics of municipal fragmentation in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulai Kuyini Mohammed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The scholarly debate over the rival merits of local government consolidation and fragmentation is an old but enduring one. However, in this debate very little attention has been focused on the political dimension of council amalgamation and fragmentation – yet political considerations play a central role in both the formulation and outcomes of de-concentration policy. The purpose of this article is to fill a gap in the literature by examining local government fragmentation in Ghana from 1988 to 2014. The article does this by identifying the key players and analysing their interests and gains, as well as the tensions arising from the fragmentation exercise. The implications from the Ghanaian case for more general theories of fragmentation are drawn out.

  20. First principles approach to ionicity of fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilania, Ghanshyam; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Valone, Steven M.

    2015-02-01

    We develop a first principles approach towards the ionicity of fragments. In contrast to the bond ionicity, the fragment ionicity refers to an electronic property of the constituents of a larger system, which may vary from a single atom to a functional group or a unit cell to a crystal. The fragment ionicity is quantitatively defined in terms of the coefficients of contributing charge states in a superposition of valence configurations of the system. Utilizing the constrained density functional theory-based computations, a practical method to compute the fragment ionicity from valence electron charge densities, suitably decomposed according to the Fragment Hamiltonian (FH) model prescription for those electron densities, is presented for the first time. The adopted approach is illustrated using BeO, MgO and CaO diatomic molecules as simple examples. The results are compared and discussed with respect to the bond ionicity scales of Phillips and Pauling.

  1. Evaluation of blood compatibility of plasma deposited heparin-like films and SF6 plasma treated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanira Antunes Perrenoud

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In devices used in open-heart surgery and dialysis, blood must be continuously processed using extracorporeal circuits composed of peristaltic pumps and active components such as specific filters and oxygenators. Several procedures have been employed to avoid blood coagulation induced by contact with the artificial surfaces of such devices. Often heparin, a bioactive protein able to prevent clot formation, is employed. In this work, we have used heparin-containing gas plasmas to evaluate the possibility of depositing adherent anticoagulant films onto PVC and glass surfaces. The films were produced by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from heparin/isopropanol and heparin/hexamethyldisiloxane solutions. In addition, the effects of exposure to SF6 plasmas on the compatibility of such surfaces have also been investigated. The blood compatibility was evaluated through the determination of the density of platelets and fibrinogen and activated partial thromboplastin (APTT and prothrombin times (PT of human blood freshly collected and after contact for 2.5 hours with different surfaces. The deposited films were also characterized by infrared spectroscopy, contact angle and surface energy measurements. The coagulation time of blood, placed in contact with glass substrates coated by PECVD films of heparin/isopropanol mixtures, and in contact with SF6 plasma-treated PVC, increased by about 60 and 20%, respectively, compared to the values measured with untreated samples.

  2. Exact Solutions of Fragmentation Equations with General Fragmentation Rates and Separable Particles Distribution Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Oukouomi Noutchie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We make use of Laplace transform techniques and the method of characteristics to solve fragmentation equations explicitly. Our result is a breakthrough in the analysis of pure fragmentation equations as this is the first instance where an exact solution is provided for the fragmentation evolution equation with general fragmentation rates. This paper is the key for resolving most of the open problems in fragmentation theory including “shattering” and the sudden appearance of infinitely many particles in some systems with initial finite particles number.

  3. Features of gallstone and kidney stone fragmentation by IR-pulsed Nd:YAG laser radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batishche, Sergei A.

    1995-05-01

    It is shown that infra-red ((lambda) equals 1064 nm) long pulse (approximately 100 microsecond(s) ) radiation of YAG:Nd laser, operating in free generation regime, effectively fragments gallstones, urinary calculus and kidney stones. The features of the mechanism of this process are investigated. Laser lithotripsy is nowadays a method widely used for fragmentation of gallstones, urinary calculus and kidney stones. Flashlamp pumped dye lasers of microsecond duration are most often used for such purposes. Nevertheless, there are some reports on lithotripsies with nanosecond duration laser pulses (for example, Q-switched YAG:Nd laser). The mechanism of the laser fragmentation of such stones was supposed to be the next. The laser powerful radiation, delivered through the optical fiber, is absorbed by the material of the stone. As a result of such highly localized energy absorption, dense plasma is formed, which expands. Such plasma and vapor, liquid confined, forms a cavitation bubble. This bubble grows, reaches its most dimension and then collapses on itself in some hundreds of micro seconds. Shock waves generated during the growth and the collapse of these bubbles are the origin of fragmentation of the stone. It is necessary to say that there are rather confined data on the hundreds microsecond laser pulse fragmentation especially what concerns the usage of infra-red (IR) YAG:Nd lasers with long laser pulses. Clearing this problem would result in better understanding of the fragmentation mechanism and it could favor development of simple and more reliable laser systems for lithotripsy. In this work we report about investigation of features of an effective fragmentation of gallstones, urinary calculus and kidney stones under exposure of IR ((lambda) equals 1064 nm) radiation of repetitive YAG:Nd laser working in free generation regime.

  4. Plasma Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    N M Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental base of plasma antenna is the use of an ionized medium as a conductor. The plasma antenna is a radiofrequency antenna formed by a plasma columns, Filaments or sheets, which are excited by a surface wave. The relevance of this device is how rapidly it can be turned on and off, only applying an electrical pulse. Besides its wide carrier frequency, the great directivity and controllable antenna shape. Otherwise a disadvantage is that it needs energy to be ionized....

  5. Virtual fragment screening: an exploration of various docking and scoring protocols for fragments using Glide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawatkar, Sameer; Wang, Hongming; Czerminski, Ryszard; Joseph-McCarthy, Diane

    2009-08-01

    Fragment-based drug discovery approaches allow for a greater coverage of chemical space and generally produce high efficiency ligands. As such, virtual and experimental fragment screening are increasingly being coupled in an effort to identify new leads for specific therapeutic targets. Fragment docking is employed to create target-focussed subset of compounds for testing along side generic fragment libraries. The utility of the program Glide with various scoring schemes for fragment docking is discussed. Fragment docking results for two test cases, prostaglandin D2 synthase and DNA ligase, are presented and compared to experimental screening data. Self-docking, cross-docking, and enrichment studies are performed. For the enrichment runs, experimental data exists indicating that the docking decoys in fact do not inhibit the corresponding enzyme being examined. Results indicate that even for difficult test cases fragment docking can yield enrichments significantly better than random.

  6. Improved chemical shift based fragment selection for CS-Rosetta using Rosetta3 fragment picker

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vernon, Robert [Hospital for Sick Children, Program in Molecular Structure and Function (Canada); Shen, Yang [National Institutes of Health, Laboratory of Chemical Physics, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (United States); Baker, David [University of Washington, Department of Biochemistry (United States); Lange, Oliver F., E-mail: oliver.lange@tum.de [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department Chemie, Biomolecular NMR and Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    A new fragment picker has been developed for CS-Rosetta that combines beneficial features of the original fragment picker, MFR, used with CS-Rosetta, and the fragment picker, NNMake, that was used for purely sequence based fragment selection in the context of ROSETTA de-novo structure prediction. Additionally, the new fragment picker has reduced sensitivity to outliers and other difficult to match data points rendering the protocol more robust and less likely to introduce bias towards wrong conformations in cases where data is bad, missing or inconclusive. The fragment picker protocol gives significant improvements on 6 of 23 CS-Rosetta targets. An independent benchmark on 39 protein targets, whose NMR data sets were published only after protocol optimization had been finished, also show significantly improved performance for the new fragment picker (van der Schot et al. in J Biomol NMR, 2013)

  7. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    2013-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  8. Decomposition and fragmentation principles in computational chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezey, Paul G.

    2015-12-01

    A common approach to the mathematical modeling of various objects and processes is the subdivision of the problem into smaller, (and, as hoped), more easily understandable entities. By modeling these smaller entities, which are often fragments of the whole, and eventually re-combining these smaller fragment models into a model of the whole, one may expect that a reasonably reliable modeling approach for the complete problem may be obtained. One crucial aspect of such an approach is the level of complexity of the interrelations between the fragments. If the interrelations are weak and relatively simple, than the fragmentation approach may succeed and provide satisfactory results. However, as often happens, the interrelations are complex and not well understood, and then the fragmentation approach may face difficulties and even fail. One field where the interrelations between potential fragments is strong, yet the fragment-based approach has proven to be successful, is the modelling of both small and large molecules, providing valuable lessons for some fields not directly linked to chemistry.

  9. On Disciplinary Fragmentation and Scientific Progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balietti, Stefano; Mäs, Michael; Helbing, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Why are some scientific disciplines, such as sociology and psychology, more fragmented into conflicting schools of thought than other fields, such as physics and biology? Furthermore, why does high fragmentation tend to coincide with limited scientific progress? We analyzed a formal model where scientists seek to identify the correct answer to a research question. Each scientist is influenced by three forces: (i) signals received from the correct answer to the question; (ii) peer influence; and (iii) noise. We observed the emergence of different macroscopic patterns of collective exploration, and studied how the three forces affect the degree to which disciplines fall apart into divergent fragments, or so-called “schools of thought”. We conducted two simulation experiments where we tested (A) whether the three forces foster or hamper progress, and (B) whether disciplinary fragmentation causally affects scientific progress and vice versa. We found that fragmentation critically limits scientific progress. Strikingly, there is no effect in the opposite causal direction. What is more, our results shows that at the heart of the mechanisms driving scientific progress we find (i) social interactions, and (ii) peer disagreement. In fact, fragmentation is increased and progress limited if the simulated scientists are open to influence only by peers with very similar views, or when within-school diversity is lost. Finally, disciplines where the scientists received strong signals from the correct answer were less fragmented and experienced faster progress. We discuss model’s implications for the design of social institutions fostering interdisciplinarity and participation in science. PMID:25790025

  10. Electrosurgical Plasma Discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, K. R.; Woloszko, J.

    2002-10-01

    Electrosurgical instruments employing plasmas to volumetrically ablate tissue are now enjoying widespread use in medical applications. We have studied several commercially available instruments in which luminous plasma discharges are formed near electrodes immersed in saline solutions when sufficiently large amplitude bipolar voltage waveforms are applied. Different aqueous salt solutions have been investigated, including isotonic NaCl solution as well as solutions of KCl, and BaCl_2. With strong driving voltage applied, a vapor layer is formed as well as visible and UV optical emissions. Spectroscopic measurements reveal the predominant emissions are from the low ionization potential salt species, but significant emissions from electron impact dissociated water fragments such as OH and H-atoms also are observed. The emissions also coincide with negative bias on the active electrode. These optical emissions are consistent with an electron density of about 10^12cm-3 and an electron temperature of about 4 eV. Experimental results and model calculations of the vapor layer formation process and plasma formation in the high-field region will be discussed.

  11. HETC-3STEP included fragmentation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigyo, Nobuhiro; Iga, Kiminori; Ishibashi, Kenji [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-03-01

    High Energy Transport Code (HETC) based on the cascade-evaporation model is modified to calculate the fragmentation cross section. For the cascade process, nucleon-nucleon cross sections are used for collision computation; effective in-medium-corrected cross sections are adopted instead of the original free-nucleon collision. The exciton model is adopted for improvement of backward nucleon-emission cross section for low-energy nucleon-incident events. The fragmentation reaction is incorporated into the original HETC as a subroutine set by the use of the systematics of the reaction. The modified HETC (HETC-3STEP/FRG) reproduces experimental fragment yields to a reasonable degree. (author)

  12. Composite Overwrap Fragmentation Observations, Concerns, and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Mike; Hovater, Mary

    2017-01-01

    A series of test activities has raised some concerns about the generation of orbital debris caused by failures of composite overwrapped pressure vessels (COPVs). These tests have indicated that a large number of composite fragments can be produced by either pressure burst failures or by high-speed impacts. A review of prior high-speed tests with COPV indicates that other tests have produced large numbers of composite fragments. As was the case with the test referenced here, the tests tended to produce a large number of small composite fragments with relatively low velocities induced by the impact and or gas expansion.

  13. Risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications or pregnancy-related VTE in VTE-asymptomatic families of probands with VTE and heterozygosity for factor V Leiden or G20210 prothrombin mutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Iris; Pegenaute, Carlota; González-López, Tomás José; Chillon, Carmen; Sarasquete, Maria Eugenia; Martin-Herrero, Francisco; Guerrero, Carmen; Cabrero, Mónica; Garcia Sanchez, Maria Helena; Pabon, Pedro; Lozano, Francisco Santiago; Gonzalez, Marcos; Alberca, Ignacio; González-Porras, José Ramón

    2012-09-01

    Few studies have evaluated the risk of pregnancy-related adverse events in asymptomatic relatives of probands for VTE and factor V Leiden or the G20210A variant. The antepartum management of this population ranges from antepartum anticoagulation therapy to clinical surveillance. To evaluate the risk of placenta-mediated pregnancy complications and pregnancy-related VTE in VTE-asymptomatic families of probands with VTE and who are heterozygous carriers of either factor V Leiden or PT-G20210A mutation. One hundred and fifty-eight relatives, who had 415 pregnancies, were retrospectively evaluated. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated to compare pregnancy outcomes between women with and without thrombophilia. In the factor V Leiden group, 22 placenta-mediated pregnancy events of 152 pregnancies (14.4%) were reported, compared with 25 adverse events of 172 pregnancies in the G20210A prothrombin group (14.5%) and 13 adverse events of 91 pregnancies in the non-carrier group (14.2%). Carriers of factor V Leiden or G20210A prothrombin were not associated with a higher risk of pregnancy-adverse outcomes compared with non-carriers: OR 1.02 (95% CI, 0.40-2.25) and 1.25 (95% CI, 0.48-3.24), respectively. Four episodes of pregnancy-associated VTE of 415 pregnancies (0.96%) were recorded. Two episodes of VTE in the G20210A group, one in the factor V Leiden group, and one episode in the non-carrier group were noted. In VTE-asymptomatic relatives of probands with VTE, the presence of factor V Leiden or the G20210A prothrombin mutation in heterozygosis should not lead to a decision to instigate antepartum prophylaxis. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Oscillating Filaments: I - Oscillation and Geometrical Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Burkert, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid based AMR-code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, e.g. with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process `geometrical fragmentation'. In our realization the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristical scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. ...

  15. Gravitational fragmentation of the Carina Flare supershell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wünsch, Richard

    2015-03-01

    We study the gravitational fragmentation of a thick shell comparing the analytical theory to 3D hydrodynamic simulations and to observations of the Carina Flare supershell. We use both grid-based (AMR) and particle-based (SPH) codes to follow the idealised model of the fragmenting shell and found an excellent agreement between the two codes. Growth rates of fragments at different wavelength are well described by the pressure assisted gravitational instability (PAGI) - a new theory of the thick shell fragmentation. Using the APEX telescope we observe a part of the surface of the Carina Flare supershell (GSH287+04-17) in the 13CO(2-1) line. We apply a new clump-finding algorithm DENDROFIND to identify 50 clumps. We determine the clump mass function and we construct the minimum spanning tree connecting clumps positions to estimate the typical distance among clumps. We conclude that the observed masses and distances correspond well to the prediction of PAGI.

  16. Habitat fragmentation causes rapid genetic differentiation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... differentiation and homogenization in natural plant populations – A ... The effects of habitat fragmentations on the forage grass Leymus thinness (Trin.) Tzvel, which ... selection etc, combined together with ecological factors.

  17. FOREST FRAGMENTATION AS AN ECONOMIC INDICATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite concern over the ecological consequences of conversion of land from natural cover to anthropogenic uses, there are few studies that show a quantitative relationship between fragmentation and economic factors. For the southside economic region of Virginia, we generated a ...

  18. Energy efficiency of consecutive fragmentation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Fontbona, Joaquin; Martinez, Servet

    2010-01-01

    We present a ?rst study on the energy required to reduce a unit mass fragment by consecutively using several devices, as it happens in the mining industry. Two devices are considered, which we represent as different stochastic fragmentation processes. Following the self-similar energy model introduced by Bertoin and Martinez, we compute the average energy required to attain a size x with this two-device procedure. We then asymptotically compare, as x goes to 0 or 1, its energy requirement with that of individual fragmentation processes. In particular, we show that for certain range of parameters of the fragmentation processes and of their energy cost-functions, the consecutive use of two devices can be asymptotically more efficient than using each of them separately, or conversely.

  19. The NJL Model for Quark Fragmentation Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Ito, W. Bentz, I. Cloet, A W Thomas, K. Yazaki

    2009-10-01

    A description of fragmentation functions which satisfy the momentum and isospin sum rules is presented in an effective quark theory. Concentrating on the pion fragmentation function, we first explain the reason why the elementary (lowest order) fragmentation process q → qπ is completely inadequate to describe the empirical data, although the “crossed” process π → qq describes the quark distribution functions in the pion reasonably well. Then, taking into account cascade-like processes in a modified jet-model approach, we show that the momentum and isospin sum rules can be satisfied naturally without introducing any ad-hoc parameters. We present numerical results for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the invariant mass regularization scheme, and compare the results with the empirical parametrizations. We argue that this NJL-jet model provides a very useful framework to calculate the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory.

  20. The NJL Model for Quark Fragmentation Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Ito, W. Bentz, I. Cloet, A W Thomas, K. Yazaki

    2009-10-01

    A description of fragmentation functions which satisfy the momentum and isospin sum rules is presented in an effective quark theory. Concentrating on the pion fragmentation function, we first explain the reason why the elementary (lowest order) fragmentation process q → qπ is completely inadequate to describe the empirical data, although the “crossed” process π → qq describes the quark distribution functions in the pion reasonably well. Then, taking into account cascade-like processes in a modified jet-model approach, we show that the momentum and isospin sum rules can be satisfied naturally without introducing any ad-hoc parameters. We present numerical results for the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model in the invariant mass regularization scheme, and compare the results with the empirical parametrizations. We argue that this NJL-jet model provides a very useful framework to calculate the fragmentation functions in an effective chiral quark theory.

  1. An improved algorithm for MFR fragment assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontaxis, Georg, E-mail: georg.kontaxis@univie.ac.at [University of Vienna, Max F. Perutz Laboratories, Department of Structural and Computational Biology, Centre for Molecular Biology (Austria)

    2012-06-15

    A method for generating protein backbone models from backbone only NMR data is presented, which is based on molecular fragment replacement (MFR). In a first step, the PDB database is mined for homologous peptide fragments using experimental backbone-only data i.e. backbone chemical shifts (CS) and residual dipolar couplings (RDC). Second, this fragment library is refined against the experimental restraints. Finally, the fragments are assembled into a protein backbone fold using a rigid body docking algorithm using the RDCs as restraints. For improved performance, backbone nuclear Overhauser effects (NOEs) may be included at that stage. Compared to previous implementations of MFR-derived structure determination protocols this model-building algorithm offers improved stability and reliability. Furthermore, relative to CS-ROSETTA based methods, it provides faster performance and straightforward implementation with the option to easily include further types of restraints and additional energy terms.

  2. Successfully introduce maize DNA fragments into rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGKaizhi

    1994-01-01

    The maize DNA fragments was successfully incorporated into rice by Associate Prof WAN Wenju's research team at Hunan Agricultural College, Changsha, China. The new gene transferring rice is named Genetic Engineered Rice (GER) line.

  3. The Fragmentation of the College Mathematics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper examines to what extent and asking reason the fragmentation of college mathematics have attained the present development in the course of looking at the history of mathematics education. (Contains 1 table.)

  4. Anthropogenic Fragmentation in the western United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — We evaluated the fragmentation of the western United States by anthropogenic features. The addition of roads, railroads, and power lines to wildlands, and the...

  5. Emission of intermediate mass fragments during fission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S. L.; de Souza, R. T.; Cornell, E.; Davin, B.; Hamilton, T. M.; Hulbert, D.; Kwiatkowski, K.; Lou, Y.; Viola, V. E.; Korteling, R. G.; Wile, J. L.

    1996-11-01

    Ternary fission in the reaction 4He + 232Th at Elab=200 MeV has been observed. Intermediate mass fragments (IMF: 3fission. The widths of the energy spectra are relatively constant for neck fragments with Z>=4, suggesting little variability in the scission configurations. A linear dependence of on Z is observed for the neck IMFs. The observed trend is compared with a Coulomb trajectory model.

  6. Fragmentation of Care in Ectopic Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stulberg, Debra B; Dahlquist, Irma; Jarosch, Christina; Lindau, Stacy T

    2016-05-01

    Ectopic pregnancy is an important cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Women who experience fragmented care may undergo unnecessary delays to diagnosis and treatment. Based on ectopic pregnancy cases observed in clinical practice that raised our concern about fragmentation of care, we designed an exploratory study to describe the number, characteristics, and outcomes of fragmented care among patients with ectopic pregnancy at one urban academic hospital. Chart review with descriptive statistics. Fragmented care was defined as a patient being evaluated at an outside facility for possible ectopic pregnancy and transferred, referred, or discharged before receiving care at the study institution. Of 191 women seen for possible or definite ectopic pregnancy during the study period, 42 (22 %) met the study definition of fragmented care. The study was under-powered to observe statistically significant differences across groups, but we found concerning, non-significant trends: patients with fragmented care were more likely to be Medicaid recipients (65.9 vs. 58.8 %) and to experience a complication (23.8 vs. 18.1 %) compared to those with non-fragmented care. Most patients (n = 37) received no identifiable treatment prior to transfer and arrived to the study hospital with no communication to the receiving hospital from the outside provider (n = 34). Nine patients (21 %) presented with ruptured ectopic pregnancies. The fragmentation we observed in our study may contribute to previously identified socio-economic disparities in ectopic pregnancy outcomes. If future research confirms these findings, health information exchanges and regional coordination of care may be important strategies for reducing maternal mortality.

  7. Modified Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, K

    2000-01-01

    New experimental data obtained mainly at the GSI/FRS facility allow to modify the empirical parametrization of fragmentation cross sections, EPAX. It will be shown that minor modifications of the parameters lead to a much better reproduction of measured cross sections. The most significant changes refer to the description of fragmentation yields close to the projectile and of the memory effect of neutron-deficient projectiles.

  8. Fragment-based approaches to enzyme inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Ciulli, Alessio; Abell, Chris

    2007-01-01

    Fragment-based approaches have provided a new paradigm for small-molecule drug discovery. The methodology is complementary to high-throughput screening approaches, starting from fragments of low molecular complexity and high ligand efficiency, and building up to more potent inhibitors. The approach, which depends heavily on a number of biophysical techniques, is now being taken up by more groups in both industry and academia. This article describes key aspects of the process and highlights re...

  9. Observations of Titan IIIC Transtage Fragmentation Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowardin, Heather; Seitzer, P.; Abercromby, K.; Barker, E.; Buckalew, B.; Cardona, T.; Krisko, P.; Lederer, S.

    2013-01-01

    The fragmentation of a Titan IIIC Transtage (1968-081) on 21 February 1992 is one of only two known break-ups in or near geosynchronous orbit. The original rocket body and 24 pieces of debris are currently being tracked by the U. S. Space Surveillance Network (SSN). The rocket body (SSN# 3432) and several of the original fragments (SSN# 25000, 25001, 30000, and 33511) were observed in survey mode during 2004-2010 using the 0.6-m Michigan Orbital DEbris Survey Telescope (MODEST) in Chile using a broad R filter. This paper presents a size distribution for all calibrated magnitude data acquired on MODEST. Size distribution plots are also shown using historical models for small fragmentation debris (down to 10 cm) thought to be associated with the Titan Transtage break-up. In November 2010, visible broadband photometry (Johnson/Kron-Cousins BVRI) was acquired with the 0.9-m Small and Moderate Aperture Research Telescope System (SMARTS) at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO) in Chile on several Titan fragments (SSN 25001, 33509, and 33510) and the parent rocket body (SSN 3432). Color index data are used to determine the fragment brightness distribution and how the data compares to spacecraft materials measured in the laboratory using similar photometric measurement techniques. In order to better characterize the break-up fragments, spectral measurements were acquired on three Titan fragments (one fragment observed over two different time periods) using the 6.5-m Magellan telescopes at Las Campanas Observatory in Chile. The telescopic spectra of SSN 25000 (May 2012 and January 2013), SSN 38690, and SSN 38699 are compared with laboratory acquired spectra of materials (e.g., aluminum and various paints) to determine the surface material.

  10. Watch Out for Falling Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-12-01

    The path taken by the falling fragment in the June 2011 event. [Adapted from Petralia et al. 2016]Sometimes plasma emitted from the Sun doesnt escape into space, but instead comes crashing back down to the solar surface. What can observations and models of this process tell us about how the plasma falls and the local conditions on the Sun?Fallback from a FlareOn 7 June 2011, an M-class flare erupted from the solar surface. As the Solar Dynamics Observatorys Atmospheric Imaging Assembly looked on, plasma fragments from the flare arced away from the Sun and then fell back to the surface.Some fragments fell back where the Suns magnetic field was weak, returning directly to the surface. But others fell within active regions, where they crashed into the Suns magnetic field lines, brightening the channels and funneling along them through the dense corona and back to the Suns surface.The authors model of the falling blobs at several different times in their simulation. The blobs get disrupted when they encounter the field lines, and are then funneled along the channels to the solar surface. [Adapted from Petralia et al. 2016]This sort of flare and fall-back event is a common occurrence with the Sun, and SDOs observations of the June 2011 event present an excellent opportunity to understand the process better. A team of scientists led by Antonino Petralia (University of Palermo, Italy and INAF-OAPA) modeled this event in an effort to learn more about how the falling plasma interacts with strong magnetic fields above the solar surface.Magnetic Fields as GuidesPetralia and collaborators used three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical modeling to attempt to reproduce the observations of this event. They simulated blobs of plasma as they fall back to the solar surface and interact with magnetic field lines over a range of different conditions.The team found that only simulations that assume a relatively strong magnetic field resulted in the blobs funneling along a channel to the

  11. 血浆肾上腺髓质素前体中段肽预测盐酸米多君治疗儿童及青少年体位性心动过速综合征远期疗效的价值%Predictive value of baseline plasma midregional fragment of pro-adrenomedullin level on long-term outcome of postural tachycardia syndrome children treated with midodrine hydrochloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红霞; 张凤文; 王瑜丽; 刘平; 张春雨; 冯雪丽; 杜军保; 金红芳

    2015-01-01

    目的 研究血浆肾上腺髓质素前体中段肽(midregional fragment of pro-adrenomedullin,MR-proADM)对盐酸米多君治疗儿童及青少年体位性心动过速综合征(postural tachycardia syndrome,POTS)远期疗效的预测价值.方法 选取2007年12月至2010年1月在北京大学第一医院儿科就诊的POTS患者53例,男26例,女27例,平均年龄(14.5±4.5)岁,均采用口服盐酸米多君治疗.以初诊时基线血浆MR-proADM含量将患者分为两组,组1患者(35例)基线血浆MR-proADM含量>61.5ng/L,组2患者(18例)血浆MR-proADM含量≤61.5 ng/L.随访(67±7)个月,研究不同随访时间两组患者的症状评分,并通过Kaplan-Meier曲线,比较两组患者的无症状生存率.结果 随访60个月时,组1患者的症状积分低于组2(x2=4.985,P<0.05).随访72个月时,两组患者症状积分差异无统计学意义(x2 =0.004,P >0.05).Kaplan-Meier曲线分析表明,组1患者无症状生存率明显高于组2(x2=4.566,P<0.05).结论 基线血浆MR-proADM含量对于预测盐酸米多君治疗儿童及青少年的远期疗效具有重要价值.%Objective To explore the predictive value of baseline plasma midregional fragment of pro-adrenomedullin level (MR-proADM) on long-term survival of postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) children treated with midodrine hydrochloride.Methods Fifty-three children (male 26,mean age(14.5 ±4.5) years old) with POTS were included in this study,and all of them were diagnosed as POTS in our department from December 2007 to January 2010.Fifty-three children with POTS were divided into two groups according to the baseline plasma content of MR-proADM.Group Ⅰ consisted of 35 POTS children with plasma content of MR-proADM > 61.5 ng/L,and the group Ⅱ consisted of 18 POTS children with plasma content of MR-proADM ≤ 61.5 ng/L.The mean follow-up time was (67 ± 7) months.The orthostatic intolerance symptom score and the symptom free survival were compared between the 2 groups

  12. First principles approach to ionicity of fragments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilania, Ghanshyam, E-mail: gpilania@lanl.gov; Liu, Xiang-Yang; Valone, Steven M.

    2015-02-20

    Highlights: • A novel first principles approach towards the fragment ionicity. • Constrained DFT and valance charge density decomposition were employed. • Correct dissociation limit achieved for diatomics. • Ionicity is an input parameter for a new class of atomistic potentials. - Abstract: We develop a first principles approach towards the ionicity of fragments. In contrast to the bond ionicity, the fragment ionicity refers to an electronic property of the constituents of a larger system, which may vary from a single atom to a functional group or a unit cell to a crystal. The fragment ionicity is quantitatively defined in terms of the coefficients of contributing charge states in a superposition of valence configurations of the system. Utilizing the constrained density functional theory-based computations, a practical method to compute the fragment ionicity from valence electron charge densities, suitably decomposed according to the Fragment Hamiltonian (FH) model prescription for those electron densities, is presented for the first time. The adopted approach is illustrated using BeO, MgO and CaO diatomic molecules as simple examples. The results are compared and discussed with respect to the bond ionicity scales of Phillips and Pauling.

  13. Correlation measurements of fission-fragment properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberstedt, S.; Belgya, T.; Billnert, R.; Borcea, R.; Cano-Ott, D.; Göök, A.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Karlsson, J.; Kis, Z.; Martinez, T.; Oberstedt, A.; Szentmiklosi, L.; Takác, K.

    2010-10-01

    For the development of future nuclear fission applications and for a responsible handling of nuclear waste the a-priori assessment of the fission-fragments' heat production and toxicity is a fundamental necessity. The success of an indispensable modelling of the fission process strongly depends on a good understanding of the particular mechanism of scission, the mass fragmentation and partition of excitation energy. Experimental observables are fission-fragment properties like mass- and energy-distributions, and the prompt neutron as well as γ-ray multiplicities and emission spectra. The latter quantities should preferably be known as a function of fragment mass and excitation energy. Those data are highly demanded as published by the OECD-NEA in its high priority data request list. With the construction of the double (v, E) spectrometer VERDI we aim at measuring pre- and post-neutron masses directly and simultaneously to avoid prompt neutron corrections. From the simultaneous measurement of pre- and post-neutron fission-fragment data the prompt neutron multiplicity may then be inferred fully correlated with fragment mass yield and total kinetic energy. Using an ultra-fast fission event trigger spectral prompt fission γ-ray measurements may be performed. For that purpose recently developed lanthanum-halide detectors, with excellent timing characteristics, were coupled to the VERDI spectrometer allowing for a very good discrimination of fission γ-rays and prompt neutrons due to their different time-of-flight.

  14. DNA fragmentation status in patients with necrozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahem, Sonia; Jellad, Sonia; Ibala, Samira; Saad, Ali; Mehdi, Meriem

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if a relationship exists between the levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and necrospermia in infertile men. Semen samples obtained from 70 men consulting for infertility evaluation were analyzed according to World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. Patients were subdivided into three groups according to the percentage of necrotic spermatozoa: normozoospermia (80%; n = 20). DNA fragmentation was detected by the terminal desoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate biotin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The sperm DNA fragmentation index (DFI) was 9.28 ± 2.98% in patients with a normal level of necrotic spermatozoa, 20.25 ± 3.21% in patients with moderate necrozoospermia, and 35.31 ± 5.25% in patients with severe necrozoospermia. There was a statistically significant increase of DNA fragmentation in the necrozoospermic group (P DNA fragmentation. We concluded that patients with necrozoospermia showed a high level of DNA fragmentation compared to normozoospermic men. Severe necrozoospermia (>80%) is a predictive factor for increased sperm DNA damage.

  15. Prolonged sleep fragmentation of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringgold, Kristyn M.; Barf, R. Paulien; George, Amrita; Sutton, Blair C.; Opp, Mark R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Sleep disruption is a frequent occurrence in modern society. Whereas many studies have focused on the consequences of total sleep deprivation, few have investigated the condition of sleep disruption. New Method We disrupted sleep of mice during the light period for 9 consecutive days using an intermittently-rotating disc. Results Electroencephalogram (EEG) data demonstrated that non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep was severely fragmented and REM sleep was essentially abolished during the 12 h light period. During the dark period, when sleep was not disrupted, neither NREM sleep nor REM sleep times differed from control values. Analysis of the EEG revealed a trend for increased power in the peak frequency of the NREM EEG spectra during the dark period. The fragmentation protocol was not overly stressful as body weights and water consumption remained unchanged, and plasma corticosterone did not differ between mice subjected to 3 or 9 days of sleep disruption and home cage controls. However, mice subjected to 9 days of sleep disruption by this method responded to lipopolysaccharide with an exacerbated febrile response. Comparison with existing methods Existing methods to disrupt sleep of laboratory rodents often subject the animal to excessive locomotion, vibration, or sudden movements. This method does not suffer from any of these confounds. Conclusions This study demonstrates that prolonged sleep disruption of mice exacerbates febrile responses to lipopolysaccharide. This device provides a method to determine mechanisms by which chronic insufficient sleep contributes to the etiology of many pathologies, particularly those with an inflammatory component. PMID:23872243

  16. Influence of external magnetic field on laser breakdown plasma in aqueous Au nanoparticles colloidal solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Serkov, A A; Simakin, A V; Kuzmin, P G; Mikhailova, G N; Antonova, L Kh; Troitskii, A V; Kuzmin, G P; Shafeev, G A

    2016-01-01

    Influence of permanent magnetic field up to 7.5 T on plasma emission and laser-assisted Au nanoparticles fragmentation in water is experimentally studied. It is found that presence of magnetic field causes the breakdown plasma emission to start earlier regarding to laser pulse. Field presence also accelerates the fragmentation of nanoparticles down to a few nanometers. Dependence of Au NPs fragmentation rate in water on magnetic field intensity is investigated. The results are discussed on the basis of laser-induced plasma interaction with magnetic field.

  17. Effects of reduced seminal enzymatic antioxidants on sperm DNA fragmentation and semen quality of Tunisian infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atig, Fatma; Kerkeni, Abdelhamid; Saad, Ali; Ajina, Mounir

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate levels of sperm DNA fragmentation and enzymatic antioxidant status in seminal plasma of Tunisian fertile and infertile men in order to assess the effects of seminal oxidative stress on sperm DNA integrity and semen quality. Semen samples from 100 infertile patients (40 oligoasthenoteratozoospermics, 31 teratozoospermics and 29 asthenozoospermics) and 50 fertile men (controls) were analyzed for DNA fragmentation by TUNEL assay and biochemical parameters. Seminal antioxidant activities (Superoxide dismutase, Glutathione peroxidase and Catalase) and malondialdehyde concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Sperm DNA fragmentation and malondialdehyde levels in infertile groups were more elevated than controls. Nevertheless, the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower in abnormal groups compared to normozoospermics. Sperm DNA fragmentation was closely and positively correlated to malondialdehyde levels (r = 0.37, P = 0.008); meanwhile, reduced seminal antioxidant profile was negatively associated to sperm DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, we noted also that sperm DNA fragmentation was negatively correlated to sperm motility (r = -0.54, P fragmentation can be due to the impaired seminal enzymatic antioxidant profile and increased Lipid peroxidation. Our results sustain that the evaluation of sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal oxidative biomarkers in infertile men is recommended as a consistent prognostic tool for male infertility assessment.

  18. Implications of promiscuous Pim-1 kinase fragment inhibitor hydrophobic interactions for fragment-based drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Andrew C; Liu, Jinyu; Hirth, Bradford; Asmussen, Gary; Xiang, Yibin; Biemann, Hans-Peter; Bishop, Kimberly A; Fremgen, Trisha; Fitzgerald, Maria; Gladysheva, Tatiana; Jain, Annuradha; Jancsics, Katherine; Metz, Markus; Papoulis, Andrew; Skerlj, Renato; Stepp, J David; Wei, Ronnie R

    2012-03-22

    We have studied the subtleties of fragment docking and binding using data generated in a Pim-1 kinase inhibitor program. Crystallographic and docking data analyses have been undertaken using inhibitor complexes derived from an in-house surface plasmon resonance (SPR) fragment screen, a virtual needle screen, and a de novo designed fragment inhibitor hybrid. These investigations highlight that fragments that do not fill their binding pocket can exhibit promiscuous hydrophobic interactions due to the lack of steric constraints imposed on them by the boundaries of said pocket. As a result, docking modes that disagree with an observed crystal structure but maintain key crystallographically observed hydrogen bonds still have potential value in ligand design and optimization. This observation runs counter to the lore in fragment-based drug design that all fragment elaboration must be based on the parent crystal structure alone.

  19. Fragment library design: using cheminformatics and expert chemists to fill gaps in existing fragment libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutchukian, Peter S; So, Sung-Sau; Fischer, Christian; Waller, Chris L

    2015-01-01

    Fragment based screening (FBS) has emerged as a mainstream lead discovery strategy in academia, biotechnology start-ups, and large pharma. As a prerequisite of FBS, a structurally diverse library of fragments is desirable in order to identify chemical matter that will interact with the range of diverse target classes that are prosecuted in contemporary screening campaigns. In addition, it is also desirable to offer synthetically amenable starting points to increase the probability of a successful fragment evolution through medicinal chemistry. Herein we describe a method to identify biologically relevant chemical substructures that are missing from an existing fragment library (chemical gaps), and organize these chemical gaps hierarchically so that medicinal chemists can efficiently navigate the prioritized chemical space and subsequently select purchasable fragments for inclusion in an enhanced fragment library.

  20. Formation and Plasma Circulation of Solar Prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, C.; Keppens, R.

    2016-05-01

    Solar prominences are long-lived cool and dense plasma curtains in the hot and rarefied outer solar atmosphere or corona. The physical mechanism responsible for their formation and especially for their internal plasma circulation has been uncertain for decades. The observed ubiquitous downflows in quiescent prominences are difficult to interpret because plasma with high conductivity seems to move across horizontal magnetic field lines. Here we present three-dimensional numerical simulations of prominence formation and evolution in an elongated magnetic flux rope as a result of in situ plasma condensations fueled by continuous plasma evaporation from the solar chromosphere. The prominence is born and maintained in a fragmented, highly dynamic state with continuous reappearance of multiple blobs and thread structures that move mainly downward, dragging along mass-loaded field lines. The circulation of prominence plasma is characterized by the dynamic balance between the drainage of prominence plasma back to the chromosphere and the formation of prominence plasma via continuous condensation. Plasma evaporates from the chromosphere, condenses into the prominence in the corona, and drains back to the chromosphere, establishing a stable chromosphere-corona plasma cycle. Synthetic images of the modeled prominence with the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly closely resemble actual observations, with many dynamical threads underlying an elliptical coronal cavity.

  1. Influence of laser-induced breakdown on the fragmentation of gold nanoparticles in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serkov, A. A.; Kuzmin, P. G.; Rakov, I. I.; Shafeev, G. A.

    2016-08-01

    The process of fragmentation of gold nanoparticles in water exposed to nanosecond IR laser radiation (1060 - 1070 nm) is studied. The behaviour of the size distribution and extinction spectrum of nanoparticles is investigated at different experimental parameters. The dependences of the size distribution maximum position and distribution width on the laser pulse duration and the corresponding characteristics of the laser plasma, arising on the nanoparticles, are analysed. The results are explained by the plasma influence on the laser radiation absorption by the colloidal solution.

  2. Okazaki fragment maturation: nucleases take centre stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zheng; Binghui Shen

    2011-01-01

    Completion of lagging strand DNA synthesis requires processing of up to 50 million Okazaki fragments per cell cycle in mammalian cells. Even in yeast, the Okazaki fragment maturation happens approximately a million times during a singte round of DNA replication. Therefore, efficient processing of Okazaki fragments is vital for DNA replication and cell proliferation. During this process,primase-synthesized RNA/DNA primers are removed, and Okazaki fragments are joined into an intact lagging strand DNA. The processing of RNA/DNA primers requires a group of structure-specific nucleases typified by flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1). Here, we summarize the distinct roles of these nucleases in different pathways for removal of RNA/DNA primers. Recent findings reveal that Okazaki fragment maturation is highly coordinated. The dynamic interactions of polymerase δ, FEN1 and DNA ligase I with proliferating cell nuclear antigen allow these enzymes to act sequentially during Okazaki fragment maturation. Such protein-protein interactions may be regulated by post-translational modifications. We also discuss studies using mutant mouse models that suggest two distinct cancer etiological mechanisms arising from defects in different steps of Okazaki fragment maturation.Mutations that affect the efficiency of RNA primer removal may result in accumulation of unligated nicks and DNA double-strand breaks. These DNA strand breaks can cause varying forms of chromosome aberrations, contributing to development of cancer that associates with aneuploidy and gross chromosomal rearrangement. On the other hand, mutations that impair editing out of polymerase o incorporation errors result in cancer displaying a strong mutator phenotype.

  3. Invariant Object Recognition Based on Extended Fragments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniy eBart

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Visual appearance of natural objects is profoundly affected by viewing conditions such as viewpoint and illumination. Human subjects can nevertheless compensate well for variations in these viewing conditions. The strategies that the visual system uses to accomplish this are largely unclear. Previous computational studies have suggested that in principle, certain types of object fragments (rather than whole objects can be used for invariant recognition. However, whether the human visual system is actually capable of using this strategy remains unknown. Here, we show that human observers can achieve illumination invariance by using object fragments that carry the relevant information. To determine this, we have used novel, but naturalistic, 3-D visual objects called ‘digital embryos’. Using novel instances of whole embryos, not fragments, we trained subjects to recognize individual embryos across illuminations. We then tested the illumination-invariant object recognition performance of subjects using fragments. We found that the performance was strongly correlated with the mutual information (MI of the fragments, provided that MI value took variations in illumination into consideration. This correlation was not attributable to any systematic differences in task difficulty between different fragments. These results reveal two important principles of invariant object recognition. First, the subjects can achieve invariance at least in part by compensating for the changes in the appearance of small local features, rather than of whole objects. Second, the subjects do not always rely on generic or pre-existing invariance of features (i.e., features whose appearance remains largely unchanged by variations in illumination, and are capable of using learning to compensate for appearance changes when necessary. These psychophysical results closely fit the predictions of earlier computational studies of fragment-based invariant object recognition.

  4. Invariant object recognition based on extended fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bart, Evgeniy; Hegdé, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Visual appearance of natural objects is profoundly affected by viewing conditions such as viewpoint and illumination. Human subjects can nevertheless compensate well for variations in these viewing conditions. The strategies that the visual system uses to accomplish this are largely unclear. Previous computational studies have suggested that in principle, certain types of object fragments (rather than whole objects) can be used for invariant recognition. However, whether the human visual system is actually capable of using this strategy remains unknown. Here, we show that human observers can achieve illumination invariance by using object fragments that carry the relevant information. To determine this, we have used novel, but naturalistic, 3-D visual objects called "digital embryos." Using novel instances of whole embryos, not fragments, we trained subjects to recognize individual embryos across illuminations. We then tested the illumination-invariant object recognition performance of subjects using fragments. We found that the performance was strongly correlated with the mutual information (MI) of the fragments, provided that MI value took variations in illumination into consideration. This correlation was not attributable to any systematic differences in task difficulty between different fragments. These results reveal two important principles of invariant object recognition. First, the subjects can achieve invariance at least in part by compensating for the changes in the appearance of small local features, rather than of whole objects. Second, the subjects do not always rely on generic or pre-existing invariance of features (i.e., features whose appearance remains largely unchanged by variations in illumination), and are capable of using learning to compensate for appearance changes when necessary. These psychophysical results closely fit the predictions of earlier computational studies of fragment-based invariant object recognition.

  5. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa: a historical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J; Fedder, J

    2017-07-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated. In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage. The present decade continues within this research area. Some of the more novel methods recently submerging are sorting of cells with increased DNA fragmentation and hyaluronic acid (HA) binding techniques. The clinical value of these tests remains to be elucidated. In spite of half a century of research within the area, this analysis is not routinely implemented into the fertility clinics. The underlying causes are multiple. The abundance of methods has impeded the need for a clinical significant threshold. One of the most promising methods was commercialized in 2005 and has been reserved for larger licensed laboratories. Myriads of reviews and meta-analyses on studies using different assays for analysis of DNA fragmentation, different clinical Artificial Reproductive Treatments (ART), different definitions of successful ART outcome and small patient cohorts have been published. Although the area of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa is highly relevant in the fertility clinics, the need for further studies focusing on standardization of the methods and clinical

  6. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years......) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk...... of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality....

  7. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  8. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  9. Rock fragmentation control in opencast blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.K. Singh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The blasting operation plays a pivotal role in the overall economics of opencast mines. The blasting sub-system affects all the other associated sub-systems, i.e. loading, transport, crushing and milling operations. Fragmentation control through effective blast design and its effect on productivity are the challenging tasks for practicing blasting engineer due to inadequate knowledge of actual explosive energy released in the borehole, varying initiation practice in blast design and its effect on explosive energy release characteristic. This paper describes the result of a systematic study on the impact of blast design parameters on rock fragmentation at three mines in India. The mines use draglines and shovel–dumper combination for removal of overburden. Despite its pivotal role in controlling the overall economics of a mining operation, the expected blasting performance is often judged almost exclusively on the basis of poorly defined parameters such as powder factor and is often qualitative which results in very subjective assessment of blasting performance. Such an approach is very poor substitutes for accurate assessment of explosive and blasting performance. Ninety one blasts were conducted with varying blast designs and charging patterns, and their impacts on the rock fragmentation were documented. A high-speed camera was deployed to record the detonation sequences of the blasts. The efficiency of the loading machines was also correlated with the mean fragment size obtained from the fragmentation analyses.

  10. Short read DNA fragment anchoring algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wendi; Zhang, Peiheng; Liu, Xinchun

    2009-01-30

    The emerging next-generation sequencing method based on PCR technology boosts genome sequencing speed considerably, the expense is also get decreased. It has been utilized to address a broad range of bioinformatics problems. Limited by reliable output sequence length of next-generation sequencing technologies, we are confined to study gene fragments with 30 - 50 bps in general and it is relatively shorter than traditional gene fragment length. Anchoring gene fragments in long reference sequence is an essential and prerequisite step for further assembly and analysis works. Due to the sheer number of fragments produced by next-generation sequencing technologies and the huge size of reference sequences, anchoring would rapidly becoming a computational bottleneck. We compared algorithm efficiency on BLAT, SOAP and EMBF. The efficiency is defined as the count of total output results divided by time consumed to retrieve them. The data show that our algorithm EMBF have 3 - 4 times efficiency advantage over SOAP, and at least 150 times over BLAT. Moreover, when the reference sequence size is increased, the efficiency of SOAP will get degraded as far as 30%, while EMBF have preferable increasing tendency. In conclusion, we deem that EMBF is more suitable for short fragment anchoring problem where result completeness and accuracy is predominant and the reference sequences are relatively large.

  11. Formation of wide binaries by turbulent fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Lee, Seokho; Dunham, Michael M.; Tatematsu, Ken'ichi; Choi, Minho; Bergin, Edwin A.; Evans, Neal J.

    2017-08-01

    Understanding the formation of wide-binary systems of very low-mass stars (M ≤ 0.1 solar masses, M⊙) is challenging 1,2,3 . The most obvious route is through widely separated low-mass collapsing fragments produced by turbulent fragmentation of a molecular core4,5. However, close binaries or multiples from disk fragmentation can also evolve to wide binaries over a few initial crossing times of the stellar cluster through tidal evolution6. Finding an isolated low-mass wide-binary system in the earliest stage of formation, before tidal evolution could occur, would prove that turbulent fragmentation is a viable mechanism for (very) low-mass wide binaries. Here we report high-resolution ALMA observations of a known wide-separation protostellar binary, showing that each component has a circumstellar disk. The system is too young7 to have evolved from a close binary, and the disk axes are misaligned, providing strong support for the turbulent fragmentation model. Masses of both stars are derived from the Keplerian rotation of the disks; both are very low-mass stars.

  12. Supramolecular gel electrophoresis of large DNA fragments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazawa, Shohei; Kobayashi, Kazuhiro; Oyoshi, Takanori; Yamanaka, Masamichi

    2017-07-06

    Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis is a frequent technique used to separate exceptionally large DNA fragments. In a typical continuous field electrophoresis, it is challenging to separate DNA fragments larger than 20 kbp because they migrate at a comparable rate. To overcome this challenge, it is necessary to develop a novel matrix for the electrophoresis. Here, we describe the electrophoresis of large DNA fragments up to 166 kbp using a supramolecular gel matrix and a typical continuous field electrophoresis system. C3 -symmetric tris-urea self-assembled into a supramolecular hydrogel in tris-boric acid-EDTA buffer, a typical buffer for DNA electrophoresis, and the supramolecular hydrogel was used as a matrix for electrophoresis to separate large DNA fragments. Three types of DNA marker, the λ-Hind III digest (2 to 23 kbp), Lambda DNA-Mono Cut Mix (10 to 49 kbp), and Marker 7 GT (10 to 165 kbp), were analyzed in this study. Large DNA fragments of greater than 100 kbp showed distinct mobility using a typical continuous field electrophoresis system. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Simvastatin inhibits CD44 fragmentation in chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terabe, Kenya; Takahashi, Nobunori; Takemoto, Toki; Knudson, Warren; Ishiguro, Naoki; Kojima, Toshihisa

    2016-08-15

    In human osteoarthritic chondrocytes, the hyaluronan receptor CD44 undergoes proteolytic cleavage at the cell surface. CD44 cleavage is thought to require transit of CD44 into cholesterol-rich lipid rafts. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether statins exert a protective effect on articular chondrocytes due to diminution of cholesterol. Three model systems of chondrocytes were examined including human HCS-2/8 chondrosarcoma cells, human osteoarthritic chondrocytes and normal bovine articular chondrocytes. Treatment with IL-1β + Oncostatin M resulted in a substantial increase in CD44 fragmentation in each of the three chondrocyte models. Pre-incubation with simvastatin prior to treatment with IL-1β + Oncostatin M decreased the level of CD44 fragmentation, decreased the proportion of CD44 that transits into the lipid raft fractions, decreased ADAM10 activity and diminished the interaction between CD44 and ADAM10. In HCS-2/8 cells and bovine articular chondrocytes, fragmentation of CD44 was blocked by the knockdown of ADAM10. Inhibition of CD44 fragmentation by simvastatin also resulted in improved retention of pericellular matrix. Addition of cholesterol and farnesyl-pyrophosphate reversed the protective effects of simvastatin. Thus, the addition of simvastatin exerts positive effects on chondrocytes including reduced CD44 fragmentation and enhanced the retention of pericellular matrix. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Global-Scale Patterns of Forest Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Riitters

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 x 9 pixels, "small" scale to 59,049 km 2 (243 x 243 pixels, "large" scale were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests are dominated by edge and patch conditions. At the smallest scale, there were significant differences in fragmentation among continents; within continents, there were significant differences among individual forest types. Tropical rain forest fragmentation was most severe in North America and least severe in Europe-Asia. Forest types with a high percentage of perforated conditions were mainly in North America (five types and Europe-Asia (four types, in both temperate and subtropical regions. Transitional and patch conditions were most common in 11 forest types, of which only a few would be considered as "naturally patchy" (e.g., dry woodland. The five forest types with the highest percentage of interior conditions were in North America; in decreasing order, they were cool rain forest, coniferous, conifer boreal, cool mixed, and cool broadleaf.

  15. Correlation measurements of fission-fragment properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oberstedt A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available For the development of future nuclear fission applications and for a responsible handling of nuclear waste the a-priori assessment of the fission-fragments’ heat production and toxicity is a fundamental necessity. The success of an indispensable modelling of the fission process strongly depends on a good understanding of the particular mechanism of scission, the mass fragmentation and partition of excitation energy. Experimental observables are fission-fragment properties like mass- and energy-distributions, and the prompt neutron as well as γ-ray multiplicities and emission spectra. The latter quantities should preferably be known as a function of fragment mass and excitation energy. Those data are highly demanded as published by the OECD-NEA in its high priority data request list. With the construction of the double (v, E spectrometer VERDI we aim at measuring pre- and post-neutron masses directly and simultaneously to avoid prompt neutron corrections. From the simultaneous measurement of pre- and post-neutron fission-fragment data the prompt neutron multiplicity may then be inferred fully correlated with fragment mass yield and total kinetic energy. Using an ultra-fast fission event trigger spectral prompt fission γ-ray measurements may be performed. For that purpose recently developed lanthanum-halide detectors, with excellent timing characteristics, were coupled to the VERDI spectrometer allowing for a very good discrimination of fission γ-rays and prompt neutrons due to their different time-of-flight.

  16. Stream hydrological fragmentation drives bacterioplankton community composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Fazi

    Full Text Available In Mediterranean intermittent streams, the hydrological fragmentation in summer and the successive water flow re-convergence in autumn allow exploring how local processes shape the microbial community within the same habitat. The objectives of this study were to determine how bacterial community composition responded to hydrological fragmentation in summer, and to evaluate whether the seasonal shifts in community composition predominate over the effects of episodic habitat fragmentation. The bacterial community was assessed along the intermittent stream Fuirosos (Spain, at different levels of phylogenetic resolution by in situ hybridization, fingerprinting, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The hydrological fragmentation of the stream network strongly altered the biogeochemical conditions with the depletion of oxidized solutes and caused changes in dissolved organic carbon characteristics. In the isolated ponds, beta-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria increased their abundance with a gradual reduction of the alpha-diversity as pond isolation time increased. Moreover, fingerprinting analysis clearly showed a shift in community composition between summer and autumn. In the context of a seasonal shift, the temporary stream fragmentation simultaneously reduced the microbial dispersion and affected local environmental conditions (shift in redox regime and quality of the dissolved organic matter tightly shaping the bacterioplankton community composition.

  17. Plasma Characteristics of Electrosurgical Discharges*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.

    2003-10-01

    Surgical devices utilizing electrical discharges of ever increasing sophistication have been used for decades for numerous procedures. Cushing and Bovie in 1928, for example, developed high-frequency spark generators to cauterize blood vessels and remove unwanted tissue by a thermal ablation processes. Modern Bovies (named after their inventor) use a high-frequency discharge from an electrode to nearby tissue to thermally ablate tissue. Spectroscopic analysis shows that these discharges are hot and are well represented by a thermal equilibrium model, and temperatures near 2000 K are easily achieved. New electrosurgical devices utilizing repetitive electrical discharges in a conducting saline environment have recently been developed. Electron emission from an active electrode during certain portions of the voltage waveform causes the formation of a vapor layer surrounding the electrode and the subsequent ionization and dissociation of species in this region. Electron temperatures of approximately 4 eV are achieved during the plasma phase. Water molecules are dissociated into reactive fragments, and the salt species are also excited and ionized in this nonequilibrium plasma. It is thought that the reactive species interact with nearby tissue, causing localized tissue removal (ablation) which surgeons can exploit during surgical procedures. Flowing saline surrounding the plasma region cools untargeted tissue and removes the reaction products. This presentation will focus on experimental results of the plasma conditions and discuss our current efforts to understand the complex reactions of the various plasma species with tissue structures such as collagen. A short clip showing tissue removal will also be shown.

  18. Ternary fission fragmentation of 252Cf for all possible third fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimaran, K.; Balasubramaniam, M.

    2010-09-01

    The ternary fragmentation of 252Cf for all possible third fragments has been investigated using the recently proposed three-cluster model within a spherical approximation and satisfying the condition A 1 ≥ A 2 ≥ A 3 . The most probable ternary configurations in the fission of 252Cf accompanied with all possible third fragment mass numbers from A 3 = 1 to 84 are predicted and their independent and overall relative yields are calculated. The calculations of the properly charge minimized potential energy surface (PES) and yield reveal that even-mass third fragments are more favored than odd ones. In the most probable configuration having the minimum in the potential energy and the maximum in yield, among the three fragments, at least one (or two) of the fragment(s) associates itself with the neutron (or proton) closed shell and in some cases even with the doubly closed shell. The calculated relative yields imply that next to 14C (the heaviest third fragment observed in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252Cf , 34, 36, 38Si , 46, 48Ar , and 48, 50Ca are presenting themselves as the most favoured cases to be observed as the third particle in the spontaneous ternary fission of 252Cf.

  19. Fragmentation of methane molecules by antiproton impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehzadeh, Arash; Kirchner, Tom

    2016-09-01

    Extending previous work for proton impact, we have investigated the fragmentation of methane molecules due to collisions with antiprotons in the 25 keV to 5 MeV impact energy range. The multi-center nature of the problem is addressed by using a spectral representation of the molecular Hartree-Fock-level Hamiltonian and a single-center expansion of the initially populated molecular orbitals. The two-center basis generator method (TC-BGM) is used for orbital propagation. Electron-removal cross sections obtained from the TC-BGM solutions are complemented with a dynamical decay-route fragmentation model to calculate cross sections for the production of fragment ions. Good agreement with the available experimental data is observed for CH4+,CH3+,CH2+and CH+. Work supported by NSERC, Canada.

  20. Fragmentation of colliding planetesimals with water content

    CERN Document Server

    Maindl, Thomas I; Schäfer, Christoph; Speith, Roland

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the outcome of collisions of Ceres-sized planetesimals composed of a rocky core and a shell of water ice. These collisions are not only relevant for explaining the formation of planetary embryos in early planetary systems, but also provide insight into the formation of asteroid families and possible water transport via colliding small bodies. Earlier studies show characteristic collision velocities exceeding the bodies' mutual escape velocity which - along with the distribution of the impact angles - cover the collision outcome regimes 'partial accretion', 'erosion', and 'hit-and-run' leading to different expected fragmentation scenarios. Existing collision simulations use bodies composed of strengthless material; we study the distribution of fragments and their water contents considering the full elasto-plastic continuum mechanics equations also including brittle failure and fragmentation.

  1. Flow angle from intermediate mass fragment measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rami, F.; Crochet, P.; Dona, R.; De Schauenburg, B.; Wagner, P.; Alard, J.P.; Andronic, A.; Basrak, Z.; Bastid, N.; Belyaev, I.; Bendarag, A.; Berek, G.; Best, D.; Caplar, R.; Devismes, A.; Dupieux, P.; Dzelalija, M.; Eskef, M.; Fodor, Z.; Gobbi, A.; Grishkin, Y.; Herrmann, N.; Hildenbrand, K.D.; Hong, B.; Kecskemeti, J.; Kirejczyk, M.; Korolija, M.; Kotte, R.; Lebedev, A.; Leifels, Y.; Merlitz, H.; Mohren, S.; Moisa, D.; Neubert, W.; Pelte, D.; Petrovici, M.; Pinkenburg, C.; Plettner, C.; Reisdorf, W.; Schuell, D.; Seres, Z.; Sikora, B.; Simion, V.; Siwek-Wilczynska, K.; Stoicea, G.; Stockmeir, M.; Vasiliev, M.; Wisniewski, K.; Wohlfarth, D.; Yushmanov, I.; Zhilin, A

    1999-02-15

    Directed sideward flow of light charged particles and intermediate mass fragments was measured in different symmetric reactions at bombarding energies from 90 to 800 A MeV. The flow parameter is found to increase with the charge of the detected fragment up to Z = 3-4 and then turns into saturation for heavier fragments. Guided by simple simulations of an anisotropic expanding thermal source, we show that the value at saturation can provide a good estimate of the flow angle, {theta}{sub flow}, in the participant region. It is found that {theta}{sub flow} depends strongly on the impact parameter. The excitation function of {theta}{sub flow} reveals striking deviations from the ideal hydrodynamical scaling. The data exhibit a steep rise of {theta}{sub flow} to a maximum at around 250 - 400 A MeV, followed by a moderate decrease as the bombarding energy increases further.

  2. Fragmentation of Kozai–Lidov Disks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wen; Lubow, Stephen H.; Martin, Rebecca G.

    2017-02-01

    We analyze the gravitational instability (GI) of a locally isothermal inclined disk around one component of a binary system. Such a disk can undergo global Kozai–Lidov (KL) cycles if the initial disk tilt is above the critical KL angle (of about 40◦). During these cycles, an initially circular disk exchanges its inclination for eccentricity, and vice versa. Self-gravity may suppress the cycles under some circumstances. However, with hydrodynamic simulations that include self-gravity, we show that for a sufficiently high initial disk tilts and for certain disk masses, disks can undergo KL oscillations and fragment due to GI, even when the Toomre Q value for an equivalent undisturbed disk is well within the stable regime (Q> 2). We suggest that KL triggered disk fragmentation provides a mechanism for the efficient formation of giant planets in binary systems and may enhance the fragmentation of disks in massive black hole binaries.

  3. Antiproton Induced Fission and Fragmentation of Nuclei

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The annihilation of slow antiprotons with nuclei results in a large highly localized energy deposition primarily on the nuclear surface. \\\\ \\\\ The study of antiproton induced fission and fragmentation processes is expected to yield new information on special nuclear matter states, unexplored fission modes, multifragmentation of nuclei, and intranuclear cascades.\\\\ \\\\ In order to investigate the antiproton-nucleus interaction and the processes following the antiproton annihilation at the nucleus, we propose the following experiments: \\item A)~Measurement of several fragments from fission and from multifragmentation in coincidence with particle spectra, especially neutrons and kaons. \\item B)~Precise spectra of $\\pi$, K, n, p, d and t with time-of-flight techniques. \\item C)~Installation of the Berlin 4$\\pi$ neutron detector with a 4$\\pi$ Si detector placed inside for fragments and charged particles. This yields neutron multiplicity distributions and consequently distributions of thermal excitation energies and...

  4. Protrombina mutante em indivíduos sob investigação de trombofilia Mutant prothrombin in individuals under thrombophilia investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Paula da Silva Ramos

    2008-04-01

    coagulation factor II, prothrombin G20210A (PTCR, constitutes the second most prevalent genetic defect associated with the predisposition to thrombosis or thrombophilia. In Brazil, the study of this risk factor is relatively recent and there is little available data in medical literature. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of PTCR in 285 individuals being investigated for thrombophilia at Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco (HEMOPE/PE. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The molecular biology technique used was restriction enzyme/polymerase chain reaction (RE/PCR, using specific primers and the Hind III enzyme. RESULTS: The frequency of PTCR was 6% in heterozygosis. The presence of the mutation was similar among individuals under and over 45 years old. DISCUSSION: The presence of PTCR may have been a relevant factor for the episodes of thrombosis, and the low median age of the group suggests that other genetic causes of thrombophilia must be investigated inasmuch as most publications associate the presence of genetic risk factor with thrombotic events in individuals under 45 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed that the frequency of PTCR in the studied population is similar to the results published in medical literature for selected patients with thromboembolism and they confirm the importance of molecular testing at different age groups.

  5. Improved Empirical Parametrization of Fragmentation Cross Sections

    CERN Document Server

    Sümmerer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    A new version is proposed for the universal empirical formula, EPAX, which describes fragmentation cross sections in high-energy heavy-ion reactions. The new version, EPAX 3, can be shown to yield cross sections that are in better agreement with experimental data for the most neutron-rich fragments than the previous version. At the same time, the very good agreement of EPAX 2 with data on the neutron-deficient side has been largely maintained. Comparison with measured cross sections show that the bulk of the data is reproduced within a factor of about 2, for cross sections down to the pico-barn range.

  6. Parton-to-Pion Fragmentation Reloaded

    CERN Document Server

    de Florian, D; Epele, M; Hernandez-Pinto, R J; Stratmann, M

    2014-01-01

    We present a new, comprehensive global analysis of parton-to-pion fragmentation functions at next-to-leading order accuracy in QCD. The obtained results are based on the latest experimental information on single-inclusive pion production in electron-positron annihilation, lepton-nucleon deep-inelastic scattering, and proton-proton collisions. An excellent description of all data sets is achieved, and the remaining uncertainties in parton-to-pion fragmentation functions are estimated based on the Hessian method. Extensive comparisons to the results from our previous global analysis are performed.

  7. Laser photoluminescence spectroscopy of photodissociation fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, W. M.; Cody, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    Laser induced photoluminescence spectroscopy has been used to study the energy partitioning among CN fragments produced by the photodissociation of C2N2. The CN radicals are produced in both the A 2Pi and the X 2Sigma+ states. The A state is formed primarily in the nu-prime = 0 level, and the X state is formed in the lower vibrational levels. Since the photodissociation process does not produce the maximum amount of vibrational excitation in the CN fragments, it is suggested that the excess energy goes into either translational and/or rotational excitation of the CN.

  8. Limit theorems for fragmentation processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Knobloch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we extend two limit theorems which were recently obtained for fragmentation processes to such processes with immigration. More precisely, in the setting with immigration we consider a limit theorem for the process counted with a random characteristic as well as the asymptotic behaviour of an empirical measure associated with the stopping line corresponding to the first blocks, in their respective line of descent, that are smaller than a given size. In addition, we determine the asymptotic decay rate of the size of the largest block in a homogeneous fragmentation process with immigration. The techniques used to proves these results are based on submartingale arguments.

  9. Radio Frequency Fragment Separator at NSCL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazin, D. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)], E-mail: bazin@nscl.msu.edu; Andreev, V. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Becerril, A. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Doleans, M. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Mantica, P.F. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ottarson, J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Schatz, H. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Stoker, J.B. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Vincent, J. [National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824-1321 (United States)

    2009-07-21

    A new device has been designed and built at NSCL which provides additional filtering of radioactive beams produced via projectile fragmentation. The Radio Frequency Fragment Separator (RFFS) uses the time micro structure of the beams accelerated by the cyclotrons to deflect particles according to their time-of-flight, in effect producing a phase filtering. The transverse RF (Radio Frequency) electric field of the RFFS has superior filtering performance compared to other electrostatic devices, such as Wien filters. Such filtering is critical for radioactive beams produced on the neutron-deficient side of the valley of stability, where strong contamination occurs at intermediate energies from 50 to 200 MeV/u.

  10. Parton Propagation and Fragmentation in QCD Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberto Accardi, Francois Arleo, William Brooks, David D' Enterria, Valeria Muccifora

    2009-12-01

    We review recent progress in the study of parton propagation, interaction and fragmentation in both cold and hot strongly interacting matter. Experimental highlights on high-energy hadron production in deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering, proton-nucleus and heavy-ion collisions, as well as Drell-Yan processes in hadron-nucleus collisions are presented. The existing theoretical frameworks for describing the in-medium interaction of energetic partons and the space-time evolution of their fragmentation into hadrons are discussed and confronted to experimental data. We conclude with a list of theoretical and experimental open issues, and a brief description of future relevant experiments and facilities.

  11. Angular Momentum Population in Projectile Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podolyák, Zs.; Gladnishki, K. A.; Gerl, J.; Hellström, M.; Kopatch, Y.; Mandal, S.; Górska, M.; Regan, P. H.; Wollersheim, H. J.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Gsi-Isomer Collaboration

    2004-02-01

    Isomeric states in neutron-deficient nuclei around A ≈190 have been identified following the projectile fragmentation of a relativistic energy 238U beam. The deduced isomeric ratios are compared with a model based on the abrasion-ablation description. The experimental isomeric ratios are lower by a factor of ≈2 than the calculated ones assuming the `sharp cutoff' approximation. The observation of the previously reported isomeric Iπ=43/2- state in 215Ra represents the current record for the highest discrete spin state observed following a projectile fragmentation reaction.

  12. Radio Frequency Fragment Separator at NSCL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazin, D.; Andreev, V.; Becerril, A.; Doléans, M.; Mantica, P. F.; Ottarson, J.; Schatz, H.; Stoker, J. B.; Vincent, J.

    2009-07-01

    A new device has been designed and built at NSCL which provides additional filtering of radioactive beams produced via projectile fragmentation. The Radio Frequency Fragment Separator (RFFS) uses the time micro structure of the beams accelerated by the cyclotrons to deflect particles according to their time-of-flight, in effect producing a phase filtering. The transverse RF (Radio Frequency) electric field of the RFFS has superior filtering performance compared to other electrostatic devices, such as Wien filters. Such filtering is critical for radioactive beams produced on the neutron-deficient side of the valley of stability, where strong contamination occurs at intermediate energies from 50 to 200 MeV/u.

  13. Eigenmodes of decay and discrete fragmentation processes

    CERN Document Server

    Giraud, B G; Giraud, B G; Peschanski, R

    1994-01-01

    Linear rate equations are used to describe the cascading decay of an initial heavy cluster into fragments. This representation is based upon a triangular matrix of transition rates. We expand the state vector of mass multiplicities, which describes the process, into the biorthonormal basis of eigenmodes provided by the triangular matrix. When the transition rates have a scaling property in terms of mass ratios at binary fragmentation vertices, we obtain solvable models with explicit mathematical properties for the eigenmodes. A suitable continuous limit provides an interpolation between the solvable models. It gives a general relationship between the decay products and the elementary transition rates.

  14. Computer Model Of Fragmentation Of Atomic Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, John W.; Townsend, Lawrence W.; Tripathi, Ram K.; Norbury, John W.; KHAN FERDOUS; Badavi, Francis F.

    1995-01-01

    High Charge and Energy Semiempirical Nuclear Fragmentation Model (HZEFRG1) computer program developed to be computationally efficient, user-friendly, physics-based program for generating data bases on fragmentation of atomic nuclei. Data bases generated used in calculations pertaining to such radiation-transport applications as shielding against radiation in outer space, radiation dosimetry in outer space, cancer therapy in laboratories with beams of heavy ions, and simulation studies for designing detectors for experiments in nuclear physics. Provides cross sections for production of individual elements and isotopes in breakups of high-energy heavy ions by combined nuclear and Coulomb fields of interacting nuclei. Written in ANSI FORTRAN 77.

  15. Dissipative fragmentation in a phase space approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adorno, A.; Di Toro, M.; Bonasera, A.; Gregoire, C.; Gulminelli, F.

    Semi-classical approaches have evidenced the role of one and two-body dissipation in nucleus-nucleus collisions. On the other hand, a substantial energy dissipation and some angular momentum transfer have been observed at moderate energy where a fragmentation process is the dominant reaction mechanism. In order to analyse main features of these reactions, we developed a phenomenological model taking into account phase space constraints. The transition between deep inelastic collisions and abrasion-like fragmentation is described and a general agreement with available data is found.

  16. Replacement of isoleucine-397 by threonine in the clotting proteinase factor IXa (Los Angeles and Long Beach variants) affects macromolecular catalysis but not L-tosylarginine methyl ester hydrolysis. Lack of correlation between the ox brain prothrombin time and the mutation site in the variant proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitzer, S G; Warn-Cramer, B J; Kasper, C K; Bajaj, S P

    1990-01-01

    Previously, from the plasma of unrelated haemophilia-B patients, we isolated two non-functional Factor IX variants, namely Los Angeles (IXLA) and Long Beach (IXLB). Both variants could be cleaved to yield Factor IXa-like molecules, but were defective in catalysing the cleavage of Factor X (macromolecular substrate) and in binding to antithrombin III (macromolecular inhibitor). In the present study we have identified the mutation of IXLA by amplifying the exons (including flanking regions) as well as the 5' end of the gene by polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) method and sequencing the amplified DNA by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Comparison of the normal IX and IXLA sequences revealed only one base substitution (T----C) in exon VIII of IXLA, with a predicted replacement of Ile-397 to Thr in the mature protein. This mutation is the same as found recently for IXLB. The observation that IXLB and IXLA have the same mutation is an unexpected finding, since, on the basis of their ox brain prothrombin time (PT, a test that measures the ability of the variant Factor IX molecules to inhibit the activation of Factor X by Factor VIIa-tissue factor complex), these variants have been classified into two different groups and were thought to be genetically different. Our observation thus suggests that the ox brain PT does not reflect the locus of mutation in the coding region of the variant molecules. However, our analysis suggests that the ox brain PT is related to Factor IX antigen concentration in the patient's plasma. Importantly, although the mutation in IXLA or IXLB protein is in the catalytic domain, purified IXaLA and IXaLB hydrolyse L-tosylarginine methyl ester at rates very similar to that of normal IXa. These data, in conjunction with our recent data on Factor IXBm Lake Elsinore (Ala-390----Val mutant), strengthen a conclusion that the peptide region containing residues 390-397 of normal Factor IXa plays an essential role in macromolecular substrate catalysis and

  17. Variety of RNAs in Peripheral Blood Cells, Plasma, and Plasma Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Savelyeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Human peripheral blood contains RNA in cells and in extracellular membrane vesicles, microvesicles and exosomes, as well as in cell-free ribonucleoproteins. Circulating mRNAs and noncoding RNAs, being internalized, possess the ability to modulate vital processes in recipient cells. In this study, with SOLiD sequencing technology, we performed identification, classification, and quantification of RNAs from blood fractions: cells, plasma, plasma vesicles pelleted at 16,000g and 160,000g, and vesicle-depleted plasma supernatant of healthy donors and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. It was determined that 16,000g blood plasma vesicles were enriched with cell-free mitochondria and with a set of mitochondrial RNAs. The variable RNA set of blood plasma 160,000g pellets reflected the prominent contribution of U1, U5, and U6 small nuclear RNAs’ fragments and at the same time was characterized by a remarkable depletion of small nucleolar RNAs. Besides microRNAs, the variety of fragments of mRNAs and snoRNAs dominated in the set of circulating RNAs differentially expressed in blood fractions of NSCLC patients. Taken together, our data emphasize that not only extracellular microRNAs but also circulating fragments of messenger and small nuclear/nucleolar RNAs represent prominent classes of circulating regulatory ncRNAs as well as promising circulating biomarkers for the development of disease diagnostic approaches.

  18. Variety of RNAs in Peripheral Blood Cells, Plasma, and Plasma Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, Anna V; Kuligina, Elena V; Bariakin, Dmitry N; Kozlov, Vadim V; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Richter, Vladimir A; Semenov, Dmitry V

    2017-01-01

    Human peripheral blood contains RNA in cells and in extracellular membrane vesicles, microvesicles and exosomes, as well as in cell-free ribonucleoproteins. Circulating mRNAs and noncoding RNAs, being internalized, possess the ability to modulate vital processes in recipient cells. In this study, with SOLiD sequencing technology, we performed identification, classification, and quantification of RNAs from blood fractions: cells, plasma, plasma vesicles pelleted at 16,000g and 160,000g, and vesicle-depleted plasma supernatant of healthy donors and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. It was determined that 16,000g blood plasma vesicles were enriched with cell-free mitochondria and with a set of mitochondrial RNAs. The variable RNA set of blood plasma 160,000g pellets reflected the prominent contribution of U1, U5, and U6 small nuclear RNAs' fragments and at the same time was characterized by a remarkable depletion of small nucleolar RNAs. Besides microRNAs, the variety of fragments of mRNAs and snoRNAs dominated in the set of circulating RNAs differentially expressed in blood fractions of NSCLC patients. Taken together, our data emphasize that not only extracellular microRNAs but also circulating fragments of messenger and small nuclear/nucleolar RNAs represent prominent classes of circulating regulatory ncRNAs as well as promising circulating biomarkers for the development of disease diagnostic approaches.

  19. plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puač Nevena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present results for plasma sterilization of planktonic samples of two reference strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. We have used a plasma needle as a source of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma in all treatments. This device is already well characterized by OES, derivative probes and mass spectrometry. It was shown that power delivered to the plasma is bellow 2 W and that it produces the main radical oxygen and nitrogen species believed to be responsible for the sterilization process. Here we will only present results obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance which was used to detect the OH, H and NO species. Treatment time and power delivered to the plasma were found to have the strongest influence on sterilization. In all cases we have observed a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the concentration of bacteria and for the longest treatment time complete eradication. A more efficient sterilization was achieved in the case of gram negative bacteria.

  20. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M

    1997-01-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  1. Plasma dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, F; Schekochihin, A A; Valentini, F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the entire Universe and, through their dynamical interactions with matter, affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. How primordial cosmological seed fields arose and were further amplified to $\\mu$Gauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs, is a major theoretical puzzle still largely unconstrained by observations. Extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to collisional magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic-field growth and its sustainment through an efficient dynamo instability driven by chaotic motions is possible in such plasmas is not known. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a six-dimensional phase space necessary to answer this question have until recently remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic-field a...

  2. The relationship between sperm viability and DNA fragmentation rates

    OpenAIRE

    Mary K. Samplaski; Dimitromanolakis, Apostolos; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D.; Mullen, Brendan; Garbens, Alaina; Jarvi, Keith A

    2015-01-01

    Background In humans, sperm DNA fragmentation rates have been correlated with sperm viability rates. Reduced sperm viability is associated with high sperm DNA fragmentation, while conversely high sperm viability is associated with low rates of sperm DNA fragmentation. Both elevated DNA fragmentation rates and poor viability are correlated with impaired male fertility, with a DNA fragmentation rate of > 30% indicating subfertility. We postulated that in some men, the sperm viability assay coul...

  3. Inclusion: The Unifying Thread for Fragmented Metaphors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Lynn H.

    2004-01-01

    The fabric of educational leadership is changing. Murphy (2001) has suggested three new metaphors for educational leaders: moral stewards, builders of communities, and educators for school improvement. However, shifting priorities and contradictions between these metaphors could result in fragmentation within the field. This article discusses…

  4. Modelling of the PELE fragmentation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect (PELE) is a type of explosive-free projectile that undergoes radial fragmentation upon an impact with a target plate. This type of projectile is composed of a brittle cylindrical shell (the jacket) filled in its core with a material characterized with a la

  5. Metagenome Fragment Classification Using -Mer Frequency Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gail Rosen

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A vast amount of microbial sequencing data is being generated through large-scale projects in ecology, agriculture, and human health. Efficient high-throughput methods are needed to analyze the mass amounts of metagenomic data, all DNA present in an environmental sample. A major obstacle in metagenomics is the inability to obtain accuracy using technology that yields short reads. We construct the unique -mer frequency profiles of 635 microbial genomes publicly available as of February 2008. These profiles are used to train a naive Bayes classifier (NBC that can be used to identify the genome of any fragment. We show that our method is comparable to BLAST for small 25 bp fragments but does not have the ambiguity of BLAST's tied top scores. We demonstrate that this approach is scalable to identify any fragment from hundreds of genomes. It also performs quite well at the strain, species, and genera levels and achieves strain resolution despite classifying ubiquitous genomic fragments (gene and nongene regions. Cross-validation analysis demonstrates that species-accuracy achieves 90% for highly-represented species containing an average of 8 strains. We demonstrate that such a tool can be used on the Sargasso Sea dataset, and our analysis shows that NBC can be further enhanced.

  6. [Fragmented QRS. Relevance in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steger, Alexander; Sinnecker, Daniel; Berkefeld, Anna; Müller, Alexander; Gebhardt, Josef; Dommasch, Michael; Huster, Katharina M; Barthel, Petra; Schmidt, Georg

    2015-09-01

    The QRS complex represents the electrical depolarization of ventricular myocardium. In the case of an undisturbed depolarization, the QRS complex has a normal configuration and duration, but abnormal electrical conduction leads to widening of the QRS complex. The block of one of the Tawara branches results in a typical bundle branch block pattern. A QRS complex that cannot be classified as bundle branch block due to an atypical configuration and contains notched R or S waves is called a fragmented QRS. The underlying pathophysiologies are manifold and include myocardial scars induced by ischemic heart disease, myocardial fibrosis due to other diseases, primary cardiac pathologies as well as systemic diseases with cardiac involvement. Pathologies on the cellular level, such as ion channel dysfunctions, also correlate with fragmented QRS. Besides the diagnostic relevance, fragmented QRS is known to have prognostic properties, for example in identifying high risk patients with coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, Brugada syndrome and acquired long QT syndrome; however, fragmented QRS may also be detected in ECGs of healthy individuals.

  7. Element Distribution and Multiplicity of Heavy Fragments

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment will measure the energy and angular distribution of heavy fragments produced in the reactions of |1|2C on several targets between |2|7Al and |2|3|8U at 86~MeV/u. The systematic investigation of a highly excited interaction region (fireball) by means of a clean N and Z identification of heavy tar fragments, may result in a better understanding of temperature concept and of the degree of equilibration of the local interaction region with respect to the total system. For this investigation a large-area position sensitive ionization chamber of 50~msr solid angle in conjunction with a time-of-flight telescope consisting of parallel-plate detectors will be used. \\\\ \\\\ In order to get information on the transverse momentum transfer and the inelasticity of the collision, the energy of the PROJECTILE-FRAGMENTS will be measured at forward angles with a plastic scintillator hodoscope. In addition to this inclusive measurement correlations between heavy fragments will be investigated by means of three pos...

  8. Distribution and Causes of Global Forest Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bruce Jones

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Because human land uses tend to expand over time, forests that share a high proportion of their borders with anthropogenic uses are at higher risk of further degradation than forests that share a high proportion of their borders with non-forest, natural land cover (e.g., wetland. Using 1-km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR satellite-based land cover, we present a method to separate forest fragmentation into natural and anthropogenic components, and report results for all inhabited continents summarized by World Wildlife Fund biomes. Globally, over half of the temperate broadleaf and mixed forest biome and nearly one quarter of the tropical rainforest biome have been fragmented or removed by humans, as opposed to only 4% of the boreal forest. Overall, Europe had the most human-caused fragmentation and South America the least. This method may allow for improved risk assessments and better targeting for protection and remediation by identifying areas with high amounts of human-caused fragmentation.

  9. DFT STUDIES OF DP-3 AMYLOSE FRAGMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study extends our work on mono- and disaccharides to structures with three glucose residues by two alpha-[1-4] bridges, denoted herein as DP-3's. DFT optimization studies of DP-3 fragments have been carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. Different hydroxymethyl conformations (gg...

  10. Conformational studies of cellulosic fragments by DFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study of cellulosic fragments by DFTr is a continuation of our efforts to produce quality structural data that will be valuable to those working in the field of cellulose structure and enzymatic degradation. Using a reduced basis set and density functional DFTr (B3LYP), optimization of cellulosi...

  11. Computations in Fragments of Intuitionistic Propositional Logic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongh, Dick de; Hendriks, Lex; Renardel de Lavalette, Gerard R.

    1991-01-01

    This article is a report on research in progress into the structure of finite diagrams of intuitionistic propositional logic with the aid of automated reasoning systems for larger calculations. A fragment of a propositional logic is the set of formulae built up from a finite number of propositional

  12. Water cluster fragmentation probed by pickup experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chuanfu; Kresin, Vitaly V.; Pysanenko, Andriy; Fárník, Michal

    2016-09-01

    Electron ionization is a common tool for the mass spectrometry of atomic and molecular clusters. Any cluster can be ionized efficiently by sufficiently energetic electrons, but concomitant fragmentation can seriously obstruct the goal of size-resolved detection. We present a new general method to assess the original neutral population of the cluster beam. Clusters undergo a sticking collision with a molecule from a crossed beam, and the velocities of neat and doped cluster ion peaks are measured and compared. By making use of longitudinal momentum conservation, one can reconstruct the sizes of the neutral precursors. Here this method is applied to H2O and D2O clusters in the detected ion size range of 3-10. It is found that water clusters do fragment significantly upon electron impact: the deduced neutral precursor size is ˜3-5 times larger than the observed cluster ions. This conclusion agrees with beam size characterization by another experimental technique: photoionization after Na-doping. Abundant post-ionization fragmentation of water clusters must therefore be an important factor in the interpretation of experimental data; interestingly, there is at present no detailed microscopic understanding of the underlying fragmentation dynamics.

  13. Oscillating Filaments. I. Oscillation and Geometrical Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Heigl, Stefan; Burkert, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid-based AMR code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, such as with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation, and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process “geometrical fragmentation.” In our realization, the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristic scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. We show that the overall oscillation pattern can hide the infall signature of cores.

  14. Intraday Price Discovery in Fragmented Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Ozturk (Sait); M. van der Wel (Michel); D.J.C. van Dijk (Dick)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractFor many assets, trading is fragmented across multiple exchanges. Price discovery measures summarize the informativeness of trading on each venue for discovering the asset’s true underlying value. We explore intraday variation in price discovery using a structural model with

  15. Physical laws of cholesterol gallstone fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubrand, M; Greinwald, I; Lobentanzer, H; Paumgartner, G; Hermeking, H; Sauerbruch, T

    1997-03-01

    Efficient fragmentation is the most important prerequisite for successful treatment of gallstones by extracorporeally induced shock waves. No data are available on the amount of energy necessary for stone disintegration and on the threshold energy below which no further fragmentation occurs. We therefore performed an in vitro investigation on human cholesterol gallstones to elucidate physical laws governing shock-wave lithotripsy. First, the focal pressure of the lithotripter was measured to calculate the energy traversing a stone. Second, 96 gallstones from 16 gall bladders were analysed with respect to physicochemical composition, radiological features and ultrasound before fragmentation was performed. Energy for stone disintegration was constant within each stone family but varied between 4.6 mL-1 and 36.8J mL-1 in different families. This energy correlated linearly with stone volume. None of the radiological and physicochemical factors revealed a clear-cut correlation of the different energies necessary for similar stone disintegration. The threshold energy differed between 0.26 mJ and 1.04 mJ per pulse. In conclusion, stone volume was the best parameter predicting stone fragmentation. However, in cholesterol stones with a similar composition the required energy per volume varies considerably together with the threshold energy. Radiological and ultrasound parameters appear to be of minor importance in explaining these differences.

  16. Modelling of the PELE fragmentation dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verreault, J.

    2014-01-01

    The Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect (PELE) is a type of explosive-free projectile that undergoes radial fragmentation upon an impact with a target plate. This type of projectile is composed of a brittle cylindrical shell (the jacket) filled in its core with a material characterized with a

  17. Modelling of the PELE fragmentation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verreault, J.

    2014-05-01

    The Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect (PELE) is a type of explosive-free projectile that undergoes radial fragmentation upon an impact with a target plate. This type of projectile is composed of a brittle cylindrical shell (the jacket) filled in its core with a material characterized with a large Poisson's ratio. Upon an impact with a target, the axial compression causes the filling to expand in the radial direction. However, due to the brittleness of the jacket material, very little radial deformation can occur which creates a radial stress between the two materials and a hoop stress in the jacket. Fragmentation of the jacket occurs if the hoop stress exceeds the material's ultimate stress. The PELE fragmentation dynamics is explored via Finite-Element Method (FEM) simulations using the Autodyn explicit dynamics hydrocode. The numerical results are compared with an analytical model based on wave interactions, as well as with the experimental investigation of Paulus and Schirm (1996). The comparison is based on the mechanical stress in the filling and the qualitative fragmentation of the jacket.

  18. Searching Fragment Spaces with feature trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessel, Uta; Wellenzohn, Bernd; Lilienthal, Markus; Claussen, Holger

    2009-02-01

    Virtual combinatorial chemistry easily produces billions of compounds, for which conventional virtual screening cannot be performed even with the fastest methods available. An efficient solution for such a scenario is the generation of Fragment Spaces, which encode huge numbers of virtual compounds by their fragments/reagents and rules of how to combine them. Similarity-based searches can be performed in such spaces without ever fully enumerating all virtual products. Here we describe the generation of a huge Fragment Space encoding about 5 * 10(11) compounds based on established in-house synthesis protocols for combinatorial libraries, i.e., we encode practically evaluated combinatorial chemistry protocols in a machine readable form, rendering them accessible to in silico search methods. We show how such searches in this Fragment Space can be integrated as a first step in an overall workflow. It reduces the extremely huge number of virtual products by several orders of magnitude so that the resulting list of molecules becomes more manageable for further more elaborated and time-consuming analysis steps. Results of a case study are presented and discussed, which lead to some general conclusions for an efficient expansion of the chemical space to be screened in pharmaceutical companies.

  19. Fragmentation of a Jet with Small Radius

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, Lin; Leibovich, Adam K

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider the fragmentation of a parton into a jet with small jet radius $R$. Perturbatively, logarithms of $R$ can appear, which for narrow jets can lead to large corrections. Using soft-collinear effective theory (SCET), we introduce the jet fragmentation function (JFF), which describes the fragmentation of a parton into a jet. We discuss how these objects are related to the standard jet functions. Calculating the JFF to next-to-leading order, we show that these objects satisfy the standard DGLAP evolution equations, with a natural scale that depends upon $R$. By using standard renormalization group evolution, we can therefore resum logarithms of $R$. We further use SCET to prove a factorization theorem where the JFFs naturally appear, for the fragmentation of a hadron within a jet with small $R$. Finally, we also show how this formalism can be used to resum the ratio of jet radii for a subjet to be emitted from within a fat jet.

  20. Fragmentation of forest, grassland, and shrubland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt H. Riitters

    2013-01-01

    As humans introduce competing land uses into natural landscapes, the public concerns regarding landcover patterns are expressed through headline issues such as urban sprawl, forest fragmentation, water quality, and wilderness preservation. The spatial arrangement of an environment affects all human perceptions and ecological processes within that environment, but this...

  1. The paradox of forest fragmentation genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrea T. Kramer; Jennifer L. Ison; Mary V. Ashley; Henry F. Howe

    2008-01-01

    Theory predicts widespread loss of genetic diversity from drift and inbreeding in trees subjected to habitat fragmentation, yet empirical support of this theory is scarce. We argue that population genetics theory may be misapplied in light of ecological realities that, when recognized, require scrutiny of underlying evolutionary assumptions. One ecological reality is...

  2. Targeting incentives to reduce habitat fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Lewis; Andrew Plantinga; Junjie Wu

    2009-01-01

    This article develops a theoretical model to analyze the spatial targeting of incentives for the restoration of forested landscapes when wildlife habitat can be enhanced by reducing fragmentation. The key theoretical result is that the marginal net benefits of increasing forest can be convex, in which case corner solutions--converting either none or all of the...

  3. Brownian shape motion: Fission fragment mass distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sierk Arnold J.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available It was recently shown that remarkably accurate fission-fragment mass distributions can be obtained by treating the nuclear shape evolution as a Brownian walk on previously calculated five-dimensional potential-energy surfaces; the current status of this novel method is described here.

  4. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  5. Fragment size distribution statistics in dynamic fragmentation of laser shock-loaded tin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weihua He

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates the geometric statistics method to characterize the size distribution of tin fragments produced in the laser shock-loaded dynamic fragmentation process. In the shock experiments, the ejection of the tin sample with etched V-shape groove in the free surface are collected by the soft recovery technique. Subsequently, the produced fragments are automatically detected with the fine post-shot analysis techniques including the X-ray micro-tomography and the improved watershed method. To characterize the size distributions of the fragments, a theoretical random geometric statistics model based on Poisson mixtures is derived for dynamic heterogeneous fragmentation problem, which reveals linear combinational exponential distribution. The experimental data related to fragment size distributions of the laser shock-loaded tin sample are examined with the proposed theoretical model, and its fitting performance is compared with that of other state-of-the-art fragment size distribution models. The comparison results prove that our proposed model can provide far more reasonable fitting result for the laser shock-loaded tin.

  6. Fragmentation characteristics analysis of sandstone fragments based on impact rockburst test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqiao Liu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Impact rockburst test on sandstone samples with a central hole is carried out under true triaxial static loads and vertical dynamic load conditions, and rock fragments after the test are collected. The fragments of sandstone generated from strain rockburst test and uniaxial compression test are also collected. The fragments are weighed and the length, width and thickness of each piece of fragments are measured respectively. The fragment quantities with coarse, medium, fine and micro grains in different size ranges, mass and particles distributions are also analyzed. Then, the fractal dimension of fragments is calculated by the methods of size-frequency, mass-frequency and length-to-thickness ratio-frequency. It is found that the crushing degree of impact rockburst fragments is higher, accompanied with blocky characteristics observably. The mass percentage of small grains, including fine and micro grains, in impact rockburst test is higher than those in strain rockburst test and uniaxial compression test. Energy dissipation from rockburst tests is more than that from uniaxial compression test, as the quantity of micro grains generated does.

  7. Fragmentation characteristics analysis of sandstone fragments based on impact rockburst test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongqiao Liu; Dejian Li; Fei Zhao; Chengchao Wang

    2014-01-01

    Impact rockburst test on sandstone samples with a central hole is carried out under true triaxial static loads and vertical dynamic load conditions, and rock fragments after the test are collected. The fragments of sandstone generated from strain rockburst test and uniaxial compression test are also collected. The fragments are weighed and the length, width and thickness of each piece of fragments are measured respectively. The fragment quantities with coarse, medium, fine and micro grains in different size ranges, mass and particles distributions are also analyzed. Then, the fractal dimension of fragments is calculated by the methods of size-frequency, mass-frequency and length-to-thickness ratio-frequency. It is found that the crushing degree of impact rockburst fragments is higher, accompanied with blocky character-istics observably. The mass percentage of small grains, including fine and micro grains, in impact rock-burst test is higher than those in strain rockburst test and uniaxial compression test. Energy dissipation from rockburst tests is more than that from uniaxial compression test, as the quantity of micro grains generated does.

  8. A decadal view of magma fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cashman, K. V.; Rust, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although the past decade has seen fundamental advances in studies of explosive volcanism, the disruption to air traffic caused by the 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull, Iceland, highlights the need for improved understanding of magmatic fragmentation in general, and of fine ash generation in particular. To develop a theoretical basis for predicting the fine ash content of eruptive plumes, we need to understand not only fragmentation mechanisms but also the dependence of those mechanisms on conditions of magma ascent and degassing. Experimental and analytical approaches to this problem include experimental studies of vesiculation and permeability development in silicic melts, quantitative textural studies of pyroclasts to constrain conditions that reduce fragmentation efficiency (that is, allow vesicular clasts to be preserved), direct experiments on fragmentation in both natural and analog materials, and determination of total grain size distributions (TGSDs) of pyroclastic deposits. Experiments on silicic melts have demonstrated that very high supersaturations (overpressures ΔP) may be achieved in silicic melts prior to homogeneous bubble nucleation, and that the high bubble number densities of silicic pumice require not only homogeneous nucleation but also nucleation of a mixed H2O-CO2 gas phase. In most pumice and scoria clasts, resulting vesicle populations form power law size distributions; power law exponents >3 in silicic tephras indicate that small vesicles comprise most of the vesicle volume (consistent with rapid late-stage vesiculation at high ΔP), while exponents 60-70%) and show no dependence on either melt composition or mass eruption rate; this suggests that melt porosity is more important than either decompression rate or magma rheology for clast preservation. These pyroclasts also have uniformly high permeabilities, high pore connectivity, and simple porous pathways, all of which suggest that ease of gas escape also contributed to clast

  9. The Spectrum of Satellite Breakup and Fragmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkleman, D.

    The objective of this paper is to expose the spectrum of satellite breakup physics and is implications for debris production and observables. Satellite response to the debris environment generally emphasizes small scale hypervelocity impact or the interaction of intense, coherent radiation with satellite surfaces or internals. There are empirical correlations of fragment size distributions based on arena tests and extremely rare observations of breakups in space. Klinkrad describes well research on material response to hypervelocity impact such as the ballistic limit for various materials and shielding walls. Smirnov, et. al., report well the phenomenology of breakups under the influence of nonuniform internal loading of monolithic bodies, such as pressurized tanks. They set forth the transformation of elastic energy into fragment kinetic energy. They establish a sound physical framework for bounding the number of fragments. We took advantage of these works in our previous papers. There is not much research into the response of nonuniform structures to hypervelocity collisions with similarly massive and complex objects. This work generally employs complex hydrodynamic and finite element computation that is not well suited to real time, operational assessment of the consequences of such encounters. We hope to diminish the void between the extremes of microscopic impact and complex hydrocodes. Our previous reports employed the framework established by Chobotov and Spencer, fundamentally equilibrium, Newtonian approach. We now explore the spectrum of interactions and debris evolutions possible with realistic combinations of these theories. The spectrum encompasses Newtonian, semi-elastic energy and momentum transfer through little or no momentum exchange and from virtually all of the mass of the colliders being involved through fractional mass involvement. We observe that the more Newtonian outcomes do not agree well with sparse observations of the few collisions that

  10. Bright Hot Impacts by Erupted Fragments Falling Back on the Sun: Magnetic Channelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petralia, A.; Reale, F.; Orlando, S.; Testa, P.

    2016-11-01

    Dense plasma fragments were observed to fall back on the solar surface by the Solar Dynamics Observatory after an eruption on 2011 June 7, producing strong extreme-ultraviolet brightenings. Previous studies investigated impacts in regions of weak magnetic field. Here we model the ˜ 300 km s-1 impact of fragments channelled by the magnetic field close to active regions. In the observations, the magnetic channel brightens before the fragment impact. We use a 3D-MHD model of spherical blobs downfalling in a magnetized atmosphere. The blob parameters are constrained from the observation. We run numerical simulations with different ambient densitie and magnetic field intensities. We compare the model emission in the 171 Å channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly with the observed one. We find that a model of downfall channelled in an ˜1 MK coronal loop confined by a magnetic field of ˜10-20 G, best explains qualitatively and quantitatively the observed evolution. The blobs are highly deformed and further fragmented when the ram pressure becomes comparable to the local magnetic pressure, and they are deviated to be channelled by the field because of the differential stress applied by the perturbed magnetic field. Ahead of them, in the relatively dense coronal medium, shock fronts propagate, heat, and brighten the channel between the cold falling plasma and the solar surface. This study shows a new mechanism that brightens downflows channelled by the magnetic field, such as in accreting young stars, and also works as a probe of the ambient atmosphere, providing information about the local plasma density and magnetic field.

  11. Plasma cholecystokinin and its precursors in hepatic cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paloheimo, L I; Clemmesen, O; Dalhoff, K

    1997-01-01

    products in plasma. METHODS: The sum of proCCK and its products (both processing intermediates and bioactive fragments) in plasma were measured by a recently developed "processing-independent analysis". Bioactive forms of CCK in plasma were measured using a highly specific radioimmunoassay directed against...... the C-terminal epitope of CCK. RESULTS: In plasma from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis the basal concentration of the total proCCK product was increased. Moreover, a mixed meal increased plasma concentrations of both bioactive CCK (i.e. carboxyamidated an 0-sulfated CCK peptides) and the total...... proCCK product in primary biliary cirrhosis. In contrast, plasma concentrations of bioactive CCK and the total proCCK product were normal in patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis-both pre- or postprandially. The fraction of bioactive CCK in plasma from patients with both biliary and alcoholic...

  12. The Solubility of Natural Cellulose After DBD Plasma Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jun; ZENG Fengcai; CHEN Bingqiang

    2008-01-01

    Natural cellulose was treated by an atmospheric DBD plasma. The solubility of cel-lulose in a diluted alkaline solution after the plasma treatment was investigated. The properties were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-transform infrared spec-troscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that the surface of cellulose treated by the argon DBD plasma was significantly etched, and the relevant force of hy-drogen bonding was decreased. This might be the essential reason for the solubility improvement of natural cellulose in the diluted alkaline solution. Through a comparison of two discharge modes, the atmospheric DBD plasma gun and the parallel plate capacitively coupled DBD plasma, it wasfound that the atmospheric DBD plasma gun was more effective in fragmentizing the cellulose due to its production of a high energy plasma based on its special structure [6] .

  13. Analysis of Fragmentation and Resulting Shrapnel Penetration of Naturally Fragmenting Cylindrical Bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, S.E.

    2000-08-01

    Fragmentation of exploding cylinders and penetration mechanics of surrounding vessel walls were examined and a qualitative understanding was achieved. This understanding provided a basis for making simplifying approximations and assumptions that aided in creating a shrapnel penetration model. Several mathematical models were discussed, and results from 6 cylinder tests were analyzed in order to select a model that best represented the data. It was determined that the overall best mathematical model to predict shrapnel penetration uses the modified Gurney equation to calculate fragment velocity, the Mott equation to calculate largest fragment weight, and the Christman/Gehring equation to calculate penetration depth.

  14. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  15. Magnetic field amplification in turbulent astrophysical plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Federrath, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields play an important role in astrophysical accretion discs, and in the interstellar and intergalactic medium. They drive jets, suppress fragmentation in star-forming clouds and can have a significant impact on the accretion rate of stars. However, the exact amplification mechanisms of cosmic magnetic fields remain relatively poorly understood. Here I start by reviewing recent advances in the numerical and theoretical modelling of the 'turbulent dynamo', which may explain the origin of galactic and inter-galactic magnetic fields. While dynamo action was previously investigated in great detail for incompressible plasmas, I here place particular emphasis on highly compressible astrophysical plasmas, which are characterised by strong density fluctuations and shocks, such as the interstellar medium. I find that dynamo action works not only in subsonic plasmas, but also in highly supersonic, compressible plasmas, as well as for low and high magnetic Prandtl numbers. I further present new numerical simu...

  16. Assessment of missile hazards: identification of reference fragmentation patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubinelli, Gianfilippo; Cozzani, Valerio

    2009-04-30

    Industrial accidents involving fragment projection were investigated. The analysis of fracture mechanics fundamentals allowed the exploration of the relations between the fracture characteristics and the final event leading to equipment collapse. Reference fragmentation patterns were defined on the basis of the geometrical characteristics of the categories of process vessels that are more frequently involved in fragmentation accidents. Primary scenarios leading to fragment projection were correlated to specific fragmentation patterns. A database reporting a detailed analysis of more than 140 vessel fragmentation events provided the data needed to support and validate the approach. The available data also allowed the calculation of the expected probability of fragment projection following vessel fragmentation, and the probability of the alternative fragmentation patterns with respect to the different accidental scenarios, based on the observed frequencies over the available data set.

  17. PREFIX-BASED LABELING ANNOTATION FOR EFFECTIVE XML FRAGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Leong Koong

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available XML is gradually employed as a standard of data exchange in web environment since its inception in the 90s until present. It serves as a data exchange between systems and other applications. Meanwhile the data volume has grown substantially in the web and thus effective methods of storing and retrieving these data is essential. One recommended way is physically or virtually fragments the large chunk of data and distributes the fragments into different nodes. Fragmentation design of XML document contains of two parts: fragmentation operation and fragmentation method. The three fragmentation operations are Horizontal, Vertical and Hybrid. It determines how the XML should be fragmented. This paper aims to give an overview on the fragmentation design consideration and subsequently, propose a fragmentation technique using number addressing.

  18. HIERARCHICAL FRAGMENTATION OF THE ORION MOLECULAR FILAMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Satoko; Ho, Paul T. P.; Su, Yu-Nung [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Teixeira, Paula S. [Institut fuer Astrophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Wien (Austria); Zapata, Luis A., E-mail: satoko_t@asiaa.sinica.edu.tw [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia, Michoacan 58090 (Mexico)

    2013-01-20

    We present a high angular resolution map of the 850 {mu}m continuum emission of the Orion Molecular Cloud-3 (OMC 3) obtained with the Submillimeter Array (SMA); the map is a mosaic of 85 pointings covering an approximate area of 6.'5 Multiplication-Sign 2.'0 (0.88 Multiplication-Sign 0.27 pc). We detect 12 spatially resolved continuum sources, each with an H{sub 2} mass between 0.3-5.7 M {sub Sun} and a projected source size between 1400-8200 AU. All the detected sources are on the filamentary main ridge (n{sub H{sub 2}}{>=}10{sup 6} cm{sup -3}), and analysis based on the Jeans theorem suggests that they are most likely gravitationally unstable. Comparison of multi-wavelength data sets indicates that of the continuum sources, 6/12 (50%) are associated with molecular outflows, 8/12 (67%) are associated with infrared sources, and 3/12 (25%) are associated with ionized jets. The evolutionary status of these sources ranges from prestellar cores to protostar phase, confirming that OMC-3 is an active region with ongoing embedded star formation. We detect quasi-periodical separations between the OMC-3 sources of Almost-Equal-To 17''/0.035 pc. This spatial distribution is part of a large hierarchical structure that also includes fragmentation scales of giant molecular cloud ( Almost-Equal-To 35 pc), large-scale clumps ( Almost-Equal-To 1.3 pc), and small-scale clumps ( Almost-Equal-To 0.3 pc), suggesting that hierarchical fragmentation operates within the Orion A molecular cloud. The fragmentation spacings are roughly consistent with the thermal fragmentation length in large-scale clumps, while for small-scale cores it is smaller than the local fragmentation length. These smaller spacings observed with the SMA can be explained by either a helical magnetic field, cloud rotation, or/and global filament collapse. Finally, possible evidence for sequential fragmentation is suggested in the northern part of the OMC-3 filament.

  19. Fragmentation of massive dense cores down to ≲ 1000 AU: Relation between fragmentation and density structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palau, Aina; Girart, Josep M. [Institut de Ciències de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB-Facultat de Ciències, Torre C5-parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Estalella, Robert [Departament d' Astronomia i Meteorologia (IEEC-UB), Institut de Ciències del Cosmos, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès, 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Fuente, Asunción [Observatorio Astronómico Nacional, P.O. Box 112, E-28803 Alcalá de Henares, Madrid (Spain); Fontani, Francesco; Sánchez-Monge, Álvaro [Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri, INAF, Lago E. Fermi 5, I-50125 Firenze (Italy); Commerçon, Benoit; Hennebelle, Patrick [Laboratoire de Radioastronomie, UMR CNRS 8112, École Normale Supérieure et Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Busquet, Gemma [INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali, Area di Recerca di Tor Vergata, Via Fosso Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy); Bontemps, Sylvain [Université de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France); Zapata, Luis A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, P.O. Box 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Zhang, Qizhou [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Di Francesco, James, E-mail: palau@ieec.uab.es [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, P.O. Box 355, STN CSC, Victoria, BC, V8W 3P6 (Canada)

    2014-04-10

    In order to shed light on the main physical processes controlling fragmentation of massive dense cores, we present a uniform study of the density structure of 19 massive dense cores, selected to be at similar evolutionary stages, for which their relative fragmentation level was assessed in a previous work. We inferred the density structure of the 19 cores through a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profiles at 450 and 850 μm (or 1.2 mm in two cases) and the spectral energy distribution, assuming spherical symmetry and that the density and temperature of the cores decrease with radius following power-laws. Even though the estimated fragmentation level is strictly speaking a lower limit, its relative value is significant and several trends could be explored with our data. We find a weak (inverse) trend of fragmentation level and density power-law index, with steeper density profiles tending to show lower fragmentation, and vice versa. In addition, we find a trend of fragmentation increasing with density within a given radius, which arises from a combination of flat density profile and high central density and is consistent with Jeans fragmentation. We considered the effects of rotational-to-gravitational energy ratio, non-thermal velocity dispersion, and turbulence mode on the density structure of the cores, and found that compressive turbulence seems to yield higher central densities. Finally, a possible explanation for the origin of cores with concentrated density profiles, which are the cores showing no fragmentation, could be related with a strong magnetic field, consistent with the outcome of radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations.

  20. Assessment of Fragmentation Performance of Blast-enhanced Explosive Fragmentation Munitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    aluminized blast-enhanced PAX-Al composition. The experimental assessment of the fragmentation performance of tested charges was accomplished using...charges, rapid expansion of high pressure detonation products results in high-strain high-strain-rate dilation of the hardened steel shell, which...eventually ruptures generating a “spray” of high-velocity steel fragments. Defining the longitudinal axis of the munition as the polar axis z, the

  1. Studies of adsorption conditions in prothrombin complex concehtrates production%凝血酶原复合物制备过程吸附条件的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹海军; 杜晞; 叶生亮; 张学俊; 王宗奎; 林方昭; 李长清

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study adsorption conditions of coagulation factor Ⅱ , Ⅵ, Ⅸ, Ⅹ in prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) production and improve activity recovery of PCC. Methods Orthogonal experiment was designed for the e-quilibration system of DEAE-SephadexA-50 geL Three variable factors,sodium citrate,sodium chloride and pH,and their respective three levels were selected,and then equilibration buffer were prepared based on L9(33)table. 9 equal parts of the gel were equilibrated respectively by equilibration buffer, and then different equilibrated DEAE-SephadexA-50 gel was mixed with cryoprecipitate supernatant in the proportion of 1. 67g: 1L for adsorption of coagulation factor Ⅱ , Ⅵ, Ⅸ, Ⅹ, at 4℃. After that, the gel was washed, and then the coagulation factor Ⅱ , Ⅵ, Ⅸ, Ⅹ were eluted. The activity and their recovery of the coagulation factors in the eluate was measured and analyzed on the basis of orthogonal design-direct method. According to analysis results,the better adsorption conditions were obtained,and then were verified. Furthermore,the relationship between conductivity of equilibration system and activity recovery of four kinds coagulation factors was analyzed. Results Sodium citrate,sodium chloride and pH have diverse impacts on activity recovery of four coagulation factors. The effect of pH on four factors shows same tendency,the lower pH the higher recovery,on the contrary,sodium citrate and sodium chloride have distinct effects on four factors. The higher sodium citrate concentration the higher activity recovery of factors Ⅱ , Ⅵ, Ⅸ, Ⅹ,however the recovery of factor Ⅸ is higher when sodium citrate is in (0. 012 ~0. 02)mol/L The lower sodium chloride concentration the higher recovery of factorsⅡ , Ⅵ, Ⅸ, Ⅹ,however the recovery offactor X is higher when sodium chloride is in (0. 1~0.14)mol/L It was not line-relation that between conductivity of equilibration system and activity recovery of four kinds

  2. Prothrombin polymorphism A19911G, factor V HR2 haplotype A4070G, and plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 polymorphism 4G/5G and the risk of retinal vein occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhli-Hattenbach, Claudia; Hellstern, Peter; Nägler, Dorit Karin; Kohnen, Thomas; Hattenbach, Lars-Olof

    2017-01-13

    Thus far, no data has become available to evaluate systematically the prevalences of prothrombin polymorphism A19911G (PT A19911G), factor V HR2 haplotype A4070G (FV A4070G), or plasminogen activator-inhibitor-1 polymorphism 4G/5G (PAI-1 4G/5G) in patients who develop retinal vein occlusion (RVO) without cardiovascular risk factors. We retrospectively evaluated comprehensive thrombophilia data from 42 preselected RVO patients without cardiovascular risk factors. The prevalences of different gene mutations and polymorphisms including factor V Leiden mutation G1691A (FVL), FV A4070G, prothrombin mutation G20210A, PT A19911G, and PAI-1 4G/5G were compared with 241 healthy controls matched for age and sex. A total of 20 patients (47.7%) were found to carry thrombophilic gene polymorphisms including FVL, FV A4070G, and homozygous PT A19911G compared with 72 of 241 controls (29.9%; p = 0.03). Subgroup analysis of patients with a significant personal or family history of thromboembolism revealed a high prevalence of FVL, FV A4070G, and homozygous PT A19911G (p = 0.005). FV A4070G was found to be significantly associated with at least two other heterozygous or one homozygous gene polymorphisms (p = 0.02). Multivariate analysis revealed the presence of FVL (p = 0.0017) and homozygous PT A19911G (p = 0.03) polymorphism as independent risk factors for the development of RVO. Our results indicate that in selected RVO patients screening for thrombophilic gene polymorphisms including FVL, FV A4070G and homozygous PT G19911A may be helpful in a high percentage of cases. Our findings suggest that hereditary thrombophilia associated with RVO is more likely to be multigenic than caused by any single risk factor.

  3. Thrombophilic Genetic Factors PAI-1, MTHFRC677T, V Leiden 506Q, and Prothrombin 20210A in Noncirrhotic Portal Vein Thrombosis and Budd-Chiari Syndrome in a Caucasian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario D’Amico

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Thrombophilic genetic factors PAI-1, MTHFRC677T, V Leiden 506Q, and Prothrombin 20210A were studied as risk factors in 235 Caucasian subjects: 85 patients with abdominal thrombosis (54 with portal vein thrombosis (PVT and 31 with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS without liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma and 150 blood bank donors. Seventy-five patients with PVT/BCS showed associated disease or particular clinical status (46 PVT/29 BCS: 37 myeloproliferative neoplasm (20 PVT/17 BCS, 12 abdominal surgery (10 PVT/2 BCS, 10 contraception or pregnancy (6 PVT/4 BCS, 7 abdominal acute disease (6 PVT/1 BCS, and 9 chronic disease (4 PVT/5 BCS; ten patients did not present any association (8 PVT/2 BCS. PAI-14G-4G, MTHFR677TT, and V Leiden 506Q were significantly frequent (OR 95% CI and χ2 test with P value in abdominal thrombosis; in these patients PAI-14G-4G and MTHFR677TT distributions deviated from that expected from a population in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (PAI-1: χ2=13.8, P<0.001; MTHFR677: χ2=7.1, P<0.01, whereas the equilibrium was respected in healthy controls. V Leiden Q506 and Prothrombin 20210A were in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium both in patients with abdominal thrombosis and healthy controls. Our study shows an important role of PAI-14G-4G and MTHFR677TT in abdominal thrombosis without liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma.

  4. Comparing prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II) with the oncofetal proteins glypican-3, Alpha feto protein and carcinoembryonic antigen in diagnosing hepatocellular carcinoma among Egyptian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El Gawad, Iman A; Mossallam, Ghada I; Radwan, Noha H; Elzawahry, Heba M; Elhifnawy, Niveen M

    2014-06-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is usually asymptomatic in the early stage and does not show elevated alpha-feto protein (AFP). AFP shows 60-80% sensitivity in diagnosing HCC. Glypican3 (GPC-3) is an oncofetal protein that is only detected in HCC cells but not in benign liver tissues, while Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is expressed in various neoplasms including HCC. Although, it is not specific for HCC. Prothrombin induced by vitamin K absence-II (PIVKA-II) is an abnormal prothrombin protein that is increased in the serum of HCC patients. It has higher sensitivity and specificity compared to AFP. The aim of this study is to compare the clinical utility of PIVKA-II with GPC-3, AFP and CEA in diagnosing HCC. This study included 40 patients with HCC, 10 patients with cirrhosis as a benign control group, and 10 apparently healthy volunteers as normal controls. Serum samples were subjected to routine laboratory investigations, measurement of CEA, AFP using MEIA technique (Axsym), glypican3, and PIVKA-II using ELISA technique in the sera of all patients and controls. All markers showed the highest results in the HCC group. Higher concentrations of PIVKA-II were detected in patients with splenomegaly, and in tumors with size (>3cm). Combination of Glypican-3 and PIVKA-II showed the highest sensitivity, while GPC-3 alone and combination of GPC-3 and AFP showed the highest specificity to differentiate HCC from liver cirrhosis and normal controls. GPC-3, PIVKAII, and combination of both showed the highest sensitivity, while GPC-3 alone showed the highest specificity to differentiate HCC from liver cirrhosis. Glypican-3 is the only oncofetal antigen that showed comparable high diagnostic accuracy as PIVKA-II in diagnosing HCC among Egyptian patients. Copyright © 2014. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Fragmentation of massive dense cores down to ~1000 AU: Relation between fragmentation and density structure

    CERN Document Server

    Palau, Aina; Girart, J M; Fuente, A; Fontani, F; Commercon, B; Busquet, G; Bontemps, S; Sanchez-Monge, A; Zapata, L A; Zhang, Q; Hennebelle, P; Di Francesco, J

    2014-01-01

    In order to shed light on the main physical processes controlling fragmentation of massive dense cores, we present a uniform study of the density structure of 19 massive dense cores, selected to be at similar evolutionary stages, for which their relative fragmentation level was assessed in a previous work. We inferred the density structure of the 19 cores through a simultaneous fit of the radial intensity profiles at 450 and 850 micron (or 1.2 mm in two cases) and the Spectral Energy Distribution, assuming spherical symmetry and that the density and temperature of the cores decrease with radius following power-laws. We find a weak (inverse) trend of fragmentation level and density power-law index, with steeper density profiles tending to show lower fragmentation, and vice versa. In addition, we find a trend of fragmentation increasing with density within a given radius, which arises from a combination of flat density profile and high central density and is consistent with Jeans fragmentation. We considered th...

  6. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-10-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  7. The Coincident Fission Fragment Detector (CFFD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakhle, A.; Hammerton, K.; Kohley, Z.; Yurkon, J.; Stiefel, K.

    2017-08-01

    A Parallel Plate Avalanche Counter (PPAC) based fission detector system, called the Coincident Fission Fragment Detector (CFFD), has been developed for the ReA3 re-accelerator facility of the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory (NSCL). Binary reaction kinematics are reconstructed based on position and time-of-flight measurements of fission fragments. Large area PPACs provide 1 ns level time resolution and mm level position resolution. The detectors allow measurements of fission product angular and mass distributions of heavy-ion induced fusion reactions. The 30 cm by 40 cm active area of each PPAC provides large solid angle coverage well suited for measurements of low intensity rare-isotope beams (RIBs).

  8. Detecting Cortex Fragments During Bacterial Spore Germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Michael B; Sorg, Joseph A

    2016-06-25

    The process of endospore germination in Clostridium difficile, and other Clostridia, increasingly is being found to differ from the model spore-forming bacterium, Bacillus subtilis. Germination is triggered by small molecule germinants and occurs without the need for macromolecular synthesis. Though differences exist between the mechanisms of spore germination in species of Bacillus and Clostridium, a common requirement is the hydrolysis of the peptidoglycan-like cortex which allows the spore core to swell and rehydrate. After rehydration, metabolism can begin and this, eventually, leads to outgrowth of a vegetative cell. The detection of hydrolyzed cortex fragments during spore germination can be difficult and the modifications to the previously described assays can be confusing or difficult to reproduce. Thus, based on our recent report using this assay, we detail a step-by-step protocol for the colorimetric detection of cortex fragments during bacterial spore germination.

  9. Fragment formation in biased random walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramola, Kabir

    2008-10-01

    We analyse a biased random walk on a 1D lattice with unequal step lengths. Such a walk was recently shown to undergo a phase transition from a state containing a single connected cluster of visited sites to one with several clusters of visited sites (fragments) separated by unvisited sites at a critical probability pc (Anteneodo and Morgado 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 99 180602). The behaviour of ρ(l), the probability of formation of fragments of length l, is analysed. An exact expression for the generating function of ρ(l) at the critical point is derived. We prove that the asymptotic behaviour is of the form \\rho (l) \\simeq 3/[l(\\log \\ l)^2] .

  10. HCH for Checking Containment of XPath Fragment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Hua Feng; Yu-Guo Liao; Yong Zhang

    2007-01-01

    XPath is ubiquitous in XML applications for navigating XML trees and selecting a set of element nodes. In XPath query processing, one of the most important issues is how to efficiently check containment relationship between two XPath expressions. To get out of the intricacy and complexity caused by numerous XPath features, we investigate this issue on a frequently used fragment of XPath expressions that consists of node tests, the child axis (/), the descendant axis (//), branches ([]) and label wildcards (*). Prior work has shown that homomorphism technology can be used for containment checking. However, homomorphism is the sufficient but not necessary condition for containment. For special classes of this fragment, the homomorphism algorithm returns false negatives. To address this problem, this paper proposes two containment techniques, conditioned homomorphism and hidden conditioned homomorphism, and then presents sound algorithms for checking containment. Experimental results confirm the practicability and efficiency of the proposed algorithms.

  11. Fission Fragment characterization with FALSTAFF at NFS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pancin J.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neutrons for Science (NFS facility will be one of the first installations of the SPIRAL2 facility. NFS will be composed of a time-of-flight baseline and irradiation stations and will allow studying neutron-induced reactions for energies going from some hundreds of keV up to 40 MeV. Continuous and quasi-monoenergetic energy neutron beams will be available. Taking advantage of this new installation, the development of an experimental setup for a full characterization of actinide fission fragments in this energy domain has been undertaken. To achieve this goal a new detection system called FALSTAFF (Four Arm cLover for the STudy of Actinide Fission Fragments in under development. In this paper, the characteristics of the NFS facility will be exposed and the motivations for the FALSTAFF experiment will be presented. The experimental setup will be described and the expected resolutions based on realistic GEANT4 simulations will be discussed.

  12. Effect of infusion of equine plasma or 6% hydroxyethyl starch (600/0.75) solution on plasma colloid osmotic pressure in healthy horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Erica C; Esser, Melissa M; McNitt, Sarah E; Payton, Mark E

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To compare the effects of equivalent volumes of equine plasma and 6% hydroxyethyl starch (600/0.75) solution (hetastarch) administered IV on plasma colloid osmotic pressure (pCOP) and commonly monitored clinicopathologic variables in horses. ANIMALS 6 healthy mares. PROCEDURES In a randomized, crossover study, horses were administered hetastarch or plasma (both 10 mL/kg, IV) 18 months apart. The pCOP and variables of interest were measured before (baseline), immediately after, and at intervals up to 96 or 120 hours after infusion. Prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times were measured before and at 2 and 8 hours after each infusion. RESULTS Prior to hetastarch and plasma infusions, mean ± SEM pCOP was 19.4 ± 0.5 mm Hg and 19.4 ± 0.8 mm Hg, respectively. In general, hetastarch and plasma infusions comparably increased pCOP from baseline for 48 hours, with maximum increases of 2.0 and 2.3 mm Hg, respectively. Mean Hct and hemoglobin, total protein, and albumin concentrations were decreased for a period of 72, 96, or 120 hours after hetastarch infusion with maximum decrements of 8.8%, 3.2 g/dL, 1.2 g/dL, and 0.6 g/dL, respectively. Plasma infusion decreased (albeit not always significantly) hemoglobin concentration and Hct for 20 and 24 hours (maximum changes of 1.5 g/dL and 6.6%, respectively) and increased total solids concentration (maximum change of 0.6 g/dL) for 48 hours. Platelet count and coagulation times were minimally affected. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Overall, the hetastarch and plasma infusions comparably increased pCOP in healthy horses for up to 48 hours. Hetastarch induced greater, more persistent perturbations in clinicopathologic variables.

  13. Spin dependence of heavy quark fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornet, Fernando [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos and Centro Anadaluz de Fisica de Particulas, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: cornet@ugr.es; Garcia Canal, Carlos A. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, C.C. 67, La Plata (1900) (Argentina)

    2008-05-01

    We propose that the non-perturbative part of the fragmentation function describing the transition from a heavy quark to a heavy meson is proportional to the square of the produced meson wave function at the origin, taking into account hyperfine interactions. We analyze the effects of this proposal on the number of pseudoscalar mesons compared to the number of vector mesons produced and find a good agreement with experimental data. Finally, we discuss further experimental checks for our hypothesis.

  14. Size Effects in Heavy Ions Fragmentation

    CERN Document Server

    Barrañon, A; Dorso, C O

    2003-01-01

    Rise-Plateau Caloric curves for different Heavy Ion collisions have been obtained, in the range of experimental observations. Limit temperature decreases when the residual size is increased, in agreement with recent theoretical analysis of experimental results reported by other Collaborations. Besides, promptly emitted particles influence on temperature plateau is shown. LATINO binary interaction semiclassical model is used to reproduce the inter-nucleonic forces via Pandharipande Potential and fragments are detected with an Early Cluster Recognition Algorithm.

  15. A nuclear fragmentation energy deposition model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, D. M.; Wilson, J. W.; Fogarty, T. N.; Buck, W. W.; Townsend, L. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1991-01-01

    A formalism for target fragment transport is presented with application to energy loss spectra in thin silicon devices. A nuclear data base is recommended that agrees well with the measurements of McNulty et al. using surface barrier detectors. High-energy events observed by McNulty et al., which are not predicted by intranuclear cascade models, are well represented by the present work.

  16. New results on jet fragmentation at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jindariani, Sergo; /Florida U.

    2006-12-01

    Presented are the latest results of jet fragmentation studies at the Tevatron using the CDF Run II detector. Studies include the distribution of transverse momenta (Kt) of particles jets, two-particle momentum correlations, and indirectly global event shapes in p{bar p} collisions. Results are discussed within the context of recent Next-to-Leading Log calculations as well as earlier experimental results from the Tevatron and e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders.

  17. Engineered single chain antibody fragments for radioimmunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huhalov, A.; Chester, K. A. [Cancer Research UK Imaging and Targeting Group Royal Free, London (United Kingdom). Department of Oncology; University College Medical School Royal Free Campus, London (United Kingdom)

    2004-12-01

    An ideal molecule to deliver radioimmunotherapy (RIT) would be target specific and have prolonged residence time at high concentrations in the tumour with rapid clearance from normal tissues. It would also be non-immunogenic. These features can be rationally introduced into recombinant antibody-based proteins using antibody engineering techniques. This reviews focuses on the use of antibody engineering in the design and development of RIT molecules which have single chain Fv (scFv) antibody fragments as building blocks.

  18. Dendrite fragmentation by catastrophic elastic remelting

    OpenAIRE

    Ananiev, S.; Nikrityuk, P.; Eckert, K.

    2008-01-01

    The paper proposes a new fragmentation mechanism of dendrite arms. The theoretical basis of this mechanism is a shift in the thermodynamical equilibrium at the solid-liquid interface due to the presence of elastic energy. This effect is modelled by the generalized Gibbs-Thomson condition [1], where each term is calculated analytically using a simple Bernoulli-Euler beam model. The resulting nonlinear system of ordinary differential equations is integrated in time using a fully implicit scheme...

  19. Time invariant scaling in discrete fragmentation models

    CERN Document Server

    Giraud, B G; Giraud, B G; Peschanski, R

    1994-01-01

    Linear rate equations are used to describe the cascading decay of an initial heavy cluster into fragments. We consider moments of arbitrary orders of the mass multiplicity spectrum and derive scaling properties pertaining to their time evolution. We suggest that the mass weighted multiplicity is a suitable observable for the discovery of scaling. Numerical tests validate such properties, even for moderate values of the initial mass (nuclei, percolation clusters, jets of particles etc.). Finite size effects can be simply parametrized.

  20. Inhomogeneous Fragmentation of the Rolling Tachyon

    OpenAIRE

    Felder, Gary N; Kofman, Lev

    2004-01-01

    Dirac-Born-Infeld type effective actions reproduce many aspects of string theory classical tachyon dynamics of unstable Dp-branes. The inhomogeneous tachyon field rolling from the top of its potential forms topological defects of lower codimensions. In between them, as we show, the tachyon energy density fragments into a p-dimensional web-like high density network evolving with time. We present an analytic asymptotic series solution of the non-linear equations for the inhomogeneous tachyon an...