WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma production phase

  1. On the hadron production from the quark-gluon plasma phase in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Berdnikov, Yu A; Ivanov, A N; Ivanova, V A; Kosmach, V F; Samsonov, V M; Troitskaya, N I; Berdnikov, Ya. A.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the quark gluon plasma (QGP) as a thermalized quark-gluon system, the thermalized QGP phase of QCD. The hadronization of the thermalized QGP phase is given in a way resembling a simple coalescence model. The input parameters of the approach are the spatial volumes of the hadronization. We introduce three dimensionless parameters C_M, C_B and C_\\bar{B} related to the spatial volumes of the production of low-lying mesons (M), baryons (B) and antibaryons (\\bar{B}). We show that at the temperature T= 175 MeV our predictions for the ratios of multiplicities agree good with the presently available set of hadron ratios measured for various experiments given by NA44, NA49, NA50 and WA97 Collaborations on Pb+Pb collisions at 158 GeV/nucleon, NA35 Collaboration on S+S collisions and NA38 Collaboration on O+U and S+U collisions at 200 GeV/nucleon.

  2. ELISA for evaluating the incorporation of plasma derived complement split-products C3b/iC3b into solid-phase immune complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zimmermann-Nielsen, E; Svehag, S E; Thorlacius-Ussing, O;

    2001-01-01

    An ELISA that measures plasma derived complement (C) split-products C3b/iC3b deposited on solid-phase immune complexes during C activation is described. Plates are coated with BSA, anti-BSA and plasma is added. Deposited C3b/iC3b is then detected by biotinylated anti-C3c-antibodies, avidin......) or classical pathway (CP) with regard to age or gender was demonstrated. The total coefficient of variation was systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). There was a weak correlation between...

  3. Simulating plasma production from hypervelocity impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Alex; Close, Sigrid; Mathias, Donovan

    2015-09-01

    Hypervelocity particles, such as meteoroids and space debris, routinely impact spacecraft and are energetic enough to vaporize and ionize themselves and as well as a portion of the target material. The resulting plasma rapidly expands into the surrounding vacuum. While plasma measurements from hypervelocity impacts have been made using ground-based technologies such as light gas guns and Van de Graaff dust accelerators, some of the basic plasma properties vary significantly between experiments. There have been both ground-based and in-situ measurements of radio frequency (RF) emission from hypervelocity impacts, but the physical mechanism responsible and the possible connection to the impact-produced plasma are not well understood. Under certain conditions, the impact-produced plasma can have deleterious effects on spacecraft electronics by providing a new current path, triggering an electrostatic discharge, causing electromagnetic interference, or generating an electromagnetic pulse. Multi-physics simulations of plasma production from hypervelocity impacts are presented. These simulations incorporate elasticity and plasticity of the solid target, phase change and plasma formation, and non-ideal plasma physics due to the high density and low temperature of the plasma. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics method is used to perform a continuum dynamics simulation with these additional physics. By examining a series of hypervelocity impacts, basic properties of the impact produced plasma plume (density, temperature, expansion speed, charge state) are determined for impactor speeds between 10 and 72 km/s. For a large range of higher impact speeds (30-72 km/s), we find the temperature is unvarying at 2.5 eV. We also find that the plasma plume is weakly ionized for impact speeds less than 14 km/s and fully ionized for impact speeds greater than 20 km/s, independent of impactor mass. This is the same velocity threshold for the detection of RF emission in recent Van de Graaff

  4. Phase Transition in the Simplest Plasma Model

    CERN Document Server

    Iosilevskiy, Igor

    2009-01-01

    We have investigated the phase transition of the gas-liquid type, with an upper critical point, in a variant of the One Component Plasma model (OCP) that has a uniform but compressible compensating background. We have calculated the parameters of the critical and triple points, spinodals, and two-phase coexistence curves (binodals). We have analyzed the connection of this simplest plasma phase transition with anomalies in the spatial charge profiles of equilibrium non-uniform plasma in the local-density approximations of Thomas-Fermi or Poisson-Boltzmann-type.

  5. Simulating plasma production from hypervelocity impacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletcher, Alex, E-mail: alexcf@stanford.edu; Close, Sigrid [Stanford University, Aeronautics and Astronautics, 496 Lomita Mall, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Mathias, Donovan [NASA Ames Research Center, Bldg. 258, Moffett Field, California 94035 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Hypervelocity particles, such as meteoroids and space debris, routinely impact spacecraft and are energetic enough to vaporize and ionize themselves and as well as a portion of the target material. The resulting plasma rapidly expands into the surrounding vacuum. While plasma measurements from hypervelocity impacts have been made using ground-based technologies such as light gas guns and Van de Graaff dust accelerators, some of the basic plasma properties vary significantly between experiments. There have been both ground-based and in-situ measurements of radio frequency (RF) emission from hypervelocity impacts, but the physical mechanism responsible and the possible connection to the impact-produced plasma are not well understood. Under certain conditions, the impact-produced plasma can have deleterious effects on spacecraft electronics by providing a new current path, triggering an electrostatic discharge, causing electromagnetic interference, or generating an electromagnetic pulse. Multi-physics simulations of plasma production from hypervelocity impacts are presented. These simulations incorporate elasticity and plasticity of the solid target, phase change and plasma formation, and non-ideal plasma physics due to the high density and low temperature of the plasma. A smoothed particle hydrodynamics method is used to perform a continuum dynamics simulation with these additional physics. By examining a series of hypervelocity impacts, basic properties of the impact produced plasma plume (density, temperature, expansion speed, charge state) are determined for impactor speeds between 10 and 72 km/s. For a large range of higher impact speeds (30–72 km/s), we find the temperature is unvarying at 2.5 eV. We also find that the plasma plume is weakly ionized for impact speeds less than 14 km/s and fully ionized for impact speeds greater than 20 km/s, independent of impactor mass. This is the same velocity threshold for the detection of RF emission in recent

  6. All Plasma Products Are Not Created Equal: Characterizing Differences Between Plasma Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    products that may affect efficacy and safety. METHODS: Four different plasma products were analyzed to include fresh frozen plasma (FFP), liquid plasma...have come onto the market. FFP, plasma frozen at 24 hours (PF-24), and liquid plasma (LP) are single-donor products pre- pared by separating plasma from...Transfusion. 2004;44(11):1674Y1675. 2. American Association of Blood Banks . Standards for Blood Banks and Transfusion Services. 26th ed. Bethesda, MD

  7. Range of fractionated plasma products to optimize plasma resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thierry Burnouf

    2010-01-01

    @@ HUMAN PLASMA is a source material that is crucial for the production of unique therapeutic fractionated products. Indeed, plasma contains hundreds of proteins ensuring many physiological functions. The most abun-dant proteins, albumin and immunoglobulin G (IgG) ,are present at about 35 and 10 g/L,respectively,repre-senting about 80% of all plasma proteins. However,other important therapeutic proteins include the coagu-lation factors (factor Ⅷ (F Ⅷ) ; FIX ; Von Willebrand Factor (VWF), fibrinogen) various protease inhibitors (alpha 1-antitrypsin ; antithrombin; C1-esterase) and anticoagulants (protein C) which exhibit potent physi-ological activity.

  8. Fundamentals of gas phase plasmas for treatment of human tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Mark J; Babaeva, Natalia Yu

    2011-01-01

    The use of gas phase plasmas for treating human tissue is at the intersection of two disciplines - plasma physics and engineering, and medicine. In this paper, a primer will be provided for the medical practitioner on the fundamentals of generating gas phase plasmas at atmospheric pressure in air for the treatment of human tissue. The mechanisms for gas phase plasmas interacting with tissue and biological fluids will also be discussed using results from computer modeling.

  9. Non-equilibrium phase transitions in complex plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutterlin, K. R.; Wysocki, A.; Rath, C.; Ivlev, A. V.; Thomas, H. M.; Khrapak, S.; Zhdanov, S.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; W. J. Goedheer,; Fortov, V. E.; Lipaev, A. M.; Molotkov, V. I.; Petrov, O. F.; Morfill, G. E.; Lowen, H.

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasma being the 'plasma state of soft matter' is especially suitable for investigations of non-equilibrium phase transitions. Non-equilibrium phase transitions can manifest in dissipative structures or self-organization. Two specific examples are lane formation and phase separatio

  10. Tapered plasma channels to phase-lock accelerating and focusing forces in laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rittershofer, W.; Schroeder, C.B.; Esarey, E.; Gruner, F.J.; Leemans, W.P.

    2010-05-17

    Tapered plasma channels are considered for controlling dephasing of a beam with respect to a plasma wave driven by a weakly-relativistic, short-pulse laser. Tapering allows for enhanced energy gain in a single laser plasma accelerator stage. Expressions are derived for the taper, or longitudinal plasma density variation, required to maintain a beam at a constant phase in the longitudinal and/or transverse fields of the plasma wave. In a plasma channel, the phase velocities of the longitudinal and transverse fields differ, and, hence, the required tapering differs. The length over which the tapered plasma density becomes singular is calculated. Linear plasma tapering as well as discontinuous plasma tapering, which moves beams to adjacent plasma wave buckets, are also considered. The energy gain of an accelerated electron in a tapered laser-plasma accelerator is calculated and the laser pulse length to optimize the energy gain is determined.

  11. Plasma processing methods for hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizeraczyk, Jerzy; Jasiński, Mariusz

    2016-08-01

    In the future a transfer from the fossil fuel-based economy to hydrogen-based economy is expected. Therefore the development of systems for efficient H2 production becomes important. The several conventional methods of mass-scale (or central) H2 production (methane, natural gas and higher hydrocarbons reforming, coal gasification reforming) are well developed and their costs of H2 production are acceptable. However, due to the H2 transport and storage problems the small-scale (distributed) technologies for H2 production are demanded. However, these new technologies have to meet the requirement of producing H2 at a production cost of (1-2)/kg(H2) (or 60 g(H2)/kWh) by 2020 (the U.S. Department of Energy's target). Recently several plasma methods have been proposed for the small-scale H2 production. The most promising plasmas for this purpose seems to be those generated by gliding, plasmatron and nozzle arcs, and microwave discharges. In this paper plasma methods proposed for H2 production are briefly described and critically evaluated from the view point of H2 production efficiency. The paper is aiming at answering a question if any plasma method for the small-scale H2 production approaches such challenges as the production energy yield of 60 g(H2)/kWh, high production rate, high reliability and low investment cost. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  12. Microwave Plasma Production of Metal Nanopowders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Lik Hang Chau

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Metal and metal alloy nanopowders were prepared by using the microwave plasma synthesis method. The microwave plasma was operated in atmospheric pressure at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. The precursor decomposed thermally in the plasma reaction region and the products were then condensed in the heat exchanger, were separated from the gas by the powder filter, and then finally collected in the powder collector. The effect of various processing parameters such as plasma gas, carrier gas, cooling gas, precursor raw materials and feeding rate were studied in this work. Cu, Mo, W, Mo-Ni and Fe-Co nanopowders were successfully prepared by using the microwave plasma synthesis method. The processing conditions can be tuned to manipulate the particle size of the nanopowders.

  13. Suppression of phase mixing in drift-kinetic plasma turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Parker, J T; Schekochihin, A A; Dellar, P J

    2016-01-01

    Transfer of free energy from large to small velocity-space scales by phase mixing leads to Landau damping in a linear plasma. In a turbulent drift-kinetic plasma, this transfer is statistically nearly canceled by an inverse transfer from small to large velocity-space scales due to "anti-phase-mixing" modes excited by a stochastic form of plasma echo. Fluid moments (density, velocity, temperature) are thus approximately energetically isolated from the higher moments of the distribution function, so phase mixing is ineffective as a dissipation mechanism when the plasma collisionality is small.

  14. Nanofiltration of plasma-derived biopharmaceutical products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnouf, T; Radosevich, M

    2003-01-01

    This review presents the current status on the use and benefits of viral removal filtration systems--known as nanofiltration--in the manufacture of plasma-derived coagulation factor concentrates and other biopharmaceutical products from human blood origin. Nanofiltration of plasma products has been implemented at a production scale in the early 1990s to improve margin of viral safety, as a complement to the viral reduction treatments, such as solvent-detergent and heat treatments, already applied for the inactivation of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus. The main reason for the introduction of nanofiltration was the need to improve product safety against non-enveloped viruses and to provide a possible safeguard against new infectious agents potentially entering the human plasma pool. Nanofiltration has gained quick acceptance as it is a relatively simple manufacturing step that consists in filtering protein solution through membranes of a very small pore size (typically 15-40 nm) under conditions that retain viruses by a mechanism largely based on size exclusion. Recent large-scale experience throughout the world has now established that nanofiltration is a robust and reliable viral reduction technique that can be applied to essentially all plasma products. Many of the licensed plasma products are currently nanofiltered. The technology has major advantages as it is flexible and it may combine efficient and largely predictable removal of more than 4 to 6 logs of a wide range of viruses, with an absence of denaturing effect on plasma proteins. Compared with other viral reduction means, nanofiltration may be the only method to date permitting efficient removal of enveloped and non-enveloped viruses under conditions where 90-95% of protein activity is recovered. New data indicate that nanofiltration may also remove prions, opening new perspectives in the development and interest of this technique. Nanofiltration is increasingly becoming a

  15. Intermediate mass dilepton production during the chemical equilibration of quark gluon plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The production of dileptons from the chemically equilibrating quark gluon plasma in the intermediate mass region has been studied. Comparing with the calculated results based on the thermodynamic equilibrium system of quark gluon plasma, it has been found that the quark phase of the chemically equilibrating system gives rise to an even larger enhancement of the dileptons production. Therefore, such an enhancement of dilepton production may signal the formation of quark gluon plasma.

  16. [Transfusion of plasma: products-indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoudi, R

    2013-05-01

    The use of therapeutic plasma has increased in France by more than 40% since 2002. This growth may be explained by the improvement in transfusion safety, the diminution of the risk of transmission of pathogens and the regained confidence of the physicians in blood products. Therapeutic plasma also benefits from additional procedures to reduce infectious (securisation) or immunological risks (selection of blood donors). Its application in massive transfusions has undergone a significant evolution over the last few years. A proactive attitude favouring early and important use of plasma on the basis of pre-established protocols is advocated henceforth. The prescription of therapeutic plasma for other indications must be guided by the results of biological tests and an evaluation of the haemorrhagic risk. Despite regular updating of the guidelines for good transfusion practice, plasma is still sometimes prescribed for prophylactic purposes in situations where the biological and/or clinical criteria do not justify it. Moreover, it is not recommended to use fresh frozen plasma in cases of deficiency of coagulation factors if the specific concentrates are available as intravenous fluids. Complementary clinical studies will be necessary to evaluate, in certain indications, the real benefits of the transfusion of plasma and the interest of replacing it by concentrates of coagulant factors (fibrinogen, prothrombin complex).

  17. Radial variation of refractive index, plasma frequency and phase velocity in laser induced air plasma

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mathuthu, M

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available induced air plasma to study the spatial variation of plasma parameters in the axial direction of the laser beam. In this paper, the authors report investigation on the radial variation of the refractive index, plasma frequency, and phase velocity of a...

  18. Variation of plasma parameters in a modified mode of plasma production in a double plasma device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Phukan; M K Mishra; B K Saikia; M Chakraborty

    2010-03-01

    A modified mode of plasma production in a double plasma device is presented and plasma parameters are controlled in this configuration. Here plasma is produced by applying a discharge voltage between the hot filaments in the source (cathode) and the target magnetic cage (anode) of the device. In this configuration, the hot electron emitting filaments are present only in the source and the magnetic cage of this is kept at a negative bias such that due to the repulsion of the cage bias, the primary electrons can go to the grounded target and produce plasma there. The plasma parameters can be controlled by varying the voltages applied to the source magnetic cage and the separation grid of the device.

  19. Hydrogen Production from Ammonia Using a Plasma Membrane Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Kambara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an efficient method for using pulsed plasma to produce hydrogen from ammonia was developed. An original pulsed plasma reactor with a hydrogen separation membrane was developed for efficient hydrogen production, and its hydrogen production performance was investigated. Hydrogen production in the plasma was affected by the applied voltage and flow rate of ammonia gas. The maximum hydrogen production flow rate of a typical plasma reactor was 8.7 L/h, whereas that of the plasma membrane reactor was 21.0 L/h. We found that ammonia recombination reactions in the plasma controlled hydrogen production in the plasma reactor. In the plasma membrane reactor, a significant increase in hydrogen production was obtained because ammonia recombination reactions were inhibited by the permeation of hydrogen radicals generated in the plasma through a palladium alloy membrane. The energy efficiency was 4.42 mol-H2/kWh depending on the discharge power.

  20. Driven phase space vortices in plasmas with nonextensive velocity distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Pallavi; Ganesh, Rajaraman

    2017-03-01

    The evolution of chirp-driven electrostatic waves in unmagnetized plasmas is numerically investigated by using a one-dimensional (1D) Vlasov-poisson solver with periodic boundary conditions. The initial velocity distribution of the 1D plasma is assumed to be governed by nonextensive q distribution [C. Tsallis, J. Stat. Phys. 52, 479 (1988)]. For an infinitesimal amplitude of an external drive, we investigate the effects of chirp driven dynamics that leads to the formation of giant phase space vortices (PSV) for both Maxwellian (q = 1) and non-Maxwellian ( q ≠ 1 ) plasmas. For non-Maxwellian plasmas, the formation of giant PSV with multiple extrema and phase velocities is shown to be dependent on the strength of "q". Novel features such as "shark"-like and transient "honeycomb"-like structures in phase space are discussed. Wherever relevant, we compare our results with previous work.

  1. Plasma effect on the phase matching of high harmonic generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Lu; Candong Liu; Shitong Zhao; Peng Liu

    2011-01-01

    By optimizing the phase matching condition of high harmonic generation (HHG) from a supersonic neon gas jet, the enhanced HHG in the region of 60-70 eV has been selected. Three-dimensional numerical calculation shows that plasma plays a significant role in the phase matching process of HHG in a supersonic gas jet with short medium length. Due to plasma formation, the harmonic emission decays as the laser intensity reaches over 3.5 × 1014 W/cm2. The plasma induces the broadening and blue shift of the HHG spectra, which provides a method for fine-tuning the harmonic wavelength.%@@ By optimizing the phase matching condition of high harmonic generation (HHG) from a supersonic neon gas jet, the enhanced HHG in the region of 60-70 eV has been selected. Three-dimensional numerical calculation shows that plasma plays a significant role in the phase matching process of HHG in a supersonic gas jet with short medium length. Due to plasma formation, the harmonic emission decays as the laser intensity reaches over 3.5 × 1014 W/cm2. The plasma induces the broadening and blue shift of the HHG spectra, which provides a method for fine-tuning the harmonic wavelength.

  2. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  3. Phase conjugation by four-wave mixing in inhomogeneous plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Edward A.; Lininger, Diana M.; Goldman, Martin V.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of density, temperature, and velocity gradients on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a plasma are investigated. A fluid model is used in which the stimulated Brillouin terms are included, but pump depletion is neglected. The steady state phase conjugate reflectivity and signal transmission coefficients are calculated and discussed for both degenerate and resonant FWM. The substantial effects of inhomogeneity on the use of FWM as a plasma diagnostic are discussed.

  4. Hard photon production from unsaturated quark-gluon plasma at two-loop level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, D. E-mail: ddutta@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Sastry, S.V.S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Kumar, K

    2002-11-18

    The hard photon production from bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering that arise at two-loop level are estimated for a chemically non-equilibrated quark-gluon plasma in the framework of Hard Thermal Loop (HTL) resummed effective field theory. The rate of photon production is found to be suppressed due to unsaturated phase space compared to equilibrated plasma. For an unsaturated plasma, unlike the effective one-loop case, the reduction in the effective two-loop processes is found to be independent of gluon fugacity, due to an additional collinear enhancement arising from the decrease in thermal quark mass but strongly depends on quark and antiquark fugacities. It is also found that the photon production is dominated by bremsstrahlung mechanism, since the phase space suppression is higher for annihilation with scattering, in contrast to the equilibrated plasma where annihilation with scattering dominates the photon production.

  5. Plasmas in Multiphase Media: Bubble Enhanced Discharges in Liquids and Plasma/Liquid Phase Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, Mark Jay [University of Michigan

    2014-07-10

    In this research project, the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas with multi-phase media was computationally investigated. Multi-phase media includes liquids, particles, complex materials and porous surfaces. Although this investigation addressed fundamental plasma transport and chemical processes, the outcomes directly and beneficially affected applications including biotechnology, medicine and environmental remediation (e.g., water purification). During this project, we made advances in our understanding of the interaction of atmospheric pressure plasmas in the form of dielectric barrier discharges and plasma jets with organic materials and liquids. We also made advances in our ability to use computer modeling to represent these complex processes. We determined the method that atmospheric pressure plasmas flow along solid and liquid surfaces, and through endoscopic like tubes, deliver optical and high energy ion activation energy to organic and liquid surfaces, and produce reactivity in thin liquid layers, as might cover a wound. We determined the mechanisms whereby plasmas can deliver activation energy to the inside of liquids by sustaining plasmas in bubbles. These findings are important to the advancement of new technology areas such as plasma medicine

  6. Quark-gluon plasma phase transition using cluster expansion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syam Kumar, A. M.; Prasanth, J. P.; Bannur, Vishnu M.

    2015-08-01

    This study investigates the phase transitions in QCD using Mayer's cluster expansion method. The inter quark potential is modified Cornell potential. The equation of state (EoS) is evaluated for a homogeneous system. The behaviour is studied by varying the temperature as well as the number of Charm Quarks. The results clearly show signs of phase transition from Hadrons to Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP).

  7. Laser induced phase locking of hydrogen plasma striations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glab, W.; Nayfeh, M.H.

    1982-04-01

    Laser induced transient striations of a hydrogen discharge plasma are studied as a function of the ''detuning'' of the discharge parameters from the steady-state oscillatory response conditions. We observed laser induced phase locking of the steady-state striations.

  8. Coherent phase space matching for staging plasma and traditional accelerator using longitudinally tailored plasma structure

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X L; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Hua, J F; Pai, C -H; Lu, W; Yu, P; An, W; Mori, W B; Joshi, C; Hogan, M J

    2014-01-01

    For the further development of plasma based accelerators, phase space matching between plasma acceleration stages and between plasma stages and traditional accelerator components becomes a very critical issue for high quality high energy acceleration and its applications in light sources and colliders. Without proper matching, catastrophic emittance growth in the presence of finite energy spread may occur when the beam propagating through different stages and components due to the drastic differences of transverse focusing strength. In this paper we propose to use longitudinally tailored plasma structures as phase space matching components to properly guide the beam through stages. Theoretical analysis and full 3-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are utilized to show clearly how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Very good agreements between theory and simulations are obtained.

  9. Plasma and Plasma Protein Product Transfusion: A Canadian Blood Services Centre for Innovation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Al-Habsi, Khalid S; Golder, Mia; Walsh, Geraldine M; Sheffield, William P

    2015-07-01

    Plasma obtained via whole blood donation processing or via apheresis technology can either be transfused directly to patients or pooled and fractionated into plasma protein products that are concentrates of 1 or more purified plasma protein. The evidence base supporting clinical efficacy in most of the indications for which plasma is transfused is weak, whereas high-quality evidence supports the efficacy of plasma protein products in at least some of the clinical settings in which they are used. Transfusable plasma utilization remains composed in part of applications that fall outside of clinical practice guidelines. Plasma contains all of the soluble coagulation factors and is frequently transfused in efforts to restore or reinforce patient hemostasis. The biochemical complexities of coagulation have in recent years been rationalized in newer cell-based models that supplement the cascade hypothesis. Efforts to normalize widely used clinical hemostasis screening test values by plasma transfusion are thought to be misplaced, but superior rapid tests have been slow to emerge. The advent of non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants has brought new challenges to clinical laboratories in plasma testing and to clinicians needing to reverse non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants urgently. Current plasma-related controversies include prophylactic plasma transfusion before invasive procedures, plasma vs prothrombin complex concentrates for urgent warfarin reversal, and the utility of increased ratios of plasma to red blood cell units transfused in massive transfusion protocols. The first recombinant plasma protein products to reach the clinic were recombinant hemophilia treatment products, and these donor-free equivalents to factors VIII and IX are now being supplemented with novel products whose circulatory half-lives have been increased by chemical modification or genetic fusion. Achieving optimal plasma utilization is an ongoing challenge in the interconnected

  10. Gas phase plasma impact on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herceg, Zoran; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Kljusurić, Jasenka Gajdoš; Jambrak, Anet Režek; Zorić, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of gas phase plasma on phenolic compounds in pomegranate juice. The potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy combined with partial least squares for monitoring the stability of phenolic compounds during plasma treatment was explored, too. Experiments are designed to investigate the effect of plasma operating conditions (treatment time 3, 5, 7 min; sample volume 3, 4, 5 cm(3); gas flow 0.75, 1, 1.25 dm(3) min(-1)) on phenolic compounds and compared to pasteurized and untreated pomegranate juice. Pasteurization and plasma treatment resulted in total phenolic content increasing by 29.55% and 33.03%, respectively. Principal component analysis and sensitivity analysis outputted the optimal treatment design with plasma that could match the pasteurized sample concerning the phenolic stability (5 min/4 cm(3)/0.75 dm(3) min(-1)). Obtained results demonstrate the potential of near infrared reflectance spectroscopy that can be successfully used to evaluate the quality of pomegranate juice upon plasma treatment considering the phenolic compounds.

  11. Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Croia, M.; Curcio, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G. P.; Filippi, F.; Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R.; Romeo, S.; Ferrario, M.

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10-100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10-100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC_LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.

  12. Plasma production for electron acceleration by resonant plasma wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anania, M.P., E-mail: maria.pia.anania@lnf.infn.it [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Cianchi, A. [University of Rome Tor Vergata - INFN, via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); INFN, Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 1, 00133 Roma (Italy); Croia, M.; Curcio, A. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.P. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Filippi, F. [University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Ghigo, A.; Lollo, V.; Pella, S.; Pompili, R. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Romeo, S. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy); University of Rome La Sapienza, Piazzale Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Ferrario, M. [INFN - LNF, via Enrico Fermi, 40, 00044 Frascati (Italy)

    2016-09-01

    Plasma wakefield acceleration is the most promising acceleration technique known nowadays, able to provide very high accelerating fields (10–100 GV/m), enabling acceleration of electrons to GeV energy in few centimeter. However, the quality of the electron bunches accelerated with this technique is still not comparable with that of conventional accelerators (large energy spread, low repetition rate, and large emittance); radiofrequency-based accelerators, in fact, are limited in accelerating field (10–100 MV/m) requiring therefore hundred of meters of distances to reach the GeV energies, but can provide very bright electron bunches. To combine high brightness electron bunches from conventional accelerators and high accelerating fields reachable with plasmas could be a good compromise allowing to further accelerate high brightness electron bunches coming from LINAC while preserving electron beam quality. Following the idea of plasma wave resonant excitation driven by a train of short bunches, we have started to study the requirements in terms of plasma for SPARC-LAB (Ferrario et al., 2013 [1]). In particular here we focus on hydrogen plasma discharge, and in particular on the theoretical and numerical estimates of the ionization process which are very useful to design the discharge circuit and to evaluate the current needed to be supplied to the gas in order to have full ionization. Eventually, the current supplied to the gas simulated will be compared to that measured experimentally.

  13. Microgravity Production of Nanoparticles of Novel Materials Using Plasma Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, Michael; Fernandez-Pello, Carlos

    2001-01-01

    The research goal is to study the formation in reduced gravity of high quality nanoparticulate of novel materials using plasma synthesis. Particular emphasis will be placed on the production of powders of non-oxide materials like diamond, SiC, SiN, c-BN, etc. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of gravity on plasma synthesis of these materials, and to determine how the microgravity synthesis can improve the quality and yield of the nanoparticles. It is expected that the reduced gravity will aid in the understanding of the controlling mechanisms of plasma synthesis, and will increase the yield, and quality of the synthesized powder. These materials have properties of interest in several industrial applications, such as high temperature load bearings or high speed metal machining. Furthermore, because of the nano-meter size of the particulate produced in this process, they have specific application in the fabrication of MEMS based combustion systems, and in the development and growth of nano-systems and nano-structures of these materials. These are rapidly advancing research areas, and there is a great need for high quality nanoparticles of different materials. One of the primary systems of interest in the project will be gas-phase synthesis of nanopowder of non-oxide materials.

  14. Hexatic and Microemulsion Phases in the 2d Quantum Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Bryan; Casula, Michele; Ceperley, David

    2009-03-01

    It has been long known that the two-dimensional one component plasma supports both a Wigner-crystal and liquid phase. Classically [1,2], it is known that a hexatic phase exists but it is not known how this hexatic phase extends into the quantum regime. Moreover, at low temperature, phenomenological arguments [3] from Jamei, et. al. suggest the existence of microemulsion phases including stripes and bubbles. We use diffusion and path integral Monte Carlo to map out this phase diagram. We are able to extend the hexatic phase into the quantum regime as well as quantify the nature of the defects and exponents in the long range quantum system. We also specify the the nature, extent and existence (or lack thereof) of the expected low-T microemulsion phases. [0pt] [1] Muto, S. & Aoki, H. Crystallization of a classical two-dimensional electron system: Positional and orientational orders. Phys. Rev. B 59, 14911(1999).[0pt] [2] He, W.J. et al. Phase transition in a classical two-dimensional electron system. Phys. Rev. B 68, 195104(2003).[0pt] [3] Jamei, R., Kivelson, S. & Spivak, B. Universal Aspects of Coulomb-Frustrated Phase Separation. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 056805-4(2005).

  15. Hydrogen production by coal plasma gasification for fuel cell technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvita, V. [Max-Planck-Institute, Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstrasse 1, 39106, Magdeburg (Germany); Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B. [Research Department of Plasmotechnics, 22 Zvereva str., 050100 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2007-11-15

    Coal gasification in steam and air atmosphere under arc plasma conditions has been investigated with Podmoskovnyi brown coal, Kuuchekinski bituminous coal and Canadian petrocoke. It was found that for those coals the gasification degree to synthesis gas were 92.3%, 95.8 and 78.6% correspondingly. The amount of produced syngas was 30-40% higher in steam than in air gasification of the coal. The reduction of the carbon monoxide content in the hydrogen-rich reformate gas for low-temperature fuel cell applications normally involves high- and low-temperature water gas shift reactors followed by selective oxidation of residual carbon monoxide. It is shown that the carbon monoxide content can be reduced in one single reactor, which is based on an iron redox cycle. During the reduction phase of the cycle, the raw gas mixture of H{sub 2} and CO reduces a Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-CeO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} sample, while during the oxidation phase steam re-oxidizes the iron and simultaneously hydrogen is being produced. The integration of the redox iron process with a coal plasma gasification technology in future allows the production of CO{sub x}-free hydrogen. (author)

  16. Production of selective membranes using plasma deposited nanochanneled thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Amorim Motta Carvalho

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The hydrolization of thin films obtained by tetraethoxysilane plasma polymerization results in the formation of a nanochanneled silicone like structure that could be useful for the production of selective membranes. Therefore, the aim of this work is to test the permeation properties of hydrolyzed thin films. The films were tested for: 1 permeation of polar organic compounds and/or water in gaseous phase and 2 permeation of salt in liquid phase. The efficiency of permeation was tested using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM technique in gas phase and conductimetric analysis (CA in liquid phase. The substrates used were: silicon for characterization of the deposited films, piezoelectric quartz crystals for tests of selective membranes and cellophane paper for tests of permeation. QCM analysis showed that the nanochannels allow the adsorption and/or permeation of polar organic compounds, such as acetone and 2-propanol, and water. CA showed that the films allow salt permeation after an inhibition time needed for hydrolysis of the organic radicals within the film. Due to their characteristics, the films can be used for grains protection against microorganism proliferation during storage without preventing germination.

  17. Photon production from quark gluon plasma at finite baryon density

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Dutta; S V S Sastry; A K Mohanty; K Kumar; R K Choudhury

    2003-05-01

    The photon yield from a baryon-rich quark gluon plasma (QGP) at SPS energy has been estimated. In the QGP phase, rate of photon production is evaluated up to two-loop level. In the hadron phase, dominant contribution from , , mesons has been considered. The evolution of the plasma has been studied with appropriate equation of state in both QGP and hadron phase for a baryon-rich system. At SPS energy, the total photon yield is found to increase marginally in the presence of baryon density.

  18. Direct dynamic synthesis of nanodispersed phases of titanium oxides upon sputtering of electrodischarge titanium plasma into an air atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivkov, A. A.; Gerasimov, D. Yu.; Nikitin, D. S.

    2017-01-01

    Experimental investigations of the possibility of directly synthesizing nanodispersed crystalline phases of titanium dioxides with rutile and anatase structures in a hypervelocity jet of electroerosion plasma generated by a coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with titanium electrodes are presented. A powder product containing nanosized polymorphic phases of titanium dioxide with a spherical shape of particles has been manufactured.

  19. Controlled Phase Changes of Titania Using Nitrogen Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trejo-Tzab, R.; Caballero-Espada, Liliana; Quintana, P.; Ávila-Ortega, Alejandro; Medina-Esquivel, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, the development of a new crystallization technique is reported, using nitrogen plasma (AC) to obtain nanostructured anatase and rutile from amorphous titanium oxide (TiO2). This methodology increases throughput and minimizes thermal effects. Nanostructured amorphous TiO2 was obtained by the sol-gel method and subsequently subjected to AC treatment, at a controlled pressure, applying different powers and treatment times in order to obtain phase changes. The obtained samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results show the crystallization in parallel with anatase and rutile phases with a proportion that is directly related to the applied power in the plasma and the treatment time. This technique allows us to obtain smaller crystals in comparison with those of classic thermal methodologies. It is also demonstrated that the application of plasma represents a novel and innovative method to obtain phase polymorphic changes in titanium oxide without needing to apply prolonged heat treatments at high temperatures and can therefore be taken into consideration as a technique with low energy costs, in comparison with conventional heat treatments.

  20. Thermodynamic Products in the Extended Phase Space

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2016-01-01

    We have examined the thermodynamic properties of spherically symmetric charged-AdS black hole, charged AdS BH surrounded by quintessence and charged AdS BH in $f(R)$ gravity in the extended phase-space. Where the cosmological constant should be treated as thermodynamic pressure and its conjugate parameter as thermodynamic volume. Then they should behave as a analog of Van der Waal like systems. In the extended phase space we have calculated the \\emph{entropy product} and \\emph{thermodynamic volume product} of all horizons. The mass(or enthalpy) independent nature of the said products signals they are "universal" quantities. Various types of pictorial diagram of the specific heat is given. The divergence of the specific heat indicates that the second order phase transition occurs under certain condition.

  1. Weak Interaction Neutron Production Rates in Fully Ionized Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Widom, A; Srivastava, Y N

    2013-01-01

    Employing the weak interaction reaction wherein a heavy electron is captured by a proton to produce a neutron and a neutrino, the neutron production rate for neutral hydrogen gases and for fully ionized plasmas is computed. Using the Coulomb atomic bound state wave functions of a neutral hydrogen gas, our production rate results are in agreement with recent estimates by Maiani {\\it et al}. Using Coulomb scattering state wave functions for the fully ionized plasma, we find a substantially enhanced neutron production rate. The scattering wave function should replace the bound state wave function for estimates of the enhanced neutron production rate on water plasma drenched cathodes of chemical cells.

  2. Cold Atmospheric Plasma: methods of production and application in dentistry and oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Clotilde; Berganza, Carlos; Zhang, John

    2013-01-01

    Cold Atmospheric Plasma is an ionized gas that has recently been extensively studied by researchers as a possible therapy in dentistry and oncology. Several different gases can be used to produce Cold Atmospheric Plasma such as Helium, Argon, Nitrogen, Heliox, and air. There are many methods of production by which cold atmospheric plasma is created. Each unique method can be used in different biomedical areas. In dentistry, researchers have mostly investigated the antimicrobial effects produced by plasma as a means to remove dental biofilms and eradicate oral pathogens. It has been shown that reactive oxidative species, charged particles, and UV photons play the main role. Cold Atmospheric Plasma has also found a minor, but important role in tooth whitening and composite restoration. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that Cold Atmospheric Plasma induces apoptosis, necrosis, cell detachment, and senescence by disrupting the S phase of cell replication in tumor cells. This unique finding opens up its potential therapy in oncology.

  3. Positron plasma control techniques for the production of cold antihydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funakoshi, R.; Amoretti, M.; Bonomi, G.; Bowe, P. D.; Canali, C.; Carraro, C.; Cesar, C. L.; Charlton, M.; Doser, M.; Fontana, A.; Fujiwara, M. C.; Genova, P.; Hangst, J. S.; Hayano, R. S.; Jørgensen, L. V.; Kellerbauer, A.; Lagomarsino, V.; Landua, R.; Lodi Rizzini, E.; Macrì, M.; Madsen, N.; Manuzio, G.; Mitchard, D.; Montagna, P.; Posada, L. G. C.; Rotondi, A.; Testera, G.; Variola, A.; Venturelli, L.; van der Werf, D. P.; Yamazaki, Y.; Zurlo, N.

    2007-07-01

    An observation of a clear dependence of antihydrogen production on positron plasma shapes is reported. For this purpose a plasma control method has been developed combining the plasma rotating-wall technique with a mode diagnostic system. With the help of real-time and nondestructive observations, the rotating-wall parameters have been optimized. The positron plasma can be manipulated into a wide range of shapes (aspect ratio 6.5⩽α≲80 ) and densities (1.5×108⩽n≲7×109cm-3) within a short duration (25s) compatible with the ATHENA antihydrogen production cycle.

  4. Positron plasma control techniques for the production of cold antihydrogen

    CERN Document Server

    Funakoshi, R; Bonomi, G; Bowe, P D; Canali, C; Carraro, C; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Doser, M; Fontana, A; Fujiwara, M C; Genova, P; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Jørgensen, L V; Kellerbauer, A G; Lagomarsino, V; Landua, R; Lodi-Rizzini, E; Macrì, M; Madsen, N; Manuzio, G; Mitchard, D; Montagna, P; Posada, L G C; Rotondi, A; Testera, G; Variola, A; Venturelli, L; Van der Werf, D P; Yamazaki, Y; Zurlo, N

    2007-01-01

    An observation of a clear dependence of antihydrogen production on positron plasma shapes is reported. For this purpose a plasma control method has been developed combining the plasma rotating-wall technique with a mode diagnostic system. With the help of real-time and nondestructive observations, the rotating-wall parameters have been optimized. The positron plasma can be manipulated into a wide range of shapes (aspect ratio 6.5≤α≲80) and densities (1.5×108≤n≲7×109 cm−3) within a short duration (25 s) compatible with the ATHENA antihydrogen production cycle.

  5. Entropy production in the early-cosmology pionic phase

    CERN Document Server

    Dobado, Antonio; Rodriguez-Fernandez, David

    2015-01-01

    We point out that in the early universe, for temperatures in the approximate interval 175-80 MeV (after the quark-gluon plasma), pions carried a large share of the entropy and supported the largest inhomogeneities. Thus, we examine the production of entropy in a pion gas, particularizing to inhomogeneities of the temperature, for which we benefit from the known thermal conductivity. We finally put that entropy produced in relaxing such thermal inhomogeneities in the broad context of this relatively unexplored phase of early-universe cosmology.

  6. Formalizing the concept phase of product development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, M.; Hooman, J.

    2015-01-01

    We discuss the use of formal techniques to improve the concept phase of product realisation. As an industrial application, a new concept of interventional X-ray systems has been formalized, using model checking techniques and the simulation of formal models. cop. Springer International Publishing Sw

  7. Structural Engineering Vacuum-plasma Coatings Interstitial Phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.V. Sobol'

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of possible structural conditions defined nonequilibrium processes in vacuum-plasma methods of obtaining interstitial phase coatings. It is shown that nonequilibrium conditions the deposition of ion-plasma flows significantly expands the range of possible structural states formed material from amorphous like to highly ordered crystalline. High speed determines the thermalization phase forming cubic crystal lattice (in most cases the structural type NaCl. On examples of W-C and Ta-N system with a hexagonal lattice type in equilibrium conditions and shows the mechanism of the transition from a metastable state with a cubic lattice in equilibrium with a hexagonal crystal lattice. The transition is performed by diffusion-shear transformation with the formation of stacking faults in the alternation of the most densely packed planes along the [111] axis. The formation of stacking faults contribute to a small area of the shift in nanocrystalline materials and the availability of jobs, and shift the conversion itself (through the formation of stacking faults is accompanied by a sudden relaxation of the structural stresses. Based on the atomic mobility criterion discussed mechanisms of structural transformations in the vacuum-plasma coatings and the necessary physical and technological conditions for structural changes aimed at the stage of precipitation and high temperature annealing.

  8. Surface disorder production during plasma immersion implantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lohner, T.; Khanh, N.Q.; Petrik, P.; Biro, L.P.; Fried, M.; Pinter, I.; Lehnert, W.; Frey, L.; Ryssel, H.; Wentink, D.J.; Gyulai, J.

    1998-01-01

    Comparative investigations were performed using high-depth-resolution Rutherford backscattering (RBS) combined with channeling, spectroellipsometry (SE) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to analyze surface disorder and surface roughness formed during plasma immersion implantation of silicon (100) su

  9. Fundamental limits on gas-phase chemical reduction of NOx in a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penetrante, B.M.; Hsiao, M.C.; Merritt, B.T.; Vogtlin, G.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the plasma, the electrons do not react directly with the NOx molecules. The electrons collide mainly with the background gas molecules like N{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. Electron impact on these molecules result partly in dissociation reactions that produce reactive species like N, O and OH. The NOx in the engine exhaust gas initially consist mostly of NO. The ground state nitrogen atom, N, is the only species that could lead to the chemical reduction of NO to N{sub 2}. The O radical oxidizes NO to NO{sub 2} leaving the same amount of NOx. The OH radical converts NO{sub 2} to nitric acid. Acid products in the plasma can easily get adsorbed on surfaces in the plasma reactor and in the pipes. When undetected, the absence of these oxidation products can often be mistaken for chemical reduction of NOx. In this paper the authors will examine the gas-phase chemical reduction of NOx. They will show that under the best conditions, the plasma can chemically reduce 1.6 grams of NOx per brake-horsepower-hour [g(NOx)/bhp-hr] when 5% of the engine output energy is delivered to the plasma.

  10. Evaluation of the potentials of humic acid removal in water by gas phase surface discharge plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tiecheng; Qu, Guangzhou; Ren, Jingyu; Yan, Qiuhe; Sun, Qiuhong; Liang, Dongli; Hu, Shibin

    2016-02-01

    Degradation of humic acid (HA), a predominant type of natural organic matter in ground water and surface waters, was conducted using a gas phase surface discharge plasma system. HA standard and two surface waters (Wetland, and Weihe River) were selected as the targets. The experimental results showed that about 90.9% of standard HA was smoothly removed within 40 min's discharge plasma treatment at discharge voltage 23.0 kV, and the removal process fitted the first-order kinetic model. Roles of some active species in HA removal were studied by evaluating the effects of solution pH and OH radical scavenger; and the results presented that O3 and OH radical played significant roles in HA removal. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and FTIR analysis showed that HA surface topography and molecular structure were changed during discharge plasma process. The mineralization of HA was analyzed by UV-Vis spectrum, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), specific UV absorbance (SUVA), UV absorption ratios, and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence. The formation of disinfection by-products during HA sample chlorination was also identified, and CHCl3 was detected as the main disinfection by-product, but discharge plasma treatment could suppress its formation to a certain extent. In addition, approximately 82.3% and 67.9% of UV254 were removed for the Weihe River water and the Wetland water after 40 min of discharge plasma treatment.

  11. Phase Space Dynamics of Ionization Injection in Plasma Based Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, X L; Li, F; Zhang, C J; Yan, L X; Du, Y C; Huang, W H; Chen, H B; Tang, C X; Lu, W; Yu, P; An, W; Mori, W B; Joshi, C

    2013-01-01

    The evolution of beam phase space in ionization-induced injection into plasma wakefields is studied using theory and particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The injection process causes special longitudinal and transverse phase mixing leading initially to a rapid emittance growth followed by oscillation, decay, and eventual slow growth to saturation. An analytic theory for this evolution is presented that includes the effects of injection distance (time), acceleration distance, wakefield structure, and nonlinear space charge forces. Formulas for the emittance in the low and high space charge regimes are presented. The theory is verified through PIC simulations and a good agreement is obtained. This work shows how ultra-low emittance beams can be produced using ionization-induced injection.

  12. Weak Interaction Neutron Production Rates in Fully Ionized Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Widom, A.; Swain, J.; Srivastava, Y. N.

    2013-01-01

    Employing the weak interaction reaction wherein a heavy electron is captured by a proton to produce a neutron and a neutrino, the neutron production rate for neutral hydrogen gases and for fully ionized plasmas is computed. Using the Coulomb atomic bound state wave functions of a neutral hydrogen gas, our production rate results are in agreement with recent estimates by Maiani {\\it et al}. Using Coulomb scattering state wave functions for the fully ionized plasma, we find a substantially enha...

  13. Plasma graviton production in TeV-scale gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Melkumova, E Yu

    2010-01-01

    We develop the theory of interaction of classical plasma with Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravitons in the ADD model of TeV-scale gravity. Plasma is described within the kinetic approach as the system of charged particles and Maxwell field both confined on the brane. Interaction with multidimensional gravity living in the bulk with $n$ compact extra dimensions is introduced within the linearized theory. The KK gravitons emission rates are computed taking into account plasma collective effects through the two-point correlation functions of the fluctuations of the plasma energy-momentum tensor. Apart from known mechanisms (such as bremsstrahlung and gravi-Primakoff effect) we find essentially collective channels such as the coalescence of plasma waves into gravitons which may be manifest in turbulent plasmas. Our results indicate that commonly used rates of the KK gravitons production in stars and supernovae may be underestimated.

  14. Hard Photon production from unsaturated quark gluon plasma at two loop level

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, D; Mohanty, A K; Kumar, K; Choudhury, R K

    2002-01-01

    The hard photon productions from bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering that arise at two loop level are estimated from a chemically non-equilibrated quark gluon plasma using the frame work of thermal field theory. Although, the rate of photon production is suppressed due to unsaturated phase space, the above suppression is relatively smaller than expected due to an additional collinear enhancement (arise due to decrease in thermal quark mass) as compared to it's equilibrium counterpart. Interestingly, unlike the one loop case, the reduction in the two loop processes are found to be independent of gluon chemical poential, but strongly depends on quark fugacity. It is also found that, since the phase space suppression is highest for annihilation with scattering, the photon production is entirely dominated by bremsstrahlung mechanism at all energies. This is to be contrasted with the case of the equilibrated plasma where annihilation with scattering dominates the photon production particularly at highe...

  15. High density plasma production in a multicusp plasma generator with RF antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yasuo; Hanada, Masaya; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Masanobu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1992-10-01

    A high density plasma was produced by radio-frequency in a multicusp plasma generator. The generator is a cylindrical chamber of 200 mm in inner diameter and 270 mm in length with 1-3 turn copper tube antenna. By injecting a 2 MHz, 20 kW RF into the multicusp plasma generator, hydrogen plasma of an ion saturation current density of 120 mA/cm{sup 2} and a hydrogen plasma of a density of 6.0 x 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} was produced at a pressure of 0.6 Pa in the generator. The ion saturation current density was uniform over the central area of 100 mm in diameter. Coating the antenna with an insulator, we proved that the efficiency of the plasma production was improved. (author).

  16. High density plasma production in a multicusp plasma generator with RF antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yasuo; Hanada, Masaya; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Tanaka, Masanobu (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment)

    1992-10-01

    A high density plasma was produced by radio-frequency in a multicusp plasma generator. The generator is a cylindrical chamber of 200 mm in inner diameter and 270 mm in length with 1-3 turn copper tube antenna. By injecting a 2 MHz, 20 kW RF into the multicusp plasma generator, hydrogen plasma of an ion saturation current density of 120 mA/cm[sup 2] and a hydrogen plasma of a density of 6.0 x 10[sup 11] cm[sup -3] was produced at a pressure of 0.6 Pa in the generator. The ion saturation current density was uniform over the central area of 100 mm in diameter. Coating the antenna with an insulator, we proved that the efficiency of the plasma production was improved. (author).

  17. Geometric Phase Of The Faraday Rotation Of Electromagnetic Waves In Magnetized Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jian Liu and Hong Qin

    2011-11-07

    The geometric phase of circularly polarized electromagnetic waves in nonuniform magnetized plasmas is studied theoretically. The variation of the propagation direction of circularly polarized waves results in a geometric phase, which also contributes to the Faraday rotation, in addition to the standard dynamical phase. The origin and properties of the geometric phase is investigated. The in uence of the geometric phase to plasma diagnostics using Faraday rotation is also discussed as an application of the theory.

  18. Condensation production in comet tail plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Koshevaya

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Los solitones producen condensaciones en la cola del cometa, como resultado de su interacci on con el viento solar. Se obtienen las condiciones de excitaci on de las ondas ion ac usticas y polvo-ac usticas. La teor a presentada, trata sobre los solitones ion-ac usticos polvosos en este plasma magnetizado. Se demuestra que la longitud de Debye y el radio de cyclotr on de las part culas de polvo cargadas, de nen la dimensi on transversal de los solitones polvo-ac usticos. Para valores t picos de los par ametros, las dimensiones estimadas de los solitones son de varios Km, lo cual concuerda con los datos obtenidos de las observaciones.

  19. Acute phase response of selenium status and glutathione peroxidase activity in blood plasma before and after total knee arthroplasty surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defi, Irma Ruslina; Yamazaki, Chiho; Kameo, Satomi; Kobayashi, Kenji; Nakazawa, Minato; Shinya, Yanagisawa; Sato, Naoki; Wada, Naoki; Shirakura, Kenji; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    Several studies show the consistent results of the decrease in plasma or serum selenium (Se) after surgery, and the change is suggested to be a negative acute phase response of Se to the surgical inflammation. Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx), which is included in the acute phase response proteins, is a selenoenzyme. However, previous studies failed to show any changes in GPx activity before and after surgery. In the present study, we investigated the Se- and selenoenzyme responses that accompany the acute inflammatory reactions during and following major surgery. Patients who underwent elective total knee arthroplasty surgery due to knee osteoarthritis at the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at Gunma University Hospital in Japan were studied. The plasma Se concentration was determined, and the activity of plasma GPx was measured. C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and white blood cell (WBC) count were also analysed. Increases in the inflammatory biomarkers of CRP and WBC showed inflammatory reactions with the surgery. A significant increase in plasma GPx activity (p production of other series of acute phase proteins, the present results suggest that there is a redistribution of plasma Se to GPx that occurs as an acute phase response, and the source of Se for GPx could be, at least partly, from albumin.

  20. Plasma electrolytic treatment of products after selective laser melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashapov, L. N.; Kashapov, N. F.; Kashapov, R. N.; Denisov, D. G.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the work was to study the possibilities of plasma electrolytic treatment for cleaning surfaces of metal products obtained by the SLM-technology. We found that the most effective cleaning from the large alloy particles occurs in the "hydrodynamic" mode, when the occurrence of hydrodynamic pulses observed. Further smoothing of irregularities eliminated by a stable burning of discharge in vapor shell. Analysis the morphology of the surface of difficult specialized products, such as crown conical gears, after plasma hydrodynamic treatment showed efficiency and advantages in comparison to conventional methods of final cleaning such as shot blasting.

  1. Studies on plasma production in a large volume system using multiple compact ECR plasma sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarey, R. D.; Ganguli, A.; Sahu, D.; Narayanan, R.; Arora, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a scheme for large volume plasma production using multiple highly portable compact ECR plasma sources (CEPS) (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026). The large volume plasma system (LVPS) described in the paper is a scalable, cylindrical vessel of diameter  ≈1 m, consisting of source and spacer sections with multiple CEPS mounted symmetrically on the periphery of the source sections. Scaling is achieved by altering the number of source sections/the number of sources in a source section or changing the number of spacer sections for adjusting the spacing between the source sections. A series of plasma characterization experiments using argon gas were conducted on the LVPS under different configurations of CEPS, source and spacer sections, for an operating pressure in the range 0.5-20 mTorr, and a microwave power level in the range 400-500 W per source. Using Langmuir probes (LP), it was possible to show that the plasma density (~1  -  2  ×  1011 cm-3) remains fairly uniform inside the system and decreases marginally close to the chamber wall, and this uniformity increases with an increase in the number of sources. It was seen that a warm electron population (60-80 eV) is always present and is about 0.1% of the bulk plasma density. The mechanism of plasma production is discussed in light of the results obtained for a single CEPS (Ganguli et al 2016 Plasma Source Sci. Technol. 25 025026).

  2. Hydroxyl radical production in plasma electrolysis with KOH electrolyte solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saksono, Nelson; Febiyanti, Irine Ayu, E-mail: irine.ayu41@ui.ac.id; Utami, Nissa; Ibrahim [Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia Phone: +62217863516, Fax: +62217863515 (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Plasma electrolysis is an effective technology for producing hydroxyl radical (•OH). This method can be used for waste degradation process. This study was conducted to obtain the influence of applied voltage, electrolyte concentration, and anode depth in the plasma electrolysis system for producing hydroxyl radical. The materials of anode and cathode, respectively, were made from tungsten and stainless steel. KOH solution was used as the solution. Determination of hydroxyl radical production was done by measuring H{sub 2}O{sub 2} amount formed in plasma system using an iodometric titration method, while the electrical energy consumed was obtained by measuring the electrical current throughout the process. The highest hydroxyl radical production was 3.51 mmol reached with 237 kJ energy consumption in the power supply voltage 600 V, 0.02 M KOH, and 0.5 cm depth of anode.

  3. Plasma metallurgical production of nanocrystalline borides and carbides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galevsky, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Cherepanov, A. N.; Galevsky, S. G.; Efimova, K. A.

    2016-09-01

    he experience in production and study of properties of nanocrystalline borides and chromium carbides, titanium, silicon was summarized. The design and features of the vertical three-jet once-through reactor with power 150 kW, used in the plasma metallurgical production, was described. The technological, thermotechnical and resource characteristics of the reactor were identified. The parameters of borides and carbides synthesis, their main characteristics in the nanodispersed state and equipment-technological scheme of production were provided. Evaluation of engineering-and-economical performance of the laboratory and industrial levels of borides and carbides production and the state corresponding to the segment of the world market was carried out.

  4. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw for Ethanol Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Kádár, Zsófia; Thomsen, Anne Belinda

    2011-01-01

    The potential of wheat straw for ethanol production after pretreatment with O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature followed by fermentation was investigated. We found that cellulose and hemicellulose remained unaltered after ozonisation and a subsequent washing step...

  5. Scalable graphene production: perspectives and challenges of plasma applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levchenko, Igor; Ostrikov, Kostya (Ken); Zheng, Jie; Li, Xingguo; Keidar, Michael; B. K. Teo, Kenneth

    2016-05-01

    Graphene, a newly discovered and extensively investigated material, has many unique and extraordinary properties which promise major technological advances in fields ranging from electronics to mechanical engineering and food production. Unfortunately, complex techniques and high production costs hinder commonplace applications. Scaling of existing graphene production techniques to the industrial level without compromising its properties is a current challenge. This article focuses on the perspectives and challenges of scalability, equipment, and technological perspectives of the plasma-based techniques which offer many unique possibilities for the synthesis of graphene and graphene-containing products. The plasma-based processes are amenable for scaling and could also be useful to enhance the controllability of the conventional chemical vapour deposition method and some other techniques, and to ensure a good quality of the produced graphene. We examine the unique features of the plasma-enhanced graphene production approaches, including the techniques based on inductively-coupled and arc discharges, in the context of their potential scaling to mass production following the generic scaling approaches applicable to the existing processes and systems. This work analyses a large amount of the recent literature on graphene production by various techniques and summarizes the results in a tabular form to provide a simple and convenient comparison of several available techniques. Our analysis reveals a significant potential of scalability for plasma-based technologies, based on the scaling-related process characteristics. Among other processes, a greater yield of 1 g × h-1 m-2 was reached for the arc discharge technology, whereas the other plasma-based techniques show process yields comparable to the neutral-gas based methods. Selected plasma-based techniques show lower energy consumption than in thermal CVD processes, and the ability to produce graphene flakes of various

  6. Gas-liquid phase transition in modified pseudopotential and “shelf Coulomb” ultracold plasma models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. B.; Zelener, B. V.

    2016-11-01

    Phase diagrams for the “shelf Coulomb” and the modified pseudopotential plasma models developed in our previous works are compared. Qualitative agreement is observed between gas-liquid phase transition region of “shelf Coulomb” model and liquid-gas structure region of modified pseudopotential one. The possibility of experimental finding of the phase transition in nonequilibrium ultracold Rydberg plasma is considered. Parameters (density, temperature, levels of Rydberg atoms) for such a transition are estimated. Conclusion is made that “shelf Coulomb” model phase transition is practically impossible to observe in equilibrium strongly coupled plasmas due to high neutral atoms density at low temperatures: T crit ≈ 0.076.

  7. ELECTROLYTIC-PLASMA TREATMENT OF INNER SURFACE OF TUBULAR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. G. Alekseev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available While manufacturing a number of important tubular products stringent requirements have been imposed on quality of their inner surfaces. The well-known methods for inner surface treatment of pipes include sandblasting, chemical cleaning with acid reagents (oxalic, formic, sulfamic, orthophosphoric acids and electrochemical polishing. Disadvantages of the chemical method are cleaning-up irregularities, high metal removal, limited number of reagent application, complicated selection of reagent chemical composition and concentration, complicated and environmentally harmful recycling of waste chemicals, high cost of reagents. Low productivity at a high cost, as well as hazardous impact on personnel due to high dispersion of abrasive dust are considered as disadvantages of sandblasting. Electrochemical polishing is characterized by the following disadvantages: low processing productivity because supply of high currents is rather difficult due to electrolyte scattering capacity away from the main electrode action zone, limited length of the cavity to be treated due to heating of flexible current leads at operating current densities, application of expensive aggressive electrolytes and high costs of their recycling. A new method for polishing and cleaning of inner surfaces of tubular products based on electrolyte-plasma treatment has been developed. In comparison with the existing methods the proposed methods ensures quality processing with high intensity while applying non-toxic, environmentally friendly and cheap electrolytes. The paper presents results of investigations on technological specific features of electrolyte-plasma treatment for inner surfaces of tubular products: influence of slotted nozzle width, electrolyte flow and rate on stability of gas-vapor blanket, current density and productivity. Results of the research have made it possible to determine modes that provide stability and high productivity in the process of electrolyte-plasma

  8. Sustainability of a public system for plasma collection, contract fractionation and plasma-derived medicinal product manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazzini, Giuliano; Ceccarelli, Anna; Calteri, Deanna; Catalano, Liviana; Calizzani, Gabriele; Cicchetti, Americo

    2013-09-01

    In Italy, the financial reimbursement for labile blood components exchanged between Regions is regulated by national tariffs defined in 1991 and updated in 1993-2003. Over the last five years, the need for establishing standard costs of healthcare services has arisen critically. In this perspective, the present study is aimed at defining both the costs of production of blood components and the related prices, as well as the prices of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained by national plasma, to be used for interregional financial reimbursement. In order to analyse the costs of production of blood components, 12 out 318 blood establishments were selected in 8 Italian Regions. For each step of the production process, driving costs were identified and production costs were. To define the costs of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained by national plasma, industrial costs currently sustained by National Health Service for contract fractionation were taken into account. The production costs of plasma-derived medicinal products obtained from national plasma showed a huge variability among blood establishments, which was much lower after standardization. The new suggested plasma tariffs were quite similar to those currently in force. Comparing the overall costs theoretically sustained by the National Health Service for plasma-derived medicinal products obtained from national plasma to current commercial costs, demonstrates that the national blood system could gain a 10% cost saving if it were able to produce plasma for fractionation within the standard costs defined in this study. Achieving national self-sufficiency through the production of plasma-derived medicinal products from national plasma, is a strategic goal of the National Health Service which must comply not only with quality, safety and availability requirements but also with the increasingly pressing need for economic sustainability.

  9. Understanding neutron production in the deuterium dense plasma focus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelbe, Brian, E-mail: b.appelbe07@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: j.chittenden@imperial.ac.uk; Chittenden, Jeremy, E-mail: b.appelbe07@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: j.chittenden@imperial.ac.uk [The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-15

    The deuterium Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) can produce copious amounts of MeV neutrons and can be used as an efficient neutron source. However, the mechanism by which neutrons are produced within the DPF is poorly understood and this limits our ability to optimize the device. In this paper we present results from a computational study aimed at understanding how neutron production occurs in DPFs with a current between 70 kA and 500 kA and which parameters can affect it. A combination of MHD and kinetic tools are used to model the different stages of the DPF implosion. It is shown that the anode shape can significantly affect the structure of the imploding plasma and that instabilities in the implosion lead to the generation of large electric fields at stagnation. These electric fields can accelerate deuterium ions within the stagnating plasma to large (>100 keV) energies leading to reactions with ions in the cold dense plasma. It is shown that the electromagnetic fields present can significantly affect the trajectories of the accelerated ions and the resulting neutron production.

  10. Geopolymers prepared from DC plasma treated air pollution control (APC) residues glass: properties and characterisation of the binder phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourti, Ioanna; Devaraj, Amutha Rani; Bustos, Ana Guerrero; Deegan, David; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Cheeseman, Christopher R

    2011-11-30

    Air pollution control (APC) residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium aluminosilicate glass (APC glass). This has been used to form geopolymer-glass composites that exhibit high strength and density, low porosity, low water absorption, low leaching and high acid resistance. The composites have a microstructure consisting of un-reacted residual APC glass particles imbedded in a complex geopolymer and C-S-H gel binder phase, and behave as particle reinforced composites. The work demonstrates that materials prepared from DC plasma treated APC residues have potential to be used to form high quality pre-cast products.

  11. Production of coloured glass-ceramics from incinerator ash using thermal plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, T W; Huang, M Z; Tzeng, C C; Cheng, K B; Ueng, T H

    2007-08-01

    Incineration is a major treatment process for municipal solid waste in Taiwan. It is estimated that over 1.5 Mt of incinerator ash are produced annually. This study proposes using thermal plasma technology to treat incinerator ash. Sintered glass-ceramics were produced using quenched vitrified slag with colouring agents added. The experimental results showed that the major crystalline phases developed in the sintered glass-ceramics were gehlenite and wollastonite, but many other secondary phases also appeared depending on the colouring agents added. The physical/mechanical properties, chemical resistance and toxicity characteristic leaching procedure of the coloured glass-ceramics were satisfactory. The glass-ceramic products obtained from incinerator ash treated with thermal plasma technology have great potential for building applications.

  12. Cold flame on Biofilm - Transport of Plasma Chemistry from Gas to Liquid Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Michael

    2014-10-01

    One of the most active and fastest growing fields in low-temperature plasma science today is biological effects of gas plasmas and their translation in many challenges of societal importance such as healthcare, environment, agriculture, and nanoscale fabrication and synthesis. Using medicine as an example, there are already three FDA-approved plasma-based surgical procedures for tissue ablation and blood coagulation and at least five phase-II clinical trials on plasma-assisted wound healing therapies. A key driver for realizing the immense application potential of near room-temperature ambient pressure gas plasmas, commonly known as cold atmospheric plasmas or CAP, is to build a sizeable interdisciplinary knowledge base with which to unravel, optimize, and indeed design how reactive plasma species interact with cells and their key components such as protein and DNA. Whilst a logical objective, it is a formidable challenge not least since existing knowledge of gas discharges is largely in the gas-phase and therefore not directly applicable to cell-containing matters that are covered by or embedded in liquid (e.g. biofluid). Here, we study plasma inactivation of biofilms, a jelly-like structure that bacteria use to protect themselves and a major source of antimicrobial resistance. As 60--90% of biofilm is made of water, we develop a holistic model incorporating physics and chemistry in the upstream CAP-generating region, a plasma-exit region as a buffer for as-phase transport, and a downstream liquid region bordering the gas buffer region. A special model is developed to account for rapid chemical reactions accompanied the transport of gas-phase plasma species through the gas-liquid interface and for liquid-phase chemical reactions. Numerical simulation is used to illustrate how key reactive oxygen species (ROS) are transported into the liquid, and this is supported with experimental data of both biofilm inactivation using plasmas and electron spin spectroscopy (ESR

  13. Modeling production of e+/--pair plasma in AGNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Alex; Medvedev, Mikhail V.

    2016-10-01

    Processes around spinning supermassive black holes in active galactic nuclei (AGN) are believed to determine how relativistic jets are launched and how the black hole energy is extracted. The key question in these processes is the origin of plasma in black hole magnetospheres. The only reasonable mechanism is believed to be the electron-position cascade - the multistage process involving seed photons from an accretion disk, which are Compton up-scattered by charges accelerated in a gap region of a force-free magnetosphere with subsequent photon-photon pair production. In order to explore the process of the e+/- plasma production, we developed a numerical code which models the dynamics of the cascade along magnetic field lines. We demonstrate that plasma production is sensitive to the spectrum of the ambient photon and magnetic fields, the black hole mass and spin, and other parameters. We discuss the results and observational predictions. Supported by KU CLAS and DOE Grant ID0000225143 (07/01/16).

  14. Entropy production and inward heat pinch of plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Sanae

    1996-02-01

    Heat pinch phenomena in the plasma with peripheral heating is discussed from the view point of thermodynamics. The entropy production rate associated with inward energy flow in the presence of energy exchange between electrons and ions is calculated. The inward energy flow can increase the total entropy production rate. It is conjectured that the outward energy flow of colder species (say ions) could sustain the energy flux of hotter species (say electrons) in the core, which flows into the direction of higher temperature. (author)

  15. Impact of gender and menstrual cycle phase on plasma cytokine concentrations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Sinead M

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: The lifetime prevalence of major depression is twice as high in females as in males. Depression is known to increase at periods where there are changes in gonadal hormones. We examined pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels during the normal menstrual cycle of healthy females compared to similar time points in healthy males. METHODS: Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays in healthy females during the normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and also in males at similar time points. RESULTS: The luteal phase of the menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha compared to the early follicular phase. No change was observed in IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 concentration throughout the menstrual cycle. We found IL-4 positively correlated with oestrogen while TNF-alpha positively correlated with progesterone. Females were found to have significantly higher concentrations of TNF-alpha and sIL-6R across all phases of the menstrual cycle, compared to males across similar time points. CONCLUSION: The normal menstrual cycle is associated with increased production of sIL-6R, IL-4 and TNF-alpha in the luteal phase compared to the early follicular phase. Females have significantly higher concentrations of sIL-6R and TNF-alpha at all time points across the menstrual cycle than males.

  16. Ductile-Phase-Toughened Tungsten for Plasma-Facing Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Kevin Hawkins

    A variety of processing approaches were employed to fabricate ductile-phase-toughened (DPT) tungsten (W) composites. Mechanical testing and analytical modeling were used to guide composite development. This work provides a basis for further development of W composites to be used in structural divertor components of future fusion reactors. W wire was tested in tension, showing significant ductility and strength. Coatings of copper (Cu) or tungsten carbide (WC) were applied to the W wire via electrodeposition and carburization, respectively. Composites were fabricated using spark plasma sintering (SPS) to consolidate W powders together with each type of coated W wire. DPT behavior, e.g. crack arrest and crack bridging, was not observed in three-point bend testing of the sintered composites. A laminate was fabricated by hot pressing W and Cu foils together with W wires, and subsequently tested in tension. This laminate was bonded via hot pressing to thick W plate as a reinforcing layer, and the composite was tested in three-point bending. Crack arrest was observed along with some fiber pullout, but significant transverse cracking in the W plate confounded further fracture toughness analysis. The fracture toughness of thin W plate was measured in three-point bending. W plates were brazed with Cu foils to form a laminate. Crack arrest and crack bridging were observed in three-point bend tests of the laminate, and fracture resistance curves were successfully calculated for this DPT composite. An analytical model of crack bridging was developed using the basis described by Chao in previous work by the group. The model uses the specimen geometry, matrix properties, and the stress-displacement function of a ductile reinforcement ("bridging law") to calculate the fracture resistance curve (R-curve) and load-displacement curve (P-D curve) for any test specimen geometry. The code was also implemented to estimate the bridging law of an arbitrary composite using R-curve data

  17. Phase characterisation in spark plasma sintered TiPt alloy

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chikosha, S

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The conclusions drawn from this presentation are that Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) of equiatomic BE TiPt powder produces fully sintered specimens, with incomplete homogenisation. There is a need for improved furnace atmosphere control so...

  18. Phase-space diffusion in turbulent plasmas: The random acceleration problem revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, H.L.; Trulsen, J.

    1991-01-01

    Phase-space diffusion of test particles in turbulent plasmas is studied by an approach based on a conditional statistical analysis of fluctuating electrostatic fields. Analytical relations between relevant conditional averages and higher-order correlations, , and triple...

  19. Determination of lidocaine in plasma by direct solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, EHM; Wemes, C; Morsink, JB; de Jong, GJ

    2000-01-01

    Direct-immersion solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has been used to extract the local anesthetic lidocaine from human plasma. A simplified model shows the relationship between the total amount of drug in plasma and the amount of drug extracted. The model takes into account that the drug participate

  20. The discharge mode transition and O(5p1) production mechanism of pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Hu, J. T.; Liu, J. H.; Xiong, Z. L.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P.; Shi, J. J.

    2012-07-01

    The discharge mode transition from uniform plasma across the gas gap to the α mode happens at the rising phase of the pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma (PRF CCP). This transition is attributed to the fast increasing stochastic heating at the edge of sheath. In the second stage with the stable current and voltage amplitude, the consistency between experimental and numerical spatial-temporal 777 nm emission profile suggests that He* and He2* dominate the production of O(5p1) through dissociation and excitation of O2. Finally, the sterilization efficiency of PRF CCP is found to be higher than that of plasma jet.

  1. Initial phase hot corrosion mechanism of gas tunnel type plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yugeswaran, S. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kobayashi, A., E-mail: kobayasi@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V. [L and PT Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2012-04-25

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Free standing TBC specimens were prepared by gas tunnel type plasma spraying with thickness of around 300-400 {mu}m. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 50%8YSZ + 50%La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} composite coating shows superior hot corrosion resistance. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosive crystals structure and phase transformation was well controlled in this coating. - Abstract: The hot corrosion resistance of the top layer in TBC is one of the main constructive factors which determines the lifetime of the coatings under critical operating environments. In the present study, 8 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (8YSZ), lanthanum zirconate (La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) and equal weight percentage of its composite (50%8YSZ + 50% La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7}) coatings were prepared by using gas tunnel type plasma spray torch at optimum spraying conditions. The hot corrosion performances of the above thermal barrier coatings were examined against 40 wt%V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-60 wt%Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} corrosive ash at 1173 K for 5 h in open air atmosphere. After hot-corrosion testing, the coating surface was studied using a scanning electron microscope to observe the microstructure and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to identify the phase compositions. The results showed that LaVO{sub 4} and YVO{sub 4} are the main hot corrosion products along with the ZrO{sub 2} phase transformation from tetragonal to monoclinic phases in La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} and 8YSZ coatings respectively. The microstructure and phase formation mechanism of the hot corrosion products varied with each coating and among these, composition of 50%8YSZ + 50%La{sub 2}Zr{sub 2}O{sub 7} coating exhibited least degradation against V{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} corrosive environment compared to the other coatings.

  2. Hyperosmotic pressure on HEK 293 cells during the growth phase, but not the production phase, improves adenovirus production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chun Fang; Kamen, Amine

    2012-01-01

    Hyperosmotic stress has been widely explored as a means of improving specific antibody productivity in mammalian cell cultures. In contrast, a decrease in cell-specific productivity of adenovirus production has been reported in several studies in which virus production in HEK 293 cell cultures was conducted under hyperosmotic conditions. However, production of viral vectors and, in particular, adenoviral vectors is the result of two consecutive phases: the growth phase and the virus production phase. In this study, the singular and combined effects of osmolality on the phases of cell growth and virus production were evaluated in culture media with osmolalities ranging from 250 to 410mOsm. A two-factor, five-level full factorial design was used to investigate the effect of osmotic stress on cell physiology, as determined through the characterization of cell growth, cell metabolism, cell viability, cell cycle, cell RNA and total protein content, and total virus yield/cell-specific virus productivity. Overall, the results show that the growth of cells under hyperosmotic conditions induced favorable physiological states for viral production, and the specific virus productivity was improved by more than 11-fold when the medium's osmolality was increased from 250 to 410mOsm during the cell growth phase. Both hypo- and hyperosmotic stresses in the virus production phase reduced virus productivity by as much as a factor of six. Optimal virus productivity was achieved by growing cells in media with an osmolality of 370mOsm or greater, followed by a virus production phase at an osmolality of 290mOsm. Compared to standard culture and production conditions in isotonic media, the shift from high to low osmolality between the two phases resulted in a two- to three-fold increase in virus yields. This hyperosmotic pressure effect on virus productivity was reproduced in five different commercial serum-free media. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Hydrogen production from dimethyl ether using corona discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ji-Jun; Zhang, Yue-Ping; Liu, Chang-Jun

    Dimethyl ether (DME), with its non-toxic character, high H/C ratio and high-energy volumetric density, is an ideal resource for hydrogen production. In this work, hydrogen production from the decomposition of DME using corona discharge has been studied. The corona discharge plasma decomposition was conducted at ambient conditions. The effects of dilution gas (argon), flow rate, frequency and waveforms on the DME decomposition were investigated. The addition of dilution gas can significantly increase the hydrogen production rate. The highest hydrogen production rate with the lowest energy consumption presents at the flow rate of 27.5 Nml min -1. AC voltage is more favored than DC voltage for the production of hydrogen with less energy input. The optimal frequency is 2.0 kHz. The hydrogen production rate is also affected by the input waveform and decreases as following: sinusoid triangular > sinusoid > ramp > square, whereas the sinusoid waveform shows the highest energy efficiency. The corona discharge decomposition of DME is leading to a simple, easy and convenient hydrogen production with no needs of catalyst and external heating.

  4. Titanium Metal Powder Production by the Plasma Quench Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. A. Cordes; A. Donaldson

    2000-09-01

    The goals of this project included the scale-up of the titanium hydride production process to a production rate of 50 kg/hr at a purity level of 99+%. This goal was to be achieved by incrementally increasing the production capability of a series of reactor systems. This methodic approach was designed to allow Idaho Titanium Technologies to systematically address the engineering issues associated with plasma system performance, and powder collection system design and performance. With quality powder available, actual fabrication with the titanium hydride was to be pursued. Finally, with a successful titanium production system in place, the production of titanium aluminide was to be pursued by the simultaneously injection of titanium and aluminum precursors into the reactor system. Some significant accomplishments of the project are: A unique and revolutionary torch/reactor capable of withstanding temperatures up to 5000 C with high thermal efficiency has been operated. The dissociation of titanium tetrachloride into titanium powder and HC1 has been demonstrated, and a one-megawatt reactor potentially capable of producing 100 pounds per hour has been built, but not yet operated at the powder level. The removal of residual subchlorides and adsorbed HC1 and the sintering of powder to form solid bodies have been demonstrated. The production system has been operated at production rates up to 40 pounds per hour. Subsequent to the end of the project, Idaho Titanium Technologies demonstrated that titanium hydride powder can indeed be sintered into solid titanium metal at 1500 C without sintering aids.

  5. Structure and phase transition of a two-dimensional dusty plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘斌; 刘艳红; 陈雁萍; 杨思泽; 王龙

    2003-01-01

    The structure and phase transition of a two-dimensional (2D) dusty plasma have been investigated in detail by molecular dynamics simulation. Pair correlation function, static structure factor, mean square displacement, and bond angle correlation function have been calculated to characterize the structural properties. The variation of internal energy, shear modulus, particle trajectories and structural properties with temperature has been monitored to study the phase transition of the 2D dusty plasma system. The simulation results are in favour of a two-step continuous transition for this kind of plasma.

  6. Phase space structures in gyrokinetic simulations of fusion plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghendrih, Philippe; Norscini, Claudia; Cartier-Michaud, Thomas; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Abiteboul, Jérémie; Dong, Yue; Garbet, Xavier; Gürcan, Ozgür; Hennequin, Pascale; Grandgirard, Virginie; Latu, Guillaume; Morel, Pierre; Sarazin, Yanick; Storelli, Alexandre; Vermare, Laure

    2014-10-01

    Gyrokinetic simulations of fusion plasmas give extensive information in 5D on turbulence and transport. This paper highlights a few of these challenging physics in global, flux driven simulations using experimental inputs from Tore Supra shot TS45511. The electrostatic gyrokinetic code GYSELA is used for these simulations. The 3D structure of avalanches indicates that these structures propagate radially at localised toroidal angles and then expand along the field line at sound speed to form the filaments. Analysing the poloidal mode structure of the potential fluctuations (at a given toroidal location), one finds that the low modes m = 0 and m = 1 exhibit a global structure; the magnitude of the m = 0 mode is much larger than that of the m = 1 mode. The shear layers of the corrugation structures are thus found to be dominated by the m = 0 contribution, that are comparable to that of the zonal flows. This global mode seems to localise the m = 2 mode but has little effect on the localisation of the higher mode numbers. However when analysing the pulsation of the latter modes one finds that all modes exhibit a similar phase velocity, comparable to the local zonal flow velocity. The consequent dispersion like relation between the modes pulsation and the mode numbers provides a means to measure the zonal flow. Temperature fluctuations and the turbulent heat flux are localised between the corrugation structures. Temperature fluctuations are found to exhibit two scales, small fluctuations that are localised by the corrugation shear layers, and appear to bounce back and forth radially, and large fluctuations, also readily observed on the flux, which are associated to the disruption of the corrugations. The radial ballistic velocity of both avalanche events if of the order of 0.5ρ∗c0 where ρ∗ = ρ0/a, a being the tokamak minor radius and ρ0 being the characteristic Larmor radius, ρ0 = c0/Ω0. c0 is the reference ion thermal velocity and Ω0 = qiB0/mi the reference

  7. Radio frequency phase shifters for launching waves in a magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrucci, L.; Casanova, M.R.; Maglione, V.; Montiron, G.; Riccardi, C.; Barisoni, D.; Fontanesi, M.; Galassi, A.; Sindoni, E. [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    1995-04-01

    A variable phase-shifting system, able to generate phase-shifted replicas of the same reference input signal, has been designed to properly feed the antenna system within a plasma device. The system is based on a phase-locked loop used as a voltage controlled phase shifter and is able to provide four phase-shifted output signals. The phase differences between adjacent outputs can be varied between 0{degree} and 100{degree}, and are maintained equal to each other, with a precision of less than 3{degree} in the range 2.5--10 MHz. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  8. Surface modification of aramid fiber by plasma induced vapor phase graft polymerization of acrylic acid. I. Influence of plasma conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, C.X., E-mail: cxwang@mail.dhu.edu.cn [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224003 (China); School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu 226019 (China); Du, M. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Industry Technology, Jiangsu 224000 (China); Lv, J.C.; Zhou, Q.Q. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224003 (China); Ren, Y. [School of Textile and Clothing, Nantong University, Jiangsu 226019 (China); Liu, G.L.; Gao, D.W. [College of Textiles and Clothing, Yancheng Institute of Technology, Jiangsu 224003 (China); Jin, L.M. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201204 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Aramid fiber surface was modified by PIVPGP of AA to improve wettability, adhesion. • Surface modification effect by PIVPGP of AA increased and then decreased with time. • Surface modification effect increased and then stayed unaltered with output power. • Ar plasma was the most effective in PIVPGP of AA on aramid fiber surface. • In studied range, optimum technology of PIVPGP of AA: Ar plasma, 15 min, 300 W. - Abstract: Plasma induced vapor phase graft polymerization (PIVPGP) method was applied to modify aramid fiber surface. In this study, aramid fibers were pretreated under various plasma conditions such as different treatment times, output powers and working gases to see how these plasma processing parameters influenced the PIVPGP of acrylic acid (AA) on aramid fiber surface and its surface structure and properties. The analysis results of atomic force microscope (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope (XPS) showed the increase of surface roughness and the introduction of O=C−OH, which confirmed that the PIVPGP of AA on aramid fiber surface was achieved. The contact angle and interfacial shear strength (IFSS) of the aramid fibers modified by PIVPGP of AA prominently decreased and increased, respectively, indicating the obvious improvements of surface wettability and adhesion between aramid fiber and matrix. The surface modification effects of aramid fiber by PIVPGP of AA firstly increased and then after 15 min slightly decreased with the increasing plasma treatment time, and but firstly increased and then after 300 W nearly remained unchanged with the increasing output power, respectively. Among different working gases, Ar plasma occupied first place, O{sub 2} plasma and N{sub 2} plasma came second and third in the aspect of PIVPGP of AA on aramid fiber surface, respectively. It could be concluded that the PIVPGP of AA on aramid fiber surface could effectively improve surface wettability and adhesion. Plasma conditions had signally

  9. ROS/RNS Production in Water Using Various Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Kohki; Itoh, Hidenori; Kawaguchi, Hideki; Timoshkin, Igor; Given, Martin; MacGregor, Scott

    2015-09-01

    A pulsed discharge, a DC corona discharge and an atmospheric pressure plasma jet are generated above water, the off-gas of a packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge (PB-DBD) is sparged into water, and then reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species in the water are investigated. H2O2, NO3- and a trace of NO2- are produced in the water after the plasma exposure. H2O2 concentration decreases when NO3- concentration increases, so that this is likely that OH radical to produce H2O2 by OH + OH -->H2O2 is consumed in the NO3- production by NO2 + OH --> HNO3 --> NO3-+ H+ (in water). Since no species is detected in water by the sparging of the PB-DBD off-gas containing more than 1000 ppm of O3, O3 does not contribute to produce H2O2 in water. Further, only NO3- is produced by the sparging of the off-gas containing N2O5 and HNO3. This leads that H2O2 and NO2- can be produced by short-lifetime species in plasma. In this work, the highest generation efficiency of H2O2 and NO2- are respectively 3,820 μg/Wh and 830 μg/Wh by the pulsed-plasma exposure, and that of NO3- is 2,530 μg/Wh by the off-gas sparging of the PB-DBD.

  10. Removal of gas-phase ammonia and hydrogen sulfide using photocatalysis, nonthermal plasma, and combined plasma and photocatalysis at pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxime, Guillerm; Amine, Assadi Aymen; Abdelkrim, Bouzaza; Dominique, Wolbert

    2014-11-01

    This study focuses on the removal of gas-phase ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in a continuous reactor. Photocatalysis and surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) plasma are studied separately and combined. Though the removal of volatile organic compounds by coupling plasma and photocatalysis has been reported on a number of studies in laboratory scale, this is as far as we know the first time that it is used to remove inorganic malodorous pollutants. While each separate process is able to degrade ammonia and hydrogen sulfide, a synergetic effect appears when they are combined at a pilot scale, leading to removal capacity higher than the sum of each separate process. The removal capacity is higher when the gas circulates at a higher flow rate and when pollutant concentration is higher. The presence of water vapor in the gas is detrimental to the efficiency of the process. Operating conditions also influence the production of nitrogen oxides and ozone.

  11. Synthesis of carbon nanotubes by plasma-enhanced CVD process: gas phase study of synthesis conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Guláš, Michal; Cojocaru, Costel Sorin; Fleaca, Claudiu; Farhat, Samir; Veis, Pavel; Le Normand, Francois

    2008-01-01

    International audience; To support experimental investigations, a model based on ChemkinTM software was used to simulate gas phase and surface chemistry during plasma-enhanced catalytic CVD of carbon nanotubes. According to these calculations, gas phase composition, etching process and growth rates are calculated. The role of several carbon species, hydrocarbon molecules and ions in the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes is presented in this study. Study of different conditions of gas phase ...

  12. Synthesis of carbon nanbotubes by plasma-enhanced CVD process: gas phase study of synthesis conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guláš, M.; Cojocaru, C. S.; Fleaca, C. T.; Farhat, S.; Veis, P.; Le Normand, F.

    2008-09-01

    To support experimental investigations, a model based on Chemkin^TM software was used to simulate gas phase and surface chemistry during plasma-enhanced catalytic CVD of carbon nanotubes. According to these calculations, gas phase composition, etching process and growth rates are calculated. The role of several carbon species, hydrocarbon molecules and ions in the growth mechanism of carbon nanotubes is presented in this study. Study of different conditions of gas phase activation sources and pressure is performed.

  13. Ionization cross section for a strongly coupled partially ionized hydrogen plasma: variable phase approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baimbetov, F B; Kudyshev, Z A [Department of Physics, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: Fazylhan.Baimbetov@kaznu.kz, E-mail: Z.Kudyshev@mail.ru

    2009-05-29

    In the present work an electron impact ionization cross section is considered. The electron impact ionization cross section is calculated with the help of a variable phase approach to potential scattering. The Calogero equation is numerically solved, based on a pseudopotential model of interaction between partially ionized plasma particles, which accounts for correlation effects. As a result, scattering phase shifts are obtained. On the basis of the scattering phase shifts, the ionization cross section is calculated.

  14. Examining the Potential of Plasma-Assisted Pretreated Wheat Straw for Enzyme Production by Trichoderma reesei

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodríguez Gómez, Divanery; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Schultz-Jensen, Nadja

    2012-01-01

    Plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw was investigated for cellulase and xylanase production by Trichoderma reesei fermentation. Fermentations were conducted with media containing washed and unwashed plasma-assisted pretreated wheat straw as carbon source which was sterilized by autoclavation...

  15. Physics of Phase Space Matching for Staging Plasma and Traditional Accelerator Components Using Longitudinally Tailored Plasma Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, X L; Hua, J F; Wu, Y P; Zhang, C J; Li, F; Wan, Y; Pai, C-H; Lu, W; An, W; Yu, P; Hogan, M J; Joshi, C; Mori, W B

    2016-03-25

    Phase space matching between two plasma-based accelerator (PBA) stages and between a PBA and a traditional accelerator component is a critical issue for emittance preservation. The drastic differences of the transverse focusing strengths as the beam propagates between stages and components may lead to a catastrophic emittance growth even when there is a small energy spread. We propose using the linear focusing forces from nonlinear wakes in longitudinally tailored plasma density profiles to control phase space matching between sections with negligible emittance growth. Several profiles are considered and theoretical analysis and particle-in-cell simulations show how these structures may work in four different scenarios. Good agreement between theory and simulation is obtained, and it is found that the adiabatic approximation misses important physics even for long profiles.

  16. Phase Transitions in a Dusty Plasma with Two Distinct Particle Sizes

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, B; Matthews, L; Reay, J; Cook, M; Schmoke, J

    2005-01-01

    In semiconductor manufacturing, contamination due to particulates significantly decreases the yield and quality of device fabrication, therefore increasing the cost of production. Dust particle clouds can be found in almost all plasma processing environments including both plasma etching devices and in plasma deposition processes. Dust particles suspended within such plasmas will acquire an electric charge from collisions with free electrons in the plasma. If the ratio of inter-particle potential energy to the average kinetic energy is sufficient, the particles will form either a liquid structure with short range ordering or a crystalline structure with long range ordering. Otherwise, the dust particle system will remain in a gaseous state. Many experiments have been conducted over the past decade on such colloidal plasmas to discover the character of the systems formed, but more work is needed to fully understand these structures. The preponderance of previous experiments used monodisperse spheres to form co...

  17. Thermal imaging of plasma with a phased array antenna in QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Kishore, E-mail: mishra@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Nagata, K.; Akimoto, R.; Banerjee, S. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Idei, H.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Hasegawa, M.; Nakamura, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Onchi, T.; Kuzmin, A. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Yamamoto, M. K. [Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji 611-0011 (Japan)

    2014-11-15

    A thermal imaging system to measure plasma Electron Bernstein Emission (EBE) emanating from the mode conversion region in overdense plasma is discussed. Unlike conventional ECE/EBE imaging, this diagnostics does not employ any active mechanical scanning mirrors or focusing optics to scan for the emission cones in plasma. Instead, a standard 3 × 3 waveguide array antenna is used as a passive receiver to collect emission from plasma and imaging reconstruction is done by accurate measurements of phase and intensity of these signals by heterodyne detection technique. A broadband noise source simulating the EBE, is installed near the expected mode conversion region and its position is successfully reconstructed using phase array technique which is done in post processing.

  18. Nanosize stabilization of cubic and tetragonal phases in reactive plasma synthesized zirconia powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayakumar, S., E-mail: sjayakumar.physics@gmail.com [Research and Development Centre, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 014 (India); Department of Physics, Pollachi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Pollachi 642 205 (India); Ananthapadmanabhan, P.V.; Thiyagarajan, T.K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Perumal, K. [Vision for Wisdom, Temple of Consciousness, Aliyar 642 101 (India); Mishra, S.C. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engg, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008 (India); Suresh, G. [Department of Physics, Park College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore 641 659 (India); Su, L.T.; Tok, A.I.Y. [School of Materials Science and Engg, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639 798 (Singapore)

    2013-06-15

    Pure zirconium oxide powders with particle size 2–33 nm are synthesized by reactive plasma processing. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of these particles revealed size dependent behavior for their phase stabilization. The monoclinic phase is found to be stable when particle size is ≥20 nm; Tetragonal is found to be stabilized in the range of 7–20 nm and as the particle size decreases to 6 nm and less, the cubic phase is stabilized. - Highlights: ► Direct conversion of micron-sized zirconium hydride powder to single crystal ZrO{sub 2} nanopowder. ► Size dependent stabilization of cubic, tetragonal and monoclinic phases in the reactive plasma synthesized ZrO{sub 2} nanopowder. ► Transmission electron microscopic investigation to identify particles of different sizes and their corresponding phase structure.

  19. Method for breast cancer diagnosis by phase spectrophotometry of human blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintser, Ozar P.; Oliinychenko, B. P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of breast cancer diagnostics by means of phase structure measurements of laser radiation transformed by human blood plasma samples. The theoretical fundamentals of polarization filtration method for direct phase shifts measurements of microscopic images are provided. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma proteins is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in the mammary gland tissue. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

  20. Simulation of plasma discharge in liquids: A detailed two-phase fluid approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charchi Aghdam, Ali; Farouk, Tanvir; Reacting Systems; Advanced Energy Research Laboratory Team

    2015-09-01

    Plasma discharge in liquids has gained great attention recently due to its applications in biomedical engineering, fuel processing, and water treatment and so on. Despite the tremendous interest, a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physics still remains limited. In the current work, an attempt is made to present a mathematical multi-physics model to describe the discharge of plasma in liquids. An in-house modeling platform is developed for simulating plasma formation in multiphase fluids. The model resolves a detailed two-phase fluid including viscous effects, surface tension, gravitational forces and electrical body force. All the governing equations are solved for gas and liquid phases. Electric field and charged species equations along with the plasma reaction kinetics are solved to get the charge distribution in the different phases as well as at the gas-liquid interface to obtain the electric body force acting at the interface. By coupling the above sub-models, a comprehensive multi-physics model for plasma discharge in liquids is constructed which is able to capture several physical aspects of the phenomena especially the role of the bubble, its motion and distortion on plasma characteristics.

  1. Lifshitz holography and the phases of the anisotropic plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Roychowdhury, Dibakar

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, based on the method of scalar perturbations, we construct the \\textit{anisotropic} charged Lifshitz background perturbatively upto leading order in the anisotropy. As a next step of our analysis, we explore the consequences of this anisotropy on the holographic charge diffusion rates as well as on the superfluid condensation operator corresponding to the anisotropic plasma in the limit of the strong coupling. We observe that in the presence of the anisotropy, the DC conductivities along the two spatial directions of the brane differ significantly at any intermediate point in between the holographic RG flow. On the other hand, they turn out to be exactly identical at the UV fixed point of the theory. However, such differences go away smoothly in the limit of the vanishing anisotropy.

  2. Cryogenic pellet production developments for long-pulse plasma operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meitner, S. J.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Fehling, D. T.; McGill, J. M.; Duckworth, R. C.; McGinnis, W. D.; Rasmussen, D. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1Bethel Valley Rd Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Long pulse plasma operation on large magnetic fusion devices require multiple forms of cryogenically formed pellets for plasma fueling, on-demand edge localized mode (ELM) triggering, radiative cooling of the divertor, and impurity transport studies. The solid deuterium fueling and ELM triggering pellets can be formed by extrusions created by helium cooled, twin-screw extruder based injection system that freezes deuterium in the screw section. A solenoid actuated cutter mechanism is activated to cut the pellets from the extrusion, inserting them into the barrel, and then fired by the pneumatic valve pulse of high pressure gas. Fuel pellets are injected at a rate up to 10 Hz, and ELM triggering pellets are injected at rates up to 20 Hz. The radiative cooling and impurity transport study pellets are produced by introducing impurity gas into a helium cooled section of a pipe gun where it deposits in-situ. A pneumatic valve is opened and propellant gas is released downstream where it encounters a passive punch which initially accelerates the pellet before the gas flow around the finishes the pellet acceleration. This paper discusses the various cryogenic pellet production techniques based on the twin-screw extruder, pipe gun, and pellet punch designs.

  3. Radical electronic transformation of strongly coupled plasma at megabar pressure ionization, dielectrization and phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, Vladimir

    2007-06-01

    The work presents new results of investigation of pressure and temperature ionization of coupled nonideal plasmas generated as a result of multiple shock compression of metals, H2, He, noble gases, S, I, fullerene C60, H2O in the megabar pressure range. The highly time-resolved diagnostics permit us to measure thermodynamical, radiative and mechanical properties of high pressure condensed matter in a broad region of the phase diagram. This data in combination with exploding wire conductivity measurements demonstrate an ionization rate increase up to ten orders of magnitude as a result of compression of degenerate plasmas at p 104-107 bars. Shock compression of H2, Ar, He, Kr, Ne, Xe in initially gaseous and cryogenic liquid state allows measuring the electrical conductivity, Hall effect parameters, equation of state, and emission spectra of strongly nonideal plasma. Thermal and pressure ionization of strongly coupled states of matter is the most prominent effects under the experimental conditions. It was shown that plasma compression strongly deforms the ionization potentials, emission spectra and scattering cross-sections of the neutrals and ions in the strongly coupled plasmas. In contrast to the plasma compression the multiple shock compression of solid Li, Na, Ca shows ``dielectrization'' of the elements. Phase transitions in strongly nonideal plasmas are discussed.

  4. Gas phase microreaction: nanomaterials synthesis via plasma exposure of liquid droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Paul; Mahony, Charles; Kelsey, Colin; Hamilton, Neil; Askari, Sadegh; Macias-Montero, Manuel; Diver, Declan; Mariotti, Davide

    2015-09-01

    Plasma-liquid interactions are complex but offer considerable scope for use in nanomaterials synthesis. The introduction of individual picolitre micro-droplets into a steady-state low temperature plasma at atmospheric pressure, offers opportunities for enhanced scope and control of plasma-liquid chemistry and material properties. The gas-phase micro-reactor is similar in concept to liquid bubble microfluidics currently under intense research but with enhanced opportunities for scale-up. For nanomaterials and quantum dot synthesis, the addition of a liquid phase within the plasma expands considerably the scope for core-shell and alloy formation. The synthesis and encapsulation within a liquid droplet allows continuous delivery of nanoparticles to remote sites for plasma medicine, device fabrication or surface coating. We have synthesized Au nanoparticles in flight using AuHCl4 droplets with plasma flight times <0.1 ms. Also, Ag nanoparticles have been synthesized downstream via the delivery of plasma exposed water droplets onto AgNO3 laden substrates. Funding from EPSRC acknowledged (Grants EP/K006088/1 and EP/K006142/1).

  5. Non-equilibrium quantum plasmas in scalar QED photon production, magnetic and Debye masses and conductivity

    CERN Document Server

    Boyanovsky, D; Simionato, M

    2000-01-01

    We study the generation of a non-equilibrium plasma in scalar QED with N charged scalar fields through spinodal instabilities in the case of a super cooled second order phase transition and parametric amplification when the order parameter oscillates with large amplitude around the minimum of the potential.The focus is to study the non-equilibrium electromagnetic properties of the plasma, such as photon production, electric and magnetic screening and conductivity. A novel kinetic equation is introduced to compute photon production far away from equilibrium in the large N limit and lowest order in the electromagnetic coupling.During the early stages of the dynamics the photon density grows exponentially and asymptotically the amplitude and frequency distribution becomes \\sim alpha m^2/[lambda^2 ømega^3] with lambda the scalar self-coupling and m the scalar mass.In the case of a phase transition,electric and magnetic fields are correlated on distances xi(t) \\sim sqrt{t} during the early stages and the power sp...

  6. Phase locking of multi-helicity neoclassical tearing modes in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzpatrick, Richard [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The attractive “hybrid” tokamak scenario combines comparatively high q{sub 95} operation with improved confinement compared with the conventional H{sub 98,y2} scaling law. Somewhat unusually, hybrid discharges often exhibit multiple neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) possessing different mode numbers. The various NTMs are eventually observed to phase lock to one another, giving rise to a significant flattening, or even an inversion, of the core toroidal plasma rotation profile. This behavior is highly undesirable because the loss of core plasma rotation is known to have a deleterious effect on plasma stability. This paper presents a simple, single-fluid, cylindrical model of the phase locking of two NTMs with different poloidal and toroidal mode numbers in a tokamak plasma. Such locking takes place via a combination of nonlinear three-wave coupling and conventional toroidal coupling. In accordance with experimental observations, the model predicts that there is a bifurcation to a phase-locked state when the frequency mismatch between the modes is reduced to one half of its original value. In further accordance, the phase-locked state is characterized by the permanent alignment of one of the X-points of NTM island chains on the outboard mid-plane of the plasma, and a modified toroidal angular velocity profile, interior to the outermost coupled rational surface, which is such that the core rotation is flattened, or even inverted.

  7. Chinese plasma-derived products supply under the lot release management system in 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuejun; Ye, Shengliang; Du, Xi; Yuan, Jing; Zhao, Chaoming; Li, Changqing

    2013-11-01

    In 2007, the Chinese State Food and Drug Administration (SFDA) implemented a management system for lot release of all plasma-derived products. Since then, there have been only a few systematic studies of the blood supply, which is a concern when considering the small amount of plasma collected per capita (approximately 3 L/1000 people). As a result, there may be a threat to the safety of the available blood supply. In this study, we examined the characteristics of the supply of Chinese plasma-derived products. We investigated the reports of lot-released biological products derived from all 8 national or regional regulatory authorities in China from 2007 to 2011. The market supply characteristics of Chinese plasma-derived products were analyzed by reviewing the changes in supply varieties, the batches of lot-released plasma-derived products and the actual supply. As a result, the national regulatory authorities can more accurately develop a specific understanding of the production and quality management information provided by Chinese plasma product manufacturers. The implementation of the lot release system further ensures the clinical validity of the plasma-derived products in China and improves the safety of using plasma-derived products. This work provides an assessment of the future Chinese market supply of plasma-derived products and can function as a theoretical basis for the establishment of hemovigilance. Copyright © 2013 The International Alliance for Biological Standardization. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Plasma quench production of titanium from titanium tetrachloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sears, J.W.

    1994-10-01

    This project, Plasma Quench Production of Titanium from Titanium Tetrachloride, centers on developing a technique for rapidly quenching the high temperature metal species and preventing back reactions with the halide. The quenching technique chosen uses the temperature drop produced in a converging/diverging supersonic nozzle. The rapid quench provided by this nozzle prevents the back reaction of the halide and metal. The nature of the process produces nanosized particles (10 to 100 nm). The powders are collected by cyclone separators, the hydrogen flared, and the acid scrubbed. Aluminum and titanium powders have been produced in the laboratory-scale device at 1 gram per hour. Efforts to date to scale up this process have not been successful.

  9. Optical image encryption using Kronecker product and hybrid phase masks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ravi; Bhaduri, Basanta

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a new technique for security enhancement in optical image encryption system. In this technique we have used the Kronecker product of two random matrices along with the double random phase encoding (DRPE) scheme in the Fresnel domain for optical image encryption. The phase masks used here are different than the random masks used in conventional DRPE scheme. These hybrid phase masks are generated by using the combination of random phase masks and a secondary image. For encryption, the input image is first randomized and then the DRPE in the Fresnel domain is performed using the hybrid phase masks. Secondly, the Kronecker product of two random matrices is multiplied with the DRPE output to get the final encoded image for transmission. The proposed technique consists of more unknown keys for enhanced security and robust against various attacks. The simulation results along with effects under various attacks are presented in support of the proposed technique.

  10. The Main Plasma Chemical Process of Nitric Oxide Production by Arc Discharge%The Main Plasma Chemical Process of Nitric Oxide Production by Arc Discharge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨旗; 胡辉; 陈卫鹏; 许杰; 张锦丽; 吴双

    2011-01-01

    By adopting the optical multi-channel analyzer combined with fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, the dominant free radicals and products generated by arc discharge were measured and studied, and the main plasma chemical reaction process in the nitric oxide production by arc discharge was identified. Plasma chemical kinetic curves of O, O2, N2, N and NO were simulated by using CHEMKIN and MATLAB. The results show that the main plasma chemical reaction process of nitric oxide production by arc discharge is a replacement reaction between O and N2, where NO can be generated instantaneously when discharging reaches stable.

  11. Production of field-reversed mirror plasma with a coaxial plasma gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, C.W.; Shearer, J.W.

    The use of a coaxial plasma gun to produce a plasma ring which is directed into a magnetic field so as to form a field-reversed plasma confined in a magnetic mirror. Plasma thus produced may be used as a target for subsequent neutral beam injection or other similarly produced and projected plasma rings or for direct fusion energy release in a pulsed mode.

  12. Sentinel-1A Product Geolocation Accuracy: Commissioning Phase Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Schubert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Sentinel-1A (S1A is an Earth observation satellite carrying a state-of-the-art Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR imaging instrument. It was launched by the European Space Agency (ESA on 3 April 2014. With the end of the in-orbit commissioning phase having been completed at the end of September 2014, S1A data products are already consistently providing highly accurate geolocation. StripMap (SM mode products were acquired regularly and tested for geolocation accuracy and consistency during dedicated corner reflector (CR campaigns. At the completion of this phase, small geometric inconsistencies had been understood and mitigated, with the high quality of the final product geolocation estimates reflecting the mission’s success thus far. This paper describes the measurement campaign, the methods used during geolocation estimation, and presents best estimates of the product Absolute Location Error (ALE available at the beginning of S1A’s operational phase.

  13. Modelling production system architectures in the early phases of product development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guðlaugsson, Tómas Vignir; Martin Ravn, Poul; Mortensen, Niels Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    on – leading to an improved basis for prioritizing activities in the project. Requirements for the contents of the framework are presented, and literature on production and system models is reviewed. The production system architecture modelling framework is founded on methods and approaches in literature......This article suggests a framework for modelling a production system architecture in the early phases of product development.The challenge in these phases is that the products to be produced are not completely defined and yet decisions need to be made early in the process on what investments...... and adjusted to fit the modelling requirements of a production system architecture at an early phase of development. The production system architecture models capture and describe the structure, capabilities and expansions of the production system architecture underdevelopment. The production system...

  14. Transient ejection phase modeling of a Plasma Synthetic Jet actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurendeau, F.; Chedevergne, F.; Casalis, G.

    2014-12-01

    For several years, a promising Plasma Synthetic Jet actuator for high-speed flow control has been under development at ONERA. So far, its confined geometry and small space-time scales at play have prevented its full experimental characterization. Complementary accurate numerical simulations are then considered in this study in order to provide a complete aerothermodynamic description of the actuator. Two major obstacles have to be overcome with this approach: the modeling of the energy deposited by the electric arc and the accurate computation of the transient response of the cavity generating the pulsed jet. To solve the first problem, an Euler solver coupled with an electric circuit model was used to evaluate the energy deposition in the cavity. Such a coupling is performed by considering the electric field between the two electrodes. The second issue was then addressed by injecting these source terms in large Eddy simulations of the entire actuator. Aerodynamic results were finally compared with Schlieren visualizations. Using the proposed methodology, the temporal evolution of the jet front is remarkably well predicted.

  15. Phase Retrieval Algorithm for Form Testing Metrology in Production Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan Stuerwald

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Form testing interferometry permits a fast, non-tactile and full- field quantitative phase imaging of components in ultra precise manufacturing. To reduce the influence of vibrations under manufacturing conditions, it is most common to use the FT- based spatial carrier phase measurement technique (SCPM which requires only a single interferogram recording. The utilization of a generalized, relatively new spatial phase-shifting method operating in the position space opens up prospects for reduced phase noise and less reconstruction errors of the calculated phase-map under production conditions. Therefore this phase-shifting technique is investigated for applicability in machine integrated interferometric form testing of optical lenses. A characterization of the algorithm and a comparison with the commonly used FT-based algorithm is performed. As a reference, measurements are carried out with a coordinate measuring machine with nanometre accuracy.

  16. Characterization of phase transformation and microstructure of nano hard phase Ti(C,N)-based cermet by spark plasma sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰平; 熊惟皓; 李鹏; 余新; 夏阳华

    2004-01-01

    By means of optical microscope (OM), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), the process of densification, the characterization of phase transformation and the microstructure for spark plasma sintering (SPS) nano hard phase Ti(C,N)-based cermet were investigated. It is found that the spark plasma sintering (SPS) enables the nano hard phase Ti(C,N)-based cermet to densify rapidly, however, the full densification of the sintered samples can not be obtained. The rate of phase transformation is significantly quick.When being sintered at 1 200 ℃ for 8 min, Mo2C is completely dissolved, and TiN dissolves into TiC entirely and disappears. Above 1 200 ℃, Ti(C,N) begins to decompose and the atoms of C and N separate from Ti(C,N) resulting in the generation of N2 and the graphite. Due to the denitrification and the graphitization, the density and the hardness of sintered samples are rather low. The distribution of grain size of the sample sintered at 1 350 ℃ covers a wide range of 90 - 500 nm, and most of the grain size are about 200 nm. The hard phase is not of typical core-rim structure. Oxides on the surface of particles can not be fully removed and present in sample as titanium oxide TiO2.Graphite exists in band-like shape.

  17. Phase locking of wind turbines leads to intermittent power production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anvari, M.; Wächter, M.; Peinke, J.

    2016-12-01

    Wind energy, inserted into the power grid by wind turbines, is strongly influenced by the turbulent fluctuations of wind speed in the atmospheric layer. Here we investigate the power production of a wind farm and show that due to the presence of large-scale and long-time correlation in wind velocity, turbines interact with each other. This interaction can result in phase locking in pairs of turbines. We show that there are time intervals during which some pairs of turbines are temporally phase locked. This intermediate phase locking leads to the statistical effect that the short-time fluctuations of the cumulative power output of the wind farm become non-Gaussian, i.e., intermittent power production occurs. Contrary to phase-locked states, there are some time intervals where all turbines are phase unlocking and consequently the probability density function of the temporal increment of cumulative power production of the wind farm has almost Gaussian distribution. The phase-locked states, which can be distinct from phase-unlocked states by their dynamical features, are evaluated by reconstructed stochastic differential equations.

  18. Phase Separation of Binary Charged Particle Systems with Small Size Disparities using a Dusty Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killer, Carsten; Bockwoldt, Tim; Schütt, Stefan; Himpel, Michael; Melzer, André; Piel, Alexander

    2016-03-18

    The phase separation in binary mixtures of charged particles has been investigated in a dusty plasma under microgravity on parabolic flights. A method based on the use of fluorescent dust particles was developed that allows us to distinguish between particles of slightly different size. A clear trend towards phase separation even for smallest size (charge) disparities is observed. The diffusion flux is directly measured from the experiment and uphill diffusion coefficients have been determined.

  19. Features of Hypothetical Plasma Phase Transition in Interiors of Saturn and Jupiter

    CERN Document Server

    Ukrainets, Artem

    2013-01-01

    Anomalous features for hypothetical Plasma Phase Transitions (PPT), which is expected to occur in mixed hydrogen-helium plasma in interior of Jupiter and Saturn, are under discussion. The characteristics of the Coulomb and density corrections (the so-called non-ideality corrections) are reconstructed for hydrogen-helium plasma in the vicinity of phase coexistence boundary of this PPT in version of Saumon and Chabrier, using tabular data for hydrogen-helium EOS of Saumon, Chabrier and VanHorn and some general thermodynamic relations. Two previously unknown characteristics of the studied PPT have been estimated based on these results: (i) -- the jump of the electrostatic potential across the phase boundary of PPT (Galvani potential), and (ii) -- the scale of non-congruency for this PPT (the differences in chemical composition of the coexisting hydrogen-helium phases), which could be expected in H2/He mixture at typical parameters of plasma in interior of Jupiter and Saturn. While the first effect -- the potenti...

  20. Phase formation in selected surface-roughened plasma-nitrided 304 austenite stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajendra Prasad Singh et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct current (DC glow discharge plasma nitriding was carried out on three selected surface-roughened AISI 304 stainless steel samples at 833 K under 4 mbar pressures for 24 h in the presence of N2:H2 gas mixtures of 50 : 50 ratios. After plasma nitriding, the phase formation, case depth, surface roughness, and microhardness of a plasma-nitrided layer were evaluated by glancing angle x-ray diffractogram, optical microscope, stylus profilometer, and Vickers microhardness tester techniques. The case depth, surface hardness, and phase formation variations were observed with a variation in initial surface roughness. The diffraction patterns of the plasma-nitrided samples showed the modified intensities of the α and γ phases along with those of the CrN, Fe4N, and Fe3N phases. Hardness and case depth variations were observed with a variation in surface roughness. A maximum hardness of 1058 Hv and a case depth of 95 μm were achieved in least surface-roughened samples.

  1. Gas-to-liquids process using multi-phase flow, non-thermal plasma microreactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agiral, Anil; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Nakase, Masahiko; Yuzawa, Shuhei; Okazaki, Ken; Gardeniers, J.G.E. (Han)

    2011-01-01

    A multi-phase flow non-thermal plasma microreactor based on dielectric barrier discharge has been developed for partial oxidation of methane to liquid oxygenates at atmospheric pressure. A pulsed water injection method has been used to remove condensable liquid components from the active discharge r

  2. Phase formation in selected surface-roughened plasma-nitrided 304 austenite stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gajendra Prasad; Joseph, Alphonsa; Raole, Prakash Manohar; Barhai, Prema Kanta; Mukherjee, Subroto

    2008-04-01

    Direct current (DC) glow discharge plasma nitriding was carried out on three selected surface-roughened AISI 304 stainless steel samples at 833 K under 4 mbar pressures for 24 h in the presence of N2:H2 gas mixtures of 50 : 50 ratios. After plasma nitriding, the phase formation, case depth, surface roughness, and microhardness of a plasma-nitrided layer were evaluated by glancing angle x-ray diffractogram, optical microscope, stylus profilometer, and Vickers microhardness tester techniques. The case depth, surface hardness, and phase formation variations were observed with a variation in initial surface roughness. The diffraction patterns of the plasma-nitrided samples showed the modified intensities of the α and γ phases along with those of the CrN, Fe4N, and Fe3N phases. Hardness and case depth variations were observed with a variation in surface roughness. A maximum hardness of 1058 Hv and a case depth of 95 μm were achieved in least surface-roughened samples.

  3. Stability of polyphenols in chokeberry juice treated with gas phase plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać Kovačević, Danijela; Gajdoš Kljusurić, Jasenka; Putnik, Predrag; Vukušić, Tomislava; Herceg, Zoran; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-12-01

    Chokeberry juice was subjected to cold atmospheric gas phase plasma and changes in hydroxycinnamic acids, flavonols and anthocyanins were monitored. Plasma treatments were carried out under different treatment times and juice volumes under constant gas flow (0.75dm(3)min(-1)). The results were compared against control (untreated) and pasteurized chokeberry juice (80°C/2min). During pasteurization, the most unstable were hydroxycinnamic acids with losses of up to 59%, while flavonols and anthocyanins increased by 5% and 9%, respectively. On the contrary, plasma treated chokeberry juice showed higher concentrations of hydroxycinnamic acids and 23% loss of anthocyanins in comparison to untreated juice. In order to obtain the optimal cold plasma treatment parameters principal component and sensitivity analysis were used. Such parameters can be potentially used for pasteurization in terms of phenolic stability of chokeberry juice. Optimal treatment was at 4.1min and sample volume of 3cm(3). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple phase estimation in digital holographic interferometry using product cubic phase function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh; Rastogi, Pramod

    2013-10-01

    Digital holographic interferometry (DHI) involves multi-directional illumination of an object to measure the in-plane and out-of plane displacements simultaneously. This results in multiple interference phases which have to be reliably estimated. The paper proposes a method where the interference field is represented as sum of multicomponent quadratic phase signal. Subsequently, product cubic phase function (PCPF) is used to estimate the quadratic coefficients. Using these coefficients multiple interference phases are estimated. The applicability of this method in DHI is demonstrated with simulation results.

  5. Production of stable isotopes utilizing the plasma separation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, T. S.; Tarallo, F. J.; Stevenson, N. R.

    2005-12-01

    A plasma separation process (PSP) is being operated at Theragenics Corporation's®, Oak Ridge, TN, facility for the enrichment of stable isotopes. The PSP utilizes ion cyclotron mass discrimination to separate isotopes on a relatively large scale. With a few exceptions, nearly any metallic element could be processed with PSP. Output isotope enrichment factor depends on natural abundance and mass separation and can be fairly high in some cases. The Theragenics™ PSP facility is believed to be the only such process currently in operation. This system was developed and formerly operated under the US Department of Energy Advanced Isotope Separation program. Theragenics™ also has a laboratory at the PSP site capable of harvesting the isotopes from the process and a mass spectrometer system for analyzing enrichment and product purity. Since becoming operational in 2002, Theragenics™ has utilized the PSP to separate isotopes of several elements including: dysprosium, erbium, gadolinium, molybdenum and nickel. Currently, Theragenics™ is using the PSP for the separation of 102Pd, which is used as precursor for the production of 103Pd. The 103Pd radioisotope is the active ingredient in TheraSeed®, which is used in the treatment of early stage prostate cancer and being investigated for other medical applications. New industrial, medical and research applications are being investigated for isotopes that can be enriched on the PSP. Pre-enrichment of accelerator or reactor targets offers improved radioisotope production. Theragenics operates 14 cyclotrons for proton activation and has access to HFIR at ORNL for neutron activation of radioisotopes.

  6. Modifying the fatty acid profile of dairy products through feedlot technology lowers plasma cholesterol of humans consuming the products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, M; Nestel, P J; Clifton, P M

    1996-01-01

    Intake of milk and butter has been clearly associated with higher coronary heart disease rates in different countries and this is likely to be mediated by the hypercholesterolemic effect of dairy fat. Fat-modified dairy products are an innovation involving a technology in which protected unsaturated lipids are fed to ruminants resulting in milk and tissue lipids with reduced saturated fatty acids. We examined the impact of these novel dairy fats on plasma lipids in a human dietary trial. Thirty-three men and women participated in an 8-wk randomized crossover trial comparing fat-modified with conventional dairy products. The trial consisted of a 2-wk low-fat baseline period followed by two 3-wk intervention phases. During the test periods, the fat-modified products resulted in a significant 0.28-mmol/L (4.3%) lowering of total cholesterol (P dairy products, if applied to populations typical of developed Western countries, represents a potential strategy to lower the risk of coronary heart disease without any appreciable change in customary eating patterns.

  7. Fast determination of paraquat in plasma and urine samples by solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lina; Liu, Junting; Wang, Chunyuan; Liu, Guojie; Niu, Xiaodong; Shu, Cuixia; Zhu, Juan

    2014-01-01

    A simple, sensitive and reliable gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method (GC-MS) for quantifying paraquat concentration in biological samples has been developed, using ethyl paraquat as an internal standard. The method involved the procedures of sodium borohydride-nickel chloride (NaBH4-NiCl2) reduction and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) of the perhydrogenated products. GC-MS was used to identify and quantify the analytes in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode. Under the optimal conditions, recoveries in plasma and urine samples were 94.00-99.85% and 95.00-100.34%, respectively. Excellent sample clean-up was observed and good linearities (r=0.9982 for plasma sample and 0.9987 for urine sample) were obtained in the range of 0.1-50μg/mL. The limits of detection (S/N=3) were 0.01μg/mL in plasma and urine samples. The intra-day precision was less than 8.43%, 4.19% (n=3), and inter-day precision was less than 10.90%, 10.49% (n=5) for plasma and urine samples, respectively. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of the biological samples collected from a victim who died as a result of ingestion of paraquat.

  8. Formation and interaction of multiple coherent phase space structures in plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakad, Amar; Kakad, Bharati; Omura, Yoshiharu

    2017-06-01

    The head-on collision of multiple counter-propagating coherent phase space structures associated with the ion acoustic solitary waves (IASWs) in plasmas composed of hot electrons and cold ions is studied here by using one-dimensional Particle-in-Cell simulation. The chains of counter-propagating IASWs are generated in the plasma by injecting the Gaussian perturbations in the equilibrium electron and ion densities. The head-on collisions of the counter-propagating electron and ion phase space structures associated with IASWs are allowed by considering the periodic boundary condition in the simulation. Our simulation shows that the phase space structures are less significantly affected by their collision with each other. They emerge out from each other by retaining their characteristics, so that they follow soliton type behavior. We also find that the electrons trapped within these IASW potentials are accelerated, while the ions are decelerated during the course of their collisions.

  9. Direct MD simulation of liquid-solid phase equilibria for two-component plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, A S; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2011-01-01

    We determine the liquid-solid phase diagram for carbon-oxygen plasma mixtures using two-phase MD simulations. We identified liquid, solid, and interface regions using a bond angle metric. To study finite size effects, we perform 55296 ion simulations and compare to earlier 27648 ion results. To help monitor non-equilibrium effects, we calculate diffusion constants $D_i$. We find that $D_O$ for oxygen ions in the solid is much smaller than $D_C$ for carbon ions and that both diffusion constants are 80 or more times smaller than diffusion constants in the liquid phase. There is excellent agreement between our phase diagram and that predicted by Medin and Cumming. This suggests that errors from finite size and non-equilibrium effects are small and that the carbon-oxygen phase diagram is now accurately known.

  10. Development and Integration of a Data Acquisition System for SST-1 Phase-1 Plasma Diagnostics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit K SRIVASTAVA; Manika SHARMA; Imran MANSURI; Atish SHARMA; Tushar RAVAL; Subrata PRADHAN

    2012-01-01

    Long pulse (of the order of 1000 s or more) SST-1 tokamak experiments demand a data acquisition system that is capable of acquiring data from various diagnostics channels without losing useful data (and hence physics information) while avoiding unnecessary generation of a large volume data. SST-1 Phase-1 tokamak operation has been envisaged with data acquisition of several essential diagnostics channels. These channels demand data acquisition at a sampling rate ranging from 1 kilo samples per second (KSPS) to 1 mega samples per second (MSPS). Considering the technical characteristics and requirements of the diagnostics, a data acquisition system based on PXI and CAMAC has been developed for SST-1 plasma diagnostics. Both these data acquisition systems are scalable. Present data acquisition needs involving slow plasma diagnostics are catered by the PXI based data acquisition system. On the other hand, CAMAC data acquisition hardware meets all requirements of the SST-1 Phase-1 fast plasma diagnostics channels. A graphical user interface for both data acquisition systems (PXI and CAMAC) has been developed using LabVIEW application development software. The collected data on the local hard disk are directly streaming to the central server through a dedicated network for post-shot data analysis. This paper describes the development and integration of the data acquisition system for SST-1 Phase-1 plasma diagnostics. The integrated testing of the developed data acquisition system has been performed using SST-1 central control and diagnostics signal conditioning units. In the absence of plasma shots, the integrated testing of the data acquisition system for the initial diagnostics of SST-1 Phase-1 operation has been performed with simulated physical signals. The primary engineering objective of this integrated testing is to validate the performance of the developed data acquisition system under simulated conditions close to that of actual tokamak operation. The data

  11. Influence of Downstream Flow on Conduction Phase of Coaxial Plasma Opening Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiang; WANG Younian

    2008-01-01

    Plasma behaviour and the scaling relations in a coaxial plasma opening switch (POS) using hydrogen plasma are studied self-consistently based on the two-dimensional magnetohydro-dynamic (MHD) equations in conjunction with the generalized Ohm's law. The vacuum region on the right of POS is included in the model and the influence of downstream flow on the conduction characteristics is discussed. It is found that with the penetration of magnetic field, the pure hydro-gen plasma is pushed downstream significantly; and POS still conducts current after the magnetic field arrives at the load edge of POS, which is different from the previous experimental results in a multispecies POS. It is because that the noticeable downstream plasma in the pure hydrogen POS may continue to conduct the current, while in the multispecies POS, the downstream plasma is unimportant so that the conduction phase ends soon after the magnetic field reaches the load edge. The scaling relation obtained from the simulations including the downstream region is consistent with the experimental results.

  12. Blood plasma separation in a long two-phase plug flowing through disposable tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Khan, Zeina S; Vanapalli, Siva A

    2012-12-21

    We report a simple technique to separate plasma from blood in a flowing immiscible plug. We investigate the effect of various control parameters such as blood dilution, injection flow rate, observation time and fluid properties on plasma separation. We find that the technique works best for diluted blood samples at low plug velocities and long observation times. We postulate that the main mechanism responsible for efficient separation is the sedimentation of blood cells in the plug and their subsequent collection by the moving plug causing a significant accumulation of cells at the rear of the plug. We discuss the time scales determining the sedimentation, advection and collection of a blood cell in the immiscible plug and propose a phase diagram that is able to predict the operating space for effective plasma separation. We demonstrate that the technique allows for the extraction of more than 60% of the plasma by volume from 1 μL of diluted blood. We show the practical significance of this method by compartmentalizing the separated plasma into discrete microfluidic droplets and detecting cholesterol. This technique features low consumption of blood (nL-scale) and low shear rate (∼1 s(-1)). It is inexpensive, easy to use, and has the potential to be developed as an efficient point-of-care device for blood diagnostics in resource-poor environments. More advanced applications could also be envisioned by integrating our plasma separation method into existing microfluidic drop manipulation techniques.

  13. Employment, Production and Consumption model: Patterns of phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavička, H.; Lin, L.; Novotný, J.

    2010-04-01

    We have simulated the model of Employment, Production and Consumption (EPC) using Monte Carlo. The EPC model is an agent based model that mimics very basic rules of industrial economy. From the perspective of physics, the nature of the interactions in the EPC model represents multi-agent interactions where the relations among agents follow the key laws for circulation of capital and money. Monte Carlo simulations of the stochastic model reveal phase transition in the model economy. The two phases are the phase with full unemployment and the phase with nearly full employment. The economy switches between these two states suddenly as a reaction to a slight variation in the exogenous parameter, thus the system exhibits strong non-linear behavior as a response to the change of the exogenous parameters.

  14. Plasma adiponectin and endogenous glucose production in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stefan, Norbert; Stumvoll, Michael; Vozarova, Barbora

    2003-01-01

    High plasma adiponectin is associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes, probably a consequence of its insulin-sensitizing properties. In vivo data in rodents suggest that the insulin-sensitization responsible for improvement of glycemia occurs in muscle and liver. Whereas associations of plasma...... adiponectin with muscle insulin sensitivity in humans have been examined, this has not been done for the liver....

  15. Phase mixing versus nonlinear advection in drift-kinetic plasma turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schekochihin, A. A.; Parker, J. T.; Highcock, E. G.; Dellar, P. J.; Dorland, W.; Hammett, G. W.

    2016-04-01

    > A scaling theory of long-wavelength electrostatic turbulence in a magnetised, weakly collisional plasma (e.g. drift-wave turbulence driven by ion temperature gradients) is proposed, with account taken both of the nonlinear advection of the perturbed particle distribution by fluctuating flows and of its phase mixing, which is caused by the streaming of the particles along the mean magnetic field and, in a linear problem, would lead to Landau damping. It is found that it is possible to construct a consistent theory in which very little free energy leaks into high velocity moments of the distribution function, rendering the turbulent cascade in the energetically relevant part of the wavenumber space essentially fluid-like. The velocity-space spectra of free energy expressed in terms of Hermite-moment orders are steep power laws and so the free-energy content of the phase space does not diverge at infinitesimal collisionality (while it does for a linear problem); collisional heating due to long-wavelength perturbations vanishes in this limit (also in contrast with the linear problem, in which it occurs at the finite rate equal to the Landau damping rate). The ability of the free energy to stay in the low velocity moments of the distribution function is facilitated by the `anti-phase-mixing' effect, whose presence in the nonlinear system is due to the stochastic version of the plasma echo (the advecting velocity couples the phase-mixing and anti-phase-mixing perturbations). The partitioning of the wavenumber space between the (energetically dominant) region where this is the case and the region where linear phase mixing wins its competition with nonlinear advection is governed by the `critical balance' between linear and nonlinear time scales (which for high Hermite moments splits into two thresholds, one demarcating the wavenumber region where phase mixing predominates, the other where plasma echo does).

  16. Magnetic Phase Diagram of Dense Holographic Multiquarks in the Quark-gluon Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Burikham, Piyabut

    2011-01-01

    We study phase diagram of the dense holographic gauge matter in the Sakai-Sugimoto model in the presence of the magnetic field above the deconfinement temperature. Even above the deconfinement, quarks could form colour bound states through the remaining strong interaction if the density is large. We demonstrate that in the presence of the magnetic field for a sufficiently large baryon density, the multiquark-pion gradient (MQ-$\\mathcal{5}\\phi$) phase is more thermodynamically preferred than the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma. The phase diagrams between the holographic multiquark and the chiral-symmetric quark-gluon plasma phase are obtained at finite temperature and magnetic field. In the mixed MQ-$\\mathcal{5}\\phi$ phase, the pion gradient induced by the external magnetic field is found to be a linear response for small and moderate field strengths. Its population ratio decreases as the density is raised and thus the multiquarks dominate the phase. Temperature dependence of the baryon chemical potential,...

  17. Effects of the pulse width on the reactive species production and DNA damage in cancer cells exposed to atmospheric pressure microsecond-pulsed helium plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joh, Hea Min; Choi, Ji Ye; Kim, Sun Ja; Kang, Tae Hong; Chung, T. H.

    2017-08-01

    Plasma-liquid and plasma-cell interactions were investigated using an atmospheric pressure dc microsecond-pulsed helium plasma jet. We investigated the effects of the electrical parameters such as applied voltage and pulse width (determined by the pulse frequency and duty ratio) on the production of reactive species in the gas/liquid phases and on the DNA damage responses in the cancer cells. The densities of reactive species including OH radicals were estimated inside the plasma-treated liquids using a chemical probe method, and the nitrite concentration was detected by Griess assay. Importantly, the more concentration of OH resulted in the more DNA base oxidation and breaks in human lung cancer A549 cells. The data are very suggestive that there is strong correlation between the production of OH in the plasmas/liquids and the DNA damage.

  18. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  19. An Investigation on the Microstructure of Multi-phase Composite Coatings Synthesized by Plasma Spraying Self-reaction Composite Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONGYan-chun; YANDian-ran; HeJi-ning; LiXiang-zhi; ZHANGJian-xin; NIUEr-wu

    2004-01-01

    Multi-phase self-reacLion composite (denoted as MPc) coatings containing ceramic and metal multi-phases were fabricated by plasma spraying Fe2O3-Al composite powders. This technology successfully combines self-propagating high-temperature synthesis with plasma spraying. The morphology of the composite powders was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The phase composition and microstructure of the composite coating are studied.

  20. An Investigation on the Microstructure of Multi-phase Composite Coatings Synthesized by Plasma Spraying Self-reaction Composite Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Yan-chun; YAN Dian-ran; HE Ji-ning; LI Xiang-zhi; ZHANG Jian-xin; NIU Er-wu

    2004-01-01

    Multi-phase self-reaction composite (denoted as MPc) coatings containing ceramic and metal multi-phases were fabricated by plasma spraying Fe2O3-Al composite powders. This technology successfully combines self-propagating high-temperature synthesis with plasma spraying. The morphology of the composite powders was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The phase composition and microstructure of the composite coating are studied.

  1. Composite ion-plasma coatings with nanodisperse reinforced phase: scientific and practical aspects of synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzhozovskii, B.; Martynov, V.; Zinina, E.; Brovkova, M.

    2016-02-01

    The article describes the main aspects of the synthesis of composite coatings in the surface layer of figurine-shaped product using low-temperature plasma of combined discharge. The example of cutting tools shows the benefits of using the coatings in extreme conditions that occur in machining of materials by cutting.

  2. Plasma transport properties at the L-H transition and high performance phase of JET discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balet, B.; Cordey, J.G.; Erba, M.; Jones, T.T.C.; Lomas, P.J.; Smeulders, P.; Springmann, E.M.; Stubberfield, P.M.; Taroni, A.; Thomsen, K. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Parail, V.V. [Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1994-07-01

    Numerical analysis are performed which show that both electron and ion thermal diffusivities are reduced by one order of magnitude everywhere, not only in a narrow region near separatrix during the L-H transition. There is no separate H-VH transition on JET, this transition coincides with the cessation of ELMs. In the ELM free phase ion transport in the core is close to its neoclassical value, but probably rises towards plasma edge (however still remaining much less than it was in L-mode). The best agreement with experiment is obtained with the model which simultaneously takes into account both the global reduction of Bohm type anomalous transport in plasma core and formation of temperature pedestal near plasma edge. (authors). 6 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Control of magnetohydrodynamic stability by phase space engineering of energetic ions in tokamak plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, J P; Chapman, I T; Coda, S; Lennholm, M; Albergante, M; Jucker, M

    2012-01-10

    Virtually collisionless magnetic mirror-trapped energetic ion populations often partially stabilize internally driven magnetohydrodynamic disturbances in the magnetosphere and in toroidal laboratory plasma devices such as the tokamak. This results in less frequent but dangerously enlarged plasma reorganization. Unique to the toroidal magnetic configuration are confined 'circulating' energetic particles that are not mirror trapped. Here we show that a newly discovered effect from hybrid kinetic-magnetohydrodynamic theory has been exploited in sophisticated phase space engineering techniques for controlling stability in the tokamak. These theoretical predictions have been confirmed, and the technique successfully applied in the Joint European Torus. Manipulation of auxiliary ion heating systems can create an asymmetry in the distribution of energetic circulating ions in the velocity orientated along magnetic field lines. We show the first experiments in which large sawtooth collapses have been controlled by this technique, and neoclassical tearing modes avoided, in high-performance reactor-relevant plasmas.

  4. Modeling of plasma jet production from rail and coaxial guns for imploding plasma liner formation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. J.; Faehl, R. J.; Kirikpatrick, R. C.; Witherspoon, D.; Cassibry, J.

    2010-11-01

    We study the generation of plasma jets for forming imploding plasma liners using an enhanced version of the ePLAS implicit/hybrid model.^1 Typically, the jets are partially ionized D or Ar gases, in initial 3-10 cm long slugs at 10^16-10^18 electron/cm^3, accelerated for microseconds along 15-30 cm rail or coaxial guns with a 1 cm inter-electrode gap and driven by magnetic fields of a few Tesla. We re-examine the B-field penetration mechanisms that can be active in such wall-connected plasmas,^2 including erosion and EMHD influences, which can subsequently impact plasma liner formation and implosion. For the background and emitted plasma components we discuss optimized PIC and fluid modeling techniques, and the use of implicit fields and hybridized electrons to speed simulation. The plasmas are relatively cold (˜3 eV), so results with fixed atomic Z are compared to those from a simple analytic EOS, and allowing radiative heat loss from the plasma. The use of PIC ions is explored to extract large mean-free-path kinetic effects. 1. R. J. Mason and C. Cranfill, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. PS-14, 45 (1986) 2. R. Mason, et al., Phys. Fluids B, 5, 1115 (1993). [4pt] *Research supported in part by USDOE Grant DE-SC0004207.

  5. Threshold for plasma phase transition of aluminum single crystal induced by hypervelocity impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Qingming, E-mail: qmzhang@bit.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Explosion Science and Technology, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Molecular dynamics method is used to study the threshold for plasma phase transition of aluminum single crystal induced by hypervelocity impact. Two effective simulation methods, piston-driven method and multi-scale shock technique, are used to simulate the shock wave. The simulation results from the two methods agree well with the experimental data, indicating that the shock wave velocity is linearly dependent on the particle velocity. The atom is considered to be ionized if the increase of its internal energy is larger than the first ionization energy. The critical impact velocity for plasma phase transition is about 13.0 km/s, corresponding to the threshold of pressure and temperature which is about 220 GPa and 11.0 × 10{sup 3 }K on the shock Hugoniot, respectively.

  6. Hydrogen production by plasma electrolysis reactor of KOH-ethanol solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksono, N.; Batubara, T.; Bismo, S.

    2016-11-01

    Plasma electrolysis has great potential in industrial hydrogen production, chlor-alkali production, and waste water treatment. Plasma electrolysis produces more hydrogen with less energy consumption than hydrocarbon or Faraday electrolysis. This paper investigated the hydrogen production by plasma electrolysis of KOH-ethanol solution at 80 °C and 1 atm. The effects of voltage, KOH solution, ethanol addition, and cathode deep on plasma electrolysis performance were studied. The hydrogen production was analyzed using bubble flow meter and hydrogen analyzer. The electrical energy consumption was measured by a digital multimeter. The effectiveness of plasma electrolysis in terms of hydrogen production was evaluated by comparing it with Faraday Electrolysis. The results showed that hydrogen produced by plasma electrolysis is 149 times higher than the hydrogen produced by Faraday electrolysis. The optimum hydrogen production was 50.71 mmol/min, obtained at 700 V with 0.03 M KOH, 10% vol ethanol and 6.6 cm cathode deep, with energy consumption 1.49 kJ/mmol. The result demonstrates a promising path for hydrogen production by utilizing plasma electrolysis reactor.

  7. Numerical tests of the electroweak phase transition and thermodynamics of the electroweak plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Csikor, Ferenc; Hein, J; Jaster, A; Montvay, István

    1996-01-01

    The finite temperature phase transition in the SU(2) Higgs model at a Higgs boson mass M_H \\simeq 34 GeV is studied in numerical simulations on four-dimensional lattices with time-like extensions up to L_t=5. The effects of the finite volume and finite lattice spacing on masses and couplings are studied in detail. The errors due to uncertainties in the critical hopping parameter are estimated. The thermodynamics of the electroweak plasma near the phase transition is investigated by determining the relation between energy density and pressure.

  8. Phase shifts and the second virial coefficient for a partially ionized hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omarbakiyeva, Y.A. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); IETP, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a Tole bi str., 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan); Roepke, G. [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); Ramazanov, T.S. [IETP, al-Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a Tole bi str., 050012 Almaty (Kazakhstan)

    2009-12-15

    The influence of the interaction of electrons with hydrogen atoms on the thermodynamical properties of dense plasmas is investigated using a virial expansion approach. The second virial coefficient for the electron-atom interaction is obtained from the Beth-Uhlenbeck formula. Elastic scattering phase shifts are calculated with the help of the phase function method for different polarization potential models. Results for the second virial coefficient are given that take into account both the bound state part and the scattering state contribution (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  9. Phase diagram of structure of radial electric field in helical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2002-01-01

    A set of transport equations in toroidal helical plasmas is analyzed, including the bifurcation of the radial electric field. Multiple solutions of E{sub r} for the ambipolar condition induces domains of different electric polarities. A structure of the domain interface is analyzed and a phase diagram is obtained in the space of the external control parameters. The region of the reduction of the anomalous transport is identified. (author)

  10. Plasma proteins production and excretion in diabetic nephropathy in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of African Association of Physiological Sciences ... Subjects, materials, and methods: Plasma albumin, and fibrinogen ... Results: A direct relationship was found between albuminuria and albumin concentration (r=0.59, p<0.05).

  11. Plasma reforming of glycerol for synthesis gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinli; Hoang, Trung; Lobban, Lance L; Mallinson, Richard G

    2009-05-28

    Glycerol can be effectively converted to synthesis gas (selectivity higher than 80%) with small amounts of water or no water using plasmas at low temperature and atmospheric pressure, without external heating.

  12. Tetraquarks Production in Quark-Gluon Plasma with Diquarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Zhong-Biao; GAO Chong-Shou

    2006-01-01

    @@ We present a way to calculate tetraquarks ratios for quark-gluon plasma with diquarks. The ratios of tetraquarks over baryons produced from quark matter are high than hadronic gas model limits. It is a better way to search for four-quark states in relativistic heavy ion collisions. It may become a criterion to judge whether quark-gluon plasma has formed to search for four-quark states in relativistic heavy ion collisions.

  13. Strangeness Production in a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Ze-Jun; LONG Jia-Li; MA Yu-Gang; MA Guo-Liang

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study the strangeness of a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density based on the and will accelerate with the change of the initial system from a chemically non-equilibrated to an equilibrated system. We also find that the calculated strangeness is very different from the one in the thermodynamic equilibrium system. This study may be helpful to understand the formation of quark-gluon plasma via a chemically non-equilibrated evolution framework.

  14. Comparison of the outcome of burn patients using acute-phase plasma base deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, S H; As'adi, K; Mousavi, J

    2011-12-31

    Background. In recent years, plasma base deficit has been used as a marker to determine the status of tissue perfusion in trauma patients and also to predict the outcome of these patients. This study was performed to investigate the effect of plasma base deficit in predicting burn patient outcome. Methods. This prospective cohort study was performed from October 2009 to October 2010 in the acute phase of burn patients who were admitted within 6 h post-injury to Motahari Burn Hospital in Iran. The patients were divided into two groups based on the plasma base deficit in the first 24 h post-injury: group A, in which the mean plasma base deficit was less than or equal to -6 (more negative), and group B, in which the mean plasma base deficit greater than -6. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS v.16 software. Results. Thirty-eight patients were enrolled in each group. The mean plasma base deficit in group A (-7.76 ± 2.18 mmol) was significantly less than that in group B (-1.19 ± 2.82) mmol (p 0.05) and despite removal of interfering factors, there were significant differences between the systemic inflammatory response syndrome and the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome score and the percentage of sepsis between the two groups (p 0.05). Conclusion. The plasma base deficit can be used as a valuable marker in the resuscitation of burn patients, along with clinical criteria. Physiological indicators (burn percentage, age, and mucosal burns) are not sufficient to predict mortality and morbidity in burn patients, and it is necessary to investigate the role of biochemical markers such as base deficit in determining the final outcome of burn patients.

  15. The determination of bromazepam in plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Solleu, H; Demotes-Mainard, F; Vinçon, G; Bannwarth, B

    1993-08-01

    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the determination of bromazepam, an anxiolytic benzodiazepine, in plasma. After a single-step extraction from alkalinized plasma with diethyl-ether in the presence of an internal standard (alpha-hydroxy-triazolam), the residues were chromatographed on a reversed-phase Nova Pak 5 microns C18 column, with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water-triethylamine (700:300:4, v/v/v) adjusted to pH 7.4 with orthophosphoric acid. The limit of detection was 50 ng ml-1, using a 20 microliters injection with UV detection at 240 nm. Between-day and within-day relative standard deviations were lower than 6%. Studies of drug stability during sample storage at -20 degrees C and at +4 degrees C showed no degradation of bromazepam. However, bromazepam seemed to be degraded at ambient temperature, without any influence of light. This method is applied to the determination of bromazepam plasma levels in analytical toxicology.

  16. Plasma mitomycin C concentrations determined by HPLC coupled to solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paroni, R; Arcelloni, C; De Vecchi, E; Fermo, I; Mauri, D; Colombo, R

    1997-04-01

    The aim of this study was to set up a method for quantification of plasma mitomycin C (MMC) concentrations during intravesical chemotherapy delivered in the presence of local bladder hyperthermia (HT). In comparison with existing methods, this assay, characterized by relative simplicity and efficiency, resulted in the facilitation of performance with nondedicated instrumentation or nonspecialized staff. Purification from plasma matrix was carried out by solid-phase extraction under vaccuum. The purified drug was then collected directly into the vials of the HPLC autosampler. Chromatographic analysis was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column with water:acetonitrile (85:15 by vol) as the mobile phase and the UV detector set at 365 nm. The use of porfiromycin as internal standard provided a method with good within-day precision (CV 6.0% at 5 micrograms/L, n = 6), linearity (0.5-50 micrograms/L), and specificity. The lower limit of detection (< or = 0.5 microgram/L) proved to be suitable for plasma pharmacokinetics monitoring in two tested patients treated with MMC + HT for superficial bladder cancer.

  17. Cold Atmospheric Plasma: methods of production and application in dentistry and oncology

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffmann, Clotilde; Berganza, Carlos; Zhang, John

    2013-01-01

    Cold Atmospheric Plasma is an ionized gas that has recently been extensively studied by researchers as a possible therapy in dentistry and oncology. Several different gases can be used to produce Cold Atmospheric Plasma such as Helium, Argon, Nitrogen, Heliox, and air. There are many methods of production by which cold atmospheric plasma is created. Each unique method can be used in different biomedical areas. In dentistry, researchers have mostly investigated the antimicrobial effects produc...

  18. Effect of Plasma Spheroidization Process on the Microstructure and Crystallographic Phases of Silica, Alumina and Nickel Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Peng; YAN Shikai; YUAN Fangli; BAI Liuyang; LI Jinlin; CHEN Yunfa

    2007-01-01

    During the plasma spheroidization process powders undergo different changes in their microstructures and crystal phases. In this paper, simple calculation of heat transfer between the plasma and a suspended particle was performed based on three hypotheses for the purpose of guiding experiments. Experimental investigation of the crystal phases and microstructural changes during the plasma processing was made using silica, alumina and nickel powders as starting materials. It has been revealed from the experimental results that these materials undergo different changes in crystal phases and microstructures, and these changes are essentially determined by the structures, properties and aggregate states of the starting materials.

  19. Quantum phase transitions about parity breaking in matrix product systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jing-Min

    2011-01-01

    According to our scheme to construct quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states, we first successfully combine matrix product state (MPS) QPTs with spontaneous symmetry breaking. For a concrete model, we take into account a kind of MPS QPTs accompanied by spontaneous parity breaking, though for either side of the critical point the GS is typically unique, and show that the kind of MPS QPTs occur only in the thermodynamic limit and are accompanied by the appearance of singularities, diverging correlation length, vanishing energy gap and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain not only staying finite but also whose first derivative discontinuous.

  20. Growth Conditions and Cell Cycle Phase Modulate Phase Transition Temperatures in RBL-2H3 Derived Plasma Membrane Vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M Gray

    Full Text Available Giant plasma membrane vesicle (GPMV isolated from a flask of RBL-2H3 cells appear uniform at physiological temperatures and contain coexisting liquid-ordered and liquid-disordered phases at low temperatures. While a single GPMV transitions between these two states at a well-defined temperature, there is significant vesicle-to-vesicle heterogeneity in a single preparation of cells, and average transition temperatures can vary significantly between preparations. In this study, we explore how GPMV transition temperatures depend on growth conditions, and find that average transition temperatures are negatively correlated with average cell density over 15°C in transition temperature and nearly three orders of magnitude in average surface density. In addition, average transition temperatures are reduced by close to 10°C when GPMVs are isolated from cells starved of serum overnight, and elevated transition temperatures are restored when serum-starved cells are incubated in serum-containing media for 12 h. We also investigated variation in transition temperature of GPMVs isolated from cells synchronized at the G1/S border through a double Thymidine block and find that average transition temperatures are systematically higher in GPMVs produced from G1 or M phase cells than in GPMVs prepared from S or G1 phase cells. Reduced miscibility transition temperatures are also observed in GPMVs prepared from cells treated with TRAIL to induce apoptosis or sphingomyelinase, and in some cases a gel phase is observed at temperatures above the miscibility transition in these vesicles. We conclude that at least some variability in GPMV transition temperature arises from variation in the local density of cells and asynchrony of the cell cycle. It is hypothesized that GPMV transition temperatures are a proxy for the magnitude of lipid-mediated membrane heterogeneity in intact cell plasma membranes at growth temperatures. If so, these results suggest that cells tune

  1. Effect of methadone on plasma arginine vasopressin level and urine production in conscious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrekers, L.J.; Mol, J.A.; Brom, W.E. van den; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of i.v. methadone on the plasma arginine-vasopressin (AVP) levels and urine production in 9 conscious dogs. A highly significant increase from the baseline plasma AVP values of below 3 pg/ml occurred within 5 min following methadone administration. Max

  2. Absolute production rate measurements of nitric oxide by an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipa, A V; Bindemann, T; Foest, R; Kindel, E; Roepcke, J; Weltmann, K-D [Leibniz-Institut fuer Plasmaforschung and Technologie e.V. (INP), Felix-Hausdorff Strasse 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany)], E-mail: foest@inp-greifswald.de

    2008-10-07

    Tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) has been applied to measure the absolute production rate of NO molecules in the gas phase of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) operating at rf (13.56 MHz) in argon with small (up to 1%) admixtures of air. The resulting NO production rates were found to be in the range (0.1-80) x 10{sup -3} sccm or (0.05-35) x 10{sup 18} molecules s{sup -1} depending on the experimental conditions. Maximum rates were obtained at 0.2% air. For TDLAS measurements the APPJ was arranged inside an astigmatic multi-pass cell of Herriott type with 100 m absorption length. The insertion into a closed volume differs slightly from the normal, open operation with the jet propagating freely into air. Therefore, the measuring results are compared with optical emission of the open jet to verify equivalent experimental conditions. The dependence of the optical emission of NO (237 nm) on power and gas mixture has been measured. The similar shape of the dependence of absorption and emission signals gives evidence that the comparability of experimental conditions is sufficiently satisfied. It is concluded that the NO production rate of the APPJ in ambient air can be characterized using TDLAS and provides reliable results in spite of differing experimental conditions due to the set-up.

  3. An automated two-phase system for hydrogel microbead production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Daniela F; Ahari, Amir F; Kachouie, Nezamoddin N; Gomes, Manuela E; Neves, Nuno M; Reis, Rui L; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2012-09-01

    Polymeric beads have been used for protection and delivery of bioactive materials, such as drugs and cells, for different biomedical applications. Here, we present a generic two-phase system for the production of polymeric microbeads of gellan gum or alginate, based on a combination of in situ polymerization and phase separation. Polymer droplets, dispensed using a syringe pump, formed polymeric microbeads while passing through a hydrophobic phase. These were then crosslinked, and thus stabilized, in a hydrophilic phase as they crossed through the hydrophobic-hydrophilic interface. The system can be adapted to different applications by replacing the bioactive material and the hydrophobic and/or the hydrophilic phases. The size of the microbeads was dependent on the system parameters, such as needle size and solution flow rate. The size and morphology of the microbeads produced by the proposed system were uniform, when parameters were kept constant. This system was successfully used for generating polymeric microbeads with encapsulated fluorescent beads, cell suspensions and cell aggregates proving its ability for generating bioactive carriers that can potentially be used for drug delivery and cell therapy.

  4. Longitudinal Relationship between Plasma Reactive Oxygen Metabolites and Periodontal Condition in the Maintenance Phase of Periodontal Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuya Machida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The present cohort study describes the longitudinal relationship between plasma oxidative status and periodontitis progression during the maintenance phase of treatment. Materials and Methods. Forty-five patients (mean age 58.8 years were monitored from 2008 to 2013. Periodontal conditions, including probing pocket depth (PPD and clinical attachment level (CAL, were recorded. Measurements of plasma reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM and biologic antioxidant potential (BAP were performed to evaluate plasma oxidative status. The patients were assigned into 2 groups as low and high plasma ROM level using a cut-off value which was median of plasma ROM level at baseline. Results. In the subjects with low plasma ROM level at baseline, changes in mean CAL were positively correlated with changes in plasma ROM levels, bleeding on probing, and plaque control record, but not with PPD. In the subjects with high plasma ROM at baseline, changes in CAL were significantly associated with only PPD at baseline. On the other hands there were no significant associations between changes in CAL and those in plasma BAP levels. Conclusions. When plasma ROM level in periodontitis patients was low, increases in plasma ROM level were associated with those in CAL during the maintenance phase of treatment.

  5. Aqueous two-phase partition applied to the isolation of plasma membranes and Golgi apparatus from cultured mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. M.; Morre, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Partitioning in dextran-poly(ethylene)glycol (PEG) aqueous-aqueous phase systems represents a mature technology with many applications to separations of cells and to the preparation of membranes from mammalian cells. Most applications to membrane isolation and purification have focused on plasma membranes, plasma membrane domains and separation of right side-out and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. The method exploits a combination of membrane properties, including charge and hydrophobicity. Purification is based upon differential distributions of the constituents in a sample between the two principal compartments of the two phases (upper and lower) and at the interface. The order of affinity of animal cell membranes for the upper phase is: endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatusGolgi apparatus from transformed mammalian cells that combines aqueous two-phase partition and centrifugation. Also described is a periodic NADH oxidase, a new enzyme marker for right side-out plasma membrane vesicles not requiring detergent disruptions for measurement of activity.

  6. Solid-phase extraction and HPLC assay of nicotine and cotinine in plasma and brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ralph; Messina, S M; Stokes, C; Salyani, S; Alcalay, N; De Fiebre, N C; De Fiebre, C M

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a simple and reliable assay for nicotine (NIC) and its major metabolite, cotinine (COT), in plasma and brain. A method was developed that uses an extraction method compatible with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation and ultraviolet (UV) detection. Sequential solid-phase extraction on silica columns followed by extraction using octadecyl (C18) columns resulted in mean percent recovery (n = 5) of 51 +/- 5, 64 +/- 10, and 52 +/- 10% for NIC, COT, and phenylimidazole (PI), respectively, in spiked 1-mL serum samples. Recovery (mean +/- SEM) of the internal standard (PI) from spiked samples of nicotine-injected rats averaged 64.1 +/- 1.5% (n = 138) from plasma, and 20.7+/-0.8% (n = 128) from brain. The limits of detection of NIC in plasma samples were approximately 8 ng per mL, and of COT, 13.6 ng per mL. Further optimization of our extraction method, using slower flow rates and solid-phase extraction on silica columns, followed by C18 column extraction, yielded somewhat better recoveries (38 +/-3%) for 1-mL brain homogenates. Interassay precision (coefficient of variation) was determined on the basis of daily calibrations for 2 months and was found to be 7%, 9%, and 9% for NIC, COT, and PI, respectively, whereas intra-assay variability was 3.9% for both NIC and COT. Limited studies were performed on analytical columns for comparison of retention, resolution, asymmetry, and column capacity. We concluded that a simple two-step solid-phase extraction method, coupled with HPLC separation and UV detection, can be used routinely to measure NIC and COT in biological fluids and tissues.

  7. Free-cholesterol loading does not trigger phase separation of the fluorescent sterol dehydroergosterol in the plasma membrane of macrophages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wüstner, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    membrane distribution of the fluorescent cholesterol-mimicking sterol dehydroergosterol (DHE) was investigated in FC-loaded J774 macrophages. Wide field fluorescence and deconvolution microscopy were combined with quantitative assessment of sterol distribution in straightened plasma membrane image segments...... with increased membrane cholesterol content, sterols do not form a separate phase in the plasma membrane....

  8. Substrate Biasing during Plasma-Assisted ALD for Crystalline Phase-Control of TiO(2) Thin Films

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Profijt, H. B.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2012-01-01

    Substrate biasing has been implemented in a remote plasma atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor, enabling control of the ion energy up to 260 eV. For TiO(2) films deposited from Ti(Cp(Me))(NMe(2))(3) and O(2) plasma it is demonstrated that the crystalline phase can be tailored by tuning the ion ener

  9. Plasma synthesis and liquid-phase surface passivation of brightly luminescent Si nanocrystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mangolini, L. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States); Jurbergs, D. [InnovaLight, Inc., 3303 Octavius Dr., Suite 104, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Rogojina, E. [InnovaLight, Inc., 3303 Octavius Dr., Suite 104, Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Kortshagen, U. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, 111 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)]. E-mail: uk@me.umn.edu

    2006-12-15

    While silicon's optical properties are improved at the nanoscale, they also become highly sensitive to the properties of the surfaces and interfaces of silicon nanostructures. For instance, while reported quantum yields for photoluminescence of silicon quantum dots covered by a native oxide are often in the few percent range, quantum yields as high as 30% have been found in quantum dots whose surfaces were passivated by covalently bonded organic molecules. In this paper, we describe an approach that is based on the gas phase synthesis of silicon quantum dots in a nonthermal plasma, and the subsequent organic surface passivation in the liquid phase. Nanocrystals are formed within a few milliseconds with a high mass yield in a nonthermal plasma. Various organic ligands such as octadecene, dodecence, and styrene are grafted onto the nanocrystal surfaces in a reaction known as hydrosilylation. Materials are characterized through transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and fluorescence measurements. The particle size distributions are found to be relatively monodisperse and are well controllable through the plasma process parameters. Photoluminescence quantum yields as high as 60-70% have been achieved for particles luminescing in the red range of the visible spectrum.

  10. Effects of cold atmospheric gas phase plasma on anthocyanins and color in pomegranate juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bursać Kovačević, Danijela; Putnik, Predrag; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Pedisić, Sandra; Režek Jambrak, Anet; Herceg, Zoran

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate effects of cold atmospheric gas phase plasma on anthocyanins and color in pomegranate juice. Outcomes of plasma treatment were observed at different operating conditions: (i) treatment time (3, 5, 7 min), (ii) treated juice volume (3, 4, 5 cm(3)), and (iii) gas flow (0.75, 1, 1.25 dm(3)/min). The greatest anthocyanin stability was found at: 3 min treatment time, 5 cm(3) sample volume, and 0.75 dm(3)/min gas flow. Plasma treatment yielded higher anthocyanin content from 21% to 35%. Multivariate analysis showed that total color change was not associated with sample volume and treatment time, however it declined with increased gas flow. The change of color increased in comparison treated vs. untreated pomegranate juice. Constructed mathematical equation confirmed that increase of anthocyanin content increased with gas flow, sample volume and change in color. In summary, this study showed that plasma treatment had positive influences on anthocyanins stability and color change in cloudy pomegranate juice.

  11. Beam Phase Space of an Intense Ion Beam in a Neutralizing Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidl, Peter A.; Bazouin, Guillaume; Beneytout, Alice; Lidia, Steven M.; Vay, Jean-Luc; Grote, David P.

    2011-10-01

    The Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment (NDCX-I) generates high intensity ion beams to explore warm dense matter physics. Transverse final focusing is accomplished with an 8-Tesla, 10-cm long pulsed solenoid magnet combined with a background neutralizing plasma to effectively cancel the space charge field of the ion beam. We report on phase space measurements of the beam before the neutralization channel and of the focused ion beam at the target plane. These are compared to WARP particle-in-cell simulations of the ion beam propagation through the focusing system and neutralizing plasma. Due to the orientation of the plasma sources with respect to the focusing magnet, the plasma distribution within the final focusing lens is strongly affected by the magnetic field, an effect which can influence the peak intensity at the target and which is included in the model of the experiment. Work performed under auspices of U.S. DoE by LLNL, LBNL under Contracts DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC02-05CH1123.

  12. Plasma production by means of discharge in a spherical cavity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antsiferov, P. S.; Dorokhin, L. A.; Koshelev, K. N.

    2010-01-01

    The work is devoted to the study of plasma, appearing as a result of cumulation of shock wave with form close to spherical. The shock wave was obtained by triggering of fast discharge (dI/dt about 10(12) A/s) on inner surface of cavity, made from insulator. Spherical cavity with radius 4.5 mm was fi

  13. Direct molecular dynamics simulation of liquid-solid phase equilibria for two-component plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A S; Hughto, J; Horowitz, C J; Berry, D K

    2012-06-01

    We determine the liquid-solid phase diagram for carbon-oxygen and oxygen-selenium plasma mixtures using two-phase molecular dynamics simulations. We identify liquid, solid, and interface regions using a bond angle metric. To study finite-size effects, we perform 27,648- and 55,296-ion simulations. To help monitor nonequilibrium effects, we calculate diffusion constants D(i). For the carbon-oxygen system we find that D(O) for oxygen ions in the solid is much smaller than D(C) for carbon ions and that both diffusion constants are 80 or more times smaller than diffusion constants in the liquid phase. There is excellent agreement between our carbon-oxygen phase diagram and that predicted by Medin and Cumming. This suggests that errors from finite-size and nonequilibrium effects are small and that the carbon-oxygen phase diagram is now accurately known. The oxygen-selenium system is a simple two-component model for more complex rapid proton capture nucleosynthesis ash compositions for an accreting neutron star. Diffusion of oxygen, in a predominantly selenium crystal, is remarkably fast, comparable to diffusion in the liquid phase. We find a somewhat lower melting temperature for the oxygen-selenium system than that predicted by Medin and Cumming. This is probably because of electron screening effects.

  14. Phase mixing of Alfvén waves propagating in non-reflective magnetic plasma configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Michael S.; Petrukhin, Nikolai S.

    2017-04-01

    The ability of phase mixing to provide efficient damping of Alfvén waves even in weakly dissipative plasmas made it a popular mechanism for explaining the solar coronal heating. Initially it was studied in the equilibrium configurations with the straight magnetic field lines and the Alfvén speed only varying in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Later the analysis of the Alfvén wave phase mixing was extended in various directions. In particular it was studied in two-dimensional planar magnetic plasma equilibria. Analytical investigation was carried out under the assumption that the wavelength is much smaller than the characteristic scale of the background quantity variation. This assumption enabled using the Wentzel, Kramers, and Brillouin (WKB) method. When it is not satisfied the study was only carried out numerically. In general, even the wave propagation in a one-dimensional inhomogeneous equilibrium can be only studied numerically. However there is one important exception, so-called non-reflective equilibria. In these equilibria the wave equation with the variable phase speed reduces to the Klein-Gordon equation with constant coefficients. In this paper we apply the theory of non-reflective wave propagation to studying the Alfvén wave phase mixing in two-dimensional planar magnetic plasma equilibria. Using curvilinear coordinates we reduce the equation describing the Alfvén wave phase mixing to the equation that becomes a one-dimensional wave equation in the absence of dissipation. This equation is further reduced to the equation which is the one-dimensional Klein-Gordon equation in the absence of dissipation. Then we show that this equation has constant coefficients when a particular relation between the plasma density and magnetic field magnitude is satisfied. Using the derived Klein-Gordon-type equation we study the phase mixing in various non-reflective equilibria. We emphasise that our analysis is valid even when the wavelength is

  15. Effects of the plasma profiles on photon and pair production in ultrahigh intensity laser solid interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Y. X.; Jin, X. L., E-mail: jinxiaolin@uestc.edu.cn; Yan, W. Z.; Li, J. Q.; Li, B. [Vacuum Electronics National Laboratory, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Yu, J. Q. [Vacuum Electronics National Laboratory, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); John Adams Institute for Accelerator Science, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    The model of photon and pair production in strong field quantum electrodynamics is implemented into our 1D3V particle-in-cell code with Monte Carlo algorithm. Using this code, the evolution of the particles in ultrahigh intensity laser (∼10{sup 23} W/cm{sup 2}) interaction with aluminum foil target is observed. Four different initial plasma profiles are considered in the simulations. The effects of initial plasma profiles on photon and pair production, energy spectra, and energy evolution are analyzed. The results imply that one can set an optimal initial plasma profile to obtain the desired photon distributions.

  16. Quantum Phase Transitions in Conventional Matrix Product Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jing-Min; Huang, Fei; Chang, Yan

    2017-02-01

    For matrix product states(MPSs) of one-dimensional spin-1/2 chains, we investigate a new kind of conventional quantum phase transition(QPT). We find that the system has two different ferromagnetic phases; on the line of the two ferromagnetic phases coexisting equally, the system in the thermodynamic limit is in an isolated mediate-coupling state described by a paramagnetic state and is in the same state as the renormalization group fixed point state, the expectation values of the physical quantities are discontinuous, and any two spin blocks of the system have the same geometry quantum discord(GQD) within the range of open interval (0,0.25) and the same classical correlation(CC) within the range of open interval (0,0.75) compared to any phase having no any kind of correlation. We not only realize the control of QPTs but also realize the control of quantum correlation of quantum many-body systems on the critical line by adjusting the environment parameters, which may have potential application in quantum information fields and is helpful to comprehensively and deeply understand the quantum correlation, and the organization and structure of quantum correlation especially for long-range quantum correlation of quantum many-body systems.

  17. Characterization of Bimetallic Fe-Ru Oxide Nanoparticles Prepared by Liquid-Phase Plasma Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung-Jin; Lee, Heon; Jeon, Ki-Joon; Park, Hyunwoong; Park, Young-Kwon; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2016-07-01

    The bimetallic Fe-Ru oxide nanoparticles were synthesized in the liquid-phase plasma (LPP) method which employed iron chloride and ruthenium chloride as precursors. The active species (OH·, Hα, Hβ, and OI) and the iron and ruthenium ions were observed in the plasma field created by the LPP process. The spherical-shaped bimetallic Fe-Ru oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by the LPP reaction, and the size of the particles was growing along with the progression of the LPP reaction. The synthesized bimetallic Fe-Ru oxide nanoparticles were comprised of Fe2O3, Fe3O4, RuO, and RuO2. Ruthenium had a higher reduction potential than iron and resulted in higher ruthenium composition in the synthesized bimetallic nanoparticles. The control of the molar ratio of the precursors in the reactant solution was found to be employed as a means to control the composition of the elements in bimetallic nanoparticles.

  18. Mars plasma system response to ICME transients at different phases of the solar cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Cano, Beatriz; Lester, Mark; Hall, Benjamin E. S.; Witasse, Olivier; Mays, M. Leila; Blelly, Pierre-Louis; Andrews, David G.; Cartacci, Marco; Opgenoorth, Hermann; Milan, Stephen E.; Ambrosi, Richard M.; Odstrcil, Dusan; Plaut, Jeffrey J.; Imber, Suzanne

    2016-10-01

    We assess the reaction of the full Martian plasma system after the impact of different Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICME) at Mars at different levels of solar activity and phases of the solar cycle 23/24. The Mars' plasma system behaviour is characterised from the surface of the planet to the bow shock position, which is the most external boundary where the solar wind directly interacts with the Martian system. Events at the extreme phases of the solar cycle will be given special attention, i.e. low and high solar activity periods, since variations in the maximum of the thermal pressure of the ionosphere are a key factor in order to create a significant/weak plasma obstacle to compete with the solar wind. The strength of this obstacle is ultimately controlled by the long-term EUV flux modulations. Likewise, the effect of such ICMEs on the plasma boundaries and induced magnetic fields within the ionosphere will be analysed in detail. The study uses data from TIMED, GOES and STEREOs observatories at 1 AU to monitor the solar irradiance and the propagation of such space weather transits. At Mars, long-term data come from Mars Express and Mars Odyssey missions since both spacecraft have been working from more than 12 years. The MAVEN and MSL missions provide supplementary data. Solar wind propagation modelling is used through the WSA-ENLIL+Cone model, as well as several numerical simulations of the ionosphere of Mars for such scenarios are made through the numerical/fluid TRANSMARS model.

  19. Plasma-produced phase-pure cuprous oxide nanowires for methane gas sensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Qijin, E-mail: ijin.cheng@xmu.edu.cn; Zhang, Fengyan [School of Energy Research, Xiamen University, Xiamen City, Fujian Province 361005 (China); Yan, Wei [School of Electrical Engineering and Telecommunications, University of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales 2052 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience Laboratories, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Randeniya, Lakshman [Plasma Nanoscience Laboratories, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Ostrikov, Kostya [Plasma Nanoscience Laboratories, CSIRO Materials Science and Engineering, Lindfield, New South Wales 2070 (Australia); Plasma Nanoscience, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2014-03-28

    Phase-selective synthesis of copper oxide nanowires is warranted by several applications, yet it remains challenging because of the narrow windows of the suitable temperature and precursor gas composition in thermal processes. Here, we report on the room-temperature synthesis of small-diameter, large-area, uniform, and phase-pure Cu{sub 2}O nanowires by exposing copper films to a custom-designed low-pressure, thermally non-equilibrium, high-density (typically, the electron number density is in the range of 10{sup 11}–10{sup 13} cm{sup −3}) inductively coupled plasmas. The mechanism of the plasma-enabled phase selectivity is proposed. The gas sensors based on the synthesized Cu{sub 2}O nanowires feature fast response and recovery for the low-temperature (∼140 °C) detection of methane gas in comparison with polycrystalline Cu{sub 2}O thin film-based gas sensors. Specifically, at a methane concentration of 4%, the response and the recovery times of the Cu{sub 2}O nanowire-based gas sensors are 125 and 147 s, respectively. The Cu{sub 2}O nanowire-based gas sensors have a potential for applications in the environmental monitoring, chemical industry, mining industry, and several other emerging areas.

  20. Control of ROS and RNS productions in liquid in atmospheric pressure plasma-jet system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Giichiro; Ito, Taiki; Takenaka, Kosuke; Ikeda, Junichiro; Setsuhara, Yuichi

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal plasma jets are of current interest in biomedical applications such as wound disinfection and even treatment of cancer tumors. Beneficial therapeutic effects in medical applications are attributed to excited species of oxygen and nitrogen from air. However, to control the production of these species in the plasma jet is difficult because their production is strongly dependent on concentration of nitrogen and oxygen from ambient air into the plasma jet. In this study, we analyze the discharge characteristics and the ROS and RNS productions in liquid in low- and high-frequency plasma-jet systems. Our experiments demonstrated the marked effects of surrounding gas near the plasma jet on ROS and RNS productions in liquid. By controlling the surround gas, the O2 and N2 main plasma jets are selectively produced even in open air. We also show that the concentration ratio of NO2- to H2O2 in liquid is precisely tuned from 0 to 0.18 in deionized water by changing N2 gas ratio (N2 / (N2 +O2)) in the main discharge gas, where high NO2- ratio is obtained at N2 gas ratio at N2 / (N2 +O2) = 0 . 8 . The low-frequency plasma jet with controlled surrounding gas is an effective plasma source for ROS and RNS productions in liquid, and can be a useful tool for biomedical applications. This study was partly supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas ``Plasma Medical Innovation'' (24108003) from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan (MEXT).

  1. CHEMKIN-III: A FORTRAN chemical kinetics package for the analysis of gas-phase chemical and plasma kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kee, R.J.; Rupley, F.M.; Meeks, E.; Miller, J.A.

    1996-05-01

    This document is the user`s manual for the third-generation CHEMKIN package. CHEMKIN is a software package whose purpose is to facilitate the formation, solution, and interpretation of problems involving elementary gas-phase chemical kinetics. It provides a flexible and powerful tool for incorporating complex chemical kinetics into simulations of fluid dynamics. The package consists of two major software components: an Interpreter and a Gas-Phase Subroutine Library. The Interpreter is a program that reads a symbolic description of an elementary, user-specified chemical reaction mechanism. One output from the Interpreter is a data file that forms a link to the Gas-Phase Subroutine Library. This library is a collection of about 100 highly modular FORTRAN subroutines that may be called to return information on equations of state, thermodynamic properties, and chemical production rates. CHEMKIN-III includes capabilities for treating multi-fluid plasma systems, that are not in thermal equilibrium. These new capabilities allow researchers to describe chemistry systems that are characterized by more than one temperature, in which reactions may depend on temperatures associated with different species; i.e. reactions may be driven by collisions with electrons, ions, or charge-neutral species. These new features have been implemented in such a way as to require little or no changes to CHEMKIN implementation for systems in thermal equilibrium, where all species share the same gas temperature. CHEMKIN-III now has the capability to handle weakly ionized plasma chemistry, especially for application related to advanced semiconductor processing.

  2. Circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins as markers of pathogenesis in lymphatic filarial disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Anuradha

    Full Text Available Lymphatic filariasis can be associated with development of serious pathology in the form of lymphedema, hydrocele, and elephantiasis in a subset of infected patients. Dysregulated host inflammatory responses leading to systemic immune activation are thought to play a central role in filarial disease pathogenesis. We measured the plasma levels of microbial translocation markers, acute phase proteins, and inflammatory cytokines in individuals with chronic filarial pathology with (CP Ag+ or without (CP Ag- active infection; with clinically asymptomatic infections (INF; and in those without infection (endemic normal [EN]. Comparisons between the two actively infected groups (CP Ag+ compared to INF and those without active infection (CP Ag- compared to EN were used preliminarily to identify markers of pathogenesis. Thereafter, we tested for group effects among all the four groups using linear models on the log transformed responses of the markers. Our data suggest that circulating levels of microbial translocation products (lipopolysaccharide and LPS-binding protein, acute phase proteins (haptoglobin and serum amyloid protein-A, and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-12, and TNF-α are associated with pathogenesis of disease in lymphatic filarial infection and implicate an important role for circulating microbial products and acute phase proteins.

  3. Product surface hardening in non-self-sustained glow discharge plasma before synthesis of superhard coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnov, P. S.; Metel, A. S.; Nay, H. A.

    2017-05-01

    Before the synthesis of superhard coating, the product surface is hardened by means of plasma nitriding, which prevents the surface deformations and the coating brittle rupture. The product heating by ions accelerated from plasma by applied to the product bias voltage leads to overheating and blunting of the product sharp edges. To prevent the blunting, it is proposed to heat the products with a broad beam of fast nitrogen molecules. The beam injection into a working vacuum chamber results in filling of the chamber with quite homogeneous plasma suitable for nitriding. Immersion in the plasma of the electrode and heightening of its potential up to 50-100 V initiate a non-self-sustained glow discharge between the electrode and the chamber. It enhances the plasma density by an order of magnitude and reduces its spatial nonuniformity down to 5-10%. When a cutting tool is isolated from the chamber, it is bombarded by plasma ions with an energy corresponding to its floating potential, which is lower than the sputtering threshold. Hence, the sharp edges are sputtered only by fast nitrogen molecules with the same rate as other parts of the tool surface. This leads to sharpening of the cutting tools instead of blunting.

  4. The effect of gas plasma modification on platelet and contact phase activation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Nicholas P; Wilson, Darren J; Williams, Rachel L

    2007-11-01

    Medical-grade polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), polyetherurethane (PEU) and ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) were plasma treated with O2, Ar, N2 and NH3. Their surface properties were characterised using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), static secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SSIMS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and dynamic contact angle (DCA) analysis. Platelet adhesion, aggregation, activation and release of microparticles were determined after contact with whole blood in a cone and plate viscometer. Activation of the coagulation system was quantified in a static environment using a partial thromboplastin time (PTT) assay. The chemical compositions of the untreated surfaces were found to be very similar to those of the bulk material except for PEU, whose surface was comprised almost entirely of soft ether segments. For all materials, the different plasma treatments resulted in moderate etching with the incorporation of functional groups and removal of side groups: defluorination, dehydrogenation, cleavage of methyl side groups and soft segments for PTFE, UHMWPE, PDMS and PEU, respectively. Consequently, plasma treatment resulted in increased wettability in all cases. Blood contact with the virgin materials resulted in activation of platelets and the clotting cascade. Plasma treatment resulted in a significant reduction in platelet adhesion for all materials and all treatments. In the case of PTFE and PEU, the activation status of these cells was also reduced. Plasma treatment of all materials reduced fluid-phase CD62P expression. Platelet aggregate size correlated well with degree of aggregate formation, but many treatments increased the degree of aggregation, as was the case for microparticle shedding. There was no correlation between CD62P expression, aggregate formation and platelet microparticle (PMP) shedding. It is concluded that despite incorporation of the same chemical groups, the pattern of response to

  5. Plasma Kinetics in Electrical Discharge in Mixture of Air, Water and Ethanol Vapors for Hydrogen Enriched Syngas Production

    CERN Document Server

    Shchedrin, A I; Ryabtsev, A V; Chernyak, V Ya; Yukhymenko, V V; Olszewski, S V; Naumov, V V; Prysiazhnevych, I V; Solomenko, E V; Demchina, V P; Kudryavtsev, V S

    2008-01-01

    The complex theoretical and experimental investigation of plasma kinetics of the electric discharge in the mixture of air and ethanol-water vapors is carried out. The discharge was burning in the cavity, formed by air jets pumping between electrodes, placed in aqueous ethanol solution. It is found out that the hydrogen yield from the discharge is maximal in the case when ethanol and water in the solution are in equal amounts. It is shown that the hydrogen production increases with the discharge power and reaches the saturation at high value. The concentrations of the main stable gas-phase components, measured experimentally and calculated numerically, agree well in the most cases.

  6. Morphology and Phase Compositions of Hydroxyapatite Powder Particles Plasma-sprayed into Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite powder particles were plasma sprayed into water, their inner structures and phase compositions were studied by using scanning electron microscope(SEM) and X-ray difiractometer. The results show that the molten HA particles have a central hollow morphology and high crystallinity. The hollow morphology was caused by sublimated P2O5 and H2O, which will have an efiect on surface morphology, cohesive and adhesive strength as well as dissolution and degradation of coating. The high crystallinity is attributed to lower cooling speed in water.

  7. Liquid-phase microextraction for simultaneous chromatographic analysis of three antidepressant drugs in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Dobrovolskni Porto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A method using Liquid Phase Microextraction for simultaneous detection of citalopram (CIT, paroxetine (PAR and fluoxetine (FLU, using venlafaxine as internal standard, in plasma by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was developed. The linearity was evaluated between 5.0 and 500 ng mL-1 (r > 0.99 and the limit of quantification was 2.0, 3.0 and 5.0 ng mL-1 for CIT, PAR and FLU, respectively. Therefore, it can be applied to therapeutic drug monitoring, pharmacokinetics or bioavailability studies and its advantages are that it necessary relatively inexpensive equipment and sample preparation techniques.

  8. The change of NiCrBSi alloys’ phase composition after plasma spraying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dudek

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Material for investigations was NiCrBSi powder for components’ coatings which improve their corrosion resistance as well as resistance to friction wear and erosion. Plasma spraying method was used to produce a coating with thickness of 300 μm on low-alloy steel which was then remelted with the base material. Using X-ray quality analysis, phase composition was determined for: NiCrBSi powder, obtained coating and the alloyed surface layer. Crystallinity degree was also calculated for NiCrBSi layer sprayed on the base material.

  9. The ''phase velocity'' of nonlinear plasma waves in the laser beat-wave accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spence, W.L.

    1985-04-01

    A calculational scheme for beat-wave accelerators is introduced that includes all orders in velocity and in plasma density, and additionally accounts for the influence of plasma nonlinearities on the wave's phase velocity. The main assumption is that the laser frequencies are very large compared to the plasma frequency - under which it is possible to sum up all orders of forward Raman scattering. It is found that the nonlinear plasma wave does not have simply a single phase velocity, but that the beat-wave which drives it is usefully described by a non-local ''effective phase velocity'' function. A time-space domain approach is followed. (LEW)

  10. Concerted spatial-frequency and polarization-phase filtering of laser images of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma smears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, Yu A.

    2012-11-01

    The complex technique of concerted polarization-phase and spatial-frequency filtering of blood plasma laser images is suggested. The possibility of obtaining the coordinate distributions of phases of linearly and circularly birefringent protein networks of blood plasma separately is presented. The statistical (moments of the first to fourth orders) and scale self-similar (logarithmic dependences of power spectra) structure of phase maps of different types of birefringence of blood plasma of two groups of patients-healthy people (donors) and those suffering from rectal cancer-is investigated. The diagnostically sensitive parameters of a pathological change of the birefringence of blood plasma polycrystalline networks are determined. The effectiveness of this technique for detecting change in birefringence in the smears of other biological fluids in diagnosing the appearance of cholelithiasis (bile), operative differentiation of the acute and gangrenous appendicitis (exudate), and differentiation of inflammatory diseases of joints (synovial fluid) is shown.

  11. Economical Production of Pu-238: NIAC Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Steven D.; Crawford, Douglas; Navarro, Jorge; O'Brien, Robert C.; Katalenich, Jeff; Ring, Terry

    2016-01-01

    All space exploration missions traveling beyond Jupiter must use radioisotopic power sources for electrical power. The best isotope to power these sources is plutonium-238 (Pu-238). The US supply of Pu-238 is almost exhausted and will be gone within the next decade. The Department of Energy has initiated a production program with a $10M allocation from NASA but the cost is estimated at over $100M to get to production levels. The Center for Space Nuclear Research (CSNR) has conceived of a potentially better process to produce Pu-238 earlier and for significantly less cost. Potentially, the front end capital costs could be provided by private industry such that the government only had to pay for the product produced. In the Phase I NIAC (NASA Innovative Advanced Concepts) grant, the CSNR has evaluated the feasibility of using a low power, commercially available nuclear reactor to produce 1.5 kg of Pu-238 per year. The impact on the neutronics of the reactor have been assessed, the amount of Neptunium target material estimated, and the production rates calculated. In addition, the size of the post-irradiation processing facility has been established. Finally, as the study progressed, a new method for fabricating the Pu-238 product into the form used for power sources has been identified to reduce the cost of the final product. In short, the concept appears to be viable, can produce the amount of Pu-238 needed to support the NASA missions, can be available within a few years, and will cost significantly less than the current DOE program.

  12. Recent progress on phase-space turbulence and dynamical response in collisionless plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Lesur, Maxime

    2013-01-01

    In the presence of wave dissipation, phase-space structures emerge in nonlinear Vlasov dynamics. Their dynamics can lead to a nonlinear continuous shifting of the wave frequency (chirping). This report summarizes my personal contribution to these topics in the fiscal year 2012. The effects of collisions on chirping characteristics were investigated, with a one-dimensional beam-plasma kinetic model. The long-time nonlinear evolution was systematically categorized as damped, steady-state, periodic, chaotic and chirping. The chirping regime was sub-categorized as periodic, chaotic, bursty, and intermittent. Existing analytic theory was extended to account for Krook-like collisions. Relaxation oscillations, associated with chirping bursts, were investigated in the presence of dynamical friction and velocity-diffusion. The period increases with decreasing drag, and weakly increases with decreasing diffusion. A new theory gives a simple relation between the growth of phase-space structures and that of the wave ener...

  13. Nonlinear dynamics of phase space zonal structures and energetic particle physics in fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Zonca, Fulvio; Briguglio, Sergio; Fogaccia, Giuliana; Vlad, Gregorio; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    A general theoretical framework for investigating nonlinear dynamics of phase space zonal structures is presented in this work. It is then, more specifically, applied to the limit where the nonlinear evolution time scale is smaller or comparable to the wave-particle trapping period. In this limit, both theoretical and numerical simulation studies show that non-adiabatic frequency chirping and phase locking could lead to secular resonant particle transport on meso- or macro-scales. The interplay between mode structures and resonant particles then provides the crucial ingredient to properly understand and analyze the nonlinear dynamics of Alfv\\'en wave instabilities excited by non-perturbative energetic particles in burning fusion plasmas. Analogies with autoresonance in nonlinear dynamics and with superradiance in free electron lasers are also briefly discussed.

  14. Tunable Electron Multibunch Production in Plasma Wakefield Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Hidding, B; Wittig, G; Aniculaesei, C; Jaroszynski, D; McNeil, B W J; Campbell, L T; Islam, M R; Ersfeld, B; Sheng, Z -M; Xi, Y; Deng, A; Rosenzweig, J B; Andonian, G; Murokh, A; Hogan, M J; Bruhwiler, D L; Cormier, E

    2014-01-01

    Synchronized, independently tunable and focused $\\mu$J-class laser pulses are used to release multiple electron populations via photo-ionization inside an electron-beam driven plasma wave. By varying the laser foci in the laboratory frame and the position of the underdense photocathodes in the co-moving frame, the delays between the produced bunches and their energies are adjusted. The resulting multibunches have ultra-high quality and brightness, allowing for hitherto impossible bunch configurations such as spatially overlapping bunch populations with strictly separated energies, which opens up a new regime for light sources such as free-electron-lasers.

  15. Schlieren, Phase-Contrast, and Spectroscopy Diagnostics for the LBNL HIF Plasma Channel Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponce, D. M.; Niemann, C.; Fessenden, T. J.; Leemans, W.; Vandersloot, K.; Dahlbacka, G.; Yu, S. S.; Sharp, W. M.; Tauschwitz, A.

    1999-11-01

    The LBNL Plasma Channel experiment has demonstrated stable 42-cm Z-pinch discharge plasma channels with peak currents in excess of 50 kA for a 7 torr nitrogen, 30 kV discharge. These channels offer the possibility of transporting heavy-ion beams for inertial fusion. We postulate that the stability of these channels resides in the existance of a neutral-gas density depresion created by a pre-pulse discharge before the main capacitor bank discharge is created. Here, we present the results and experimental diagnostics setup used for the study of the pre-pulse and main bank channels. Observation of both the plasma and neutral gas dynamics is achieved. Schlieren, Zernike's phase-contrast, and spectroscopic techniques are used. Preliminary Schlieren results show a gas shockwave moving radially at a rate of ≈ 10^6 mm/sec as a result of the fast and localized deposited energy during the evolution of the pre-pulse channel. This data will be used to validate simulation codes (BUCKY and CYCLOPS).

  16. Determination of quinolones in plasma samples by capillary electrophoresis using solid-phase extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, M; Borrull, F; Calull, M

    2000-06-09

    The potential of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) and micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) have been investigated for the separation and quantitative determination of 10 quinolone antibiotics. The influence of different conditions, such as the buffer and pH of the electrolyte, the surfactant and the ion-pairing agents added to the electrolyte and the organic modifier were studied. A buffer consisting of 40 mM sodium tetraborate at pH 8.1 containing 10% (v/v) methanol was found to be a highly efficient electrophoretic system for separating lomefloxacin, enoxacin, norfloxacin, pipemidic acid, ofloxacin, piromidic acid, flumequine, oxolinic acid, cinoxacin and nalidixic acid. A solid-phase extraction method to remove the sample matrix (pig plasma samples) was developed on a C(18) cartridge using a mixture of methanol-water (70:30, v/v). The method is specific and reproducible and mean recoveries were in the range 94.0+/-4.2% and 123.3+/-4.1% for pig plasma samples over the range used. A linear relationship between concentration and peak area for each compound in pig plasma samples was obtained in the concentration range 5-20 mg l(-1) and detection limits were between 1.1 and 2.4 mg l(-1).

  17. Primordial Magnetic Field Via Weibel Instability In The Quark Gluon Plasma Phase

    CERN Document Server

    Atreya, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    The origin of the observed large scale magnetic fields in the Universe is a mystery. The seed of these magnetic fields has been attributed to physical process in the early universe. In this work we provide a mechanism for the generation of a primordial magnetic field in the early universe via the Weibel instability in the quark gluon plasma. The Weibel instability occurs in the plasma if there is an anisotropy in the particle distribution function of the particles. In early universe, the velocity anisotropy required for Weibel instability to operate is generated in the quark gluon plasma by the collapse of closed $Z(3)$ domain walls that arise in the deconfined phase of the QCD (above $T\\sim 200$ MeV). Such large domains can arise in the context of certain low energy scale inflationary models. The closed domains undergo supersonic collapse and the velocity anisotropy is generated in the shocks produced in the wake of the collapsing domain walls. This results in a two stream Weibel instability in the ultra-rel...

  18. Aqueous two phase system based on ionic liquid for isolation of quinine from human plasma sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flieger, J; Czajkowska-Żelazko, A

    2015-01-01

    Aqueous two phase system was applied for selective extraction of quinine from human plasma. Bi-phase was constructed from ionic liquid: butyl-methyl-imidazolium chloride after addition kosmotropic salts K₃PO₄ or KH₂PO₄. Quinine was determined in plasma samples after drinking of tonic containing quinine. Determination was performed by HPLC on 5-μm Zorbax SB-CN column and eluent containing 40% acetonitrile (v/v), 20 mM phosphate buffer at pH 3 and 40 mM NaPF₆ using external standard method. The spectrophotometric detection was set λ=214 nm. Selective fluorescence detection was performed at excitation of 325 nm and emission of 375 nm. Proposed strategy provides suitable sample purification and gives extraction yields in the range of 89-106%. The determination coefficient (R(2)) has a value ≥0.997 in the range of 50-800 ng/ml quinine concentration. The limit of quantification was set at 27.9 ng/ml and the detection limit was found to be 8.4 ng/ml under fluorescence detection.

  19. The phase analysis of spark plasma sintered MgB2 after ball milling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Deuk-Kyun; Kim, Dong-Woong; Kim, Cheol-Jin; Ahn, In-Shup

    2010-01-01

    Mg and amorphous B powders below 10 and 3 micro meter were used as raw materials, and mixed by planetary-mill for 9 hours at argon atmosphere. MgB2 bulk was fabricated at the various temperatures by Spark Plasma Sintering. In the sintering process, mixed powders were sintered in graphite mold, at the pressure of 55 Mpa. The fabricated MgB2 samples were evaluated with XRD, EDS, FE-SEM, PPMS. MgB2, MgO and Fe phases were observed from XRD result. In the results, MgO and Fe were impurity which may affect superconducting properties of MgB2 samples, and it's distribution could be confirmed from EDS mapping result. In order to confirm the formation of MgB2 phase, DTA was used as heating rate of 10 degrees C/min at Ar atmosphere from room temperature to 1200 degrees C. In the PPMS result, the Tc (critical temperature) was about 21 K, and the density of spark plasma sintered samples increased to 1.87 g/cm3 by increasing sintering temperature.

  20. Indocyanine green plasma disappearance rate during the anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruegger, Lukas; Studer, Peter; Schmid, Stefan W; Pestel, Gunther; Reichen, Juerg; Seiler, Christian; Candinas, Daniel; Inderbitzin, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Non-invasive pulse spectrophotometry to measure indocyanine green (ICG) elimination correlates well with the conventional invasive ICG clearance test. Nevertheless, the precision of this method remains unclear for any application, including small-for-size liver remnants. We therefore measured ICG plasma disappearance rate (PDR) during the anhepatic phase of orthotopic liver transplantation using pulse spectrophotometry. Measurements were done in 24 patients. The median PDR after exclusion of two outliers and two patients with inconstant signal was 1.55%/min (95% confidence interval [CI]=0.8-2.2). No correlation with patient age, gender, body mass, blood loss, administration of fresh frozen plasma, norepinephrine dose, postoperative albumin (serum), or difference in pre and post transplant body weight was detected. In conclusion, we found an ICG-PDR different from zero in the anhepatic phase, an overestimation that may arise in particular from a redistribution into the interstitial space. If ICG pulse spectrophotometry is used to measure functional hepatic reserve, the verified average difference from zero (1.55%/min) determined in our study needs to be taken into account.

  1. Forces and Phases: An Investigation of Azimuthal Plasma and Field Periodicities in Saturn's Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramer, K. M.; Kivelson, M. G.; Khurana, K. K.; Sergis, N.; Walker, R. J.; Jia, X.

    2012-12-01

    In Saturn's magnetosphere, periodic fluctuations are ubiquitous; for example, periodicities have been observed in Saturn Kilometric Radiation (SKR), in auroral emissions, in magnetic perturbations, in electron density, and in energetic particle fluxes. In this study, we extend the search for periodicities at Saturn by examining additional plasma and magnetic field parameters in Saturn's inner magnetosphere near the equatorial plane. Our study uses data acquired by the Cassini spacecraft during the equatorial passes from Oct 11, 2005 to May 24, 2006. We have found that the intermittency of in situ measurements in the inner magnetosphere precludes the use of the frequency sweeping technique adopted by Gurnett et al. [2007] to establish the optimum rotation period. We, therefore, use rotation periods already in use: first the slowly changing SLS3 period based on SKR measurements, and second the period based on the magnetic field [Provan et al., 2011], to establish phases and obtain evidence that magnetic pressure, plasma pressure, density, and angular velocity are periodically modulated. We then establish the phase relationships among these parameters to test azimuthal force balance and we compare these results to simulations by Jia et al. [2012].

  2. Kinetic study of solid phase crystallisation of expanding thermal plasma deposited a-Si:H

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, F., E-mail: felixlaw@nus.edu.sg [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Hoex, B. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore (Singapore); Wang, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Luther, J. [Solar Energy Research Institute of Singapore (SERIS), National University of Singapore (Singapore); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Sharma, K.; Creatore, M.; Van de Sanden, M.C.M. [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2012-06-30

    In-situ X-ray diffraction was used to study the dynamics of the solid phase crystallisation (SPC) of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) films deposited by expanding thermal plasma technique. The Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model was used for the analysis of the dynamic data and the activation energy associated with the SPC process was 2.9 eV, which was lower than a-Si:H films deposited by other techniques. Relationships between the Avrami exponent n, the SPC process stability and the subsequent grain structure were demonstrated. Under certain conditions, the films exhibited columnar grain structure with indications of good grain quality, suggesting that these films are suitable to be further developed into solar cell devices. Structure of the grains and the SPC dynamics in this work lend support to prior work that vacancies decorated by hydrogen clusters are related to nucleation sites. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The crystallisation of expanding thermal plasma (ETP) deposited a-Si:H was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov model was used to model the crystallisation process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Activation energy of the solid phase crystallisation process was 2.9 eV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vacancies decorated by hydrogen clusters are suggested nucleation sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ETP is promising in the fabrication process of pc-Si thin film solar cells.

  3. Fourier transform infrared phase-modulated ellipsometry for in situ diagnostics of plasma-surface interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirafuji, T [International Innovation Center, Kyoto University, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8501 (Japan); Motomura, H [Department of Electronics, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Katsura 615-8510 (Japan); Tachibana, K [Department of Electronics, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Katsura 615-8510 (Japan)

    2004-03-21

    Applicability of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy to an in situ diagnostics tool of plasma-surface interactions is described. After a brief review of conventional reflection absorption spectroscopy (RAS) and phase-modulated RAS (PMRAS), our FTIR phase-modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry (PMSE) is described in detail. The FTIR PMSE is constructed by insertion of a grid polarizer as an analyser in front of an infrared detector in addition to the conventional set-up of PMRAS. This simple change brings about a higher sensitivity than that of conventional PMRAS, which enables us to detect chemical species generated on (or removed from) the top surface layer during plasma processing. This feature is demonstrated by the fact that our FTIR PMSE can be applied to surface diagnostics during reactive ion etching processes such as for Si, SiO{sub 2}/Si, SiO{sub 2}/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}, SiO{sub 2}/photo-resist and low-dielectric-constant films. (topical review)

  4. Altered apolipoprotein A-V expression during the acute phase response is independent of plasma triglyceride levels in mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, S.; Schomburg, L.; Renko, K.; Tolle, M.; van der Giet, M.; Tietge, U.J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are altered during the acute phase response (APR). Plasma levels of the recently discovered apolipoprotein AN (apoA-V) are inversely associated with plasma TG. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of apoA-V plasma levels and hepatic apoA-V expression

  5. Accessibility condition of wave propagation and multicharged ion production in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Yushi, E-mail: kato@eei.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp; Yano, Keisuke; Nishiokada, Takuya; Nagaya, Tomoki; Kimura, Daiju; Kumakura, Sho; Imai, Youta; Hagino, Shogo; Otsuka, Takuro; Sato, Fuminobu [Division of Electrical, Electronic and Information Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita-shi, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2016-02-15

    A new tandem type source of electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasmas has been constructing for producing synthesized ion beams in Osaka University. Magnetic mirror field configuration with octupole magnets can be controlled to various shape of ECR zones, namely, in the 2nd stage plasma to be available by a pair mirror and a supplemental coil. Noteworthy correlations between these magnetic configurations and production of multicharged ions are investigated in detail, as well as their optimum conditions. We have been considering accessibility condition of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves propagating in ECR ion source plasma, and then investigated their correspondence relationships with production of multicharged ions. It has been clarified that there exits efficient configuration of ECR zones for producing multicharged ion beams experimentally, and then has been suggested from detail accessibility conditions on the ECR plasma that new resonance, i.e., upper hybrid resonance, must have occurred.

  6. A Transition to Metallic Hydrogen: Evidence of the Plasma Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvera, Isaac; Zaghoo, Mohamed; Salamat, Ashkan

    The insulator-metal transition in hydrogen is one of the most outstanding problems in condensed matter physics. The high-pressure metallic phase is now predicted to be liquid atomic from T =0 K to very high temperatures. We have conducted measurements of optical properties of hot dense hydrogen in the region of 1.1-1.7 Mbar and up to 2200 K in a diamond anvil cell using pulsed laser heating of the sample. We present evidence in two forms: a plateau in the heating curves (average laser power vs temperature) characteristic of a first-order phase transition with latent heat, and changes in transmittance and reflectance characteristic of a metal for temperatures above the plateau temperature. For thick films the reflectance saturates at ~0.5. The phase line of this transition has a negative slope in agreement with theories of the so-called plasma phase transition. The NSF, Grant DMR-1308641, the DOE Stockpile Stewardship Academic Alliance Program, Grant DE-FG52-10NA29656, and NASA Earth and Space Science Fellowship Program, Award NNX14AP17H supported this research.

  7. Thermal charm and charmonium production in quark gluon plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhou

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We study the effect of thermal charm production on charmonium regeneration in high energy nuclear collisions. By solving the kinetic equations for charm quark and charmonium distributions in Pb+Pb collisions, we calculate the global and differential nuclear modification factors RAA(Npart and RAA(pt for J/ψ s. Due to the thermal charm production in hot medium, the charmonium production source changes from the initially created charm quarks at SPS, RHIC and LHC to the thermally produced charm quarks at Future Circular Collider (FCC, and the J/ψ suppression (RAA1 at FCC at low transverse momentum.

  8. A two-stream plasma electron microwave source for high-power millimeter wave generation, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guest, Gareth E.; Dandl, Raphael A.

    1989-03-01

    A novel high power millimeter/microwave source is proposed in which one or more pairs of interpenetrating streams of electrons, flowing through a background plasma in a static magnetic field are used to generate a hot-electron plasma that is confined in a mirror-like magnetic field. Energy stored in the anisotropic, hot-electron plasma is then used to amplify pulses of unstable plasma waves to large amplitude by selective deactivation of mechanisms that stabilize the hot-electron plasma during the energy accumulation phase when the density of hot electrons is rapidly increased through the beam-plasma interaction. The Phase 1 program has yielded a design for an experimental arrangement capable of verifying the key aspects of this novel source concept, as well as a theoretical framework for interpreting the empirical Phase 2 results produced by the experimental device and extrapolating those results to evaluate the suitability of the proposed source to meet the requirements of various high power microwave and millimeter wave defense and industrial applications. The experiments will be carried out in a timely and cost-effective way by employing the AMPHED (a CW magetic mirror) experimental facility at Applied Microwave Plasma Concepts (AMPC).

  9. Plasma torch production of Ti/Al nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, Jonathan [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zea, Hugo [UNM MECH.ENG; Cheng, Lily [UNM MECH.ENG.; Luhrs, Claudia [UNM MECH.ENG.; Courtney, Matthew [UNM MECH.ENG.

    2009-01-01

    Using the Aerosol-through-Plasma (A-T-P) technique high surface area bi-cationic (Ti-Al) oxide particles of a range of stoichiometries were produced that showed remarkable resistance to sintering. Specifically, we found that homogeneous nanoparticles with surface areas greater than 150 m{sup 2}/gm were produced at all stoichiometries. In particular, for particles with a Ti:Al ratio of 1:3 a surface area of just over 200 m{sup 2}/gm was measured using the BET method. The most significant characteristic of these particles was that their sinter resistance was far superior to that of TiAl particles produced using any other method. For example, A-T-P generated particles retained >70% of their surface area even after sintering at 1000 C for five hours. In contrast, particles made using all other methods lost virtually all of their surface area after an 800 C treatment.

  10. Plasma concentrations of parabens in postmenopausal women and self-reported use of personal care products: the NOWAC postgenome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandanger, Torkjel M; Huber, Sandra; Moe, Morten K; Braathen, Tonje; Leknes, Henriette; Lund, Eiliv

    2011-01-01

    Parabens are used extensively in personal care products; however, their estrogenic properties have raised concern over risks to human health. High levels of total parabens, mainly as conjugates, have been reported in human plasma/serum, with limited data on native parabens. Our objective was to assess and link plasma concentrations of native common parabens to self-reported use of personal care products in women from the general population. The information was obtained from an extensive questionnaire on diet and lifestyle previously answered by the women in the NOWAC study. Plasma samples from 332 individuals were extracted and cleaned up by automated solid phase extraction and analyzed by ultra high performance liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Native methyl paraben dominated and was detected in 63% of the samples, with a median level of 9.4 ng/ml. Ethyl paraben (median paraben (median parabens were not detected. For the first time, elevated levels of native parabens are reported in women from the general population. The concentrations were significantly associated with the use of skin lotions, indicating that frequent (daily or more) use maintain elevated concentrations despite the parabens short half-lives. These findings clearly emphasize the need to study potential health effects in the general population.

  11. Nanostructured plasma etched, magnetron sputtered nanolaminar Cr{sub 2}AlC MAX phase thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grieseler, Rolf, E-mail: rolf.grieseler@tu-ilmenau.de [TU Ilmenau, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, Chair Materials for Electronics, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Hähnlein, Bernd; Stubenrauch, Mike [TU Ilmenau, Institute of Micro and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, Chair Nanotechnology, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 1, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Kups, Thomas [TU Ilmenau, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, Chair Materials for Electronics, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Wilke, Marcus [MFPA Weimar, Testing Center for Thin Films and Material Properties at TU Ilmenau, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, Ilmenau (Germany); Hopfeld, Marcus [TU Ilmenau, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, Chair Materials for Electronics, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Pezoldt, Jörg [TU Ilmenau, Institute of Micro and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, Chair Nanotechnology, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 1, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany); Schaaf, Peter [TU Ilmenau, Institute of Materials Engineering and Institute of Micro and Nanotechnologies MacroNano, Chair Materials for Electronics, Gustav-Kirchhoff-Str. 5, 98693 Ilmenau (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    The knowledge of the mechanical properties of new materials determines essentially their usability and functionality when used in micro- and nanostructures. MAX phases are new and highly interesting materials due to their unique combination of materials properties. In this article a new method for producing the Cr{sub 2}AlC MAX phase is presented. Thin film elemental multilayer deposition and subsequent rapid thermal annealing forms the MAX phase within seconds. Additionally, free standing microstructures (beams and cantilevers) based on this MAX phase films are prepared by plasma etching. The mechanical properties of these MAX phase microstructures are investigated.

  12. Alignment of Product Models and Product State Models - Integration of the Product Lifecycle Phases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm; Kirkby, Lars Phillip; Vesterager, Johan

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss the integration of the Product Model (PM) and the Product State Model (PCM). Focus is on information exchange from the PSM to the PM within the manufacturing of a single ship. The paper distinguishes between information and knowledge integration. The paper...

  13. Thermodynamical study on production of acetylene from coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, F.; Guo, W.K.; Yuan, X.Q.; Zhao, T.Z. [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). Inst. for Modern Physics

    2006-05-15

    The chemical thermodynamic equilibrium of acetylene production by coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma was studied. The thermodynamic equilibrium is obtained by using the method of free energy. Calculated results show that the hydrogen concentration in the equilibrium system is very important for the acetylene production by coal conversion and the energy consumption for the production of acetylene per-kilogram strongly depends on the hydrogen concentration and the temperature.

  14. Thermodynamical Study on Production of Acetylene from Coal Pyrolysis in Hydrogen Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Guo, Wenkang; Yuan, Xingqiu; Zhao, Taize

    2006-05-01

    The chemical thermodynamic equilibrium of acetylene production by coal pyrolysis in hydrogen plasma was studied. The thermodynamic equilibrium is obtained by using the method of free energy. Calculated results show that the hydrogen concentration in the equilibrium system is very important for the acetylene production by coal conversion and the energy consumption for the production of acetylene per-kilogram strongly depends on the hydrogen concentration and the temperature.

  15. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butlitsky, M. A.; Zelener, B. V. [Joint Institute for High Temperature of Russian Academy of Science, 125412, Russia, Moscow, Izhorskaya str. 13/2 (Russian Federation); Zelener, B. B. [Joint Institute for High Temperature of Russian Academy of Science, 125412, Russia, Moscow, Izhorskaya str. 13/2 (Russian Federation); Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, 115409, Russia, Moscow, Kashirskoe sh. 31 (Russian Federation)

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a “shelf Coulomb” model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The “shelf Coulomb” model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ε parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ε and γ = βe{sup 2}n{sup 1/3} (where β = 1/k{sub B}T, n is the particle's density, k{sub B} is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ε and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ε{sub crit}≈13(T{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.076),γ{sub crit}≈1.8(v{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.17),P{sub crit}{sup *}≈0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ{sup 3} and reduced temperature T{sup *} = ε{sup −1}.

  16. Critical point of gas-liquid type phase transition and phase equilibrium functions in developed two-component plasma model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butlitsky, M A; Zelener, B B; Zelener, B V

    2014-07-14

    A two-component plasma model, which we called a "shelf Coulomb" model has been developed in this work. A Monte Carlo study has been undertaken to calculate equations of state, pair distribution functions, internal energies, and other thermodynamics properties. A canonical NVT ensemble with periodic boundary conditions was used. The motivation behind the model is also discussed in this work. The "shelf Coulomb" model can be compared to classical two-component (electron-proton) model where charges with zero size interact via a classical Coulomb law. With important difference for interaction of opposite charges: electrons and protons interact via the Coulomb law for large distances between particles, while interaction potential is cut off on small distances. The cut off distance is defined by an arbitrary ɛ parameter, which depends on system temperature. All the thermodynamics properties of the model depend on dimensionless parameters ɛ and γ = βe(2)n(1/3) (where β = 1/kBT, n is the particle's density, kB is the Boltzmann constant, and T is the temperature) only. In addition, it has been shown that the virial theorem works in this model. All the calculations were carried over a wide range of dimensionless ɛ and γ parameters in order to find the phase transition region, critical point, spinodal, and binodal lines of a model system. The system is observed to undergo a first order gas-liquid type phase transition with the critical point being in the vicinity of ɛ(crit) ≈ 13(T(*)(crit) ≈ 0.076), γ(crit) ≈ 1.8(v(*)(crit) ≈ 0.17), P(*)(crit) ≈ 0.39, where specific volume v* = 1/γ(3) and reduced temperature T(*) = ɛ(-1).

  17. Hydrogen production by aqueous phase reforming of light oxygenated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabaker, John William

    Aqueous phase reforming (APR) of renewable oxygenated hydrocarbons (e.g., methanol, ethylene glycol, glycerol, sorbitol, glucose) is a promising new technology for the catalytic production of high-purity hydrogen for fuel cells and chemical processing. Supported Pt catalysts are effective catalysts for stable and rapid H2 production at temperatures near 500 K (H 2 turnover frequencies near 10 min-1). Inexpensive Raney Ni-based catalysts have been developed using a combination of fundamental and high-throughput studies that have similar catalytic properties as Pt-based materials. Promotion of Raney Ni with Sn by controlled surface reaction of organometallic tin compounds is necessary to control formation of thermodynamically-favorable alkane byproducts. Detailed characterization by Mossbauer spectroscopy, electron microscopy, adsorption studies, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA) has shown that NiSn alloys are formed during heat treatment, and may be responsible for enhanced stability and selectivity for hydrogen production. Detailed kinetic studies led to the development of a kinetic mechanism for the APR reaction on Pt and NiSn catalysts, in which the oxygenate decomposes through C--H and O--H cleavage, followed by C--C cleavage and water gas shift of the CO intermediate. The rate limiting step on Pt surfaces is the initial dehydrogenation, while C--C cleavage appears rate limiting over NiSn catalysts. Tin promotion of Raney Ni catalysts suppresses C--O bond scission reactions that lead to alkane formation without inhibiting fast C--C and C--H cleavage steps that are necessary for high rates of reforming. A window of operating temperature, pressure, and reactor residence time has been identified for use of the inexpensive NiSn catalysts as a Pt substitute. Concentrated feed stocks and aggressive pretreatments have been found to counteract catalyst deactivation by sintering in the hydrothermal APR environment and allow stable, long-term production of H

  18. Phase-mixing self-injection into plasma-wakefield acceleration structures driven in a rising density gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahai, Aakash Ajit

    We model the phase-mixing self-injection of electrons into plasma-wakefield acceleration structures driven in a longitudinally rising density gradient. Self-injection is the process where some of the plasma electrons lose coherence with the wave due to non-linearities. The non-linearity is inherently and intentionally induced in the plasma oscillations due to the variation of the restoring force along the rising density gradient. These electrons then get trapped in and propagate with the accelerating phase of the plasma-wave. The electron oscillations driven by matched energy-sources are shown to get trapped in the wakefields similar in scaling to the phase-mixing of free oscillations. The onset of trapping is shown to scale with the gradient of rising density and the amplitude of oscillations. The planar longitudinal electron oscillations undergo trajectory crossing above a threshold amplitude or in a density inhomogeneity leading to phase-mixing and trapping of the oscillating electrons to a phase of the wave. In this thesis, we analyze the scaling of the phase-mixing based trapping of electron oscillations, independent of a threshold, in planar geometry driven by an electron beam in a rising density gradient. The cylindrical and spherical geometry electron oscillations undergo phase-mixing irrespective of the amplitude of oscillations. Here, driven radial electron oscillations in cylindrical geometry are shown to undergo phase-mixing leading to trapping of the plasma electrons in a longitudinally rising density gradient. We also present preliminary scaling results of phase-mixing based trapping of radially oscillating electrons in a rising density gradient.

  19. Decomposition of acetaminophen in water by a gas phase dielectric barrier discharge plasma combined with TiO2-rGO nanocomposite: Mechanism and degradation pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guyu; Sun, Yabing, E-mail: sybnju@163.com; Zhang, Chunxiao; Yu, Zhongqing

    2017-02-05

    Highlights: • Graphene Oxide-based catalyst was first applied with dielectric barrier discharge plasma. • The TiO{sub 2}-rGO showed efficient synergistic effect with gas phase dielectric barrier discharge plasma. • The property changes of TiO{sub 2}-rGO nanocomposite after plasma treatment were characterized. • The mechanism and possible pathways of APAP degradation in plasma/TiO{sub 2}-rGO system were proposed. - Abstract: Acetaminophen (APAP) served as the model pollutant to evaluate the feasibility of pollutant removal by gas phase dielectric barrier discharge plasma combined with the titanium dioxide-reduced Graphene Oxide (TiO{sub 2}-rGO) nanocomposite. TiO{sub 2}-rGO nanocomposite was prepared using the modified hydrothermal method and characterized by TEM and XPS before and after plasma process. The results indicated that the APAP degradation efficiency was significantly improved to 92% after 18 min of discharge plasma treatment coupling 0.25 g L{sup −1} TiO{sub 2}-rGO 5% wt at 18 kV, compared with the plasma alone and plasma combined with P25 TiO{sub 2}. The degradation mechanism for APAP in this system was studied by investigating the effects of the operational variables (e.g. discharge voltage and pH value) and the amount of the generated active species; and the results showed that O{sub 3} and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} yields were influenced notably by adding TiO{sub 2}-rGO. Also, it was observed that, compared with unused TiO{sub 2}-rGO, the photocatalytic performance of used TiO{sub 2}-rGO declined after several recirculation times due to the further reduction of Graphene Oxide in plasma system. Finally, intermediate products were analyzed by UV–vis spectrometry and HPLC/MS, and possible transformation pathways were identified with the support of theoretically calculating the frontier electron density of APAP.

  20. Production characteristics of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species in water using atmospheric pressure discharge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Kohki; Itoh, Hidenori; Kawaguchi, Hideki; Timoshkin, Igor; Given, Martin; MacGregor, Scott

    2016-07-01

    A pulsed discharge, a DC corona discharge, and a plasma jet are separately generated above a water surface, and reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in the water are investigated. ROS/RNS in water after the sparging of the off-gas of a packed-bed dielectric barrier discharge (PB-DBD) are also investigated. H2O2, NO2 -, and NO3 - are detected after plasma exposure and only NO3 - after off-gas sparging. Short-lifetime species in plasma are found to play an important role in H2O2 and NO2 - production and long-lifetime species in NO3 - production. NO x may inhibit H2O2 production through OH consumption to produce HNO2 and HNO3. O3 does not contribute to ROS/RNS production. The pulsed plasma exposure is found to be effective for the production of H2O2 and NO2 -, and the off-gas sparging of the PB-DBD for the production of NO3 -.

  1. High-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) separation and quantitation of endogenous glucocorticoids after solid-phase extraction from plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, R; Kontur, P; Monjan, A

    1984-01-01

    This study describes a method for the extraction and simultaneous measurement of cortisone, cortisol and corticosterone using dexamethasone as an internal standard. Solid-phase extraction of plasma steroids with C18 columns allows the samples to be extracted, washed and concentrated in a single step with minimal sample handling and without the use of large volumes of organic solvents. HPLC separation of the steroids is accomplished within 10 min and the individual steroid peaks are quantitated by UV detection at 239 nm. This assay was examined for linearity, extraction efficiency, precision and potential interference by commonly used drugs. Plasma values of glucocorticoids are reported for samples obtained from human subjects as well as from rats. HPLC was also compared to RIA for the determination of plasma levels of corticosterone in the rat. Solid-phase extraction and assay by HPLC provides a rapid and specific method for the simultaneous determination of plasma glucocorticoids.

  2. Plasma-exchange as a "rescue therapy" for dermato/polymyositis in acute phase. Experience in three young patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzi, Franco; Marson, Piero; Pigatto, Erika; Tison, Tiziana; Polito, Pamela; Galozzi, Paola; De Silvestro, Giustina; Punzi, Leonardo

    2015-12-01

    There are few data in the literature supporting the efficacy of plasma-exchange in dermato/polymyositis. The authors report three cases of patients with acute disease phase showing severe pharyngo-esophageal muscle weakness unresponsive to conventional therapy (corticosteroids and immunosuppressant agents) who were treated with plasma-exchange. As the patients were at high risk of "aspiration pneumonia", tracheostomy and PEG tubes were placed. The patients underwent a series of plasma-exchange for a mean of 15 weeks, during which time they progressively recovered muscle strength, their serum muscle enzyme values returned to normal levels, and MRI showed resolution of muscle edema. The tracheostomy and PEG tubes could be removed. Our findings suggest that plasma-exchange in association with immunosuppressant agents could play a relevant role in the management of dermato/polymyositis in acute phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Phase 1 pixel modules production and High Density Interconnect testing

    CERN Document Server

    Still, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    During the first run of the LHC, luminosity peaked at $1 \\times 10^{34} cm^{-2}s^{-1}$ with $ \\approx 50 ns$ bunch spacing a pile-up of about 25, or simultaneous inelastic collisions per crossing, occur in the CMS experiment. However after the upgrade of of the LHC during long shut down 1, luminosity, and therefore pile-up. Therefore the CMS pixel tracker has to be upgraded to be able to operate correctly under this news stronger constraints. That is how this CERN Summer Student project, which took place at the CERN Meyrin site, comes within the framework of the pixel detector upgrade in the CMS experiment with a work aimed on the phase 1 of pixel modules production and tests of the HDI. The production and tests of the HDI were held in cleanroom facilities. This included first hand as well as to work on pixel modules building and performing size and flatness tests on them, and on a other hand testing several HDIs. At first, prototypes modules were assembled before real modules building. Another aspect of work...

  4. Enhancing gas-phase reaction in a plasma using high intensity and high power ultrasonic acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    is absorbed into said plasma (104), and where a sound pressure level of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) is at least substantially 140 dB and where an acoustic power of said generated ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102); is at least......This invention relates to enhancing a gas-phase reaction in a plasma comprising: creating plasma (104) by at least one plasma source (106), and wherein that the method further comprises: generating ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves (102) having a predetermined amount...... of acoustic energy by at least one ultrasonic high intensity and high power gas-jet acoustic wave generator (101), where said ultrasonic high intensity and high power acoustic waves are directed to propagate towards said plasma (104) so that at least a part of said predetermined amount of acoustic energy...

  5. Reactive species output of a plasma jet with a shielding gas device—combination of FTIR absorption spectroscopy and gas phase modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Bleker, A.; Winter, J.; Iseni, S.; Dünnbier, M.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Reuter, S.

    2014-04-01

    In this work, a simple modelling approach combined with absorption spectroscopy of long living species generated by a cold atmospheric plasma jet yields insight into relevant gas phase chemistry. The reactive species output of the plasma jet is controlled using a shielding gas device. The shielding gas is varied using mixtures of oxygen and nitrogen at various humidity levels. Through the combination of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations and zero dimensional kinetic modelling of the gas phase chemistry, insight into the underlying reaction mechanisms is gained. While the FTIR measurements yield absolute densities of ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the far field of the jet, the kinetic simulations give additional information on reaction pathways. The simulation is fitted to the experimentally obtained data, using the CFD simulations of the experimental setup to estimate the correct evaluation time for the kinetic simulation. It is shown that the ozone production of the plasma jet continuously rises with the oxygen content in the shielding gas, while it significantly drops as humidity is increased. The production of nitrogen dioxide reaches its maximum at about 30% oxygen content in the shielding gas. The underlying mechanisms are discussed based on the simulation results.

  6. Effect of duty-cycles on the air plasma gas-phase of dielectric barrier discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, R.; Biganzoli, I.; Dell'Orto, E. C.; Riccardi, C.

    2015-10-01

    An experimental investigation concerning the effects of a duty-cycle in the supply of a dielectric barrier discharge in atmospheric pressure air has been performed. Electrical characteristics of the discharge have been measured, focusing mainly on the statistical properties of the current filaments and on dielectric surface charging, both affected by the frequent repetition of breakdown imposed by the duty-cycle. Information on the gas-phase composition was gathered too. In particular, a strong enhancement in the ozone formation rate is observed when suitable long pauses separate the active discharge phases. A simulation of the chemical kinetics in the gas-phase, based on a simplified discharge modeling, is briefly described in order to shed light on the observed increase in ozone production. The effect of a duty-cycle on surface modification of polymeric films in order to increase their wettability has been investigated too.

  7. Red wine prevents the postprandial increase in plasma cholesterol oxidation products: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natella, F; Macone, A; Ramberti, A; Forte, M; Mattivi, F; Matarese, R M; Scaccini, C

    2011-06-28

    Moderate wine consumption has been shown to lower cardiovascular risk. One of the mechanisms could involve the control of postprandial hyperlipaemia, a well-defined risk factor for atherosclerosis, reasonably by reducing the absorption of lipid oxidised species from the meal. The objective of the present study was to investigate whether wine consumption with the meal is able to reduce the postprandial increase in plasma lipid hydroperoxides and cholesterol oxidation products, in human subjects. In two different study sessions, twelve healthy volunteers consumed the same test meal rich in oxidised and oxidisable lipids (a double cheeseburger), with 300 ml of water (control) or with 300 ml of red wine (wine). The postprandial plasma concentration of cholesterol oxidation products was measured by GC-MS. The control meal induced a significant increase in the plasma concentration of lipid hydroperoxides and of two cholesterol oxidation products, 7-β-hydroxycholesterol and 7-ketocholesterol. The postprandial increase in lipid hydroperoxides and cholesterol oxidation products was fully prevented by wine when consumed with the meal. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence that consumption of wine with the meal could prevent the postprandial increase in plasma cholesterol oxidation products.

  8. Production and elliptic flow of dileptons and photons in a matrix model of the quark-gluon plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Charles; Hidaka, Yoshimasa; Jeon, Sangyong; Lin, Shu; Paquet, Jean-François; Pisarski, Robert D; Satow, Daisuke; Skokov, Vladimir V; Vujanovic, Gojko

    2015-02-20

    We consider a nonperturbative approach to the thermal production of dileptons and photons at temperatures near the critical temperature in QCD. The suppression of colored excitations at low temperature is modeled by including a small value of the Polyakov loop, in a "semi"-quark-gluon plasma (QGP). Comparing the semi-QGP to the perturbative QGP, we find a mild enhancement of thermal dileptons. In contrast, to leading logarithmic order in weak coupling there are far fewer hard photons from the semi-QGP than the usual QGP. To illustrate the possible effects on photon and dilepton production in heavy-ion collisions, we integrate the rate with a simulation using ideal hydrodynamics. Dileptons uniformly exhibit a small flow, but the strong suppression of photons in the semi-QGP tends to weight the elliptical flow of photons to that generated in the hadronic phase.

  9. Abrupt onset of tongue deformation and phase space response of ions in magnetically-confined plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Itoh, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Akiyama, T.; Moon, C.; Tsuchiya, H.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-10-01

    An abrupt onset of the new tongue-shaped deformation of magnetic surface in magnetized plasmas, which was conjectured in since the 1960s but has not been observed, is experimentally identified just before an abrupt onset of a large-scale collapse event. Two novel properties of the event are identified. First, the transition of symmetry of perturbation (rather than a growth of linearly unstable MHD modes) was found to be a key for the onset of abrupt collapse, i.e., the transition of symmetry gives a new route to the collapse from stable state. Second, as a phase-space response of ions, the distortion from Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of epithermal ions was observed for the first time.

  10. Liquid Phase Plasma Synthesis of Iron Oxide/Carbon Composite as Dielectric Material for Capacitor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heon Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron oxide/carbon composite was synthesized using a liquid phase plasma process to be used as the electrode of supercapacitor. Spherical iron oxide nanoparticles with the size of 5~10 nm were dispersed uniformly on carbon powder surface. The specific capacitance of the composite increased with increasing quantity of iron oxide precipitate on the carbon powder up to a certain quantity. When the quantity of the iron oxide precipitate exceeds the threshold, however, the specific capacitance was rather reduced by the addition of precipitate. The iron oxide/carbon composite containing an optimum quantity (0.33 atomic % of iron oxide precipitate exhibited the smallest resistance and the largest initial resistance slope.

  11. Deconfining Phase Transition to a Quark-Gluon Plasma in Different SU(3) Color Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mezouar, K.; Ait El Djoudi, A.; Ghenam, L.

    2016-10-01

    For a statistical description of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) considering its internal symmetry, we calculate its partition function using the group theoretical projection method. We project out the partition function of a QGP consisting of gluons, massless up and down quarks, and massive strange quarks onto the singlet representation of the SU(3) color group, as well as onto the color octet and the color 27-plet representations. A comparison of these color representations is done, by studying their effects on the behavior of some thermodynamical quantities characterizing the mixed hadronic gas-QGP system undergoing a thermal deconfining phase transition on one side, and on the free energy during the formation of a QGP droplet from the hot hadronic gas on another side.

  12. Abrupt onset of tongue deformation and phase space response of ions in magnetically-confined plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, K.; Kobayashi, T.; Itoh, K.; Yoshinuma, M.; Tokuzawa, T.; Akiyama, T.; Moon, C.; Tsuchiya, H.; Inagaki, S.; Itoh, S.-I.

    2016-01-01

    An abrupt onset of the new tongue-shaped deformation of magnetic surface in magnetized plasmas, which was conjectured in since the 1960s but has not been observed, is experimentally identified just before an abrupt onset of a large-scale collapse event. Two novel properties of the event are identified. First, the transition of symmetry of perturbation (rather than a growth of linearly unstable MHD modes) was found to be a key for the onset of abrupt collapse, i.e., the transition of symmetry gives a new route to the collapse from stable state. Second, as a phase-space response of ions, the distortion from Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of epithermal ions was observed for the first time. PMID:27796370

  13. DETERMINATION OF FLUCONAZOLE IN HUMAN PLASMA BY REVERSE PHASE HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safaei, Zahra; Alipour, Eskandar; Shafaati, Alireza; Zarghp, Afshin

    2015-01-01

    A rapid, simple and reproducible high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for determination of fluconazole in human plasma. The separation was performed on MZ C8 column (125 x 4 mm, 5 µm) using acetonitrile - potassium dihydrogen phosphate buffer (15 : 85, v/v), pH 3.0, as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The wavelength was set at 261 nm. The assay enables the measurement of fluconazole for therapeutic drug monitoring with a minimum quantification limit of 20 ng/mL. The method involves simple, protein precipitation procedure and analytical recovery was complete. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range 0.1-4 µg/mL. The coefficients of variation for inter-day and intra-day assay were found to be less than 10%.

  14. Plasma chemical production of stable isotopes of germanium from its fluorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornev, Roman; Sennikov, Peter

    2016-08-01

    The reduction process of 72GeF4 in hydrogen plasma of RF-discharge (13.56 MHz) was experimentally investigated. It was found that 72Ge, polyfluorogermanes and gaseous HF were the main products of conversion. The behavior of the main electroactive impurities and of metal impurities in the process of hydrogen reduction of 72GeF4 was considered. Based on the data of emission spectroscopy of chemically active plasma, assumptions were made about the main plasma-chemical reactions responsible for the process of hydrogen reduction of 72GeF4. A single crystal of n-type with concentration of charge carriers of Czochralski method after the process of zone recrystallization of 72Ge. Contribution to the topical issue "6th Central European Symposium on Plasma Chemistry (CESPC-6)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ester Marotta and Cristina Paradisi

  15. Preparative soft and reactive landing of gas-phase ions on plasma-treated metal surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volný, Michael; Elam, W Timothy; Ratner, Buddy D; Turecek, Frantisek

    2005-08-01

    Soft landing of singly charged gas-phase ions on dry metal surfaces that were pretreated in situ by oxygen plasma results in 0.1-2% total yields of recovered intact compounds. Lysine, peptides, crystal violet dye, and a biotin conjugate are found to survive soft landing of hyperthermal ions of up to 50-eV kinetic energy. Soft landing at 40-50-eV ion kinetic energies of a fluorescence-labeled biotin conjugate results in an immobilized fraction that cannot be washed from the surface and is found to contain an intact biotin moiety. The present results represent an approximately 10(4) fold improvement in soft-landing efficiency and indicate that plasma-treated metal surfaces can be useful for preparative separation of organic and biological molecules by mass spectrometry. The substantial improvement in soft-landing yields results from a high transmission of electrosprayed ions into the vacuum system, efficient and nondestructive discharge of ions on the metal oxide surface, and facile analyte recovery in the absence of a matrix.

  16. Atmospheric Plasma Spraying of Single Phase Lanthanum Zirconate Thermal Barrier Coatings with Optimized Porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Mauer

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The shortcomings at elevated operation temperatures of the standard material yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ for thermal barrier coatings (TBCs have initiated many research activities seeking alternatives. One candidate is the pyrochlore lanthanum zirconate La2Zr2O7 (LZ, which is phase-stable to its melting point. At the same time, it shows a lower thermal conductivity and a lower sintering tendency when compared to YSZ. Because of its low thermal expansion coefficient and poor toughness, it is applied in combination with YSZ in double layer TBC systems. It is the current state of knowledge that LZ is prone to lanthanum depletion if processed by plasma spraying. The process conditions have to be selected carefully to avoid this. Furthermore, the amount and morphology of the coating porosity is essential for a good thermo-mechanical performance. In this work, the development and testing of LZ/YSZ double layer TBC systems is described. Initially, suitable basic parameters (torch, plasma gas composition, and power were tested with respect to coating stoichiometry. Then, microstructures were optimized by adjusting feed rate, spray distance, and by selecting a more appropriate feedstock. Powder particles and coatings were characterized by digital image analysis.

  17. Effect of Wall Material on H– Production in a Plasma Sputter-Type Ion Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. D. M. Ponce

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of wall material on negative hydrogen ion (H– production was investigated in a multicusp plasma sputter-type ion source (PSTIS. Steady-state cesium-seeded hydrogen plasma was generated by a tungsten filament, while H– was produced through surface production using a molybdenum sputter target. Plasma parameters and H– yields were determined from Langmuir probe and Faraday cup measurements, respectively. At an input hydrogen pressure of 1.2 mTorr and optimum plasma discharge parameters Vd = –90 V and Id = –2.25 A, the plasma parameters ne was highest and T–e was lowest as determined from Langmuir probe measurements. At these conditions, aluminum generates the highest ion current density of 0.01697 mA/cm2, which is 64% more than the 0.01085 mA/cm2 that stainless steel produces. The yield of copper, meanwhile, falls between the two materials at 0.01164 mA/cm2. The beam is maximum at Vt = –125 V. Focusing is achieved at VL = –70 V for stainless steel, Vt = –60 V for aluminum, and Vt = –50 V for copper. The results demonstrate that proper selection of wall material can greatly enhance the H– production of the PSTIS.

  18. The role of plasma adenosine deaminase in chemoattractant-stimulated oxygen radical production in neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kälvegren, Hanna; Fridfeldt, Jonna; Bengtsson, Torbjörn

    2010-06-01

    Adenosine deaminase (ADA) has a role in many immunity mediated disorders, such as asthma, tuberculosis and coronary artery disease. This study aims to investigate the ability of plasma ADA to modulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neutrophils, and examine the involvement of adenosine and the cyclic AMP signaling pathway in this process. Neutrophils were stimulated, in the absence or presence of plasma, with the chemotactic peptide fMLP (formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine), and the ROS production was determined with luminol-enhanced chemiluminescence. Activity of ADA was measured spectrophotometrically. Plasma dose-dependently amplified the ROS generation in fMLP-stimulated neutrophils. In parallel, incubation of neutrophils in plasma elevated the total ADA-activity approximately 10 times from 1.3 U/ml to 12 U/ml. Inhibition of ADA, or type IV phosphodiesterases, significantly lowered the plasma-mediated ROS production. Furthermore, the high-affinity adenosine A(1) receptor antagonists DPCPX and 8-phenyltheophylline markedly inhibited the plasma-induced respiratory burst in neutrophils, suggesting an A(1) receptor-mediated mechanism. This study suggests that plasma ADA amplifies the release of toxic oxygen radicals from neutrophils through a downregulation of the inhibitory adenosine/cAMP-system and an enhanced activation of the stimulatory adenosine A(1)-receptor. This mechanism has probably a crucial role in regulating neutrophil function and in the defence against microbial infections. However, a sustained neutrophil activation could also contribute to inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Pathogen safety of plasma-derived products - Haemate P/Humate-P.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröner, A

    2008-11-01

    Plasma-derived factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand Factor (VWF)/FVIII concentrates have been successfully used to treat haemophilia since the late 1960s. These products are derived from pools of plasma donations that may contain viral contaminants - including hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) - and may therefore present a transmission risk to recipients. To ensure the safety of Haemate P/Humate-P, a plasma-derived VWF/FVIII concentrate, donors of plasma are carefully selected and all donations are screened for viral antigens (HBV), virus-specific antibodies (HIV-1/2, HCV) and genomic material [hepatitis A virus, HBV, HCV, HIV-1 and high titres of human parvovirus B19 (B19V)]. As a quality control measure, plasma pools for fractionation are only released for further processing when non-reactivity has been demonstrated in serological and genome amplification assays. The manufacturing process for plasma-derived products, especially the fundamental procedure of pasteurization, is effective in inactivating and/or removing a wide variety of viruses that may potentially be present despite the screening process. This has been demonstrated in virus validation studies using a range of different viruses. New emerging infectious agents, including prions, which potentially pose a threat to recipients of plasma derivatives, are also the subject of safety evaluations. The multiple precautionary measures that are inherent in the overall production process of Haemate P/Humate-P have resulted in an excellent safety record, documented during 25 years of clinical use, and will help to maintain the high safety margin in the future.

  20. Aqueous two-phase partition applied to the isolation of plasma membranes and Golgi apparatus from cultured mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morre, D. M.; Morre, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Partitioning in dextran-poly(ethylene)glycol (PEG) aqueous-aqueous phase systems represents a mature technology with many applications to separations of cells and to the preparation of membranes from mammalian cells. Most applications to membrane isolation and purification have focused on plasma membranes, plasma membrane domains and separation of right side-out and inside-out plasma membrane vesicles. The method exploits a combination of membrane properties, including charge and hydrophobicity. Purification is based upon differential distributions of the constituents in a sample between the two principal compartments of the two phases (upper and lower) and at the interface. The order of affinity of animal cell membranes for the upper phase is: endoplasmic reticulum two-phase partition with other procedures to obtain a more highly purified preparation. A procedure is described for preparation of Golgi apparatus from transformed mammalian cells that combines aqueous two-phase partition and centrifugation. Also described is a periodic NADH oxidase, a new enzyme marker for right side-out plasma membrane vesicles not requiring detergent disruptions for measurement of activity.

  1. Correlation of H/sup -/ production and the work function of a surface in a hydrogen plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.

    1983-03-01

    Surface-plasma negative hydrogen ion sources are being developed as possible parts for future neutral beam systems. In these ion sources, negative hydrogen ions (H/sup -/) are produced at low work function metal surfaces immersed in hydrogen plasmas. To investigate the correlation between the work function and the H/sup -/ production at the surface with a condition similar to the one in the actual plasma ion source, these two parameters were simultaneously measured in the hydrogen plasma environment.

  2. Strangeness production as a signal for quark-gluon plasma formation in high energy particle collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redlich, K.

    1985-04-01

    Strangeness production in hot nuclear matter in the non-interacting gas approximation with an Usub(B)(1)xUsub(S)(1) internal symmetry group is discussed. It is argued that the stangeness abundancy ratio in the quark-gluon plasma as compared to the hadron gas strongly depends on under which thermodynamical circumstances it has been computed.

  3. Micro-scale Plasma Arc Gasification for Waste Treatment and Energy Production Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraccio, Anne

    2015-01-01

    As NASA continues to develop technology for spaceflight beyond low earth orbit, we must develop the right systems for sustaining human life on a long duration or planetary mission. Plasma arc gasification (PAG) is an energy efficient mechanism of waste management for power generation and synthetic gas(syngas) production.

  4. A nonlabeled method to evaluate cortisol production rate by modeling plasma CBG-free cortisol disposition

    OpenAIRE

    Picard-Hagen, Nicole; Gayrard-Troy, Véronique,; Alvinerie, Michel; Smeyers, Hélène; Ricou, Raphael; Bousquet-Mélou, Alain; Toutain, Pierre-Louis

    2001-01-01

    This study aimed to develop a nonlabeled method for the measurement of cortisol production rate to evaluate adrenal function. The cortisol production rate determination requires that of cortisol clearance, which is not a parameter but a variable resulting from the saturable binding of cortisol to corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG). Our method is based on evaluation of the plasma clearance of the CBG-free cortisol fraction. This parameter was evaluated from a pharmacokinetic model of total ...

  5. Phase mixing vs. nonlinear advection in drift-kinetic plasma turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Schekochihin, A A; Highcock, E G; Dellar, P J; Dorland, W; Hammett, G W

    2015-01-01

    A scaling theory of long-wavelength electrostatic turbulence in a magnetised, weakly collisional plasma (e.g., drift-wave turbulence driven by temperature gradients) is proposed, with account taken both of the nonlinear advection of the perturbed particle distribution by fluctuating ExB flows and of its phase mixing, which is caused by the streaming of the particles along the mean magnetic field and, in a linear problem, would lead to Landau damping. A consistent theory is constructed in which very little free energy leaks into high velocity moments of the distribution, rendering the turbulent cascade in the energetically relevant part of the wave-number space essentially fluid-like. The velocity-space spectra of free energy expressed in terms of Hermite-moment orders are steep power laws and so the free-energy content of the phase space does not diverge at infinitesimal collisionality (while it does for a linear problem); collisional heating due to long-wavelength perturbations vanishes in this limit (also i...

  6. Phase Composition, Microstructure, and Tribological Property of Plasma-Sprayed TiC-BASED Coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shibin; Zou, Zengda; Liu, Xuemei; Shi, Hanchao

    TiC-based wear resistant coating was prepared by plasma spraying using reconstituted composite powders doped with ultra-fine carbide. Phase composition and microstructure of as-sprayed coating were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) utilizing backscattered imaging mode (BSE), and electron probe micro-analysis. Wear test was performed by using a ring-on-block tester under dry sliding condition. Results show that the coating adheres well to the substrate and no delamination appears. TiC content underwent pronounced reduction because of oxidation, reaction, and physical loss. Reactions between TiC and Mo and probably between dissociated C and Mo lead to the formation of Mo2C. Wear resistance of NiCrMo-TiC coating is about 4-8 times higher than that of substrate under different applied force. This work shed light on the reconstitution of spraying powder doped with ultra-fine reinforce phase particles, and the present results are important for the preparation of nano-doped TiC-based coatings.

  7. Entropy production for an interacting quark-gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Mattiello, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the entropy production within dissipative hydrodynamics in the Israel-Stewart (IS) and Navier-Stokes theory (NS) for relativistic heavy ion physics applications. In particular we focus on the initial condition in a 0+1D Bjorken scenario, appropriate for the early longitudinal expansion stage of the collision. Going beyond the standard simplification of a massless ideal gas we consider a realistic equation of state consistently derived within a virial expansion. The EoS used is well in line with recent three-flavor QCD lattice data for the pressure, speed of sound, and interaction measure at nonzero temperature and vanishing chemical potential ($\\mu_{\\rm q} = 0$). The shear viscosity has been consistently calculated within this formalism using a kinetic approach in the ultra-relativistic regime with an explicit and systematic evaluation of the transport cross section as function of temperature. We investigate the influence of the viscosity and the initial condition, i.e. formation time, initial ...

  8. Simultaneous determination of caffeine, theophylline and theobromine in human plasma by on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to reversed-phase chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emara, Samy

    2004-10-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic column switching system was described for the determination of caffeine (CF), theophylline (TH) and theobromine (TB) in human plasma with a direct injection procedure. A short protein-coated mu Bondapak CN silica pre-column (20 x 3 mm, i.d.) was used for enrichment of the drugs and clean up from weakly retained plasma components using phosphate buffer saline pH 7.4. After washing step, the retained drugs were flushed into a reversed-phase column (5 microm TSK gel ODS-80 TM, 150 x 4.6 mm i.d.) with a mobile phase of methanol-0.01 M phosphate buffer, pH 3.5 (30:70, v/v) for the final separation. The eluent was monitored with a UV detector at 275 nm. The resulting chromatograms showed no interference from endogenous plasma components. A linear relationship between the concentration of drug and peak height was confirmed in the range of 0.5-20 microg/mL for all drugs. High extraction recoveries from plasma ranging from 96.12 to 100.32% were achieved. Validation of the method was examined performing intra- and inter-day accuracy and precision and was found to be satisfactory. The coefficients of variation of the three drugs were less than 3% for intra-day and less than 4% for inter-day run assays.

  9. 100% N2 atmospheric-pressure microwave-line-plasma production with a modified waveguide structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Haruka; Tamura, Yuto; Itoh, Hitoshi; Sekine, Makoto; Hori, Masaru; Toyoda, Hirotaka

    2016-09-01

    Large-scale atmospheric pressure (AP) plasmas have been given much attention because of its high cost benefit and a variety of possibilities for industrial applications. Microwave discharge plasma using slot antenna is attractive due to its ability of high-density and stable plasma production, and we have developed a long-scale AP microwave plasma (AP microwave line plasma: AP-MLP) source using loop-structured waveguide and travelling wave and have reported spatially-uniform AP-MLP of 40 cm in length using Ar or He gas discharge. However, rare gas discharge is not always suitable for industrial applications because usage of large volume rare gas degrades the AP cost benefit. Furthermore, many industrial applications require chemically-reactive species and the AP-MLP using molecular gas will drastically increase the applications of the AP-MLP. In this study, we demonstrate 100% N2 discharge of the AP-MLP with a modified waveguide structure. Cross-sectional structure of the waveguide is improved to enhance the microwave electric field in the slot. 100% N2 plasma of 15 cm-long is successfully produced using CW microwave power of 2 kW. Low gas temperature of 1000 K is confirmed by optical emission spectroscopy, suggesting applications of the AP-MLP to low temperature processes. Part of this work is supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 25286079.

  10. Plasma fibrinogen degradation products in betel nut chewers - with and without oral submucous fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Kiran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF has a multifactorial etiology. Recent studies have shown that there is an increased level of fibrinogen degradation products (FDP in plasma of OSMF patients suggesting its possible role in etiopathogenesis of OSMF. Aims: To detect the presence of FDP in the plasma of betel nut chewers with and without OSMF and in normal subjects without any habits, to correlate these levels with respect to the clinical and histological grading of OSMF and whether it can be used as a nonsurgical diagnostic aid in detection of suspected OSMF cases. Materials and Methods: Study comprised of 35 cases of betel nut chewers with OSMF, 10 patients with betel nut chewing habit but having apparently normal oral mucosa, and 10 normal patients without any habits. The patients were evaluated for plasma FDP levels. Results: All the betel nut chewers with OSMF showed the presence of plasma FDP. However, controls and subjects with habit, but without OSMF did not show FDP in the plasma. Spearman′s rank correlation was used to find the association between the clinical and histological grades and it was not statistically significant (P = 0.910 and the correlation being 0.020. Conclusion: Since only those patients with OSMF have showed the presence of FDP in plasma, we suggest that our test can be utilized as a nonsurgical diagnostic aid in suspected OSMF patients.

  11. Products of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage in relation to vitamin C plasma concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajcovicová-Kudlácková, M; Dusinská, M; Valachovicová, M; Blazícek, P; Pauková, V

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic age-related free radical-induced diseases. Improved antioxidant status minimizes oxidative damage to DNA, proteins, lipids and other biomolecules. Diet-derived antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids and related plant pigments are important in antioxidative defense and maintaining health. The results of long-term epidemiological and clinical studies suggest that protective vitamin C plasma concentration for minimum risk of free radical disease is higher than 50 micromol/l. Products of oxidative damage to DNA (DNA strand breaks with oxidized purines and pyrimidines), proteins (carbonyls) and lipids (conjugated dienes of fatty acids, malondialdehyde) were estimated in a group of apparently healthy adult non-smoking population in dependence on different vitamin C plasma concentrations. Under conditions of protective plasma vitamin C concentrations (>50 micromol/l) significantly lower values of DNA, protein and lipid oxidative damage were found in comparison with the vitamin C-deficient group (fruit and vegetable consumption (leading to higher vitamin C intake and higher vitamin C plasma concentrations) on oxidation of DNA, proteins and lipids is also expressed by an inverse significant correlation between plasma vitamin C and products of oxidative damage. The results suggest an important role of higher and frequent consumption of protective food (fruit, vegetables, vegetable oils, nuts, seeds and cereal grains) in prevention of free radical disease.

  12. Simultaneous determination of the HIV nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors lamivudine, didanosine, stavudine, zidovudine and abacavir in human plasma by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verweij-van Wissen, C.P.W.G.M.; Aarnoutse, R.E.; Burger, D.M.

    2005-01-01

    A reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative determination of the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) lamivudine, didanosine, stavudine, zidovudine and abacavir in plasma. The method involved solid-phase extraction wit

  13. Microphase-Separated PE/PEO Thin Films Prepared by Plasma-Assisted Vapor Phase Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukourov, Andrei; Gordeev, Ivan; Ponti, Jessica; Uboldi, Chiara; Melnichuk, Iurii; Vaidulych, Mykhailo; Kousal, Jaroslav; Nikitin, Daniil; Hanyková, Lenka; Krakovský, Ivan; Slavínská, Danka; Biederman, Hynek

    2016-03-01

    Immiscible polymer blends tend to undergo phase separation with the formation of nanoscale architecture which can be used in a variety of applications. Different wet-chemistry techniques already exist to fix the resultant polymeric structure in predictable manner. In this work, an all-dry and plasma-based strategy is proposed to fabricate thin films of microphase-separated polyolefin/polyether blends. This is achieved by directing (-CH2-)100 and (-CH2-CH2-O-)25 oligomer fluxes produced by vacuum thermal decomposition of poly(ethylene) and poly(ethylene oxide) onto silicon substrates through the zone of the glow discharge. The strategy enables mixing of thermodynamically incompatible macromolecules at the molecular level, whereas electron-impact-initiated radicals serve as cross-linkers to arrest the subsequent phase separation at the nanoscale. The mechanism of the phase separation as well as the morphology of the films is found to depend on the ratio between the oligomeric fluxes. For polyolefin-rich mixtures, polyether molecules self-organize by nucleation and growth into spherical domains with average height of 22 nm and average diameter of 170 nm. For equinumerous fluxes and for mixtures with the prevalence of polyethers, spinodal decomposition is detected that results in the formation of bicontinuous structures with the characteristic domain size and spacing ranging between 5 × 10(1) -7 × 10(1) nm and 3 × 10(2)-4 × 10(2) nm, respectively. The method is shown to produce films with tunable wettability and biologically nonfouling properties.

  14. Expanding sheath in a bounded plasma in the context of the post-arc phase of a vacuum arc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrailh, P [LAboratoire PLAsma et Conversion de l' Energie (LAPLACE), UMR5213, Universite Paul Sabatier, bat. 3R2, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Garrigues, L [LAboratoire PLAsma et Conversion de l' Energie (LAPLACE), UMR5213, Universite Paul Sabatier, bat. 3R2, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Hagelaar, G J M [LAboratoire PLAsma et Conversion de l' Energie (LAPLACE), UMR5213, Universite Paul Sabatier, bat. 3R2, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 4 (France); Sandolache, G [Schneider Electric Centre de Recherche, 38 TEC, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Rowe, S [Schneider Electric Centre de Recherche, 38 TEC, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Jusselin, B [Schneider Electric Centre de Recherche, 38 TEC, 38050 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France); Boeuf, J P [LAboratoire PLAsma et Conversion de l' Energie (LAPLACE), UMR5213, Universite Paul Sabatier, bat. 3R2, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex 4 (France)

    2008-01-07

    A numerical model of sheath expansion and plasma decay in a bounded plasma subjected to a linearly increasing voltage has been developed. Numerical results obtained with a hybrid-MB model (Maxwell-Boltzmann electrons, particle ions and Poisson's equations) are compared with analytical theory and results from particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. The hybrid-MB model is similar to models used for plasma immersion ion implantation except that plasma decay due to particle losses to the electrodes is taken into account. The comparisons with more accurate and much more time consuming PIC models show that the hybrid-MB model provides a very satisfactory description of the sheath expansion and plasma decay even for conditions where the grid spacing is much larger than the Debye length. The model is used for high plasma density conditions, corresponding to the post-arc phase of a vacuum arc circuit breaker where a vacuum gap is subject to a transient recovery voltage (TRV) after it has ceased to sustain a vacuum arc. The results show that the plasma sheath expansion is subsonic under these conditions, and that the plasma starts to decay exponentially after two rarefaction waves from the cathode and anode merge in the centre of the gap. A parametric study also shows the strong influence of the TRV rise rate and initial plasma density on the plasma decay time and on the ion current collected by each electrode. The effect of collisions between charged particles and metal atoms resulting for the electrode evaporation is also discussed.

  15. Inactivation of Zika virus by solvent/detergent treatment of human plasma and other plasma-derived products and pasteurization of human serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnel, Denis; Müller, Sebastian; Pichotta, Alexander; Radomski, Kai Uwe; Volk, Andreas; Schmidt, Torben

    2017-03-01

    In 2016 the World Health Organization declared the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) a "public health emergency of international concern." ZIKV is a blood-borne pathogen, which therefore causes concerns regarding the safety of human plasma-derived products due to potential contamination of the blood supply. This study investigated the effectiveness of viral inactivation steps used during the routine manufacturing of various plasma-derived products to reduce ZIKV infectivity. Human plasma and intermediates from the production of various plasma-derived products were spiked with ZIKV and subjected to virus inactivation using the identical techniques (either solvent/detergent [S/D] treatment or pasteurization) and conditions used for the actual production of the respective products. Samples were taken and the viral loads measured before and after inactivation. After S/D treatment of spiked intermediates of the plasma-derived products Octaplas(LG), Octagam, and Octanate, the viral loads were below the limit of detection in all cases. The mean log reduction factor (LRF) was at least 6.78 log for Octaplas(LG), at least 7.00 log for Octagam, and at least 6.18 log for Octanate after 60, 240, and 480 minutes of S/D treatment, respectively. For 25% human serum albumin (HSA), the mean LRF for ZIKV was at least 7.48 log after pasteurization at 60°C for 120 minutes. These results demonstrate that the commonly used virus inactivation processes utilized during the production of human plasma and plasma-derived products, namely, S/D treatment or pasteurization, are effective for inactivation of ZIKV. © 2016 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  16. On the phase velocity of plasma waves in a self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreev, N. E.; Kirsanov, V. I.; Sakharov, A. S.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Goloviznin, V. V.

    1996-01-01

    The properties of the wake field excited by a flattop laser pulse with a sharp leading edge and a power below the critical one for relativistic self-focusing are studied analytically and numerically with emphasis on the phase velocity of the plasma wave. The paraxial model describing modulation of t

  17. On the phase velocity of plasma waves in a self-modulated laser wake-field accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreev, N. E.; Kirsanov, V. I.; Sakharov, A. S.; van Amersfoort, P. W.; Goloviznin, V. V.

    1996-01-01

    The properties of the wake field excited by a flattop laser pulse with a sharp leading edge and a power below the critical one for relativistic self-focusing are studied analytically and numerically with emphasis on the phase velocity of the plasma wave. The paraxial model describing modulation of t

  18. Nanosecond pulsed humid Ar plasma jet in air: shielding, discharge characteristics and atomic hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yatom, Shurik; Luo, Yuchen; Xiong, Qing; Bruggeman, Peter J.

    2017-10-01

    Gas phase non-equilibrium plasmas jets containing water vapor are of growing interest for many applications. In this manuscript, we report a detailed study of an atmospheric pressure nanosecond pulsed Ar  +  0.26% H2O plasma jet. The plasma jet operates in an atmospheric pressure air surrounding but is shielded with a coaxial argon flow to limit the air diffusion into the jet effluent core. The jet impinges on a metal plate electrode and produces a stable plasma filament (transient spark) between the needle electrode in the jet and the metal plate. The stable plasma filament is characterized by spatially and time resolved electrical and optical diagnostics. This includes Rayleigh scattering, Stark broadening of the hydrogen Balmer lines and two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TaLIF) to obtain the gas temperature, the electron density and the atomic hydrogen density respectively. Electron densities and atomic hydrogen densities up to 5 × 1022 m-3 and 2 × 1022 m-3 have been measured. This shows that atomic hydrogen is one of the main species in high density Ar-H2O plasmas. The gas temperature does not exceed 550 K in the core of the plasma. To enable in situ calibration of the H TaLIF at atmospheric pressure a previously published O density calibration scheme is extended to include a correction for the line profiles by including overlap integrals as required by H TaLIF. The line width of H TaLIF, due to collision broadening has the same trend as the neutral density obtained by Rayleigh scattering. This suggests the possibility to use this technique to in situ probe neutral gas densities.

  19. Strong associations among rumen endotoxin and acute phase proteins with plasma minerals in lactating cows fed graded amounts of concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebeli, Q; Dunn, S M; Ametaj, B N

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine associations among rumen endotoxin, plasma serum amyloid A (SAA), and C-reactive protein (CRP) with plasma Ca, Fe, Zn, and Cu in lactating cows challenged with graded amounts of rolled barley grain in the diet (i.e., 0, 15, 30, and 45% of DMI). Correlative relationships among variables were determined by linear and nonlinear regression procedures adjusted for the effects of day, animal, and experimental period. Increasing the amount of grain in the diet was successful in inducing an acute phase response, as assessed by augmentation of rumen endotoxin and plasma CRP and SAA (P minerals. Results suggest that new feeding strategies should be developed to curb the release of endotoxin in the rumen fluid to prevent perturbing minerals in the plasma.

  20. Enhanced photon emission and pair production in laser-irradiated plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Lv, Chong; Jia, Moran; Xie, Baisong

    2017-07-01

    Enhanced photon emission and pair production due to heavy ion mass in the interaction of an ultraintense laser with overdense plasmas is explored by particle-in-cell simulation. It is found that plasmas with heavier ion mass can excite a higher and broader electrostatic field, which causes the enhancement of backward photon emission. The pair yields are then enhanced due to the increase of backwards photons colliding with the incoming laser pulse. By examining the density evolution and angle distribution of each particle species, the origin of pair yield enhancement is clarified.

  1. Perioperative plasma concentrations of stable nitric oxide products are predictive of cognitive dysfunction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iohom, G

    2012-02-03

    In this study our objectives were to determine the incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) after laparoscopic cholecystectomy under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients aged >40 and <85 yr and to examine the associations between plasma concentrations of i) S-100beta protein and ii) stable nitric oxide (NO) products and POCD in this clinical setting. Neuropsychological tests were performed on 42 ASA physical status I-II patients the day before, and 4 days and 6 wk after surgery. Patient spouses (n = 13) were studied as controls. Cognitive dysfunction was defined as deficit in one or more cognitive domain(s). Serial measurements of serum concentrations of S-100beta protein and plasma concentrations of stable NO products (nitrate\\/nitrite, NOx) were performed perioperatively. Four days after surgery, new cognitive deficit was present in 16 (40%) patients and in 1 (7%) control subject (P = 0.01). Six weeks postoperatively, new cognitive deficit was present in 21 (53%) patients and 3 (23%) control subjects (P = 0.03). Compared with the "no deficit" group, patients who demonstrated a new cognitive deficit 4 days postoperatively had larger plasma NOx at each perioperative time point (P < 0.05 for each time point). Serum S-100beta protein concentrations were similar in the 2 groups. In conclusion, preoperative (and postoperative) plasma concentrations of stable NO products (but not S-100beta) are associated with early POCD. The former represents a potential biochemical predictor of POCD.

  2. Patient age does not affect mefloquine concentrations in erythrocytes and plasma during the acute phase of falciparum malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Fernandes Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To evaluate whether patient age has a significant impact on mefloquine concentrations in the plasma and erythrocytes over the course of treatment for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Methods A total of 20 children aged between 8 and 11 years and 20 adult males aged between 22 and 41 years with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were enrolled in the study. Mefloquine was administered to patients in both age groups at a dose of 20 mg kg−1. The steady-state drug concentrations were measured by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results All patients had an undetectable mefloquine concentration on day 0. In adults, the plasma mefloquine concentrations ranged from 770 to 2930 ng mL−1 and the erythrocyte concentrations ranged from 2000 to 6030 ng mL−1. In children, plasma mefloquine concentrations ranged from 881 to 3300 ng mL−1 and erythrocyte concentrations ranged from 3000 to 4920 ng mL−1. There was no significant correlation between mefloquine concentrations in the plasma and erythrocytes in either adults or children. Conclusion In the present study, we observed no effect of patient age on the steady-state concentrations of mefloquine in the plasma and erythrocytes. We found that the mefloquine concentration in the erythrocytes was approximately 2.8-times higher than in the plasma. There were no significant correlations between mefloquine concentrations in the erythrocytes and plasma for either age group.

  3. Plasmas for environmental issues: from hydrogen production to 2D materials assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatarova, E.; Bundaleska, N.; Sarrette, J. Ph; Ferreira, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    It is well recognized at present that the unique, high energy density plasma environment provides suitable conditions to dissociate/atomize molecules in remediation systems, to convert waste and biomass into sustainable energy sources, to purify water, to assemble nanostructures, etc. The remarkable plasma potential is based on its ability to supply simultaneously high fluxes of charged particles, chemically active molecules, radicals (e.g. O, H, OH), heat, highly energetic photons (UV and extreme UV radiation), and strong electric fields in intrinsic sheath domains. Due to this complexity, low-temperature plasma science and engineering is a huge, highly interdisciplinary field that spans many research disciplines and applications across many areas of our daily life and industrial activities. For this reason, this review deals only with some selected aspects of low-temperature plasma applications for a clean and sustainable environment. It is not intended to be a comprehensive survey, but just to highlight some important works and achievements in specific areas. The selected issues demonstrate the diversity of plasma-based applications associated with clean and sustainable ambiance and also show the unity of the underlying science. Fundamental plasma phenomena/processes/features are the common fibers that pass across all these areas and unify all these applications. Browsing through different topics, we try to emphasize these phenomena/processes/features and their uniqueness in an attempt to build a general overview. The presented survey of recently published works demonstrates that plasma processes show a significant potential as a solution for waste/biomass-to-energy recovery problems. The reforming technologies based on non-thermal plasma treatment of hydrocarbons show promising prospects for the production of hydrogen as a future clean energy carrier. It is also shown that plasmas can provide numerous agents that influence biological activity. The simultaneous

  4. Determination of selenoprotein P in human plasma by solid phase extraction and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendahl, L.; Sidenius, U.; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2000-01-01

    measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) monitoring the Se-82 isotope. Linear response was observed in the concentration range 0.3-70.8 mu g/l selenium as selenoprotein P with a correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The precision expressed as relative standard deviation was better...

  5. Electromagnetic ion-cyclotron instability in a dusty plasma with product-bi-kappa distributions for the plasma particles

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Michel S dos; Gaelzer, Rudi

    2016-01-01

    We study the dispersion relation for parallel propagating ion-cyclotron (IC) waves in a dusty plasma, considering that ions and electrons may be represented by product-bi-kappa (PBK) velocity distributions. The results obtained by numerical solution of the dispersion relation, in a case with isotropic Maxwellian distributions for electrons and PBK distribution for ions, show the occurrence of the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron instability (EMIC), and show that the decrease in the kappa indexes of the PBK ion distribution leads to significant increase of the instability, in magnitude of the growth rates and in range in wavenumber space. On the other hand, for anisotropic Maxwellian distribution for ions and PBK distribution for electrons, the decrease of the kappa index in the PBK electron distribution contributes to reduce the EMIC instability, but the reduction effect is much less pronounced than that obtained with the same combination of distributions in the case of the ion-firehose instability, shown in a r...

  6. Options for laser compression of matter to study dense-plasma phases at low entropy, including metallization of hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer-ter-Vehn, J.; Oparin, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Aoki, T. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-Ku, Yokohama 227 (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    The potential of high-power lasers for detailed studies of strongly coupled plasmas at low entropy is discussed, emphasizing multiple-shock techniques. Some outstanding features like metallization in solids and related ionization phase transitions in the fluid phase{emdash}predicted theoretically, but not yet observed experimentally{emdash}are reviewed. Planar multiple shock compression of solid hydrogen is described, using reverberating shocks between massive liners and, alternatively, a stepped pressure pulse acting from one side. In the latter case, shock splitting and a rarefaction shock show up at the metallic phase transition. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun for nanomaterial synthesis in liquid phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Shuang; Wang, Kaile; Zuo, Shasha; Liu, Jiahui [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Zhang, Jue, E-mail: zhangjue@pku.edu.cn; Fang, Jing [Academy for Advanced Interdisciplinary Studies, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2015-10-15

    A handheld low temperature atmospheric pressure air plasma gun based on a dielectric barrier structure with hollow electrodes was proposed. The portable plasma gun with an embedded mini air pump was driven by a 12 V direct voltage battery. The air plasma jet generated from the gun could be touched without a common shock hazard. Besides working in air, the plasma gun can also work in water. The diagnostic result of optical emission spectroscopy showed the difference in reactive species of air plasma jet between in air and in water. The plasma gun was excited in 20 ml chloroauric acid aqueous solution with a concentration of 1.214 mM. A significant amount of gold nanoparticles were synthesized after 2 min continuous discharge. The plasma gun with these unique features is applicable in plasma medicine, etching, and s-nthesis of nanomaterials.

  8. Optimization simulation of thermal plasma reactor for acetylene production from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, J.; Yang, Y.; Bao, W.; Zhang, Y.; Kie, K. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2007-07-01

    A heat-flow field mathematical model based on the computational; fluid dynamics (CFD) technique was developed for a thermal plasma reactor in order to optimize the reactor structure and operation conditions for the direct production of acetylene from coal. The simulation of the thermal plasma reactor with single inlet, double inlet and double inlet with protective gas was given; simulations of the heat-flow coupling field were carried out by using the method of Incomplete Cholesky Conjugate Gradient (ICCG). The optimization simulation results show that the load of the thermal plasma reactor with double inlet is increased, and the reactor wall surface coke is depressed. The anticoking effect is best under the gas flow rate of 50 m/s. 4 refs., 4 figs.

  9. Determination of fipronil in bovine plasma by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yara P. Cid

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A fast and efficient method has been developed and validated for the determination of fipronil in bovine plasma. Samples were subjected to solid-phase extraction (SPE followed by reversed phase liquid chromatography (LC separation, using acetonitrile/water (60:40 v/v as the mobile phase with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min and ultraviolet (UV detection at 210 nm. Ethiprole was used as the internal standard (IS. The method was found to be linear over the range 5-500 ng/mL (r = 0.999. The limit of quantitation (LOQ was validated at 5 ng/mL. The method was successfully applied to monitor plasma concentrations following subcutaneous administration of fipronil in cattle.

  10. Development and evaluation of magnesium oxide-based ceramics for chamber parts in mass-production plasma etching equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasashima, Yuji; Tsutsumi, Kota; Mitomi, Shinzo; Uesugi, Fumihiko

    2017-06-01

    In mass-production plasma etching equipment, the corrosion of ceramic chamber parts reduces the production yield of LSI and overall equipment effectiveness (OEE) owing to contamination, short useful life, and particle generation. Novel ceramics that can improve the production yield and OEE are highly required. We develop magnesium oxide (MgO)-based ceramics and evaluate them under mass-production plasma etching conditions. The results of this study indicate that the developed MgO-based ceramics with high mechanical properties and low electric resistivity have a higher resistance to corrosion in plasma etching using CF4 gas than Si and conventional ceramic materials such as aluminum oxide and yttrium oxide.

  11. The discharge mode transition and O({sup 5}p{sub 1}) production mechanism of pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, X. Y.; Hu, J. T.; Liu, J. H.; Xiong, Z. L.; Liu, D. W.; Lu, X. P. [National State Key Lab of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, WuHan, HuBei 430074 (China); Shi, J. J. [College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)

    2012-07-23

    The discharge mode transition from uniform plasma across the gas gap to the {alpha} mode happens at the rising phase of the pulsed radio frequency capacitively coupled plasma (PRF CCP). This transition is attributed to the fast increasing stochastic heating at the edge of sheath. In the second stage with the stable current and voltage amplitude, the consistency between experimental and numerical spatial-temporal 777 nm emission profile suggests that He* and He{sub 2}* dominate the production of O({sup 5}p{sub 1}) through dissociation and excitation of O{sub 2}. Finally, the sterilization efficiency of PRF CCP is found to be higher than that of plasma jet.

  12. First Production of C60 Nanoparticle Plasma Jet for Study of Disruption Mitigation for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogatu, I. N.; Thompson, J. R.; Galkin, S. A.; Kim, J. S.; Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Messer, S. J.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2012-10-01

    Unique fast response and large mass-velocity delivery of nanoparticle plasma jets (NPPJs) provide a novel application for ITER disruption mitigation, runaway electrons diagnostics and deep fueling. NPPJs carry a much larger mass than usual gases. An electromagnetic plasma gun provides a very high injection velocity (many km/s). NPPJ has much higher ram pressure than any standard gas injection method and penetrates the tokamak confining magnetic field. Assimilation is enhanced due to the NP large surface-to-volume ratio. Radially expanding NPPJs help achieving toroidal uniformity of radiation power. FAR-TECH's NPPJ system was successfully tested: a coaxial plasma gun prototype (˜35 cm length, 96 kJ energy) using a solid state TiH2/C60 pulsed power cartridge injector produced a hyper-velocity (>4 km/s), high-density (>10^23 m-3), C60 plasma jet in ˜0.5 ms, with ˜1-2 ms overall response-delivery time. We present the TiH2/C60 cartridge injector output characterization (˜180 mg of sublimated C60 gas) and first production results of a high momentum C60 plasma jet (˜0.6 g.km/s).

  13. Enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} volume production in a double plasma type negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumasa, Osamu; Nishimura, Hideki; Sakiyama, Satoshi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-02-01

    H{sup -}/D{sup -} production in a pure volume source has been studied. In our double plasma type negative ion source, both energy and density of fast electrons are well controlled. With the use of this source, the enhancement of H{sup -}/D{sup -} production has been observed. Namely, under the same discharge power, the extracted H{sup -}/D{sup -} current in the double plasma operation is higher than that in the single plasma operation. At the same time, measurements of plasma parameters have been made in the source and the extractor regions for these two cases. (author)

  14. {gamma}-Fe phase plasma-induced on the surface of thin S3A alloy ribbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral-Prieto, A., E-mail: agustin.cabral@inin.gob.mx; Garcia-Sosa, I., E-mail: irma.garcia@inin.gob.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Quimica (Mexico); Nava, N., E-mail: tnava@imp.mx [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas (Mexico); Camps, E., E-mail: enrique.camps@inin.gob.mx; Escobar, Luis, E-mail: luis.escobar@inin.gov.mx [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Quimica (Mexico); Lopez-Castanarez, R., E-mail: rlc@anuies.mx; Olea-Cardoso, O., E-mail: olc@anuies.mx [Universidad Autonoma del Edo. de Mexico, Facultad de Quimica (Mexico)

    2011-11-15

    Amorphous alloy ribbons of Fe{sub 77}Cr{sub 2}B{sub 16}Si{sub 5} were exposed to cold plasmas of N{sub 2} and Ar-N{sub 2} at temperatures lower than T{sub x} = 808 K. The conversion X-ray Moessbauer spectra of the plasma-exposed ribbons consist of a singlet and a broadened magnetic sextet. The singlet with isomer shift {delta} = -0.11 mm/s can be assigned to {gamma}-Fe austenite phase. Minor bulk magnetic changes in the alloy were measured as a consequence of these treatments; e.g. the relative intensities A23 of the transmission Moessbauer spectra of the untreated and treated samples, were 3.22 and 3.56, respectively, the B{sub hf} values changed from 22.9 T (untreated sample) to 22.4 T (plasma treated samples). Unexpectedly, the {gamma}-Fe phase can also be produced by simply heating the alloy ribbons under N{sub 2} flux at temperatures as low as 423 K. Moessbauer data of the crystallized samples are also reported, and a qualitative assessment on the mechanical properties of the Fe{sub 77}Cr{sub 2}B{sub 16}Si{sub 5} alloy associated with the plasma and/or temperature surface induced {gamma}-Fe phase is given.

  15. Controlling the nitric and nitrous oxide production of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douat, Claire; Hubner, Simon; Engeln, Richard; Benedikt, Jan

    2016-09-01

    Atmospheric pressure plasma jets are non-thermal plasmas and have the ability to create reactive species. These features make it a very attractive tool for biomedical applications. In this work, we studied NO and N2O production, which are two species having biomedical properties. NO plays a role in the vascularization and in ulcer treatment, while N2O is used as anesthetic and analgesic gas. In this study, the plasma source is similar to the COST Reference Microplasma Jet (µ-APPJ). Helium is used as feed gas with small admixtures of molecular nitrogen and oxygen of below 1%. The absolute densities of NO and N2O were measured in the effluent of an atmospheric pressure RF plasma jet by means of ex-situ quantum-cascade laser absorption spectroscopy via a multi-pass cell in Herriot configuration. We will show that the species' production is dependent on several parameters such as power, flow and oxygen and nitrogen admixture. The NO and N2O densities are strongly dependent on the N2-O2 ratio. Changing this ratio allows for choosing between a NO-rich or a N2O-rich regime.

  16. Determination of trace elements in petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques: A critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez, Raquel [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, P.O. Box 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Todolí, José Luis, E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Nutrition and Food Sciences, P.O. Box 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Lienemann, Charles-Philippe [IFP Energies Nouvelles, Rond-point de l' échangeur de Solaize, BP 3, F-69360 Solaize (France); Mermet, Jean-Michel [Spectroscopy Forever, 01390 Tramoyes (France)

    2013-10-01

    The fundamentals, applications and latter developments of petroleum products analysis through inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) are revisited in the present bibliographic survey. Sample preparation procedures for the direct analysis of fuels by using liquid sample introduction systems are critically reviewed and compared. The most employed methods are sample dilution, emulsion or micro-emulsion preparation and sample decomposition. The first one is the most widely employed due to its simplicity. Once the sample has been prepared, an organic matrix is usually present. The performance of the sample introduction system (i.e., nebulizer and spray chamber) depends strongly upon the nature and properties of the solution finally obtained. Many different devices have been assayed and the obtained results are shown. Additionally, samples can be introduced into the plasma by using an electrothermal vaporization (ETV) device or a laser ablation system (LA). The recent results published in the literature showing the feasibility, advantages and drawbacks of latter alternatives are also described. Therefore, the main goal of the review is the discussion of the different approaches developed for the analysis of crude oil and its derivates by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) techniques. - Highlights: • Analysis of petroleum products by inductively coupled plasma techniques is revisited. • Fundamental studies are included together with reports dealing with applications. • Conventional and non-conventional sample introduction methods are considered. • Sample preparation methods are critically compared and described.

  17. Robust aptamer sol-gel solid phase microextraction of very polar adenosine from human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Li; Hu, Xiangang; Wen, Jianping; Zhou, Qixing

    2013-03-01

    Conventional solid phase microextraction (SPME) has a limited capacity to extract very polar analytes, such as adenosine. To solve this problem, aptamer conjugating sol-gel methodology was coupled with an SPME fiber. According to the authors' knowledge, this is the first reported use of aptamer SPME. The fiber of aptamer sol-gel SPME with a mesoporous structure has high porosity, large surface area, and small water contact angle. Rather than employing direct entrapment, covalent immobilization was the dominant method of aptamer loading in sol-gel. Aptamer sol-gel fiber captured a specified analyte from among the analog molecules, thereby, exhibiting an excellent selective property. Compared with commercial SPME fibers, this aptamer fiber was suitable for extracting adenosine, presenting an extraction efficiency higher than 20-fold. The values of repeatability and reproducibility expressed by relative standard deviation were low (9.4%). Interestingly, the sol-gel network enhanced the resistance of aptamer SPME to both nuclease and nonspecific proteins. Furthermore, the aptamer sol-gel fiber was applied in human plasma with LOQ 1.5 μg/L, which is an acceptable level. This fiber also demonstrates durability and regeneration over 20-cycles without significant loss of efficiency. Given the various targets (from metal ions to biomacromolecules and cells) of aptamers, this methodology will extend the multi-domain applications of SPME.

  18. Determination of Nickel, Vanadium and Iron in Crude Oil by Three-Phase Plasma Arc Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatass, Zekry F.

    2002-12-01

    Three-phase plasma arc (TPPA) with ultrasonic nebulizer is developed for simultaneous determination of trace elements in crude oil samples. Ultrasonic nebulizer is used instead of pneumatic nebulizer in order to minimize the problems caused by the oil viscosity during the operation. This system was used for determination of some trace elements (V, Ni, and Fe) in a crude oil samples. Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) was used to dilute the oil samples. The TPPA instrument offers several advantages including a low cost power supply with no radio frequency, linear dynamic ranges from 4 to 5 of orders of magnitude, and detection limits (0.121, 0.313 and 0.242 (μg/ml) for Ni, V and Fe respectively. The average concentrations were 31 ± 0.45 (μg/ml) for Ni, 40 ± 0.88 (μg/ml) for V and 8 ± 0.74 (μg/ml) for Fe at Balaaiem fields and 2 ± 0.05 (μg/ml) for Ni, 4.8 ± 0.25 (μg/ml) for V and 2 ± 0.10 (μg/ml) for Fe at Wastern Desert fields.

  19. Determining plasma morphine levels using GC-MS after solid phase extraction to monitor drug levels in the postoperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To implement a selective and sensitive analytical method to quantify morphine in small volumes of plasma by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, aimed at post-operatively monitoring the drug. METHOD: A gas-liquid chromatographic method with mass detection has been developed to determine morphine concentration in plasma after solid phase extraction. Morphine-d3 was used as an internal standard. Only 0.5 mL of plasma is required for the drug solid-phase extraction in the Bond Elut-Certify®, followed by the quantification of morphine derivative by GC-MS using a linear temperature program, a capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier and make-up gas. The method was applied to determine morphine content in plasma samples of four patients during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was performed by a venous catheter, and a series of venous blood samples were collected. After the oro-After the orotracheal extubation, morphine plasma levels were monitored for up to 36 hours. RESULTS: The run time was 16 minutes because morphine and the internal standard were eluted after 8.8 minutes. The GC-MS method had 0.5 -1000 ng/mL linearity range (r²=0.9995, 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection, intraday and interday precision equivalent to 1.9% and 6.8%, and 0.1% and 0.8% systematic error (intraday and interday, respectively. The analytical method showed optimal absolute (98% and relative (100.7% recoveries. Morphine dose requirements and plasma levels are discussed. CONCLUSION: The analytical gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method is selective and adequate for morphine measurements in plasma for applications in clinical studies.

  20. Determining plasma morphine levels using GC-MS after solid phase extraction to monitor drug levels in the postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veronica; López, Karin Jannet Vera; Santos, Luciana Moraes; Yonamine, Mauricio; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho; Santos, Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge

    2008-06-01

    To implement a selective and sensitive analytical method to quantify morphine in small volumes of plasma by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), aimed at post-operatively monitoring the drug. A gas-liquid chromatographic method with mass detection has been developed to determine morphine concentration in plasma after solid phase extraction. Morphine-d3 was used as an internal standard. Only 0.5 mL of plasma is required for the drug solid-phase extraction in the Bond Elut-Certify, followed by the quantification of morphine derivative by GC-MS using a linear temperature program, a capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier and make-up gas. The method was applied to determine morphine content in plasma samples of four patients during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was performed by a venous catheter, and a series of venous blood samples were collected. After the oro-After the orotracheal extubation, morphine plasma levels were monitored for up to 36 hours. The run time was 16 minutes because morphine and the internal standard were eluted after 8.8 minutes. The GC-MS method had 0.5 -1000 ng/mL linearity range (r(2)=0.9995), 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection, intraday and interday precision equivalent to 1.9% and 6.8%, and 0.1% and 0.8% systematic error (intraday and interday, respectively). The analytical method showed optimal absolute (98%) and relative (100.7%) recoveries. Morphine dose requirements and plasma levels are discussed. The analytical gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method is selective and adequate for morphine measurements in plasma for applications in clinical studies.

  1. Freeze concentration of dairy products Phase 2. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Best, D.E.; Vasavada, K.C.

    1993-09-01

    An efficient, electrically driven freeze concentration system offers potential for substantially increasing electricity demand while providing the mature dairy industry with new products for domestic and export markets together with enhanced production efficiencies. Consumer tests indicate that dairy products manufactured from freeze-concentrated ingredients are either preferred or considered equivalent in quality to fresh milk-based products. Economic analyses indicate that this technology should be competitive with thermal evaporation processes on a commercial basis.

  2. Quantum phase transitions about parity breaking in matrix product systems%Quantum phase transitions about parity breaking in matrix product systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jing-Min

    2011-01-01

    According to our scheme to construct quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states, we first successfully combine matrix product state (MPS) QPTs with spontaneous symmetry breaking. For a concrete model, we take

  3. Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood

    OpenAIRE

    Arabi, Khadija; Aubry, Olivier; Khacef, Ahmed; Cormier, Jean Marie

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. The Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines, or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. The paper is summarizing results obtained through a non thermal arc plasma reactor at laboratory scale. A stationary discharge (I = 150mA) is used to perform physical diagnostic...

  4. Calculation of 2-temperature plasma thermo-physical properties considering condensed phases: application to CO2-CH4 plasma: part 1. Composition and thermodynamic properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi; Chen, Zhexin; Rong, Mingzhe; Cressault, Yann; Yang, Fei; Niu, Chunping; Sun, Hao

    2016-10-01

    As the first part of this series of papers, a new calculation method for composition and thermodynamic properties of 2-temperature plasma considering condensed species under local chemical equilibrium (LCE) and local phase equilibrium assumption is presented. The 2-T mass action law and chemical potential are used to determine the composition of multiphase system. The thermo-physical properties of CO2-CH4 mixture, which may be a possible substitution for SF6, are calculated by this method as an example. The influence of condensed graphite, non-LTE effect, mixture ratio and pressure on the thermo-physical properties has been discussed. The results will serve as reliable reference data for computational simulation of CO2-CH4 plasmas.

  5. Milking microalga Dunaliella salina for Beta-carotene production in two-phase bioreactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hejazi, M.; Holwerda, E.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2004-01-01

    A new method was developed for production of beta-carotene from Dunaliella salina. Cells were grown in low light intensity and then transferred to a production bioreactor illuminated at a higher light intensity. It was a two-phase bioreactor consisting of an aqueous and a biocompatible organic phase

  6. Hadron Production in Ultra-relativistic Nuclear Collisions: Quarkyonic Matter and a Triple Point in the Phase Diagram of QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Andronic, A; Braun-Munzinger, P; Cleymans, J; Fukushima, K; McLerran, L D; Oeschler, H; Pisarski, R D; Redlich, K; Sasaki, C; Satz, H; Stachel, J

    2009-01-01

    We argue that features of hadron production in relativistic nuclear collisions, mainly at CERN-SPS energies, may be explained by the existence of three forms of matter: Hadronic Matter, Quarkyonic Matter, and a Quark-Gluon Plasma. We suggest that these meet at a triple point in the QCD phase diagram. Some of the features explained, both qualitatively and semi-quantitatively, include the curve for the decoupling of chemical equilibrium, along with the non-monotonic behavior of strange particle multiplicity ratios at center of mass energies near 10 GeV. If the transition(s) between the three phases are merely crossover(s), the triple point is only approximate.

  7. Plasma Proteins Modified by Advanced Glycation End Products (AGEs) Reveal Site-specific Susceptibilities to Glycemic Control in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greifenhagen, Uta; Frolov, Andrej; Blüher, Matthias; Hoffmann, Ralf

    2016-04-29

    Protein glycation refers to the reversible reaction between aldoses (or ketoses) and amino groups yielding relatively stable Amadori (or Heyns) products. Consecutive oxidative cleavage reactions of these products or the reaction of amino groups with other reactive substances (e.g. α-dicarbonyls) yield advanced glycation end products (AGEs) that can alter the structures and functions of proteins. AGEs have been identified in all organisms, and their contents appear to rise with some diseases, such as diabetes and obesity. Here, we report a pilot study using highly sensitive and specific proteomics approach to identify and quantify AGE modification sites in plasma proteins by reversed phase HPLC mass spectrometry in tryptic plasma digests. In total, 19 AGE modification sites corresponding to 11 proteins were identified in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus under poor glycemic control. The modification degrees of 15 modification sites did not differ among cohorts of normoglycemic lean or obese and type 2 diabetes mellitus patients under good and poor glycemic control. The contents of two amide-AGEs in human serum albumin and apolipoprotein A-II were significantly higher in patients with poor glycemic control, although the plasma levels of both proteins were similar among all plasma samples. These two modification sites might be useful to predict long term, AGE-related complications in diabetic patients, such as impaired vision, increased arterial stiffness, or decreased kidney function.

  8. Electromagnetic ion-cyclotron instability in a dusty plasma with product-bi-kappa distributions for the plasma particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, M. S.; Ziebell, L. F.; Gaelzer, R.

    2017-01-01

    We study the dispersion relation for parallel propagating ion-cyclotron (IC) waves in a dusty plasma, considering situations where the velocity dispersion along perpendicular direction is greater than along the parallel direction, and considering the use of product-bi-kappa (PBK) velocity distributions for the plasma particles. The results obtained by numerical solution of the dispersion relation, in a case with isotropic Maxwellian distributions for electrons and PBK distribution for ions, show the occurrence of the electromagnetic ion-cyclotron instability (EMIC), and show that the decrease in the kappa indexes of the PBK ion distribution leads to significant increase in the magnitude of the growth rates and in the range of wavenumber for which the instability occurs. On the other hand, for anisotropic Maxwellian distribution for ions and PBK distribution for electrons, the decrease of the kappa index in the PBK electron distribution contributes to reduce the growth rate of the EMIC instability, but the reduction effect is less pronounced than the increase obtained with ion PBK distribution with the same kappa index. The results obtained also show that, as a general rule, the presence of a dust population contributes to reduce the instability in magnitude of the growth rates and range, but that in the case of PBK ion distribution with small kappa indexes the instability may continue to occur for dust populations which would eliminate completely the instability in the case of bi-Maxwellian ion distributions. It has also been seen that the anisotropy due to the kappa indexes in the ion PBK distribution is not so efficient in producing the EMIC instability as the ratio of perpendicular and parallel ion temperatures, for equivalent value of the effective temperature.

  9. Decomposition of gas-phase diphenylether at 473 K by electron beam generated plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Ha [Institute for Environmental Management Technology, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), AIST Tsukuba West, 16-1 Onogawa, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8569 (Japan); Hakoda, Teruyuki [Department of Material Development, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Kojima, Takuji [Department of Material Development, Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2003-03-07

    Decomposition of gas-phase diphenylether (DPE) in the order of several parts per million by volume (ppmv) was studied as a model compound of dioxin using a flow-type electron-beam reactor at an elevated temperature of 473 K. The ground state oxygen ({sup 3}P) atoms played an important role in the decomposition of DPE resulting in the formation of 1,4-hydroquinone (HQ) as a major ring retaining product. The high yield of hydroquinone indicated that the breakage of ether bond (C-O) is important in the initial step of DPE decomposition. Ring cleavage products were CO and CO{sub 2}, and NO{sub 2} was also produced from background N{sub 2}-O{sub 2}. The sum of the yields of HQ, CO{sub 2} and CO accounts for over 90% of the removed DPE. Hydroxyl radicals (OH) were less important in the dilute DPE decomposition at a high water content, and were mostly consumed by recombination reactions to form hydrogen peroxide. The smaller the initial DPE concentrations, the higher the decomposition efficiency and the lower the yields of primary products. NO scavenges oxygen atoms and decreases the DPE decomposition, while the addition of n-butane causes positive effect on the decomposition of DPE due to the several secondary radicals (HO{sub 2}, alkyl and alkoxy radicals) produced during the decomposition of n-butane.

  10. Plasma production by helicon waves with single mode number in low magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, G; Hatakeyama, R; Sato, Genta; Oohara, Wataru; Hatakeyama, Rikizo

    2004-01-01

    Radio-frequency discharges are performed in low magnetic fields (0-10 mT) using three types of helicon-wave exciting antennas with the azimuthal mode number of $|m|$ = 1. The most pronounced peak of plasma density is generated in the case of phased helical antenna at only a few mT, where the helicon wave with $|m| = 1$ is purely excited and propagates. An analysis based on the dispersion relation well explains the density-peak phenomenon in terms of the correspondence between the antenna one-wavelength and the helicon wavelength. The $m=+1$ helicon wave propagates even in high magnetic fields where the density peaks are not observed, but the $m=-1$ helicon wave disappers. It is expected theoretically that the $m=-1$ helicon wave shows cutoff behavior in a low density region, [M. Kramer, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1052 (1999)], and the cutoff of $m=-1$ helicon wave experimentally observed coincides with the calculated one.

  11. Infrared gas phase study on plasma-polymer interactions in high-current diffuse dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Welzel, S.; Starostin, S. A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Engeln, R.; de Vries, H. W.

    2017-06-01

    A roll-to-roll high-current diffuse dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure was operated in air and Ar/N2/O2 gas mixtures. The exhaust gas from the discharge was studied using a high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer in the range from 3000 to 750 cm-1 to unravel the plasma-polymer interactions. The absorption features of HxNyOz, COx, and HCOOH (formic acid) were identified, and the relative densities were deduced by fitting the absorption bands of the detected molecules. Strong interactions between plasma and polymer (Polyethylene-2,6-naphthalate, or PEN) in precursor-free oxygen-containing gas mixtures were observed as evidenced by a high COx production. The presence of HCOOH in the gas effluent, formed through plasma-chemical synthesis of COx, turns out to be a sensitive indicator for etching. By adding tetraethylorthosilicate precursor in the plasma, dramatic changes in the COx production were measured, and two distinct deposition regimes were identified. At high precursor flows, a good agreement with the precursor combustion and the COx production was observed, whereas at low precursor flows an etching-deposition regime transpires, and the COx production is dominated by polymer etching.

  12. Microbial Inactivation in the Liquid Phase Induced by Multigas Plasma Jet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshihiro Takamatsu

    Full Text Available Various gas atmospheric nonthermal plasmas were generated using a multigas plasma jet to treat microbial suspensions. Results indicated that carbon dioxide and nitrogen plasma had high sterilization effects. Carbon dioxide plasma, which generated the greatest amount of singlet oxygen than other gas plasmas, killed general bacteria and some fungi. On the other hand, nitrogen plasma, which generated the largest amount of OH radical, killed ≥ 6 log of 11 species of microorganisms, including general bacteria, fungi, acid-fast bacteria, spores, and viruses in 1-15 min. To identify reactive species responsible for bacterial inactivation, antioxidants were added to bacterial suspensions, which revealed that singlet oxygen and OH radicals had greatest inactivation effects.

  13. Prebeta-migrating high density lipoprotein: quantitation in normal and hyperlipidemic plasma by solid phase radioimmunoassay following electrophoretic transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishida, B.Y.; Frolich, J.; Fielding, C.J.

    1987-07-01

    A quantitative solid phase immunoassay has been developed for the determination of the mass of electrophoretically separated prebeta apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in human plasma. Conditions have been identified for the quantitative transfer and immunoblotting of the apolipoprotein in the absence of organic solvents or detergents. In normolipidemic plasma, the prebeta-migrating fraction of apoA-I represented 4.2 +/- 1.8% of total apoA-I (61 +/- 26 micrograms of apoA-I per ml of plasma). Significantly higher levels were found in hypercholesterolemia of genetic origin, in primary and secondary hypertriglyceridemia, and in congenital lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency. In all cases prebeta-migrating apoA-I consisted in large part of low molecular weight lipoprotein species, compared to the size of the major, alpha-migrating apoA-I fraction.

  14. Equation of state of fully ionized electron-ion plasmas. II. Extension to relativistic densities and to the solid phase

    CERN Document Server

    Potekhin, A Yu

    2000-01-01

    The analytic equation of state of nonideal Coulomb plasmas consisting of pointlike ions immersed in a polarizable electron background (physics/9807042) is improved, and its applicability range is considerably extended. First, the fit of the electron screening contribution in the free energy of the Coulomb liquid is refined at high densities where the electrons are relativistic. Second, we calculate the screening contribution for the Coulomb solid (bcc and fcc) and derive an analytic fitting expression. Third, we propose a simple approximation to the internal and free energy of the liquid one-component plasma of ions, accurate within the numerical errors of the most recent Monte Carlo simulations. We obtain an updated value of the coupling parameter at the solid-liquid phase transition for the one-component plasma: Gamma_m = 175.0 (+/- 0.4).

  15. Impact of In doping on GeTe phase-change materials thin films obtained by means of an innovative plasma enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szkutnik, P. D.; Aoukar, M.; Todorova, V.; Angélidès, L.; Pelissier, B.; Jourde, D.; Michallon, P.; Vallée, C.; Noé, P.

    2017-03-01

    We investigated the deposition and the phase-change properties of In-doped GeTe thin films obtained by plasma enhanced metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and doped with indium using a solid delivery system. The sublimated indium precursor flow rate was calculated as a function of sublimation and deposition parameters. Indium related optical emission recorded by means of optical emission spectroscopy during deposition plasma allowed proposing the dissociation mechanisms of the [In(CH3)2N(CH3)2]2 solid precursor. In particular, using an Ar + H2 + NH3 deposition plasma, sublimated indium molecules are completely dissociated and do not induce by-product contamination by addition of nitrogen or carbon in the films. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy evidences the formation of In-Te bonds in amorphous as-deposited In-doped GeTe films. The formation of an InTe phase after 400 °C annealing is also evidenced by means of X-ray diffraction analysis. The crystallization temperature Tx, deduced from monitoring of optical reflectivity of In-doped GeTe films with doping up to 11 at. % slightly varies as a function of the In dopant level with a decrease of Tx down to a minimum value for an In doping level of about 6-8 at. %. In this In doping range, the structure of crystallized In-GeTe films changes and is dominated by the presence of a crystalline In2Te3 phase. Finally, the Kissinger activation energy for crystallization Ea is showing to monotonically decrease as the indium content in the GeTe film is increased indicating a promising effect of In doping on crystallization speed in memory devices while keeping a good thermal stability for data retention.

  16. Production of nitric oxide using a microwave plasma torch and its application to fungal cell differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Young Ho; Kumar, Naresh; Kang, Min-Ho; Cho, Guang Sup; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Gyungsoon; Uhm, Han Sup

    2015-03-01

    The generation of nitric oxide by a microwave plasma torch is proposed for its application to cell differentiation. A microwave plasma torch was developed based on basic kinetic theory. The analytical theory indicates that nitric oxide density is nearly proportional to oxygen molecular density and that the high-temperature flame is an effective means of generating nitric oxide. Experimental data pertaining to nitric oxide production are presented in terms of the oxygen input in units of cubic centimeters per minute. The apparent length of the torch flame increases as the oxygen input increases. The various levels of nitric oxide are observed depending on the flow rate of nitrogen gas, the mole fraction of oxygen gas, and the microwave power. In order to evaluate the potential of nitric oxide as an activator of cell differentiation, we applied nitric oxide generated from the microwave plasma torch to a model microbial cell (Neurospora crassa: non-pathogenic fungus). Germination and hyphal differentiation of fungal cells were not dramatically changed but there was a significant increase in spore formation after treatment with nitric oxide. In addition, the expression level of a sporulation related gene acon-3 was significantly elevated after 24 h upon nitric oxide treatment. Increase in the level of nitric oxide, nitrite and nitrate in water after nitric oxide treatment seems to be responsible for activation of fungal sporulation. Our results suggest that nitric oxide generated by plasma can be used as a possible activator of cell differentiation and development.

  17. Syngas production by plasma treatments of alcohols, bio-oils and wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabi, K.; Aubry, O.; Khacef, A.; Cormier, J.-M.

    2012-12-01

    Exploitation of forest resources for energy production includes various methods of biomass processing. Gasification is one of the ways to recover energy from biomass. The Syngas produced from biomass can be used to power internal combustion engines, or, after purification, to supply fuel cells. The paper is summarizing results obtained through a non thermal arc plasma reactor at laboratory scale. A stationary discharge (I = 150mA) is used to perform physical diagnostics and also chemical analysis. The arc is formed between two electrodes made of graphite. We first present results on plasma-steam reforming of alcohols and bio-oils mixed in water. The outlet gas compositions are given from various alcohols and-bio-oils obtained at different experimental conditions. The second part of the paper is dedicated to a direct plasma treatment of wood (beech) at laboratory scale. One of the electrodes is surrounded by wood. The final part of the paper is a general discussion about efficiencies and comparisons of plasma treatments presented. The results obtained are discussed by considering the steam reforming reactions and the water gas shift reaction.

  18. Mass identification of the neutral products generated in the plasma treatment of polluted atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, David

    2013-09-01

    Plasmas produced using Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) devices are very effective in the abatement of air pollution resulting from, for example, the emission of volatile organic compounds (VCOs) by a range of industrial and agricultural processes. The development and monitoring of effective DBD systems can be investigated by advanced mass spectrometric methods specifically configured for analysis at high and atmospheric pressures The present work involves the operation of a small DBD reactor which uses either a helium or nitrogen carrier gas to sustain the plasma to which may be added reactive gases, such as oxygen, as well as samples of pollutants such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, including trichloroethylene. The mass spectrometric analysis was performed using a specially configured system manufactured by Hiden Analytical Ltd. The DBD source may also be combined with a catalyst for plasma-enhanced catalysis. The neutral products of the reactions proceeding in the plasma at atmospheric pressure are sampled through the capillary sampling system which also reduces the pressure of the gas mixture delivered to the ionisation source of the quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ions produced are subsequently mass identified. We describe typical data and comment on the advantages of this technique.

  19. Rapid destruction of the rhodamine B using TiO2 photocatalyst in the liquid phase plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heon; Park, Sung Hoon; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Byung Hoon; Kim, Sun-Jae; Jung, Sang-Chul

    2013-09-16

    Rhodamine B (RhB) is widely used as a colorant in textiles and food stuffs, and is also a well-known water tracer fluorescent. It is harmful to human beings and animals, and causes irritation of the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. The carcinogenicity, reproductive and developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity and chronic toxicity toward humans and animals have been experimentally proven. RhB cannot be effectively removed by biological treatment due to the slow kinetics. Therefore, RhB is chosen as a model pollutant for liquid phase plasma (LPP) treatment in the present investigation. This paper presents experimental results for the bleaching of RhB from aqueous solutions in the presence of TiO2 photocatalyst with LPP system. Properties of generated plasma were investigated by optical emission spectroscopy methods. The results of electrical-discharge degradation of RhB showed that the decomposition rate increased with the applied voltage, pulse width, and frequency. The oxygen gas addition to reactant solution increases the degradation rate by active oxygen species. The RhB decomposition rate was shown to increase with the TiO2 particle dosage. This work presents the conclusions on the photocatalytic oxidation of RhB, as a function of plasma conditions, oxygen gas bubbling as well as TiO2 particle dosage. We knew that using the liquid phase plasma system with TiO2 photocatalyst at high speed we could remove the organic matter in the water.

  20. Effects of glucocorticoids on plasma levels of thyroid hormones (T4 and T3) and testicular activity in catfish, Clarias gariepinus during different phases of annual breeding cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchiang, P; Varkey, S; Gupta, B B P

    2012-06-01

    Effects of short-term administration of corticosterone and cortisol on plasma levels of thyroid hormones, gonado-somatic index and testicular histology have been reported in catfish, Clarias gariepinus during different phases of its breeding cycle. Corticosterone administration had no significant effect on plasma levels of T4, T3 and T3/T4 ratio, irrespective of doses and phases of breeding cycle. However, 5 microg dose of cortisol significantly increased plasma levels of T3 and the T3/T4 ratio during quiescent and regressive phases, while it significantly decreased plasma levels of T4 during progressive phase. During breeding phase, 2 microg and 5 microg doses of cortisol significantly decreased plasma levels of T4 and T3, respectively, while 5 microg dose of cortisol alone reduced T3/T4 ratio. Irrespective of phases of annual breeding cycle and doses, short-term administration of corticosterone and cortisol had no significant effect either on GSI or testicular histology. These findings suggest that corticosterone is ineffective in stimulating plasma levels of thyroid hormones, while cortisol, depending on dose and phase/season, may differentially increase, decrease or have no effect on plasma levels of thyroid hormones in C. gariepinus.

  1. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of ready-to-eat meat: Inactivation of Listeria innocua and changes in product quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Röd, Sara Katrine; Hansen, Flemming; Leipold, Frank;

    Sliced ready-to-eat (RTE) meat products are susceptible to growth of the foodborne pathogenic bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAPP) may be applicable for surface decontamination in sealed bags thus avoiding recontamination. Plasmas (Fig. 1), created in neutral...

  2. On the impact of the plasma jet energy on the product of plasmadynamic synthesis in the Si-C system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikitin, D.; Sivkov, A.

    2015-10-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles can be used for ceramics reinforcement, creation of nanostructured ceramics, microelectromechanical systems. The paper presents the results of plasmadynamic synthesis of silicon carbide nanopowders. This method was realized by the synthesis in an electrodischarge plasma jet generated by a high-current pulsed coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator. Powdered carbon and silicon were used as precursors for the reaction. Four experiments with different energy levels (from 10.0 to 30.0 kJ) were carried out. The synthesized products were analysed by several modern techniques including X-ray diffractometry, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. According to analysis results all the products mainly composed of cubic silicon carbide (b-SiC) with a small amount of unreacted precursors. Silicon carbide particles have a clear crystal structure, a triangular shape and sizes to a few hundred nanometers. Comparison of the results of experiments with different energy levels made it possible to draw conclusions on ways to control product phase composition and dispersion. The silicon carbide content and particles sizes increase with increasing the energy level.

  3. Quantitation of drugs via molecularly imprinted polymer solid phase extraction and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry: benzodiazepines in human plasma

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The association of solid phase extraction with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) is applied to the direct extraction and quantitation of benzodiazepines in human plasma. The target analytes are sequestered by MIP and directly analyzed by ESI-MS. Due to the MIP highly selective extraction, ionic suppression during ESI is minimized; hence no separation is necessary prior to ESI-MS, which greatly increases analytical speed. Benzodiazepine...

  4. Lepton asymmetry growth in symmetric phase of electroweak plasma with hypermagnetic fields versus its washing out by sphalerons

    CERN Document Server

    Dvornikov, Maxim

    2012-01-01

    We study lepton asymmetry evolution in plasma of the early Universe before the electroweak phase transition (EWPT) accounting for chirality flip processes via Higgs decays (inverse decays) entering equilibrium at temperatures below T_RL ~ 10 TeV, T_EW T_RL. One finds a strong dependence of the asymmetries on the CS wave number. We predict a non-zero chiral asymmetry \\Delta \\mu = \\mu_e_R - \\mu_e_L \

  5. Calculation of 2-temperature plasma thermo-physical properties considering condensed phases: application to CO2-CH4 plasma: part 2. Transport coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Chunping; Chen, Zhexin; Rong, Mingzhe; Wang, Chunlin; Wu, Yi; Yang, Fei; Wang, Xiaohua; Pang, Qingping

    2016-10-01

    The transport coefficients, namely thermal conductivity, viscosity and electrical conductivity, of CO2-CH4 mixture in and out of LTE are calculated in this paper. The calculation was based on local chemical equilibrium (LCE) and local phase equilibrium assumption. The 2-temperature composition results obtained with consideration of condensed phase in the previous paper (Part I) of this series were used in this calculation. The transport coefficients were calculated by classical Chapman-Enskog method simplified by Devoto. The results are presented for different temperatures (300-30 000 K), pressures (0.1-10 atm), non-equilibrium degrees (1-5), and CH4 molar proportions (0-100%). The influence of condensed graphite, non-LTE effect, mixture ratio and pressure on the composition and thermodynamic properties has been discussed. The results will serve as reliable reference data for computational simulation of CO2-CH4 plasmas.

  6. Solid-phase enrichment and analysis of electrophilic natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Wesche

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In search for new natural products, which may lead to the development of new drugs for all kind of applications, novel methods are needed. Here we describe the identification of electrophilic natural products in crude extracts via their reactivity against azide as a nucleophile followed by their subsequent enrichment using a cleavable azide-reactive resin (CARR. Using this approach, natural products carrying epoxides and α,β-unsaturated enones as well as several unknown compounds were identified in crude extracts from entomopathogenic Photorhabdus bacteria.

  7. Determination of scutellarin in plasma by solid phase extraction—high performance liquid chromatography and its pharmacokinetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiuYM; LiuAH

    2002-01-01

    Breviscapine has extensive effects and its main active component is scutellarin.This study established a solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography (SPE-HPLC) method for determining scutellarin in plasma,and studied its pharmacokinetics after iv breviscapine in rabbits.Methanol-water-phosphoric acid was used as mobile phase,Nucleosil C18 column was welected.Plasma samples were pretreated by solid phase extraction.Fifteen rabbits(3 groups) were given breviscapine by iv at the dose of 10.0,20.0 and 40.0mg·kg-1,respectively.Scutellarin in plasma was determined.The linearity was obtained over the range of 0.02-10.0mg·L-1.The limit of detection was 0.02mg·L-1.After iv breviscapine in rabbits,the concentration-time curves of scutellarin was fitted to three compartment model.The results showed that this assay method was accurate,sensitive and simple.The changes of drug concentration in vivo exhibited linear kinetics over the dosage range of 10.0-20.0mg·kg-1,but when dosage was 40.0mg·kg-1,the linear kinetic properties did not exist.

  8. Products and mechanisms of the oxidation of organic compounds in atmospheric air plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marotta, Ester; Schiorlin, Milko; Paradisi, Cristina [Department of Chemical Sciences, Universita di Padova, Via Marzolo 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Rea, Massimo, E-mail: cristina.paradisi@unipd.i [Department of Electrical Engineering, Universita di Padova, 35131 Padova (Italy)

    2010-03-31

    Atmospheric plasma-based technologies are developing as a powerful means for air purification, specifically for the oxidation of organic pollutants. To achieve a better control on the emissions produced by such treatments mechanistic insight is needed in the complex reactions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the plasma. An account is given here of our comparative studies of the behaviour of model VOCs in response to different corona regimes (+dc, -dc and +pulsed) implemented within the same flow reactor. Model VOCs considered include two alkanes (n-hexane and i-octane), one aromatic hydrocarbon (toluene) and two halogenated methanes, dibromomethane (CH{sub 2}Br{sub 2}) and dibromodifluoromethane (CF{sub 2}Br{sub 2}, halon 1202). Efficiency and product data are reported and discussed as well as various possible initiation reactions. A powerful diagnostic tool is ion analysis, performed by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry: it provides a map of major ions and ion-molecule reactions and a rationale for interpreting current/voltage characteristics of dc coronas. It is shown that, depending on the specific VOC and corona regime adopted, different initiation steps prevail in the VOC-oxidation process and that the presence of a VOC, albeit in small amounts (500 ppm), can greatly affect some important plasma properties (ion population, current/voltage profile, post-discharge products).

  9. Pyrolysis of Polyolefins Using Rotating Arc Plasma Technology for Production of Acetylene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Zhang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyolefin, as one of the most widely used macromolecule materials, has been one of the most serious threats to the environment. Current treatment methods of waste polyolefin including landfill, incineration, and thermal degradation have suffered from severe problems such as secondary pollution and the generation of other toxic substances. In this article, we report for the first time a high-efficiency method to produce high-value C2H2 from polyolefins using a rotating direct current arc plasma reactor, using polyethylene and polypropylene as feedstocks. The essence of this method is that a reductive atmosphere of pyrolysis enables a thermodynamic preference to C2H2 over other carbon-containing gas and the rotating direct current arc plasma reactor allows for a uniform distribution of high temperature to ensure high conversion of polymers. Thermodynamic simulation of product composition was performed, and the effect of plasma input power, polyolefin feed rate, and working gas flow rate on the pyrolysis results was experimentally investigated. It was found that, with proper parameter control, approximately complete conversion of carbon in polyolefin could be obtained, with a C2H2 selectivity higher than 80% and a C2H2 yield higher than 70%. These results not only create new opportunities for the reuse of polymer waste, but are also instructive for the green production of C2H2.

  10. Simultaneous determination of a novel calcium entry blocker, monatepil maleate, and its metabolites in rat plasma by means of solid-phase extraction and reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurono, M; Suzuki, K; Yoshida, K; Naruto, S

    1997-02-21

    A reversed-phase LC method with electrochemical detection is described for the simultaneous determination of monatepil maleate (AJ-2615, AJ), a novel calcium entry blocker, and its three S-oxidized metabolites in plasma. These compounds were extracted from plasma by solid-phase extraction and injected onto an ODS column. The determination limit in plasma (0.5 ml) was 10 ng/ml for AJ and 5 ng/ml for the three metabolites. The method was applied to the determination of AJ and the metabolites in rat plasma samples.

  11. Decomposition of gas-phase diphenylether at 473 K by electron beam generated plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, H H; Kojima, T

    2003-01-01

    Decomposition of gas-phase diphenylether (DPE) in the order of several parts per million by volume (ppmv) was studied as a model compound of dioxin using a flow-type electron-beam reactor at an elevated temperature of 473 K. The ground state oxygen ( sup 3 P) atoms played an important role in the decomposition of DPE resulting in the formation of 1,4-hydroquinone (HQ) as a major ring retaining product. The high yield of hydroquinone indicated that the breakage of ether bond (C-O) is important in the initial step of DPE decomposition. Ring cleavage products were CO and CO sub 2 , and NO sub 2 was also produced from background N sub 2 -O sub 2. The sum of the yields of HQ, CO sub 2 and CO accounts for over 90% of the removed DPE. Hydroxyl radicals (OH) were less important in the dilute DPE decomposition at a high water content, and were mostly consumed by recombination reactions to form hydrogen peroxide. The smaller the initial DPE concentrations, the higher the decomposition efficiency and the lower the yield...

  12. Highly effective sorbents obtained by treating agrowaste products in cold plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Sorbents are widely used in purification of various liquids and gases, offering a universal means for wastewater and air cleaning. The most promising sorbents are those obtained from agrowaste products such as rice or buckwheat husk. Processing of husk in cold plasma modifies the composition, structure and surface properties of the raw material and raises its porosity, thus substantially improving the sorption properties of the final product.Husk as a raw material for producing sorbents has the following advantageous properties: (1) appropriate chemical composition; (2) low cost; (3) high dispersity, due to which there is no need in any special treatment of the material prior to its exposing to plasma; (4) scaly structure and developed porous surface ensuring a high surface-to-volume ratio. The best properties are displayed by the sorbents obtained in cold plasma under reduced pressures of 53.2 Pa. The raw naterial traverses the region occupied by the plasma and, as it does so, it gets heated up to a temperature of 250 - 350 ℃. The whole process involves two stages: combustion of the raw material and modification of its properties under the action of the plasma. The combustion proceeds due to the oxygen contained in the starting material. During the combustion, the hydrogen contained in the starting material and some part of the carbon also burn out.The resultant scaly sorbent is accumulated in a cooler. The scales are black; they range in sizes from 1mm to 5 mm.The sorbents obtained are remarkable for their useful properties and outperform most of the traditional sorbents used in modern industry. The starting materials are inexpensive, and their resources are almost unlimited. The sorbents have rather a low production cost (1.8-2.5($)/kg). The sorbents can be used for cleaning hydrosphere from water pollutants on a large scale. The degree of cleaning water surface from oil products with sorbents was a subject of investigation. The highest degree of purification

  13. Uncertainty propagation in modeling of plasma-assisted hydrogen production from biogas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaherisarabi, Shadi; Venkattraman, Ayyaswamy

    2016-10-01

    With the growing concern of global warming and the resulting emphasis on decreasing greenhouse gas emissions, there is an ever-increasing need to utilize energy-production strategies that can decrease the burning of fossil fuels. In this context, hydrogen remains an attractive clean-energy fuel that can be oxidized to produce water as a by-product. In spite of being an abundant species, hydrogen is seldom found in a form that is directly usable for energy-production. While steam reforming of methane is one popular technique for hydrogen production, plasma-assisted conversion of biogas (carbon dioxide + methane) to hydrogen is an attractive alternative. Apart from producing hydrogen, the other advantage of using biogas as raw material is the fact that two potent greenhouse gases are consumed. In this regard, modeling is an important tool to understand and optimize plasma-assisted conversion of biogas. The primary goal of this work is to perform a comprehensive statistical study that quantifies the influence of uncertain rate constants thereby determining the key reaction pathways. A 0-D chemical kinetics solver in the OpenFOAM suite is used to perform a series of simulations to propagate the uncertainty in rate constants and the resulting mean and standard deviation of outcomes.

  14. Minimization of Defective Products in The Department of Press Bridge & Rib Through Six Sigma DMAIC Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochman, YA; Agustin, A.

    2017-06-01

    This study proposes the DMAIC Six Sigma approach of Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve/Implement and Control (DMAIC) to minimizing the number of defective products in the bridge & rib department. There are 5 types of defects were the most dominant are broken rib, broken sound board, strained rib, rib sliding and sound board minori. The imperative objective is to improve the quality through the DMAIC phases. In the define phase, the critical to quality (CTQ) parameters was identified minimization of product defects through the pareto chart and FMEA. In this phase, to identify waste based on the current value stream mapping. In the measure phase, the specified control limits product used to maintain the variations of the product, the calculation of the value of DPMO (Defect Per Million Opportunities) and the calculation of the value of sigma level. In analyze phase, determine the type of defect of the most dominant and identify the causes of defective products. In the improve phase, the existing design was modified through various alternative solutions by conducting brainstorming sessions. In this phase, the solution was identified based on the results of FMEA. Improvements were made to the seven priority causes of disability based on the highest RPN value. In the control phase, focusing on improvements to be made. Proposed improvements include making and define standard operating procedures, improving the quality and eliminate waste defective products.

  15. Optimization of plasma parameters for the production of silicon nano-crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chaabane, N; Vach, H; Cabarrocas, P R I

    2003-01-01

    We use silane-hydrogen plasmas to synthesize silicon nano-crystals in the gas phase and thermophoresis to collect them onto a cooled substrate. To distinguish between nano-crystals formed in the plasma and those grown on the substrate, as a result of surface and subsurface reactions, we have simultaneously deposited films on a conventional substrate heated at 250 deg. C and on a second substrate cooled down to 90 deg. C. A series of samples deposited at various discharge pressures, in the range of 400 mTorr to 1.2 Torr, have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometry. At low pressure (400-500 mTorr), the films are amorphous on the cold substrate and micro-crystalline on the hot one. As pressure increases, gas phase reactions lead to the formation of nano-crystalline particles which are attracted by the cold substrate due to thermophoresis. Consequently, we obtain nano-crystalline silicon thin films on the cold substrate and amorphous thin films on the heated one in the pressure range of 600-900...

  16. Plasma chemistry for inorganic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, O.

    1980-01-01

    Practical application of plasma chemistry to the development of inorganic materials using both low temperature and warm plasmas are summarized. Topics cover: the surface nitrification and oxidation of metals; chemical vapor deposition; formation of minute oxide particles; the composition of oxides from chloride vapor; the composition of carbides and nitrides; freezing high temperature phases by plasma arc welding and plasma jet; use of plasma in the development of a substitute for petroleum; the production of silicon for use in solar cell batteries; and insulating the inner surface of nuclear fusion reactor walls.

  17. Upgrade of the IGN-14 neutron generator for research on detection of fusion-plasma products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igielski, Andrzej; Kurowski, Arkadiusz; Janik, Władysław; Gabańska, Barbara; Woźnicka, Urszula, E-mail: Urszula.Woznicka@ifj.edu.pl

    2015-10-11

    The fast neutron generator (IGN-14) at the Institute of Nuclear Physics of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IFJ PAN) in Kraków (Poland) is a laboratory multi-purpose experimental device. Neutrons are produced in a beam-target D–D or D–T reactions. A new vacuum chamber installed directly to the end of the ion guide of IGN-14 makes it possible to measure not only neutrons but also alpha particles in the presence of a mixed radiation field of other accompanying reaction products. The new experimental setup allows test detectors dedicated to spectrometric measurements of thermonuclear fusion reaction products. - Highlights: • Nuclear reactions at the target correspond to the fusion reaction in hot plasma. • Measuring vacuum chamber has been built and installed. • Spatial distribution of the particle mixed fields in chamber was calculated. • New experimental setup for tests of detectors dedicated to measure of fusion reaction products.

  18. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of ready-to-eat meat: Inactivation of Listeria innocua and changes in product quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rød, Sara Katrine; Hansen, Flemming; Leipold, Frank

    2012-01-01

    The application of cold atmospheric pressure plasma for decontamination of a sliced ready-to-eat (RTE) meat product (bresaola) inoculated with Listeria innocua was investigated. Inoculated samples were treated at 15.5, 31, and 62 W for 2–60 s inside sealed linear-low-density-polyethylene bags...... the sensory threshold level. Surface colour changes included loss of redness of ∼40% and 70% after 1 and 14 days of storage, respectively, regardless of plasma treatment. The results indicate that plasma may be applicable in surface decontamination of pre-packed RTE food products. However, oxidation may...

  19. Micropropagation technology in early phases of commercial seed potato production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pruski, K.

    2001-01-01

    Key words:Solanum tuberosum L., in vitro plantlet, in vitro tuberization, microtubers, minitubers, tuber bulking, photoperiod, in vitro storage, jasmonates, micropropagation, seed production. Micropropagation ( in vitro propagation) has been introduced to seed potato productio

  20. Hydrogen and Carbon Black Production from the Degradation of Methane by Thermal Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Cottet

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Methane gas (CH4 is the main inducer of the so called greenhouse gases effect. Recent scientific research aims to minimize the accumulation of this gas in the atmosphere and to develop processes capable of producing stable materials with added value. Thermal plasma technology is a promising alternative to these applications, since it allows obtaining H2 and solid carbon from CH4, without the parallel formation of byproducts such as CO2 and NOx. In this work, CH4 was degraded by thermal plasma in order to produce hydrogen (H2 and carbon black. The degradation efficiency of CH4, selectivity for H2 production as well as the characterization of carbon black were studied. The best results were obtained in the CH4 flow rate of 5 L min-1 the degradation percentage and the selectivity for H2 production reached 98.8 % and 48.4 %, respectively. At flow rates of less than 5 L min-1 the selectivity for H2 production increases and reaches 91.9 %. The carbon black has obtained amorphous with hydrophobic characteristics and can be marketed to be used in composite material, and can also be activated chemically and/or physically and used as adsorbent material.

  1. Syngas production from tar reforming by microwave plasma jet at atmospheric pressure: power supplied influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Medeiros, Henrique; Justiniano, Lucas S.; Gomes, Marcelo P.; Soares da Silva Sobrinho, Argemiro; Petraconi Filho, Gilberto

    2013-09-01

    Now a day, scientific community is searching for new fuels able to replace fossil fuels with economic and environment gains and biofuel play a relevant rule, mainly for the transport sector. A major process to obtaining such type of renewable resource is biomass gasification. This process has as product a gas mixture containing CO, CH4, and H2 which is named synthesis gas (syngas). However, an undesirable high molecular organic species denominated tar are also produced in this process which must be removed. In this work, results of syngas production via tar reforming in the atmospheric pressure microwave discharge having as parameter the power supply. Argon, (argon + ethanol), and (argon + tar solution) plasma jet were produced by different values of power supplied (from 0.5 KW to 1.5 KW). The plasma compounds were investigated by optical spectroscopy to each power and gas composition. The main species observed in the spectrum are Ar, CN, OII, OIV, OH, H2, H(beta), CO2, CO, and SIII. This last one came from tar. The best value of the power applied to syngas production from tar reforming was verified between 1.0 KW and 1.2 KW. We thank the following institutions for financial support: CNPq, CAPES, and FAPESP.

  2. LIPID RAFTS, FLUID/FLUID PHASE SEPARATION, AND THEIR RELEVANCE TO PLASMA MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Sengupta, Prabuddha; Baird, Barbara; Holowka, David

    2007-01-01

    Novel biophysical approaches combined with modeling and new biochemical data have helped to recharge the lipid raft field and have contributed to the generation of a refined model of plasma membrane organization. In this review, we summarize new information in the context of previous literature to provide new insights into the spatial organization and dynamics of lipids and proteins in the plasma membrane of live cells. Recent findings of large-scale separation of liquid-ordered and liquid-di...

  3. Parameterization of x-ray production in laser-produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peek, J.M.

    1980-10-01

    A simple and algebraically tractable model is developed for the efficiency of x-ray production in a certain spectral region by laser driven plasmas. The model is used as a interpolation/extrapolation device for experimental and theoretical results from three different target concepts. These tests indicate that it is of use in its intended capacity. Certain relationships between independent parameters and scaling laws also result from this construction. Most notable among these is the prediction that the efficiency for producing line radiation in a certain narrow energy range scales like the inverse square of this energy.

  4. Plasma assisted fuel reforming for on-board hydrogen rich gas production

    OpenAIRE

    Darmon, Adeline; Rollier, Jean-Damien; Duval, Emmanuelle; Gonzalez-Aguilar, Jose; Metkemeijer, Rudolf; Fulcheri, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    Texte disponible en suivant le lien ci-dessous : http://www.cder.dz/A2H2/Medias/Download/Proc%20PDF/PARALLEL%20SESSIONS/%5BS06%5D%20Production%20-%20Hydrocarbons/14-06-06/162.pdf; International audience; Plasma assisted fuel reforming technology appears particularly attractive for automotive applications, especially regarding compactness, response time and absence of catalyst element. In 2003, Renault and CEP have initiated a research programme on this subject. A test bench allowing reformer ...

  5. Chemical Equilibration and Dilepton Production of Quark-Gluon Plasma at RHIC Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙家丽; 贺泽君; 马国亮; 马余刚; 刘波

    2004-01-01

    An evolution model of the chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma system has been established based on the Jiittner distribution function of partons. By studying the dilepton production of the system, we find that due to high initial temperature, large gluon density of the system as well as large gluon fusion gg → c(c-) cross section in the intermediate mass region, a dominant contribution to dileptons with intermediate masses is provided by quark-antiquark annihilation qq → l(l-) and, especially, thermal charmed quarks from the gluon fusion gg → c(c-) and quark-antiquark annihilation qq → c(c-).

  6. Laser Plasmas : Lie-optics, geometrical phase and nonlinear dynamics of self-focusing and soliton evolution in a plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Subbarao; R Uma; H Singh; Kamal Goyal; Sanjeev Goyal; Ravinder Kumar

    2000-11-01

    It is useful to state propagation laws for a self-focusing laser beam or a soliton in grouptheoretical form to be called Lie-optical form for being able to predict self-focusing dynamics conveniently and amongst other things, the geometrical phase. It is shown that the propagation of the gaussian laser beam is governed by a rotation group in a non-absorbing medium and by the Lorentz group in an absorbing medium if the additional symmetry of paraxial propagation is imposed on the laser beam. This latter symmetry, however, needs care in its implementation because the electromagnetic wave of the laser sees a different refractive index profile than the laboratory observer in this approximation. It is explained how to estimate this non-Taylor paraxial power series approximation. The group theoretical laws so-stated are used to predict the geometrical or Berry phase of the laser beam by a technique developed by one of us elsewhere. The group-theoretical Lie-optic (or ABCD) laws are also useful in predicting the laser behavior in a more complex optical arrangement like in a laser cavity etc. The nonlinear dynamical consequences of these laws for long distance (or time) predictions are also dealt with. Ergodic dynamics of an ensemble of laser beams on the torus during absorptionless self-focusing is discussed in this context. From the point of view of new physics concepts, we introduce a stroboscopic invariant torus and a stroboscopic generating function in classical mechanics that is useful for long-distance predictions of absorptionless self-focusing.

  7. Thematic Mapper Image Production in the Engineering Checkout Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischel, D.; Lyon, J. C.

    1984-01-01

    Thematic Mapper data processing during LANDSAT 4's first year was performed on an engineering evaluation basis. Fully corrected products were created for some 282 scenes during this period using software and systems based upon the intended full production systems to become operational following the evaluation period. The engineering systems included substantial software and procedures for assessing spacecraft, instrument and ground processing algorithmic behavior. The data systems are described in terms of performance objectives, processing organization and data flow, quality assurance measurements and achievement of goals. The a priori implementation of TM radiometric and geometric corrections is described. Changes to processing suggested by or implemented on the basis of on-orbit data analysis are discussed. Spacecraft, instrument and algorithmic performance are evaluated.

  8. Nonthermal plasma reactors for the production of light hydrocarbon olefins from heavy oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prieto G.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, nonthermal plasma technology was applied in many different fields, focusing attention on the destruction of harmful compounds in the air. This paper deals with nonthermal plasma reactors for the conversion of heavy oil into light hydrocarbon olefins, to be employed as gasoline components or to be added in small amounts for the catalytic reduction of nitrogen oxide compounds in the treatment of exhaust gas at power plants. For the process, the plate-plate nonthermal plasma reactor driven by AC high voltage was selected. The reactor was modeled as a function of parameter characteristics, using the methodology provided by the statistical experimental design. The parameters studied were gap distance between electrodes, carrier gas flow and applied power. Results indicate that the reactions occurring in the process of heavy oil conversion have an important selective behavior. The products obtained were C1-C4 hydrocarbons with ethylene as the main compound. Operating the parameters of the reactor within the established operative window of the system and close to the optimum conditions, efficiencies as high as 70 (mul/joule were obtained. These values validate the process as an in-situ method to produce light olefins for the treatment of nitrogen oxides in the exhaust gas from diesel engines.

  9. Numerical Analysis of Microdischarge Oxygen Plasma and Prediction of Ozone Production Efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawano, Satoyuki; Misaka, Takashi

    In this research, numerical simulation of oxygen plasma produced by dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is made as a basic research for the application of bioprocesses such as sterilization. Numerical simulation is based on an appropriate modeling of microdischarges including 9 kinds of species and 54 chemical reactions. Behavior of the oxygen plasma is analyzed by finite difference method in two-dimensional computational region. The detailed characteristics of filamentous discharge formed between parallel dielectric surfaces which cover the electrodes are investigated. The qualitative tendency of the discharge formation process agrees with the previous experimental observation. Ozone production efficiency (OPE) is obtained and compared with experimental results. Dependency of reduced electric field E/n on OPE is investigated by comparing the numerical results with previous experimental results by other researcher, where E/n is the ratio of electric field EE to number density n of neutral molecule in the gas. It is confirmed that the present numerical simulation has practically enough accuracy for the evaluation of the OPE to optimize the oxygen plasma sterilization devices.

  10. Investigation of helium ion production in constricted direct current plasma ion source with layered-glows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yuna [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Kyoung-Jae, E-mail: jkjlsh1@snu.ac.kr [Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yeong-Shin [Samsumg Electronics Co. Ltd., Gyeonggi 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Y. S. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of); Center for Advance Research in Fusion Reactor Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-744 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-15

    Generation of helium ions is experimentally investigated with a constricted direct current (DC) plasma ion source operated at layered-glow mode, in which electrons could be accelerated through multiple potential structures so as to generate helium ions including He{sup 2+} by successive ionization collisions in front of an extraction aperture. The helium discharge is sustained with the formation of a couple of stable layers and the plasma ball with high density is created near the extraction aperture at the operational pressure down to 0.6 Torr with concave cathodes. The ion beam current extracted with an extraction voltage of 5 kV is observed to be proportional to the discharge current and inversely proportional to the operating pressure, showing high current density of 130 mA/cm{sup 2} and power density of 0.52 mA/cm{sup 2}/W. He{sup 2+} ions, which were predicted to be able to exist due to multiple-layer potential structure, are not observed. Simple calculation on production of He{sup 2+} ions inside the plasma ball reveals that reduced operating pressure and increased cathode area will help to generate He{sup 2+} ions with the layered-glow DC discharge.

  11. Silicon nanocrystal production through non-thermal plasma synthesis: a comparative study between silicon tetrachloride and silane precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar-Inceoglu, Ozgul; Lopez, Thomas; Farshihagro, Ebrahim; Mangolini, Lorenzo

    2012-06-01

    Silicon nanocrystals with sizes between 5 and 10 nm have been produced in a non-thermal plasma reactor using silicon tetrachloride as precursor. We demonstrate that high-quality material can be produced with this method and that production rates as high as 140 mg h-1 can be obtained, with a maximum precursor utilization rate of roughly 50%. Compared to the case in which particles are produced using silane as the main precursor, the gas composition needs to be modified and hydrogen needs to be added to the mixture to enable the nucleation and growth of the powder. The presence of chlorine in the system leads to the production of nanoparticles with a chlorine terminated surface which is significantly less robust against oxidation in air compared to the case of a hydrogen terminated surface. We also observe that significantly higher power input is needed to guarantee the formation of crystalline particles, which is a consequence not only of the different gas-phase composition, but also of the influence of chlorine on the stability of the crystalline structure.

  12. Determination of pinocembrin in human plasma by solid-phase extraction and LC/MS/MS: application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bei; Cao, Guoying; Sun, Taohua; Zhao, Xi; Hu, Xin; Yan, Jiling; Peng, Yueying; Shi, Aixin; Li, Yang; Xue, Wei; Li, Min; Li, Kexin; Liu, Yingfa

    2014-12-01

    A sensitive, fast and specific method for the quantitation of pinocembrin in human plasma based on high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) was developed and validated. Clonazepam was used as the internal standard (IS). After solid-phase extraction of 500 μL plasma, pinocembrin and the IS were separated on a Luna C8 column using the mobile phase composed of acetonitrile-0.3 mm ammonium acetate solution (65:35, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.25 mL/min in isocratic mode. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer by multiple reaction monitoring via an electrospray ionization source in negative mode by AB SCIEX Qtrap 5500. The assay was linear from 1 to 400 ng/mL, with within- and between-run accuracy (relative error) from -1.82 to 0.54%, and within- and between-run precision (CV) below 5.25%. The recovery was above 88% for the analyte at 1, 50 and 300 ng/mL. This analytical method was successful for the determination of pinocembrin in human plasma and applied to a pharmacokinetic study of pinocembrin injection in healthy volunteers after intravenous drip administration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Simultaneous determination of triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori in human plasma by reversed phase chromatography with online wavelength switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Sameh; Atia, Noha N.

    2015-02-01

    The infection of gastric mucosa by Helicobacter pylori (HP) is an essential cofactor in the aetiology of gastroduodenal ulcer and gastric carcinoma. Because of the bacterial resistance, combination therapy containing omeprazole (OME), tinidazole (TNZ) and clarithromycin (CLA) is commonly used for eradication of HP. However, the simultaneous determination of the triple therapy in human plasma was not reported. A simple, reproducible, and selective HPLC method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the triple therapy mixture used for management of HP infections in human plasma. An HPLC procedure based on a liquid-liquid extraction, enrichment of the analytes and subsequent reversed-phase chromatography with UV detection was used. To enable sensitive and selective detection, the method involved the use of online wavelength switching detection, with two different detection wavelengths; 280 nm for detection of OME and TNZ and 210 nm for detection of CLA. Separations were performed on C18 analytical column with acetonitrile-10 mM phosphate buffer of pH = 3.0 at flow rate of 1.0 mL min-1. The linear ranges in human plasma were 0.05-10 μg mL-1 with correlation coefficients >0.9990. The detection limits in human plasma were 0.02-0.07 μg mL-1. Validation parameters were assessed in compliance with US-FDA guidelines. The method proved to be valuable for the therapeutic drug monitoring after oral administration of triple therapy tablets.

  14. Study of Magnetic Field Behavior at Lower Pressure of Neon in the Axial Phase of INTI Plasma Focus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.K.A. Devi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The magnetic field distribution substantially affects mechanisms for the generation of radiation in Z-pinches. Investigation of the axial component of the magnetic field is one of the important problems in plasma focus studies. The designed magnetic probe is intended to use for the study of current sheet in INTI plasma focus device with energy of about 3.3 kJ. The measurements of the azimuthal component of the magnetic field on the INTI Plasma Focus operated at neon pressures below 1 Torr was carried out using a custom built calibrated magnetic probe. The probe was tested for neon gas under the various lower pressures (i.e., 0.1, 0.3, 0.5 and 0.7, 1, 2, 3, 5 torr etc.. It is observed that the time response of the designed probe is sufficient for the rise time of the magnetic field associated with the current in the axial phase. We also note that the small size of the designed probe is well suited to sense the magnetic field without perturbing the plasma unduly. The probe designed and constructed is also suitable to carryout measurements to obtain axial distributions of trajectory, average axial velocity and magnetic field of the current sheath at a certain radial distances along the axis of the tube.

  15. Simulation Tool for Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma Actuators at Atmospheric and Sub-Atmospheric Pressures: SBIR Phase I Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likhanskii, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This report is the final report of a SBIR Phase I project. It is identical to the final report submitted, after some proprietary information of administrative nature has been removed. The development of a numerical simulation tool for dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma actuator is reported. The objectives of the project were to analyze and predict DBD operation at wide range of ambient gas pressures. It overcomes the limitations of traditional DBD codes which are limited to low-speed applications and have weak prediction capabilities. The software tool allows DBD actuator analysis and prediction for subsonic to hypersonic flow regime. The simulation tool is based on the VORPAL code developed by Tech-X Corporation. VORPAL's capability of modeling DBD plasma actuator at low pressures (0.1 to 10 torr) using kinetic plasma modeling approach, and at moderate to atmospheric pressures (1 to 10 atm) using hydrodynamic plasma modeling approach, were demonstrated. In addition, results of experiments with pulsed+bias DBD configuration that were performed for validation purposes are reported.

  16. Rapid analysis of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fish plasma micro-aliquots using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fangfang; Gong, Zhiyuan; Kelly, Barry C

    2015-02-27

    A sensitive analytical method based on liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed for rapid analysis of 11 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in fish plasma micro-aliquots (∼20μL). Target PPCPs included, bisphenol A, carbamazepine, diclofenac, fluoxetine, gemfibrozil, ibuprofen, naproxen, risperidone, sertraline, simvastatin and triclosan. A relatively quicker and cheaper LLE procedure exhibited comparable analyte recoveries with solid-phase extraction. Rapid separation and analysis of target compounds in fish plasma extracts was achieved by employing a high efficiency C-18 HPLC column (Agilent Poroshell 120 SB-C18, 2.1mm×50mm, 2.7μm) and fast polarity switching, enabling effective monitoring of positive and negative ions in a single 9min run. With the exception of bisphenol A, which exhibited relatively high background contamination, method detection limits of individual PPCPs ranged between 0.15 and 0.69pg/μL, while method quantification limits were between 0.05 and 2.3pg/μL. Mean matrix effect (ME) values ranged between 65 and 156% for the various target analytes. Isotope dilution quantification using isotopically labelled internal surrogates was utilized to correct for signal suppression or enhancement and analyte losses during sample preparation. The method was evaluated by analysis of 20μL plasma micro-aliquots collected from zebrafish (Danio rerio) from a laboratory bioaccumulation study, which included control group fish (no exposure), as well as fish exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations of PPCPs. Using the developed LC-MS/MS based method, concentrations of the studied PPCPs were consistently detected in the low pg/μL (ppb) range. The method may be useful for investigations requiring fast, reliable concentration measurements of PPCPs in fish plasma. In particular, the method may be applicable for in situ contaminant biomonitoring, as well as

  17. Microbe-dependent CD11b+ IgA+ plasma cells mediate robust early-phase intestinal IgA responses in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunisawa, Jun; Gohda, Masashi; Hashimoto, Eri; Ishikawa, Izumi; Higuchi, Morio; Suzuki, Yuji; Goto, Yoshiyuki; Panea, Casandra; Ivanov, Ivaylo I.; Sumiya, Risa; Aayam, Lamichhane; Wake, Taichi; Tajiri, So; Kurashima, Yosuke; Shikata, Shiori; Akira, Shizuo; Takeda, Kiyoshi; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Intestinal plasma cells predominantly produce immunoglobulin (Ig) A, however, their functional diversity remains poorly characterized. Here we show that murine intestinal IgA plasma cells can be newly classified into two populations on the basis of CD11b expression, which cannot be discriminated by currently known criteria such as general plasma cell markers, B cell origin and T cell dependence. CD11b+ IgA+ plasma cells require the lymphoid structure of Peyer’s patches, produce more IgA than CD11b− IgA+ plasma cells, proliferate vigorously, and require microbial stimulation and IL-10 for their development and maintenance. These features allow CD11b+ IgA+ plasma cells to mediate early-phase antigen-specific intestinal IgA responses induced by oral immunization with protein antigen. These findings reveal the functional diversity of IgA+ plasma cells in the murine intestine. PMID:23612313

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION REPORT, FRANCE COMPRESSOR PRODUCTS EMISSIONS PACKING, PHASE I REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report presents results of a Phase I test of emissions packing technology offered by France Compressor Products which is designed to reduce methane leaks from compressor rod packing when a compressor is in a standby and pressurized state. This Phase I test was executed betwee...

  19. Model description of bactrial 3-methylcatechol production in one- and two-phase systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Husken, L.E.; Hoogakker, J.; Bont, de J.A.M.; Tramper, J.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    Pseudomonas putida MC2 produces 3-methylcatechol from toluene in aqueous medium. A second phase of 1-octanol may improve total product accumulation. To optimise the design of such a biphasic process, a process model was developed, both for one- and two-phase applications. The insights obtained by th

  20. Heat production of mammalian cells at different cell-cycle phases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loesberg, C.; Miltenburg, J.C. van; Wuk, R. van

    1982-01-01

    1. 1.|Heat production of Reuber H35 rat hepatoma cells and murine C1300 neuroblastoma cells at different stages of the cell cycle were measured microcalorimetrically. 2. 2.|Reuber H35 monolayer cultures of G1-phase cells and cells in S-phase were trypsinized, reincubated in suspension culture and i

  1. Live cell plasma membranes do not exhibit a miscibility phase transition over a wide range of temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Il-Hyung; Saha, Suvrajit; Polley, Anirban; Huang, Hector; Mayor, Satyajit; Rao, Madan; Groves, Jay T

    2015-03-26

    Lipid/cholesterol mixtures derived from cell membranes as well as their synthetic reconstitutions exhibit well-defined miscibility phase transitions and critical phenomena near physiological temperatures. This suggests that lipid/cholesterol-mediated phase separation plays a role in the organization of live cell membranes. However, macroscopic lipid-phase separation is not generally observed in cell membranes, and the degree to which properties of isolated lipid mixtures are preserved in the cell membrane remain unknown. A fundamental property of phase transitions is that the variation of tagged particle diffusion with temperature exhibits an abrupt change as the system passes through the transition, even when the two phases are distributed in a nanometer-scale emulsion. We support this using a variety of Monte Carlo and atomistic simulations on model lipid membrane systems. However, temperature-dependent fluorescence correlation spectroscopy of labeled lipids and membrane-anchored proteins in live cell membranes shows a consistently smooth increase in the diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature. We find no evidence of a discrete miscibility phase transition throughout a wide range of temperatures: 14-37 °C. This contrasts the behavior of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) blebbed from the same cells, which do exhibit phase transitions and macroscopic phase separation. Fluorescence lifetime analysis of a DiI probe in both cases reveals a significant environmental difference between the live cell and the GPMV. Taken together, these data suggest the live cell membrane may avoid the miscibility phase transition inherent to its lipid constituents by actively regulating physical parameters, such as tension, in the membrane.

  2. FePt nanoparticle formation with lower phase transition temperature by single shot plasma focus ion irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, J. J.; Roshan, M. V.; Pan, Z. Y.; Verma, R.; Lee, P.; Springham, S. V.; Tan, T. L.; Rawat, R. S.

    2008-07-01

    Uniform FePt nanoparticles were synthesized through nanostructuring of pulsed laser deposited FePt thin films by single shot H+ ion irradiation using a plasma focus device. The annealing temperature required for phase transition from low Ku face-centred cubic to high Ku face-centred tetragonal, for ion irradiated samples, is simultaneously lowered down to 400 °C. The energetic H+ ion irradiation significantly reduces the activation energy for atomic ordering by increasing the number of vacancies. The advantage of using a plasma focus device is that it can achieve nanostructuring in much shorter time, in single shot ion exposure with pulse duration of typically about a few hundreds of nanoseconds, as compared with much longer duration required by continuous ion sources.

  3. Direct tandem mass spectrometric analysis of amino acids in plasma using fluorous derivatization and monolithic solid-phase purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamashima, Erina; Hayama, Tadashi; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Imakyure, Osamu; Yamaguchi, Masatoshi; Nohta, Hitoshi

    2015-11-10

    In this study, we developed a novel direct tandem mass spectrometric method for rapid and accurate analysis of amino acids utilizing a fluorous derivatization and purification technique. Amino acids were perfluoroalkylated with 2H,2H,3H,3H-perfluoroundecan-1-al in the presence of 2-picoline borane via reductive amination. The derivatives were purified by perfluoroalkyl-modified silica-based monolithic solid-phase extraction (monolithic F-SPE), and directly analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry using electrospray ionization without liquid chromatographic separation. The perfluoroalkyl derivatives could be sufficiently distinguished from non-fluorous compounds, i.e. the biological matrix, due to their fluorous interaction. Thus, rapid and accurate determination of amino acids was accomplished. The method was validated with human plasma samples and applied to the analysis of amino acids in the plasma of mice with maple syrup urine disease or phenylketonuria.

  4. Nutrient control for stationary phase cellulase production in Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Nicholas V; Ray, Christopher S; Kelbly, Matthew A; Ju, Lu-Kwang

    2016-01-01

    This work describes the use of nutrient limitations with Trichoderma reesei Rut C-30 to obtain a prolonged stationary phase cellulase production. This period of non-growth may allow for dependable cellulase production, extended fermentation periods, and the possibility to use pellet morphology for easy product separation. Phosphorus limitation was successful in halting growth and had a corresponding specific cellulase production of 5±2 FPU/g-h. Combined with the addition of Triton X-100 for fungal pellet formation and low shear conditions, a stationary phase cellulase production period in excess of 300 h was achieved, with a constant enzyme production rate of 7±1 FPU/g-h. While nitrogen limitation was also effective as a growth limiter, it, however, also prevented cellulase production.

  5. Nano-Disperse Borides and Carbides: Plasma Technology Production, Specific Properties, Economic Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galevskii, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Galevskii, S. G.; Tomas, K. I.; Zubkov, M. S.

    2016-04-01

    The experience of production and study on properties of nano-disperse chromium and titanium borides and carbides, and silicon carbide has been generalized. The structure and special service aspects of utilized plasma-metallurgical complex equipped with a three-jet direct-flow reactor with a capacity of 150 kW have been outlined. Processing, heat engineering and service life characteristics of the reactor are specified. The synthesis parameters of borides and carbides, as well as their basic characteristics in nano-disperse condition and their production flow diagram are outlined. Engineering and economic performance of synthesizing borides in laboratory and industrial conditions is assessed, and the respective segment of the international market as well. The work is performed at State Siberian Industrial University as a project part of the State Order of Ministry of Science and Education of the Russian Federation No. 11.1531/2014/K.

  6. Turbulent chromo-fields and thermal particle production in quark-gluon plasma medium

    CERN Document Server

    Chandra, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    The Weibel type instabilities appear in the expanding quark-gluon plasma (QGP) in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, due to the presence of momentum-space anisotropy, are responsible for the generation of the turbulent color fields. The ensemble averaged (ensemble of the turbulent fields) effective diffusive Vlasov equation, for the modified momentum distribution functions of the quarks and gluons encodes the physics of such instability and leads to the anomalous transport process in the QGP medium. In the present case, the solution of the linearized transport equation for the modified momentum distribution functions has been served as the modeling for the non-equilibrium momentum distribution functions for the QGP degrees of freedom. The strength of anisotropy has been related to a phenomenologically obtained jet-quenching parameter, $\\hat{q}$. We have computed the contribution of these anisotropic terms to the thermal dilepton production rates. The production rate has been seen to be appreciably sensitive t...

  7. Bioenergy and products from thermal pyrolysis of rice straw using plasma torch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Tsou, Feng-Ju; Lin, Kae-Long; Chang, Ching-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the feasibility and operation performance of plasma torch pyrolysis of biomass wastes, taking rice straw as the target material. This novel method has several advantages including high heating rate, short heating time, no viscous tar and low residual char (7.45-13.78 wt.%) or lava. The productions of CO and H(2) are the major components (91.85-94.14 vol.%) in the gas products with relatively high reaction rates. The maximum concentrations of gaseous products occurring times are all below 1 min. Almost 90% of gaseous products were appeared in 4 min reaction time. The yield of H(2) increases with the increase of input power or temperature. With the increase of moisture (5-55 wt.%), the mass yields of H(2) and CO(2) also increase from the H(2)O decomposition. However, due to the CO(2) production, the accumulated volume fraction of syngas decreases with the increase of moisture.

  8. Phase-change properties of GeSbTe thin films deposited by plasma-enchanced atomic layer depositon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Sannian; Yao, Dongning; Song, Zhitang; Gao, Lina; Zhang, Zhonghua; Li, Le; Shen, Lanlan; Wu, Liangcai; Liu, Bo; Cheng, Yan; Feng, Songlin

    2015-02-01

    Phase-change access memory (PCM) appears to be the strongest candidate for next-generation high-density nonvolatile memory. The fabrication of ultrahigh-density PCM depends heavily on the thin-film growth technique for the phase-changing chalcogenide material. In this study, Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) and GeSb8Te thin films were deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (ALD) method using Ge [(CH3)2 N]4, Sb [(CH3)2 N]3, Te(C4H9)2 as precursors and plasma-activated H2 gas as reducing agent of the metallorganic precursors. Compared with GST-based device, GeSb8Te-based device exhibits a faster switching speed and reduced reset voltage, which is attributed to the growth-dominated crystallization mechanism of the Sb-rich GeSb8Te films. These results show that ALD is an attractive method for preparation of phase-change materials.

  9. Production of hydroxyapatite layers on the plasma electrolytically oxidized surface of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugovskoy, Alex; Lugovskoy, Svetlana

    2014-10-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a bioactive material that is widely used for improving the osseointegration of titanium dental implants. Titanium can be coated with HA by various methods, such as chemical vapor deposition (CVD), thermal spray, or plasma spray. HA coatings can also be grown on titanium surfaces by hydrothermal, chemical, and electrochemical methods. Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO), or microarc oxidation (MAO), is an electrochemical method that enables the production of a thick porous oxide layer on the surface of a titanium implant. If the electrolyte in which PEO is performed contains calcium and phosphate ions, the oxide layer produced may contain hydroxyapatite. The HA content can then be increased by subsequent hydrothermal treatment. The HA thus produced on titanium surfaces has attractive properties, such as a high porosity, a controllable thickness, and a considerable density, which favor its use in dental and bone surgery. This review summarizes the state of the art and possible further development of PEO for the production of HA on Ti implants.

  10. Products and bioenergy from the pyrolysis of rice straw via radio frequency plasma and its kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Wen-Kai; Shie, Je-Lung; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chang, Chiung-Fen; Lin, Cheng-Fang; Yang, Sen-Yeu; Kuo, Jing T; Shaw, Dai-Gee; You, Yii-Der; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2009-03-01

    The radio frequency plasma pyrolysis technology, which can overcome the disadvantages of common pyrolysis methods such as less gas products while significant tar formation, was used for pyrolyzing the biomass waste of rice straw. The experiments were performed at various plateau temperatures of 740, 813, 843 and 880K with corresponding loading powers of 357, 482, 574 and 664W, respectively. The corresponding yields of gas products (excluding nitrogen) from rice straw are 30.7, 56.6, 62.5 and 66.5wt.% with respect to the original dried sample and the corresponding specific heating values gained from gas products are about 4548, 4284, 4469 and 4438kcalkg(-1), respectively, for the said cases. The corresponding combustible portions remained in the solid residues are about 64.7, 35, 28.2 and 23.5wt.% with specific heating values of 4106, 4438, 4328 and 4251kcalkg(-1) with respective to solid residues, while that in the original dried sample is 87.2wt.% with specific heating value of 4042kcalkg(-1). The results indicated that the amount of combustibles converted into gas products increases with increasing plateau temperature. The kinetic model employed to describe the pyrolytic conversion of rice straw at constant temperatures agrees well with the experimental data. The best curve fittings render the frequency factor of 5759.5s(-1), activation energy of 74.29kJ mol(-1) and reaction order of 0.5. Data and information obtained are useful for the future design and operation of pyrolysis of rice straw via radio frequency plasma.

  11. Comparative assessment of olive oil mill effluents from three-phase and two-phase systems, treated for hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouvalis, A; Iliopoulou-Georgudaki, J

    2010-10-01

    By-products of a two-phase and a three-phase olive oil mill process treated in an anaerobic fermentation system for hydrogen production, were evaluated by three bioassays: the zebrafish Danio rerio embryo test and two microbiotests, Thamnotoxkit F and Daphtoxkit F™ pulex. Samples from both processes were classified as "very toxic" with LC(50) values ranging from 1.52% (T. platyurus 24 h test) to 4.48% (D. pulex 48 h-LC₅₀). Toxicity values were differently correlated to physicochemical parameters showing different degree of influence. The treated effluents of both process systems remained very toxic showing the necessity for further treatment, aiming to environmentally safe discharges.

  12. Highly selective ethylbenzene production through alkylation of dilute ethylene with gas phase-liquid phase benzene and transalkylation feed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shenglin Liu; Fucun Chen; Sujuan Xie; Peng Zeng; Xiyan Du; Longya Xu

    2009-01-01

    A novel industrial process was designed for the highly selective production of ethylbenzene.It comprised of a reactor vessel,vapor phase ethylene feed stream,benzene and transalkylation feed stream.Especially the product stream containing ethylbenzene was used to heat the reactor vessel,which consisted of an alkylation section,an upper heat exchange section,and a bottom heat exchange section.In such a novel reactor,vapor phase benzene and liquid phase benzene were coexisted due to the heat produced by isothermal reaction between the upper heat exchange section and the bottom heat exchange section.The process was demonstrated by the thermodynamic analysis and experimental results.In fact,during the 1010 hour-life-test of gas phase ethene with gas phase-liquid phase benzene alkylation reaction,the ethene conversion was above 95%,and the ethylbenzene selectivity was above 83% (only benzene feed) and even higher than 99% (benzene plus transalkylation feed).At the same time,the xylene content in the ethylbenzene was less than 100 ppm when the reaction was carried out under the reaction conditions of 140-185℃ of temperature,1.6-2.1 MPa of pressure,3.0-5.5 of benzene/ethylene mole ratio,4-6 v% of transalkylation feed/(benzene+transalkylation feed),0.19-0.27 h-1 of ethene space velocity,and 1000 g of 3998 catalyst loaded.Thus,compared with the conventional ethylbenzene synthesis route,the transalkylation reactor could be omitted in this novel Industrial process.

  13. Gaseous hydrocarbon production by the reaction of coal char with hydrogen plasma at relatively lower microwave power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, S.; Nishikubo, K.; Imamura, T. [Kyushu National Industrial Research Institute, Tosu (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    Experimental conditions such as reaction temperature, microwave power and reaction pressure were changed in the reaction of carbon with hydrogen plasma. Methane was major product and other hydrocarbons such as acetylene and C2-C4 hydrocarbons were also produced. Methane production shows its maximum at 700-900 K and at 30W of microwave power. 2 figs.

  14. RF Plasma Torch System for Metal Matrix Composite Production in Nuclear Fuel Cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holik, Eddie, III

    2007-10-01

    For the first time in 30 years, plans are afoot to build new fission power plants in the US. It is timely to develop technology that could improve the safety and efficiency of new reactors. A program of development for advanced fuel cycles and Generation IV reactors is underway. The path to greater efficiency is to increase the core operating temperature. That places particular challenges to the cladding tubes that contain the fission fuel. A promising material for this purpose is a metal matrix composite (MMC) in which ceramic fibers are bonded within a high-strength steel matrix, much like fiberglass. Current MMC technology lacks the ability to effectively bond traditional high-temperature alloys to ceramic strands. The purpose of this project is to design an rf plasma torch system to use titanium as a buffer between the ceramic fibers and the refractory outer material. The design and methods of using an rf plasma torch to produce a non-equilibrium phase reaction to bond together the MMC will be discussed. The effects of having a long lived fuel cladding in the design of future reactors will also be discussed.

  15. Production of geopolymers using glass produced from DC plasma treatment of air pollution control (APC) residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourti, Ioanna; Rani, D Amutha; Deegan, D; Boccaccini, A R; Cheeseman, C R

    2010-04-15

    Air pollution control (APC) residues are the hazardous waste produced from cleaning gaseous emissions at energy-from-waste (EfW) facilities processing municipal solid waste (MSW). APC residues have been blended with glass-forming additives and treated using DC plasma technology to produce a high calcium alumino-silicate glass. This research has investigated the optimisation and properties of geopolymers prepared from this glass. Work has shown that high strength geopolymers can be formed and that the NaOH concentration of the activating solution significantly affects the properties. The broad particle size distribution of the APC residue glass used in these experiments results in a microstructure that contains unreacted glass particles included within a geopolymer binder phase. The high calcium content of APC residues may cause the formation of some amorphous calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) gel. A mix prepared with S/L=3.4, Si/Al=2.6 and [NaOH]=6M in the activating solution, produced high strength geopolymers with compressive strengths of approximately 130 MPa. This material had high density (2070 kg/m(3)) and low porosity. The research demonstrates for the first time that glass derived from DC plasma treatment of APC residues can be used to form high strength geopolymer-glass composites that have potential for use in a range of applications.

  16. Optimization of hydrogen production by Halobacterium salinarium coupled with E coli using milk plasma as fermentative substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Prasad

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the fermentative hydrogen production by coupled system of Halobacterium salinarium and E. coli. Increase in the light intensity from 6000 lux to 12000 lux and changing the inoculums level of E coli resulted in 10 fold increase in the rate of hydrogen production using the coupled system. Statistical based design of experiments was applied to optimize the rate of hydrogen production using milk plasma,popularly known as cheese whey, a dairy industry byproduct. An optimal rate of hydrogen production of 56.7 ml/l h was achieved with 14.42 % (by volume of milk plasma and an initial pH of 6.6. The investigations provided information on achieving higher yields with milk plasma as substrate, its optimal concentration, and importance of media pH for producing higher rate of hydrogen.

  17. Liquid-phase plasma synthesis of silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix for lithium battery anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Ying [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Bohai University, Jinzhou 121000 (China); Yu, Hang; Li, Haitao; Ming, Hai; Pan, Keming; Huang, Hui [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Liu, Yang, E-mail: yangl@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China); Kang, Zhenhui, E-mail: zhkang@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials (FUNSOM) and Jiangsu Key Laboratory for Carbon-Based Functional Materials and Devices, Soochow University, Suzhou (China)

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) were fabricated. • SiQDs/C exhibits excellent battery performance as anode materials with high specific capacity. • The good performance was attributed to the marriage of small sized SiQDs and carbon. - Abstract: Silicon quantum dots embedded in carbon matrix (SiQDs/C) nanocomposites were prepared by a novel liquid-phase plasma assisted synthetic process. The SiQDs/C nanocomposites were demonstrated to show high specific capacity, good cycling life and high coulmbic efficiency as anode materials for lithium-ion battery.

  18. Stabilization of the high-temperature phases in ceramic coatings on zirconium alloy produced by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelfeld, A. V.; Betsofen, S. Y.; Borisov, A. M.; Vladimirov, B. V.; Savushkina, S. V.; Knyazev, E. V.

    2016-09-01

    The composition and structure of ceramic coatings obtained on Zr-1%Nb alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in aqueous electrolyte comprising 2 g/L KOH, 6 g/L NaAlO2 and 2 g/L Na2SiO3 with addition of yttria nanopowder, have been studied. The PEO coatings of thickness ∼⃒20 μm were studied using scanning electron microscopy, X-ray microanalysis and X-ray phase analysis. Additives in the electrolyte of yttria nanopowder allowed stabilizing the high-temperature tetragonal and cubic zirconia in the coating.

  19. Microstructural, phase transformation and magnetic properties of Ni-Mn-Ga alloy fabricated by spark plasma sintering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian Xiao-Hua; Sui Jie-He; Zhang Xin; Feng Xue; Cai Wei

    2011-01-01

    The microstructural, phase transformation and magnetic properties of Ni-Mn-Ga alloy fabricated using the spark plasma sintering method have been investigated. The results show that both the as-sintered and annealed sintered specimens exhibit typical martensitic transformation behaviours. The martensite of the sintered specimen after annealing exhibits a ferromagnetic nature. Moreover, study of the fracture surface indicates that the transgranular fracture contributes to the higher ductility of sintered Ni-Mn-Ga alloy. In addition, the transformation strain in sintered Ni-Mn-Gaalloy is studied for the first time.

  20. Solving kinetic equations with adaptive mesh in phase space for rarefied gas dynamics and plasma physics (Invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolobov, Vladimir [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805, USA and The University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Arslanbekov, Robert [CFD Research Corporation, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Frolova, Anna [Computing Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119333 (Russian Federation)

    2014-12-09

    The paper describes an Adaptive Mesh in Phase Space (AMPS) technique for solving kinetic equations with deterministic mesh-based methods. The AMPS technique allows automatic generation of adaptive Cartesian mesh in both physical and velocity spaces using a Tree-of-Trees data structure. We illustrate advantages of AMPS for simulations of rarefied gas dynamics and electron kinetics on low temperature plasmas. In particular, we consider formation of the velocity distribution functions in hypersonic flows, particle kinetics near oscillating boundaries, and electron kinetics in a radio-frequency sheath. AMPS provide substantial savings in computational cost and increased efficiency of the mesh-based kinetic solvers.

  1. Synthesis of zeolite phases from combustion by-products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimraksa, K.; Chindaprasirt, P.; Setthaya, N. [Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai (Thailand). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry

    2010-12-15

    Synthesis of zeolites from combustion by-products, including fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash, was studied. A molar ratio of SiO{sub 2}/Al2O{sub 3} of 1.5 was used for the syntheses. Refluxing and hydrothermal methods were also used for synthesis for comparison. The reaction temperatures of refluxing and hydrothermal methods were 100{sup o}C and 130{sup o}C, respectively. Sodalite, phillipsite-K, and zeolite P1 with analcime were obtained when fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash were used as starting materials, respectively. With rice husk ash as a starting material, zeolite P1 was produced. This result had advantages over previous studies as there was no prior activation required for the synthesis. The concentrations and types of alkaline used in the synthesis also determined the zeolite type. The different zeolites obtained from three systems were measured for specific surface area and pore size by using BET and Hg-porosimetry, respectively. Ammonium exchange capacities of the synthesised powders containing zeolites, sodalite, zeolite P1 and phillipsite-K were 38.5, 65.0 and 154.7 meq 100 g{sup 1}, respectively.

  2. Synthesis of zeolite phases from combustion by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimraksa, Kedsarin; Chindaprasirt, Prinya; Setthaya, Naruemon

    2010-12-01

    Synthesis of zeolites from combustion by-products, including fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash, was studied. A molar ratio of SiO2/Al2O3 of 1.5 was used for the syntheses. Refluxing and hydrothermal methods were also used for synthesis for comparison. The reaction temperatures of refluxing and hydrothermal methods were 100 degrees C and 130 degrees C, respectively. Sodalite, phillipsite-K, and zeolite P1 with analcime were obtained when fly ash, bottom ash and rice husk ash were used as starting materials, respectively. With rice husk ash as a starting material, zeolite P1 was produced. This result had advantages over previous studies as there was no prior activation required for the synthesis. The concentrations and types of alkaline used in the synthesis also determined the zeolite type. The different zeolites obtained from three systems were measured for specific surface area and pore size by using BET and Hg-porosimetry, respectively. Ammonium exchange capacities of the synthesised powders containing zeolites, sodalite, zeolite P1 and phillipsite-K were 38.5, 65.0 and 154.7 meq 100 g(-1), respectively.

  3. Gas-Phase Plasma Synthesis of Free-Standing Silicon Nanoparticles for Future Energy Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogan, I.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs) are considered as possible candidates for a wide spectrum of future technological applications. Research in the last decades has shown that plasmas are one of the most suitable environments for the synthesis of Si-NPs. This review discusses the unique size-dependent

  4. Gas-Phase Plasma Synthesis of Free-Standing Silicon Nanoparticles for Future Energy Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dogan, I.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon nanoparticles (Si-NPs) are considered as possible candidates for a wide spectrum of future technological applications. Research in the last decades has shown that plasmas are one of the most suitable environments for the synthesis of Si-NPs. This review discusses the unique size-dependent fe

  5. Plasma free metanephrine measurement using automated online solid-phase extraction HPLC tandem mass spectrometry.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W.H. de; Graham, K.S.; Molen, J.C. van der; Links, T.P.; Morris, M.R.; Ross, H.A.; Vries, E.G.F. de; Kema, I.P.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Quantification of plasma free metanephrine (MN) and normetanephrine (NMN) is considered to be the most accurate test for the clinical chemical diagnosis of pheochromocytoma and follow-up of pheochromocytoma patients. Current methods involve laborious, time-consuming, offline sample prepa

  6. Determination of production-shipment policy using a two-phase algebraic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Hsin Chang

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The optimal production-shipment policy for end products using mathematicalmodeling and a two-phase algebraic approach is investigated. A manufacturing systemwith a random defective rate, a rework process, and multiple deliveries is studied with thepurpose of deriving the optimal replenishment lot size and shipment policy that minimisestotal production-delivery costs. The conventional method uses differential calculus on thesystem cost function to determine the economic lot size and optimal number of shipmentsfor such an integrated vendor-buyer system, whereas the proposed two-phase algebraicapproach is a straightforward method that enables practitioners who may not havesufficient knowledge of calculus to manage real-world systems more effectively.

  7. The association of plasma fluorescent oxidation products and chronic kidney disease: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebholz, Casey M; Wu, Tianying; Hamm, L Lee; Arora, Robin; Khan, Islam E; Liu, Yanxi; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Mills, Katherine T; Rogers, Stephanie; Kleinpeter, Myra A; Simon, Eric E; Chen, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Plasma fluorescent oxidation products (FLOP) constitute a stable and easily measured biomarker of cumulative oxidative stress. However, their association with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been studied. We examined the association of FLOP and CKD in 201 CKD patients and 201 controls without CKD from the community. CKD was defined as an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) products): 215.2 (181.3-268.7) vs. 156.6 (139.6-177.3) fluorescent intensity units/ml, p products): 534.8 (379.3-842.4) vs. 269.9 (232.4-410.5) fluorescent intensity units/ml, p products): 51.4 (44.4-66.0) vs. 45.2 (38.3-51.7) fluorescent intensity units/ml, p = 0.002]. Compared with those with a FLOP level below the 75th percentile, participants with a FLOP level above the 75th percentile had increased odds of CKD after adjustment for covariables (FLOP1: odds ratio 13.1, 95% confidence interval 6.2-27.6; FLOP2: odds ratio 5.7, 95% confidence interval 2.9-11.1; FLOP3: odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.7). Levels of FLOP1, FLOP2 and FLOP3 were related to eGFR (p studies are warranted to elucidate its role in the development and progression of CKD. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The power-supply control system in the device of acetylene production by H-plasma pyrolysis coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, F.Y.; Zhang, M.; Fu, P.; Weng, P.D. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2006-09-15

    The device of acetylene production by hydrogen (H{sub 2}) plasma pyrolysis coal is examined and developed not only for studying the application of low temperature plasma but also for studying the clean use of coal. The power-supply control system is used to ensure supplying a steady energy to generate and maintain the plasma electric arc of the device. The hardware configuration and the software design of the system are described in this paper. Verified by experiments, this system can meet the requirements of real-time performance, reliability and extensibility for the device.

  9. The Power-Supply Control System in the Device of Acetylene Production by H-Plasma Pyrolysis Coal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feiyun; Zhang, Ming; Fu, Peng; Weng, Peide

    2006-09-01

    The device of acetylene production by hydrogen (H-) plasma pyrolysis coal is examined and developed not only for studying the application of low temperature plasma but also for studying the clean use of coal. The power-supply control system is used to ensure supplying a steady energy to generate and maintain the plasma electric arc of the device. The hardware configuration and the software design of the system are described in this paper. Verified by experiments, this system can meet the requirements of real-time performance, reliability and extensibility for the device.

  10. Production of stable, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive plasmas using gases other than helium or neon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jaeyoung; Henins, Ivars

    2005-06-21

    The present invention enables the production of stable, steady state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf capacitive .alpha.-mode plasmas using gases other than helium and neon. In particular, the current invention generates and maintains stable, steady-state, non-thermal atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas using pure argon or argon with reactive gas mixtures, pure oxygen or air. By replacing rare and expensive helium with more readily available gases, this invention makes it more economical to use atmospheric pressure rf .alpha.-mode plasmas for various materials processing applications.

  11. Protein sorting by lipid phase-like domains supports emergent signaling function in B lymphocyte plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew B; Shelby, Sarah A; Núñez, Marcos F; Wisser, Kathleen; Veatch, Sarah L

    2017-02-01

    Diverse cellular signaling events, including B cell receptor (BCR) activation, are hypothesized to be facilitated by domains enriched in specific plasma membrane lipids and proteins that resemble liquid-ordered phase-separated domains in model membranes. This concept remains controversial and lacks direct experimental support in intact cells. Here, we visualize ordered and disordered domains in mouse B lymphoma cell membranes using super-resolution fluorescence localization microscopy, demonstrate that clustered BCR resides within ordered phase-like domains capable of sorting key regulators of BCR activation, and present a minimal, predictive model where clustering receptors leads to their collective activation by stabilizing an extended ordered domain. These results provide evidence for the role of membrane domains in BCR signaling and a plausible mechanism of BCR activation via receptor clustering that could be generalized to other signaling pathways. Overall, these studies demonstrate that lipid mediated forces can bias biochemical networks in ways that broadly impact signal transduction.

  12. Evolution of Electron Phase Orbits of Multi-photon Nonlinear Compton Scattering in High Power Laser-plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Dong-shan; L(U) Jian

    2005-01-01

    The evolution of the electron phase orbits based on the multi-photon nonlinear Compton scattering with the high power laser-plasma is discussed by using Kroll-Morton-Rosenbluth theory. The random evolution of the un-captured electron phase orbits from periodicity to non-periodicity is found after the energy has been exchanged between the electron and photons. With the increase of the absorbed photon number n by an electron,this evolution will be more and more intense, while which is rapidly decreased with the enhancement of the collision non-flexibility ξ and their initial speeds of the electrons and photons, but this evolution is lower than that in the high power laser field. When the electrons are captured by the laser field, the evolution is finished, and the electrons will stably transport,and the photons don't provide the energy for these electrons any more.

  13. Development of processes for the production of solar grade silicon from halides and alkali metals, phase 1 and phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, C. R.; Gould, R. K.; Felder, W.

    1981-01-01

    High temperature reactions of silicon halides with alkali metals for the production of solar grade silicon are described. Product separation and collection processes were evaluated, measure heat release parameters for scaling purposes and effects of reactants and/or products on materials of reactor construction were determined, and preliminary engineering and economic analysis of a scaled up process were made. The feasibility of the basic process to make and collect silicon was demonstrated. The jet impaction/separation process was demonstrated to be a purification process. The rate at which gas phase species from silicon particle precursors, the time required for silane decomposition to produce particles, and the competing rate of growth of silicon seed particles injected into a decomposing silane environment were determined. The extent of silane decomposition as a function of residence time, temperature, and pressure was measured by infrared absorption spectroscopy. A simplistic model is presented to explain the growth of silicon in a decomposing silane enviroment.

  14. Feasibility of the direct coupling of solid-phase extraction-pipette tips with a programmed-temperature vaporiser for gas chromatographic analysis of drugs in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hout, M.W J; van Egmond, W.M A; Franke, J.P.; de Zeeuw, R.A; de Jong, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Solid-phase extraction-pipette tips (SPE-PTs) were used for micro solid-phase extraction of lidocaine and diazepam from plasma. Off-line extraction was followed by on-line desorption. On-line desorption was carried out by direct coupling of the SPE-PTs with the liner of the programmed-temperature va

  15. Assessment Of Surface-Catalyzed Reaction Products From High Temperature Materials In Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Luke Daniel

    Current simulations of atmospheric entry into both Mars and Earth atmospheres for the design of thermal protections systems (TPS) typically invoke conservative assumptions regarding surface-catalyzed recombination and the amount of energy deposited on the surface. The need to invoke such assumptions derives in part from lack of adequate experimental data on gas-surface interactions at trajectory relevant conditions. Addressing this issue, the University of Vermont's Plasma Test and Diagnostics Laboratory has done extensive work to measure atomic specie consumption by measuring the concentration gradient over various material surfaces. This thesis extends this work by attempting to directly diagnose molecular species production in air plasmas. A series of spectral models for the A-X and B-X systems of nitric oxide (NO), and the B-X system of boron monoxide (BO) have been developed. These models aim to predict line positions and strengths for the respective molecules in a way that is best suited for the diagnostic needs of the UVM facility. From the NO models, laser induced fluorescence strategies have been adapted with the intent of characterizing the relative quantity and thermodynamic state of NO produced bysurface-catalyzed recombination, while the BO model adds a diagnostic tool for the testing of diboride-based TPS materials. Boundary layer surveys of atomic nitrogen and NO have been carried out over water-cooled copper and nickel surfaces in air/argon plasmas. Translation temperatures and relative number densities throughout the boundary layer are reported. Additional tests were also conducted over a water-cooled copper surface to detect evidence of highly non-equilibrium effects in the form of excess population in elevated vibrational levels of the A-X system of NO. The tests showed that near the sample surface there is a much greater population in the upsilon'' = 1ground state than is predicted by a Boltzmann distribution.

  16. Aerosol-Phase Production of Nitrogen-Containing Oligomers After Uptake of Methylglyoxal and Cloud Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haan, D. O.; Riva, M.; Surratt, J. D.; Cazaunau, M.; Doussin, J. F.

    2016-12-01

    Minimal organic aerosol forms when aerosol particles are exposed to gas-phase methylglyoxal, but condensed phase laboratory studies of aerosol chemistry have suggested that methylglyoxal is a significant source of oligomerized aerosol material. In this study, various types of seed particles were exposed to gaseous methylglyoxal and then cloud-processed in the CESAM chamber. The gas phase was continuously probed by high-resolution PTR-MS during the experiments, and the particle phase WSOC was chemically characterized by high-resolution UPLC/ESI-DAD-QTOFMS. Uptake of methylglyoxal to dry particles caused optical rather than size changes, along with the release of imine products to the gas phase. High RH and cloud processing released some particle-bound methylglyoxal back to the gas phase but triggered an uptake of imine products. Analysis of the particle phase identified N-containing aldol condensation products derived from methylglyoxal, imine (produced from methylglyoxal and amine reactions), acetaldehyde (produced by methylglyoxal photolysis) and hydroxyacetone (produced by methylglyoxal disproportionation) monomers.

  17. Analysis of time phase of characteristic rad iation in plasma induced by laser ablating aluminum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    With time- and space-resolved technique, we have recorde d time-resolved spectra of irradiation of the plasma induced by Nd: YAG laser a blating metal Aluminum in Ar, in which, laser pulse-energy was set up to 145 mJ /pulse and the buffer pressure 100 kpa. The continuum radiation and special emis sion of Aluminum plasma were studied based on the records. According to time dis tribution of Al Ⅰ396.15 nm emission, we analyzed the time differences between c haracteristic and continuum radiation evolving. We tried to explain the time pha ses of characteristic radiation evolving with traditional theoretical model of a tomic transition. As the result, we found that it was difficult to explain our e xperimental results with the model. In order to explain our experimental results , we need new model or to improve the traditional theoretical model of atomic tr ansition.

  18. Production, fate and pathogenicity of plasma microparticles in murine cerebral malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima El-Assaad

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In patients with cerebral malaria (CM, higher levels of cell-specific microparticles (MP correlate with the presence of neurological symptoms. MP are submicron plasma membrane-derived vesicles that express antigens of their cell of origin and phosphatidylserine (PS on their surface, facilitating their role in coagulation, inflammation and cell adhesion. In this study, the in vivo production, fate and pathogenicity of cell-specific MP during Plasmodium berghei infection of mice were evaluated. Using annexin V, a PS ligand, and flow cytometry, analysis of platelet-free plasma from infected mice with cerebral involvement showed a peak of MP levels at the time of the neurological onset. Phenotypic analyses showed that MP from infected mice were predominantly of platelet, endothelial and erythrocytic origins. To determine the in vivo fate of MP, we adoptively transferred fluorescently labelled MP from mice with CM into healthy or infected recipient mice. MP were quickly cleared following intravenous injection, but microscopic examination revealed arrested MP lining the endothelium of brain vessels of infected, but not healthy, recipient mice. To determine the pathogenicity of MP, we transferred MP from activated endothelial cells into healthy recipient mice and this induced CM-like brain and lung pathology. This study supports a pathogenic role for MP in the aggravation of the neurological lesion and suggests a causal relationship between MP and the development of CM.

  19. Dilepton production by dynamical quasiparticles in the strongly interacting quark gluon plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Linnyk, O

    2010-01-01

    The dilepton production by the constituents of the strongly interacting quark-gluon-plasma (sQGP) is addressed. In order to make quantitative predictions at realistically low plasma temperatures (O(T_c)), experimentally relevant low dilepton mass (O(1 GeV)) and strong coupling (alphaS=0.5-1), we take into account not only the higher order pQCD reaction mechanisms, but also the non-perturbative spectral functions (off-shellness) and self-energies of the quarks, anti-quarks and gluons thus going beyond the leading twist. For this purpose, our calculations utilize parametrizations of the non-perturbative propagators for quarks and gluons provided by the dynamical quasi-particle model (DQPM) matched to reproduce lattice data. The DQPM describes QCD properties in terms of single-particle Green's functions (in the sense of a two-particle irreducible approach) and leads to the notion of the constituents of the sQGP being effective quasiparticles, which are massive and have broad spectral functions (due to large inte...

  20. Intense positron beam as a source for production of electron-positron plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneking, M. R.; Horn-Stanja, J.; Stenson, E. V.; Pedersen, T. Sunn; Saitoh, H.; Hergenhahn, U.; Niemann, H.; Paschkowski, N.; Hugenschmidt, C.; Piochacz, C.

    2016-10-01

    We aim to produce magnetically confined, short Debye length electron-positron plasma and test predicted properties for such systems. A first challenge is obtaining large numbers of positrons; a table-top experiment (system size 5 cm) with a temperature less than 5 eV requires about 1010 positrons to have more than 10 Debye lengths in the system. The NEPOMUC facility at the FRM II research reactor in Germany is one of the world's most intense positron sources. We report on characterization (using a retarding field energy analyzer with magnetic field gradient) of the NEPOMUC beam as delivered to the open beam port at various beam energies and in both the re-moderated and primary beam configurations in order to design optimal trapping (and accumulation) schemes for production of electron-positron plasma. The intensity of the re-moderated (primary) beam is in the range 2 -3 x 107 /s (1 - 5 x 108 /s). The re-moderated beam is currently the most promising for direct injection and confinement experiments; it has a parallel energy spread of 15 - 35% and the transverse energy spread is 6 - 15% of the parallel energy. We report on the implications for injection and trapping in a dipole magnetic field as well as plans for beam development, in situ re-moderation, and accumulation. We also report results demonstrating a difference in phosphor luminescent response to low energy positrons versus electrons.

  1. Simultaneous determination of diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride in human plasma using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahivelkar, Prasad P; Bhoir, Suvarna I; Bari, Sanjay B; Surana, Sanjay J; Bhagwat, Ashok M

    2012-09-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection is proposed for the estimation of diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride in human plasma. Liquid-liquid extraction was carried out with a mixture of dichloromethane-isopropyl alcohol (80:20, v/v). Chromatographic separation of the analytes and internal standard was achieved on an analytical 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. reversed-phase Thermo BDS Hypersil C8 (5 µm particle size) column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.02M ammonium acetate buffer (53:47, v/v) at pH 3.5. The run time was less than 15 min. Column eluate was monitored at 230 nm. The linearity over the concentration ranges of 25-1500 ng/mL and 32-960 ng/mL was obtained for diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride, respectively. The limit of quantification was 25 and 32 ng/mL for diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride, respectively. Recoveries of diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride from plasma were 97.45% and 98.27%, respectively.

  2. Use of trifluoroacetic acid to quantify small, polar compounds in rat plasma during discovery-phase pharmacokinetic evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, M J; Neilson, K L; Dudley, A

    2007-09-01

    Although it is accepted that trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) can cause suppression of an analyte during LC/MS analysis, this paper presents a relatively sensitive gradient method that uses a TFA mobile phase for the improved quantification of small, polar drug-like compounds. The described method was developed in a discovery drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) laboratory for the screening measurement of compound concentrations to calculate PK parameters and CNS exposure of compounds from a chemical series that had poor chromatography under generic methods using formic acid mobile phase. The samples were collected by a Culex automated sampling unit, and the plasma proteins were precipitated by a Tecan robot in 96-well plates. After centrifugation, the supernatant was removed, dried down using a SPE-Dry unit, and the samples were reconstituted in aqueous buffer on the robot. The samples were analyzed on an Agilent LC/MSD using a 5-min gradient on a 5 cm phenyl column. No additional steps, such as the "TFA-fix", were necessary. Although sample batches were analyzed over 6h, no drift or degradation of signal was observed. The improved chromatography resulted in a method that was selective, rugged, and had a dynamic range from 5 to 20,000 nM, which was sufficient to quantitate low volume, serial plasma samples collected out to 8 h postdose.

  3. Optical control of electron phase space in plasma accelerators with incoherently stacked laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalmykov, S. Y., E-mail: skalmykov2@unl.edu; Shadwick, B. A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska – Lincoln, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588-0299 (United States); Davoine, X. [CEA, DAM, DIF, Arpajon F-91297 (France); Lehe, R.; Lifschitz, A. F. [Laboratoire d' Optique Appliquée, ENSTA-CNRS-École Polytechnique UMR 7639, Palaiseau F-91761 (France)

    2015-05-15

    It is demonstrated that synthesizing an ultrahigh-bandwidth, negatively chirped laser pulse by incoherently stacking pulses of different wavelengths makes it possible to optimize the process of electron self-injection in a dense, highly dispersive plasma (n{sub 0}∼10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}). Avoiding transformation of the driving pulse into a relativistic optical shock maintains a quasi-monoenergetic electron spectrum through electron dephasing and boosts electron energy far beyond the limits suggested by existing scaling laws. In addition, evolution of the accelerating bucket in a plasma channel is shown to produce a background-free, tunable train of femtosecond-duration, 35–100 kA, time-synchronized quasi-monoenergetic electron bunches. The combination of the negative chirp and the channel permits acceleration of electrons beyond 1 GeV in a 3 mm plasma with 1.4 J of laser pulse energy, thus offering the opportunity of high-repetition-rate operation at manageable average laser power.

  4. Molecularly imprinted polymers based on SBA-15 for selective solid-phase extraction of baicalein from plasma samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hongliang; Gu, Xiaoli; Shi, Liying; Hong, Junli; Zhang, Hongjuan; Gao, Yankun; Du, Shuhu; Chen, Lina

    2015-01-01

    Highly selective molecularly imprinted mesoporous silica polymer (SBA-15@MIP) for baicalein (BAI) extraction was synthesized using a surface molecular imprinting technique on the SBA-15 supporter. Computational simulation was used to predict the optimal functional monomer for the rational design of SBA-15@MIP. Meanwhile, high adsorption capacity was obtained when a suitable yield of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) layer was grafted onto the surface of SBA-15. Characterization and performance tests of the obtained polymer revealed that SBA-15@MIP possessed a highly ordered mesoporous structure, reached saturated adsorption within 60 min, and exhibited higher sorption capacity to the target molecule BAI compared with non-imprinted mesoporous silica polymer (SBA-15@NIP) and SBA-15. Finally, SBA-15@MIP was successfully applied to solid-phase extraction (SPE) coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) for the determination of trace BAI in plasma samples. Mean recoveries of BAI through the molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) sorbent, non-imprinted solid-phase extraction (NISPE) sorbent, and SBA-15 solid-phase extraction (SBA-15-SPE) sorbent were 94.4, 22.7, and 10.7 %, respectively, and the relative standard deviations were 2.9, 2.6, and 3.6 %, respectively. These results reveal that SBA-15@MIP as a SPE sorbent has good applicability to selectively separate and enrich trace BAI from complex samples.

  5. Complement lysis activity in autologous plasma is associated with lower viral loads during the acute phase of HIV-1 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Huber

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To explore the possibility that antibody-mediated complement lysis contributes to viremia control in HIV-1 infection, we measured the activity of patient plasma in mediating complement lysis of autologous primary virus. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Sera from two groups of patients-25 with acute HIV-1 infection and 31 with chronic infection-were used in this study. We developed a novel real-time PCR-based assay strategy that allows reliable and sensitive quantification of virus lysis by complement. Plasma derived at the time of virus isolation induced complement lysis of the autologous virus isolate in the majority of patients. Overall lysis activity against the autologous virus and the heterologous primary virus strain JR-FL was higher at chronic disease stages than during the acute phase. Most strikingly, we found that plasma virus load levels during the acute but not the chronic infection phase correlated inversely with the autologous complement lysis activity. Antibody reactivity to the envelope (Env proteins gp120 and gp41 were positively correlated with the lysis activity against JR-FL, indicating that anti-Env responses mediated complement lysis. Neutralization and complement lysis activity against autologous viruses were not associated, suggesting that complement lysis is predominantly caused by non-neutralizing antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively our data provide evidence that antibody-mediated complement virion lysis develops rapidly and is effective early in the course of infection; thus it should be considered a parameter that, in concert with other immune functions, steers viremia control in vivo.

  6. Swine plasma and whole egg in ration for weaner pigs in performance in initial phase and residual effect until finishing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Thomaz

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Were used 64 weaned pigs, distributed in eight treatments: ration with skim milk (SM, three rations with crescent levels of swine plasma (SP, three rations with whole egg (WE and a ration with high inclusion of soybean meal (SB. Daily weight gain (DWG, daily feed intake (DFI and feed conversion (FC were evaluated. The animals that consumed ration SB have the mean of DWG higher that other treatments, and inferior FC, from 35 to 48 days of age. The crescent levels of SP promoted linear reduction in DWG, from 21 to 35, and from 35 to 48 days of age, in DFI from 48 to 138 days of age and linear increased in FC from 21 to 35 of age. Considering the weaned phase until finishing, initial rations can be formulated with SP and WE substituted partially the CP of skim milk in 25 and 45%, respectively.

  7. Steam Reforming of Dimethyl Ether by Gliding Arc Gas Discharge Plasma for Hydrogen Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王保伟; 孙启梅; 吕一军; 杨美琳; 闫文娟

    2014-01-01

    Gliding arc gas discharge plasma was used for the generation of hydrogen from steam reforming of di-methyl ether (DME). A systemic procedure was employed to determine the suitable experimental conditions. It was found that DME conversion first increased up to the maximum and then decreased slightly with the increase of added water and air. The increase of total feed gas flow rate resulted in the decrease of DME conversion and hy-drogen yield, but hydrogen energy consumption dropped down to the lowest as total feed gas flow rate increased to 76 ml·min-1. Larger electrode gap and higher discharge voltage were advantageous. Electrode shape had an impor-tant effect on the conversion of DME and production of H2. Among the five electrodes, electrode 2# with valid length of 55 mm and the radian of 34 degrees of the top electrode section was the best option, which enhanced ob-viously the conversion of DME.

  8. Plasma separation process facility for large-scale stable isotope production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigelow, T.S.; Collins, E.D.; Tracy, J.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A facility for large-scale separation of stable isotopes using the plasma separation process (PSP) is under development at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The PSP is capable of separating isotopes at a large throughput rate with medium purity product and at relatively low cost. The PSP has a number of convenient features that make it an attractive technology for general isotope separation purposes. Several isotopes for medical and industrial applications, including {sup 102}Pd, {sup 98}Mo, {sup 203}Tl, {sup 184}W, and others, are expected to be processed in this facility. The large throughput and low processing cost of the PSP will likely lead to new applications for stable isotopes. A description of this facility and its typical throughput capability is presented here.

  9. Transport processes and entropy production in toroidal plasmas with gyrokinetic electromagnetic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugama, H.; Okamoto, M.; Horton, W.; Wakatani, M.

    1996-01-01

    Transport processes and resultant entropy production in magnetically confined plasmas are studied in detail for toroidal systems with gyrokinetic electromagnetic turbulence. The kinetic equation including the turbulent fluctuations are double-averaged over the ensemble and the gyrophase. The entropy balance equation is derived from the double-averaged kinetic equation with the nonlinear gyrokinetic equation for the fluctuating distribution function. The result clarifies the spatial transport and local production of the entropy due to the classical, neoclassical and anomalous transport processes, respectively. For the anomalous transport process due to the electromagnetic turbulence as well as the classical and neoclassical processes, the kinetic form of the entropy production is rewritten as the thermodynamic form, from which the conjugate pairs of the thermodynamic forces and the transport fluxes are identified. The Onsager symmetry for the anomalous transport equations is shown to be valid within the quasilinear framework. The complete energy balance equation, which takes account of the anomalous transport and exchange of energy due to the fluctuations, is derived from the ensemble-averaged kinetic equation. The intrinsic ambipolarity of the anomalous particle fluxes is shown to hold for the self-consistent turbulent electromagnetic fields satisfying Poisson`s equation and Ampere`s law. (author).

  10. Minimization of diauxic growth lag-phase for high-efficiency biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min Jee; Kim, Sang Hun

    2017-02-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a minimization method of a diauxic growth lag-phase for the biogas production from agricultural by-products (ABPs). Specifically, the effects of proximate composition on the biogas production and degradation rates of the ABPs were investigated, and a new method based on proximate composition combinations was developed to minimize the diauxic growth lag-phase. Experiments were performed using biogas potential tests at a substrate loading of 2.5 g VS/L and feed to microorganism ratio (F/M) of 0.5 under the mesophilic condition. The ABPs were classified based on proximate composition (carbohydrate, protein, and fat etc.). The biogas production patterns, lag phase, and times taken for 90% biogas production (T90) were used for the evaluation of the biogas production with biochemical methane potential (BMP) test. The high- or medium-carbohydrate and low-fat ABPs (cheese whey, cabbage, and skim milk) showed a single step digestion process and low-carbohydrate and high-fat ABPs (bean curd and perilla seed) showed a two-step digestion process. The mixture of high-fat ABPs and high-carbohydrate ABPs reduced the lag-phase and increased the biogas yield more than that from single ABP by 35-46%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of substituting dietary soybean for air-classified sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) meal on egg production and steroid hormones in early-phase laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laudadio, V; Ceci, E; Nahashon, S N; Introna, M; Lastella, N M B; Tufarelli, V

    2014-02-01

    Soybean meal (SBM) is the most widely and expensive protein source used in the formulation of poultry diets; however, when the price of SBM increases, poultry nutritionists seek alternative sources that are more economical in formulating least-cost rations. This research aimed to evaluate the effects of dietary air-classified sunflower meal (SFM) on some productive parameters and plasma steroid hormones in laying hens. In this trial, 20-week-old laying hens (ISA Brown strain) in the early phase of production were randomly assigned to two groups and fed wheat middlings-based diets containing soybean (135 g/kg; 48% CP) or air-classified SFM (160 g/kg; 41% CP) as the main protein source. Laying performance, egg size and feed conversion ratio were evaluated for 10 week. Plasma steroid hormones (progesterone and oestradiol) in the hens were quantified weekly. Substituting SBM with air-classified SFM did not change (p > 0.05) the hens' growth performance, whereas feed consumption and efficiency were positively influenced (p hormones levels were affected by dietary treatment (p < 0.01). From our findings, it could be effective to include air-classified SFM in early-phase laying hen diets as an alternative protein source substituting SBM, without negative influence on productive performance and egg traits, reducing also the production costs.

  12. Using in situ airborne measurements to evaluate three cloud phase products derived from CALIPSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesana, G.; Chepfer, H.; Winker, D.; Getzewich, B.; Cai, X.; Jourdan, O.; Mioche, G.; Okamoto, H.; Hagihara, Y.; Noel, V.; Reverdy, M.

    2016-05-01

    We compare the cloud detection and cloud phase determination of three independent climatologies based on Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) to airborne in situ measurements. Our analysis of the cloud detection shows that the differences between the satellite and in situ measurements mainly arise from three factors. First, averaging CALIPSO Level l data along track before cloud detection increases the estimate of high- and low-level cloud fractions. Second, the vertical averaging of Level 1 data before cloud detection tends to artificially increase the cloud vertical extent. Third, the differences in classification of fully attenuated pixels among the CALIPSO climatologies lead to differences in the low-level Arctic cloud fractions. In another section, we compare the cloudy pixels detected by colocated in situ and satellite observations to study the cloud phase determination. At midlatitudes, retrievals of homogeneous high ice clouds by CALIPSO data sets are very robust (more than 94.6% of agreement with in situ). In the Arctic, where the cloud phase vertical variability is larger within a 480 m pixel, all climatologies show disagreements with the in situ measurements and CALIPSO-General Circulation Models-Oriented Cloud Product (GOCCP) report significant undefined-phase clouds, which likely correspond to mixed-phase clouds. In all CALIPSO products, the phase determination is dominated by the cloud top phase. Finally, we use global statistics to demonstrate that main differences between the CALIPSO cloud phase products stem from the cloud detection (horizontal averaging, fully attenuated pixels) rather than the cloud phase determination procedures.

  13. Determination of ampicillin in human plasma by solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) and its use in bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Talita Mota; Bedor, Danilo César Galindo; de Abreu, Luís Renato Pires; de Sousa, Carlos Eduardo Miranda; Rolim, Clarice M Bueno; de Santana, Davi Pereira

    2008-01-01

    A simple, fast, sensitive and selective solid-phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method for the quantitative analysis of ampicillin (CAS 69-53-4) in human plasma was developed using amoxicillin as internal standard, and sample extraction by solid-phase extraction (SPE). Extracts were separated by reversed-phase C18 with aqueous mobile phase (acetonitrile, 80:20, v/v) with 0.1% formic acid. The method was validated and successfully applied in a bioequivalence study of capsules 500 mg of ampicillin. Using a short running time of 2.5 min, the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) for obtained ampicillin was 0.1 microg/ml for a plasma sample of 250 microl and a recovery of 94.38% +/- 4.05. Bioequivalence between the products was determined by calculating 90% confidence intervals (CI) for the ratio of Cmax, AUC0-t and AUC0-inf values for the test and reference products, which were within the 0.80-1.25 interval proposed by FDA and EMEA. It is concluded that the two formulations are bioequivalent in their rate and extent of absorption, and thus, may be used interchangeably.

  14. Long-pulse production of high current negative ion beam by using actively temperature controlled plasma grid for JT-60SA negative ion source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kojima, A.; Hanada, M.; Yoshida, M.; Umeda, N.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Tobari, H.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1, Mukoyama, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Grisham, L. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2015-04-08

    The temperature control system of the large-size plasma grid has been developed to realize the long pulse production of high-current negative ions for JT-60SA. By using this prototype system for the JT-60SA ion source, 15 A negative ions has been sustained for 100 s for the first time, which is three times longer than that obtained in JT-60U. In this system, a high-temperature fluorinated fluid with a high boiling point of 270 degree Celsius is circulated in the cooling channels of the plasma grids (PG) where a cesium (Cs) coverage is formed to enhance the negative ion production. Because the PG temperature control had been applied to only 10% of the extraction area previously, the prototype PG with the full extraction area (110 cm × 45 cm) was developed to increase the negative ion current in this time. In the preliminary results of long pulse productions of high-current negative ions at a Cs conditioning phase, the negative ion production was gradually degraded in the last half of 100 s pulse where the temperature of an arc chamber wall was not saturated. From the spectroscopic measurements, it was found that the Cs flux released from the wall might affect to the negative ion production, which implied the wall temperature should be kept low to control the Cs flux to the PG for the long-pulse high-current production. The obtained results of long-pulse production and the PG temperature control method contributes the design of the ITER ion source.

  15. Pseudo-critical point in anomalous phase diagrams of simple plasma models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigvintsev, A. Yu; Iosilevskiy, I. L.; Noginova, L. Yu

    2016-11-01

    Anomalous phase diagrams in subclass of simplified (“non-associative”) Coulomb models is under discussion. The common feature of this subclass is absence on definition of individual correlations for charges of opposite sign. It is e.g. modified OCP of ions on uniformly compressible background of ideal Fermi-gas of electrons OCP(∼), or a superposition of two non-ideal OCP(∼) models of ions and electrons etc. In contrast to the ordinary OCP model on non-compressible (“rigid”) background OCP(#) two new phase transitions with upper critical point, boiling and sublimation, appear in OCP(∼) phase diagram in addition to the well-known Wigner crystallization. The point is that the topology of phase diagram in OCP(∼) becomes anomalous at high enough value of ionic charge number Z. Namely, the only one unified crystal- fluid phase transition without critical point exists as continuous superposition of melting and sublimation in OCP(∼) at the interval (Z 1 equation of state provided by Chabrier and Potekhin (1998 Phys. Rev. E 58 4941).

  16. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products, Phase 1 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bigham, J.; Dick, W.; Forster, L.; Hitzhusen, F.; McCoy, E.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.

    1993-04-01

    The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act have spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes, several of which produce a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction products containing sulfates and sulfites, and coal fly ash. FGD by-product materials are treated as solid wastes and must be landfilled. It is highly desirable to find beneficial reuses for these materials provided the environmental impacts are minimal and socially acceptable. Phase 1 results of a 4 and 1/2 year study to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of FGD by-products are reported. The purpose of the Phase 1 portion of the project was to characterize the chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of the FGD by-product materials obtained from various FGD technologies being developed in the state of Ohio. Phase 1 also involved the collection of baseline economic data related to the beneficial reuse of these FGD materials. A total of 58 samples were collected and analyzed. The results indicated the chemical composition of the FGD by-product materials were dominated by Ca, S, Al, and Si. Many of the elements regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency reside primarily in the fly ash. Phase 1 results revealed that FGD by-product materials are essentially coal fly ash materials diluted with unreacted sorbent and reaction products. High volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics of their substituting for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mines). Environmental constraints to the beneficial reuse of dry FGD by-product materials, based on laboratory and leachate studies, seem to be less than for coal fly ash.

  17. Land application uses for dry flue gas desulfurization by-products: Phase 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dick, W.; Bigham, J.; Forster, R.; Hitzhusen, F.; Lal, R.; Stehouwer, R.; Traina, S.; Wolfe, W.; Haefner, R.; Rowe, G.

    1999-01-31

    New flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubbing technologies create a dry, solid by-product material consisting of excess sorbent, reaction product that contains sulfate and sulfite, and coal fly ash. Generally, dry FGD by-products are treated as solid wastes and disposed in landfills. However, landfill sites are becoming scarce and tipping fees are constantly increasing. Provided the environmental impacts are socially and scientifically acceptable, beneficial uses via recycling can provide economic benefits to both the producer and the end user of the FGD. A study titled ''Land Application Uses for Dry Flue Gas Desulfurization By-Products'' was initiated in December, 1990 to develop and demonstrate large volume, beneficial uses of FGD by-products. Phase 1 and Phase 2 reports have been published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA. Phase 3 objectives were to demonstrate, using field studies, the beneficial uses of FGD by-products (1) as an amendment material on agricultural lands and on abandoned surface coal mine land, (2) as an engineering material for soil stabilization and raid repair, and (3) to assess the environmental and economic impacts of such beneficial uses. Application of dry FGD by-product to three soils in place of agricultural limestone increased alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and corn (Zea may L.) yields. No detrimental effects on soil and plant quality were observed.

  18. Optimized condition for etching fused-silica phase gratings with inductively coupled plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shunquan; Zhou, Changhe; Ru, Huayi; Zhang, Yanyan

    2005-07-20

    Polymer deposition is a serious problem associated with the etching of fused silica by use of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technology, and it usually prevents further etching. We report an optimized etching condition under which no polymer deposition will occur for etching fused silica with ICP technology. Under the optimized etching condition, surfaces of the fabricated fused silica gratings are smooth and clean. Etch rate of fused silica is relatively high, and it demonstrates a linear relation between etched depth and working time. Results of the diffraction of gratings fabricated under the optimized etching condition match theoretical results well.

  19. Density induced phase transitions in QED$_\\mathrm{2}$ - A study with matrix product states

    CERN Document Server

    Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J Ignacio; Jansen, Karl; Kühn, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We numerically study the zero temperature phase structure of the multi-flavor Schwinger model at non-zero chemical potential. Using matrix product states, we reproduce analytical results for the phase structure for two flavors in the massless case and extend the computation to the massive case, where no analytical predictions are available. Our calculations allow us to locate phase transitions in the mass-chemical potential plane with great precision, and provide a concrete example of tensor networks overcoming the sign problem in a lattice gauge theory calculation.

  20. Density induced phase transitions in the Schwinger model. A study with matrix product states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, Mari Carmen; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Kuehn, Stefan [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (MPQ), Garching (Germany); Cichy, Krzysztof [Frankfurt Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Adam Mickiewicz Univ., Poznan (Poland). Faculty of Physics; Jansen, Karl [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Inst. fuer Computing NIC

    2017-02-15

    We numerically study the zero temperature phase structure of the multiflavor Schwinger model at nonzero chemical potential. Using matrix product states, we reproduce analytical results for the phase structure for two flavors in the massless case and extend the computation to the massive case, where no analytical predictions are available. Our calculations allow us to locate phase transitions in the mass-chemical potential plane with great precision and provide a concrete example of tensor networks overcoming the sign problem in a lattice gauge theory calculation.

  1. Fenofibrate increases very low density lipoprotein triglyceride production despite reducing plasma triglyceride levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijland, Silvia; Pieterman, Elsbet J; Maas, Annemarie C E; van der Hoorn, José W A; van Erk, Marjan J; van Klinken, Jan B; Havekes, Louis M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Princen, Hans M G; Rensen, Patrick C N

    2010-08-13

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activator fenofibrate efficiently decreases plasma triglycerides (TG), which is generally attributed to enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG clearance and decreased VLDL-TG production. However, because data on the effect of fenofibrate on VLDL production are controversial, we aimed to investigate in (more) detail the mechanism underlying the TG-lowering effect by studying VLDL-TG production and clearance using APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a unique mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. Male mice were fed a Western-type diet for 4 weeks, followed by the same diet without or with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg bodyweight/day) for 4 weeks. Fenofibrate strongly lowered plasma cholesterol (-38%) and TG (-60%) caused by reduction of VLDL. Fenofibrate markedly accelerated VLDL-TG clearance, as judged from a reduced plasma half-life of glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled VLDL-like emulsion particles (-68%). This was associated with an increased post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity (+110%) and an increased uptake of VLDL-derived fatty acids by skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. Concomitantly, fenofibrate markedly increased the VLDL-TG production rate (+73%) but not the VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) production rate. Kinetic studies using [(3)H]palmitic acid showed that fenofibrate increased VLDL-TG production by equally increasing incorporation of re-esterified plasma fatty acids and liver TG into VLDL, which was supported by hepatic gene expression profiling data. We conclude that fenofibrate decreases plasma TG by enhancing LPL-mediated VLDL-TG clearance, which results in a compensatory increase in VLDL-TG production by the liver.

  2. The effect of tenidap on cytokines, acute-phase proteins, and virus load in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients: correlation between plasma HIV-1 RNA and proinflammatory cytokine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezube, B J; Lederman, M M; Chapman, B; Georges, D L; Dogon, A L; Mudido, P; Reis-Lishing, J; Cheng, S L; Silberman, S L; Crumpacker, C S

    1997-09-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines may be important in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease. Tenidap decreases interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells and decreases IL-6 plasma levels in rheumatoid arthritis patients. In this randomized double-blind study, 43 HIV-1-infected patients received tenidap (120 mg) or placebo daily for 6 weeks and then crossed over to the alternative therapy for an additional 6 weeks. Mean entry CD4 cell count was 140/microL. Analyses were performed on cytokines, acute-phase proteins, virus load, and CD4 cell counts. With the exception of small differences in plasma TNF levels, tenidap had no significant effect on these indices. Significant correlations of plasma IL-6 and TNF levels with HIV-1 RNA were noted. Six patients discontinued tenidap due to rash. The effects of tenidap in HIV-1 infection contrast to results in arthritis patients, in whom tenidap decreased plasma levels of IL-6 and acute-phase proteins.

  3. Helicon Discharge with Selectable Nitrogen Reactive Species Production as a Plasma Source for III-group Nitrides Growth by MBE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biloiu, Costel; Doss, Forest; Scime, Earl

    2004-11-01

    Plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) of III-N materials is a potential alternative to MOCVD for fabrication of high quality wide band gap semiconductor devices. In the helicon plasma source, it may be possible to control the population of specific reactive nitrogen species by modification of the electron energy distribution function through the resonant wave-particle interaction arising from electrons traveling at same velocity as the helicon wave phase velocity. We report preliminary results on control of reactive nitrogen species performed in a steady state, high density, helicon plasma source CHEWIE (Compact HElicon Waves and Instabilities Experiment). The helicon vacuum chamber is a 12 cm long, Pyrex tube, 6 cm in diameter, connected to a stainless steel diffusion chamber. RF power of up to 1.0 kW over a frequency range of 3-28 MHz is used to create the steady state plasma. A 7 cm long, half wave, m = +1, helical antenna couples the rf energy into the plasma. A single solenoidal magnetic field coil surrounds the source and is capable of generating axial magnetic fields up to 600 G. Optical emission spectroscopy investigations show that under certain conditions, the decay from the long lived A^3Σ_u^+ state dominates the emission spectrum of the plasma.

  4. PLASMA PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS AND SELECT ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS IN HEALTHY BONNETHEAD SHARKS (SPHYRNA TIBURO) UNDER MANAGED CARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Michael W; Field, Cara L; Clauss, Tonya M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2016-12-01

    Preventative health care of elasmobranchs is an important but understudied field of aquatic veterinary medicine. Evaluation of inflammation through the acute phase response is a valuable tool in health assessments. To better assess the health of bonnethead sharks ( Sphyrna tiburo ) under managed care, normal reference intervals of protein electrophoresis (EPH) and the acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin (HP), were established. Blood was collected from wild caught, captive raised bonnethead sharks housed at public aquaria. Lithium heparinized plasma was either submitted fresh or stored at -80°C prior to submission. Electrophoresis identified protein fractions with migration characteristics similar to other animals with albumin, α-1 globulin, α-2 globulin, β globulin, and γ globulin. These fractions were classified as fractions 1-5 as fractional contents are unknown in this species. Commercial reagents for CRP and HP were validated for use in bonnethead sharks. Reference intervals were established using the robust method recommended by the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology for the calculation of 90% reference intervals. Once established, the diagnostic and clinical applicability of these reference intervals was used to assess blood from individuals with known infectious diseases that resulted in systemic inflammation and eventual death. Unhealthy bonnethead sharks had significantly decreased fraction 2, fraction 3, and fraction 3:4 ratio and significantly increased fraction 5, CRP, and HP. These findings advance our understanding of elasmobranch acute phase inflammatory response and health and aid clinicians in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease in bonnethead sharks.

  5. Biodiesel production using fatty acids from food industry waste using corona discharge plasma technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubas, A L V; Machado, M M; Pinto, C R S C; Moecke, E H S; Dutra, A R A

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to describe an alternative and innovative methodology to transform waste, frying oil in a potential energy source, the biodiesel. The biodiesel was produced from fatty acids, using a waste product of the food industry as the raw material. The methodology to be described is the corona discharge plasma technology, which offers advantages such as acceleration of the esterification reaction, easy separation of the biodiesel and the elimination of waste generation. The best conditions were found to be an oil/methanol molar ratio of 6:1, ambient temperature (25 °C) and reaction time of 110 min and 30 mL of sample. The acid value indicates the content of free fatty acids in the biodiesel and the value obtained in this study was 0.43 mg KOH/g. Peaks corresponding to octadecadienoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecenoic acid methyl ester, from the biodiesel composition, were identified using GC-MS. A major advantage of this process is that the methyl ester can be obtained in the absence of chemical catalysts and without the formation of the co-product (glycerin). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Description of the production process - industrial phase; Descricao do processo produtivo - fase industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter presents the description of the present state-of-art, in this paper called first generation of the productive process of sugar-cane bio ethanol in Brazil, related to the industrial phase involving their improvements and also the aspects related to the second generation technologies, particularly the hydrolysis and gasification of the biomass technologies. The chapter also approaches the aspects referred to the use of sugar cane bagasse and the straw cape, and also the production of electric power surplus.

  7. Thermal Conductivity and Erosion Durability of Composite Two-Phase Air Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Michael P.; Rai, Amarendra K.; Zhu, Dongming; Dorfman, Mitchell R.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2015-01-01

    To enhance efficiency of gas turbines, new thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) must be designed which improve upon the thermal stability limit of 7 wt% yttria stabilized zirconia (7YSZ), approximately 1200 C. This tenant has led to the development of new TBC materials and microstructures capable of improved high temperature performance. This study focused on increasing the erosion durability of cubic zirconia based TBCs, traditionally less durable than the metastable t' zirconia based TBCs. Composite TBC microstructures composed of a low thermal conductivity/high temperature stable cubic Low-k matrix phase and a durable t' Low-k secondary phase were deposited via APS. Monolithic coatings composed of cubic Low-k and t' Low-k were also deposited, in addition to a 7YSZ benchmark. The thermal conductivity and erosion durability were then measured and it was found that both of the Low-k materials have significantly reduced thermal conductivities, with monolithic t' Low-k and cubic Low-k improving upon 7YSZ by approximately 13 and approximately 25%, respectively. The 40 wt% t' Low-k composite (40 wt% t' Low-k - 60 wt% cubic Low-k) showed a approximately 22% reduction in thermal conductivity over 7YSZ, indicating even at high levels, the t' Low-k secondary phase had a minimal impact on thermal in the composite coating. It was observed that a mere 20 wt% t' Low-k phase addition can reduce the erosion of a cubic Low-k matrix phase composite coating by over 37%. Various mixing rules were then investigated to assess this non-linear composite behavior and suggestions were made to further improve erosion durability.

  8. Ferrous Ion and Medium Composition Effects on Acidogenic Phase in Biobutanol Production from Molasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restiawaty, E.; Grinanda, D.

    2017-07-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum B530 has ability to convert sugar into biobutanol through two phases, i.e. acidogenic and solventogenic. This fermentation process is often hampered by high raw material cost and low product yield. In order to suppress the production cost, the molasses, a byproduct of sugar cane process production, was used as carbon source in this research. Molasses has nitrogen content in a small amount, thus could be negating the beef extract component, which is expected not to affect the growth of C. acetobutylicum B530 and also can reduce the production cost. In addition, a certain amount of Fe2+ (ferrous ion), a precursor in the formation of the enzyme ferredoxin, was added to the fermentation medium to contribute in the synthesis of acetyl-CoA, so that the formation of acidogenic products such as butyric acid and acetic acid is affected. This study aimed to investigate the effect of ferrous ion and the medium composition in acidogenic phase. The addition of 20 ppm FeSO4.7H2O in the fermentation medium without beef extract can increase the concentration of butyric acid by 20% at a temperature of 35°C, while acetic acid concentration decreased by 6%. According to those results, it is expected that the product selectivity of butanol will increase in solventogenic phase. In addition, the removal of beef extract in the fermentation medium does not affect the kinetics of growth of C. acetobutylicum B530.

  9. Enhanced dipicolinic acid production during the stationary phase in Bacillus subtilis by blocking acetoin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Yoshihiro; Hirasawa, Takashi; Ishikawa, Shu; Chumsakul, Onuma; Morimoto, Takuya; Liu, Shenghao; Masuda, Kenta; Kageyama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Katsuya; Ogasawara, Naotake; Shimizu, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial bio-production during the stationary phase is expected to lead to a high target yield because the cells do not consume the substrate for growth. Bacillus subtilis is widely used for bio-production, but little is known about the metabolism during the stationary phase. In this study, we focused on the dipicolinic acid (DPA) production by B. subtilis and investigated the metabolism. We found that DPA production competes with acetoin synthesis and that acetoin synthesis genes (alsSD) deletion increases DPA productivity by 1.4-fold. The mutant showed interesting features where the glucose uptake was inhibited, whereas the cell density increased by approximately 50%, resulting in similar volumetric glucose consumption to that of the parental strain. The metabolic profiles revealed accumulation of pyruvate, acetyl-CoA, and the TCA cycle intermediates in the alsSD mutant. Our results indicate that alsSD-deleted B. subtilis has potential as an effective host for stationary-phase production of compounds synthesized from these intermediates.

  10. Combined supercritical fluid extraction/solid-phase extraction with octadecylsilane cartridges as a sample preparation technique for the ultratrace analysis of a drug metabolite in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Cooper, L M; Raynie, D E; Pinkston, J D; Wehmeyer, K R

    1992-04-01

    Supercritical fluid extraction was coupled with solid-phase extraction using octadecylsilane cartridges for the selective isolation of ultratrace levels of a drug metabolite, mebeverine alcohol, from plasma. Plasma was directly applied to the extraction cartridge, the cartridge was washed to remove protein and then extracted under supercritical conditions using CO2/5% methanol. The effluent from the extraction cell was bubbled through a small volume of 2-propanol to trap the extracted mebeverine alcohol. The effects of extraction pressure and temperature on analyte recovery were examined. The absolute recovery, selectivity, precision, and accuracy of the combined supercritical fluid extraction/solid-phase extraction approach were compared to those of conventional solid-phase extraction using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the selected-ion monitoring mode. Mebeverine alcohol was used as a model compound, and dog plasma was employed as the biological matrix for these studies.

  11. Multi-objective optimization approach for cost management during product design at the conceptual phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga Prasad, K. G.; Venkata Subbaiah, K.; Narayana Rao, K.

    2014-03-01

    The effective cost management during the conceptual design phase of a product is essential to develop a product with minimum cost and desired quality. The integration of the methodologies of quality function deployment (QFD), value engineering (VE) and target costing (TC) could be applied to the continuous improvement of any product during product development. To optimize customer satisfaction and total cost of a product, a mathematical model is established in this paper. This model integrates QFD, VE and TC under multi-objective optimization frame work. A case study on domestic refrigerator is presented to show the performance of the proposed model. Goal programming is adopted to attain the goals of maximum customer satisfaction and minimum cost of the product.

  12. Effect of production phase on bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Belinda; Alexandre, Hervé; Robillard, Bertrand; Marchal, Richard

    2015-01-14

    This review analyzes bottle-fermented sparkling wine research at each stage of production by evaluating existing knowledge to identify areas that require future investigation. With the growing importance of enological investigation being focused on the needs of the wine production industry, this review examines current research at each stage of bottle-fermented sparkling wine production. Production phases analyzed in this review include pressing, juice adjustments, malolactic fermentation (MLF), stabilization, clarification, tirage, lees aging, disgorging, and dosage. The aim of this review is to identify enological factors that affect bottle-fermented sparkling wine quality, predominantly aroma, flavor, and foaming quality. Future research topics identified include regional specific varieties, plant-based products from vines, grapes, and yeast that can be used in sparkling wine production, gushing at disgorging, and methods to increase the rate of yeast autolysis. An internationally accepted sensory analysis method specifically designed for sparkling wine is required.

  13. Advanced oxidation protein products in plasma: stability during storage and correlation with other clinical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteucci, E; Biasci, E; Giampietro, O

    2001-12-01

    Proteins are susceptible to free radical damage. We measured advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) in the plasma of 56 hospitalised patients. Concentrations of AOPP were expressed as chloramine-T equivalents by measuring absorbance in acidic conditions at 340 nm in the presence of potassium iodide. We also determined erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), circulating urea, creatinine, glucose, uric acid, electrolytes, lipids, total proteins and fractions and fibrinogen. Twenty-four samples were processed both immediately and after 7, 15, 30, 90, 180 and 438 days of storage at both at -20 degrees C and -80 degrees C (aliquots were frozen and thawed only once) to evaluate AOPP stability. The remaining 32 samples were also processed for thiobarbituric-acid-reactive substances (TBARS). Mean AOPP concentration in all 56 patients was 48.3+/-37.2 microM. Mean basal concentration of AOPP in the 24 plasma samples (55.0+/-47.1 microM) showed no significant change at each intermediate determination, yet significantly increased after 438 days of storage both at -80 degrees C (96.6+/-83.2, p<0.01) and, markedly, at -20 degrees C (171.3+/-94.6, p<0.001). TBARS concentration was 1.59+/-0.65 micromol/l. Multiple regression analysis evidenced that AOPP concentration was positively correlated (multiple r=0.62, p<0.001) with serum urea and triglycerides, but negatively correlated with patient age (indeed, serum albumin and total proteins decreased with increasing age, r=0.3, p<0.05). TBARS concentration was associated with ESR and serum glucose (multiple r=0.73, p<0.001), yet positively with AOPP (r=0.39, simple p<0.05). We conclude that AOPP remain stable during sample storage both at -20 degrees C and -80 degrees C for 6 months. Renal failure and hypertriglyceridemia probably enhance the in vivo process of AOPP formation. Oxidative damage as measured by TBARS may be increased because of exposure to hyperglycemia causing nonenzymatic glycation of plasma proteins.

  14. Dilepton production as a useful probe of quark gluon plasma with temperature dependent chemical potential quark mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Yogesh; Singh, S. Somorendro

    2016-07-01

    We extend the previous study of dilepton production using [S. Somorendro Singh and Y. Kumar, Can. J. Phys. 92 (2014) 31] based on a simple quasiparticle model of quark-gluon plasma (QGP). In this model, finite value of quark mass uses temperature dependent chemical potential the so-called Temperature Dependent Chemical Potential Quark Mass (TDCPQM). We calculate dilepton production in the relevant range of mass region. It is observed that the production rate is marginally enhanced from the earlier work. This is due to the effect of TDCPQM and its effect is highly significant in the production of dilepton.

  15. Phase transitions of an anisotropic N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma via holography

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, Elliot

    2016-01-01

    Black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity were previously found that are dual to N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma with an anisotropic spatial deformation. In the zero temperature limit, these black holes approach a Liftshitz like scaling solution in the IR. It was recently shown that these black holes are unstable, and at low temperatures there is a new class of black hole solutions that are thermodynamically preferred. We extend this analysis, by considering consistent truncations of the Kaluza-Klein reduction of IIB supergravity on a five-sphere that preserves multiple scalar and $U(1)$ gauge fields. We show that the previously constructed black holes become unstable at low temperatures, and construct new classes of exotic black hole solutions. We study the DC thermo-electric conductivity of these $U(1)$ charged black holes, and find a diverging DC conductivity at zero temperature due to the divergence of the gauge field coupling.

  16. Phase transitions of an anisotropic N=4 super Yang-Mills plasma via holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Elliot

    2016-07-01

    Black hole solutions of type IIB supergravity were previously found that are dual to N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills plasma with an anisotropic spatial deformation. In the zero temperature limit, these black holes approach a Liftshitz like scaling solution in the IR. It was recently shown that these black holes are unstable, and at low temperatures there is a new class of black hole solutions that are thermodynamically preferred. We extend this analysis, by considering consistent truncations of the Kaluza-Klein reduction of IIB supergravity on a five-sphere that preserves multiple scalar and U(1) gauge fields. We show that the previously constructed black holes become unstable at low temperatures, and construct new classes of exotic black hole solutions. We study the DC thermo-electric conductivity of these U(1) charged black holes, and find a diverging DC conductivity at zero temperature due to the divergence of the gauge field coupling.

  17. Fenofibrate increases very low density lipoprotein triglyceride production despite reducing plasma triglyceride levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijland, S.; Pieterman, E.J.; Maas, A.C.E.; Hoorn, J.W.A. van der; Erk, M.J. van; Klinken, J.B. van; Havekes, L.M.; Dijk, K.W. van; Princen, H.M.G.; Rensen, P.C.N.

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) activator fenofibrate efficiently decreases plasma triglycerides (TG), which is generally attributed to enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG clearance and decreased VLDL-TG production. However, because data on the effect of feno

  18. Evaluation of Five Phase Digitally Controlled Rotating Field Plasma Source for Photochemical Mercury Vapor Generation Optical Emission Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiewicz, Henryk; Ślachciński, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Paweł; Portalski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    A new sensitive method for total mercury determination in reference materials using a 5-phase digitally controlled rotating field plasma source (RFP) for optical emission spectrometry (OES) was developed. A novel synergic effect of ultrasonic nebulization (USN) and ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis) irradiation when used in combination was exploited for efficient Hg vapor generation. UV- and Vis-based irradiation systems were studied. It was found that the most advantageous design was an ultrasonic nebulizer fitted with a 6 W mercury lamp supplying a microliter sample to a quartz oscillator, converting liquid into aerosol at the entrance of the UV spray chamber. Optimal conditions involved using a 20% v/v solution of acetic acid as the generation medium. The mercury cold vapor, favorably generated from Hg(2+) solutions by UV irradiation, was rapidly transported into a plasma source with rotating field generated within the five electrodes and detected by digitally controlled rotating field plasma optical emission spectrometry (RFP-OES). Under optimal conditions, the experimental concentration detection limit for the determination, calculated as the concentration giving a signal equal to three times the standard deviation of the blank (LOD, 3σblank criterion, peak height), was 4.1 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation for samples was equal to or better than 5% for liquid analysis and microsampling capability. The methodology was validated through determination of mercury in three certified reference materials (corresponding to biological and environmental samples) (NRCC DOLT-2, NRCC PACS-1, NIST 2710) using the external aqueous standard calibration techniques in acetic acid media, with satisfactory recoveries. Mercury serves as an example element to validate the capability of this approach. This is a simple, reagent-saving, cost-effective and green analytical method for mercury determination.

  19. Photon Production in a Chemically Equilibrating Quark-Gluon Plasma at Finite Baryon Density: Complete Leading Order Results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Jia-Li; HE Ze-Jun; MA Yu-Gang

    2006-01-01

    @@ We investigate hard photon production of the near-collinear bremsstrahlung and a new process called the inelastic pair annihilation, fully including the LPM effect, in a chemically equilibrating quark-gluon plasma at finite baryon density, and find that the effect of the system evolution on the photon production and large contribution of the bremsstrahlung make the total photon yield of the two processes as a strongly increasing function of the initial quark chemical potential.

  20. Danger signal-dependent activation of human dendritic cells by plasma-derived factor VIII products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, L; Weissmüller, S; Ringler, E; Crauwels, P; van Zandbergen, G; Seitz, R; Waibler, Z

    2015-08-01

    Treatment of haemophilia A by infusions of the clotting factor VIII (FVIII) results in the development of inhibitors/anti-drug antibodies in up to 25 % of patients. Mechanisms leading to immunogenicity of FVIII products are not yet fully understood. Amongst other factors, danger signals as elicited upon infection or surgery have been proposed to play a role. In the present study, we focused on effects of danger signals on maturation and activation of dendritic cells (DC) in the context of FVIII application. Human monocyte-derived DC were treated with FVIII alone, with a danger signal alone or a combination of both. By testing more than 60 different healthy donors, we show that FVIII and the bacterial danger signal lipopolysaccharide synergise in increasing DC activation, as characterised by increased expression of co-stimulatory molecules and secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The degree and frequency of this synergistic activation correlate with CD86 expression levels on immature DC prior to stimulation. In our assay system, plasma-derived but not recombinant FVIII products activate human DC in a danger signal-dependent manner. Further tested danger signals, such as R848 also induced DC activation in combination with FVIII, albeit not in every tested donor. In our hands, human DC but not human B cells or macrophages could be activated by FVIII in a danger signal-dependent manner. Our results suggest that immunogenicity of FVIII is a result of multiple factors including the presence of danger, predisposition of the patient, and the choice of a FVIII product for treatment.

  1. Influence of pulsed d. c. -glow-discharge on the phase constitution of nitride layers during plasma nitrocarburizing of sintered materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rie, K.T.; Schnatbaum, F. (Inst. fuer Oberflaechentechnik und Plasmatechnische Werkstoffentwicklung, Technische Univ. Braunschweig (Germany))

    1991-07-07

    In the past it was shown that plasma diffusion treatment of sintered materials has several advantages over conventional processes such as gas or salt bath nitriding and nitrocarburizing. The large number of parameters in plasma diffusion treatment allows close control of the process so that surface layers with defined microstructures and properties can be obtained. Durig plasma diffusion treatment the phase constitution of the nitride compound layer can be influenced by varying the gas mixture. By using a pulsed d.c. glow discharge the phase constitution and the microstructure of the compound layer can be influenced by varying the pulse duration and pulse repetition time. The number of micropores in the compound layer can be reduced in a pulsed d.c. glow discharge by pulsing the plasma, i.e. by reducing the plasma power. The phase constitution can be influenced by the pulse duration and pulse repetition time. With short pulse duration and long pulse repetition time the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in the compound layer can be suppressed. The amount of {gamma}' and {epsilon} phase present can be influenced. (orig.).

  2. Changes in plasma thiol levels induced by different phases of treatment in breast cancer; the role of commercial extract from black chokeberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędzierska, Magdalena; Głowacki, Rafał; Czernek, Urszula; Szydłowska-Pazera, Katarzyna; Potemski, Piotr; Piekarski, Janusz; Jeziorski, Arkadiusz; Olas, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Different low-molecular-weight thiols, including glutathione, cysteine, and cysteinylglycine are physiological free radical scavengers. On the other hand, homocysteine may play a role as an oxidant. The aim of our present study was to establish in vitro the effects of the commercial extract of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox(®)) on the amount of selected low-molecular-weight thiols and the activity of antioxidative enzymes (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in plasma obtained from patients with invasive breast cancer during different phases of treatment [before or after the surgery and patients after different phases of chemotherapy (doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide)] and from healthy subjects. Patients were hospitalized in Department of Oncological Surgery and Department of Chemotherapy, Medical University of Lodz, Poland. The level of low-molecular-weight thiols was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. We observed that in the presence of the Aronia extract changes in amount of thiols in plasma from breast cancer patients (at all tested groups) were significantly reduced. Our results showed that tested commercial extract reduced modifications of antioxidative enzymes activity in plasma from patients during different phases of treatment, but this effect was not statistical significant. Our results suggest that the Aronia extract supplementation in breast cancer patients has a beneficial effect on thiols concentration in plasma. Plasma, as reported in this work, could be used as an experimental model to evaluate the beneficial action of plant supplements, including phenolic extracts on thiols or other molecules during different phases of treatment.

  3. Reversed phase HPLC determination of tamoxifen in dog plasma and its pharmaco-kinetics after a single oral dose administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davi Pereira de Santana

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The analytical method developed to evaluate tamoxifen in dog plasma samples was precise, accurate, robust and linear in the range of 5-200 ng/mL. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.981 ng/mL and 2.97 ng/mL, respectively. Besides, the intra-day precision and accuracy variations were 8.78 and 10.16%, respectively. Tamoxifen concentrations were analyzed by combined reversed phase liquid chromatography and UV detection (lambda=280 nm. The study was conducted using an open randomized 2-period crossover balanced design with a 1-week washout period between the doses. This simple, rapid and selective method is suitable for pharmacokinetic, bioavailability and bioequivalence studies.

  4. Description of the production process - agricultural phase; Descricao do processo produtivo - fase agricola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-10-15

    This chapter presents the description of the state-of-art of the production process of sugar cane bio ethanol in Brazil also denominated of first generation, involving the improvements in the agricultural phase and also the aspects related to the second generation technologies. The different aspects related do the use of sugar cane bagasse and straw cape.

  5. Production of Dengue 2 Envelope Protein in the Yeast Saccharomyces Cerevisiae. Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-02-15

    developing subunit dengue vaccines or recombinant live viral vaccines. Subunit vaccines may eventually include synthetic dengue peptides or recombinant... dengue proteins expressed in microorganisms, and live viral vectors such as vaccinia may express in vivo immunogenic dengue peptides . Durin...PRODUCTION OF DENGUE 2 ENVELOPE PROTEIN IN THE YEAST SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE FINAL, PHASE I REPORT JOHN M. IVY KATHY HOUTCHENS FEBRUARY 15, 1990

  6. The Model of Demand and Inventory in a Decline Phase of the Product Life Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Hachuła Piotr; Schmeidel Ewa

    2016-01-01

    In the paper, the mathematical model of demand and inventory is studied from the perspective of its applications in real business cases. The model is formulated with three difference equations of first order. Three scenarios focused on the last phase of the product life cycle, a decline, are investigated and commented upon.

  7. The Model of Demand and Inventory in a Decline Phase of the Product Life Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachuła Piotr

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In the paper, the mathematical model of demand and inventory is studied from the perspective of its applications in real business cases. The model is formulated with three difference equations of first order. Three scenarios focused on the last phase of the product life cycle, a decline, are investigated and commented upon.

  8. Lignin solubilization and aqueous phase reforming for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The solubilization and aqueous phase reforming of lignin, including kraft, soda, and alcell lignin along with sugarcane bagasse, at low temperatures (T≤498 K) and pressures (P≤29 bar) is reported for the first time for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen. Analysis of lignin model compo

  9. Lignin solubilization and aqueous phase reforming for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zakzeski, J.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    The solubilization and aqueous phase reforming of lignin, including kraft, soda, and alcell lignin along with sugarcane bagasse, at low temperatures (T≤498 K) and pressures (P≤29 bar) is reported for the first time for the production of aromatic chemicals and hydrogen. Analysis of lignin model

  10. NATO/CCMS PILOT STUDY CLEAN PRODUCTS AND PROCESSES (PHASE II) 2003 ANNUAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 6th annual meeting of the NATO CCMS Pilot Study, Clean Products and Processes, was held in Cetraro, Italy, from May 11 to 15, 2003. This was also the first meeting of its Phase II study. 24 country representatives attended this meeting. This meeting was very ably run by th...

  11. Cobalamin speciation using reversed-phase micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2004-06-01

    Micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was optimized for the determination and separation of a mixture of cobalt containing species. Four cobalamin species (cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin) representing the various forms of vitamin B12 as well as the harmful corrinoid analogue cobinamide dicyanide were separated using reversed-phase microcapillary chromatography with columns containing C18 packing material with a 2-μm particle size. Selection of organic solvents for the separation took into consideration compatibility with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer being used for element specific detection. Optimized method conditions included use of a methanol gradient and make-up solution for the nebulizer. Some issues associated with dead volume were overcome by the extension of the gradient program. The total analysis time was 52 min. The column-to-column variability was evaluated and was found to be very reasonable (9% RSD on average), confirming that this method is rugged and that the technology should be easily transferred to other laboratories.

  12. Cobalamin speciation using reversed-phase micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanes, Enrique G. E-mail: yanes@bhnrc.usda.gov; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J. E-mail: miller-ihli@bhnrc.usda.gov

    2004-06-18

    Micro-high-performance liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was optimized for the determination and separation of a mixture of cobalt containing species. Four cobalamin species (cyanocobalamin, hydroxocobalamin, methylcobalamin, and 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin) representing the various forms of vitamin B12 as well as the harmful corrinoid analogue cobinamide dicyanide were separated using reversed-phase microcapillary chromatography with columns containing C18 packing material with a 2-{mu}m particle size. Selection of organic solvents for the separation took into consideration compatibility with the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer being used for element specific detection. Optimized method conditions included use of a methanol gradient and make-up solution for the nebulizer. Some issues associated with dead volume were overcome by the extension of the gradient program. The total analysis time was 52 min. The column-to-column variability was evaluated and was found to be very reasonable (9% RSD on average), confirming that this method is rugged and that the technology should be easily transferred to other laboratories.

  13. Mechanism of Phase Transition from Liquid to Gas Under Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiuying; Li, Sen; Gu, Fan

    2010-10-01

    Liquid gasification phenomenon was observable in liquid-solid dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) experiments. Starting from classical thermodynamics, this study aimed at finding the reason of liquid gasification in the DBD experiments. Fluid statics and electrohydrodynamics were adopted to analyze the mechanism of phase transition from liquid to gas. The Sumoto effect was also employed to visually explain the change in the pressure of fluid due to the electric field. It was concluded from both theoretical analysis and experiment that the change in liquid pressure was a key factor causing liquid to gasify in DBD conditions. Furthermore, it was stressed that the liquid pressure was affected by many parameters including liquid permittivity, voltage, electric intensity, size of the discharge space and uniformity of the electric field distribution, etc. All of them affected DBD liquid gasification. The related results would provide useful theoretical evidence for multi-phase DBD applications.

  14. Force Measurements on Plasma Actuators Using Phase-locked Particle Image Velocimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-01

    été réalisées dans un premier temps sur un domaine de 31,5 mm x 15 mm, ce qui entraîne une résolution spatiale de 0,1072 mm, à 12 intervalles de phase...militaires et civiles. Cette technologie a suscité beaucoup d’intérêt et d’investissements partout dans le monde. Le nombre d’applications potentielles de

  15. Direct molecular dynamics simulation of liquid-solid phase equilibria for a three-component plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughto, J; Horowitz, C J; Schneider, A S; Medin, Zach; Cumming, Andrew; Berry, D K

    2012-12-01

    The neutron-rich isotope ²²Ne may be a significant impurity in carbon and oxygen white dwarfs and could impact how the stars freeze. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the influence of ²²Ne in carbon-oxygen-neon systems on liquid-solid phase equilibria. Both liquid and solid phases are present simultaneously in our simulation volumes. We identify liquid, solid, and interface regions in our simulations using a bond angle metric. In general we find good agreement for the composition of liquid and solid phases between our MD simulations and the semianalytic model of Medin and Cumming. The trace presence of a third component, neon, does not appear to strongly impact the chemical separation found previously for two-component carbon and oxygen systems. This suggests that small amounts of ²²Ne may not qualitatively change how the material in white dwarf stars freezes. However, we do find systematically lower melting temperatures (higher Γ) in our MD simulations compared to the semianalytic model. This difference seems to grow with impurity parameter Q_{imp} and suggests a problem with simple corrections to the linear mixing rule for the free energy of multicomponent solid mixtures that is used in the semianalytic model.

  16. Direct MD simulation of liquid-solid phase equilibria for three-component plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Hughto, J; Schneider, A S; Medin, Zach; Cumming, Andrew; Berry, D K

    2012-01-01

    The neutron rich isotope 22Ne may be a significant impurity in carbon and oxygen white dwarfs and could impact how the stars freeze. We perform molecular dynamics simulations to determine the influence of 22Ne in carbon-oxygen-neon systems on liquid-solid phase equilibria. Both liquid and solid phases are present simultaneously in our simulation volumes. We identify liquid, solid, and interface regions in our simulations using a bond angle metric. In general we find good agreement for the composition of liquid and solid phases between our MD simulations and the semi analytic model of Medin and Cumming. The trace presence of a third component, neon, does not appear to strongly impact the chemical separation found previously for two component carbon and oxygen systems. This suggests that small amounts of 22Ne may not qualitatively change how the material in white dwarf stars freezes. However, we do find systematically lower melting temperatures (higher Gamma) in our MD simulations compared to the semi analytic ...

  17. Evaluation of observable phase space by fast ion loss detector by calculating particle orbits in consideration of plasma facing components and three dimensional magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Kouji; Kim, Junghee; Kim, Jun Young; Rhee, Tongnyeol

    2016-11-01

    The orbits of lost ions can be calculated from the information obtained by a fast ion loss detector (FILD). The orbits suggest a source of the lost fast ions in a phase space. However, it is not obvious whether an observable set of orbits, or phase space, of a FILD appropriately covers the region of interest to be investigated since the observable phase space can be affected by plasma facing components (PFCs) and a magnetic configuration. A tool has been developed to evaluate the observable phase space of FILD diagnostic by calculating particle orbits by taking the PFCs and 3D magnetic field into account.

  18. Determination of lycopene in tissues and plasma of rats by normal-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froescheis, O; Moalli, S; Liechti, H; Bausch, J

    2000-03-10

    An analytical method for the determination of lycopene in tissues and plasma of rats is described. The method was validated for the determination of lycopene in liver and plasma with respect to selectivity, linearity, accuracy, recovery and precision. Following precipitation of proteins with water-ethanol plasma was extracted with hexane; tissues were extracted with acetone followed by precipitation of proteins with water-ethanol and extraction of lycopene with hexane. Separation and quantification of geometrical isomers of lycopene was achieved by normal-phase HPLC with UV/VIS detection at 471 nm. The method proved to be selective and specific for lycopene in plasma and liver. Detector response was linear in the range from 2 ng/g to 10 microg/g liver and 0.5 ng/ml to 2 microg/ml plasma, respectively. Average recoveries ranged from 96 to 101% in spiked liver samples and from 91 to 94% in spiked plasma samples. Intra-day variability (C.V.) was < or = 6% and < or = 5% in liver and plasma, respectively. Inter-day precision was < or = 9% for liver samples and < or = 6% for plasma samples. The procedures were successfully applied to the sample analysis of pharmacokinetic and metabolism studies.

  19. Focal junctions retard lateral movement and disrupt fluid phase connectivity in the plasma membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind-Kezunovic, D.; Wojewodzka, U.; Gniadecki, R.

    2008-01-01

    containing liquid-ordered (L-o) lipids. Indeed, values of maximal fluorescence recovery after photobleaching revealed that the long-range mobility of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB, marker of L-o) was similar to 1.5-fold retarded within the focal junctions compared to the surrounding membrane. However, 1......,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (DiI-C-18:0), which specifically partitions to the liquid-disordered (L-d), non-raft phase, was also enriched in focal junctions and its mobility was slightly retarded. Cross-linking of GM(1) by CTB or raft aggregation by methyl...

  20. Stress-induced VO{sub 2} films with M2 monoclinic phase stable at room temperature grown by inductively coupled plasma-assisted reactive sputtering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okimura, Kunio; Watanabe, Tomo [School of Engineering, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Sakai, Joe [GREMAN, UMR 7347 CNRS, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Parc de Grandmont 37200 Tours (France)

    2012-04-01

    We report on growth of VO{sub 2} films with M2 monoclinic phase stable at room temperature under atmospheric pressure. The films were grown on quartz glass and Si substrates by using an inductively coupled plasma-assisted reactive sputtering method. XRD-sin{sup 2}{Psi} measurements revealed that the films with M2 phase are under compressive stress in contrast to tensile stress of films with M1 phase. Scanning electron microscopy observations revealed characteristic crystal grain aspects with formation of periodical twin structure of M2 phase. Structural phase transition from M2 to tetragonal phases, accompanied by a resistance change, was confirmed to occur as the temperature rises. Growth of VO{sub 2} films composed of M2 phase crystalline is of strong interest for clarifying nature of Mott transition of strongly correlated materials.

  1. Self-phase modulation of an ultra-short laser pulse from laser breakdown plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yongsheng; Yan, Lixin; Zheng, Guoxin; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Jingru

    2007-01-01

    The detailed dynamic of an atom in a laser field with strength comparable to the atomic electric field is rich in physics and potential applications. Laser-breakdown plasma-induced spectral shifting in supersonic rare gases jet has been investigated with a sub-picosecond KrF excimer laser focused to peak intensity in the region of 10 15W/cm2. A 1.4mm diameter gas jet target was used in the experiment to minimize the refraction of the laser beam and thus a well-defined focused region was obtained. The typical quasi-periodic spectral shifting structures for helium and argon have been measured at various gas densities. For gas densities below 1x10 20cm -3,both spectral red-shift and blue-shift were observed, indicating the gas is partially ionized, in contrast to the predominantly blue shifted as the gas densities grows high and fully ionized. Compared to the other ultra-short pulse measurement methods, qualitative information about the pulse can be deduced by observing their spectrum after interacting with rare gas.

  2. Predictive two-dimensional scrape-off layer plasma transport modeling of phase-I operations of tokamak SST-1 using SOLPS5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himabindu, M.; Tyagi, Anil; Sharma, Devendra; Deshpande, Shishir P.; Bonnin, Xavier

    2014-02-01

    Computational analysis of coupled plasma and neutral transport in the Scrape-Off Layer (SOL) region of the Steady-State Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1) is done using SOLPS for Phase-I of double-null divertor plasma operations. An optimum set of plasma parameters is explored computationally for the first phase operations with the central objective of achieving an effective control over particle and power exhaust. While the transport of plasma species is treated using a fluid model in the B2.5 code, a full kinetic description is provided by the EIRENE code for the neutral particle transport in a realistic geometry. Cases with and without external gas puffing are analyzed for finding regimes where an effective control of plasma operations can be exercised by controlling the SOL plasma conditions over a range of heating powers. In the desired parameter range, a reasonable neutral penetration across the SOL is observed, capable of causing a variation of up to 15% of the total input power, in the power deposited on the divertors. Our computational characterization of the SOL plasma with input power 1 MW and lower hybrid current drive, for the separatrix density up to 1019 m-3, indicates that there will be access to high recycling operations producing reduction in the temperature and the peak heat flux at the divertor targets. This indicates that a control of the core plasma density and temperature would be achievable. A power balance analysis done using the kinetic neutral transport code EIRENE indicates about 60%-75% of the total power diverted to the targets, providing quantitative estimates for the relative power loading of the targets and the rest of the plasma facing components.

  3. Remarkable effect of mobile phase buffer on the SEC-ICP-AES derived Cu, Fe and Zn-metalloproteome pattern of rabbit blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Elham Zeini; White, Wade; Wu, Qiao; Yamdagni, Raghav; Gailer, Jürgen

    2010-07-01

    The development of an analytical method to quantify the major Cu, Fe and Zn-containing metalloproteins in mammalian plasma has been recently reported. This method is based on the separation of plasma proteins by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) followed by the on-line detection of the metalloproteins by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). To assess whether the mobile phase buffer can affect the SEC-ICP-AES-derived metalloproteome pattern, thawed rabbit plasma was analyzed using phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-buffer (0.15 M, pH 7.4), Tris-buffer (0.1 and 0.05 M, pH 7.4), Hepes-buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.4) or Mops-buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.4). In contrast to the Cu-specific chromatograms, the Fe and Zn-specific chromatograms that were obtained with Tris, Hepes and Mops-buffer were considerably different from those attained with PBS-buffer. The Tris, Hepes and Mops-buffer mediated redistribution of ~25% plasma Zn(2+) from 100-600 kDa plasma proteins and to a smaller extent to a Hepes and Mops-buffer redistributed ~20% of plasma Fe(3+) from the 600 kDa elution range. Based on these results and considering that the utilization of PBS-buffer has previously resulted in the detection of a number of Cu, Fe and Zn-containing metalloentities in rabbit plasma that was most consistent with literature data, this mobile phase buffer is recommended for metallomic studies regarding mammalian blood plasma.

  4. Production performance and plasma metabolites of dairy ewes in early lactation as affected by chitosan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Rodriguez, A.; Arranz, J.; Mandaluniz, N.; Beltrán-de-Heredia, I.; Ruiz, R.; Goiri, I.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of chitosan (CHI) supplementation on production performance and blood parameters in dairy ewes. Twenty-four multiparous Latxa dairy ewes at d 16 of lactation were divided into two groups of 12 ewes each. Ewes were fed one of two experimental concentrates (0.840 kg dry matter/d), control or supplemented with 1.2% CHI, on a dry matter basis. Ewes also had free access to tall fescue hay, water, and mineral salts. The experimental period lasted for 25 d, of which the first 14 d were for treatment adaptation and the last 11 d for measurements and samplings. Supplementation with CHI decreased total (p=0.043) and fescue (p=0.035) dry matter intake (DMI), but did not affect concentrate DMI. Supplementation with CHI, moreover, increased plasma glucose (p=0.013) and BUN concentrations (p=0.035), but did not affect those of non-esterified fatty acids. Dietary supplementation with CHI, however, did not affect milk yield, 6.5% FCM, milk composition, or BW, but it improved dietary apparent efficiency by increasing the milk yield-to-DMI (p=0.055) and 6.5% FCM-to-DMI (p=0.045) ratios. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of chitosan maintained ewe performance while reducing feed intake and improving dietary apparent efficiency. (Author)

  5. Effects of fat supplementations on milk production and composition, ruminal and plasma parameters of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bailoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects on milk yield and quality caused by the same amount (325 g/d/cow of lipids provided by 3 different fat sources (hydrogenate palm fat, HF; calcium salt palm fat, CaSF; full-fat toasted soybean, TS, top dressed to a common total mixed ration, were investigated. Supplementations did not affect feed intake and milk yield, but markedly changed the acidic profile of milk fat. CaSF and TS significantly increased the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids of milk fat with respect to control and to HF. The 3 fat sources did not affect the concentrations of ammonia and VFA of rumen fluid. TS only slightly increased (P<0.10 plasma urea content because of a higher dietary protein supply, with respect to the other treatments. The use of a low amount of toasted and cracked full fat soybean seem to be interesting to increase the energy concentration of diets in replacement to commercial fat products and it can be use to modify the milk fat quality increasing the fraction with benefit effects on human health.

  6. A feature of negative hydrogen ion production in the Uramoto-type sheet plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimbo, Kouichi [Kyoto Univ., Uji (Japan). Inst. of Atomic Energy

    1997-02-01

    It seems that negative hydrogen ions H{sup -} are formed directly from atomic hydrogens H. When the chamber was biased more negative against the anode potential at constant are power, forming a much deeper electrostatic well in the Uramoto-type sheet plasma negative ion source, more negative hydrogen ion currents were extracted. The chamber potential V{sub B} was biased down to -100V in the 150V discharge. The negative ion current J{sup -} was evaluated by the JAERI-probe measurement. J{sup -} increases linearly with the chamber current I{sub B}. The largest J{sup -} value was obtained at absolute value of |V{sub prob,f}|=15V and absolute value of |V{sub B}|=100V; the discharge was not operated for absolute value of |V{sub B}|>100V. We speculate the following collisional (three-body) electron attachment to H as a possible production process for H{sup -}; e+e+H{yields}e+H{sup -}. This process may explain the linear increase of J{sup -} with absolute value of |V{sub prob,f}|. (S.Y.)

  7. Aerosol emission monitoring in the production of silicon carbide nanoparticles by induction plasma synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Drew; Leparoux, Marc; Jaeggi, Christian; Buha, Jelena; Pui, David Y. H.; Wang, Jing

    2013-12-01

    In this study, the synthesis of silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticles in a prototype inductively coupled thermal plasma reactor and other supporting processes, such as the handling of precursor material, the collection of nanoparticles, and the cleaning of equipment, were monitored for particle emissions and potential worker exposure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of engineering controls and best practice guidelines developed for the production and handling of nanoparticles, identify processes which result in a nanoparticle release, characterize these releases, and suggest possible administrative or engineering controls which may eliminate or control the exposure source. No particle release was detected during the synthesis and collection of SiC nanoparticles and the cleaning of the reactor. This was attributed to most of these processes occurring in closed systems operated at slight underpressure. Other tasks occurring in more open spaces, such as the disconnection of a filter assembly from the reactor system and the use of compressed air for the cleaning of filters where synthesized SiC nanoparticles were collected, resulted in releases of submicrometer particles with a mode size of 170-180 nm. Observation of filter samples under scanning electron microscope confirmed that the particles were agglomerates of SiC nanoparticles.

  8. A New 50 MHz Phased-Array Radar on Pohnpei: A Fresh Perspective on Equatorial Plasma Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    A new, phased-array antenna-steering capability has recently been added to an existing 50-MHz radar on Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia, in the central Pacific region. This radar, which we refer to as PAR-50, is capable of scanning in the vertical east-west plane, ±60° about the zenith. The alignment in the magnetic east-west direction allows detection of radar backscatter from small-scale irregularities that develop in the equatorial ionosphere, including those associated with equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs). The coverage, about ±800 km in zonal distance, at an altitude of 500 km, is essentially identical to that provided by ALTAIR, a fully-steerable incoherent-scatter radar, which has been used in a number of studies of EPBs. Unlike ALTAIR, which has only been operated for several hours on a handful of selected nights, the PAR-50 has already been operated continuously, while performing repeated scans, since April 2014. In this presentation, we describe the PAR-50, then, compare it to ALTAIR and the Equatorial Atmospheric Radar (EAR); the latter is the only other phased-array system in use for equatorial studies. We then assess what we have learned about EPBs from backscatter radar measurements, and discuss how the PAR-50 can provide a fresh perspective to our understanding. Clearly, the ability to sort out the space-time ambiguities in EPB development from sequences of spatial maps of EPBs is crucial to our understanding of how EPBs develop.

  9. Glueballs amass at RHIC and LHC Colliders! - The early quarkless 1st order phase transition at $T=270$ MeV - from pure Yang-Mills glue plasma to GlueBall-Hagedorn states

    CERN Document Server

    Stoecker, Horst; Schramm, Stefan; Senzel, Florian; Greiner, Carsten; Beitel, Maxim; Gallmeister, Kai; Gorenstein, Mark; Mishustin, Igor; Vasak, David; Steinheimer, Jan; Struckmeier, Juergen; Vovchenko, Volodymyr; Satarov, Leonid; Xu, Zhe; Zhuang, Pengfei; Csernai, Laszlo P; Sinha, Bikash; Raha, Sibaji; Biró, Tamás Sándor; Panero, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The early stage of high multiplicity pp, pA and AA collider is represented by a nearly quarkless, hot, deconfined pure gluon plasma. According to pure Yang-Mills Lattice Gauge Theory, this hot pure glue matter undergoes, at a high temperature, $T_c = 270$ MeV, a first order phase transition into a confined Hagedorn-GlueBall fluid. These new scenario should be characterized by a suppression of high $p_T$ photons and dileptons, baryon suppression and enhanced strange meson production. We propose to observe this newly predicted class of events at LHC and RHIC.

  10. Production and clearance of plasma triacylglycerols in ponies fed diets containing either medium-chain triacylglycerols or soya bean oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallebeek, J M; Beynen, A C

    2003-06-01

    The hypothesis was tested that feeding ponies a diet containing medium-chain triacylglcyerols (MCT) instead of soya bean oil causes an increase in the production of plasma triacylglycerols, which, under steady-state conditions, is associated with an increased clearance of triacylglycerols. Six ponies were fed rations containing either MCT or an isoenergetic amount of soya bean oil according to a cross-over design. The concentration of MCT in the total dietary dry matter was about 13%. When the ponies were fed the diets for 3 weeks, plasma triacylglycerol concentrations were 0.42 +/- 0.09 and 0.17 +/- 0.03 mmol/l (mean +/- SE, n = 6; p bean-oil treatment, respectively. Plasma triacylglycerol production was assessed using the Triton method and clearance with the use of Intralipid(R) infusion. Plasma triacylglycerol production was 2.91 +/- 0.88 and 0.50 +/- 0.14 micromol/l.min (means +/- SE, n = 4; p bean oil, respectively. It is suggested that the calculated rates of triacylglycerol production are underestimated, the deviation being greatest when the ponies were fed the ration of soya bean oil. Triacylglycerol clearance rates were calculated on the basis of group mean values for both the fractional clearance rate and the baseline levels of plasma triacylglycerols; the values were 4.28 and 3.52 micromol/l.min for MCT and soya bean oil feeding, respectively. The mean, absolute clearance rates as based on those found in individual ponies did not show an increase when the diet with MCT was fed. Nevertheless, it is concluded that the data obtained support our hypothesis.

  11. Land application uses for dry FGD by-products. Phase 2 report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stehouwer, R.; Dick, W.; Bigham, J. [Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    A study was initiated in December 1990 to demonstrate large volume beneficial uses of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by-products. A Phase 1 report provided results of an extensive characterization of chemical, physical, mineralogical and engineering properties of 58 dry FGD by-product samples. The Phase 1 report concluded that high volume beneficial reuses will depend on the economics related to their ability to substitute for existing materials for various types of applications (e.g. as an agricultural liming material, soil borrow for highway embankment construction, and reclamation of active and abandoned surface coal mine lands). Phase 2 objectives were (1) to conduct laboratory and greenhouse studies of FGD and soil (spoil) mixtures for agronomic and engineering applications, (2) to initiate field studies related to high volume agronomic and engineering uses, and (3) to develop the basic methodological framework for estimation of the financial and economic costs and benefits to society of several FGD reuse options and to make some preliminary runs of economic models. High volume beneficial reuses of dry FGD by-products have been successfully demonstrated. Adverse environmental impacts have been negligible. Although few sources of dry FGD by-products currently exist in Ohio and the United States there is potential for smaller coal-fired facilities to adopt S0{sub 2} scrubbing technologies that produce dry FGD material. Also much of what we have learned from studies on dry FGD by-products is applicable to the more prevalent wet FGD by-products. The adaptation of the technologies demonstrated in this project seem to be not only limited by economic constraints, but even more so, by the need to create awareness of the market potential of using these FGD by-products.

  12. CP Phases in Correlated Production and Decay of Neutralinos in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, S Y; Song, W Y

    2000-01-01

    We investigate the associated production of neutralinos $e^+e^-\\to\\tilde{\\chi}^0_1\\tilde{\\chi}^0_2$ accompanied by the neutralino leptonic decay $\\tilde{\\chi}^0_2\\to\\tilde{\\chi}^0_1 \\ell^+\\ell^-$, taking into account initial beam polarization and production-decay spin correlations in the minimal supersymmetric standard model with general CP phases but without generational mixing in the slepton sector. The stringent constraints from the electron EDM on the CP phases are also included in the discussion. Initial beam polarizations lead to three CP-even distributions and one CP-odd distribution, which can be studied independently of the details of the neutralino decays. We find that the production cross section and the branching fractions of the leptonic neutralino decays are very sensitive to the CP phases. In addition, the production-decay spin correlations lead to several CP-even observables such as lepton invariant mass distribution, and lepton angular distribution, and one interesting T-odd (CP-odd) triple p...

  13. Experimental and theoretical research in applied plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porkolab, M.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: fusion theory and computations; theory of thermonuclear plasmas; user service center; high poloidal beta studies on PBX-M; fast ECE fluctuation diagnostic for balloning mode studies; x-ray imaging diagnostic; millimeter/submillimeter-wave fusion ion diagnostics; small scale turbulence and nonlinear dynamics in plasmas; plasma turbulence and transport; phase contrast interferometer diagnostic for long wavelength fluctuations in DIII-D; and charged and neutral fusion production for fusio plasmas.

  14. Changes in cellular proliferation and plasma products are associated with liver failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melgaço, Juliana Gil; Soriani, Frederico Marianetti; Sucupira, Pedro Henrique Ferreira; Pinheiro, Leonardo Assaf; Vieira, Yasmine Rangel; de Oliveira, Jaqueline Mendes; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Araújo, Cristina Carvalho Vianna; Pacheco-Moreira, Lúcio Filgueiras; Menezes, Gustavo Batista; Cruz, Oswaldo Gonçalves; Vitral, Claudia Lamarca; Pinto, Marcelo Alves

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study the differences in immune response and cytokine profile between acute liver failure and self-limited acute hepatitis. METHODS Forty-six patients with self-limited acute hepatitis (AH), sixteen patients with acute liver failure (ALF), and twenty-two healthy subjects were involved in this study. The inflammatory and anti-inflammatory products in plasma samples were quantified using commercial enzyme-linked immunoassays and quantitative real-time PCR. The cellular immune responses were measured by proliferation assay using flow cytometry. The groups were divided into viral- and non-viral-induced self-limited AH and ALF. Thus, we worked with five groups: Hepatitis A virus (HAV)-induced self-limited acute hepatitis (HAV-AH), HAV-induced ALF (HAV-ALF), non-viral-induced self-limited acute hepatitis (non-viral AH), non-viral-induced acute liver failure (non-viral ALF), and healthy subjects (HC). Comparisons among HAV and non-viral-induced AH and ALF were performed. RESULTS The levels of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the cytokines investigated [interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, interferon gamma, and tumor necrosis factor] were significantly increased in ALF patients, independently of etiology (P < 0.05). High plasma mtDNA and IL-10 were the best markers associated with ALF [mtDNA: OR = 320.5 (95%CI: 14.42-7123.33), P < 0.0001; and IL-10: OR = 18.8 (95%CI: 1.38-257.94), P = 0.028] and death [mtDNA: OR = 12.1 (95%CI: 2.57-57.07), P = 0.002; and IL-10: OR = 8.01 (95%CI: 1.26-50.97), P = 0.027]. In the cellular proliferation assay, NKbright, NKT and regulatory T cells (TReg) predominated in virus-specific stimulation in HAV-induced ALF patients with an anergic behavior in the cellular response to mitotic stimulation. Therefore, in non-viral-induced ALF, anergic behavior of activated T cells was not observed after mitotic stimulation, as expected and as described by the literature. CONCLUSION mtDNA and IL-10 may be predictors of ALF and death. TReg cells are

  15. Effects of solid-phase extraction of plasma in measuring gut metabolic hormones in fasted and fed blood of lean and diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidelberger, Roger; Haver, Alvin; Anders, Krista; Apenteng, Bettye; Lanio, Craig

    2016-05-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (3-36) [PYY(3-36)], amylin, ghrelin, insulin, and leptin are thought to act as hormonal signals from periphery to brain to control food intake. Here, we determined the effects of solid-phase extraction of plasma in measuring these hormones in blood of lean and diet-induced obese rats. Individual enzyme-linked immunoassays and a multiplex assay were used to measure active GLP-1, total PYY, active amylin, active ghrelin, insulin, leptin, and total GIP in response to (1) addition of known amounts of the peptides to lean and obese plasma, (2) a large meal in lean and obese rats, and (3) intravenous infusions of anorexigenic doses of GLP-1, PYY(3-36), amylin, and leptin in lean rats. Extraction of lean and obese plasma prior to assays produced consistent recoveries across assays for GLP-1, PYY, amylin, ghrelin, and insulin, reflecting losses inherent to the extraction procedure. Plasma extraction prior to assays generally revealed larger meal-induced changes in plasma GLP-1, PYY, amylin, ghrelin, and insulin in lean and obese rats. Plasma extraction and the multiplex assay were used to compare plasma levels of GLP-1, PYY, and amylin after a large meal with plasma levels produced by IV infusions of anorexigenic doses of GLP-1, PYY(3-36), and amylin. Infusions produced dose-dependent increases in plasma peptide levels, which were well above their postprandial levels. These results do not support the hypothesis that postprandial plasma levels of GLP-1, PYY(3-36), and amylin are sufficient to decrease food intake by an endocrine mechanism.

  16. Phase transformations in air plasma-sprayed yttria-stabilized zirconia thermal barrier coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián D. Osorio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo, las transformaciones de fase en Recubrimientos de Barrera Térmica (TBC constituidos por ZrO 2 – 8 wt.% Y2O3 (zirconia - 8 wt.% ytrria fueron estudiados a través de Difracción de Rayos X (XRD y refinamiento Rietveld. Las muestras de TBC fueron depositadas mediante aspersión por plasma atmosférico sobre un sustrato tipo Inconel 625 y fueron tratadas térmicamente con dos condiciones diferentes: en la primera se utilizó una temperatura de 1100oC con tiempos de exposición entre 1 hora y 1000 horas; en la segunda las muestras fueron sometidas a temperaturas entre 700oC y 1100o durante 50 horas. De acuerdo a los resultados obtenidos mediante refinamiento Rietveld el contenido de fase cúbica en el recubrimiento (TC se incrementa con el tiempo y la temperatura, desde 7.3 wt.% hasta 15.7 wt.% después de 1000 horas a 1100oC. La fase cúbica en grandes cantidades es indeseable debido a que presenta inferiores propiedades mecánicas cuando se compara con la fase tetragonal. Después de 800 horas de exposición a alta temperatura, el contenido de Y2O3 en la fase tetragonal se reduce hasta 6.6 wt.% y una fracción de la fase tetragonal transforma a monoclínica durante el enfriamiento. La fase monoclínica alcanza 18.0 wt.% después de 1000 horas. Esta fase es también indeseable porque además de tener una mayor conductividad térmica, la transformación de tetragonal a monoclínica viene acompañada de un cambio volumétrico de alrededor de 5% que promueve la formación y propagación de grietas, las cuales comprometen la integridad del recubrimiento.

  17. Production of high transient heat and particle fluxes in a linear plasma device

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Temmerman, G.; Zielinski, J. J.; van der Meiden, H.; Melissen, W.; Rapp, J.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the generation of high transient heat and particle fluxes in a linear plasma device by pulsed operation of the plasma source. A capacitor bank is discharged into the source to transiently increase the discharge current up to 1.7 kA, allowing peak densities and temperature of 70x10(20) m

  18. The optimization of production and control of hot-electron plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-03-11

    The research discussed in this paper consist of the following: Hot-Electron Plasma Formation in AMPHED; Kinectic Models of Hot-Electron Plasma Formation; Resonator Design and Tests; Results of 1-D Fokker-Planck ECH Study of TEXT; and AMPC/TEXT Collaboration.

  19. 30 CFR 203.34 - To which production may an RSV earned by qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... REDUCTION IN ROYALTY RATES OCS Oil, Gas, and Sulfur General Royalty Relief for Drilling Ultra-Deep Wells on...) To production from a deep well or ultra-deep well that commenced drilling before: (1) March 26, 2003... qualified phase 2 and phase 3 ultra-deep wells on my lease not be applied? 203.34 Section 203.34...

  20. The use of laser-induced shock wave plasma spectroscopy (LISPS) for examining physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdulmadjid, Syahrun Nur, E-mail: syahrun-madjid@yahoo.com; Lahna, Kurnia, E-mail: kurnialahna@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Aceh (Indonesia); Desiyana, Lydia Septa, E-mail: lydia-septa@yahoo.com [Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Syiah Kuala University, Darussalam, Banda Aceh 23111, Aceh (Indonesia)

    2016-03-11

    An experimental study has been performed to examine the physical characteristics of pharmaceutical products, such as tablet, by employing an emission plasma induced by Nd-YAG laser at a low pressure of Helium gas. The hardness of tablet is one of the parameters that examined during the production process for standard quality of pharmaceutical products. In the Laser-Induced Shock Wave Plasma Spectroscopy (LISPS), the shock wave has a significant role in inducing atomic excitation. It was known that, the speed of the shock wavefront depends on the hardness of the sample, and it correlates with the ionization rate of the ablated atoms. The hardness of the tablet is examined using the intensity ratio between the ion of Mg (II) 275.2 nm and the neutral of Mg (I) 285.2 nm emission lines detected from the laser-induced plasma. It was observed that the ratio changes with respect to the change in the tablet hardness, namely the ratio is higher for the hard tablet. Besides the ratio measurements, we also measured the depth profile of a tablet by focusing 60 shots of irradiation of laser light at a fixed position on the surface of the tablet. It was found that the depth profile varies differently with the hardness of the tablet. These experiment results show that the technique of LISPS can be applied to examine the quality of pharmaceutical products.

  1. Organic Phase Change Nanoparticles for in-Product Labeling of Agrochemicals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need to develop in-product covert barcodes for anti-counterfeiting of agrochemicals. This paper reports a new organic nanoparticle-based in-product barcode system, in which a panel of organic phase change nanoparticles is added as a barcode into in a variety of chemicals (herein agrochemicals. The barcode is readout by detecting melting peaks of organic nanoparticles using differential scanning calorimetry. This method has high labeling capacity due to small sizes of nanoparticles, sharp melting peaks, and large scan range of thermal analysis. The in-product barcode can be effectively used to protect agrochemical products from being counterfeited due to its large coding capacity, technical readiness, covertness, and robustness.

  2. Development of a monolithic polymer pipette for solid-phase extraction of liquiritigenin in rat plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Wu Zhang; Kang Li; Zhi Xian Liang; Feng Yang Wang; Qi Wen Lu

    2012-01-01

    A monolithic polymer column with mixed-mode interaction was prepared by in situ polymerization in a 1000 μ,L pipette.Two kinds of monomers,butyl methacrylate (BMA) and 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (DMAM) were applied to constructing the mixed-mode interaction of monolithic polymer column.Its solid-phase extraction properties for liquiritigenin (LQG) were evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient elution procedure.After the extraction procedure was optimized,the maximum binding capacity and extraction recovery following the optimal extraction procedure were investigated.Calibration curve was expressed as A =65.9C + 4.53 (r2 =0.998) with a linear range of 0.151-1.80 μg/mL.The experimental results indicate that the monolithic polymer pipette presents good extraction efficiency for LQG.It can be envisaged that the developed monolithic polymer pipette possesses the potential for its application to the enrichment of other flavonoids compounds being siniilar to the structure of LQG.

  3. Plasma cholesterol homeostasis, HDL remodeling and function during the acute phase reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimetti, Francesca; De Vuono, Stefano; Gomaraschi, Monica; Adorni, Maria Pia; Favari, Elda; Ronda, Nicoletta; Ricci, Maria Anastasia; Veglia, Fabrizio; Calabresi, Laura; Lupattelli, Graziana

    2017-10-01

    Acute phase reaction (APR) is a systemic inflammation triggered by several conditions associated with lipid profile alterations. We evaluated whether APR also associates with changes in cholesterol synthesis and absorption, HDL structure, composition, and cholesterol efflux capacity (CEC). We analyzed 59 subjects with APR related to infections, oncologic causes, or autoimmune diseases and 39 controls. We detected no difference in markers of cholesterol synthesis and absorption. Conversely, a significant reduction of LpA-I- and LpAI:AII-containing HDL (-28% and -44.8%, respectively) and of medium-sized HDL (-10.5%) occurred in APR. Total HDL CEC was impaired in APR subjects (-18%). Evaluating specific CEC pathways, we found significant reductions in CEC by aqueous diffusion and by the transporters scavenger receptor B-I and ABCG1 (-25.5, -41.1 and -30.4%, respectively). ABCA1-mediated CEC was not affected. Analyses adjusted for age and gender provided similar results. In addition, correcting for HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the differences in aqueous diffusion total and ABCG1-CEC remained significant. APR subjects displayed higher levels of HDL serum amyloid A (+20-folds; P = 0.003). In conclusion, APR does not associate with cholesterol synthesis and absorption changes but with alterations of HDL composition and a marked impairment of HDL CEC, partly independent of HDL-C serum level reduction. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  4. FORMATION OF THE INITIAL DISTRIBUTION OF PLASMA COMPONENTS ON THE PHASE PLANE OF LARGE PARTICLES METHOD IN ELECTRIC ARC SYNTHESIS CNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Abramov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the modeling of charged particles in a multicomponent plasma of electric arc discharge with binary collisions in the synthesis of carbon nanostructures (CNS. One of the common methods of obtaining the quality of fullerenes and nanotubes is arc synthesis under inert gas (helium. The determination of the necessary conditions and the mechanism of formation of carbon clusters in the plasma forming set CNS will more effectively and efficiently manage this process. Feature of the problem is that in a plasma arc discharge is a large number of particle interactions and on the cathode surface. Due to the high temperatures and high energy concentration in plasma detailed experimental investigation difficult to carry out. With the aim of avoiding difficult and costly physical experiments developed numerical methods for the analysis of plasma processes. In this article to solve a system of equations of Maxwell - Boltzmann basis for the authors had taken the method of large particles, which reduces the amount of computation and reduce the demands on computing resources. The authors cites the general design scheme of the large particles, and the algorithm of particle distribution of a multicomponent plasma in the phase plane at the initial time. In conclusion, the author argues that the results in the future will define the zone satisfies the energy conditions, the probability of formation of a plasma cluster groups of carbon involved in the synthesis of the CNS.

  5. Liquid electrode plasma-optical emission spectrometry combined with solid-phase preconcentration for on-site analysis of lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Suman; Rahman, Ismail M M; Alam, Iftakharul; Miyaguchi, Maho; Sawai, Hikaru; Maki, Teruya; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-08-15

    A relatively rapid and precise method is presented for the determination of lead in aqueous matrix. The method consists of analyte quantitation using the liquid electrode plasma-optical emission spectrometry (LEP-OES) coupled with selective separation/preconcentration by solid-phase extraction (SPE). The impact of operating variables on the retention of lead in SPEs such as pH, flow rate of the sample solution; type, volume, flow rate of the eluent; and matrix effects were investigated. Selective SPE-separation/preconcentration minimized the interfering effect due to manganese in solution and limitations in lead-detection in low-concentration samples by LEP-OES. The LEP-OES operating parameters such as the electrical conductivity of sample solution; applied voltage; on-time, off-time, pulse count for applied voltage; number of measurements; and matrix effects have also been optimized to obtain a distinct peak for the lead at λmax=405.8nm. The limit of detection (3σ) and the limit of quantification (10σ) for lead determination using the technique were found as 1.9 and 6.5ng mL(-1), respectively. The precision, as relative standard deviation, was lower than 5% at 0.1μg mL(-1) Pb, and the preconcentration factor was found to be 187. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of lead contents in the natural aqueous matrix (recovery rate:>95%). The method accuracy was verified using certified reference material of wastewaters: SPS-WW1 and ERM-CA713. The results from LEP-OES were in good agreement with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry measurements of the same samples. The application of the method is rapid (≤5min, without preconcentration) with a reliable detection limit at trace levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Phase distribution and removal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products during anaerobic sludge digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narumiya, Masanori; Nakada, Norihide; Yamashita, Naoyuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki

    2013-09-15

    The fate and removal of 48 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) during anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge were investigated in four full-scale sewage treatment plants (STPs). We measured concentrations in both the liquid and solid phases of the sludge to compare the distribution ratios (Kd) between phases before and after digestion. The results showed changes in Kd values of PPCPs with carboxyl or amino functional groups, probably due to a shift of dissociation equilibrium with the increase in pH. Sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim were almost completely degraded (>90%); triclosan, triclocarban, and ofloxacin were moderately degraded (around 30-50%); but carbamazepine was not eliminated. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows (i) the occurrence and removal of several tens of PPCPs by anaerobic sludge digestion in full-scale municipal STPs and (ii) the change of distribution between the liquid and solid phases during digestion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Microbial and sponge loops modify fish production in phase-shifting coral reefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Cynthia B; Silva-Lima, Arthur W; Francini-Filho, Ronaldo B; Marques, Jomar S M; Almeida, Marcelo G; Thompson, Cristiane C; Rezende, Carlos E; Paranhos, Rodolfo; Moura, Rodrigo L; Salomon, Paulo S; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2015-10-01

    Shifts from coral to algae dominance of corals reefs have been correlated to fish biomass loss and increased microbial metabolism. Here we investigated reef benthic and planktonic primary production, benthic dissolved organic carbon (DOC) release and bacterial growth efficiency in the Abrolhos Bank, South Atlantic. Benthic DOC release rates are higher while water column bacterial growth efficiency is lower at impacted reefs. A trophic model based on the benthic and planktonic primary production was able to predict the observed relative fish biomass in healthy reefs. In contrast, in impacted reefs, the observed omnivorous fish biomass is higher, while that of the herbivorous/coralivorous fish is lower than predicted by the primary production-based model. Incorporating recycling of benthic-derived carbon in the model through microbial and sponge loops explains the difference and predicts the relative fish biomass in both reef types. Increased benthic carbon release rates and bacterial carbon metabolism, but decreased bacterial growth efficiency could lead to carbon losses through respiration and account for the uncoupling of benthic and fish production in phase-shifting reefs. Carbon recycling by microbial and sponge loops seems to promote an increase of small-bodied fish productivity in phase-shifting coral reefs. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Phase chemistry in process models for cement clinker and lime production

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the thesis is to evaluate if developed phase chemical process models for cement clinker and lime production processes are reliable to use as predictive tools in understanding the changes when introducing sustainability measures. The thesis describes the development of process simulation models in the application of sustainability measures as well as the evaluation of these models. The motivation for developing these types of models arises from the need to predict the chemical and ...

  9. Matrix product operators for symmetry-protected topological phases: Gauging and edge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Dominic J.; Bultinck, Nick; Mariën, Michael; Şahinoǧlu, Mehmet B.; Haegeman, Jutho; Verstraete, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Projected entangled pair states (PEPS) provide a natural ansatz for the ground states of gapped, local Hamiltonians in which global characteristics of a quantum state are encoded in properties of local tensors. We develop a framework to describe onsite symmetries, as occurring in systems exhibiting symmetry-protected topological (SPT) quantum order, in terms of virtual symmetries of the local tensors expressed as a set of matrix product operators (MPOs) labeled by distinct group elements. These MPOs describe the possibly anomalous symmetry of the edge theory, whose local degrees of freedom are concretely identified in a PEPS. A classification of SPT phases is obtained by studying the obstructions to continuously deforming one set of MPOs into another, recovering the results derived for fixed-point models [Chen et al., Phys. Rev. B 87, 155114 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevB.87.155114]. Our formalism accommodates perturbations away from fixed-point models, opening the possibility of studying phase transitions between different SPT phases. We also demonstrate that applying the recently developed quantum state gauging procedure to a SPT PEPS yields a PEPS with topological order determined by the initial symmetry MPOs. The MPO framework thus unifies the different approaches to classifying SPT phases, via fixed-point models, boundary anomalies, or gauging the symmetry, into the single problem of classifying inequivalent sets of matrix product operator symmetries that are defined purely in terms of a PEPS.

  10. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) variants fluctuate in paired plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells among patient cohorts during different chronic hepatitis B (CHB) disease phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffin, C S; Osiowy, C; Gao, S; Nishikawa, S; van der Meer, F; van Marle, G

    2015-04-01

    Hepatitis B virus is classically considered a hepatotropic virus but also infects peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Chronic hepatitis B has different disease phases modulated by host immunity. We compared HBV variability, drug resistance and immune escape mutations in the overlapping HBV polymerase/surface gene in plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells in different disease phases. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated from 22 treatment naïve patient cohorts (five inactive, six immune-active, nine HBeAg negative and two immune-tolerant). HBV was genotyped via line probe assay, hepatitis B surface antigen titres were determined by an in-house immunoassay, and HBV DNA was quantified by kinetic PCR. The HBV polymerase/surface region, including full genome in some, was PCR-amplified and cloned, and ~20 clones/sample were sequenced. The sequences were subjected to various mutational and phylogenetic analyses. Clonal sequencing showed that only three of 22 patients had identical HBV genotype profiles in both sites. In immune-active chronic hepatitis B, viral diversity in plasma was higher compared with peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Mutations at residues, in a minority of clones, associated with drug resistance, and/or immune escape were found in both compartments but were more common in plasma. Immune escape mutations were more often observed in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of immune-active CHB carriers, compared with other disease phases. During all CHB disease phases, differences exist between HBV variants found in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and plasma. Moreover, these data indicate that HBV evolution occurs in a compartment and disease phase-specific fashion.

  11. Phase Change Material on Augmentation of Fresh Water Production Using Pyramid Solar Still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ravishankara

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The augmentation of fresh water and increase in the solar still efficiency of a triangular pyramid is added with phase change material (PCM on the basin. Experimental studies were conducted and the effects of production of fresh water with and without PCM were investigated. Using paraffin as the PCM material, performance of the solar still were conducted on a hot, humid climate of Chennai (13°5′ 2" North, 80°16′ 12"East, India. The use of paraffin wax increases the latent heat storage so that the energy is stored in the PCM and in the absence of solar radiation it rejects its stored heat into the basin for further evaporation of water from the basin. Temperatures of water, Tw, Temperature of phase change material, TPCM, Temperature of cover, Tc were measured using thermocouple. Results show that there is an increase of maximum 20%, in productivity of fresh water with PCM. Keywords: fresh water production; PCM; thermal energy storage; phase change material

  12. Gas- and particle-phase products from the photooxidation of acenaphthene and acenaphthylene by OH radicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Matthieu; Healy, Robert M.; Flaud, Pierre-Marie; Perraudin, Emilie; Wenger, John C.; Villenave, Eric

    2017-02-01

    This work is focused on the gas-phase oxidation of acenaphthylene and acenaphthene by OH radicals and associated secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation under low and high-NOx conditions. Experiments were carried out in an atmospheric simulation chamber using a proton transfer reaction time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (PTR-TOF-MS) and an aerosol time-of-flight-mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) to chemically characterize the gas- and particle-phase products, respectively. Due to the structures of these two aromatic compounds, the proposed chemical mechanisms exhibit some differences. In the case of acenaphthene, H-atom abstraction from the saturated cyclopenta-fused ring was found to be competitive with the OH-addition to the aromatic rings. During the photooxidation of acenaphthene using nitrous acid (HONO), aromatic ring-opening products such as indanone and indanone carbaldehyde, generated through OH addition to the aromatic ring, were formed in higher yields compared to low-NOx conditions. In the case of acenaphthylene, OH addition to the unsaturated cyclopenta-fused ring was strongly favored. Hence, ring-retaining species such as acenaphthenone and acenaphthenequinone, were identified as the main reaction products in both gas- and particle-phases, especially under high-NOx conditions. Subsequent SOA formation was observed in all experiments and SOA yields were determined under low/high-NOx conditions to be 0.61/0.46 and 0.68/0.55 from the OH-initiated oxidation of acenaphthylene and acenaphthene, respectively.

  13. Treatment of aqueous phase of bio-oil by granular activated carbon and evaluation of biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Saravanan R; Adhikari, Sushil; Wang, Zhouhang; Shakya, Rajdeep

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction of wet biomass such as algae is a promising thermochemical process for the production of bio-oil. Bio-oil aqueous phase generated during liquefaction process is rich in complex organics and can be utilized for biogas production following its pre-treatment with granular activated carbon. In our study, use of 30% activated carbon resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction (53±0.3%) from aqueous phase. Higher CH4 production (84±12mL/gCOD) was also observed in 30% carbon-treated aqueous phase fed cultures, whereas only 32±6mLCH4/gCOD was observed in control (non-carbon treated) cultures. The results from this study indicate that almost 67±0.3% initial COD of aqueous phase can be reduced using a combination of both carbon treatment and biogas production. This study shows that aqueous phase can be utilized for CH4 production.

  14. An improved process for high nutrition of germinated brown rice production: Low-pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hua Han; Chang, Hung Chia; Chen, Yu Kuo; Hung, Chien Lun; Lin, Su Yi; Chen, Yi Sheng

    2016-01-15

    Brown rice was exposed to low-pressure plasma ranging from 1 to 3kV for 10min. Treatment of brown rice in low-pressure plasma increases the germination percentage, seedling length, and water uptake in laboratory germination tests. Of the various treatments, 3-kV plasma exposure for 10min yielded the best results. In germinating brown rice, α-amylase activity was significantly higher in treated groups than in controls. The higher enzyme activity in plasma-treated brown rice likely triggers the rapid germination and earlier vigor of the seedlings. Low-pressure plasma also increased gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) levels from ∼19 to ∼28mg/100g. In addition, a marked increase in the antioxidant activity of brown rice was observed with plasma treatments compared to controls. The main finding of this study indicates that low-pressure plasma is effective at enhancing the growth and GABA accumulation of germinated brown rice, which can supply high nutrition to consumer.

  15. Effect of Irradiation with DC Plasma Jet on the Structure Phase Compositions and Properties of Powder Ni and Co – based Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darya ALONTSEVA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD and atomic force microscopy (AFM investigation of the structure-phase compositions of coatings on the base of Ni and Co deposited by plasma-detonation on steel substrates after their modification by DC plasma jet irradiation. The phase structures and morphology of precipitation of strengthening phases from solid solution are defined. The irradiation of the coatings leads to the evolution of the structural-phase state of coatings: an increase in the size of the diffusion zone between the coating and the substrate, an increase in the volume fraction of hardening intermetallic phases, the formation of sufficiently homogeneous fine-grained structure in the irradiated coatings and, consequently, a significant increase of hardness, corrosion and wear resistance of modified coatings. There is a mutual penetration of the substrate main element Fe in the coating and base coating elements (Ni and Co correspondingly into the substrate as a result of the coating treatment by a pulse DC plasma jet.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.22.2.7699

  16. Gas-phase products and secondary organic aerosol formation from the ozonolysis and photooxidation of myrcene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böge, Olaf; Mutzel, Anke; Iinuma, Yoshiteru; Yli-Pirilä, Pasi; Kahnt, Ariane; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Herrmann, Hartmut

    2013-04-01

    Terrestrial vegetation releases a great variety of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere. Monoterpenes, like myrcene, contribute significantly to this global biogenic VOC emission. In the atmosphere, monoterpenes rapidly undergo oxidation reactions by OH radicals (mainly during the daytime), NO3 radicals (mainly during the nighttime) and O3 to form multifunctional oxidation products. The products of these reactions are likely to be of low volatility and hence might lead to secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In the present study, we report results from a series of chamber experiments performed in the LEAK chamber at TROPOS in which the gas-phase products and SOA yields obtained from myrcene O3 reactions with and without an OH radical scavenger as well as from the myrcene OH radical reaction in the presence of NOx have been measured. During the experiments the consumption of myrcene as well as the formation of gas-phase products was monitored using a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). Ozone concentration was measured by an O3 monitor and the mixing ratios of nitrogen oxides were measured by a NOx monitor. Particle size distributions between 3-900 nm were monitored every 11 min using a differential mobility particle sizer (DMPS) system. In addition to the products observed by means of the PTR-MS by their m/z values, an identification of carbonylic compounds by their DNPH derivatives was performed. Beside low molecular mass products the formation of 4-vinyl-4-pentenal with a yield of 55 % in myrcene ozonolysis has been observed. The further oxidation of this major first generation product lead to the formation of two dicarbonylic products with m/z 113 and to SOA formation. The influence of the continuing oxidation of 4-vinyl-4-pentenal on SOA formation will be discussed in detail. The emergence of the gas-phase product hydroxyacetone as direct result of the myrcene ozone reaction will be mooted, because hydroxyacetone seems to

  17. Abrupt change of josephson plasma frequency at the phase boundary of the bragg glass in Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaifullin; Matsuda; Chikumoto; Shimoyama; Kishio

    2000-03-27

    We report the first detailed and quantitative study of the Josephson coupling energy in the vortex liquid, Bragg glass, and vortex glass phases of Bi(2)Sr(2)CaCu(2)O(8+delta) by the Josephson plasma resonance. The measurements revealed distinct features in the T and H dependencies of the plasma frequency omega(pl) for each of these three vortex phases. When going across either the Bragg-to-vortex glass or the Bragg-to-liquid transition line, omega(pl) shows a dramatic change. We provide a quantitative discussion on the properties of these phase transitions, including the first order nature of the Bragg-to-vortex glass transition.

  18. Phase mineralogy studies of solid waste products from coal burning at some Bulgarian themoelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilev, S.V. (Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria). Institute of Applied Mineralogy)

    1992-06-01

    A combination of methods, including separation, crystallo-optical techniques, SEM, TEM, X-ray, etc., were used to characterize the phase mineralogy, chemical composition, microstructure and some genetic phase peculiarities in solid waste products from coal burning. Fly ashes, bottom ashes and lagooned ashes from the burning of Bobov Dol and East Maritza coal at Bobov Dol and East Maritza thermoelectric power plants, respectively, were studied. These wastes comprise inorganic and organic constituents. The inorganic part consists mainly of non-crystalline (amorphous) components (glass spheres, spheroids and angular particles) and lesser amounts of crystalline components represented by various major (quartz, magnetite, hematite, mullite, feldspar, gypsum, anhydrite, kaolinite-metakaolinite), minor (mica, free CaO, calcite, olivine) and accessory (rutile, svanbergite, iron carbide, chloritoid, zincite, pyrolusite, cuprite, zircon, etc.) mineral phases. The organic constituent consists of unburnt coal components represented by slightly changed, semicoked and coked coal particles. The genesis of the solid phases could be: primary, contained in coal and having undergone no phase transitions (quartz, kaolinite, mica, feldspar, volcanic glass, coal particles); secondary, formed during burning (magnetite, hematite, metakaolinite; mullite, anhydrite, free CaO, glass, semicoke, coke); or tertiary, formed during the transport and storage of fly ashes and bottom ashes (gypsum, calcite, hematite, limonite). 21 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  19. Plasma nitrate clearance in mice: modeling of the systemic production of nitrate following the induction of nitric oxide synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veszelovsky, E; Holford, N H; Thomsen, L L; Knowles, R G; Baguley, B C

    1995-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced in mammals by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS) in response to a number of agents, including the experimental antitumour agent flavone acetic acid (FAA) and the cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). NO is converted rapidly in the presence of oxygen, water and haemoglobin to oxidation products, largely nitrate. To quantitate the production of nitric oxide it is necessary to know the clearance of nitrate. The concentration of nitrite and nitrate ion in the plasma of C3H and BDF1 (C57BL6 x DBA2) mice was assessed before and after injection of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. Nitrite was covered rapidly to nitrate and the kinetics of elimination of nitrate were determined. There was no significant difference between results obtained with different mouse strains, between levels of nitrite and nitrate, or between i.p. and i.v. administration, and the observations were therefore combined. The volume of distribution of nitrate was 0.71 +/- 0.04 l/kg and the clearance was 0.32 +/- 0.02 l/h-1/kg-1 (plasma half-life, 1.54 h). Using previously published data, we developed a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model that relates the production of TNF in response to administration of FAA, the enhancement of NOS activity in response to TNF, and the elevation of plasma nitrate in response to NO production. This information permits the prediction from observed plasma nitrate values of the amount of NOS induced in vivo.

  20. Hepatitis E virus and the safety of plasma products: investigations into the reduction capacity of manufacturing processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farcet, Maria R; Lackner, Cornelia; Antoine, Gerhard; Rabel, Philip O; Wieser, Andreas; Flicker, Andreas; Unger, Ulrike; Modrof, Jens; Kreil, Thomas R

    2016-02-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) has been transmitted by transfusion of labile blood products and the occasional detection of HEV RNA in plasma pools indicates that HEV viremic donations might enter the manufacturing process of plasma products. To verify the safety margins of plasma products with respect to HEV, virus reduction steps commonly used in their manufacturing processes were investigated for their effectiveness to reduce HEV. Detection methods for HEV removal (by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and inactivation (using an infectivity assay) were established. Immunoaffinity chromatography and 20-nm virus filtration for Factor (F)VIII, cold ethanol fractionation, and low-pH treatment for immunoglobulin, heat treatment for human albumin, and 35-nm nanofiltration for FVIII inhibitor-bypassing activity (FEIBA) were investigated for their capacity to reduce HEV or the physicochemically similar viruses feline calicivirus (FCV) and hepatitis A virus (HAV). For FVIII, HEV reduction of 3.9 and more than 3.9 log was demonstrated for immunoaffinity chromatography and 20-nm nanofiltration, respectively, and the cold ethanol fractionation for immunoglobulin removed more than 3.5 log of HEV, to below the limit of detection (LOD). Heat treatment of human albumin inactivated more than 3.1 log of HEV to below the LOD and 35-nm nanofiltration removed 4.0 log of HEV from the FEIBA intermediate. The results indicated HAV rather than FCV as the more relevant model virus for HEV. Substantial HEV reduction during processes commonly used in the manufacturing of plasma products was demonstrated, similar to that previously demonstrated for HAV. © 2015 AABB.

  1. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma treatment of ready-to-eat meat: inactivation of Listeria innocua and changes in product quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rød, Sara Katrine; Hansen, Flemming; Leipold, Frank; Knøchel, Susanne

    2012-05-01

    The application of cold atmospheric pressure plasma for decontamination of a sliced ready-to-eat (RTE) meat product (bresaola) inoculated with Listeria innocua was investigated. Inoculated samples were treated at 15.5, 31, and 62 W for 2-60 s inside sealed linear-low-density-polyethylene bags containing 30% oxygen and 70% argon. Treatments resulted in a reduction of L. innocua ranging from 0.8 ± 0.4 to 1.6 ± 0.5 log cfu/g with no significant effects of time and intensity while multiple treatments at 15.5 and 62 W of 20 s with a 10 min interval increased reduction of L. innocua with increasing number of treatments. Concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) increased with power, treatments and storage time and were significantly higher than those of control samples after 1 and 14 days of storage at 5 °C. However, the levels were low (from 0.1 to 0.4 mg/kg) and beneath the sensory threshold level. Surface colour changes included loss of redness of ∼40% and 70% after 1 and 14 days of storage, respectively, regardless of plasma treatment. The results indicate that plasma may be applicable in surface decontamination of pre-packed RTE food products. However, oxidation may constitute an issue in some products.

  2. Plasma phospholipid pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA, and the frequency of dairy and fish product intake in young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai A. Lund-Blix

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a lack of studies comparing dietary assessment methods with the biomarkers of fatty acids in children. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the suitability of a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ to rank young children according to their intake of dairy and fish products by comparing food frequency estimates to the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA. Design: Cross-sectional data for the present study were derived from the prospective cohort ‘Environmental Triggers of Type 1 Diabetes Study’. Infants were recruited from the Norwegian general population during 2001–2007. One hundred and ten (age 3–10 years children had sufficient volumes of plasma and FFQ filled in within 2 months from blood sampling and were included in this evaluation study. The quantitative determination of plasma phospholipid fatty acids was done by fatty acid methyl ester analysis. The association between the frequency of dairy and fish product intake and the plasma phospholipid fatty acids was assessed by a Spearman correlation analysis and by investigating whether participants were classified into the same quartiles of distribution. Results: Significant correlations were found between pentadecanoic acid and the intake frequency of total dairy products (r=0.29, total fat dairy products (r=0.39, and cheese products (r=0.36. EPA and DHA were significantly correlated with the intake frequency of oily fish (r=0.26 and 0.37, respectively and cod liver/fish oil supplements (r=0.47 for EPA and r=0.50 DHA. To a large extent, the FFQ was able to classify individuals into the same quartile as the relevant fatty acid biomarker. Conclusions: The present study suggests that, when using the plasma phospholipid fatty acids pentadecanoic acid, EPA, and DHA as biomarkers, the FFQ used in young children showed a moderate capability to rank the intake frequency of dairy products with a

  3. High-fat diet with stress impaired islets' insulin secretion by reducing plasma estradiol and pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels in rats' proestrus phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, M; Zardooz, H; Khodagholi, F; Rostamkhani, F; Shaerzadeh, F

    2016-10-01

    This study was conducted to determine whether two estrus phases (proestrus and diestrus) in female rats may influence the metabolic response to a high-fat diet and/or stress, focusing on pancreatic insulin secretion and content. Animals were divided into high-fat and normal diet groups, then each group was subdivided into stress and non-stress groups, and finally, each one of these was divided into proestrus and diestrus subgroups. At the end of high-fat diet treatment, foot-shock stress was applied to the animals. Then, blood samples were taken to measure plasma factors. Finally, the pancreas was removed for determination of glucose transporter 2 (GLUT2) protein levels and assessment of insulin content and secretion of the isolated islets. In the normal and high-fat diet groups, stress increased plasma corticosterone concentration in both phases. In both study phases, high-fat diet consumption decreased estradiol and increased leptin plasma levels. In the high-fat diet group in response to high glucose concentration, a reduction in insulin secretion was observed in the proestrus phase compared with the same phase in the normal diet group in the presence and absence of stress. Also, high-fat diet decreased the insulin content of islets in the proestrus phase compared with the normal diet. High-fat diet and/or stress caused a reduction in islet GLUT2 protein levels in both phases. In conclusion, it seems possible that high-fat diet alone or combined with foot-shock, predispose female rats to impaired insulin secretion, at least in part, by interfering with estradiol levels in the proestrus phase and decreasing pancreatic GLUT2 protein levels.

  4. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  5. Neutron Production Rates by Inverse-Beta Decay in Fully Ionized Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Maiani, L; Riquer, V

    2014-01-01

    Recently we showed that the nuclear transmutation rates are largely overestimated in the Widom-Larsen theory of the so called `Low Energy Nuclear Reactions'. Here we show that unbound plasma electrons are even less likely to initiate nuclear transmutations.

  6. Fibrin and fibrinogen degradation products in plasma : clinical and methodological studies using enzyme immuno assays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Kroneman (Herman)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis comprises studies with monoclonal antibody-based plasma assays for derivatives of fibrin and fibrinogen in patients with diseases and conditions characterized by an activated state of coagulation and fibrinolysis

  7. Phase 2a study of ataluren-mediated dystrophin production in patients with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard S Finkel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Approximately 13% of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD have a nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene, resulting in a premature stop codon in the corresponding mRNA and failure to generate a functional protein. Ataluren (PTC124 enables ribosomal readthrough of premature stop codons, leading to production of full-length, functional proteins. METHODS: This Phase 2a open-label, sequential dose-ranging trial recruited 38 boys with nonsense mutation DMD. The first cohort (n = 6 received ataluren three times per day at morning, midday, and evening doses of 4, 4, and 8 mg/kg; the second cohort (n = 20 was dosed at 10, 10, 20 mg/kg; and the third cohort (n = 12 was dosed at 20, 20, 40 mg/kg. Treatment duration was 28 days. Change in full-length dystrophin expression, as assessed by immunostaining in pre- and post-treatment muscle biopsy specimens, was the primary endpoint. FINDINGS: Twenty three of 38 (61% subjects demonstrated increases in post-treatment dystrophin expression in a quantitative analysis assessing the ratio of dystrophin/spectrin. A qualitative analysis also showed positive changes in dystrophin expression. Expression was not associated with nonsense mutation type or exon location. Ataluren trough plasma concentrations active in the mdx mouse model were consistently achieved at the mid- and high- dose levels in participants. Ataluren was generally well tolerated. INTERPRETATION: Ataluren showed activity and safety in this short-term study, supporting evaluation of ataluren 10, 10, 20 mg/kg and 20, 20, 40 mg/kg in a Phase 2b, double-blind, long-term study in nonsense mutation DMD. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00264888.

  8. Phase 2a study of ataluren-mediated dystrophin production in patients with nonsense mutation Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, Richard S; Flanigan, Kevin M; Wong, Brenda; Bönnemann, Carsten; Sampson, Jacinda; Sweeney, H Lee; Reha, Allen; Northcutt, Valerie J; Elfring, Gary; Barth, Jay; Peltz, Stuart W

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 13% of boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) have a nonsense mutation in the dystrophin gene, resulting in a premature stop codon in the corresponding mRNA and failure to generate a functional protein. Ataluren (PTC124) enables ribosomal readthrough of premature stop codons, leading to production of full-length, functional proteins. This Phase 2a open-label, sequential dose-ranging trial recruited 38 boys with nonsense mutation DMD. The first cohort (n = 6) received ataluren three times per day at morning, midday, and evening doses of 4, 4, and 8 mg/kg; the second cohort (n = 20) was dosed at 10, 10, 20 mg/kg; and the third cohort (n = 12) was dosed at 20, 20, 40 mg/kg. Treatment duration was 28 days. Change in full-length dystrophin expression, as assessed by immunostaining in pre- and post-treatment muscle biopsy specimens, was the primary endpoint. Twenty three of 38 (61%) subjects demonstrated increases in post-treatment dystrophin expression in a quantitative analysis assessing the ratio of dystrophin/spectrin. A qualitative analysis also showed positive changes in dystrophin expression. Expression was not associated with nonsense mutation type or exon location. Ataluren trough plasma concentrations active in the mdx mouse model were consistently achieved at the mid- and high- dose levels in participants. Ataluren was generally well tolerated. Ataluren showed activity and safety in this short-term study, supporting evaluation of ataluren 10, 10, 20 mg/kg and 20, 20, 40 mg/kg in a Phase 2b, double-blind, long-term study in nonsense mutation DMD. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00264888.

  9. [Plasma metabonomic studies on the stable phase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients of Fei-qi deficiency syndrome and the Chinese materia medica intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-gang; Li, Ze-geng; Peng, Bo

    2011-12-01

    By using the metabonomics method, to study the plasma metabonomics of the stable phase chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients of Fei-qi deficiency syndrome (FQDS), and of Chinese materia medica (CMM) intervention, thus exploring possibly existent biomarkers. Forty stable phase COPD patients of FQDS were recruited as Group A. Liuwei Buqi Capsule (LWBQC) was given to them as intervention. A healthy control group (Group B, 37 cases) was set up. The pulmonary function test was performed on patients in Group B and Group A before and after intervention. The plasma metabolites were detected using high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). Statistical data were analyzed using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS). The original spectrum and data of plasma metabonomics were compared between the two groups. The whole spectrum amino acid metabonomics tests were performed in the two groups. Compared with Group B, the pulmonary function significantly decreased before intervention in Group A (P plasma metabonomics, and potential markers could be detected. The intervention of the stable phase COPD patients of FQDS by Chinese medicine could brought positive changes in the metabolic profiling and amino acid metabolism.

  10. Analysis of four toxic metals in a single rice seed by matrix solid phase dispersion -inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xiufen; Chen, Lixia; Chen, Xin; Yu, Huamei; Peng, Lixu; Han, Bingjun

    2016-12-01

    Toxic metals in rice pose great risks to human health. Metal bioaccumulation in rice grains is a criterion of breeding. Rice breeding requires a sensitive method to determine metal content in single rice grains to assist the variety selection. In the present study, four toxic metals of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr) and lead (Pb) in a single rice grain were determined by a simple and rapid method. The developed method is based on matrix solid phase dispersion using multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) as dispersing agent and analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The experimental parameters were systematically investigated. The limits of detection (LOD) were 5.0, 0.6, 10 and 2.1 ng g‑1 for As, Cd, Cr, and Pb, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of microwave digestion. The amount of sample required was reduced approximately 100 fold in comparison with the microwave digestion. The method has a high application potential for other sample matrices and elements with high sensitivity and sample throughput.

  11. SURFACE PREPARATION OF PRODUCTS MADE FROM Д16T ALLOYS PRIOR TO APPLICATION OF VACUUM-PLASMA COATINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ivaschenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of  investigations on qualitative and quantitative characteristics of impurities on the surface of products made from aluminium alloy Д16Т .It has been shown that the main impurities of the products made from alloy Д16Т  are carbo-hydrates of paraffin and methanoic series.  In order to obtain high quality coating a technological process pertaining to surface cleaning prior to application vacuum-plasma coatings must include out- and intra-chamber treatments. 

  12. α-Terpineol reactions with the nitrate radical: Rate constant and gas-phase products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Brian T.; Ham, Jason E.

    The bimolecular rate constant of k rad +α-terpineol (16 ± 4) × 10 -12 cm 3 molecule -1 s -1 was measured using the relative rate technique for the reaction of the nitrate radical (NO 3rad ) with α-terpineol (2-(4-methyl-1-cyclohex-3-enyl)propan-2-ol) at 297 ± 3 K and 1 atmosphere total pressure. To more clearly define part of α-terpineol's indoor environment degradation mechanism, the products of α-terpineol + NO 3rad reaction were investigated. The identified reaction products were: acetone, glyoxal (HC( dbnd O)C( dbnd O)H), and methylglyoxal (CH 3C( dbnd O)C( dbnd O)H). The use of derivatizing agents O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA) and N, O-bis(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA) were used to propose the other major reaction products: 6-hydroxyhept-5-en-2-one, 4-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-1-methyl-2-oxocyclohexyl nitrate, 5-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2-oxocyclohexyl nitrate, 1-formyl-5-hydroxy-4-(hydroxymethyl)-1,5-dimethylhexyl nitrate, and 1,4-diformyl-5-hydroxy-1,5-dimethylhexyl nitrate. The elucidation of these products was facilitated by mass spectrometry of the derivatized reaction products coupled with plausible α-terpineol + NO 3rad reaction mechanisms based on previously published volatile organic compound + NO 3rad gas-phase mechanisms. The additional gas-phase products (2,6,6-trimethyltetrahydro-2 H-pyran-2,5-dicarbaldehyde and 2,2-dimethylcyclohexane-1,4-dicarbaldehyde) are proposed to be the result of cyclization through a reaction intermediate.

  13. On the evolution of the phase-space distributions of a non-spherical molecular ultracold plasma in a supersonic beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Weiling, Markus; Sadeghi, Hossein; Hung, Jachin; Grant, Edward

    2016-10-01

    This paper offers a toolbox for characterizing the initial conditions and predicting the evolution of the ultracold plasma that forms after resonant laser preparation of a Rydberg gas entrained in a differentially pumped supersonic molecular beam. The conditions afforded by a skimmed free-jet expansion combined with the geometry of laser excitation, determines the phase-space volume of the excited gas. A hydrodynamic shell model, that accounts for the ellipsoidal spatial distribution of this excitation volume in concert with the deforming effects of dissociative recombination, serves to simulate the ambipolar expansion of this molecular ultracold plasma.

  14. Ion firehose instability in a dusty plasma considering product-bi-kappa distributions for the plasma particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, M. S. dos, E-mail: michel.santos@iffarroupilha.edu.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia Farroupilha, 98590-000, Santo Augusto, RS (Brazil); Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br; Gaelzer, R., E-mail: rudi.gaelzer@ufrgs.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    We study the dispersion relation for low frequency waves in the whistler mode propagating along the ambient magnetic field, considering ions and electrons with product-bi-kappa (PBK) velocity distributions and taking into account the presence of a population of dust particles. The results obtained by numerical analysis of the dispersion relation show that the decrease in the κ indexes in the ion PBK distribution contributes to the increase in magnitude of the growth rates of the ion firehose instability and the size of the region in wave number space where the instability occurs. It is also shown that the decrease in the κ indexes in the electron PBK distribution contribute to decrease in the growth rates of instability, despite the fact that the instability occurs due to the anisotropy in the ion distribution function. For most of the interval of κ values which has been investigated, the ability of the non-thermal ions to increase the instability overcomes the tendency of decrease due to the non-thermal electron distribution, but for very small values of the kappa indexes the deleterious effect of the non-thermal electrons tends to overcome the effect due to the non-thermal ion distribution.

  15. Phenotypic and molecular detection of Salmonella sp. on growing, rearing and production phases in a commercial group of laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunya M.C. Moraes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This present study was developed with the objective of detect Salmonella sp. by conventional bacteriology and qPCR techniques in samples of flooring material from transport crates (meconium; raising environment (swab of cages and drinking fountains; cloacal swab; food and insects from growing, rearing and production phases in a commercial group of laying hens. A total of 864 samples were collected, among whom 248 originated from growing, 392 from rearing and 224 from production phase. Among the 864 samples, 2,8% where positives in bacteriologic technique and 15.3% in qPCR. Contamination was higher in growing and rearing phases and declined in production phase. Twenty four isolations of Salmonella where typified as Salmonella Agona (41.7%, Salmonella Livingstone (33.3%, Salmonella Cerro (16.7%, Salmonella Senftenberg (4.2% and Salmonella Schwarzengrund (4.2%. During growing phase Salmonella Livingstone was identified. These findings suggest vertical contamination in the group. During rearing and production phases, isolated materials belong to serovars Agona, Cerro, Senftenberg and Schwarzengrund, pointing to horizontal contamination. It is possible to conclude that both vertical and horizontal contaminations are important during the cycle of commercial egg production and contamination in rearing phase is higher than in growing and production phases.

  16. Suppression of adenylyl cyclase-mediated cAMP production by plasma membrane associated cytoskeletal protein 4.1G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Toshihiro; Chiba, Ayano; Sukegawa, Jun; Yanagisawa, Teruyuki; Saito, Masaki; Nakahata, Norimichi

    2013-03-01

    It has been shown lately that activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is regulated by an array of proteins binding to carboxy (C)-terminus of GPCRs. Proteins of 4.1 family are subsets of subcortical cytoskeletal proteins and are known to stabilize cellular structures and proteins at the plasma membrane. One of the 4.1 family proteins, 4.1G has been shown to interact with the C-terminus of GPCRs and regulate intracellular distribution of the receptors, including parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related protein receptor (PTHR). PTHR is coupled to trimeric G proteins G(s) and G(q), which activate the adenylyl cyclase/cyclic AMP (cAMP) pathway and phospholipase C pathway, respectively. During the course of investigation of the role of 4.1G on adenylyl cyclase/cAMP signaling pathway, we found that 4.1G suppressed forskolin-induced cAMP production in cells. The cAMP accumulation induced by forskolin was decreased in HEK293 cells overexpressing 4.1G or increased in 4.1G-knockdown cells. Furthermore, PTH -(1-34)-stimulated cAMP production was also suppressed in the presence of exogenously expressed 4.1G despite its activity to increase the distribution of PTHR to the cell surface. In cells overexpressing FERM domain-deleted 4.1G, a mutant form of the protein deficient in plasma membrane distribution, neither forskolin-induced nor PTH -(1-34)-stimulated cAMP production was not altered. The suppression of the forskolin-induced cAMP production was observed even in membrane preparations of 4.1G-overexpressing cells. In 4.1G-knockdown HEK293 cells, plasma membrane distribution of adenylyl cyclase 6, one of the major subtypes of the enzyme in the cells, showed a slight decrease, in spite of the increased production of cAMP in those cells when stimulated by forskolin. Also, cytochalasin D treatment did not cause any influence on forskolin-induced cAMP production in HEK293 cells. These data indicate that plasma membrane-associated 4.1G regulates GPCR-mediated G(s) signaling

  17. Polyethylene Oxide Films Polymerized by Radio Frequency Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Phase Deposition and Its Adsorption Behaviour of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wen-Juan; Xie, Fen-Yan; Chen, Qiang; Weng, Jing

    2008-10-01

    We present polyethylene oxide (PEO) functional films polymerized by rf plasma-enhanced vapour chemical deposition (rf-PECVD) on p-Si (100) surface with precursor ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME) and diluted Ar in pulsed plasma mode. The influences of discharge parameters on the film properties and compounds are investigated. The film structure is analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The water contact angle measurement and atomic force microscope (AFM) are employed to examine the surface polarity and to detect surface morphology, respectively. It is concluded that the smaller duty cycle in pulsed plasma mode contributes to the rich C-O-C (EO) group on the surfaces. As an application, the adsorption behaviour of platelet-rich plasma on plasma polymerization films performed in-vitro is explored. The shapes of attached cells are studied in detail by an optic invert microscope, which clarifies that high-density C-O-C groups on surfaces are responsible for non-fouling adsorption behaviour of the PEO films.

  18. Polyethylene Oxide Films Polymerized by Radio Frequency Plasma-Enhanced Chemical Vapour Phase Deposition and Its Adsorption Behaviour of Platelet-Rich Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Wen-Juan; XIE Fen-Yan; CHEN Qiang; WENG Jing

    2008-01-01

    We present polyethylene oxide (PEO) functional films polymerized by rf plasma-enhanced vapour chemical deposition (rf-PECVD) on p-Si (100) surface with precursor ethylene glycol dimethyl ether (EGDME) and diluted Ar in pulsed plasma mode. The influences of discharge parameters on the film properties and compounds are investigated. The film structure is analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The water contact angle measurement and atomic force microscope (AFM) are employed to examine the surface polarity and to detect surface morphology, respectively. It is concluded that the smaller duty cycle in pulsed plasma mode contributes to the rich C-O-C (EO) group on the surfaces. As an application, the adsorption behaviour of platelet-rich plasma on plasma polymerization films performed in-vitro is explored. The shapes of attached cells are studied in detail by an optic invert microscope, which clarifies that high-density C-O-C groups on surfaces are responsible for non-fouling adsorption behaviour of the PEO films.

  19. Secondary organic aerosol (trans)formation through aqueous phase guaiacol photonitration: chemical characterization of the products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grgić, Irena; Kitanovski, Zoran; Kroflič, Ana; Čusak, Alen

    2014-05-01

    One of the largest primary sources of organic aerosol in the atmosphere is biomass burning (BB) (Laskin et al. 2009); in Europe its contribution to annual mean of PM10 is between 3 and 14 % (Maenhaut et al. 2012). During the process of wood burning many different products are formed via thermal degradation of wood lignin. Hardwood burning produces mainly syringol (2,6-dimetoxyphenol) derivatives, while softwood burning exclusively guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and its derivatives. Taking into account physical properties of methoxyphenols only, their concentrations in atmospheric waters might be underestimated. So, their aqueous phase reactions can be an additional source of SOA, especially in regions under significant influence of wood combustion. An important class of compounds formed during physical and chemical aging of the primary BBA in the atmosphere is nitrocatechols, known as strong absorbers of UV and Vis light (Claeys et al. 2012). Very recently, methyl-nitrocatechols were proposed as suitable markers for highly oxidized secondary BBA (Iinuma et al. 2010, Kitanovski et al. 2012). In the present work, the formation of SOA through aqueous phase photooxidation and nitration of guaiacol was examined. The key objective was to chemically characterize the main low-volatility products and further to check their possible presence in the urban atmospheric aerosols. The aqueous phase reactions were performed in a thermostated reactor under simulated sunlight in the presence of H2O2 and nitrite. Guaiacol reaction products were first concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and then subjected to semi-preparative liquid chromatography.The main product compounds were fractionated and isolated as pure solids and their structure was further elucidated by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H, 13C and 2D NMR) and direct infusion negative ion electro-spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (( )ESI-MS/MS). The main photonitration products of guaiacol (4

  20. Re-utilization of Industrial CO2 for Algae Production Using a Phase Change Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, Brian

    2013-12-31

    This is the final report of a 36-month Phase II cooperative agreement. Under this project, Touchstone Research Laboratory (Touchstone) investigated the merits of incorporating a Phase Change Material (PCM) into an open-pond algae production system that can capture and re-use the CO2 from a coal-fired flue gas source located in Wooster, OH. The primary objective of the project was to design, construct, and operate a series of open algae ponds that accept a slipstream of flue gas from a coal-fired source and convert a significant portion of the CO2 to liquid biofuels, electricity, and specialty products, while demonstrating the merits of the PCM technology. Construction of the pilot facility and shakedown of the facility in Wooster, OH, was completed during the first two years, and the focus of the last year was on operations and the cultivation of algae. During this Phase II effort a large-scale algae concentration unit from OpenAlgae was installed and utilized to continuously harvest algae from indoor raceways. An Algae Lysing Unit and Oil Recovery Unit were also received and installed. Initial parameters for lysing nanochloropsis were tested. Conditions were established that showed the lysing operation was effective at killing the algae cells. Continuous harvesting activities yielded over 200 kg algae dry weight for Ponds 1, 2 and 4. Studies were conducted to determine the effect of anaerobic digestion effluent as a nutrient source and the resulting lipid productivity of the algae. Lipid content and total fatty acids were unaffected by culture system and nutrient source, indicating that open raceway ponds fed diluted anaerobic digestion effluent can obtain similar lipid productivities to open raceway ponds using commercial nutrients. Data were also collected with respect to the performance of the PCM material on the pilot-scale raceway ponds. Parameters such as evaporative water loss, temperature differences, and growth/productivity were tracked. The pond with the