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Sample records for plasma potassium levels

  1. Plasma Potassium Levels in Healthy Prehypertension Subjects and the Role of A High Potassium Drink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farapti, Farapti; Sayogo, Savitri; Siregar, Parlindungan

    2017-02-24

    Most populations around the world consume less than the recommended levels of potassium. Long term low potassium intake could lead to decreased plasma potassium levels and induce hypokalemia. The increasing of plasma potassium levels 0,2-0,4 mmol/L by improving potassium intake decreased significantly blood pressure (BP). Assessing plasma potassium levels in healthy people related to potassium intake have not been studied. In this study, we analysed plasma potassium levels in prehypertension (PHT) subjects and to evaluate the effect of tender coconut water (TCW) as a high potassium drink on plasma potassium levels in PHT adults. Thirthy-two female aged 25-44 years were randomly allocated to 14 days on TCW or water in a parallel randomized clinical trial . The treatment (T) group received TCW 300 ml twice daily and the control (C) group received water 300 ml twice daily too. At baseline, plasma potassium levels was 3.71±0.41 mmol/L, and 22.58% were categorized as hypokalemia. After 14 days treatment, potassium plasma level between T and C groups were not significantly different (p=0,247). The change of plasma potassium levels in both groups showed tendency to increase but not statistically significant (p=0.166). In healthy prehypertension women, the low levels of potassium plasma may be caused by low potassium intake for long time and intervension with TCW 300 ml twice daily for 14 consecutive days has not proven yet to increase plasma potassium levels. It is necessary to give higher dose and longer time to increase potassium plasma in low potassium plasma level subjects.

  2. High potassium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperkalemia; Potassium - high; High blood potassium ... There are often no symptoms with a high level of potassium. When symptoms do occur, they may include: Nausea Slow, weak, or irregular pulse Sudden collapse, when the heartbeat gets too ...

  3. GLC determination of plasma drug levels after oral administration of clorazepate potassium salts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, D J; Chun, A H

    1975-10-01

    Plasma nordiazepam levels resulting from the oral administration of clorazepate potassium salts were determined by a sensitive GLC assay. Nordiazepam and the internal standard (diazepam) were selectively extracted into ether at pH 9.2, hydrolyzed to their respective benzophenones, and quantified by electron-capture detection. The assay was used in a comparative bioavailability study of single equimolar oral doses of monopotassium and dipotassium salts of clorazepate in dogs. Both clorazepate salts were rapidly absorbed and exhibited mean peak total drug levels after 1 hr. Clorazepate levels accounted for about 50% of the total drug levels present. No statistical difference in the plasma drug levels of clorazepate mono- and dipotassium salts and the metabolite was found in dogs.

  4. Transient decrease in serum potassium level during ischemic attack of acute coronary syndrome: Paradoxical contribution of plasma glucose level and glycohemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekiyama Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although a decrease in serum potassium level has been suggested to be a fairly common observation in acute coronary syndrome (ACS, there have so far been no definitive reports directly demonstrating the transient potassium decrease (the potassium dip during ischemic attack of ACS compared to stable phase in individual patients. To understand the pathophysiological significance of the potassium dip, we examined the changes in serum potassium level throughout ischemic attack and evaluated the clinical factors affecting it. Methods The degree of the potassium dip during ischemic attack (as indicated by ΔK, ΔK = K at discharge − K on admission was examined in 311 consecutive patients with ACS who required urgent hospitalization in our institution. Results Serum potassium level during ischemic attack was significantly decreased compared to that during stable phase (P  Conclusions We have clearly demonstrated that there is a transient decrease in serum potassium level during ischemic attack of ACS compared to stable phase. The degree of the potassium dip was tightly correlated with glucose level, which overwhelmed the diabetic condition, and it also indicates the disease severity. The present study therefore promotes awareness of the significance of monitoring potassium level in parallel with glucose level in patients with ACS.

  5. Low potassium level

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    ... or vomiting Using too much laxative, which can cause diarrhea Chronic kidney disease Diuretic medicines (water pills), used to treat heart failure and high blood pressure Eating disorders (such as bulimia ) Low magnesium level Sweating

  6. Changes in plasma potassium levels following massive transfusion in trauma%大量输血导致血钾变化的相关分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍玉容; 李朝金; 李玲; 郑强; 王逊

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the changes of plasma potassium levels and the impact factor of hyperkalemia following massive transfusion. Methods The clinical data of all non - crush trauma patients with massive transfusion treated in this hospital from March 2007 to December 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. Multivariate analysis was used to examine the effect of massive transfusion on plasma potassium level. Results There was no significant difference in plasma potassium level between study group and control group before and after blood transfusion and surgery ( P >0.05). Although the incidence of hyperkalemia in study group was higher than that in control group during 12 h postoperation ( P 0.05). Logistic regression identifed only preoperative high K + level ( P < 0.05 ) and postoperative lower pH ( P < 0. 05 ), but not massive transfusion, as independent risk factors for postoperative hyperkalemia. Conclusion Massive transfusion patients with non - crush trauma were at no higher risk of hyperkalemia than those who received no blood products, but we should detect the levels of plasma potassium dynamically following massive transfusion.%目的 探讨大量输血与血清钾变化的相关性.方法 回顾性分析2007年3月至2010年12月所有非挤压伤病人大量输血(观察组)和非输血患者(对照组)的临床资料,采用多因素分析方法分析输血前后血钾变化规律及影响因素.结果 手术和输血前、后两组血清钾水平无显著差异(P>0.05),但术后12 h内观察组的高钾血症发生率高于对照组(P<0.05),而12 h后两组高血钾的发生率无显著差异(P>0.05).Logistic回归分析显示术前高血钾(P<0.05)和术后低pH值(P<0.05)是导致术后高钾血症的主要原因,而与大量输血治疗无明显相关性(P> 0.05).结论 非挤压伤病人大量输血并不是导致高钾血症的发生的直接原因,但同样需要动态监测输血前后的血钾变化.

  7. Potassium toxicity at low serum potassium levels with refeeding syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Praveen; Abela, Oliver G; Narisetty, Keerthy; Rhine, David; Abela, George S

    2015-01-01

    Refeeding syndrome is a life-threatening condition occurring in severely malnourished patients after initiating feeding. Severe hypophosphatemia with reduced adenosine triphosphate production has been implicated, but little data are available regarding electrolyte abnormalities. In this case, we report electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemia during potassium replacement after a serum level increase from 1.9 to 2.9 mEq/L. This was reversed by lowering serum potassium back to 2.0 mEq/L. In conclusion, the patient with prolonged malnutrition became adapted to low potassium levels and developed potassium toxicity with replacement.

  8. Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can diuretics decrease your potassium level? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, ... D. Yes, some diuretics — also called water pills — decrease potassium in the blood. Diuretics are commonly used ...

  9. Sodium retention by insulin may depend on decreased plasma potassium.

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    Friedberg, C E; Koomans, H A; Bijlsma, J A; Rabelink, T J; Dorhout Mees, E J

    1991-02-01

    Evidence is accumulating that insulin is a hypertensive factor in humans. The involved mechanism may be its sodium-retaining effect. We examined whether insulin causes sodium retention through a direct action on the kidney, as is generally assumed, or indirectly through hypokalemia. Insulin was infused (euglycemic clamp technique) with and without potassium infusion to prevent hypokalemia in six healthy subjects. Without potassium infusion, insulin caused a marked decrease in plasma potassium (-0.75 mmol/L), and decreased urinary sodium and potassium excretions by, approximately 38% and 65%, respectively. Simultaneous potassium infusion largely prevented the decrease in plasma potassium, as well as the decrease in urinary sodium and potassium excretions. These data suggest that the acute antinatriuretic effect of insulin may be largely mediated in an indirect way, ie, through hypokalemia.

  10. Elevated tissue Cr levels, increased plasma oxidative markers, and global hypomethylation of blood DNA in male Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to potassium dichromate in drinking water.

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    Wang, Yu; Wu, Wei; Yao, Chunji; Lou, Jianlin; Chen, Riping; Jin, Lingzhi; Wu, Nanxiang; Gao, Ming; Song, Peng; Tan, Yufeng; Liu, Kecheng

    2016-09-01

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr (VI)] is prevalent in ground water in some areas, but evidence on the toxic effects of Cr (VI) via ingestion through drinking water remains insufficient. The aims of our study were to investigate the toxic effects of Cr (VI) through oral water ingestion on oxidative stress and DNA methylation. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups, and exposed to porassium dichromate (K2 Cr2 O7 ; 0, 30, 100, and 300 mg/L) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Mean body weight gain, mean water consumption, clinical chemistry determinations, and oxidative stress levels in plasma were measured. Global DNA methylation changes and DNA methylation status at the promoter of p16 gene were also detected. After 4 weeks, mild anemic effects and increased plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels occurred in rats exposed to 100 mg/L or 300 mg/L of Cr (VI). Plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity decreased in all exposed groups. Global DNA methylation levels were reduced in 100 mg/L and 300 mg/L exposure groups. However, DNA methylation status at the promoter of P16 gene remained unchanged in all K2 Cr2 O7- treated groups. The correlation analysis indicated that increased MDA levels were closely correlated to global DNA hypomethylation. Our results indicated that oral ingestion of Cr (VI) through drinking water caused not only oxidative stress in plasma, but also global DNA hypomethylation in blood cells from male rats, and a good correlation was found between increased MDA levels and reduced global DNA methylation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1080-1090, 2016.

  11. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  12. Changes in plasma potassium concentration during carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Bugge, K; Lyng, K M

    1999-01-01

    Hyperkalaemia with ECG changes had been noted during prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum in pigs. We have compared plasma potassium concentrations during surgery in 11 patients allocated randomly to undergo either laparoscopic or open appendectomy and in another 17 patients allocated randomly...... to either carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum or abdominal wall lifting for laparoscopic colectomy. Despite an increasing metabolic acidosis, prolonged carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum resulted in only a slight increase in plasma potassium concentrations, which was both statistically and clinically insignificant....... Thus hyperkalaemia is unlikely to develop in patients with normal renal function undergoing carbon dioxide pneumoperitoneum for laparoscopic surgery....

  13. Dietary levels of potassium for broiler chickens

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    JE Oliveira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were conducted to determine the nutritional requirements of potassium (K for male Ross broiler chickens, from 8 to 21, 22 to 42 and 43 to 53 days of age. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight gain (BWG, feed intake (FI and feed conversion ratio (FCR. In each experiment, a completely randomized experimental design was used, with six treatments (K levels, and six, eight and eight numbers of replicates, and eight, five and four birds per pen, respectively. The experimental diets were basal diets deficient in K but supplemented with K carbonate to result in levels of 0.30, 0.44, 0.58, 0.72, 0.86 and 1.00% K. Estimated requirements for BWG were 0.628, 0.714 and 0.798% K, for the periods 8-21, 22-42 and 43-53 d, respectively.

  14. Serum Potassium Levels in Sigmoid Volvulus

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    Atamanalp, S. Selcuk; Keles, M. Sait; Aydinli, Bulent

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine the serum potassium concentrations in patients with sigmoid volvulus (SV), which is a rare large bowel obstruction. Materials and Methods: The records of 86 patients with SV were reviewed retrospectively, while the records of 41 patients diagnosed with obstructive rectosigmoid cancer (ORC) were considered as the control group and as such, served as a source for comparison. Results: The analysis revealed a mean serum potassium concentration of 3.9 ± 0.6 mEq/L for the patients with SV, while the mean potassium concentration was 3.9 ± 0.5 mEq/L for the patients diagnosed with ORC (t:0.1, P>0.05). The number of hypokalemic and hyperkalemic patients identified in this study sample were 11 versus 5 patients and 1 versus 0 patients, respectively for the SV and ORC groups (x2 = 0.1 and 0.5, respectively with a P>0.05). Conclusions: No cause-and-effect relationship was observed between the serum potassium concentrations and SV. The serum potassium concentration is not pathognomonic for SV. PMID:25610090

  15. Increasing plasma [K+] by intravenous potassium infusion reduces NCC phosphorylation and drives kaliuresis and natriuresis.

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    Rengarajan, Srinivas; Lee, Donna H; Oh, Young Taek; Delpire, Eric; Youn, Jang H; McDonough, Alicia A

    2014-05-01

    Dietary potassium loading results in rapid kaliuresis, natriuresis, and diuresis associated with reduced phosphorylation (p) of the distal tubule Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC). Decreased NCC-p inhibits NCC-mediated Na(+) reabsorption and shifts Na(+) downstream for reabsorption by epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC), which can drive K(+) secretion. Whether the signal is initiated by ingesting potassium or a rise in plasma K(+) concentration ([K(+)]) is not understood. We tested the hypothesis, in male rats, that an increase in plasma [K(+)] is sufficient to reduce NCC-p and drive kaliuresis. After an overnight fast, a single 3-h 2% potassium (2%K) containing meal increased plasma [K(+)] from 4.0 ± 0.1 to 5.2 ± 0.2 mM; increased urinary K(+), Na(+), and volume excretion; decreased NCC-p by 60%; and marginally reduced cortical Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter (NKCC) phosphorylation 25% (P = 0.055). When plasma [K(+)] was increased by tail vein infusion of KCl to 5.5 ± 0.1 mM over 3 h, significant kaliuresis and natriuresis ensued, NCC-p decreased by 60%, and STE20/SPS1-related proline alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) phosphorylation was marginally reduced 35% (P = 0.052). The following were unchanged at 3 h by either the potassium-rich meal or KCl infusion: Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3), NHE3-p, NKCC, ENaC subunits, and renal outer medullary K(+) channel. In summary, raising plasma [K(+)] by intravenous infusion to a level equivalent to that observed after a single potassium-rich meal triggers renal kaliuretic and natriuretic responses, independent of K(+) ingestion, likely driven by decreased NCC-p and activity sufficient to shift sodium reabsorption downstream to where Na(+) reabsorption and flow drive K(+) secretion.

  16. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients : The role of insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Lansink, Annemieke Oude; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wietasch, Gotz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were

  17. Determinants of renal potassium excretion in critically ill patients : The role of insulin therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Miriam; Yeh, Lu; Oude Lansink, Annemieke; Vogelzang, Mathijs; Stegeman, Coen A.; Rodgers, Michael G. G.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Wietasch, Gotz; Zijlstra, Felix; Nijsten, Maarten W. N.

    Objectives: Insulin administration lowers plasma potassium concentration by augmenting intracellular uptake of potassium. The effect of insulin administration on renal potassium excretion is unclear. Some studies suggest that insulin has an antikaliuretic effect although plasma potassium levels were

  18. Diagnostic value of plasma aldosterone/potassium ratio in hypoaldosteronism.

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    Shiah, C J; Wu, K D; Tsai, D M; Liao, S T; Siauw, C P; Lee, L S

    1995-05-01

    The diagnosis of hypoaldosteronism usually depends upon a combination of abnormal clinical and laboratory findings. The most common abnormality in hypoaldosteronism is hyperkalemia, which may be combined with sodium depletion. In the present study, 5 of 16 patients diagnosed with isolated hypoaldosteronism (IHA) had sodium depletion due to renal salt wasting, and four patients had normokalemia. Of these 16 IHA patients, 70% had subnormal baseline and stimulated plasma renin activity (PRA). Six patients diagnosed with type I pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) had normal or high PRA and plasma aldosterone concentrations (PAC). In 11 control subjects, supine PAC correlated positively with serum potassium (SK), and PAC stimulated by furosemide and ambulation correlated with the 24-hour urinary potassium excretion (UK). However, these correlations were not found in IHA and PHA patients. The ratio of UK/UNa+K and UNa/UK correlated with the stimulated PAC when the IHA and control subjects were taken as a whole. However, these electrolyte excretion parameters bore no relationship to the supine PAC. The stimulated PAC/SK ratio was used to discriminate the three groups; all IHA patients had a ratio below 3. The results indicate that stimulated PAC reflects the bioactivity of aldosterone on the collecting tubule, and the stimulated PAC/SK ratio is useful for the diagnosis of hypoaldosteronism and pseudohypoaldosteronism.

  19. What is the acceptable hemolysis index for the measurements of plasma potassium, LDH and AST?

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    Rousseau, Nathalie; Pige, Raphaëlle; Cohen, Richard; Pecquet, Matthieu

    2016-06-01

    Hemolysis is a cause of variability in test results for plasma potassium, LDH and AST and is a non-negligible part of measurement uncertainty. However, allowable levels of hemolysis provided by reagent suppliers take neither analytical variability (trueness and precision) nor the measurand into account. Using a calibration range of hemolysis, we measured the plasma concentrations of potassium, LDH and AST, and hemolysis indices with a Cobas C501 analyzer (Roche Diagnostics(®), Meylan, France). Based on the allowable total error (according to Ricós et al.) and the expanded measurement uncertainty equation we calculated the maximum allowable bias for two concentrations of each measurand. Finally, we determined the allowable hemolysis indices for all three measurands. We observed a linear relationship between the observed increases of concentration and hemolysis indices. The LDH measurement was the most sensitive to hemolysis, followed by AST and potassium measurements. The determination of the allowable hemolysis index depends on the targeted measurand, its concentration and the chosen level of requirement of allowable total error.

  20. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blackberries Root vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruit Your kidneys help to keep the right amount of potassium in your body. If you have chronic kidney disease, your kidneys may not remove extra potassium from ...

  1. Association of plasma potassium concentration with muscle tone, ECG, and levels of serum muscle enzymes in patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis%低钾型周期性麻痹患者血钾浓度与肌力、心电图改变及肌酶水平的关系探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩增灿

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the association of plasma potassium concentration with muscle tone, ECG, and levels of serum muscle enzymes in patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis.Methods The muscle tone, ECG, levels of serum muscle enzymes, and plasma potassium concentration wore measured and then analyzed in 80 patients. Results Of 80 patients, 20 patients had mild hypokalemia, 34 had moderate hypokalemia, and 26 had severe hypokalemia. The relation between muscle tone and potassium was not stable ( P> 0.05 ). 68 patients ( 85% ) developed abnormal ECG changes; the occurrence of abnormal ECG increased with the decrease in potassium levels. 64 patients( 80% ) had an elevated levels of muscle enzymes; and the levels of muscle enzymes were negatively related with potassium concentration. Conclusions Understanding of the association of plasma potassium concentration with with muscle tone, ECG, and levels of serum muscle enzymes is very important in the diagnosis and treatment of hypokalemic periodic paralysis.%目的 探讨低钾性周期性麻痹(HOPP)患者血钾浓度与肌力、心电图及肌酶的关系.方法对80例HOPP患者进行血钾浓度、肌力、心电图及肌酶水平检测并分析.结果 80例HOPP患者中,轻度低钾组20例,中度低钾组34例,重度低钾组26例,3组中血钾浓度与肌力关系不恒定(P>0.05).80例HOPP患者中心电图异常68例,占85%.心电图异常随低血钾程度下降,出现率增高.80例HOPP患者中肌酶升高64例,占80%.血清肌酶水平均有不同程度增高,血钾浓度与肌酶水平呈负相关.结论 了解低钾程度与肌力、肌酶及心电图的关系,对HOPP的诊断、治疗具有重要意义.

  2. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high in potassium include bananas, cantaloupe, grapefruit, oranges, tomato or prune juice, honeydew melons, prunes, molasses and ... of a Heart Attack 10 Angina (Chest Pain) *Red Dress ™ DHHS, Go Red ™ AHA ; National Wear Red ...

  3. Potassium as an intrinsic uncoupler of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Buch-Pedersen, Morten Jeppe

    The plant plasma membrane proton pump (H(+)-ATPase) is stimulated by potassium, but it has remained unclear whether potassium is actually transported by the pump or whether it serves other roles. We now show that K(+) is bound to the proton pump at a site involving Asp(617) in the cytoplasmic...

  4. Effect of losartan potassium combined with Yishenhuashi on the levels of plasma protein, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-13 in the patients with chronic glomerulonephritis%氯沙坦钾联合益肾化湿颗粒对慢性肾炎患者血浆蛋白浓度和IL-1、IL-6、IL-13水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    倪志刚

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of losartan potassium combined with yishenhuashi on the levels of urine protein, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-13 in the patients with chronic glomerulonephritis.Methods: Fifty-nine cases of patients with chronic glomerulonephritis were retrospectively analyzed and divided into a control group (29 cases, treated with losartan potassium 50 mg/d qd) and an observation group (30 cases, treated with losartan potassium combined with yishenhuashi 10 g bid) and the treatment was lasted for 12 weeks. The changes of the concentrations of plasma and urine proteins and the levels of IL-1, IL-6 and IL-13 were observed before and after treatment, meanwhile the incidence of adverse reactions was recorded.Results: After treatment, the levels of urine protein were lower and the levels of plasma protein, IL-6 and IL-13 were higher in the observation group than in the control group (P0.05)。结论:氯沙坦钾联合益肾化湿颗粒治疗慢性肾炎的疗效更好,能有效增加血浆蛋白含量,减少尿蛋白,降低血清IL-1、IL-6、IL-13的水平,不良反应较少。

  5. Plasma-membrane hyperpolarization diminishes the cation efflux via Nha1 antiporter and Ena ATPase under potassium-limiting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahrádka, Jaromír; Sychrová, Hana

    2012-06-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae extrudes K(+) cations even when potassium is only present in scarce amounts in the environment. Lost potassium is taken up by the Trk1 and Trk2 uptake systems. If the Trk transporters are absent or nonfunctional, the efflux of potassium is significantly diminished. A series of experiments with strains lacking various combinations of potassium efflux and uptake systems revealed that all three potassium-exporting systems the Nha1 antiporter, Ena ATPase and Tok1 channel contribute to potassium homeostasis and are active upon potassium limitation in wild-type cells. In trk1Δ trk2Δ mutants, the potassium efflux via potassium exporters Nha1 and Ena1 is diminished and can be restored either by the expression of TRK1 or deletion of TOK1. In both cases, the relative hyperpolarization of trk1Δ trk2Δ cells is decreased. Thus, it is the plasma-membrane potential which serves as the common mechanism regulating the activity of K(+) exporting systems. There is a continuous uptake and efflux of potassium in yeast cells to regulate their membrane potential and thereby other physiological parameters, and the cells are able to quickly and efficiently compensate for a malfunction of potassium transport in one direction by diminishing the transport in the other direction.

  6. Short-term mortality risk of serum potassium levels in hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Maria Lukács; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark;

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Diuretics and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibitors are central in the treatment of hypertension, but may cause serum potassium abnormalities. We examined mortality in relation to serum potassium in hypertensive patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: From Danish National Registries, we...... identified 44 799 hypertensive patients, aged 30 years or older, who had a serum potassium measurement within 90 days from diagnosis between 1995 and 2012. All-cause mortality was analysed according to seven predefined potassium levels: 5.......0 mmol/L (hyperkalaemia). Outcome was 90-day mortality, estimated with multivariable Cox proportional hazard model, with the potassium interval of 4.1-4.4 mmol/L as reference. During 90-day follow-up, mortalities in the seven strata were 4.5, 2.7, 1.8, 1.5, 1.7, 2.7, and 3.6%, respectively. Adjusted risk...

  7. Serum Level and 24hr. Excretion Pattern of Potassium Following the Intake of Combined Oral Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kamyab

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum level and 24hr urinary excretion pattern of potassium have been studied in 104 healthy women, aged 18-44 years, using combined • oral contraceptives for a period of 3-48 months, and results h av e been compared with those obtained from 21 healthy controls of the same clinic. aged 19-40 years, using IUD. There was no sign ificant change observed in s erum potassium level, but 24hr urinary excretion pattern of potassium decreased significantly in 90% of the individuals equivalent to 2. &- 78 . 3% of the mean control, possibly due to a retention of potas sium in the cells.

  8. Influence of Herbal Complexes Containing Licorice on Potassium Levels: A Retrospective Study

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    WooSang Jung

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To observe the influence of these complexes on potassium levels in a clinical setting, we investigated the influence of herbal complexes containing licorice on potassium levels. We retrospectively examined the medical records of patients treated with herbal complexes containing licorice from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2010. We recorded the changes in the levels of potassium, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen and examined the differences between before and after herbal complexes intake using a paired t-test. In addition, we investigated the prevalence of hypokalemia among these patients and reviewed such patients. We identified 360 patients who did not show significant changes in the levels of potassium and creatinine (P=0.815, 0.289. We observed hypokalemia in 6 patients. However, in 5 patients, the hypokalemia did not appear to be related to the licorice. Thus, we could suggest that herbal complexes containing licorice do not significantly influence the potassium levels in routine clinical herbal therapies. However, we propose that follow-up examination for potassium levels is required to prevent any unpredictable side effects of administration of licorice in routine herbal medicine care.

  9. Observation of Landau levels in potassium-intercalated graphite under a zero magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Donghui; Kondo, Takahiro; Machida, Takahiro; Iwatake, Keigo; Okada, Susumu; Nakamura, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The charge carriers in graphene are massless Dirac fermions and exhibit a relativistic Landau-level quantization in a magnetic field. Recently, it has been reported that, without any external magnetic field, quantized energy levels have been also observed from strained graphene nanobubbles on a platinum surface, which were attributed to the Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions in graphene formed by a strain-induced pseudomagnetic field. Here we show the generation of the Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions on a partially potassium-intercalated graphite surface without applying external magnetic field. Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions indicate the graphene character in partially potassium-intercalated graphite. The generation of the Landau levels is ascribed to a vector potential induced by the perturbation of nearest-neighbour hopping, which may originate from a strain or a gradient of on-site potentials at the perimeters of potassium-free domains. PMID:22990864

  10. Observation of Landau levels in potassium-intercalated graphite under a zero magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Donghui; Kondo, Takahiro; Machida, Takahiro; Iwatake, Keigo; Okada, Susumu; Nakamura, Junji

    2012-01-01

    The charge carriers in graphene are massless Dirac fermions and exhibit a relativistic Landau-level quantization in a magnetic field. Recently, it has been reported that, without any external magnetic field, quantized energy levels have been also observed from strained graphene nanobubbles on a platinum surface, which were attributed to the Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions in graphene formed by a strain-induced pseudomagnetic field. Here we show the generation of the Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions on a partially potassium-intercalated graphite surface without applying external magnetic field. Landau levels of massless Dirac fermions indicate the graphene character in partially potassium-intercalated graphite. The generation of the Landau levels is ascribed to a vector potential induced by the perturbation of nearest-neighbour hopping, which may originate from a strain or a gradient of on-site potentials at the perimeters of potassium-free domains.

  11. Serum Sodium and Potassium Levels in Cerebro-vascular Accident Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmand, Farahmand; Choobi Anzali, Babak; Heshmat, Ramin; Ghafouri, Hamed-Basir; Hamedanchi, Sepehr

    2013-05-01

    We aim to assess serum sodium and potassium levels in patients with different types of cerebro-vascular accidents (CVA) in comparison to control group. A comparative cross-sectional study conducted on patients admitted to the emergency department from January to August 2012. Control group consisted of patients admitted to emergency department due to common cold, urinary tract infection, low back pain, cluster, and tension headache or migraine. Serum sodium and potassium levels were measured via standard laboratory methods. There were 77 patients in control group and 78 in CVA group. Forty nine patients from the CVA group had ischemic CVA, 11 had hemorrhagic CVA and 18 suffered a transient ischemic attack (TIA). Serum sodium level in control group was significantly lower than in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Serum potassium level in control group was higher than patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). Patients with hemorrhagic CVA showed significantly lower serum potassium level than patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). Correspondingly, it was observed that serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher in patients with TIA, ischemic CVA, and hemorrhagic CVA (P < 0.001). In patients with hemorrhagic CVA serum sodium to potassium ratio was higher when compared to patients with TIA and ischemic CVA (P < 0.001). This study shows that higher serum sodium and lower serum potassium level may be associated with higher incidence of CVA. Further studies are paramount to elucidate the role of serum electrolyte levels in vascular events.

  12. Effect of heparin and low-molecular weight heparin on serum potassium and sodium levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish M Bengalorkar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To study the effects of heparin and low-molecular weight heparin (LMWH on potassium and sodium levels in patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and stroke. Materials and Methods : Sixty patients were recruited with 30 patients each receiving heparin and enoxaparin. Patients with CVD and stroke receiving heparin and LMWH were compared for their demographic profile and laboratory data, and this was analyzed by descriptive statistics. Risk factors associated with the development of hyperkalemia were analyzed using multiple logistic regression model. Results : There was an increase in potassium levels and decrease in sodium levels compared with baseline in both the groups. The difference between the groups with respect to sodium and potassium levels was not statistically significant. On analysis, the risk factors for development of hyperkalemia were baseline potassium levels, serum creatinine, and creatinine clearance. The change in sodium and potassium levels on the fifth day of therapy was increased with LMWH compared with heparin, although not statistically significant. Conclusions : The clinician should anticipate hyperkalemia especially in patients with renal impairment receiving these drugs.

  13. Effects of low-dose thiazide diuretics on fasting plasma glucose and serum potassium-a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukete, Bertrand N; Rosendorff, Clive

    2013-01-01

    This study is a meta-analysis of the metabolic profile (fasting plasma glucose and serum potassium) of low-dose thiazide and thiazide-like diuretics. The meta-analysis involved 10 randomized controlled clinical trials with a total sample size of 17,636 and 17,947 for the potassium and glucose arms respectively. The random effect model was used to calculate the odds ratio with 95 percent confidence interval. The cumulative mean change of fasting plasma glucose was +0.20 mmol/L (+3.6 mg/dL) for the diuretic arm versus +0.12 mmol/L (+2.2 mg/dL) for the comparator arm. The cumulative mean change of serum potassium was -0.22 mmol/L (-0.22 mEq/L) for the diuretic arm versus +0.05 mmol/L (+0.05 mEq/L) for the comparator arm. The aggregate odds ratio for having higher fasting plasma glucose in subjects on low-dose thiazide versus non-thiazide antihypertensive was 1.22 (1.11 to 1.33; P < .01). The odds ratio for having a lower serum potassium in subjects on low-dose thiazide versus non-thiazide antihypertensive was 0.36 (0.27 to 0.49; P < .01). The magnitude of the observed change in fasting plasma glucose associated with low-dose thiazide diuretic use, while statistically significant, does not appear to place patients at clinically significant risk. On the other hand, the observed change in serum potassium was also statistically significant, and may be clinically significant in patients whose baseline potassium concentration is low or low-normal, and could predispose at-risk patients, such as those with ischemic heart disease, to ventricular arrhythmias.

  14. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by medication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Kodex, M.; Kastelein, J.J.P.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels represent an increased risk for cardiac events. This has enhanced the interest in identifying agents that can normalize elevated plasma fibrinogen levels. Agents that have this capacity are the lipid lowering fibric acid derivatives (e.g. ciprofibrate) and the plate

  15. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D

    1988-12-01

    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  16. Testosterone and LH Seric Level Dynamics in Male Rats after Potassium Dichromate Intake (Two Generation Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Rankov

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of potassium dichromate impact on biochemical biomarkers for testicular function (serum testosterone and LH level (two generations experiment. Males and females from F0 generation were exposed to potassium dichromate three months before mating. F1 generation was represented by male pups, resulted from F0 generation, exposed to potassium dichromate in utero, in suckling period (via milk and water and until sexual maturity. All the animals were divided in four groups: three experimental and one control, exposed to Cr VI trough drinking water, as follows E1: 25 ppm (LOAEL; E2: 50 ppm: E3: 75 ppm; control group received tap water without chromium content. The study was performed in compliance with national and international law regarding animal welfare and ethics in animal experiments. In male rats, from F0 and F1 generation, exposure to Cr VI determined: significant decrease of testosterone and significant increase of LH seric level in all experimental groups comparative to control one, indirectly, respectively, directly correlated to exposure level. Comparative to F0 generation, in F1 generation seric testosterone level was lower, significantly only in E1 and E3 groups, and LH seric level was significantly higher.

  17. Influence of potassium pyrophosphate in electrolyte on coated layer of AZ91 Mg alloy formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Young CHO; Duck-Young HWANG; Dong-Heon LEE; Bongyoung YOO; Dong-Hyuk SHIN

    2009-01-01

    The effect of potassium pyrophosphate in the electrolyte on plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) process for AZ91 Mg alloy was investigated. The morphologies and chemical compositions of the coating layer on the AZ91 Mg alloy were evaluated and corrosion resistance was also estimated by potentiodynamic polarization analysis. The coating layer on AZ91 Mg alloy coated from the Bath 2 containing 0.03 mol/L of potassium pyrophosphate for 360 s exhibited considerably dense structure and contained 11%-18% (mass fraction) of phosphorous. The higher content of phosphorous of coating layer coated from Bath 2 could be detected at the bottom of oxide layer, which strongly implied that the phosphorous ion might be concentrated at the barrier layer. Corrosion potential of coating layer of AZ91 Mg alloy increased and corrosion current density decreased with increasing the concentration of potassium pyrophosphate. The polarization resistance (Rp) of coating layer of AZ91 Mg alloy coated from Bath 2 was 4.65×107 Ω/cm2, which was higher than that (Rp=3.56×104 Ω/cm2) of the sample coated from electrolyte without potassium pyrophosphate. The coating layer coated from Bath 2 containing 0.03 mol/L potassium pyrophosphate exhibited the best corrosion resistance.

  18. Simultaneous determination of diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride in human plasma using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahivelkar, Prasad P; Bhoir, Suvarna I; Bari, Sanjay B; Surana, Sanjay J; Bhagwat, Ashok M

    2012-09-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection is proposed for the estimation of diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride in human plasma. Liquid-liquid extraction was carried out with a mixture of dichloromethane-isopropyl alcohol (80:20, v/v). Chromatographic separation of the analytes and internal standard was achieved on an analytical 250 × 4.6 mm i.d. reversed-phase Thermo BDS Hypersil C8 (5 µm particle size) column using a mobile phase of acetonitrile-0.02M ammonium acetate buffer (53:47, v/v) at pH 3.5. The run time was less than 15 min. Column eluate was monitored at 230 nm. The linearity over the concentration ranges of 25-1500 ng/mL and 32-960 ng/mL was obtained for diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride, respectively. The limit of quantification was 25 and 32 ng/mL for diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride, respectively. Recoveries of diclofenac potassium and drotaverine hydrochloride from plasma were 97.45% and 98.27%, respectively.

  19. Estimation of postmortem interval using vitreous potassium levels in cases of fatal road traffic collision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne N. Foster

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study : To produce a formula that can accurately predict postmortem interval (PMI based on vitreous potassium levels using road traffic collision fatalities. Material and methods: Vitreous humour samples were taken from 78 individuals who had died following road traffic collisions between 2010 and 2015. Samples were obtained from both eyes and were sent for on-site analysis. Measurement of potassium was by an indirect ion-specific electrode Siemens diagnostics ADVIA 2400 chemistry system. Exact time of death was known from police reports, the time of postmortem was recorded and the postmortem interval was calculated. Linear regression was then used to analyse the relationship between the two. The impact of age was also assessed. Results: PMI was between 6 and 162 hours. As vitreous potassium increases, the PMI also increases; exhibiting a linear relationship. This is illustrated by a regression equation of PMI = 6.42[K+] – 40.94, R = 0.67 (p < 0.001. This produced a formula closely comparable with three other studies proposed in previous literature and produces estimates that may exceed one calendar day. When both age and medical intervention are accounted for there is an insignificant improvement in prediction. Conclusions : Validated methods have been used to produce a formula for prediction of PMI using vitreous potassium. Although this is specific to road traffic collisions, the methods are transferable and can be seen to be comparable with other recently published methods. Nonetheless, if greater levels of accuracy are required it is suggested that biomarkers delivering a higher level of precision should still be sought.

  20. Studies on the interaction of growth regulators with potassium ions in some physiological processes in the bean (Phaseolus vulguris L.. II. The effect of potassium on growth of bean leaves and on their potassium and hormone levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Stopińska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The subject of study was the effect of K on the growth of primary and trifoliate leaves of the bean and on their potassium and hormone levels. Bean seedlings were grown in Hoagland's water solution in which the potassium concentrations (K –NO3, were 1 and 3 mM. The increase in the amount of potassium in bean leaves. elicited by increased K concentration in the medium or by partial defoliation. was correlated with a stimulation of growth of these organs and an increase in their H2O content. These effects were connected with an increase in the amount of ABA and bound GA and decrease in the amount of auxins. The effect of potassium on the level of free gibberellins and cytokinins depended on the kind of leaves. In young, i.e. trifoliate leaves_ K was found to have a positive effect on the level of free GA, whereas in older. i.e. primary leaves, this effect concerned the level of cytokinins.

  1. Critical ranges for leaf nitrogen and potassium levels in coffee fertigated at the production phase1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleice Aparecida de Assis

    Full Text Available With the aim of establishing critical ranges for the leaf nitrogen (N and potassium (K levels in fertigated coffee crops under production, an experiment was carried out in the experimental area of the Sector for Coffee Cultivation of the Department of Agriculture at the Federal University of Lavras, in Brazil. Treatments consisted of five levels of fertilizer applied through fertigation: 30%, 80%, 130%, 180% and 230% of the recommended amounts of N and K for rainfed coffee grown in Minas Gerais. A randomised block design with four replications was used. Critical ranges for nutrient concentrations in the leaves were established from the results of growth characteristics (plant height and stem diameter, leaf analyses and productivity. The results obtained were: a nitrogen (g kg-1: 32.39 to 32.40 for January/February; 33.60 to 33.61 for March/April; 27.39 to 27.42 for May/June; 24.23 to 24.24 for July/August; 26.06 to 26.09 for September/October and 26.50 to 26.51 for November/December; b potassium (g kg-1: 20.08 to 20.14 for January/February; 17.89 to 17.91 for March/April; 15.93 to 15.96 for May/June; 15.29 to 15.35 for July/August; 16.61 to 16.64 for September/October and 20.58 to 20.64 for November/December.

  2. Quality in the pepper under different fertigation managements and levels of nitrogen and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis de Oliveira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe rational use of nutrients is of fundamental importance for obtaining high productivity of high nutritional quality. This work was developed with the aim of evaluating the quality of pepper fruit grown under different fertigation managements and different levels of nitrogen and potassium. The experimental design was of randomised blocks in a 3 x 6 factorial scheme with four replications. The treatments resulted from the combination of three fertigation managements (M1-based on the rate of absorption; M2-monitoring the conductivity of the soil solution; M3-monitoring concentrations of N and K ions in the soil solution with six levels of N and K (N0K0, N50K50, N100K100, N150K150, N200K200 and N300K300 as a percentage of the recommended dosage for the crop under conventional fertigation (M1 or hydroponics (M2 and M3. Fruit quality was evaluated for the following characteristics: pH, soluble solids, titratable acidity, vitamin C content and the ratio of soluble solids to titratable acidity. The different fertigation managements only affected the levels of soluble solids (SS and titratable acidity (TA, reducing the SS and TA. The variables under study were adjusted for the levels of N and K using quadratic models.

  3. Influence of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium in normal, electrolytes depleted and aldosterone treated dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bak, M; Szczepańska-Sadowska, E; Krzymień, J; Kozłowski, S; Czyzyk, A

    1987-10-01

    Effects of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium were compared in conscious dogs 1) maintained in water and electrolytes balance (Series 1, 10 dogs), 2) depleted of electrolytes by repeated i.v. loading with 20% mannitol (Series 2, 10 dogs), and 3) aldosterone treated (0.8 micrograms.kg-1.h-1 i.v., Series 3, 10 dogs). In each Series intravenous infusion of insulin at a rate of 0.05 U.kg-1.h-1 elicited transient increase in plasma sodium concentration and prolonged hypokalemia. Repeated loading with mannitol in Series 2 elicited significant elevation of plasma sodium, ADH and aldosterone concentrations, as well as decrease in extracellular fluid volume. Infusion of insulin in this Series elicited smaller decrease in plasma potassium concentration and longer lasting hypernatremia than in dogs in water-electrolytes balance. Aldosterone infusion in Series 3 did not change hypokalemic effect of insulin but attenuated hypernatremia. Infusion of insulin in Series 1 elicited increase of sodium excretion and decrease in potassium excretion. These effects were absent in Series 2 and 3. The results indicate that depletion of electrolytes and blood aldosterone elevation modify the effects of insulin on plasma concentration and renal excretion of sodium and potassium.

  4. Seasonal variation of the {sup 137}Cs level and its relationship with potassium and carbon levels in conifer needles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rantavaara, Aino, E-mail: aino.rantavaara@stuk.fi [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Research and Environmental Surveillance, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Vetikko, Virve, E-mail: virve.vetikko@stuk.fi [Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK), Research and Environmental Surveillance, P.O. Box 14, FI-00881 Helsinki (Finland); Raitio, Hannu, E-mail: hannu.raitio@metla.fi [Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla), P. O. Box 18 , FI-01301 Vantaa (Finland); Aro, Lasse, E-mail: lasse.aro@metla.fi [Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla), Parkano Unit, Kaironiementie 15, FI-39700 Parkano (Finland)

    2012-12-15

    Seasonal variations in foliar {sup 137}Cs levels were examined in Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.), and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in western Finland. Our aim was to test the occurrence of seasonal variation in contents and concentrations of {sup 137}Cs, potassium and carbon in needles. The study focused on analysing levels of total {sup 137}Cs in the three youngest needle age classes and comparing them to the levels of potassium and carbon. Spruce and pine needles were collected from 50- and 65-year-old stands on 18 sampling occasions between April 1996 and February 1997. Phases of intensive growth, needle elongation and dormancy were apparent in the time series for the needle contents and activity concentration of {sup 137}Cs, both of which varied according to needle age class and tree species. The sequence of phases with a temporal fluctuation of needle contents, activity concentrations of {sup 137}Cs and concentrations of K and carbon varied occasionally, and the efficiency of their translocation revealed some differences in the dynamics of {sup 137}Cs, K and carbon in spruce and pine. The data clearly showed that the needles' K contents responded strongly to changes in K demand from other parts of the tree due to seasonal changes and that these responses were stronger than the associated retranslocations of {sup 137}Cs, particularly in Scots pine. During intensive growth, K was less mobile than {sup 137}Cs in the needles. The uptake of {sup 137}Cs by current-year needles is simultaneously affected by uptake from the soil via the roots and retranslocation from other internal sources, and both of these processes affect the observed transfer rates during the growth period. Our results provided information on the transfer rates and revealed differentiation of root uptake and retranslocation of {sup 137}Cs in needles. The study can support dynamic modelling of atmospheric {sup 137}Cs contamination in forests. -- Highlights: Black

  5. Note: Enhancement of the extreme ultraviolet emission from a potassium plasma by dual laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higashiguchi, Takeshi, E-mail: higashi@cc.utsunomiya-u.ac.jp; Yamaguchi, Mami; Otsuka, Takamitsu; Nagata, Takeshi [Department of Advanced Interdisciplinary Sciences and Center for Optical Research (CORE), Utsunomiya University, Yoto 7-1-2, Utsunomiya, Tochigi 321-8585 Japan (Japan); Ohashi, Hayato [Graduate School of Science and Engineering for Research, University of Toyama, Toyama, Toyama 930-8555 (Japan); Li, Bowen [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou, 730000 (China); School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland); D’Arcy, Rebekah; Dunne, Padraig; O’Sullivan, Gerry [School of Physics, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4 (Ireland)

    2014-09-15

    Emission spectra from multiply charged potassium ions ranging from K{sup 3+} to K{sup 5+} have been obtained in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral region. A strong emission feature peaking around 38 nm, corresponding to a photon energy of 32.6 eV, is the dominant spectral feature at time-averaged electron temperatures in the range of 8−12 eV. The variation of this emission with laser intensity and the effects of pre-pulses on the relative conversion efficiency (CE) have been explored experimentally and indicate that an enhancement of about 30% in EUV CE is readily attainable.

  6. [Isolation and purification of human blood plasma proteins able to form potassium channels in artificial bilayer lipid membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venediktova, N I; Kuznetsov, K V; Gritsenko, E N; Gulidova, G P; Mironova, G D

    2012-01-01

    Protein fraction able to induce K(+)-selective transport across bilayer lipid membrane was isolated from human blood plasma with the use of the detergent and proteolytic enzyme-free method developed at our laboratory. After addition of the studied sample to the artificial membrane in the presence of 100 mM KCl, a discrete current change was observed. No channel activity was recorded in the presence of calcium and sodium ions. Channel forming activity of fraction was observed only in the presence of K+. Using a threefold gradient of KCl in the presence of studied proteins the potassium-selective potential balanced by voltage of -29 mV was registered. This value is very close to the theoretical Nernst potential in this case. This means that the examined ion channel is cation-selective. According to data obtained with MS-MALDI-TOF/TOF and database NCBI three protein components were identified in isolated researched sample.

  7. Dairy products and plasma cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lena Ohlsson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol synthesized in the body or ingested is an essential lipid component for human survival from our earliest life. Newborns ingest about 3–4 times the amount per body weight through mother's milk compared to the dietary intake of adults. A birth level of 1.7 mmol/L plasma total cholesterol will increase to 4–4.5 mmol/L during the nursing period and continue to increase from adulthood around 40% throughout life. Coronary artery disease and other metabolic disorders are strongly associated with low-density lipoprotein (LDL and high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol as well as triacylglycerol concentration. Milk fat contains a broad range of fatty acids and some have a negative impact on the cholesterol rich lipoproteins. The saturated fatty acids (SFAs, such as palmitic acid (C16:0, myristic acid (C14:0, and lauric acid (C12:0, increase total plasma cholesterol, especially LDL, and constitute 11.3 g/L of bovine milk, which is 44.8% of total fatty acid in milk fat. Replacement of dairy SFA and trans-fatty acids with polyunsaturated fatty acids decreases plasma cholesterol, especially LDL cholesterol, and is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Available data shows different effects on lipoproteins for different dairy products and there is uncertainty as to the impact a reasonable intake amount of dairy items has on cardiovascular risk. The aim of this review is to elucidate the effect of milk components and dairy products on total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and the LDL/HDL quotients. Based on eight recent randomized controlled trials of parallel or cross-over design and recent reviews it can be concluded that replacement of saturated fat mainly (but not exclusively derived from high-fat dairy products with low-fat dairy products lowers LDL/HDL cholesterol and total/HDL cholesterol ratios. Whey, dairy fractions enriched in polar lipids, and techniques such as fermentation, or fortification of cows feeding can be used

  8. Diabetic ketoacidosis: difference between potassium determined by blood gas analysis versus plasma measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Fernando César; Laguna Neto, Daniel; Dias, Fábio Guirado; Spressão, Márcia; Matos, Priscila Nascimbeni; Cordeiro, José Antônio; Pires, Antônio Carlos

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of potassium concentrations measured by blood gas analysis (PBG) compared with laboratory serum potassium (LSP), in the initial care of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Fifty three patients with diabetes mellitus were evaluated in a retrospective analysis. PBG was carried out using the Radiometer ABL 700 (Radiometer Copenhagen(®)), and results were compared with LSP ADVIA 1650 Chemistry system (Siemens(®)), the gold standard method. Both methods are based on potentiometry. Mean PBG was 3.66 mmol/L and mean LSP was 4.79 mmol/L. Mean difference between PBG and LSP was -1.13 mmol/L (p < 0.0005, 95% CI, -1.39 to -0,86). Lin concordance correlation coefficient was rc = 0.28 (95% CIb, 0.10 to 0.45), demonstrating low concordance between the methods. Although PBG measurement is faster and easier, it should not be used as a surrogate for LSP in the clinical treatment of DKA.

  9. Effects of levels of potassium and nitrogen on yields and post-harvest conservation of onions in winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Milanez de Resende

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Potassium and nitrogen are the elements present in the highest percentage in the onion dry matter. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate yield and post-harvest conservation of Vale Ouro IPA-11 onion cultivar regarding to nitrogen and potassium levels. The experiment was carried out in Petrolina-PE, Brazil, from June to September 2009. The experimental design was a completely randomized block in a 4 x 3 factorial design, composed of four nitrogen levels (0, 60, 120 and 180 kg ha-1 and three potassium levels (0, 90 and 180 kg ha-1 with three replications. The highest yield of commercial bulbs was achieved at an estimated N level of 172.6 kg ha-1. The lowest yield of noncommercial bulbs was estimated at N level of 147.0 kg ha-1. Lower percentage of smaller bulbs (class 2 were obtained by increasing levels of N x K, with a quadratic effect at the dose of 90 kg ha-1 K2O and minimum production point with 127.6 kg N ha-1 (20.3%. Regarding larger caliber bulbs (class 4, linear effects were found both in the absence and for the level of 90 kg ha-1 of K2O as levels of N were increased. When the highest level of 180 kg ha-1 K2O was applied, the level of 92.8 kg ha-1 of N was estimated as the one that would promote the highest bulb yield of this class (35.4%, and 5.3% was found in the lack of potassium fertilization.

  10. Changes in plant medium composition after a spaceflight experiment: Potassium levels are of special interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Howard G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    2008-09-01

    We present results on the analysis of 100 mL medium samples extracted from sterilized foam (Smithers-Oasis, Kent OH) used to support the growth of a representative dicotyledon ( Haplopappus gracilis) and a representative monocotyledon ( Hemerocallis cv Autumn Blaze) in NASA's Plant Growth Unit (PGU) during a 5-day Space Shuttle flight and ground experiments. At recovery, the media remaining within replicate ( n = 5) foam blocks (for both the spaceflight and ground experiments) were extracted under vacuum, filtered and subjected to elemental analyses. A unique aspect of this experiment was that all plants were either aseptically-generated tissue culture propagated plantlets or aseptic seedling clones. The design of the PGU facilitated the maintenance of asepsis throughout the mission (confirmed by post-flight microbial sampling) and thus any possible impact of microorganisms on medium composition was eliminated. Concentration levels of some elements remained the same, while some decreased and others increased. There was a significant two-fold difference between the final concentrations of potassium when the Earth-based and microgravity experiments were contrasted.

  11. Plasma homocysteine levels in female patients with eating disorders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Levine, J.; Gur, E.; Loewenthal, R.; Vishne, T.; Dwolatzky, T.; Beijnum, I.M. van; Sela, B.A.; Vered, I.; Yosef, G.; Stein, D.

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine plasma homocysteine, vitamin B(12), and folate levels in females with restricting and bingeing/purging eating disorders (EDs). METHOD: Adolescent and adult female patients were compared to appropriate control groups with regard to plasma homocysteine levels. RESULTS: The plasma

  12. The association between fluid balance and mortality in patients with ARDS was modified by serum potassium levels: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhongheng Zhang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS is characterized by pulmonary edema and may benefit from conservative fluid management. However, conflicting results exist in the literature. The study aimed to investigate the association between mean fluid balance and mortality outcome in ARDS patients who required invasive mechanical ventilation.Methods. The study was a secondary analysis of a prospectively collected dataset obtained from the NHLBI Biologic Specimen and Data Repository Information Coordinating Center. ARDS patients with invasive mechanical ventilation were eligible. Demographic and laboratory data were extracted from the dataset. Multivariable regression model was built by stepwise selection of covariates. A fractional polynomial approach was used to test the linearity of mean fluid balance in the model. The potential interactions of mean fluid balance with other variables were tested.Main Results. A total of 282 patients were eligible for the analysis, including 61 non-survivors with a mortality rate of 21.6%. After stepwise regression analysis, mean fluid balance remained to be an independent predictor of death (OR: 1.00057; 95% CI [1.00034–1.00080]. The two-term model obtained using fractional polynomial analysis was not superior to the linear model. There was significant interaction between mean fluid balance and serum potassium levels (p = 0.011. While the risk of death increased with increasing mean fluid balance at potassium levels of 1.9, 2.9 , 3.9 and 4.9 mmol/l, the risk decreased at potassium level of 5.9 mmol/l.Conclusion. The present study demonstrates that more positive fluid balance in the first 8 days is significantly associated with increased risk of death. However, the relationship between mean fluid balance and mortality can be modified by serum potassium levels. With hyperkalemia, more positive fluid balance is associated with reduced risk of death.

  13. Potassium sorbate residue levels and persistence in citrus fruit as detected by a simple colorimetric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest applications of potassium sorbate (PS) to fresh citrus fruit control fungal decay pathogens, such as Penicillium digitatum, cause of green mold. Although PS effectiveness has been examined repeatedly, little is known about PS residues. A colorimetric method that employed extraction of th...

  14. The effects of venous cannulation technique and cardioplegia type on plasma potassium concentration and arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E T

    2012-02-03

    The cannulation method and cardioplegia solution used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may both influence plasma potassium concentrations ([K+]) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Bi-caval or right atrial cannulation methods are routinely used in conjunction with crystalloid or blood cardioplegia. We investigated the influence of cannulation method and cardioplegia solutions on plasma [K+] and MAP during cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using CPB were studied. They were randomly divided into three groups of 20 patients. Patients in Group A underwent bi-caval venous cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group B patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group C patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received blood cardioplegia. In each case. cardioplegia was administered antegrade via the aortic root. Plasma [K+], MAP. and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were measured over an 8-min period following cardioplegia administration (pilot studies indicated pressure changes occuring post cardioplegia administration up to this time). The combination of bi-caval cannulation and crystalloid cardioplegia (Group A) was associated with the least increase in plasma [K+] and no decrease in MAP. The maximum [K+] for this Group was 4.2 mmol\\/L (4.6% increase). The minimum mean pressure was 57 mmHg (13.6% increase). Both right atrial cannulation groups (B and C) showed a large rise in plasma [K+] and a decrease in MAP. Group B maximum [K+] was 5.2 mmol\\/L (27.5% increase). Group C was also 5.2 mmol\\/L (26.0% increase). Group C showed the largest pressure decrease, the minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (21.3% decrease). The Group B minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (8.7% decrease). Our results show that patients undergoing CPB operations who are deemed to be at increased risk of suffering adverse effects from hypotensive episodes may

  15. Plasma and semen ascorbic levels in spermatogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were significant decreases in the seminal and plasma ascorbic acid concentrations ... maintenance of sperm cell lipid membrane has generated increasing interest. .... function and its association with the genesis of reactivc oxygen species.

  16. Effect of potassium iodide and potassium iodate on antioxidative capability of rat blood plasma%不同剂量的碘化钾与碘酸钾对大鼠血浆抗氧化能力的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张翼; 王海燕; 李军延; 李秀维; 李淑华; 刘诗川; 刘列钧

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察饲喂不同剂量的碘化钾与碘酸钾的大鼠血浆抗氧化能力相关指标的变化.方法 将116只Wistar大鼠随机分为8组,碘化钾与碘酸钾各设4个剂量组:适量剂量组、10倍剂量组、50倍剂量组和100倍剂量组.实验大鼠饲喂12个月后,检测血浆中超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活性、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-Px)活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量.结果 碘化钾组:SOD活性,50倍组低于适量组;GSH-Px活性,100倍组高于适量组;MDA含量,50倍组与100倍组均低于适量组;碘酸钾组:各指标高剂量组与适量组比较无统计学差异;不同碘剂相同剂量组间,SOD与GSH-Px活性100倍碘酸钾组均低于100倍碘化钾组.其余各组无统计学差异.结论 高剂量的碘化钾与碘酸钾均会对大鼠血浆抗氧化系统产生影响;血浆中抗氧化系统复杂,其机制有待进一步的研究.%Objective To study the effect of different dosages potassium iodide and potassium iodate on the antioxidative capability of rat blood plasma.Methods The rats were divided into 8 groups.4 groups of them given by different dosages of potassium iodide,and another 4 groups were given by different dosages of potassium iodate.The groups were normal dosage (KI and KIO3),10 fold high dosage (10KI and 10KIO3),50 fold high dosage (50KI and 50KIO3) and 100 fold high dosage (100KI and 100KIO3).12 months later,the rats were sacrificed and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity,glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were measured.Results After treatment for 12 months,the statistic differences among different dosage groups with the same drug were compared by SPSS13.0.The SOD activity of 50KI group was markedly lower than that in KI group.Furthermore,the GSH-Px activity of 100KI group was higher than that in KI group.The MDA content of 50KI and 100KI groups were both lower than that in KI group after administration for 12 months.After comparison between two

  17. Paradoxical sleep deprivation increases plasma endothelin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.D. Palma

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The endothelins (ET-1, 2 and 3 constitute a family of 21 amino acid peptides with potent biological activities. ET-1 is one of the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictors so far identified and its increased concentration in plasma appears to be closely related to the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension as well as to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA. OSA patients exhibit repetitive episodes of apnea and hypopnea that result in hypoxia and consecutive arousals. These patients are chronically sleep deprived, which may aggravate the hypertensive features, since literature data show that sleep deprivation results in hypertension both in humans and in animals. Based on the reported relationship between ET-1, hypertension and sleep deprivation consequences, the purpose of the present study was to determine plasma ET concentrations in paradoxical sleep-deprived animals. Male Wistar rats, 3 to 4 months old (N = 10 per group, were deprived of sleep for 24 and 96 h by the platform technique and plasma ET-1/2 was measured by radioimmunoassay. Analysis of plasma revealed that 96 h of sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in ET-1/2 release (6.58 fmol/ml compared to control (5.07 fmol/ml. These data show that sleep deprivation altered plasma ET-1/2 concentrations, suggesting that such an increase may participate in the genesis of arterial hypertension and cardiorespiratory changes observed after sleep deprivation.

  18. Low arginine plasma levels in patients after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nijveldt, R J; Prins, H A; Siroen, M P; Rauwerda, J A; Teerlink, T; van Leeuwen, P A

    2000-08-01

    Thoracoabdominal aortic surgery is a high-risk procedure and associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Ischemia reperfusion of visceral organs and lower extremities is one of the most important determinants of this morbidity. Arginine is the precursor of nitric oxide and arginine plasma levels are important in maintaining organ blood flow. Furthermore, arginine is important in wound healing and the immune system. Because of increased utilization of arginine, low arginine plasma levels could be expected after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. We therefore measured arginine plasma levels in these patients. Six patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm were included in this study. University Hospital Vrije Universiteit, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Six patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. Plasma levels of arginine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Very low arginine plasma levels were seen on the first postoperative day. From day 1 arginine slowly increased, but did not reach normal plasma levels on day 6. A significant decrease of arginine plasma levels was found and because of the fact that arginine has multiple functions, it may be important to keep these arginine plasma levels at normal or even higher levels in patients undergoing major vascular surgery. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 615-617.

  19. Therapeutic plasma exchange as a steroid-sparing therapy in a patient with limbic encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage-gated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Isabella W; Martin, Christi-Lynn B; Dunbar, Nancy M; Lee, Stephen L; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M

    2016-02-01

    Autoantibodies to the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex cause a spectrum of non-paraneoplastic neurologic syndromes including limbic encephalitis (LE). We report a case of a man with LE who underwent a course of therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) in addition to other immunomodulatory therapies and experienced sustained clinical resolution of his symptoms. This report adds to the existing literature supporting TPE in cases of LE due to VGKC complex autoantibodies.

  20. [Effects of the combination of angiotensin receptor blockers and thiazide diuretics on laboratory values (levels of serum potassium, sodium, and uric acid)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tatsuya; Teramachi, Hitomi; Tachi, Tomoya; Noguchi, Yoshihiro; Nagasawa, Hiroyuki; Mizui, Takashi; Goto, Chitoshi; Tsuchiya, Teruo

    2014-01-01

    The combination of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and a thiazide diuretic (hereafter, ARB/diuretic) is expected to improve patient adherence and increase the therapeutic effects because of the lower number of pills that require to be administered. In addition, an ARB/diuretic combination alleviates hypokalemia that frequently develops in patients receiving thiazide diuretics. In this study, we used electronic medical records to investigate the laboratory values (serum levels of potassium, sodium, and uric acid) of 194 ambulatory and hospitalized patients at the Gifu Municipal Hospital who received ARB/diuretic combination therapy for the first time between February 2010 and September 2012. According to the grade of classification of low serum potassium and sodium levels, the serum potassium level in one patient was grade 3 and the serum sodium level in two patients was grade 3 after the initiation of ARB/diuretic combination therapy. After administration of ARB/diuretic combination therapy, two patients received potassium supplements because their serum potassium levels decreased below the reference value. Similarly, one patient received a sodium supplement because of a decrease in the sodium level below the reference value. Uric acid level increased above the reference value after administration of the ARB/diuretic combination therapy in one patient; thus, this patient received antihyperuricemic agents. Therefore, pharmacists must carefully monitor the serum levels of potassium, sodium, and uric acid, particularly in the first six months after the initiation of ARB/diuretic combination therapy.

  1. Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeon Soo Kim; Joon Seong Lee; Tae Hee Lee; Joo Young Cho; Jin Oh Kim; Wan Jung Kim; Hyun Gun Kim; Seong Ran Jeon; Hoe Su Jeong

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the relationship between plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia.METHODS:Twenty-two female patients with functional dyspepsia and twelve healthy volunteers were recruited for the study.The functional dyspepsia patients were each diagnosed based on the Rome Ⅲ criteria.Eligible patients completed a questionnaire concerning the severity of 10 symptoms.Plasma acylated ghrelin levels before and after a meal were determined in the study participants using a commercial human acylated enzyme immunoassay kit; electrogastrograms were performed for 50 min before and after a standardized 10-min meal containing 265 kcal.RESULTS:There were no significant differences in plasma acylated ghrelin levels between healthy volunteers and patients with functional dyspepsia.However,in patients with functional dyspepsia,there was a negative correlation between fasting plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the sum score of epigastric pain (r =-0.427,P =0.047) and a positive correlation between the postprandial/fasting plasma acylated ghrelin ratio and the sum score of early satiety (r =0.428,P =0.047).Additionally,there was a negative correlation between fasting acylated ghrelin plasma levels and fasting normogastria (%) (r =-0.522,P =0.013).Interestingly,two functional dyspepsia patients showed paradoxically elevated plasma acylated ghrelin levels after the meal.CONCLUSION:Abnormal plasma acylated ghrelin levels before or after a meal may be related to several of the dyspeptic symptoms seen in patients with functional dyspepsia.

  2. Protection against β adrenoceptor agonist reduction of plasma potassium in severe but not in moderate hypokalemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Cao Thach Tran; Kjeldsen, Keld

    2011-01-01

    .2 mm for each 10 mmol/g wet wt. decrease in muscle K content (n = 8, R(2) = 0.66, P = 0.01). Hence, for baseline pK of 4, 3 and 2 mm, decrease in pK was 0.7, 0.4 and 0.1 mm, respectively. In severe hypokalemia (1.7 mm), terbutain induced no further reduction in pK. The combined infusion of insulin......K-depleted and control rats were anesthetized and infused with terbutalin. In controls, plasma K concentration (pK) decreased by 0.7 mm (P = 0.01). In moderate hypokalemia terbutalin-induced decrease in pK was reduced by 0.3 mm for each 1 mm decrease in pK (n = 8, R(2) = 0.82, P = 0.002) and by 0...... and terbutalin showed no additive effect. Normalization of pK by KCl infusion in severe hypokalemia immediately abolished protection against terbutalin induced further pK reduction. Hence, terbutalin clamped pK at around 4 mm, whereas it continued to increase to around 5 mm without terbutalin infusion. Major new...

  3. Plasma glutamine levels and falciparum malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, G; Planche, T; Agbenyega, T; Bedu-Addo, G; Owusu-Ofori, A; Adebe-Appiah, J; Agranoff, D; Woodrow, C; Castell, L; Elford, B; Krishna, S

    1999-01-01

    Glutamine deficiency is associated with increased rates of sepsis and mortality, which can be prevented by glutamine supplementation. Changes in glutamine concentration were examined in Ghanaian children with acute falciparum malaria and control cases. The mean (SD) plasma glutamine concentration was lower in patients with acute malaria (401 (82) mumol/L, n = 50) than in control patients (623 (67) mumol/L, n = 7; P sepsis and dyserythropoeisis.

  4. Protection against β adrenoceptor agonist reduction of plasma potassium in severe but not in moderate hypokalemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Cao Thach; Kjeldsen, Keld

    2011-08-01

    K-depleted and control rats were anesthetized and infused with terbutalin. In controls, plasma K concentration (pK) decreased by 0.7 mm (P = 0.01). In moderate hypokalemia terbutalin-induced decrease in pK was reduced by 0.3 mm for each 1 mm decrease in pK (n = 8, R(2) = 0.82, P = 0.002) and by 0.2 mm for each 10 mmol/g wet wt. decrease in muscle K content (n = 8, R(2) = 0.66, P = 0.01). Hence, for baseline pK of 4, 3 and 2 mm, decrease in pK was 0.7, 0.4 and 0.1 mm, respectively. In severe hypokalemia (1.7 mm), terbutain induced no further reduction in pK. The combined infusion of insulin and terbutalin showed no additive effect. Normalization of pK by KCl infusion in severe hypokalemia immediately abolished protection against terbutalin induced further pK reduction. Hence, terbutalin clamped pK at around 4 mm, whereas it continued to increase to around 5 mm without terbutalin infusion. Major new findings are: Protection against terbutalin induced further reduction in pK in severe pre-existing hypokalemia (hypokalemia; immediate abolishment of protection by normalization of pK; protection against additive reduction in pK by terbutalin and insulin in severe hypokalemia. It may be advisable to avoid hypokalemia when using β adrenoceptor agonists and to maintain pK in the upper normal range if at the risk of arrhythmia.

  5. Effect of Different Levels of Potassium and Boron on Stress Physiology and Cell Wall Boron Content of Cotton Leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Xiu-Wen; HAO Yan-shu; Lei, Jing; JIANG Cun-cang

    2016-01-01

    To find out the effect of potassium(K) and boron(B) on cotton leaf cell membrane and B distribution and utilization, the membrane relative permeability, MDA, Pro, the content of free B, semi-bound B and bound B and the content of B in cell wall of cotton leaf were analyzed under different K levels with solution culture method in this study. The results showed that in normal K(20 mgK·L-1), B deficiency(0 mgB·L-1) hindered the normal growth and dry mass of shoots, in addition, the membrane rela...

  6. Methodological Studies on Plasma Endotoxin Level and Endotoxin Inactivation Capacity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚国相; 杨乃发; 薛新波; 赵玉沛; 蒋朱明

    2004-01-01

    To establish stable methods for detecting plasma endotoxin level and endotoxin inactivation capacity in a normal population and general surgical patients and evaluate their perioperative changes, 50 healthy people and 50 patients receiving gastrointestinal operation were enrolled, their plasma endotoxin levels and plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity were assayed. Our results showed that plasma endotoxin levels were 0.044±0.009 EU/ml in the normal population and 0.044±0.023 EU/ml in the preoperative patients. Endotoxin level peaked 3 h after the operation (0.223±0.041 EU/ml), and then decreased rapidly on the first day after the operation (0.134±0.164EU/ml). Endotoxin inactivation capacity also had the same time course as endotoxin level. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome and infection induced another elevation in the time course. It is concluded that establishing the endotoxin standard curve by using pyrogenic free water is better than by using plasma. Plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity can be used as an indirect indicator of postoperative immune depression. Plasma endotoxin level and endotoxin inactivation capacity peaked shortly after operation, indicating surgical stress is closely related with the changes.

  7. [Plasma homocysteine levels in patients with ischemic heart disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márk, L; Erdei, F; Márki-Zay, J; Nagy, E; Kondacs, A; Katona, A

    2001-07-29

    In the latest years it became clear that beside traditional cardiovascular risk factors the high plasma homocysteine level increases the risk of atherosclerotic diseases too. Metaanalysis of 27 papers found that 10% of population's coronary risk is attributable to homocysteine and a 5 mumol/l increase in its plasma level elevates the coronary risk by as much as 0.5 mumol/l cholesterol increase. Recent studies have shown an inverse relation between the levels of plasma homocysteine and that of folic acid, vitamin B6, vitamin B12. The latters are cofactors and substrates of the homocysteine and methionin metabolism. The plasma total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein(a), Apo A1, Apo B and homocysteine concentrations were examined in 39 patients suffering from coronary artery disease treated in the Cardiac Rehabilitation Department of our hospital. Twenty of them were treated by folic acid and vitamin B6 for a three week period. The mean (+/- SD) plasma homocysteine concentration was 15.60 +/- 6.14 mumol/l. In the treated subgroup the mean (+/- SD) plasma homocysteine concentration was 17.3 +/- 7.00 mumol/l, the mean (+/- SD) plasma folic acid level was 8.58 +/- 4.6 mumol/l. After the three week treatment period (folic acid and vitamin B6) the plasma homocysteine level decreased by 26.5% (p = 0.012), that of folic acid increased by 68.7% (p = 0.002). From the plasma lipids the level of total- and LDL-cholesterol decreased significantly (6.7% and 10.4%, P gen of the metylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase (MTHFR) enzyme there was a significant correlation with homocysteine level (r = 0.436, p = 0.010), and a negative, but not significant correlation with the folic acid level (r = -0.354).

  8. Human plasma DNP level after severe brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yi-lu; XIN Hui-ning; FENG Yi; FAN Ji-wei

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relationship between DNP level after human severe brain injury and hyponatremia as well as isorrhea.Methods: The peripheral venous plasma as control was collected from 8 volunteers. The peripheral venous plasma from 14 severe brain injury patients were collected in the 1, 3, 7 days after injury. Radioimmunoassay was used to detect the DNP concentration. Meanwhile, daily plasma and urine electrolytes, osmotic pressure as well as 24 h liquid intake and output volume were detected.Results: The normal adult human plasma DNP level was 62. 46 pg/ml ± 27. 56 pg/ml. In the experimental group, the plasma DNP levels were higher from day 1 today 3 in 8 of the 14 patients than those in the control group (P1 =0.05, P3 =0.03). Negative fluid balance occurred in 8 patients and hyponatremia in 7 patients. The increase of plasma DNP level was significantly correlated with the development of a negative fluid balance (r=-0.69,P<0.01) and hyponatremia (x2 =4.38, P<0.05).Conclusions: The increase of plasma DNP level is accompanied by the enhancement of natriuretic and diuretic responses in severe brain-injured patients, which is associated with the development of a negative fluid balance and hyponatremia after brain injury.

  9. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON PLASMA GLUCOSE LEVEL IN HUMAN VOLUNTEERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Chakraborty; Mrigendranath Gantait; Biswapati Mukherjee

    2006-01-01

    Objective To observe the changes of plasma glucose level (PGL) in human volunteers after acupuncture. Methods Seventy-seven human volunteers were taken up from the acupuncture clinic. All of pletion of acupuncture. All cases were at four hours abstinence from food before doing acupuncture. Results Plasma glucose level varied 5 mg% or more in 62 cases (80.51%) and only those were considered for computation. PGL increased in cases who had generally plasma glucose level below 90 mg% before acupuncture;and PGL decreased in cases who had plasma glucose 90 mg% or above. In 10 control cases there was no variation of the considerable level of 5 mg% in any case. Conclusion Bi-directional variation of PGL after acupuncture indicates that acupuncture can be used to maintain optimum PGL through endogenous mechanism,suggesting that it is applicable in controlling hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus patients.

  10. Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing plasma glucose and lipid levels, body weight and acute toxicity following oral ... Diabetes was induced in male and female Wistar rats with alloxan ... had good hypoglycemic activity and good effects on cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. The association between normal-range admission potassium levels in Israeli patients with acute coronary syndrome and early and late outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlomai, Gadi; Berkovitch, Anat; Pinchevski-Kadir, Shiran; Bornstein, Gil; Leibowitz, Avshalom; Goldenberg, Ilan; Grossman, Ehud

    2016-06-01

    Abnormal serum potassium levels are associated with an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether different levels of serum potassium, within the normal range, are associated with worse outcomes. The present study comprised 1277 patients with AMI and normal-range admission potassium levels (3.5-5.2 mEq/L), who were enrolled and prospectively followed up in the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey between 2010 and 2013. Patients were divided into 4 quartiles based on admission potassium levels; "normal-low" (K ≥ 3.5 and K ≤ 3.9), "normal-moderate" (K > 3.9 and K ≤ 4.18), "normal-high" (K > 4.18 and K ≤ 4.45), and "normal-very high" (K > 4.45 and K ≤ 5.2). We analyzed the association between admission serum potassium levels and 7 days in-hospital complication rates, and 30-day and 1-year all-cause mortality rates. Patients with "normal-very high" potassium displayed increased frequency of baseline clinical risk factors and experienced a higher rate of acute kidney injury during hospitalization compared with the "normal-low" group (7.7% vs 2.4%; P = 0.002). However, the rate of in-hospital ventricular arrhythmias was similar across the range of admission potassium levels (overall P = 0.26), Multivariate analysis showed that compared with "low-normal" potassium values, patients with "normal-very high" potassium levels experienced increased risk for 30-days (adjusted hazard ratio 2.88, 95% confidence interval 1.05-7.87, P = 0.039) and 1-year all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.05-3.75, P = 0.034). In patients admitted with AMI, admission serum potassium levels of 4.45 to 5.2 mEq/L are not associated with in-hospital ventricular arrhythmias, but are associated with increased short and long-term mortality.

  12. Role of water balance in the enhanced potassium excretion and hypokalaemia of rats with diabetes insipidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Repollet, E; Martínez-Maldonado, M; Opava-Stitzer, S

    1980-08-01

    1. The role of water balance in the hypokalaemia of rats with diabetes insipidus (DI rats) was studied. 2. After a 3-day balance study DI rats had a lower muscle potassium content, and plasma [K+], and the urinary excretion of potassium in response to oral KCl loading was reduced when compared to normal rats. The hypokalaemia was found to be associated with elevated concentrations of potassium in renal medulla and papilla when compared to values in normal Long-Evans rats. 3. During a 9-day balance study urinary potassium excretion was higher than that of normal rats on days 1-3, but not different on days 4-9; this transient elevation was observed in DI rats on normal, high and low potassium diets. On a low potassium diet the urinary potassium excretion of DI rats fell to minimal levels, making unlikely the existence of a renal defect in potassium handling. 4. Muscle potassium content and plasma [K+] were normal after 9 days in metabolism cages. This spontaneous reversal of the hypokalaemia of DI rats was associated with increased water content of renal medulla and papilla, and decreased potassium concentration in these zones. 5. The effect of acute mild dehydration on potassium handling of DI rats was evaluated. Water deprivation for 1-8 hr was sufficient to raise the urinary potassium excretion of DI rats above that of DI rats drinking ad lib. Renal tissue [K+] was significantly increased after 8 hr of dehydration. Water deprivation also enhanced the response of DI rats to an oral KCl load. Two days of chronic dehydration in the form of water rationing also significantly enhanced the urinary potassium excretion of DI rats. 6. These data suggest that chronic mild dehydration may be responsible for the modest potassium deficiency observed in DI rats via alterations in renal tissue [K+] and consequently in urinary potassium excretion. Correction of dehydration during prolonged periods in metabolism cages may account for the spontaneous reversal of the hypokelaemic

  13. 二甲基氯化锡对大鼠、小鼠急性毒性和大鼠血钾影响%Study on the acute toxicities and plasma potassium in rats and mice treated with dimethyltin dichloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武昕; 杨子; 赖关朝; 罗巧; 睢罡; 唐小江

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨二甲基氯化锡(DMT)的急性毒性和对大鼠血钾的影响.方法 采用霍恩氏法测定DMT在SD大鼠经口、经腹腔注射和经皮肤染毒及昆明种小鼠经口、经腹腔注射的半数致死量(LD(50),并测定大鼠DMT染毒后1h和1d的血钾水平.结果 DMT经口、经腹腔注射和经皮肤对SD大鼠(雌、雄)的LD(40)分别为(147.0 、383.0)mg/kg;(46.4、31.6)mg/kg;(1470.0、1 780.0)mg/kg,DMT经口、经腹腔注射染毒对昆明种小鼠(雌、雄)的LD(50)分别为(215.0、316.0)mg/kg;(59.9、68.1)mg/kg.DMT染毒大鼠血钾水平在染毒后1h显著下降,但1d后恢复正常.结论 DMT属于中等毒性,可引起大鼠短时-过性血钾下降.%Objective To measure the acute toxicities and serum potassium levels in rats and mice treated with dimethyltin dichloride (DMT). Methods Rats and mice were treated with DMT by gavage (ig), by intraperitoneal injection (ip) and by intradlermal injection (ii) respectively to measure the acute toxicities ( LD50 ). Plasma potassium levels in rats were measured at 1 hour and 1 day after the treatment of DMT. Results LD50 values of DMT in SD rats (female,male) were ( 147. 0,383.0) mg/kg,ig; (46. 4,31.6 ) mg/kg, ip and ( 1 470. 0, 1 780. 0 ) mg./kg, ii, respectively, while in KM mice ( female, male ) were ( 215.0,316. 0)mg/kg,ig and(59. 9、68. 1 )mg/kg, ip, respectively. Plasma potassium levels reduced in DMT treated rats in 1 hour but recovered in 1 day. Conclusion DMT has medium toxicity which could induce potassium decline temporarily.

  14. Residual production of pineapple biomass under different levels of nitrogen and potassium in northwestern Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Vicentini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emphasis on studies that seek sustainable energy alternatives to oil has increased over the last few years. Ethanol derived from sugarcane remains a promising technology for biofuel production. Waste from pineapple culture remains is a potential alternative raw material for biofuel production. The goal of this study was to determine the potential of residual biomass production of a pineapple crop, subjected to fertilization by different levels of nitrogen and potassium. The experiment was conducted in Northwest Paraná, in a commercial area in Santa Isabel do Ivaí-PR. The climate in this area is subtropical humid according to the Köppen classification, and has a sandy dystrophic red acrisol.The experimental design was a 4 × 4 factorial, where factor A:N doses (0; 11; 22; and 33 g per plant and factor B:K2O doses (0; 11; 22; and 33 g per plant. The production of residual pineapple biomass responded differently to the N and K doses applied. Potassium fertilization had a positive linear correlation, up to the addition of 33 g plant-1 with a production of 5.88 Mg ha-1. A dose of 18.138 g plant-1 yielded in the maximum dry biomass production for nitrogen fertilization.

  15. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    2017-08-22

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamrazilová, H; Hainer, V; Sedlácková, D; Papezová, H; Kunesová, M; Bellisle, F; Hill, M; Nedvídková, J

    2008-01-01

    Obestatin is a recently discovered peptide produced in the stomach, which was originally described to suppress food intake and decrease body weight in experimental animals. We investigated fasting plasma obestatin levels in normal weight, obese and anorectic women and associations of plasma obestatin levels with anthropometric and hormonal parameters. Hormonal (obestatin, ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and anthropometric parameters and body composition were examined in 15 normal weight, 21 obese and 15 anorectic women. Fasting obestatin levels were significantly lower in obese than in normal weight and anorectic women, whereas ghrelin to obestatin ratio was increased in anorectic women. Compared to leptin, only minor differences in plasma obestatin levels were observed in women who greatly differed in the amount of fat stores. However, a negative correlation of fasting obestatin level with body fat indexes might suggest a certain role of obestatin in the regulation of energy homeostasis. A significant relationship between plasma obestatin and ghrelin levels, independent of anthropometric parameters, supports simultaneous secretion of both hormones from the common precursor. Lower plasma obestatin levels in obese women compared to normal weight and anorectic women as well as increased ghrelin to obestatin ratio in anorectic women might play a role in body weight regulation in these pathologies.

  17. Potassium Iodide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium iodide is used to protect the thyroid gland from taking in radioactive iodine that may be released ... damage the thyroid gland. You should only take potassium iodide if there is a nuclear radiation emergency and ...

  18. Clinical significance of plasma metastin level in pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katagiri, Fumihiko; Nagai, Kazuyuki; Kida, Atsushi; Tomita, Kenji; Oishi, Shinya; Takeyama, Masaharu; Doi, Ryuichiro; Fujii, Nobutaka

    2009-03-01

    Metastin, which is a 54-residue peptide coded by KiSS-1 gene, is an endogenous ligand to a G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54. Metastin suppresses a malignant tumor to metastasize and regulates secretion of gonadotropine releasing hormone. Physiological action of metastin has been focused on in oncology. It is reported that less KiSS-1 gene and more hOT7T175 gene which codes GPR54 are expressed in pancreatic cancers than in normal pancreatic tissues; however, there is no study that investigates the relationship between clinicopathological characteristics and plasma metastin concentration in pancreatic cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between plasma metastin-like immunoreactive substance (LI) levels and clinical characteristics in pancreatic cancer patients. Thirty-three patients with pathologically confirmed pancreatic cancer before or just after treatments and 24 healthy volunteers were included in the study. Patients were grouped according to the International Union Against Cancer TNM classification. Plasma metastin-LI was measured by enzyme immunoassay. The plasma metastin-LI levels of cancer patients were significantly higher when compared with healthy volunteers. Significant relationship was not found between the plasma metastin-LI levels and the clinicopathological factors such as tumor size, invasion, lymph node metastasis and distant metastasis. The plasma metastin levels may be a significant biomarker to predict the presence of pancreatic cancer and could be used in pancreatic cancer screening.

  19. Association of plasma manganese levels with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Cristina; López-Chaves, Carlos; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; Galindo, Pilar; Aranda, Pilar; Llopis, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Mn excess may be neurotoxic to humans, affecting specific areas of the central nervous system. However, relatively little is known about its physiological and/or toxicological effects, and very few data are available concerning the role of Mn in chronic renal failure (CRF). This paper describes a 12-month study of the evolution of plasma Mn levels in predialysis patients with CRF and the relationship with energy and macronutrient intake. The participants in this trial were 64 patients with CRF in predialysis and 62 healthy controls. Plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, total protein and Mn were measured. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault index. The CRF patients had higher plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid and Mn and a lower GFR than the controls. Plasma Mn was positively correlated with creatinine, plasma urea and plasma uric acid and was negatively correlated with the GFR and the intake of energy and macronutrients. In conclusion, CRF in predialysis patients is associated with increases in circulating levels of Mn.

  20. Plasma Adiponectin Levels in Acute Liver Failure Patients Treated with Plasma Filtration with Dialysis and Plasma Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Nakae, Hajime; Uji, Yoshitaka; Maeda, Kazuhisa; Tani, Tohru; Eguchi, Yutaka

    2015-08-01

    Plasma filtration with dialysis (PDF) is a blood purification therapy in which simple plasma exchange (PE) is performed using a selective membrane plasma separator while the dialysate flows outside of the hollow fibers. Improvement of hypoadiponectinemia is considered to be a useful therapeutic approach for ameliorating fatal conditions including cardio-metabolic and infectious disease. We investigated the effects of PDF in comparison to PE in terms of plasma adiponectin (APN) changes in patients with acute liver failure. Seventeen patients with liver failure were studied; PDF was performed 55 times and PE 14 times. Plasma APN levels increased significantly after PDF, while decreasing significantly after PE. PDF appears to be among the most useful blood purification therapies in acute liver failure cases in terms of increasing APN levels.

  1. Level crossings, excess times and transient plasma-wall interactions in fusion plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsen, Audun

    2016-01-01

    Based on a stochastic model for intermittent fluctuations in the boundary region of magnetically confined plasmas, an expression for the level crossing rate is derived from the joint distribution of the process and its derivative. From this the average time spent by the process above a certain threshold level is obtained. This provides novel predictions of plasma-wall interactions due to transient transport events associated with radial motion of blob-like structures in the scrape-off layer.

  2. Acute effect of smoking on plasma Obestatin levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroglou Maria

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking and smoking cessation are considered to be associated with weight changes. We have recently shown that smoking acutely increases plasma levels of ghrelin, a known orexigenic hormone. Obestatin is a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, which opposes ghrelin effects on food intake. We conducted a study in adult volunteers measuring plasma levels of obestatin immediately after initiation of smoking. Methods 31 volunteers (mean age 32.2 ± 9.2 years and mean BMI 25.7 ± 4.1, 17 smokers and 14 non-smokers, were enrolled in our study. The 2 groups were matched in age and BMI. Plasma obestatin concentrations were determined at baseline (T0, 2 (T2, 5 (T5, 15 (T15, and 60 (T60 minutes after the initiation of smoking. Results In all 31 subjects, no significant difference in the mean values of plasma obestatin levels was observed from baseline at T2, T5, T15 and T60 after initiation of smoking (overall p = 0.15. However, a trend for higher obestatin levels was noted in smokers vs non-smokers (overall p = 0.069, which was not related to the pack-years. Conclusion On the contrary with ghrelin's response after smoking initiation, there is no such an acute response of plasma obestatin levels.

  3. EVALUATION OF TRACHEAL INTUBATING CONDITIONS AND SERUM POTASSIUM LEVELS WITH DIFFERENT DOSES OF SUCCINYLCHOLINE : A PROSPECTIVE RANDOMIZED COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shravan Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Utility of succinylcholine for rapid sequence induction is a common practice for more than last 50 years. The ED 95 dose of succinylcholine is 0.3mg/kg. Regularly 2 - 3 times ED 95 doses of non - depolarizing muscle relaxants are being used for tracheal intubation, but succinylcholine is being used traditionally in a dose of 1mg/kg which is more than 3.5 times ED 95. However, according to the available literature evidence doses as smal l as 0.4 mg /kg may also provide clinically acceptable intubating conditions with the possibility of earlier return of neuromuscular function which avoids critical hemoglobin desaturation in unanticipated difficult airway& CVCI situations. We did a study to evaluate the ease of tracheal intubation with low doses of succinylcholine in Indian population. AIM: To evaluate tracheal intubating conditions and serum potassium levels with different doses of succinylcholine. DESIGN: A prospective randomized double bli nd comparative study. METHODS: 80 patients belonging to ASA PS I&II were randomly divided into 4 groups A,B,C&D who received 0.5mg/kg,0.6mg/kg,0.7mg/kg& 1mg/kg of succinylcholine respectively. All the patients were pre - medicated with Tab. Alprazolam 0.25 mg PO previous night and fentanyl 1mcg/kg 5 min before induction, induced with sleep dose of thiopentone followed by administration of test drug. After 1 min , 3yrs experienced anesthesiologist attempted tracheal intubation& assessment of intubating conditions w ere done using Cooper& colleagues criteria. N - M effects were monitored preoperatively and up to 3 min after dug administration. Haemodynamic parameters& serum potassium were measured preoperatively , continued up to 5 min & 1 hour after drug administration res pectively. RESULTS: Clinical intubation cumulative scores in GROUP A were significantly different from other GROUPS ( B, C, D with ( p<0.05 on ANOVA. N - M monitoring has revealed significant twitch height depression in Group D

  4. Plasminogen and fibrinogen plasma levels in coronary artery disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Luciana Moreira; Carvalho, Maria das Graças; Sousa, Marinez de Oliveira

    2012-01-01

    Objective The formation of thrombi at the site of atherosclerotic lesions plays a central role in atherothrombosis. Impaired fibrinolysis may exacerbate pre-existing coronary artery disease and potentiate its evolution. While the fibrinogen plasma level has been strongly associated with the severity of coronary artery disease, its relevance in the evaluation of plasminogen in coronary artery disease patients remains unclear. This study evaluated fibrinogen and plasminogen levels in subjects with coronary artery disease as diagnosed by angiography. Methods This is a cross-sectional study. Blood samples obtained from 17 subjects with angiographically normal coronary arteries (controls), 12 with mild/moderate atheromatosis and 28 with severe atheromatosis were evaluated. Plasma plasminogen and fibrinogen levels were measured by chromogenic and coagulometric methods, respectively. Results Fibrinogen levels were significantly higher in the severe atheromatosis group compared to the other groups(p-value < 0.0001). A significant positive correlation was observed between the severity of coronary artery diseaseand increasing fibrinogen levels (r = 0.50; p-value < 0.0001) and between fibrinogen and plasminogen levels (r =0.46; p-value < 0.0001). There were no significant differences in the plasminogen levels between groups. Conclusion Plasma fibrinogen, but not plasminogen levels were higher in patients with coronary artery disease compared to angiographically normal subjects. The plasma fibrinogen levels also appear to be associated with the severity of the disease. The results of this study provide no evidence of a significant correlation between plasma plasminogen levels and the progress of coronary stenosis in the study population. PMID:23049444

  5. Plasma BDNF levels following weight recovery in anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Kathryn E; Jimerson, David C; Pillai, Anilkumar; Wolfe, Barbara E

    2016-10-15

    Preclinical studies have implicated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the regulation of eating behavior and body weight. As reviewed in this report, prior studies of BDNF levels in anorexia nervosa have yielded variable results, perhaps reflecting effects of malnutrition and psychiatric comorbidity. The goal of the current report was to assess plasma BDNF as a biomarker in weight-recovered individuals with a history of anorexia nervosa (ANWR). Study groups included women meeting criteria for ANWR and healthy female controls. Participants were in a normal weight range, free of current major psychiatric disorder, and free of medication. Self-ratings included eating disorder symptoms, depression and anxiety. Plasma BDNF levels were measured by enzyme linked immunoassay. Plasma BDNF levels were not significantly different for ANWR and control groups. Plasma BDNF levels were inversely correlated with anxiety ratings in controls (p<0.02) but not in the ANWR group. This report provides new evidence that circulating BDNF concentrations do not differ in healthy controls and ANWR free of psychiatric comorbidity. Additionally, the data provide new information on the relationship between plasma BDNF and anxiety in these two study groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Evaluation of 2 portable ion-selective electrode meters for determining whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid potassium concentrations in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, A A; Hiew, M W H; Grünberg, W; Constable, P D

    2016-09-01

    Two low-cost ion-selective electrode (ISE) handheld meters (CARDY C-131, LAQUAtwin B-731; Horiba Ltd., Albany, NY) have recently become available for measuring the potassium concentration ([K(+)]) in biological fluids. The primary objective of this study was to characterize the analytical performance of the ISE meters in measuring [K(+)] in bovine whole blood, plasma, urine, milk, and abomasal fluid. We completed 6 method comparison studies using 369 whole blood and plasma samples from 106 healthy periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 138 plasma samples from 27 periparturient Holstein-Friesian cows, 92 milk samples and 204 urine samples from 16 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows, and 94 abomasal fluid samples from 6 male Holstein-Friesian calves. Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots were used to characterize meter performance against reference methods (indirect ISE, Hitachi 911 and 917; inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy). The CARDY ISE meter applied directly in plasma measured [K(+)] as being 7.3% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with the recommended adjustment of +7.5% when indirect ISE methods are used to analyze plasma. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter run in direct mode measured fat-free milk [K(+)] as being 3.6% lower than the indirect ISE reference method, consistent with a herd milk protein percentage of 3.4%. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured abomasal fluid [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method. The LAQUAtwin ISE meter accurately measured urine [K(+)] compared to the indirect ISE reference method, but the median measured value for urine [K(+)] was 83% of the true value measured by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. We conclude that the CARDY and LAQUAtwin ISE meters are practical, low-cost, rapid, accurate point-of-care instruments suitable for measuring [K(+)] in whole blood, plasma, milk, and abomasal fluid samples from cattle. Ion-selective electrode methodology is

  7. Plasma Actin, Gelsolin and Orosomucoid Levels after Eccentric Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tékus, Éva; Váczi, Márk; Horváth-Szalai, Zoltán; Ludány, Andrea; Kőszegi, Tamás; Wilhelm, Márta

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the acute effect of eccentric exercise on blood plasma actin, gelsolin (GSN) and orosomucoid (AGP) levels in untrained and moderately trained individuals, and their correlation with exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) markers (CK, intensity of muscle soreness and maximal voluntary contraction torque deficit). Healthy physical education students (6 untrained, 12 moderately trained) participated in this research. Actin, GSN, AGP and CK levels were measured in blood plasma at baseline, immediately, 1 h, 6 h and 24 h post-exercise comprising 90 eccentric quadriceps contractions performed on a dynamometer. There was significant time main effect for GSN, AGP, CK and significant difference was found between baseline and the lowest value of post-exercise GSN (p exercise AGP (p exercise and CK activity at 6 h, p exercise, p eccentric exercise do not seem sensitive to training status. The plasma actin level is used as an indicator of injury, however, our results suggest that it is not an accurate marker of EIMD, while plasma GSN concentrations show a better relationship with EIMD and the post-exercise inflammatory process. The elevated plasma AGP and the correlation between GSN and AGP seem to be promising for assessment of exercise-induced muscle injury.

  8. Assessing Stress in Arctic Lemmings: Fecal Metabolite Levels Reflect Plasma Free Corticosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauteux, Dominique; Gauthier, Gilles; Berteaux, Dominique; Bosson, Curtis; Palme, Rupert; Boonstra, Rudy

    Interest in the ecology of stress in wild populations has triggered the development of noninvasive methods for quantifying stress hormones. Measurement of fecal corticosteroid metabolites (FCMs) is one such method, but it is still unclear whether FCMs can be a reliable proxy of free plasma glucocorticoids. To assess the validity of this assumption, we carried out a robust assessment on brown lemmings (Lemmus trimucronatus) from Bylot Island, Nunavut, Canada, that were hand captured and anesthetized and related plasma glucocorticoid levels to fecal metabolite glucocorticoid levels. We examined endogenous factors that could explain interindividual variability. Blood corticosterone was measured from samples obtained on capture and 30 min later, and FCM levels were measured from animals kept in captivity for 72 h. Plasma free corticosterone increased 135-fold over baseline values 30 min after capture, which confirmed that initial handling was perceived as a stressor. We found that FCM levels were highly related with free (marginal [Formula: see text] = 0.53) but not with total ([Formula: see text] = 0.02) corticosterone levels, regardless of age, sex, and reproductive condition. FCM levels started increasing 2 h after capture and reached maximum levels 4 h after capture. No circadian rhythm in FCMs was found. Plasma total corticosterone levels were much higher in adult females compared with adult males, but this difference was much smaller when measuring free corticosterone levels and FCM levels. Our results suggest that FCM levels are good measures of stress by being closely related to plasma free corticosterone levels in brown lemmings.

  9. Potassium physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, S O

    1986-04-25

    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  10. Plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Pavel; Terry, Mary Beth; Gammon, Marilie D; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Zhang, Fang Fang; Ferris, Jennifer S; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Eng, Sybil M; Gaudet, Mia M; Neugut, Alfred I; Santella, Regina M

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of oxidative stress in breast cancer risk, we analysed plasma levels of protein carbonyls in 1050 cases and 1107 controls. We found a statistically significant trend in breast cancer risk in relation to increasing quartiles of plasma protein carbonyl levels (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.9-1.5; OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-2.0; OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1, for the 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) quartile relative to the lowest quartile, respectively, P for trend = 0.0001). The increase in risk was similar for younger ( or = 15 grams/day for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.7), and hormone replacement therapy use (HRT, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.4 for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile). The multiplicative interaction terms were statistically significant only for physical activity and HRT. The positive association between plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk was also observed when the analysis was restricted to women who had not received chemotherapy or radiation therapy prior to blood collection. Among controls, oxidized protein levels significantly increased with cigarette smoking and higher fruit and vegetable consumption, and decreased with alcohol consumption >30 grams per day. Women with higher levels of plasma protein carbonyl and urinary 15F(2t)-isoprostane had an 80% increase in breast cancer risk (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.6) compared to women with levels below the median for both markers of oxidative stress. In summary, our results suggest that increased plasma protein carbonyl levels may be associated with breast cancer risk.

  11. Plasma separation: physical separation at the molecular level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueroult, Renaud; Rax, Jean-Marcel; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2016-09-01

    Separation techniques are usually divided in two categories depending on the nature of the discriminating property: chemical or physical. Further to this difference, physical and chemical techniques differ in that chemical separation typically occurs at the molecular level, while physical separation techniques commonly operate at the macroscopic scale. Separation based on physical properties can in principle be realized at the molecular or even atomic scale by ionizing the mixture. This is in essence plasma based separation. Due to this fundamental difference, plasma based separation stands out from other separation techniques, and features unique properties. In particular, plasma separation allows separating different elements or chemical compounds based on physical properties. This could prove extremely valuable to separate macroscopically homogeneous mixtures made of substances of similar chemical formulation. Yet, the realization of plasma separation techniques' full potential requires identifying and controlling basic mechanisms in complex plasmas which exhibit suitable separation properties. In this paper, we uncover the potential of plasma separation for various applications, and identify the key physics mechanisms upon which hinges the development of these techniques.

  12. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels in COPD without pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed G. El Gazzar

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Plasma BNP can be used as a useful prognostic biomarker of COPD and a good predictor of exacerbation, As BNP level was significantly higher in COPD patients than in control groups, (p < 0.005 and also significantly higher in grade (IV, III than grade (II and was significantly higher in grade (II than grade (I COPD patients, BNP level significantly higher (p < 0.005 during exacerbation than during remission of COPD patients.

  13. Plasma and platelet serotonin levels in patients with liver cirrhosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the relationship between plasmaand platelet serotonin levels and the degree of liverinsufficiency.METHODS: The prospective study included 30 patients with liver cirrhosis and 30 healthy controls. The degree of liver failure was assessed according to the Child-Pugh classification. Platelet and platelet poor plasma serotonin levels were determined.RESULTS: The mean plasma serotonin level was higher in liver cirrhosis patients than in healthy subjects (215.0± 26.1 vs 63.1 ± 18.1 nmol/L; P < 0.0001). The mean platelet serotonin content was not significantly different in patients with liver cirrhosis compared with healthy individuals (4.8 ± 0.6; 4.2 ± 0.3 nmol/platelet; P > 0.05).Plasma serotonin levels were significantly higher in ChildPugh grade A/B than in grade C patients (246.8 ± 35.0vs132.3 ± 30.7 nmol/L; P < 0.05). However, platelet serotonin content was not significantly different between Child-Pugh grade C and grade A/B (4.6 ± 0.7 vs 5.2 ± 0.8nmol/platelet; P > 0.05).CONCLUSION: Plasma serotonin levels are significantly higher in patients with cirrhosis than in the controls and represent the degree of liver insufficiency. In addition,platelet poor plasma serotonin estimation is a better marker for liver insufficiency than platelet serotonin content.

  14. A Model to Determine the Level of Serum Aldosterone in the Workers Attributed to the Combined Effects of Sound Pressure Level, Exposure Time and Serum Potassium Level: A Field-Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Nassiri

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Occupational exposure to excessive noise is one of the biggest work-related challenges in the world. This phenomenon causes the release of stress-related hormones, which in turn, negatively affects cardiovascular risk factors. Objectives The current study study aimed to determine the level of workers’ serum aldosterone in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level. Methods This cross-sectional, descriptive, analytical study was conducted on 45 workers of Gol-Gohar Mining and Industrial Company in the fall of 2014. The subjects were divided into three groups (one control and two case groups, each including 15 workers. Participants in the control group were selected from workers with administrative jobs (exposure to the background noise. On the other hand, participants in the case groups were selected from the concentrator and pelletizing factories exposed to excessive noise. Serum aldosterone and potassium levels of participants were assessed at three different time intervals: at the beginning of the shift and before exposure to noise (7:30 - 8:00 AM, during exposure to noise (10:00 - 10:30 AM, and during continuous exposure (1:30 - 2:00 PM. The obtained data were transferred into SPSS ver. 18. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to develop the statistical model of workers’ aldosterone level in light of the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time, and serum potassium level. Results The results of the final statistical model to determine the level of serum aldosterone based on the combined effect of sound pressure level, exposure time and serum potassium level indicated that the sound pressure level had a significant influence on the human’s serum aldosterone level (P = 0.04. In addition, the effects of exposure time and serum potassium on aldosterone level were statistically significant with P-values of 0.008 and 0.001, respectively. Conclusions

  15. Postmortem vitreous chemistry--an evaluation of sodium, potassium and chloride levels in estimation of time since death (during the first 36 h after death).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrakanth, H V; Kanchan, Tanuj; Balaraj, B M; Virupaksha, H S; Chandrashekar, T N

    2013-05-01

    Estimation of time since death is a paramount medico-legal issue in any postmortem examination. The present study is intended to study the correlation between postmortem interval and vitreous humor chemistry for sodium, potassium, and chlorides. The study is aimed to find male-female differences and differences between right and left eyes in vitreous chemistry. The vitreous humor samples were collected in 114 autopsies conducted in the study center and analyzed biochemically. All the cases where exact time of death was known and where the time since death ranged between 0 and 36 h were included in the study. Data obtained was analyzed statistically using spss version 11.0. The present research did not find a significant correlation between vitreous chemistry and postmortem interval. The differences in vitreous sodium, potassium, chloride levels and the sodium potassium ratio among males and females and between right and left eyes were not found to be statistically significant.

  16. Change of plasma visfatin level in the population with different glucose tolerances

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨媚

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the change of plasma visfatin level and the relationship of plasma visfatin level to body mass index (BMI) , waist hip ratio (WHR) , blood glucose, plasma insulin levels as well as other factors in the subjects with different glucose tolerances. Methods Fasting and glucose loading 2 h plasma visfatin levels were assayed by ELISA in patients with type 2 diabetes

  17. End-organ damage in urbanized Africans with low plasma renin levels: the SABPA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Rooyen, Johannes M; Schutte, Aletta E; Huisman, Hugo W; Schutte, Rudolph; Fourie, Carla M T; Malan, Nicolaas T; Malan, Leoné

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether active renin concentration is associated with markers of end-organ damage in urbanized Africans. This study forms part of the Sympathetic Activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) study. For this study, 81 men and 74 women were divided into low- and high-renin groups. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements were conducted. A resting 12-lead ECG was determined in order to determine the gender-specific Cornell voltage. Cardiovascular variables were continuously recorded with the Finometer. Carotid-dorsalis pedis pulse wave velocity was obtained with the Complior acquisition system. The carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) was obtained with the SonoSite MicroMaxx. Blood samples were collected; serum and plasma were stored at -80 °C for analysis. Anthropometric measurements were taken using standard methods. A general health questionnaire was also completed. The urinary creatinine was determined with a calorimetric method and albumin with a turbidimetric method. The serum sodium and potassium were determined by making use of the Konelab TM 20i Sequential Multiple Analyzer Computer (SMAC). The concentration of active renin in the plasma was analyzed by making use of a high-sensitivity radio-immunometric assay. A negative association (r=-0.29, pplasma renin in the low-renin group (renin levels. It seems evident that low renin in black South Africans may result in sub-clinical renal damage and impaired vascular function in a group of urbanized black South Africans.

  18. Light Absorption and Carotenoid Synthesis of Pot Marigold (Calendula officinalis L. in Response to Phosphorous and Potassium Varying Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad SEDGHI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to provide additional information on the effects of elemental deficiency on factors that affect plant production in medicinal plants, a factorial field experiment as randomized complete block design was conducted on Calendula officinalis. Treatments were four phosphorus levels (P2O5 including 0, 40, 80 and 120 Kg ha-1 and four potassium levels (K2O as 0, 50, 100 and 150 Kg ha-1. Results showed that applied treatments had significant effects on petal carotenoids and the highest amount of ? - carotene obtained at 80 and 150 Kg ha-1 P2O5 and K2O, respectively. Effect of K2O on light interception and light use efficiency was significant and the highest radiation use efficiency achieved by applying 150 Kg ha-1 K2O. The highest yield of grain and dry flowers was recorded in the mixture of 80 and 150 Kg ha-1 P2O5 and K2O, respectively. In conclusion, using of K2O had greater effects on studied traits than P2O5.

  19. Changes in plasma taurine levels after different endurance events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R J; Francaux, M; Cuisinier, C; Sturbois, X; De Witte, P

    1999-01-01

    The sulphonated amino acid taurine increased significantly in the plasma of trained athletes after three endurance exercises of different duration and intensity, a 90 min run on a treadmill at 75% of an individual's VO2 peak, a Marathon, 42.2 km and a 100 km run, by 19%, 77% and 36%, respectively. Such results indicated that the speed at which the exercise is performed, referred to as the intensity, rather than the duration of the exercise, correlated with the elevated taurine levels possibly indicating its release from muscle fibres. The plasma amino acid pool decreased significantly in relationship with the duration of the exercise, caused by their utilisation for glucogenesis. The possible sources of the increased plasma taurine are discussed.

  20. Highly improved hydration level sensing properties of copper oxide films with sodium and potassium doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahin, Bünyamin; Kaya, Tolga

    2016-01-01

    In this study, un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped nanostructured CuO films were successfully synthesized by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) technique and then characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and current-voltage (I-V) measurements. Structural properties of the CuO films were affected from doping. The XRD pattern indicates the formation of polycrystalline CuO films with no secondary phases. Furthermore, doping affected the crystal structure of the samples. The optimum conductivity values for both Na and K were obtained at 4 M% doping concentrations. The comparative hydration level sensing properties of the un-doped, Na-doped, and K-doped CuO nanoparticles were also investigated. A significant enhancement in hydration level sensing properties was observed for both 4 M% Na and K-doped CuO films for all concentration levels. Detailed discussions were reported in the study regarding atomic radii, crystalline structure, and conductivity.

  1. Abnormal plasma prothrombin (PIVKA-II) levels in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Y

    1989-05-01

    The concentration of abnormal prothrombin, or the protein induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) in 102 patients with hepatic disorders was measured by an enzyme immunoassay method. The concentration of PIVKA-II in the plasma was elevated in 11 out of 18 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma and also in a patient with hepatoblastoma. There was no correlation between serum alpha-fetoprotein and plasma PIVKA-II levels. The PIVKA-II level was normal in 11 patients who had metastatic carcinoma or cholangiocellular carcinoma. Moreover, benign diseases of the liver did not cause an elevation in PIVKA-II. PIVKA-II might be an useful marker of hepatocellular carcinoma because, like alpha-fetoprotein, its level changes in close relation to the effects of treatment.

  2. New nonabsorbable potassium-exchange resins in hyperkalaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roscioni, Sara S.; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo

    2015-01-01

    New data suggest that treatment with patiromer or sodium zirconium cyclosilicate for up to 8 weeks reduces plasma potassium levels in hyperkalaemic patients. If proven safe and effective for long-term use, these therapies might be administered together with intensive renin-angiotensin-aldosterone bl

  3. Radioimmunological analysis of plasma cortisole levels and daily plasma cortisole variation following triamcinolone acetonide therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, F.; Schuster, E.

    1980-08-01

    Plasma cortisol levels in a four-point daily profile were measured by radioimmunoassay before and during treatment with corticoid-containing ointments (triamcinolone acetonide) in 21 patients with psoriasis, who had no endocrine disorders. In the pretreatment phase there were typical circadian fluctuations of the plasma cortisol concentrations. Already after two days of treatment a significant suppression of adrenal function could be detected. This disfunction increased during continuous treatment. In comparison with a fluorimetric method, the radioimmunoassay allowed a better differentiation. This could be due to a lack of specificity and to susceptibility to erroneous measurement of the fluorimetric method. We could also confirm that the distribution of plasma cortisol levels is not a linear but a logarithmic one. Considering the log-normal distribution different mean values and variances are obtained.

  4. Plasma carnitine levels in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowyer, B A; Fleming, C R; Ilstrup, D; Nelson, J; Reek, S; Burnes, J

    1986-01-01

    Patients on long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) are known to frequently develop hepatic steatosis or steatohepatitis. The etiology of this steatosis or steatohepatitis is unknown, but carnitine deficiency has been one of the postulated mechanisms. The importance of L-carnitine in hepatic fatty acid oxidation and the steatosis observed in primary and acquired carnitine deficiencies prompted us to determine plasma carnitine levels in 37 patients receiving long-term HPN. Thirteen patients (35%) had low total and free plasma carnitine levels. Fifteen of the 37 HPN patients were matched for age and sex with 15 patients with Crohn's disease who did not require HPN. Mean total and free plasma carnitine values were significantly lower (p less than 0.001) in these 15 HPN patients (32.2 +/- 11.9 and 28.4 +/- 10.8) when compared to Crohn's patients not requiring HPN (49.1 +/- 10.9 and 46.4 +/- 11.5). Associations were not detected between plasma carnitine and clinical or biochemical parameters that might have explained the low values.

  5. Plasma Leptin Levels in Children Hospitalized with Cholera in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falkard, Brie; Uddin, Taher; Rahman, M Arifur; Franke, Molly F; Aktar, Amena; Uddin, Muhammad Ikhtear; Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Leung, Daniel T; Charles, Richelle C; Larocque, Regina C; Harris, Jason B; Calderwood, Stephen B; Qadri, Firdausi; Ryan, Edward T

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the cause of cholera, induces both innate and adaptive immune responses in infected humans. Leptin is a hormone that plays a role in both metabolism and mediating immune responses. We characterized leptin levels in 11 children with cholera in Bangladesh, assessing leptin levels on days 2, 7, 30, and 180 following cholera. We found that patients at the acute stage of cholera had significantly lower plasma leptin levels than matched controls, and compared with levels in late convalescence. We then assessed immune responses to V. cholerae antigens in 74 children with cholera, correlating these responses to plasma leptin levels on day 2 of illness. In multivariate analysis, we found an association between day 2 leptin levels and development of later anti-cholera toxin B subunit (CtxB) responses. This finding appeared to be limited to children with better nutritional status. Interestingly, we found no association between leptin levels and antibody responses to V. cholerae lipopolysaccharide, a T cell-independent antigen. Our results suggest that leptin levels may be associated with cholera, including the development of immune responses to T cell-dependent antigens. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  6. Co-pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake with potassium carbonate and zinc oxide using plasma torch to produce bio-fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shie, Je-Lueng; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Tzeng, Chin-Ching; Wu, Chung-Yu; Lin, Kae-Long; Tseng, Jyi-Yeong; Yuan, Min-Hao; Li, Heng-Yi; Kuo, Ching-Hui; Yu, Yuh-Jeng; Chang, Lieh-Chih

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the effects of additives of potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and zinc oxide (ZnO) on the pyrolysis of waste sunflower-oil cake using a 60 kW pilot-scale plasma torch reactor. The major gaseous products were CO and H2. The productions of CO and CH4 increased while that of H2 decreased with the addition of K2CO3. The use of ZnO reduced while enhanced the formation of CO and H2, respectively. In order to match the appeal of resource reutilization, one can use the waste K2CO3 resulted from the sorption of CO2 with KOH in greenhouse gas control and the waste ZnO obtained from the melting process as additives for the co-pyrolysis of sunflower-oil cake, yielding fuels rich in CO and H2, respectively.

  7. Periodontal treatment decreases plasma oxidized LDL level and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamaki, Naofumi; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Ekuni, Daisuke; Yamanaka, Reiko; Morita, Manabu

    2011-12-01

    Periodontitis induces excessive production of reactive oxygen species in periodontal lesions. This may impair circulating pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant balance and induce the oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) in blood. The purpose of this study was to monitor circulating oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in subjects with chronic periodontitis following non-surgical periodontal treatment. Plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress in 22 otherwise healthy non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (mean age 44.0 years) were measured at baseline and at 1 and 2 months after non-surgical periodontal treatment. At baseline, chronic periodontitis patients had higher plasma levels of oxidized LDL and oxidative stress than healthy subjects (p surgical periodontal treatment were effective in decreasing oxLDL, which was positively associated with a reduction in circulating oxidative stress.

  8. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency...

  9. Relationship between Plasma Leptin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone shown to be related to several metabolic, inflammatory, and hemostatic factors related to chronic kidney disease. Recent animal studies have reported that infusion of recombinant leptin into normal rats for 3 weeks fosters the development of glomerulosclerosis. However, few studies have examined the association between leptin and CKD in humans. Therefore, we examined the association between plasma leptin levels and CKD in a representative sample of US adults. Methods. We examined the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age (n=5820, 53.6% women. Plasma leptin levels were categorized into quartiles (≤4.3 Fg/L, 4.4–8.7 Fg/L, 8.8–16.9 Fg/L, >16.9 Fg/L. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine. Results. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with CKD after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI, diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared to quartile 1 of leptin (referent, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval of CKD associated with quartile 4 was 3.31 (1.41 to 7.78; P-trend = 0.0135. Subgroup analyses examining the relation between leptin and CKD by gender, BMI categories, diabetes, and hypertension status also showed a consistent positive association. Conclusion. Higher plasma leptin levels are associated with CKD in a representative sample of US adults.

  10. [Preoperative digitalization. Measurement of digoxin plasma levels (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, H J; Rietbrock, N

    1976-09-01

    In a study of 233 patients from the department of surgery and anesthesiology taking digoxin preparations 64, per cent exhibit digoxin levels in the therapeutic range (0.6--1.5 ng/ml), 19 per cent had subtoxic concentrations ranged from 1.6--2.0 ng/ml and 7 per cent were in the toxic range (greater than 2 ng/ml). In patients treated with digoxin before admission to hospital subtherapeutic levels were most frequent. An average loading dose of digoxin 1 mg or more on one day may result in subtoxic and toxic digoxin levels on the second day, in patients receiving less than 1 mg digoxin daily an increasing frequency of plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.5 ng/ml or higher values was present on the third day. Averaged plasma digoxin concentrations were correlated with daily maintenance dose. There was, however, a wide individual variation in digoxin plasma concentrations. A low incidence of toxic digoxin plasma levels was observed in patients receiving a daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg digoxin (Lanicor). For prophylactic digitalization of patients with normal renal and thyroid function the following schedules or statistical guidlines are proposed: Lanicor (bioavailability 60%): oral loading dose of 0.75 mg over two days, and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg; Novodigal (bioavailability 80%): oral loading dose of 0.6 mg over two days and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.3 mg; Digoxin i.v.: intravenous loading dose of 0.5 (0.4) mg over two days and then 0.25 (0.2) mg daily intravenous maintenance dose. For any patient needing treatment with digitalis glycosides therapy must be individual and dynamic. The reasons for toxic concentrations were frequently attributed to wrong dosage.

  11. Kissing reduces allergic skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, Hajime

    2003-11-01

    The effect of kissing on allergen-induced skin wheal responses and plasma neurotrophin levels were studied in 30 normal subjects, 30 patients with allergic rhinitis (AR), and 30 patients with atopic dermatitis (AD). All of the patients with AR or AD are allergic to house dust mite (HDM) and Japanese cedar pollen (JCP). They are all Japanese and they do not kiss habitually. The subject kissed freely during 30 min with their lover or spouse alone in a room with closed doors while listening to soft music. Before and after kissing, skin prick tests were performed using commercial HDM allergen, JCP allergen, as well as histamine and control solution, and wheal responses were measured. Simultaneously, plasma levels of neurotrophin, including nerve growth factor (NGF), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and -4 (NT-4) were measured. Kissing significantly reduced wheal responses induced by HDM and JCP, but not by histamine, and decreased plasma levels of NGF, BDNF, NT-3, and NT-4 in patients with AR or AD, while it failed to do so in normal subjects. These finding indicate that kissing have some implication in the study of neuroimmunology in allergic patients.

  12. Plasma bupivacaine levels following single dose intraarticular instillation for arthroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinig, R P; Holtgrewe, J L; Wiedel, J D; Christie, D B; Kestin, K J

    1988-01-01

    Arthroscopy of the knee was performed using 30 ml single dose intraarticular instillations of 0.5% or 0.25% solutions of bupivacaine (Marcaine). A total of 18 patients (mean age, 34 years), divided into two groups, participated in this study. Venous plasma levels were measured at 0, 10, 20, 30, 45, 60, 90, 120, and 240 minute intervals following a single instillation into the knee joint. All patients had suspected traumatic internal derangement of the knee. Electrocardiogram tracings, blood pressure, and neurologic assessment were monitored at each venous sampling interval or more often if clinically indicated. The type and amount of supplemental anesthesia were also recorded. None of our 18 patients required a general anesthetic because of pain although the following procedures were performed: meniscectomy, plica release, abrasion chondroplasty, loose body retrieval, and limited meniscal repair. A new methodology for the measurement of plasma bupivacaine using the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer is described. Monitoring specific molecular mass fragments allows the measurement of picogram per milliliter levels of bupivacaine. The highest peak plasma concentration occurred 20 minutes after instillation of 30 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine. The 625 +/- 225 ng/ml level was well below the 2,500 to 4,000 ng/ml reported to elicit early subjective CNS symptoms of bupivacaine toxicity. Thus, a single dose intraarticular instillation of 30 ml 0.5% or 0.25% bupivacaine is convenient, efficacious, and pharmacologically safe for routine clinical arthroscopy.

  13. Association of plasma lipid levels with atherosclerosis prevalence in psittaciformes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufrère, Hugues; Vet, Dr Med; Cray, Carolyn; Ammersbach, Mélanie; Tully, Thomas N

    2014-09-01

    The prevalence of atherosclerosis is high in the captive psittacine population and increases with age and female sex. The genera Psittacus, Amazona, and Nymphicus are predisposed to atherosclerosis, whereas the genera Cacatua and Ara are less susceptible. Plasma cholesterol and lipoprotein abnormalities have been suggested as risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis as observed in mammals. To investigate whether the psittacine genera susceptibility to atherosclerosis and the known risk factors of age and sex could be associated with differences in the lipid profile, a retrospective analysis was conducted on blood lipid values from 5625 birds. Prevalence values were obtained from a previously published, large, case-control study and were compared with identified trends in plasma lipid profiles. Genus-specific differences were identified in plasma total cholesterol values that corresponded to observed trends in the prevalence of clinically important atherosclerotic lesions, which were also highly correlated. The effect of age was significant but was mild and may not account for the dramatic increase in atherosclerosis prevalence observed with age. In addition, Quaker parrots ( Myiopsitta monachus ), which were used as experimental models for psittacine atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia, were found to have the highest values in all lipid profile parameters. The results of this study suggest that the differences observed in prevalence among species of the psittacine genera may partly be explained by differences in plasma total cholesterol levels. Results also support the use of Quaker parrots as models for studying atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia.

  14. FABP4 plasma levels are increased in familial combined hyperlipidemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabré, Anna; Lázaro, Iolanda; Cofán, Montserrat; Jarauta, Estibaliz; Plana, Núria; Garcia-Otín, Angel L.; Ascaso, Juan F.; Ferré, Raimón; Civeira, Fernando; Ros, Emilio; Masana, Lluís

    2010-01-01

    The lipid profile of familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCHL) shares some characteristics with atherogenic dyslipidemia seen in diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and obesity. Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) appears to be a determinant of atherogenic dyslipidemia. We examined relationships between FABP4 plasma concentrations, dyslipidemia, and metabolic variables in patients with FCHL. We studied 273 unrelated FCHL patients and 118 control subjects. FABP4 was higher in FCHL than controls, with mean levels of 21.8 (10.1) μg/l and 19.2 (9.2) μg/l, respectively (adjusted P= 0.012). In FCHL, FABP4 correlated to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, insulin levels, and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index (all P< 0.05), but not to lipid levels, whereas in obese patients, FABP4 correlated to triglyceride levels (r = 0.303, P= 0.014) and very low density lipoprotein size (r = 0.502, P = 0.001), as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance. Associations of FABP4 with BMI and waist circumference, but not with insulin levels, persisted in this subgroup. Plasma FABP4 does not influence the lipid phenotype of FCHL. In a small subgroup of obese FCHL, FABP4 levels were associated with triglyceride-rich lipoproteins independent of insulin resistance. These results support a hyperlipidemic mechanism of FCHL different from similar metabolic conditions where fat mass is strongly related to FABP4 and hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:20388924

  15. Hip Osteonecrosis Is Associated with Increased Plasma IL-33 Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jinhui; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Li, Shirui; Wang, Peng

    2017-01-01

    The recently discovered IL-33 as an IL-1 cytokine family member has been proved to be specifically released from osteonecrotic bones. We aimed to investigate the potential role of IL-33 in the development of osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). Forty patients diagnosed with ONFH and forty age-, sex-, and body mass index- (BMI-) matched healthy subjects were included in this prospective study between March 2016 and September 2016. A commercially available ELISA kit was used to test the level of plasma IL-33. The IL-33 levels were compared among different ARCO stages, CJFH types, and etiology groups. Plasma IL-33 levels were significantly higher in the ONFH patients than that in the control subjects. The levels of IL-33 did not differ significantly among the ONFH patients with different ARCO stages. The IL-33 levels of patients with CJFH type L3 were significantly higher than that of patients with types L1 and L2. No significant differences were observed in IL-33 levels between steroid-induced, alcohol-induced, and idiopathic patients. Our findings seem to indicate that IL-33 effects may be detrimental during ONFH, which appeared to be associated with the prognosis of ONFH. The IL-33 deserves particular attention in the pathogenesis of ONFH. PMID:28167850

  16. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP.

  17. Plasma-cortisol levels in experimental heatstroke in dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assia, Ehud; Epstein, Yoram; Magazanik, Avraham; Shapiro, Yair; Sohar, Ezra

    1989-06-01

    The effect of external heat-load, exercise and dehydration on dynamic changes in plasma cortisol during the development of heatstroke was investigated. Thirty-three unanesthetized dogs were tested under two sets of climatic conditions: comfort conditions and hot-dry climatic conditions, half of them while exercising. Half of the dogs in each group were rehydrated. None of the dogs that were investigated at room temperature suffered heatstroke. Of the dogs exposed to high ambient temperature, all of the exercising, as well as five out of six non-hydrated dogs and one rehydrated non-exercising dog suffered heatstroke. Significant dehydration (6% 7% of body weight), occurred only under hgh ambient temperature. Plasma cortisol levels of all dogs that suffered heatstroke rose conspicuously for at least 5 h and returned to normal levels 24 h later. Cortisol levels of dogs who did not experience heatstroke remained within the normal range. Cortisol levels correlated with the severity of the stress leading to heatstroke. High and rising levels of cortisol, several hours after body temperature returns to normal, may support the diagnosis of heatstroke.

  18. Ghrelin plasma levels and appetite in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Abelardo; Cirugeda, Antonio; Amair, Ruth; Sansone, Gabriela; Alegre, Laura; Codoceo, Rosa; Bajo, M Auxiliadora; del Peso, Gloria; Díez, Juan J; Sánchez-Tomero, José A; Selgas, Rafael

    2004-01-01

    Anorexia-associated malnutrition is a severe complication that increases mortality in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Ghrelin is a recently-discovered orexigenic hormone with actions in brain and stomach. We analyzed, in 42 PD patients, the possible relationship between ghrelin and appetite regulation with regard to other orexigens [neuropeptide Y (NPY), NO3] and anorexigens [cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha)]. All orexigens and anorexigens were determined in plasma. Eating motivation was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS). The patients were divided into three groups: those with anorexia (n = 12), those with obesity associated with high intake (n = 12), and those with no eating behavior disorders (n = 18). A control group of 10 healthy volunteers was also evaluated. Mean plasma levels of ghrelin were high (3618.6 +/- 1533 mg/mL), with 36 patients showing values above the normal range (anorexia had lower ghrelin and NPY levels and higher peptide-C, CCK, interleukin-1 (IL-1), TNFalpha, and GIP levels than did the other patients. Patients with anorexia also had an early satiety score and low desire and pleasure in eating on the VAS and diet survey. We observed significant positive linear correlations between ghrelin and albumin (r = 0.43, p anorexia show relatively lower ghrelin plasma levels than the levels seen in obese patients or in patients with normal appetite. The role of ghrelin in appetite modulation is altered in uremic PD patients, and that alteration is possibly associated with disorders in insulin and growth hormone metabolism.

  19. Increased nociceptin/orphanin FQ plasma levels in hepatocellular carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ferenc Szalay; Mónika B Hantos; Andrea Horvath; Peter L. Lakatos; Aniko Folhoffer; Kinga Dunkel; Dalma Hegedus; Kornélia Tekes

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The heptadecapeptide nociceptin alias orphanin FQ is the endogenous agonist of opioid receptor-like1 receptor.It is involved in modulation of pain and cognition. High blood level was reported in patients with acute and chronic pain,and in Wilson disease. An accidental observation led us to investigate nociceptin in hepatocellular carcinoma.METHODS: Plasma nociceptin level was measured by radioimmunoassay, aprotinin was used as protease inhibitor.Hepatocellular carcinoma was diagnosed by laboratory,ultrasound, other imaging, and confirmed by fine needle biopsy. Results were compared to healthy controls and patients with other chronic liver diseases.RESULTS: Although nociceptin levels were elevated in patients with Wilson disease (14.0±2.7 pg/mL, n=26),primary biliary cirrhosis (12.1±3.2 pg/mL, n=21) and liver cirrhosis (12.8±4.0 pg/mL, n=15) compared to the healthy controls (9.2±1.8 pg/mL, n=29, P<0.001 for each), in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma a ten-fold increase was found (105.9±14.4 pg/mL, n=29, P<0.0001). High plasma levels were found in each hepatocellular carcinoma patient including those with normal alpha fetoprotein and those with pain (104.9±14.9 pg/mL, n=12) and without (107.7±14.5pg/mL, n=6).CONCLUSION: A very high nociceptin plasma level seems to be an indicator for hepatocellular carcinoma. Further research is needed to clarify the mechanism and clinical significance of this novel finding.

  20. Plasma levels of catecholamines and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels as predictive values of mortality among hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzic Marcin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess plasma concentration of catecholamines and asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels and a possible relationship to predict the mortality rates among hemodialysis patients. The study population comprised 27 subjects, aged 65-70 years. Each patient underwent dialysis thrice a week. Furthermore, the median duration of hemodialysis was 3.5 years. Based on the conducted research, it can be concluded that the concentrations of adrenaline and the level of asymmetric dimethylarginine have predictive value of mortality among hemodialysis patients. Of note, lowering plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentration may represent therapeutic target for prevention of progressive renal damage.

  1. Effects of potassium deficiency on potassium, polyamines and amino acids in mouse tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cremades, A; Sanchez-Capelo, A; Monserrat, A; Monserrat, F; Peñafiel, R

    2003-03-01

    Sexual dimorphism in potassium content was found in plasma, kidney, heart and skeletal muscle of CD1 mice. We observed that feeding mice with a K(+)-deficient diet had an uneven and gender-dependent effect on organ weight and tissue potassium concentrations. Treatment produced a marked decrease in plasma, pancreas and skeletal muscle K(+) levels in both sexes, and a reduction in kidney, liver and heart potassium concentrations in females. Moreover, K(+) deficiency produced a 2-3-fold increase in the concentrations of cationic amino acids, such as arginine and lysine in both heart and skeletal muscle of the two sexes, a slight increase ( approximately 37%) in renal arginine in the male mice. The concentrations of these amino acids in plasma and other tissues in both sexes remained unaltered. Polyamine levels in heart, liver, skeletal muscle and pancreas from male and female mice were not affected by K(+) deficiency. However, in the male kidney potassium deficiency was accompanied by an increase of putrescine and spermidine concentration, and a reduction of putrescine excretion into the urine, even though renal K(+) concentration was not significantly affected and ornithine decarboxylase activity was dramatically decreased. The general lack of correlation between tissue potassium decrease and the increase in organic cations suggests that it is unlikely that the changes observed could be related with an attempt of the tissues to compensate for the reduction in cellular positive charge produced by the fall in K(+) content. The mechanisms by which these changes are produced are discussed, but their physiological implications remain to be determined.

  2. Analysis of Plasma Homocysteine Levels in Patients with Unstable Angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Tavares

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To determine the prevalence of hyperhomocystinemia in patients with acute ischemic syndrome of the unstable angina type. METHODS - We prospectively studied 46 patients (24 females with unstable angina and 46 control patients (19 males, paired by sex and age, blinded to the laboratory data. Details of diets, smoking habits, medication used, body mass index, and the presence of hypertension and diabetes were recorded, as were plasma lipid and glucose levels, C-reactive protein, and lipoperoxidation in all participants. Patients with renal disease were excluded. Plasma homocysteine was estimated using high-pressure liquid chromatography. RESULTS - Plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in the group of patients with unstable angina (12.7±6.7 µmol/L than in the control group (8.7±4.4 µmol/L (p<0.05. Among males, homocystinemia was higher in the group with unstable angina than in the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant (14.1±5.9 µmol/L versus 11.9±4.2 µmol/L. Among females, however, a statistically significant difference was observed between the 2 groups: 11.0±7.4 µmol/L versus 6.4±2.9 µmol/L (p<0.05 in the unstable angina and control groups, respectively. Approximately 24% of the patients had unstable angina at homocysteine levels above 15 µmol/L. CONCLUSION - High homocysteine levels seem to be a relevant prevalent factor in the population with unstable angina, particularly among females.

  3. Effect of Different Levels of Potassium and Boron on Stress Physiology and Cell Wall Boron Content of Cotton Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WU Xiu-wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To find out the effect of potassium(K and boron(B on cotton leaf cell membrane and B distribution and utilization, the membrane relative permeability, MDA, Pro, the content of free B, semi-bound B and bound B and the content of B in cell wall of cotton leaf were analyzed under different K levels with solution culture method in this study. The results showed that in normal K(20 mgK·L-1, B deficiency(0 mgB·L-1 hindered the normal growth and dry mass of shoots, in addition, the membrane relative permeability, the content of MDA and Pro significantly increased compared with the normal B(0.2 mgB·L-1, and the relative concentration of bound B, R value, cell wall material and the ratio of total cell wall B/leaf B increased by 10.32%, 21.28%, 31.35% and 31.35%, respectively. In contrast, under low K(2 mgK·L-1 supply, B deficiency produced a very significant decrease in the relative concentration of bound B and the ratio of total cell wall B/leaf B. The above results showed that under either K-deficient or K-sufficient condition, B deficiency damaged the cotton leaf cell membrane and cell membrane permeability. In normal B-supplied plants, lacking of B induced more B into the cytoplasm, but increased the proportion of B that combined with the pectic polysaccharides in cell wall. However, under K-deficient treatment, the proportion of B cross-linked pectic polysaccharides in cell wall decreased.

  4. Effects of Different Levels of Supplementary Nitrogen and Potassium in Nutrient Solution on Yield and Leaf N and K Concentrations of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Farzaneh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different levels of nitrogen (100, 200, 300 and 400 mg/L and potassium (125, 250 and 375 mg/L on yield and leaf N and K concentrations of tomato were investigated in perlit culture using a factorial randomized design with three replications. The highest fruit yield was obtained with 200 mg/L N. Higher levels of nitrogen decreased tomato yield. With increasing nitrogen concentration in nutrient solution, N content of leaf increased significantly whereas leaf K concentration decreased. Different potassium levels had no significant effect on tomato yield. With increasing potassium levels of nutrient solution, concentration of leaf N decreased significantly whereas concentration of leaf K increased. The greatest and the least fruit yields were obtained from N200K250 and N400K375 treatments, respectively. The highest and the lowest concentrations of leaf N were observed in N400K125 and N100K375 treatments, respectively. The greatest and the least concentrations of leaf K were observed in N100K375 and N400K125 treatments, respectively.

  5. Decreased plasma levels of the endothelial protective sphingosine-1-phosphate are associated with dengue-induced plasma leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.; Japtok, L.; Alisjahbana, B.; Wisaksana, R.; Sumardi, U.; Puspita, M.; Kleuser, B.; Mast, Q. de; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A transient endothelial hyperpermeability is a hallmark of severe dengue infections. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) maintains vascular integrity and protects against plasma leakage. We related plasma S1P levels to dengue-induced plasma leakage and studied mechanisms that may underlie the

  6. Multi-level molecular modelling for plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogaerts, Annemie; Khosravian, Narjes; Van der Paal, Jonas; Verlackt, Christof C. W.; Yusupov, Maksudbek; Kamaraj, Balu; Neyts, Erik C.

    2016-02-01

    Modelling at the molecular or atomic scale can be very useful for obtaining a better insight in plasma medicine. This paper gives an overview of different atomic/molecular scale modelling approaches that can be used to study the direct interaction of plasma species with biomolecules or the consequences of these interactions for the biomolecules on a somewhat longer time-scale. These approaches include density functional theory (DFT), density functional based tight binding (DFTB), classical reactive and non-reactive molecular dynamics (MD) and united-atom or coarse-grained MD, as well as hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) methods. Specific examples will be given for three important types of biomolecules, present in human cells, i.e. proteins, DNA and phospholipids found in the cell membrane. The results show that each of these modelling approaches has its specific strengths and limitations, and is particularly useful for certain applications. A multi-level approach is therefore most suitable for obtaining a global picture of the plasma-biomolecule interactions.

  7. Effect of Patiromer on Serum Potassium Level in Patients With Hyperkalemia and Diabetic Kidney Disease: The AMETHYST-DN Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakris, George L; Pitt, Bertram; Weir, Matthew R; Freeman, Mason W; Mayo, Martha R; Garza, Dahlia; Stasiv, Yuri; Zawadzki, Rezi; Berman, Lance; Bushinsky, David A

    2015-07-14

    Hyperkalemia is a potentially life-threatening condition predominantly seen in patients treated with renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors with stage 3 or greater chronic kidney disease (CKD) who may also have diabetes, heart failure, or both. To select starting doses for a phase 3 study and to evaluate the long-term safety and efficacy of a potassium-binding polymer, patiromer, in outpatients with hyperkalemia. Phase 2, multicenter, open-label, dose-ranging, randomized clinical trial (AMETHYST-DN), conducted at 48 sites in Europe from June 2011 to June 2013 evaluating patiromer in 306 outpatients with type 2 diabetes (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 15 to 5.0 mEq/L). All patients received RAAS inhibitors prior to and during study treatment. Patients were stratified by baseline serum potassium level into mild or moderate hyperkalemia groups and received 1 of 3 randomized starting doses of patiromer (4.2 g [n = 74], 8.4 g [n = 74], or 12.6 g [n = 74] twice daily [mild hyperkalemia] or 8.4 g [n = 26], 12.6 g [n = 28], or 16.8 g [n = 30] twice daily [moderate hyperkalemia]). Patiromer was titrated to achieve and maintain serum potassium level 5.0 mEq/L or lower. The primary efficacy end point was mean change in serum potassium level from baseline to week 4 or prior to initiation of dose titration. The primary safety end point was adverse events through 52 weeks. Secondary efficacy end points included mean change in serum potassium level through 52 weeks. A total of 306 patients were randomized. The least squares mean reduction from baseline in serum potassium level at week 4 or time of first dose titration in patients with mild hyperkalemia was 0.35 (95% CI, 0.22-0.48) mEq/L for the 4.2 g twice daily starting-dose group, 0.51 (95% CI, 0.38-0.64) mEq/L for the 8.4 g twice daily starting-dose group, and 0.55 (95% CI, 0.42-0.68) mEq/L for the 12.6 g twice daily starting-dose group. In those with moderate hyperkalemia, the

  8. Atomic properties in hot plasmas from levels to superconfigurations

    CERN Document Server

    Bauche, Jacques; Peyrusse, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    This book is devoted to the calculation of hot-plasma properties which generally requires a huge number of atomic data. It is the first book that combines information on the details of the basic atomic physics and its application to atomic spectroscopy with the use of the relevant statistical approaches. Information like energy levels, radiative rates, collisional and radiative cross-sections, etc., must be included in equilibrium or non-equilibrium models in order to describe both the atomic-population kinetics and the radiative properties. From the very large number of levels and transitions involved in complex ions, some statistical (global) properties emerge. The book presents a coherent set of concepts and compact formulas suitable for tractable and accurate calculations. The topics addressed are: radiative emission and absorption, and a dozen of other collisional and radiative processes; transition arrays between level ensembles (configurations, superconfigurations); effective temperatures of configurat...

  9. Plasma lactoferrin level as a predictor to endothelial dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abir Zakaria

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion The present study showed that low circulating plasma lactoferrin levels in OSA patients independently predict endothelial dysfunction as assessed by FMD%. High BMI in OSA patients negatively influences plasma lactoferrin levels unrelated to other OSA severity predictors.

  10. Power Consideration for Pulsed Discharges in Potassium Seeded Argon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Sheng-Guo; HE Jun-Jia; LIU Ke-Fu

    2007-01-01

    Minimization of energy consumed in plasma generation is critical for applications, in which a large volume of plasmas is needed. We suggest that a high electron density atmospheric pressure plasmas can be generated by pulsed discharges in potassium seeded argon at an elevated temperature with a very small power input. The ionization efficiency and power budget of pulsed discharges in such plasmas are analytically studied. The results show that ionization efficiency of argon, especially at small reduced electric field E/N (the ratio of the electric field to the gas number density), is improved effectively in the presence of small amount of potassium additives. Power input of pulsed discharge to sustain a prescribed average level of ionization in potassium seeded argon is three orders of magnitude lower than that in pure argon. Further, unlike in pure argon, it is found that very short high-voltage pulses with very high repetition rates are unnecessary in potassium seeded argon. A pulse with 100ns of pulse duration, 5kHz of repetition rate, and 2Td (1 Td = 1 ×10-21 Vm2) of E/N is enough to sustain an electron density of 10l9m-3 in 1 atm 1500 K Ar+0.1% K mixture, with a very small power input of about 0.08 × 104 W/m3.

  11. Voluntary alcohol consumption and plasma beta-endorphin levels in alcohol preferring rats chronically treated with lamotrigine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalewska-Kaszubska, Jadwiga; Bajer, Bartosz; Gorska, Dorota; Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Dyr, Wanda; Bieńkowski, Przemysław

    2015-02-01

    Several recent studies have indicated that lamotrigine, similarly to other antiepileptic drugs, may be useful in the therapy of alcohol dependence. The rationale for using lamotrigine in the treatment of alcohol addiction is based on its multiple mechanisms of action which include inhibition of voltage-sensitive sodium channels, modulation voltage-gated calcium currents and transient potassium outward current. However, the known mechanism of lamotrigine does not fully explain its efficacy in alcohol addiction therapy. For this reason we have decided to examine the effect of lamotrigine on the opioid system. Our previous studies showed that topiramate and levetiracetam (antiepileptic drugs) as well as the most effective drugs in alcohol addiction therapy i.e. naltrexone and acamprosate, when given repeatedly, all increased plasma beta endorphin (an endogenous opioid peptide) level, despite operating through different pharmacological mechanisms. It is known that low beta-endorphin level is often associated with alcohol addiction and also that alcohol consumption elevates the level of this peptide. This study aims to assess the effect of repeated treatment with lamotrigine on voluntary alcohol intake and beta-endorphin plasma level in alcohol preferring rats (Warsaw high preferring (WHP) rats). We observed a decrease in alcohol consumption in rats treated with lamotrigine. However we didn't observe significant changes in beta-endorphin level during withdrawal of alcohol, which may indicate that the drug does not affect the opioid system. We suppose that lamotrigine may be useful in alcohol dependence therapy and presents a potential area for further study.

  12. Effects of exercise on plasma adiponectin levels in athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popović Mirjana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ which releases biologically active adipokines. Adiponectin, an adipocyte-derived protein structurally similar to complement 1q, plays a significant role in metabolic disorders, due to its insulin sensitizing, anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. AdipoR1 and AdipoR2, mediate the metabolic actions of adiponectin by activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors- alpha (PPAR-α which leads to an increase in fatty acid combustion and energy consumption, fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake in myocytes and reduces gluconeogenesis and thus leads to increased insulin sensitivity. Plasma adiponectin level is affected by multiple factors: gender (females have higher plasma adiponectin levels, obesity-linked diseases (metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus type 2 and atherosclerosis are associated with lower adiponectin levels, lifestyle -including exercise. Yet, to date, little is known about the response of adiponectin concentrations to exercise and, in particular, the response of this hormone to training in population of athletes. The aim of this review is to overview the published evidence for the effects of exercise on adiponectin levels in athletes. Adiponectin concentration presents a delayed increase (30 min after short-term intense performance, by athletes, both male and female. It seems that adiponectin concentrations do not change in response to long-term exercise. No significant difference was found in total adiponectin and/or high-molecular weight (HMW oligomers in long-term effects of high physical training in athletes. Adiponectin can serve to monitor training loads and the establishment of individual limit values of training loads. Further studies are needed to clarify possible mechanisms by which adiponectin might influence energy homeostasis during heavy training in elite athletes.

  13. Comparison of bioavailability and pharmacokinetics of diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium in normal and dehydrated rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahmood AHMAD; Muhammad IQBAL; Ghulam MURTAZA

    2009-01-01

    Two different salts of diclofenac, diclofenac sodium and dielofenae potassium, in tablet dosage form were tested for their bioavailability and disposition kinetics in a group of eighteen rabbits in normal and experimentally induced dehydrated conditions with a wash out period of 7 days between both stages of study. Biochemical and physiological parameters were also measured in both normal and dehydrated states. Diclofenac levels in plasma were determined using a validated reversed phase HPLC method. Primary kinetic parameters i.e. AUC0-∞, Cmax, Tmax and other disposition kinetics were obtained with non-compartmental procedure. Biochemical parameters i.e. packed cell volume, plasma glucose and total lipid concentration in dehydrated rabbits increased significantly. Plasma concentration of diclofenac sodium and diclofenac potassium decreased significantly in water deprived rabbits. In comparison, diclofenac potassium in normal and dehydrated state of the same group of rabbits showed a significantly increased plasma concentration when compared with diclofenac sodium.

  14. Oxidation Level of Vacuum-Packaged Shredded Meat Treated with Different Concentrations of Potassium Sorbate, Sodium Diacetate and Nisin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juyang Zhao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The preservatives have been common used in food product, drugs and cosmetics to prevent their aging and decay. Shredded meat has been frequently used in Chinese traditional dishes. However, there is little information available for the corrosion protection of preservatives in commercial shredded meat products. The effect of different concentrations of potassium sorbate, sodium diacetate and nisin on the inhibition of oxidation process of shredded meat was studied. Results showed that potassium sorbate (0.05 g/kg and nisin (0.2 g/kg showed the greatest antioxidation activity by determining the Aerobic Plate Count (APC, Thiobarbituric Acid-Reactive Substances (TBARS and Peroxide Value (PV. It could help to provide theoretical basis for developing convenience shredded meat products with long shelf life.

  15. Serum Potassium Levels Inversely Correlate with D-Dimer In Patients with Acute-Onset Atrial Fibrillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervellin, Gianfranco, E-mail: gcervellin@ao.pr.it; Bonfanti, Laura; Picanza, Alessandra; Lippi, Giuseppe [1Academic Hospital of Parma (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared to subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. D-dimer values are frequently increased in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) compared with subjects in sinus rhythm. Hypokalemia plays a role in several cardiovascular diseases, but little is known about the association with AF. The aim of this study was to investigate correlations between D-dimer and serum potassium in acute-onset AF (AAF). To investigate the potential correlation between the values of serum potassium and D-dimer in patients with AAF, we retrospectively reviewed clinical and laboratory data of all emergency department visits for AAF in 2013. Among 271 consecutive AAF patients with D-dimer assessments, those with hypokalemia (n = 98) had significantly higher D-dimer values than normokalemic patients (139 versus 114 ng/mL, p = 0.004). The rate of patients with D-dimer values exceeding the diagnostic cut-off was higher in the group of patients with hypokalemia than in those with normal serum potassium (26.5% versus 16.2%; p = 0.029). An inverse and highly significant correlation was found between serum potassium and D-dimer (r = −0.21; p < 0.001), even after adjustments for age and sex (beta coefficient −94.8; p = 0.001). The relative risk for a positive D-dimer value attributed to hypokalemia was 1.64 (95% CI, 1.02 to 2.63; p = 0.040). The correlation remained statistically significant in patients free from antihypertensive drugs (r = −0.25; p = 0.018), but not in those taking angiotensin-receptor blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, or diuretics. The inverse correlation between values of potassium and D-dimer in patients with AAF provides important and complementary information about the thromboembolic risk of these patients.

  16. Potassium Iodide (KI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Matters Information on Specific Types of Emergencies Potassium Iodide (KI) Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... can I get KI (potassium iodide)? What is Potassium Iodide (KI)? KI (potassium iodide) is a salt of ...

  17. Calcium-dependent modulation and plasma membrane targeting of the AKT2 potassium channel by the CBL4/ CIPK6 calcium sensor/protein kinase complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katrin Held; Jean-Baptiste Thibaud; J(o)rg Kudla; Francois Pascaud; Christian Eckert; Pawel Gajdanowicz; Kenji Hashimoto; Claire Corratgé-Faillie; Jan Niklas Offenborn; Beno(i)t Lacombe; Ingo Dreyer

    2011-01-01

    Potassium (K+) channel function is fundamental to many physiological processes. However, components and mechanisms regulating the activity of plant K+ channels remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the calcium (Ca2+)sensor CBL4 together with the interacting protein kinase CIPK6 modulates the activity and plasma membrane (PM)targeting of the K+ channel AKT2 from Arabidopsis thaliana by mediating translocation of AKT2 to the PM in plant cells and enhancing AKT2 activity in oocytes. Accordingly, akt2, cbl4 and cipk6 mutants share similar developmental and delayed flowering pheuotypes. Moreover, the isolated regulatory C-terminal domain of CIPK6 is sufficient for mediating CBL4- and Ca2+-dependent channel translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to the PM by a novel targeting pathway that is dependent on dual lipid modifications of CBL4 by myristoylation and palmitoylation. Thus, we describe a critical mechanism of ion-channel regulation where a Ca2+ sensor modulates K+ channel activity by promoting a kinase interaction-dependent but phosphorylation-independent translocation of the channel to the PM.

  18. Effect of potassium fluoride on the in-situ sealing pores of plasma electrolytic oxidation film on AM50 Mg alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Feng [National Engineering Center for Corrosion Control, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Yu, Juan [School of Metallurgy Engineering, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Xi' an 710055 (China); Song, Yingwei, E-mail: ywsong@imr.ac.cn [National Engineering Center for Corrosion Control, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China); Shan, Dayong; Han, En-Hou [National Engineering Center for Corrosion Control, Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2015-07-15

    The influence of potassium fluoride (KF) on the in-situ sealing pores of plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) film on AM50 Mg alloy has been investigated using a stereo–zoom optical microscope, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive X–ray spectroscope (EDS). The films formed in the solutions with and without KF were compared. The sketch map for the formation process of in-situ sealing pores was established. The in-situ sealing pore PEO film can be obtained in the solution with KF, while the PEO film with open pores is obtained in the solution without KF. It indicates that the addition of KF plays a key role in the formation of in-situ sealing pores. Moreover, KF can change the initial film and promote the film growth rate. - Highlights: • The PEO films formed in the solutions with and without KF were compared. • KF makes a main contribution to the in-situ sealing pores of PEO film. • KF can change the initial film formation process and enhance the film growth rate.

  19. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes.

  20. The role of cardiorespiratory fitness on plasma lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parto, Parham; Lavie, Carl J; Swift, Damon; Sui, Xuemei

    2015-11-01

    Dyslipidemia is a treatable risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the importance of treatment for abnormalities in total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglycerides. Aside from pharmacotherapy, exercise and cardio-respiratory fitness have been shown to have beneficial effects on decreasing cardiovascular disease risk. Even though previous data regarding the benefits of exercise on plasma lipids have been somewhat conflicting, numerous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases HDL-cholesterol and reduces the triglyceride levels. Also, smaller, more atherogenic LDL particles seem to decrease with increases in cardio-respiratory fitness and exercise, and favorable blood lipid profiles seem to persist longer through the adult life span.

  1. [Plasma taurine levels in patients with esophagus cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamônica-Garcia, Vânia Cristina; Marin, Flávia Andréa; Lerco, Mauro Masson; Moreto, Fernando; Henry, Maria Aparecida Coelho Arruda; Burini, Roberto Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The esophagus cancer-host has a two way close relationship as seen in its sulphur-amino acid metabolism. Taurine one of these compounds has ubiquous role in host defense and other physiological mechanisms related to survival. To study the plasma levels of taurine and its precursors in patients with esophagus cancer. In a sectional design both groups, patients (n = 16, 43-73 yrs old) and healthy controls (n = 20, 27-65 yrs old) were assessed for anthropometry, body-weight lost, hematology (Hb, Ht, total leukocytes and lymphocyte counts), general biochemistry (albumin, glucose, lipids and aminotransferases) and chromatographic analysis for taurine, cysteine, and homocysteine. The survival time was registered there since from the clinical-histopathological diagnosis. All participants had a written ethical consent for the research. The cancer patients were predominantly, white males of low social economic class, with spinocellular carcinoma stage IV located at upper 3rd half of them presented hypoalbuminemia and 16% referred significant body-weight loss. The patients showed statistically lower values of Hb, Ht, total and HDL cholesterol and cysteine and significantly higher values of taurine, homocysteine and aminotransferases than healthy controls. A positive relationship was found between taurine and either TLC (r = 0.50) and survival (r = 0.81). Lower plasma cysteine along with higher levels of taurine and homocysteine and the positive direct association of taurine with indications of survival suggest an effective role of this compound and therefore a prospective special nutritional care in its precursors (cysteine, methionine and B vitamins) of these patients.

  2. Nonlinear associations between plasma cholesterol levels and neuropsychological function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendell, Carrington R; Zonderman, Alan B; Katzel, Leslie I; Rosenberger, William F; Plamadeala, Victoria V; Hosey, Megan M; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-11-01

    Although both high and low levels of total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol have been associated with poor neuropsychological function, little research has examined nonlinear effects. We examined quadratic relations of cholesterol to performance on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Participants were 190 older adults (53% men, ages 54-83) free of major medical, neurologic, and psychiatric disease. Measures of fasting plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol were assayed, and LDL cholesterol was calculated. Participants completed neuropsychological measures of attention, executive function, memory, visuospatial judgment, and manual speed and dexterity. Multiple regression analyses examined cholesterol levels as quadratic predictors of each measure of cognitive performance, with age (dichotomized as quadratic effect of Total Cholesterol² × Age was identified for Logical Memory II (b = -.0013, p = .039), such that the 70+ group performed best at high and low levels of total cholesterol than at midrange total cholesterol (U-shaped) and the Quadratic associations between HDL cholesterol and cognitive performance were nonsignificant. Results indicate differential associations between cholesterol and neuropsychological function across different ages and domains of function. High and low total and LDL cholesterol may confer both risk and benefit for suboptimal cognitive function at different ages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Changes in plasma TIMP-1 levels after resection for primary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, C.; Lomholt, A.F.; Davis, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) are associated with poor outcome in colorectal cancer (CRC), however postoperative changes in plasma TIMP-1 levels after resections for CRC have not been thoroughly evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samp...

  4. Plasma YKL-40 levels in healthy subjects from the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bojesen, Stig E; Johansen, Julia S; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Plasma YKL-40 is a new biomarker in patients with cancer and inflammatory diseases. High plasma YKL-40 is associated with poor prognosis. Our aim was to determine reference levels in healthy subjects....

  5. Plasma Cytokine Levels in Astronauts Before and after Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Satish K.; Aggarwal, Barat B.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Hammond, Dinne K.; Castro, Victoria A.; Stowe, Raymond; Pierson Duane L.

    2008-01-01

    Space flight is a unique experience and results in adverse effects on human physiology. Changes have been reported in various physiological systems, including musculoskeletal, neurovestibular, cardiovascular, endocrine, immunity and increased latent viral reactivation as well as others. The potential mechanisms behind these changes are not fully understood. Various cytokines such as IL-1, IL-6, TNF and chemokines have been linked to several of these changes, like muscle loss, bone loss, fatigue, sleep deprivation and viral reactivation. Eighteen astronauts (15 M and 3 F) from 8 spaceflights and 10 healthy age-matched adults (6 M, 4 F) were included in the present study. A panel of 21 plasma cytokines was analyzed with the Luminex 100 to measure the cytokines in these subjects 10 days before the flight (L-10), 2-3 hour after landing (R+0), 3 days after landing (R+3), and at their annual medical exam (AME). IL-10, IL-1, IFN-alpha, MCP-1 and IP-10 increased significantly at L-10 as compared with AME levels. IL-6 and IFN-alpha showed significant increases at R + 0 (P less than .05) over their baseline levels (AME). Cytokine levels at R+3 were not significantly different from R+0. IL-10 and IL-6 have been reported to increase in during viral reactivation. These data show that there was a shift from TH1 to TH2 cytokines L-10 and R+0. We also studied viral reactivation in 10 of the 18 subjects included in the present study before, during, and after space flight. Increased salivary varicella zoster virus (VZV) shedding in these subjects was found either during or after the mission. VZV shedding correlated with the increased levels of cytokines especially IL-10 and IL-6. Overall, our data suggests that cytokines may play an important role in regulating adverse changes in astronauts, and further studies are needed to fully understand the mechanism.

  6. Potassium clavulanate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Fujii

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, K+·C8H8NO5− [systematic name: potassium (2R,5R,Z-3-(2-hydroxyethylidene-7-oxo-4-oxa-1-azabicyclo[3.2.0]heptane-2-carboxylate], a widely used β-lactam antibiotic, is usually chemically unstable even in the solid state owing to its tendency to be hydrolysed. In the crystal structure, the potassium cations are arranged along the a axis, forming interactions to the carboxylate and hydroxy groups, resulting in one-dimensional ionic columns. These columns are arranged along the b axis, connected by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming a layer in the ab plane.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of salivary creatinine, urea, and potassium levels to assess dialysis need in renal failure patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagalad, Bhavana S.; Mohankumar, K. P.; Madhushankari, G. S.; Donoghue, Mandana; Kuberappa, Puneeth Horatti

    2017-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of chronic renal failure is increasing because of increase in chronic debilitating diseases and progressing age of population. These patients experience accumulation of metabolic byproducts and electrolyte imbalance, which has harmful effects on their health. Timely hemodialysis at regular intervals is a life-saving procedure for these patients. Salivary diagnostics is increasingly used as an alternative to the traditional methods. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the diagnostic efficacy of saliva in chronic renal failure patients. Materials and Methods: This case–control study included 82 individuals, of which 41 were chronic renal failure patients and 41 were age- and sex-matched controls. Blood and saliva were collected and centrifuged. Serum and supernatant saliva were used for biochemical analysis. Serum and salivary urea, creatinine, sodium, potassium, calcium, and phosphorus were evaluated and correlated in chronic renal failure patients using unpaired t-test, Pearson's correlation coefficient, diagnostic validity tests, and receiver operative curve. Results: When compared to serum; salivary urea, creatinine, sodium, and potassium showed diagnostic accuracy of 93%, 91%, 73%, and 89%, respectively, based on the findings of study. Conclusion: It can be concluded that salivary investigation is a dependable, noninvasive, noninfectious, simple, and quick method for screening the mineral and metabolite values of high-risk patients and monitoring the renal failure patients.

  8. Nitrogen, Phosphor, and Potassium Level in Soil and Oil Palm Tree at various Composition of plant species mixtures grown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanum, C.; Rauf, A.; Fazrin, D. A.; Habibi, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    In productive oil palm plantation areas, poor vegetation is generally caused by low light intensity. This condition causes excessive erosion and decreases soil fertility. One of the efforts for soil and water conservation at oil palm plantations is through increased vegetation diversity. The changes of soil and plant nitrogen, phosporus, and potassium content, observed by planting two types of herbs under oil palm tree, with different compositions. Vegetation composition was set as: Arachis glabrata 100%; Stenotaprum secundatum 100%; Arachis glabrata 50% + Stenotaprum secundatum 50%; Arachis glabrata 75% + Stenotaprum secundatum 25%; Arachis glabrata 25% + Stenotaprum secundatum 75%. The shoot and root fresh/dry weight, nutrient content (nitrogen, phosphor, and potassium) of each cutting were measured at the end of the experiment. Ten of treatment plant were harvested and divided shoots and roots after washing out of soil. Biomass samples were dried at 70 °C for 48 h and weighed. The total N and its proportional concentration (N%) were analyzed with the micro- Kjeldahl method. Potasium analyzing with flamephotometry, and phosphor and from samples was determined by analyzing with spectrophotometry method. The results showed the highest shoot growth of A.glabarata if planting was mixed with S. secundatum, but the result was different with S.secundatum being superior if planted with monoculture system. Combination of interrow cultivation is more recommended for soil conservation and nutrient maintenance in palm oil trees were A. Glabarata 75% + S.secundatum 25%.

  9. Sequential plasma angiogenic factors levels in women with suspected preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltajian, Kedak; Bajracharya, Surichhya; Salahuddin, Saira; Berg, Anders H; Geahchan, Carl; Wenger, Julia B; Thadhani, Ravi; Karumanchi, S Ananth; Rana, Sarosh

    2016-07-01

    Alterations in circulating angiogenic factors are associated with the diagnosis of preeclampsia and correlate with adverse perinatal outcomes during the third trimester. Analysis of the sequential levels of plasma angiogenic factors among patients admitted for evaluation of preeclampsia. We performed an observational study among women with singleton pregnancies admitted to Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, for evaluation of preeclampsia at less than 37 weeks of gestation. Plasma samples were collected on admission and daily for the first 3 days and then weekly until delivery. Doppler ultrasound was performed on admission (within 48 hours) and then weekly (within 24 hours of blood collection) to evaluate uteroplacental and umbilical blood flows. Maternal demographics, hospital course, mode of delivery, diagnosis of hypertensive disorder, adverse maternal outcomes (elevated liver function enzymes, low platelet count, pulmonary edema, cerebral hemorrhage, convulsion, acute renal insufficiency, or maternal death), and adverse fetal/neonatal outcomes (small for gestational age, abnormal umbilical artery Doppler, fetal death, and neonatal death) were recorded. Circulating angiogenic factors (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase and placental growth factor were measured on automated platform in a single batch after delivery and in a blinded fashion. Data are presented as median (25th to 75th centile), mean, or proportions as appropriate. During the study period, data from 100 women were analyzed for the study, and 43 had adverse outcomes. Women with adverse outcomes had lower gestational age of delivery, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures during hospitalization, and lower birthweight and placental weight (all P preeclampsia, women at risk for adverse pregnancy outcomes have higher soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase/placental growth factor ratio on admission, which continued to rise until delivery. Women with high soluble fms-like tyrosine

  10. Associations between dietary acrylamide intake and plasma sex hormone levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogervorst, Janneke G.; Fortner, Renee T.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Hankinson, Susan E.; Wilson, Kathryn M.

    2013-01-01

    Background The rodent carcinogen acrylamide was discovered in 2002 in commonly consumed foods. Epidemiological studies have observed positive associations between acrylamide intake and endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer risks, which suggests that acrylamide may have sex-hormonal effects. Methods We cross-sectionally investigated the relationship between acrylamide intake and plasma levels of sex hormones and SHBG among 687 postmenopausal and 1300 premenopausal controls from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Studies. Results There were no associations between acrylamide and sex hormones or SHBG among premenopausal women overall or among never-smokers. Among normal-weight premenopausal women, acrylamide intake was statistically significantly positively associated with luteal total and free estradiol levels. Among postmenopausal women overall and among never-smokers, acrylamide was borderline statistically significantly associated with lower estrone sulfate levels but not with other estrogens, androgens, prolactin or SHBG. Among normal weight women, (borderline) statistically significant inverse associations were noted for estrone, free estradiol, estrone sulfate, DHEA, and prolactin, while statistically significant positive associations for testosterone and androstenedione were observed among overweight women. Conclusions Overall, this study did not show conclusive associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that would lend unequivocal biological plausibility to the observed increased risks of endometrial, ovarian and breast cancer. The association between acrylamide and sex hormones may differ by menopausal and overweight status. We recommend other studies investigate the relationship between acrylamide and sex hormones in women, specifically using acrylamide biomarkers. Impact The present study showed some interesting associations between acrylamide intake and sex hormones that urgently need confirmation. PMID:23983241

  11. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels after postoperative combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy predict prognosis in elderly glioblastoma patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Han

    Full Text Available It has been found that preoperative plasma IGFBP-2 levels correlate with prognosis in glioma patients. The prognostic value of plasma IGFBP-2 after postoperative combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy in glioma patients is unknown. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels in 83 glioblastoma patients after postoperative radiotherapy plus chemotherapy were analyzed using an IGFBP-2 ELISA kit. We found that after standard therapy plasma IGFBP-2 levels significantly correlated with the patient's age (R = 0.738, P<0.001 and Karnofsky performance status (KPS, R =  -0.633, P<0.05. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs of death according to plasma IGFBP-2 levels adjusted for patient clinical characteristics. Plasma IGFBP-2 levels significantly correlated with overall survival in glioblastoma patients (multivariate HR = 1.035; 95% CI, 1.024-1.047; P<0.001. The effect of plasma IGFBP-2 levels on survival seemed to differ according to patients' age. Among patients older than 60, high plasma IGFBP-2 levels were associated with a significant increase in overall mortality (HR = 1.097; 95% CI, 1.055-1.140; P<0.001. In contrast, plasma IGFBP-2 levels conferred no significant effect on mortality among patients younger than 60. Elevated plasma IGFBP-2 levels after combined postoperative radiotherapy and chemotherapy in elderly glioblastoma patients correlate with poor KPS score and predicts poor prognosis.

  12. Caffeine suppresses amyloid-beta levels in plasma and brain of Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chuanhai; Cirrito, John R; Lin, Xiaoyang; Wang, Li; Wang, Lilly; Verges, Deborah K; Dickson, Alexander; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Mori, Takashi; Arendash, Gary W; Holtzman, David M; Potter, Huntington

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that caffeine may be protective against Alzheimer's disease (AD). Supportive of this premise, our previous studies have shown that moderate caffeine administration protects/restores cognitive function and suppresses brain amyloid-beta (Abeta) production in AD transgenic mice. In the present study, we report that acute caffeine administration to both young adult and aged AD transgenic mice rapidly reduces Abeta levels in both brain interstitial fluid and plasma without affecting Abeta elimination. Long-term oral caffeine treatment to aged AD mice provided not only sustained reductions in plasma Abeta, but also decreases in both soluble and deposited Abeta in hippocampus and cortex. Irrespective of caffeine treatment, plasma Abeta levels did not correlate with brain Abeta levels or with cognitive performance in individual aged AD mice. Although higher plasma caffeine levels were strongly associated with lower plasma Abeta1-40 levels in aged AD mice, plasma caffeine levels were also not linked to cognitive performance. Plasma caffeine and theophylline levels were tightly correlated, both being associated with reduced inflammatory cytokine levels in hippocampus. Our conclusion is two-fold: first, that both plasma and brain Abeta levels are reduced by acute or chronic caffeine administration in several AD transgenic lines and ages, indicating a therapeutic value of caffeine against AD; and second, that plasma Abeta levels are not an accurate index of brain Abeta levels/deposition or cognitive performance in aged AD mice.

  13. Two distinct pools of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the somatic plasma membrane of central principal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, W.A.; Kasugai, Y.; Ferraguti, F.; Storm, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Although nerve cell membranes are often assumed to be uniform with respect to electrical properties, there is increasing evidence for compartmentalization into subdomains with heterogeneous impacts on the overall cell function. Such microdomains are characterized by specific sets of proteins determining their functional properties. Recently, clustering of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels was shown at sites of subsurface membrane cisterns in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC), where they likely participate in building a subcellular signaling unit, the 'PLasmERosome'. By applying SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labeling (SDS-FRL) and postembedding immunogold electron microscopy, we have now studied the spatial organization of somatic BKCa channels in neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons, principal neurons of the central and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei, hippocampal pyramidal neurons and dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells to establish whether there is a common organizational principle in the distribution of BKCa channels in central principal neurons. In all cell types analyzed, somatic BKCa channels were found to be non-homogenously distributed in the plasma membrane, forming two pools of channels with one pool consisting of clustered channels and the other of scattered channels in the extrasynaptic membrane. Quantitative analysis by means of SDS-FRL revealed that about two-thirds of BKCa channels belong to the scattered pool and about one-third to the clustered pool in principal cell somata. Overall densities of channels in both pools differed in the different cell types analyzed, although being considerably lower compared to cerebellar PC. Postembedding immunogold labeling revealed association of clustered channels with subsurface membrane cisterns and confirmed extrasynaptic localization of scattered channels. This study indicates a common organizational principle for somatic BKCa channels in central principal neurons with the

  14. Plasma levels of immunosuppressive mediators during cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borrelli

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma levels of two mediators with immunosuppressive properties, complement fraction C3a (C3a and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1, during extracorporeal circulation. The proliferation index after phytohaemagglutinin (PHA stimulation of isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells was also investigated. Sixteen patients undergoing hypothermic (n = 8, group 1 and normothermic (n = 8, group 2 cardiopulmormry bypass (CPB were enrolled in this study. As a control, we evaluated four patients undergoing thoracovascular operations without CPB. Blood samples were collected before CPB but after anaesthesia, every 30 min during CPB, at the end of CPB and 10 min after protamine administration. Both C3a and TGF-β1 increased significantly during CPB and after protamine administration in the hypothermic as well as the normothermic group. In the latter case the increase of C3a and TGF-β1, although more prominent, was not significantl higher than in the former group. Conversely, the proliferation, index of peripheral mononuclear cells had already decreased 30 min after CPB was started and remained depressed throughout the CPB time. These results suggest a possible role of C3a and TGF-β1 in the immunological changes occurring during extracorporeal circulation.

  15. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, James O; Hamali, Hassan A; Singh, Ruchir; Abbasian, Nima; Parsons, Ruth; Patel, Amit K; Goodall, Alison H; Brunskill, Nigel J

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular (CV) death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs) are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs) are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD), 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve)) and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve)) were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p0.3). Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients.

  16. Elevated levels of procoagulant plasma microvesicles in dialysis patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James O Burton

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV death remains the largest cause of mortality in dialysis patients, unexplained by traditional risk factors. Endothelial microvesicles (EMVs are elevated in patients with traditional CV risk factors and acute coronary syndromes while platelet MVs (PMVs are associated with atherosclerotic disease states. This study compared relative concentrations of circulating MVs from endothelial cells and platelets in two groups of dialysis patients and matched controls and investigated their relative thromboembolic risk. MVs were isolated from the blood of 20 haemodialysis (HD, 17 peritoneal dialysis (PD patients and 20 matched controls. Relative concentrations of EMVs (CD144(+ ve and PMVs (CD42b(+ ve were measured by Western blotting and total MV concentrations were measured using nanoparticle-tracking analysis. The ability to support thrombin generation was measured by reconstituting the MVs in normal plasma, using the Continuous Automated Thrombogram assay triggered with 1µM tissue factor. The total concentration of MVs as well as the measured sub-types was higher in both patient groups compared to controls (p0.3. Dialysis patients have higher levels of circulating procoagulant MVs than healthy controls. This may represent a novel and potentially modifiable mediator or predictor of occlusive cardiovascular events in these patients.

  17. Plasma Cytokine Levels During Long-Duration Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Zwart, Sara R.; Quiriarte, Heather A.; Smith, Scott M.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2012-01-01

    Determine the in-flight status of immunity, physiological stress, viral immunity/reactivation. Specific measurements include leukocyte distribution, T cell function, cytokine production profiles (mRNA, intracellular, secreted, plasma), virus-specific T cell number/function, latent herpesvirus reactivation, stress hormone levels. Determine the clinical risk related to immune dysregulation for exploration class spaceflight, as well as an appropriate monitoring strategy for spaceflight-associated immune dysfunction, that could be used for the evaluation of countermeasures. Specific Study Objectives: Determine the nutritional status of astronauts before, during, and after spaceflight ensure adequate intake of energy, protein, and vitamins during missions. The Clinical Nutritional Status Assessment measures dietary intake, body composition, protein, bone, iron, mineral, vitamin, and antioxidant status (60 total analytes). Currently, it is a medical requirement for U.S. crewmembers on-board the ISS. The results of data analysis are used both to understand the connections between nutrition and human health during space flight, and to develop effective dietary strategies to reduce adverse health impacts (including bone loss, loss of important vitamins and minerals, and increased genetic damage from radiation).

  18. Plasma Lactate Dehydrogenase Levels Predict Mortality in Acute Aortic Syndromes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morello, Fulvio; Ravetti, Anna; Nazerian, Peiman; Liedl, Giovanni; Veglio, Maria Grazia; Battista, Stefania; Vanni, Simone; Pivetta, Emanuele; Montrucchio, Giuseppe; Mengozzi, Giulio; Rinaldi, Mauro; Moiraghi, Corrado; Lupia, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In acute aortic syndromes (AAS), organ malperfusion represents a key event impacting both on diagnosis and outcome. Increased levels of plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a biomarker of malperfusion, have been reported in AAS, but the performance of LDH for the diagnosis of AAS and the relation of LDH with outcome in AAS have not been evaluated so far. This was a bi-centric prospective diagnostic accuracy study and a cohort outcome study. From 2008 to 2014, patients from 2 Emergency Departments suspected of having AAS underwent LDH assay at presentation. A final diagnosis was obtained by aortic imaging. Patients diagnosed with AAS were followed-up for in-hospital mortality. One thousand five hundred seventy-eight consecutive patients were clinically eligible, and 999 patients were included in the study. The final diagnosis was AAS in 201 (20.1%) patients. Median LDH was 424 U/L (interquartile range [IQR] 367–557) in patients with AAS and 383 U/L (IQR 331–460) in patients with alternative diagnoses (P < 0.001). Using a cutoff of 450 U/L, the sensitivity of LDH for AAS was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 37–51) and the specificity was 73% (95% CI 69–76). Overall in-hospital mortality for AAS was 23.8%. Mortality was 32.6% in patients with LDH ≥ 450 U/L and 16.8% in patients with LDH < 450 U/L (P = 0.006). Following stratification according to LDH quartiles, in-hospital mortality was 12% in the first (lowest) quartile, 18.4% in the second quartile, 23.5% in the third quartile, and 38% in the fourth (highest) quartile (P = 0.01). LDH ≥ 450 U/L was further identified as an independent predictor of death in AAS both in univariate and in stepwise logistic regression analyses (odds ratio 2.28, 95% CI 1.11–4.66; P = 0.025), in addition to well-established risk markers such as advanced age and hypotension. Subgroup analysis showed excess mortality in association with LDH ≥ 450 U/L in elderly, hemodynamically stable

  19. Plasma levels of OLFM4 in normals and patients with gastrointestinal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Stine N; Glenthøj, Anders J; Heebøll, Sara;

    2015-01-01

    levels in plasma, the majority with OLFM4 in plasma between 0 and 0.1 μg/ml, mean 0.028 μg/ml while 10% of both normals and patients with cancers had OLFM4 between 4 and 60 μg/ml, mean 15 μg/ml. The levels were constant over time. The background for this high plasma level is not known, but must be taken...

  20. Plasma GLP-2 levels and intestinal markers in the juvenile pig during intestinal adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paris, Monique C; Fuller, Peter J; Carstensen, Bendix

    2004-01-01

    , villus height, lactase, sucrase, maltase, crypt depth, or villus/crypt ratio. Plasma GLP-2 levels increase in the first weeks following massive small intestinal resection. The increase in plasma GLP-2 levels was enhanced by supplementation of the diet with CPC. The changes in GLP-2 levels observed...

  1. Plasma levels of soluble endothelial cell protein C receptor in patients with Wegener's granulomatosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boomsma, MM; Stearns-Kurosawa, DJ; Stegeman, CA; Raschi, E; Meroni, PL; Kurosawa, S; Tervaert, JWC

    Elevated soluble thrombomodulin (sTM) levels are an accepted marker of endothelial damage. The physiological significance of plasma endothelial protein C receptor (sEPCR) levels is not known. To assess the relevance of this plasma protein in Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), sEPCR levels were measured

  2. Increased plasma levels of soluble IL-2R are associated with severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Morris-Jones, S; Theander, T G;

    1994-01-01

    Plasma samples from children with mild and severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria and from children with unrelated diseases were collected to investigate whether the clinical outcome of infection was associated with plasma factors which reflected the activity of different cells of the immune system....... Children with severe P. falciparum malaria had significantly higher plasma levels of soluble IL-2R than children with mild malaria. Plasma levels of IL-2R and levels of parasitaemia were significantly correlated. Neither parasitaemia nor plasma levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-6......, lymphotoxin (LT), interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), IL-4, soluble IL-4R or soluble CD8 differed significantly between the two groups of children with malaria. High plasma levels of soluble CD8 were associated with failure of lymphocytes to produce IFN-gamma in vitro following stimulation with P. falciparum...

  3. Correction factors for estimating potassium concentrations in samples with in vitro hemolysis: a detriment to patient safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Mai M H; Azzazy, Hassan M E; Kazmierczak, Steven C

    2009-06-01

    Correction factors have been proposed for estimating true potassium concentrations in blood samples with evidence of in vitro hemolysis. We used 2 different models of true (ie, nonsimulated) in vitro hemolysis to evaluate the clinical utility of correction factors for estimating potassium concentrations in samples with evidence of in vitro hemolysis. Potassium correction factors were derived using 2 different models. In model 1, potassium and plasma hemoglobin were measured with the Hitachi 747 analyzer in 132 paired blood samples, with each pair consisting of 1 sample with evidence of hemolysis and 1 without, collected during the same phlebotomy procedure. The change in measured potassium concentration was plotted versus the change in plasma hemoglobin concentration for each pair of samples. In model 2, the potassium levels of 142 784 blood samples and the corresponding hemolytic index values were measured with the Beckman LX20 analyzer. Potassium concentrations at the 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles were calculated for each hemolysis index category. From our 2 models, we derived correction factors expressing an increase in potassium concentration of 0.51 and 0.40 mEq/L for every increase in plasma hemoglobin concentration of 0.1 g/dL. These correction factors are much higher than those reported in studies that simulated in vitro hemolysis by freeze-thaw lysis or osmotic disruption of whole blood. Use of correction factors for estimating the true potassium concentration in samples with evidence of in vitro hemolysis is not recommended. Derivation of correction factors by using samples with nonsimulated in vitro hemolysis suggests that the actual increase in potassium in hemolyzed samples is much higher than that reported in previous studies that produced hemolysis with artificial means.

  4. Determination of lead by hydride generation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HG-ICP-MS): on-line generation of plumbane using potassium hexacyanomanganate(III).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Vedat; Arslan, Zikri; Rose, LaKeysha

    2013-01-25

    A hydride generation (HG) procedure has been described for determination of Pb by ICP-MS using potassium hexacyanomanganate(III), K(3)Mn(CN)(6), as an additive to facilitate the generation of plumbane (PbH(4)). Potassium hexacyanomanganate(III) was prepared in acidic medium as it was unstable in water. The stability of hexacyanomanganate(III) was examined in dilute solutions of HCl, HNO(3) and H(2)SO(4). The solutions prepared in 1% v/v H(2)SO(4) were found to be stable for over a period of 24h. The least suitable medium was 1% v/v HNO(3). For generation of plumbane, acidic hexacyanomanganate(III) and sample solutions were mixed on-line along a 5-cm long tygon tubing (1.14 mm i.d.) and then reacted with 2% m/v sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)). A concentration of 0.5% m/v K(3)Mn(CN)(6) facilitated the generation of PbH(4) remarkably. In comparison to H(2)SO(4), HCl provided broader working range for which optimum concentration was 1% v/v. No significant interferences were noted from transition metals and hydride forming elements, up to 0.5 μg mL(-1) levels, except Cu which depressed the signals severely. The depressive effects in the presence of 0.1 μg mL(-1) Cu were alleviated by increasing the concentration of K(3)Mn(CN)(6) to 2% m/v. Under these conditions, the sensitivity was enhanced by a factor of at least 42 to 48. The detection limit (3s) was 0.008 μg L(-1) for (208)Pb isotope. Average signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) ranged between 18 and 20 for 1.0 μg mL(-1) Pb solution. The accuracy of the method was verified by analysis of several certified reference materials, including Nearshore seawater (CASS-4), Bone ash (SRM 1400), and Mussel tissue (SRM 2976). The procedure was also successfully applied to the determination of Pb in coastal seawater samples by ICP-MS.

  5. Measurement of indoor radon and thoron levels in dwellings and estimation of uranium, thorium and potassium in soil samples from central part of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kher, R.S. [Department of Physics, Government Science Postgraduate College, Bilaspur 495 006 (India)], E-mail: kherrs@hotmail.com; Khokhar, M.S.K. [Department of Rural Technology, Guru Ghasidas University, Bilaspur 495 009 (India); Rathore, V.B. [Department of Radiotherapy, Pt. J.N.M. Medical College, Raipur 492 001 (India); Ramachandran, T.V. [Environmental Assessment Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2008-08-15

    In the frame of nationwide survey project, measurement of indoor radon/thoron level has been carried out in 132 dwellings situated in 10 different towns/villages of centrally located states Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh. LR 115 solid-state nuclear track detectors in plastic twin chamber dosimeter cups were used for the measurement. The measurements were carried out for a full year, divided into four quarters. The mean radon/thoron concentration at all the locations falls well below the range of active level recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection. The results of uranium, thorium and potassium estimation in soil samples belonging to these areas are also reported. Positive correlation has not been observed between indoor radon/thoron concentration and uranium/thorium content of the soil. It is concluded that the diffusion of radon from soil to dwelling is greatly affected by flooring material.

  6. Diverse levels of an inwardly rectifying potassium conductance generate heterogeneous neuronal behavior in a population of dorsal cochlear nucleus pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leao, Ricardo M; Li, Shuang; Doiron, Brent; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2012-06-01

    Homeostatic mechanisms maintain homogeneous neuronal behavior among neurons that exhibit substantial variability in the expression levels of their ionic conductances. In contrast, the mechanisms, which generate heterogeneous neuronal behavior across a neuronal population, remain poorly understood. We addressed this problem in the dorsal cochlear nucleus, where principal neurons exist in two qualitatively distinct states: spontaneously active or not spontaneously active. Our studies reveal that distinct activity states are generated by the differential levels of a Ba(2+)-sensitive, inwardly rectifying potassium conductance (K(ir)). Variability in K(ir) maximal conductance causes variations in the resting membrane potential (RMP). Low K(ir) conductance depolarizes RMP to voltages above the threshold for activating subthreshold-persistent sodium channels (Na(p)). Once Na(p) channels are activated, the RMP becomes unstable, and spontaneous firing is triggered. Our results provide a biophysical mechanism for generating neural heterogeneity, which may play a role in the encoding of sensory information.

  7. Physical activity affects plasma coenzyme Q10 levels differently in young and old humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pozo-Cruz, Jesús; Rodríguez-Bies, Elisabet; Ballesteros-Simarro, Manuel; Navas-Enamorado, Ignacio; Tung, Bui Thanh; Navas, Plácido; López-Lluch, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Coenzyme Q (Q) is a key lipidic compound for cell bioenergetics and membrane antioxidant activities. It has been shown that also has a central role in the prevention of oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. Q has been associated with the prevention of cholesterol oxidation and several aging-related diseases. However, to date no clear data on the levels of plasma Q during aging are available. We have measured the levels of plasmatic Q10 and cholesterol in young and old individuals showing different degrees of physical activity. Our results indicate that plasma Q10 levels in old people are higher that the levels found in young people. Our analysis also indicates that there is no a relationship between the degree of physical activity and Q10 levels when the general population is studied. However, very interestingly, we have found a different tendency between Q10 levels and physical activity depending on the age of individuals. In young people, higher activity correlates with lower Q10 levels in plasma whereas in older adults this ratio changes and higher activity is related to higher plasma Q10 levels and higher Q10/Chol ratios. Higher Q10 levels in plasma are related to lower lipoperoxidation and oxidized LDL levels in elderly people. Our results highlight the importance of life habits in the analysis of Q10 in plasma and indicate that the practice of physical activity at old age can improve antioxidant capacity in plasma and help to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  8. Zinc and copper levels in plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldor, Y; Walach, N; Modai, D; Horn, Y

    1982-04-01

    Zinc and copper levels in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood were determined in 35 cancer patients and compared with 24 normal individuals. A decrease in zinc was found in all three blood constituents of the cancer patients. The decrease was significant in plasma and whole blood and nonsignificant in erythrocytes. Copper levels in the cancer group showed a slight and nonsignificant increase in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood. The copper to zinc ratio revealed a significant increase only for plasma levels. Further investigations are indicated to determine whether these two elements could serve as indicators for diagnosis or prognosis in cancer patients.

  9. Thanatochemistry: Study of vitreous humor potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilesh Keshav Tumram

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study has been carried out to determine the death interval from the biochemical parameter of vitreous potassium. In 308 medicolegal cases vitreous humor was taken and analyzed for potassium with known time of death. There was a linear rise in potassium concentration with increasing death interval. Regression equation was calculated for the same. The study indicates that potassium levels in vitreous for determining death interval are useful and can afford a good method of determining the death interval along with other traditional methods. Also the previously established formulae for estimating death interval from vitreous potassium were also studied.

  10. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine frompatients with bladder cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten Andersen, MN; Brunner, N; Nielsen, HJ;

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. Methods: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  11. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine from patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads Nikolaj; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen;

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. METHODS: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  12. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and risk of stroke in old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, P. van; Mooijaart, S.P.; Craen, A.J.M. de; Rensen, P.C.N.; Heemst, D. van; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    Recently, high plasma apoE levels have been shown to be related to increased cardiovascular mortality, independent of APOE genotype. Here we studied the association of plasma apoE levels with risk of stroke. Within the Leiden 85-plus Study, a prospective population-based study of 561 subjects aged

  13. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and cognitive function in old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mooijaart, S.P.; Vliet, P. van; Heemst, D. van; Rensen, P.C.N.; Berbée, J.F.P.; Jolles, J.; Craen, A.J.M. de; Westendorp, R.G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between structural variants of the apolipoprotein E gene, APOE ε2/ε3/ε4, and dementia is well established, whereas the relationship of plasma apoE levels with dementia is less clear. Plasma apoE levels are under tight genetic control but vary widely within the various genotypes

  14. Levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 in plasma and urine from patients with cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holten-Andersen, Mads Nikolaj; Brünner, Nils; Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the potential use of plasma and urine levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1) in urothelial cancer. METHODS: TIMP-1 levels were determined in urine and plasma from healthy donors (n=26), patients with bacterial bladder infection (n=24), urothelial bladder adenoma...

  15. Caloric restriction and exercise increase plasma ANGPTL4 levels in humans via elevated free fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, S.; Lichtenstein, L.; Steenbergen, E.; Mudde, K.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Hesselink, M.K.; Schrauwen, P.; Müller, M.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE-: Plasma lipoprotein levels are determined by the balance between lipoprotein production and clearance. Recently, angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) was uncovered as a novel endocrine factor that potently raises plasma triglyceride levels by inhibiting triglyceride clearance. However, v

  16. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ticlopidine in healthy volunteers and patients with stable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Arnold, A.E.R.; Buuren, S. van; Paul Wilson, J.H.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels represent an increased risk for cardiac events. Ticlopidine is a drug that inhibits the ADP-induced aggregation of blood platelets and it also has been described that ticlopidine can decrease the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with vascular diseases. The

  17. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ticlopidine in healthy volunteers and patients with stable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Arnold, A.E.R.; Buuren, S. van; Wilson, J.H.P.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with an increased risk for cardiac events. Ticlopidine is a drug that inhibits the ADP-induced aggregation of blood platelets and it also has been described that ticlopidine can decrease the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with vascular diseases.

  18. Plasma S100 beta and NSE levels and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; Mostert, Jop; Heersema, Dorothea; Teelken, Albert; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Plasma levels of the glial cell marker S100 beta and the neuronal marker neuron-specific enolase (NSE) are elevated in various conditions of central nervous system damage. In this study we investigated whether plasma levels of S 1000 and NSE are related to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (

  19. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ticlopidine in healthy volunteers and patients with stable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Arnold, A.E.R.; Buuren, S. van; Paul Wilson, J.H.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels represent an increased risk for cardiac events. Ticlopidine is a drug that inhibits the ADP-induced aggregation of blood platelets and it also has been described that ticlopidine can decrease the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with vascular diseases. The mechan

  20. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ticlopidine in healthy volunteers and patients with stable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maat, M.P.M. de; Arnold, A.E.R.; Buuren, S. van; Wilson, J.H.P.; Kluft, C.

    1996-01-01

    Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with an increased risk for cardiac events. Ticlopidine is a drug that inhibits the ADP-induced aggregation of blood platelets and it also has been described that ticlopidine can decrease the plasma fibrinogen level in patients with vascular diseases.

  1. Plasma S100 beta and NSE levels and progression in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koch, Marcus; Mostert, Jop; Heersema, Dorothea; Teelken, Albert; De Keyser, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    Plasma levels of the glial cell marker S100 beta and the neuronal marker neuron-specific enolase (NSE) are elevated in various conditions of central nervous system damage. In this study we investigated whether plasma levels of S 1000 and NSE are related to disease progression in multiple sclerosis (

  2. Plasma Histamine And Serotonin Levels In Children With Nephrotic Syndrome And Acute Poststreptococcal Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa Mohamed and Talaat El sayed

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma histamine and serotonin concentrations were measured using fluorimeteric assay in 40 children with renal diseases. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (15 focal segmental glomerulosclerosis(10 and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis(15 to determine the relation between plasma levels of histamine and serotonin and these various types of renal diseases in children. Plasma histamine level was significantly increased in group of children with acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Plasma serotonin levels were significantly increased in all 3 groups of patient, when compared with those of controls. Raised plasma histamine in acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis group may be evidence of the acute immunological inflammation and defective renal excretion due to mild renal impairment in these children. Raised plasma serotonin in all 3 groups of patients may be due to diminished uptake and release of serotonin from platelets in children with minimal change nephrotic syndrome and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis and due to defective renal execretion in children with acute poststreptococcal glomerulo-nephritis.

  3. Use of potassium-42 in the study of kidney functioning; Emploi du patassium-12 pour l'etude du fonctionnement renal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morel, F.; Guinnebault, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1959-07-01

    Following an intravenous injection of potassium-42 as indicator, an analysis of the specific activity vs. time curve in arterial plasma, in venous plasma efferent from the kidney, in urine and in various regions of the kidney of rabbits reveals that: 1) The turnover rate of potassium in the cortex cells (proximal and distal convoluted tubes) is very large, being limited only by renal blood flow. 2) The turnover rate of potassium in deep regions (Henle loops and collector tubules) is much smaller. 3) Potassium in the urine comes from cells of the convoluted tubes and not from cells of Henle loops, collector ducts, or glomerular filtrate. 4) Any potassium filtered at the level of the glomerules would be entirely reabsorbed at the level of the proximal tube, while total potassium in the urine results from a process of excretion by cells of the distal tube. These results are comparable with the assumption that the movement of potassium between interstitial medium and convoluted tube cells results from entirely passive processes. (author) [French] Apres injection intraveineuse au lapin de radiopotassium comme indicateur, l'analyse des courbes de la radioactivite specifique du potassium, mesuree en fonction du temps dans le plasma arteriel, dans le plasma veineux efferent du rein, dans l'urine et dans diverses regions du rein, lui-meme, permet de montrer: 1)que la vitesse de renouvellement du potassium contenu dans les cellules du cortex (tubes contournes proximaux et distaux), apparait tres grande et semble limitee par le debit sanguin renal. 2) que le vitesse de renouvellement du potassium contenu dans les regions profondes (anses de Henle et tubes collecteurs) est beaucoup plus faible. 3) que le potassium de l'urine a pour precurseur le potassium des cellules des tubes contournes et non celui des cellules des anses de Henle ou des canaux collecteurs, ni celui du filtrat glomerulaire. 4) que le potassium filtre au niveau des glomerules serait entierement

  4. Plasma levels of oestriol-17 beta, oestriol and human placental lactogen during bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chew, P C; Mok, H; Ratnam, S S

    1976-11-01

    Plasma unconjugated oestradiol-17 beta, total oestriol and human placental lactogen levels were measured in twelve healthy volunteers admitted for bed rest in the last trimester of pregnancy. No significant alteration in levels was observed.

  5. Study of plasma amino acid levels in children with autism: An Egyptian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farida M. ElBaz

    2014-04-01

    Conclusions: Autistic children had lower levels of some plasma amino acids except for glycine and glutamic acids and phosphoserine were increased with normal serum levels of urea, ammonia, total proteins, albumin and globulins (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta and gamma.

  6. Plasma ion levels of freshwater and marine/estuarine teleosts from Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexssandro Geferson Becker

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate Na+, Cl-, K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+ levels in the plasma of freshwater and marine/estuarine teleosts collected at different salinities (0 to 34 from the estuarine and freshwater portions of the São Gonçalo channel in Southern Brazil. Any relationship between plasma ion levels and salinity and the capacity of ionic regulation of teleosts found at three or more different salinities (Genidens barbus and Micropogonias furnieri was also investigated. Results showed no relationship between plasma ion levels and salinity when considering all species together, but the two species collected from three or more different salinities showed a significant positive relationship between plasma ion levels and salinity, indicating that G. barbus and M. furnieri have a high capacity to regulate plasma ion levels at both low and high salinities.

  7. The contribution of different adipose tissue depots to plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Sunelle A; Pieters, Marlien; De Lange, Zelda

    2016-11-01

    Increased plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) level is considered a mechanistic pathway through which obesity contributes to increased cardiovascular disease risk. Abdominal adipose tissue specifically, is a major PAI-1 source with visceral adipose tissue (VAT), an ectopic fat depot, generally considered to produce more PAI-1 than subcutaneous adipose tissue. However, this does not necessarily lead to increased plasma PAI-1 levels. This review provides an overview of studies investigating the association between body fat distribution and plasma PAI-1 levels. It discusses factors that influence this relationship and also considers the contribution of other tissue to plasma PAI-1 levels, placing the relative contribution of adipose tissue into perspective. In conclusion, the relationship between VAT and plasma PAI-1 levels is not fixed but can be modulated by a number of factors such as the size of the subcutaneous adipose tissue depot, ethnicity, possibly genetics and other obesity-related metabolic abnormalities.

  8. Daily melatonin administration at middle age suppresses male rat visceral fat, plasma leptin, and plasma insulin to youthful levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, D D; Boldt, B M; Wilkinson, C W; Yellon, S M; Matsumoto, A M

    1999-02-01

    Human and rat pineal melatonin secretion decline with aging, whereas visceral fat and plasma insulin levels increase. Melatonin modulates fat metabolism in some mammalian species, so these aging-associated melatonin, fat and insulin changes could be functionally related. Accordingly, we investigated the effects of daily melatonin supplementation to male Sprague-Dawley rats, starting at middle age (10 months) and continuing into old age (22 months). Melatonin was added to the drinking water (92% of which was consumed at night) at a dosage (4 microg/ml) previously reported to attenuate the aging-associated decrease in survival rate in male rats, as well as at a 10-fold lower dosage. The higher dosage produced nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats which were 15-fold higher than in young (4 months) rats; nocturnal plasma melatonin levels in middle-aged rats receiving the lower dosage were not significantly different from young or middle-aged controls. Relative (% of body wt) retroperitoneal and epididymal fat, as well as plasma insulin and leptin levels, were all significantly increased at middle age when compared to young rats. All were restored within 10 weeks to youthful (4 month) levels in response to both dosages of melatonin. Continued treatment until old age maintained suppression of visceral (retroperitoneal + epididymal) fat levels. Plasma corticosterone and total thyroxine (T4) levels were not significantly altered by aging or melatonin treatment. Plasma testosterone, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and total triiodothyronine (T3) decreased by middle age; these aging-associated decreases were not significantly altered by melatonin treatment. Thus, visceral fat, insulin and leptin responses to melatonin administration may be independent of marked changes in gonadal, thyroid, adrenal or somatotropin regulation. Since increased visceral fat is associated with increased insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, these results

  9. Plasma cathepsin S and cystatin C levels and risk of abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Bing-Jie; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Cheng, Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) lesions contain high levels of cathepsin S (CatS), but are deficient in its inhibitor, cystatin C. Whether plasma CatS and cystatin C levels are also altered in AAA patients remains unknown.......Human abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) lesions contain high levels of cathepsin S (CatS), but are deficient in its inhibitor, cystatin C. Whether plasma CatS and cystatin C levels are also altered in AAA patients remains unknown....

  10. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes...... plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects....

  11. Effects of drought stress and various levels of potassium fertilizer on yield and yield component of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L. cultivar Armaviresky in Ardabil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Salati Momeni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available To study the effect of drought stress and various levels of potassium fertilizer on yield and yield component of sunflower (Helianthus Annuus L. cultivarArmaviresky in Ardabil a randomized complete block design experiment factorial the four replications in 1394. The amount of potassium factor of 3 K1= 0kg/h, K2= 50kg/h and K3= 100kg/h, respectively. And the second factor consisted of drought stress levels D1=70mm evaporation, D2=140mm evaporation and the D3 =210 mm evaporation. Was used in this experiment was Armawireski. Overall, it was concluded that water stress, yield in oil yield significantly reduced. In this experiment, the highest grain yield D1= 70mm treatments, respectively (5021kg/h (5631/4 kg/h and the lowest yield of treatments and treatments D3=210 mm K1=0 kg/h, respectively (2481/3 kg/h and (2996/9 kg/h. The results suggest that treatment D1=70 mm increased number of seeds per heah was.The higher leaf area during this stage of growth. Environmental stress by limiting the supply of assimilates for grain filling, the number of seeds per head is affected. So the highest seed weight, number of seeds per head and oil yield, respectively (74/51gr, (938/26 number and (2457 kg/h from D1=70mm treatment and lowest seed weight, number of seeds per head and oil yield, respectively (50/29 gr, (number 628/60 and (1631 kg g/h of treatment K1=0 kg/h, respectively. If the highest oil percent (%59/74 of treatment K3=100 kg/h, respectively.

  12. Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels are elevated in patients with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Sachiko; Soeki, Takeshi; Matsuura, Tomomi; Tobiume, Takeshi; Ise, Takayuki; Kusunose, Kenya; Yamaguchi, Koji; Yagi, Shusuke; Fukuda, Daiju; Iwase, Takashi; Yamada, Hirotsugu; Wakatsuki, Tetsuzo; Shimabukuro, Michio; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji; Kishimoto, Ichiro; Kangawa, Kenji; Sata, Masataka

    2017-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have been proposed as biomarkers of cardiovascular disease, especially heart failure. Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) has also been shown to be upregulated at the transcriptional and translational levels by pro-inflammatory cytokines in cardiac myocytes. Although we often measure plasma BNP levels in cancer patients, it remains unknown whether cancer-related inflammation affects the plasma BNP levels. We investigated the relationship between the BNP and human cancers. We retrospectively studied 2,923 patients in whom the plasma BNP levels and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured and echocardiography was performed. Patients with clinically evident heart failure (NYHA II or higher), heart disease requiring medical treatment or surgery, renal dysfunction, and inflammatory disease were excluded. There were 234 patients in the final analysis. Blood sampling was performed before surgery and chemotherapy. In addition, we evaluated the relationship between the inflammation and plasma BNP levels in mouse models of colon cancer. Of the 234 patients, 80 were diagnosed with cancer. Both the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels were significantly higher in cancer patients than those without. There were no significant differences in the echocardiographic parameters. There was a significant positive correlation between the plasma BNP and serum CRP levels in cancer patients (r = 0.360, P<0.01) but not in those without. In cancer patients, only the CRP correlated with the BNP independent of the age, creatinine level, hypertension, and body mass index. In addition, in nude mice with subcutaneous colon cancer, the plasma BNP level was elevated compared with that in non-cancer mice, and there was a significant relationship between the plasma BNP and serum levels of the inflammatory markers. In cancer patients, as well as colon cancer model mice, the plasma BNP levels were elevated, possibly due to cancer-related inflammation. The effect of cancer on the BNP

  13. Post-prandial decrease in plasma growth hormone levels is not related to the increase in plasma insulin levels in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Koki; Kobayashi, Ryoko; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sato, Katsuyoshi; Katoh, Kazuo; Roh, Sang-Gun

    2017-06-26

    In the present study, we examined whether the post-prandial reduction in plasma growth hormone (GH) levels is related to the increase in plasma insulin levels in ruminants. We performed two experiments: intravenous bolus injection of insulin (0.2 IU/kg body weight) or glucose (1.0 mmol/kg body weight) was administered to increase the plasma insulin levels in male Shiba goats. In the insulin injection experiment, significant (pincrease in GH concentrations was observed, 15-20 min after the injection; it was accompanied with a significant (pincrease in cortisol concentrations at 45-90 min, when compared to the concentrations in the saline-injected controls. The glucose injection significantly (pincreased the plasma GH concentration at 20-45 min; this was not accompanied by significantly higher cortisol concentrations than were observed for the saline-injected control. Hypoglycemia induced by the insulin injection, which causes the excitation of the adrenal cortex, might be involved in the increase in insulin levels. Based on these results, we conclude that post-prandial increases in plasma insulin or glucose levels do not induce a decrease in GH concentration after feeding in the ruminants.

  14. Relationship between the plasma levels of neurodegenerative proteins and motor subtypes of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jian; Zhang, Jiejin; Wang, Xixi; Zhang, Li; Jiang, Siming; Yuan, Yongsheng; Li, Junyi; Zhu, Lin; Zhang, Kezhong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of our study is to examine the plasma levels of the four kinds of neurodegenerative proteins in plasma: α-syn, T-tau, P-tau181, and Aβ-42 in Parkinson's disease (PD) and to evaluate the relationship between their plasma levels and PD motor subtypes. 84 patients with PD were enrolled in our study, and finally, 73 of them were classified into the tremor-dominant subtype (TD) and the postural instability gait difficulty subtype (PIGD). Their motor performance was evaluated by a series of clinical assessments: Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOGQ), Timed Up and Go (TUGs), Tinetti balance, and Tinetti gait. Plasma levels of these proteins were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The plasma level of α-syn was significantly higher in PD patients when compared to controls (p = 0.004), and significantly higher in the PIGD group when compared to the TD group (p = 0.03). While the plasma level of Aβ-42 was significantly lower in PD patients than in controls (p = 0.002), and significantly lower in the PIGD group than in the TD group (p = 0.05). In PD patients, the plasma level of α-syn (r = -0.355, p score, even after performing multiple linear regression (p = 0.002). While the plasma level of Aβ-42 (r = -0.261, p score and remained correlate when performed multiple linear regression (p = 0.005). The patients with PIGD subtype are characterized with a lower level of plasma Aβ-42 and a higher plasma level of α-syn, which may be used as biomarkers for diagnosis and progression of the subtypes of PD.

  15. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  16. Nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3-hydroxycotinine levels in seminal plasma of smokers: effects on sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, R; Altieri, I; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Pichini, S; Rosa, M; Zuccaro, P; Dondero, F

    1993-10-01

    Sperm samples from 44 cigarette smokers and 50 nonsmokers attending an infertility clinic were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay and HPLC-mass spectrometry for the presence of nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (THOC) in seminal plasma. Smokers were found to have levels of COT and THOC in seminal plasma that were similar to those found in serum. The level of NIC was significantly increased in seminal plasma compared to serum. Total motility of spermatozoa was significantly and negatively correlated to COT and THOC levels in seminal plasma. Forward motility of spermatozoa was correlated only with cotinine semen levels. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the presence of tobacco smoke constituents in seminal plasma could provide a warning of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the physiology of reproduction.

  17. Correlation analysis between plasma D-dimer levels and orthopedic trauma severity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-dan; LIU Hong-bo; LI Yu-neng; MA Hai-mei; LIU Ya-bo; WANG Man-yi

    2012-01-01

    Background The correlation between the plasma D-dimer level and deep vein thrombosis has not been conclusive in various studies.The aim of this research was to study the relationship between plasma D-dimer levels and the severity of orthopedic trauma by retrospective examination of orthopedic trauma cases.Methods Clinically acute trauma and non-acute trauma patients were selected and their plasma D-dimer levels were measured.Plasma D-dimer levels in patients of these two groups were compared.The relationship between the plasma D-dimer level and the severity of the trauma was also studied.Results There were 548 cases in the acute trauma group and 501 cases in the non-acute trauma group.The levels of plasma D-dimer were significantly higher in the acute trauma group than in the non-acute trauma group (P <0.01).In the acute trauma group,the correlation between the D-dimer level and the number of fractures was a positive linear correlation (r=0.9532).Conclusions Elevated plasma D-dimer is common in trauma patients.The D-dimer level and the number of fractures in the trauma patients are closely correlated.D-dimer is not only an indicator for the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolus,but also an indicator of the severity of trauma in acute trauma patients.

  18. Clinical Implication of Plasma Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in Japanese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Kunihiro; Sagara, Masaaki; Aoki, Chie; Tanaka, Seiichi; Aso, Yoshimasa

    2017-01-01

    Objective The goal of the present study was to investigate the plasma hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes, as the plasma H2S levels in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes remain unclear. Methods The plasma H2S levels were measured in 154 outpatients with type 2 diabetes and 66 outpatients without diabetes. All blood samples were collected in the outpatient department from 09:00 to 10:00. The patients had fasted from 21:00 the previous evening and had not consumed alcohol or caffeine or smoked until sample collection. The plasma H2S levels were measured using the methylene blue assay. The plasma H2S levels were determined in triplicate, and the average concentrations were calculated against a calibration curve of sodium sulfide. Results The patients with type 2 diabetes showed a progressive reduction in the plasma H2S levels (45.1±15.5 μM versus 54.0±26.4 μM, p<0.05), which paralleled poor glycemic control. There was a significant correlation between a reduction in the plasma H2S levels and the HbA1c levels (β=-0.505, p<0.01), Furthermore, a reduction in the plasma H2S levels was found to be related to a history of cardiovascular diseases in patients with type 2 diabetes (39.9±13.8 μM versus 47.5±15.9 μM, p<0.01). Conclusion Collectively, the plasma H2S levels were reduced in patients with type 2 diabetes, which may have implications in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in diabetic patients. The trial was registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN no. #000020549). PMID:28049995

  19. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-01-01

    The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma), for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma ...

  20. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  1. Correlation between plasma component levels of cultured fish and resistance to bacterial infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maita, M.; Satoh, K.-I.; Fukuda, Y.; Lee, H.-K.; Winton, J.R.; Okamoto, N.

    1998-01-01

    Mortalities of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata artificially infected with Lactococcus garvieae and of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss artificially infected with Vibrio anguillarum were compared with the levels of plasma components measured prior to challenge. The levels of plasma total cholesterol, free cholesterol and phospholipid of fish surviving infection were significantly higher in both yellowtail and rainbow trout than those of fish which died during the challenge test. Mortality of yellowtail with plasma total cholesterol levels lower than 250 mg/100 ml was significantly higher than that of fish which had cholesterol levels higher than 275 mg/100 ml (p < 0.05). Rainbow trout whose cholesterol was lower than 520 mg/100 ml suffered a significantly higher mortality due to vibriosis than fish having cholesterol levels higher than 560 mg/100 ml (p < 0.005). These results indicate that low levels of plasma lipid components may be an indicator of lowered disease resistance in cultured fish.

  2. Plasma Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Level Is Inversely Associated with HDL Cholesterol Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Meguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Relation between atherosclerosis and innate immunity has attracted attention. As the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, could have an important role in atherosclerosis, we supposed that there could be a meaningful association of plasma LL-37 level with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We evaluated plasma LL-37 level and other clinical markers in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=133, 115 men and 18 women; age 64.7±11.5 years; HbA1c 8.1±1.6%. Plasma level of LL-37 was measured by ELISA. Results. Mean plasma LL-37 level was 71.2±22.3 ng/mL. Plasma LL-37 level showed significant correlations with HDL cholesterol (r=−0.450, P<0.01, triglyceride (r=0.445, P<0.01, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.316, P<0.01 but no significant correlation with age, body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or vitamin D binding protein. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations of plasma LL-37 level with HDL cholesterol (β=−0.411, P<0.01 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (β=0.193, P<0.05. Conclusion. Plasma LL-37 level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. Plasma cortisol levels in malnourished children with and without superimposed acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paisey, R. B.; Angers, Marielena; Frenk, S.

    1973-01-01

    Plasma cortisol levels were measured in 13 children with marasmus, in 7 with kwashiorkor, and in 24 normal children. Cortisol levels in the malnourished children did not differ from those of the normal group, either before or after 15 or 30 days of treatment, unless there was superimposed acute stress. Stress caused by complications such as hypoglycaemia, infection, hypothermia, or acidosis led to raised plasma cortisol levels. PMID:4733640

  4. Effect of Pioglitazone on Plasma Levels of Phenytoin in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolghasem Jouyban

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Interaction between drugs represents a major clinical concern for health care professionals and their patients. Patients affected by both type 2 diabetes and epilepsy may be prescribed pioglitazone and an anti-epileptic drug such as phenytoin  concurrently. The aim of this study was to consider the interaction of pioglitazone with phenytoin in an experimental model. According to the result of this study, concurrent use of phenytoin and pioglitazone in clinic may cause therapeutic failure of phenytoin which may cause seizures and during seizures the cardiac function may be affected. Material and Methods: Two groups of rats were treated for 30 days. In group 1 (control group saline (10 ml/kg and phenytoin   (30 mg/kg were administered daily by intragastric gavage. In group 2 (test group , pioglitazone (10 mg/kg was administered daily 60 minutes before phenytoin  (30 mg/kg. Two hours after the last intragastric gavage, animals were anesthetized with ether and 2 ml of blood was drawn from the heart into a syringe containing Ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA, and phenytoin  concentration in rat plasma was determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.The study consisted of 2 groups of 10 male adult Wistar rats. Results: Compared with control group, concurrent use of pioglitazone and phenytoin   was associated with significantly lower mean plasma concentrations of phenytoin : 2.08 ± 0.03  µg/ml VS 1.2 ± 0.02  µg/ml. Conclusion: Concurrent use of pioglitazone and phenytoin was associated with a significant decrease in plasma concentration of phenytoin in this experimental model. In clinic, this interaction may cause seizures and it has been shown that both cardiac and respiratory functions may affected by seizures.

  5. Elevated plasma levels of chemerin in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mengliu; Yang, Gangyi; Dong, Jing; Liu, Ying; Zong, Haihong; Liu, Hua; Boden, Guenther; Li, Ling

    2010-10-01

    Chemerin is a recently discovered metabolic regulator hormone. The pathophysiologic role of this hormone in humans remains unknown. In this study, we have compared plasma chemerin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with or without hypertension and in control subjects. We also assessed the association of plasma chemerin with body composition and metabolic parameters in these subjects. Plasma chemerin levels were found to be markedly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus with hypertension as compared with patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and normal controls (P < 0.01). Multiple regression analysis showed that waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, 2-hour plasma insulin after glucose overload, and HbA1c were independently related factors influencing plasma chemerin levels. The present work indicates the potential link of chemerin with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, obesity, and metabolic syndrome.

  6. Decline of plasma 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels upon testosterone administration to elderly men with subnormal plasma testosterone and high DHT levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L J; Saad, F; Haide, A; Yassin, A

    2008-10-01

    The study was performed to measure the impact of testosterone (T) administration on circulating levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Group 1 (32 men; mean age 61 years; mean T 6.9 +/- 1.9 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 15 months with long-acting T undecanoate. Group 2 (23 men, mean age 60 years, mean T 7.6 +/- 2.0 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 9 months with T gel. Plasma T and DHT were measured before and after 9 months T administration. In the men treated with T undecanoate plasma T and DHT were also measured after 12 and 15 months. Before T administration, plasma DHT ranged from 0.39 to 1.76 nmol l(-1) (0.30-1.90 nmol l(-1)). Mean DHT declined upon T administration from 0.95 +/- 0.50 to 0.55 +/- 0.30 nmol l(-1) (P DHT > 0.60 nmol l(-1) had fallen from 1.29 +/- 0.50 to 0.70 +/- 0.60 nmol l(-1) (P DHT levels declined upon T administration when they were in the higher range of normal (>0.6 nmol l(-1)), with a profound shift of DHT/T ratios presumed to be an indicator of a reduced 5alpha-reductase activity. Below plasma DHT levels of 0.6 nmol l(-1), responses of plasma DHT to T administration varied.

  7. Abnormal plasma levels of serine, methionine, and taurine in transient acute polymorphic psychosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fekkes (Durk)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractThe present study explored the usefulness of plasma amino acid concentrations in discriminating a subgroup of patients with transient acute polymorphic psychoses characterized by psychosensory symptoms (APP+ patients). Levels of amino acids in the plasma of APP+ patients were compared

  8. Systematic construction of a conceptual minimal model of plasma cholesterol levels based on knockout mouse phenotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, N.C.A. van de; Soffers, A.E.M.F.; Freidig, A.P.; Ommen, B. van; Woutersen, R.A.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Graaf, A.A. de

    2010-01-01

    Elevated plasma cholesterol, a well-known risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, is the result of the activity of many genes and their encoded proteins in a complex physiological network. We aim to develop a minimal kinetic computational model for predicting plasma cholesterol levels. To define th

  9. Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels and cancer prognosis: A population-based cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Håkonsen; Farkas, Dora Kormendine; Pedersen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma vitamin B12 levels (cobalamin, Cbl) are associated with increased short-term cancer risk among patients referred for this laboratory measurement. We aimed to assess prognosis in cancer patients with elevated plasma Cbl. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort...

  10. Elevated Plasma Homocysteine Level in Vascular Dementia Reflects the Vascular Disease Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Nilsson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with vascular dementia (VaD exhibit particularly elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy compared to patients with other psychogeriatric diseases. Methods: We investigated the main determinants (age, renal impairment, cobalamin/folate status and presence of extracerebral vascular disease of plasma tHcy in 525 patients with VaD. Furthermore, 270 patients with depression were used as a reference group to reveal the potential specificity of elevated plasma tHcy in patients with VaD. Results: Elevated plasma tHcy levels in patients with VaD could only partly be attributed to cobalamin/folate deficiency or renal impairment. Plasma tHcy might also be related to the vascular disease process since patients with depression and vascular disease exhibited similar plasma tHcy levels to patients with VaD. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that elevated plasma tHcy might be a sensitive marker for the vascular disease process in patients with VaD and that the level also is a reflection of changes in the other main determinants of plasma tHcy.

  11. Effect of methadone on plasma arginine vasopressin level and urine production in conscious dogs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellebrekers, L.J.; Mol, J.A.; Brom, W.E. van den; Wimersma Greidanus, T.B. van

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of i.v. methadone on the plasma arginine-vasopressin (AVP) levels and urine production in 9 conscious dogs. A highly significant increase from the baseline plasma AVP values of below 3 pg/ml occurred within 5 min following methadone administration. Max

  12. Decreased plasma urotensin Ⅱ levels inversely correlate with extent and severity of coronary artery disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine the plasma urolensin Ⅱ(UⅡ) levels in various types of coronary heart disease and to clarify how the plasma UⅡ levels correlate with the clinical presentation, extent and severity of coronary artery atherosclerosis (CAD). Methods: One hundred and three aged patients undergoing elective diagnostic coronary angiography for proven or clinical suspected coronary heart disease were enrolled in this study. The extent and severity of coronary artery disease were evaluated by vessel score and Gensini score, respectively. Plasma UⅡ levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. Results: The plasma UⅡ levels in the patients with modest to severe coronary stenosis (3.03±0.34 pg/ml, 1.83±0.67 pg/ml) were significantly lower than that in subjects with normal coronary artery (4.80±1.11 pg/ml, P<0.001). The plasma UⅡ levels in patients with coronary heart disease were also significantly lower than that in patients with insignificant coronary stenosis (P < 0.001). Compared to patients with stable angina pectoris, plasma UⅡ levels in patients with acute coronary syndrome were significantly decreased (1.89±0.51 pg/ml vs 2.42±0.77 pg/ml, P< 0.001). Plasma UⅡ levels were found to be negatively correlated with the severity of coronary artery stenosis (r = -0.488, P<0.001), as well as the vessel score (r = -0.408, P<0.05) in the patients with CAD. Conclusion: Significant inverse correlations exist between the plasma UⅡ levels, and the extent and severity of coronary artery stenosis. These findings suggest that plasma UⅡ contribute to the development and progression of coronary artery stenosis, and may be a novel marker to predict clinical types, as well as the extent and severity of coronary artery disease in the patients.

  13. Physic nut seed productivity (Jatropha curcas L.), in rainy season, under different drip irrigation levels and potassium dosages; Produtividade de sementes de pinhao-manso (Jatropha curcas L.), da estacao chuvosa, submetido a diferentes laminas de irrigacao e adubacao potassica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deus, Fabio Ponciano de; Faria, Manoel Alves de; Portela, Jaqueline Damyane [Universidade Federal de Lavras (DEG/UFLA), Lavras, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia], E-mail: fpdagricola@yahoo.com.br; Oliveira, Ednaldo Liberato de [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica (CEFET), Januaria, MG (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    The aim of this research was to value the Physic nut seed productivity, in rainy season, under different drip irrigation levels and potassium dosages, for 2008, 2009 and for the accumulated of theses years, in Lavras - MG, Brazil. The experimental design was the one of randomized blocks, in split plot design, with four replicates. The treatment levels were four water levels (plots) and four potassium dosages (subplots). The irrigation was applied based on the amount estimated by the water balance considering the class A pan evaporation (ECA) and rain depths - L{sub 0} (non irrigated), L{sub 40}, L{sub 80} and L{sub 120} (40, 80 and 120% of the balance respectively). The potassium dosages were K{sub 30}, K{sub 60}, K{sub 90} and K{sub 120} (30, 60, 90 and 120 kg.ha{sup -1} respectively). It was used the drip irrigation system. It was used the Sisvar 4.0 software, for analysis of variance and the Tukey test at 5% level of probability to compare the means. However, it was possible to observe in rainy season, that the irrigation has not changed the Physic nut seed productivity. The potassium level 120 kg.ha{sup -1} in all significant situations was the treatment with higher productivity. (author)

  14. Effect of salinity levels and lead and cadmium heavy metals on growth, photosynthetic pigments and sodium and potassium content in spinach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Ghorbani

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals (HMs are hazardous environmental pollutants which by entering the food chain cause harm to humans, plants and other organisms. In order to study the effects of salinity and lead (Pb and cadmium (Cd HMs on spinach plant, a factorial, pot experiment, based on complete randomized blocks design, was carried out in 2013 in College of Agriculture, Shahrood University of Technology. Treatments consisted of three levels of salinity (0, 4 and 8 dS/m as factor A and HMs at four levels (control, Cd, Pb and Cd+Pb as Factor B. results revealed that salinity had no significant effect on fresh and dry weight of spinach; but HMs treatment caused significant changes in these traits. Minimum and maximum fresh and dry weights were obtained in the Cd and Cd+Pb treatments, respectively. Besides photosynthetic pigments of flavonoids and anthocyanin, salinity had significant effect only on chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, cartenoid contents and reduced them at 8 dS/m level. Salinity treatment, without affecting potassium content, increased sodium and soluble carbohydrates in spinach leaves. Interaction between salinity and HMs was only significant for carbohydrate, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. The highest amount of carbohydrate was obtained in the Cd+Pb and 8 dS/m treatment and the highest amount of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b was obtained in the no salinity (control and Pb treatment.

  15. Effects of Postoperative Enteral Immune-enhancing Diet on Plasma Endotoxin Level, Plasma Endotoxin Inactivation Capacity and Clinical Outcome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Guoxiang; XUE Xinbo; LU Xingpei; WANG Jianming; QIAN Jiaqin

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the postoperative plasma endotoxin level, plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity and clinical outcome after administration of an enteral diet supplemented with glutamine, arginine and ω-3-fatty acid in patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations on an prospective, randomized and double-blind design. 40 patients undergoing gastrointestinal operations were randomized into two groups, with each having 20 patients. One group received standard enteral nutrition and the other was fed the formulation supplemented with glutamine, arginine and ω-3-fatty acid. The two groups were isonitrogenous. The infusion was started from day 1 after surgery and continued for 7 days. Blood samples were collected on the morning of day 1 before operation and on the morning of 1, 4 and 7 day(s) after operation and analyzed for plasma endotoxin level and endotoxin inactivation capacity (EIC). Our study found no differences between the two groups on plasma endotoxin level. After surgery a rapid reduction in plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity was observed in both groups, a significant recovery of the plasma endotoxin inactivation capacity was observed on morning of day 4 after surgery in the study group (0.12±0.02 EU/mL and 0. 078±0.022 EU/mL respectively, P<0.01). Shortened hospital stay was observed in the experimental group (11.7±2.0 days in the control group and 10.6±1.2 days in the experimental group respectively, P=0.03). It is concluded that perioperative parenteral nutrition supplemented with glutamine, arginine and ω-3-fatty acid ameliorated postoperative immunodepression but without direct effect on endotoxemia.

  16. Factors Associated With Plasma IL-6 Levels During HIV Infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borges, Álvaro H; O'Connor, Jemma L; Phillips, Andrew N

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Elevated interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels have been linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer and death. Persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection receiving treatment have higher IL-6 levels, but few data are available on factors associated with circulating IL-6. METHODS......: Participants in 3 trials with IL-6 measured at baseline were included (N = 9864). Factors associated with IL-6 were identified by linear regression. Demographic and HIV variables (nadir/entry CD4(+) cell count, HIV RNA level, antiretroviral therapy regimen) were investigated in all 3 trials. In the SMART...... education, whereas black race was associated with lower IL-6. Higher HIV RNA levels were associated with higher IL-6 levels, and higher nadir CD4(+) cell counts with lower IL-6 levels. Compared with efavirenz, protease inhibitors were associated with higher and nevirapine with lower IL-6 levels. Smoking...

  17. The influence of plasma protein concentration on potassium,sodium and chloride measurement by ion-selective-electrodes%血浆蛋白水平对间接离子选择电极法检测钾钠氯离子的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志勇; 肖鹿骋; 顾桂兰; 曹娟; 张超; 盛敏

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨血浆蛋白水平变化导致间接和直接离子选择电极法(ISE)结果间存在的差异,揭示直接ISE与间接ISE测定血浆钾、钠、氯离子结果之间的差异与血浆蛋白水平之间的关系.方法 选取低、中、高血浆蛋白的独立样本,研究直接与间接离子选择电极法对血浆钾、钠、氯检测结果差异以及与蛋白水平之间的线性关系.结果 间接法与直接法检测钠离子结果差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),钠离子结果差异与总蛋白、清蛋白离子回归方程分别为Y=-0.129 4X+9.604 1和Y=-0.195X+7.807 8,相关系数r(r2)分别为0.76(0.57)和0.61(0.37),均P<0.001.结论 采用间接ISE法检测血浆钠离子时,对血浆蛋白水平的变化具有影响,直接与间接ISE法检测血浆钠离子结果差异和总蛋白、白蛋白水平之间线性回归等式可以成立.在总蛋白和(或)清蛋白水平明显异常时,直接ISE法测定血浆钠离子结果应当作为临床正确的依据.%Objective To test the hypothesis that the difference between indirect and direct potassium, sodium and chloride assays would be related to the plasma protein concentration, and to derive the relationship between the difference of direct and indirect ion selective electrode(ISE) measurements of plasma potassium,sodium and chloride and the protein concentration. Methods Independent specimens,that covered the whole level of the protein range, were selected,and linear relationships between the difference between direct and indirect ISE measurements of plasma potassium,sodium,chloride and the total protein and albumin concentration were analyzed. Results Significant biases were observed between indirect and direct ISE measurement of sodium level. The regression equations of the difference and the total protein level, albumin level were Y= - 0. 129 4X + 9. 604 1 和 Y = - 0. 195X + 7. 807 8, with r(r2 )of 0. 76(0. 57)and 0. 61(0. 37)and with P<0. 001. Conclusion The plasma sodium

  18. Impact of plasma transaminase levels on the peripheral blood glutamate levels and memory functions in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Ryota; Yamamori, Hidenaga; Yasuda, Yuka; Takehara, Tetsuo; Fujita, Yuko; Hashimoto, Kenji; Miyoshi, Eiji

    2016-06-01

    Blood aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels are the most frequently reliable biomarkers of liver injury. Although AST and ALT play central roles in glutamate production as transaminases, peripheral blood levels of AST and ALT have been regarded only as liver injury biomarkers. Glutamate is a principal excitatory neurotransmitter, which affects memory functions in the brain. In this study, we investigated the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory. Psychiatrically, medically, and neurologically healthy subjects (n = 514, female/male: 268/246) were enrolled in this study through local advertisements. Plasma amino acids (glutamate, glutamine, glycine, d-serine, and l-serine) were measured using a high performance liquid chromatography system. The five indices, verbal memory, visual memory, general memory, attention/concentration, and delayed recall of the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were used to measure memory functions. Both plasma AST and ALT had a significant positive correlation with plasma glutamate levels. Plasma AST and ALT levels were significantly negatively correlated with four of five memory functions, and plasma glutamate was significantly negatively correlated with three of five memory functions. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that plasma AST, ALT, and glutamate levels were significantly correlated with memory functions even after adjustment for gender and education. As far as we know, this is the first report which could demonstrate the impact of blood transaminase levels on blood glutamate concentration and memory functions in human. These findings are important for the interpretation of obesity-induced metabolic syndrome with elevated transaminases and cognitive dysfunction.

  19. Plasma cytokine levels and risks of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Mengyang; Liu, Cong-Lin; Lv, Bing-Jie

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized by inflammatory cell accumulation in AAA lesions that produce inflammatory cytokines and advance its pathogenesis. Peripheral cytokines may predict the degree or risk of AAA. METHODS AND RESULTS: ELISA determined plasma interleukin-6 (IL6......), IL10, IL17A, IFN-γ, and C-reactive protein (CRP) from 476 AAA patients and 200 controls. AAA patients had lower IL6, IFN-γ, IL10, IL17A, and higher CRP than controls. IL10 correlated positively with IFN-γ, IL17A, or IL6, but not CRP in control or AAA populations. IL10 associated negatively...... with systolic blood pressure, whereas CRP associated positively with diastolic blood pressure and body mass index. CRP was an independent AAA risk factor and correlated positively with aortic diameters before and after adjustments for other risk factors. IFN-γ, IL17A, and CRP correlated positively with cross...

  20. Potential role of plasma myeloperoxidase level in predicting long-term outcome of acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Mehmet Gungor; Yalcin, Ridvan; Okyay, Kaan; Poyraz, Fatih; Bayraktar, Nilufer; Pasaoglu, Hatice; Boyaci, Bulent; Cengel, Atiye

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the prognostic importance of plasma myeloperoxidase levels in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) at long-term follow-up, and we analyzed the correlations between plasma myeloperoxidase levels and other biochemical values. We evaluated 73 consecutive patients (56 men; mean age, 56 ± 11 yr) diagnosed with acute STEMI and 46 age- and sex-matched healthy control participants. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to the median myeloperoxidase level (Group 1: plasma myeloperoxidase ≤ 68 ng/mL; and Group 2: plasma myeloperoxidase > 68 ng/mL). Patients were monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), which were defined as cardiac death; reinfarction; new hospital admission for angina; heart failure; and revascularization procedures. The mean follow-up period was 25 ± 16 months. Plasma myeloperoxidase levels were higher in STEMI patients than in control participants (82 ± 34 vs 20 ± 12 ng/mL; P = 0.001). Composite MACE occurred in 12 patients with high myeloperoxidase levels (33%) and in 4 patients with low myeloperoxidase levels (11%) (P = 0.02). The incidences of nonfatal recurrent myocardial infarction and verified cardiac death were higher in the high-myeloperoxidase group. In multivariate analysis, high plasma myeloperoxidase levels were independent predictors of MACE (odds ratio = 3.843; <95% confidence interval, 1.625-6.563; P = 0.003). High plasma myeloperoxidase levels identify patients with a worse prognosis after acute STEMI at 2-year follow-up. Evaluation of plasma myeloperoxidase levels might be useful in determining patients at high risk of death and MACE who can benefit from further aggressive treatment and closer follow-up.

  1. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    changes, leptin levels and various hormonal parameters were investigated in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (312 males, 401 females, age 5.8-19.9 yr). For this purpose, a specific and sensitive RIA was developed that allowed the accurate measurement of low leptin levels in young lean...... children. With this assay, leptin proved to be a comparatively stable protein under common conditions of blood sampling and storage. Leptin levels increased in girls with age (r = 0.47, P

  2. Plasma oxytocin but not prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite levels at cerclage may predict preterm delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, O; Böhmer, S; Goeschen, K; Fuchs, A R

    1991-06-01

    Plasma oxytocin and prostaglandin F2 alpha metabolite (PGFM) concentrations were measured in 45 patients admitted for cerclage during the second trimester. Samples were collected before, 3 hours after, and 3 days after the Shirodkar procedure. Uterine activity was recorded by external tocography twice daily for 30 minutes. Twenty-eight women with uncomplicated pregnancy and commensurate gestational age served as controls. Cervical length, measured by ultrasonography, was significantly shorter before cerclage (36 +/- 2 mm) than after cerclage (43 +/- 2 mm) or compared with controls (48 +/- 1 mm). Bishop scores ranged from 3-6 (median 4) in the cerclage group and 0-1 (median 0) in controls. Fifteen cerclage patients and one control delivered preterm 5-22 weeks after the procedure. Initial plasma PGFM levels were significantly higher in cerclage patients than in controls. The cerclage procedure caused an immediate rise in plasma PGFM and a subsequent fall below initial levels to control values. Neither the initial levels of PGFM nor the increments 3 hours after cerclage correlated with the outcome of pregnancy. By contrast, plasma oxytocin levels before cerclage were significantly higher in patients who subsequently delivered preterm than in those who delivered at term. Cerclage resulted in a significant fall in plasma oxytocin at 3 hours in patients with preterm delivery, but after 3 days the oxytocin levels had returned to the precerclage values. Patients who had increased uterine contractions had significantly higher plasma oxytocin levels but lower PGFM levels than those without contractions.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Plasma homocysteine level in cardiac syndrome X and its relation with duke treadmill score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timurkaynak, Timur; Balcioglu, Serhat; Arslan, Ugur; Kocaman, Sinan A; Cengel, Atiye

    2008-03-01

    To investigate the plasma homocysteine level and the relationship between plasma homocysteine level and duke treadmill score (DTS) in cardiac syndrome X (CSX) patients. Seventy-nine patients (36 male, 43 female, mean age: 50 +/- 8.8 years) admitted to Gazi University Hospital, Ankara, Turkey with typical effort angina, positive stress test, and angiographically normal coronary arteries between January and September 2006 were included in this prospective and controlled study. Thirty asymptomatic patients (11 male, 19 female, mean age: 47.6 +/- 8.3 years) with 2 cardiovascular risk factors were chosen as a control group. Plasma homocysteine level was measured in both groups and DTS was calculated in the CSX group. Plasma homocysteine was measured with the AxSYM homocysteine immunoassay method in both groups. Plasma homocysteine level was higher in the CSX group compared to the control group (16.5 +/- 4.9 micromol/L, n=79, versus 12.4 +/- 4.1 micromol/L, n=30, p<0.001). The DTS was -2.7 +/- 5.3 in the CSX group. There was a negative correlation between the DTS and homocysteine levels in the CSX group. (r= -0.506, p<0.001). Plasma homocysteine level, which is known to cause endothelial dysfunction and microvascular ischemia were higher in CSX patients. Also, this increase in homocysteine level inversely correlated with the DTS, which represents the magnitude of ischemia.

  4. Increased FGF21 plasma levels in humans with sepsis and SIRS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gariani, Karim; Drifte, Geneviève; Dunn-Siegrist, Irène; Pugin, Jérôme; Jornayvaz, François R

    2013-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a key regulator in glucose and lipid metabolism and its plasma levels have been shown to be increased not only in humans in different situations such as type 2 diabetes, obesity, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease but also in animal models of sepsis and pancreatitis. FGF21 is considered as a pharmacological candidate in conditions associated with insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to compare FGF21 plasma levels in patients with sepsis, in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), and in healthy controls. We measured FGF21 plasma concentrations in 22 patients with established sepsis, in 11 with SIRS, and in 12 healthy volunteers. Here, we show that FGF21 levels were significantly higher in plasma obtained from patients with sepsis and SIRS in comparison with healthy controls. Also, FGF21 levels were significantly higher in patients with sepsis than in those with noninfectious SIRS. FGF21 plasma levels measured at study entry correlated positively with the APACHE II score, but not with procalcitonin levels, nor with C-reactive protein, classical markers of sepsis. Plasma concentrations of FGF21 peaked near the onset of shock and rapidly decreased with clinical improvement. Taken together, these results indicate that circulating levels of FGF21 are increased in patients presenting with sepsis and SIRS, and suggest a role for FGF21 in inflammation. Further studies are needed to explore the potential role of FGF21 in sepsis as a potential therapeutic target.

  5. A Fall in Plasma Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Level Activates the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis Independent of Plasma Glucose: Evidence for Brain Sensing of Circulating FFA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Young Taek; Oh, Ki-Sook; Kang, Insug

    2012-01-01

    The brain responds to a fall in blood glucose by activating neuroendocrine mechanisms for its restoration. It is unclear whether the brain also responds to a fall in plasma free fatty acids (FFA) to activate mechanisms for its restoration. We examined whether lowering plasma FFA increases plasma corticosterone or catecholamine levels and, if so, whether the brain is involved in these responses. Plasma FFA levels were lowered in rats with three independent antilipolytic agents: nicotinic acid (NA), insulin, and the A1 adenosine receptor agonist SDZ WAG 994 with plasma glucose clamped at basal levels. Lowering plasma FFA with these agents all increased plasma corticosterone, but not catecholamine, within 1 h, accompanied by increases in plasma ACTH. These increases in ACTH or corticosterone were abolished when falls in plasma FFA were prevented by Intralipid during NA or insulin infusion. In addition, the NA-induced increases in plasma ACTH were completely prevented by administration of SSR149415, an arginine vasopressin receptor antagonist, demonstrating that the hypothalamus is involved in these responses. Taken together, the present data suggest that the brain may sense a fall in plasma FFA levels and activate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to increase plasma ACTH and corticosterone, which would help restore FFA levels. Thus, the brain may be involved in the sensing and control of circulating FFA levels. PMID:22669895

  6. Plasma Levels of Folates, Riboflavin, Vitamin B6, and Ascorbate in Severely Disturbed Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankar, D. V. Siva

    1979-01-01

    The plasma levels of folic acid, ascorbic acid, pyridoxine, and riboflavin were studied in 125 severely emotionally disturbed children (ages 5-16 years) to determine whether they had overt vitamin deficiencies. (Author/DLS)

  7. Betaine supplementation lowers plasma homocysteine levels in healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenge, G.R.S.; Verhoef, P.; Katan, M.B.

    2003-01-01

    Elevated levels of plasma total homocysteine are associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Betaine and 5-methyltetrahydrofolate can remethylate homocysteine into methionine via independent reactions. We determined the effect of daily betaine supplementation, compared with both folic a

  8. Plasma vanillylmandelic acid level as an index of psychological stress response in normal subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, M; Hata, A; Niwa, S; Hiramatsu, K; Honda, H; Nakagome, K; Iwanami, A

    1996-06-26

    The relationships between psychological stress responses and plasma levels of vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (MHPG), homovanillic acid (HVA), and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) were investigated in normal volunteers. Two questionnaires were used to measure stress: the Psychological Stress Response Scale (PSRS) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Plasma levels of VMA--but not MHPG, HVA, and 5-HIAA--showed significant positive correlations with PSRS emotional and cognitive-behavioral stress and STAI state anxiety. Significant positive correlations were also found between plasma levels of VMA and MHPG and psychological stress responses measured repeatedly in a longitudinal study of an Olympic swimmer. Plasma VMA measurements, which reflect the level of activity of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system, may provide a useful biochemical index of psychological stress responses in normal subjects.

  9. Potassium Aspartate Attenuates Brain Injury Induced by Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats Through Increasing Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Levels, Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Reducing Brain Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yumei; Su, Yujin; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-12-13

    BACKGROUND Potassium aspartate (PA), as an electrolyte supplement, is widely used in clinical practice. In our previous study, we found PA had neuroprotective effects against apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In this study, we examine whether PA has protective effects on traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIAL AND METHODS TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats. Vehicle treatment (control) or PA treatment was administered intraperitoneally at 30 minutes after CCI. The modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and cortical lesion volume were examined. Brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity were measured, as well as brain ATP contents, lactic acid levels, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. RESULTS We found that CCI induced cortical injury in rats. Acute PA treatment at the dose of 62.5 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg significantly improved neurological deficits (pATP (pATP levels, Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and reducing brain edema. It provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of PA.

  10. Associaton between plasma osteopontin levels and severity of coronary heart disease in non-diabetic subjects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏芹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To seek the association between plasma osteopontin(OPN)levels and severity of coronary heart disease in non-diabetic subjects.Methods A total of 166stable angina patients free of diabetes were enrolled in the study.Clinical characteristic of patients was recorded.Plasma OPN levels were measured by an enzymelinked immunosorbent assay method.Coronary heart disease was determined by coronary artery angiography.The extent of coronary artery stenosis was represented as the

  11. Plasma calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase levels in normal British schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Round, J M

    1973-07-21

    In a cross-sectional survey 624 schoolchildren were screened for plasma calcium, inorganic phosphate, and alkaline phosphatase levels. Plasma magnesium and alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes were also estimated in some cases.No significant difference was found between adult and childhood values for calcium and magnesium. Levels of alkaline phosphatase and inorganic phosphorus varied with both age and sex. The magnitude of these variations in normal ranges is of clear importance in assessing data from individual paediatric or adolescent patients.

  12. Impact of elective resection on plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J. H.; Basse, L.; Svedsen, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pre- and post-operative plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels have a prognostic impact on patients with colorectal cancer. However, the surgical trauma may play an essential role in regulation of plasma TIMP-1 levels, which in turn may influence subsequent TIMP......-1 measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutively, 48 patients with colon cancer (CC) and 12 patients with nonmalignant colonic disease were randomised to undergo elective laparoscopically assisted or open resection followed by fast track recovery. Plasma samples were collected just before and 1...

  13. Impact of elective resection on plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J. H.; Basse, L.; Svedsen, M. N.;

    2006-01-01

    -1 measurements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutively, 48 patients with colon cancer (CC) and 12 patients with nonmalignant colonic disease were randomised to undergo elective laparoscopically assisted or open resection followed by fast track recovery. Plasma samples were collected just before and 1......OBJECTIVE: Pre- and post-operative plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels have a prognostic impact on patients with colorectal cancer. However, the surgical trauma may play an essential role in regulation of plasma TIMP-1 levels, which in turn may influence subsequent TIMP...

  14. Two distinct pools of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the somatic plasma membrane of central principal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, W.A.; Kasugai, Y.; Ferraguti, F.; Storm, J F

    2010-01-01

    Although nerve cell membranes are often assumed to be uniform with respect to electrical properties, there is increasing evidence for compartmentalization into subdomains with heterogeneous impacts on the overall cell function. Such microdomains are characterized by specific sets of proteins determining their functional properties. Recently, clustering of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels was shown at sites of subsurface membrane cisterns in cerebellar Purkinje cel...

  15. Plasma taurine levels are not affected by vigabatrin in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelbrink, Emily M; Mabud, Tarub S; Reimer, Richard; Porter, Brenda E

    2016-08-01

    Vigabatrin is a highly effective antiseizure medication, but its use is limited due to concerns about retinal toxicity. One proposed mechanism for this toxicity is vigabatrin-mediated reduction of taurine. Herein we assess plasma taurine levels in a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy, including a subset receiving vigabatrin. All children who underwent a plasma amino acid analysis as part of their clinical evaluation between 2006 and 2015 at Stanford Children's Health were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in plasma taurine levels between children taking vigabatrin (n = 16), children taking other anti-seizure medications, and children not taking any anti-seizure medication (n = 556) (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.841). There were, however, age-dependent decreases in plasma taurine levels. Multiple linear regression revealed no significant association between vigabatrin use and plasma taurine level (p = 0.87) when controlling for age. These results suggest that children taking vigabatrin maintain normal plasma taurine levels, although they leave unanswered whether taurine supplementation is necessary or sufficient to prevent vigabatrin-associated visual field loss. They also indicate that age should be taken into consideration when evaluating taurine levels in young children. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  16. Interleukin-7 Plasma Levels in Human Differentiate Anorexia Nervosa, Constitutional Thinness and Healthy Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, Natacha; Viltart, Odile; Loyens, Anne; Bruchet, Céline; Nadin, Katia; Wolowczuk, Isabelle; Estour, Bruno; Galusca, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Interleukin-7 (IL-7) is a cytokine involved in energy homeostasis as demonstrated in rodents. Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrained eating behavior despite adaptive orexigenic regulation profile including high ghrelin plasma levels. Constitutional thinness is a physiological condition of resistance to weight gain with physiological anorexigenic profile including high Peptide YY plasma level. Healthy obesity can be considered as a physiological state of resistance to weight loss with opposite appetite regulating profile to constitutional thinness including low Peptide YY plasma level. No studies in IL-7 are yet available in those populations. Therefore we evaluated circadian plasma levels of IL-7 in anorexia nervosa compared to constitutional thinness, healthy obese and control females. Materials and Methods 10 restrictive-type anorexia nervosa women, 5 bingeing/purging anorexia nervosa woman, 5 recovered restrictive anorexia nervosa women, 4 bulimic females, 10 constitutional thinness women, 7 healthy obese females, and 10 normal weight women controls were enrolled in this cross-sectional study, performed in endocrinology unit and academic laboratory. Twelve-point circadian profiles of plasma IL-7 levels were measured in each subject. Results 24h mean IL-7 plasma levels (pg/ml, mean±SEM) were decreased in restrictive-type anorexia nervosa (123.4±14.4, pobese patients (51±3.2, pobesity, with low IL-7, is once again in mirror image of constitutional thinness with normal high IL-7. PMID:27611669

  17. Effects of antinutritional factors on plasma lipoprotein levels in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, J M; Mai, K S; Ai, Q H; Zhang, W B; Wang, X J; Xu, W; Liufu, Z G; Cai, Y H; Chen, W

    2012-02-01

    This study examined the effects of four types of antinutritional factor (phytic acid, stachyose, soy saponins and soy isoflavones) on lipoprotein levels in plasma of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. A basal diet was prepared with fish meal as primary protein source, the other diets were supplemented with 0·2, 0·4 or 0·8% phytic acid, 0·4, 0·8 or 1·5% stachyose, 0·1, 0·35 or 0·7% soy saponins and 0·10, 0·35 or 0·70% soy isoflavones, by dry mass, in place of white flour in the basal diet. Total cholesterol (TC) and triglyceride (TG) levels in plasma of P. olivaceus were not affected by phytic acid or stachyose. In general, addition of 0·2-0·8% phytic acid or 0·4-1·5% stachyose decreased plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, increased plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels, thereby increasing the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. By contrast, supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy saponins generally depressed plasma TC levels and the LDL-C:HDL-C ratio. Supplementation with 0·35-0·7% soy isoflavones, however, increased plasma TC and TG levels. These results indicate that soy saponins may be partly responsible for the cholesterol-lowering effects of soybean meal.

  18. Decreased plasma chemerin levels in women with gestational diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hare, K J; Bonde, L; Svare, J A

    2014-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate fasting and post-prandial serum chemerin levels in pregnant women with and without gestational diabetes, and again following delivery when normal glucose homeostasis is re-established. METHODS: Chemerin levels were measured in serum from nine women with gestational diabetes......, and from eight age- and BMI-matched pregnant women with normal glucose tolerance during two meal tests: in the third trimester and 3-4 months post partum. All women with gestational diabetes re-established normal glucose tolerance after delivery. RESULTS: Meal intake did not affect serum chemerin levels....... The group with gestational diabetes had lower mean serum chemerin levels during the third trimester compared with the group with normal glucose tolerance (28 ± 1.3 vs. 88 ± 3.5 ng/ml, P

  19. DNA damage and plasma homocysteine levels are associated with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-01-18

    Jan 18, 2010 ... thyroid, approximately 80 - 85% is generated outside the thyroid primarily by conversion of T4 by selenium- dependent 5'deiodinase in the liver and kidney. .... hormone levels and hyponatremia in children with gastroenteritis.

  20. Effect of space flights on plasma hormone levels in man and in experimental animal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macho, L.; Kvetňanský, R.; Vigaš, M.; Németh, S.; Popova, I.; Tigranian, R. A.; Noskov, V. B.; Serova, L.; Grigoriev, I. A.

    An important increase of plasma hormone levels like insulin, TSH and aldosterone was observed in human subjects after space flights, however in the changes of plasma content of ACTH, cortisol, adrenaline and noradrenaline the individual variations were observed in relation to number and duration of space flight. For evaluation of the effects of these changes in plasma hormone levels on metabolic processes also the experiments with small animals subjected to space flights on a board of biosatellite of Cosmos series were running. An elevation of plasma levels of corticosterone, adrenaline, noradrenaline and insulin was found in rats after the space flights of duration from 7 to 20 days. It was demonstrated, that the increase of corticosterone in plasma is followed by the activation of enzymes involved in the aminoacid metabolism in rat liver (tyrosine aminotransferase, tryptophanpyrolase, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase). After a short recovery period (2 to 6 days) the plasma corticosterone concentration and also the activity of liver enzymes returned to control levels. The exposition of animals to stress stimuli during this recovery period showed higher response of corticosterone levels in flight rats as compared to intact controls. The increase of plasma catecholamine levels was not followed by elevation of lipolysis in adipose tissue. This is due to lower response of adipose tissue to catecholamine because a decrease of the stimulation of lipolysis by noradrenaline was observed in animals after space flight. The increase of insulin was not followed by adequate decrease of glucose concentration suggesting a disturbances in glucose utilization similarly as in cosmonauts after a long-term space flight. These results showed that changes in plasma hormone levels, observed after space flight, affected the regulation of metabolic processes in tissues.

  1. The Effect of Sodium Restricted Diet on Plasma Visfatin Levels in Hypertensive Patients with Visceral Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Rotkegel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim/Background: Experimental and clinical studies revealed contradictory data concerning the influence of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone (RAA system activation on visfatin release. The aim of the present study was the assessment of the effect of dietary sodium restriction with RAA system activation on visfatin level in hypertensive and normotensive patients with visceral obesity. Methods: The study included 24 hypertensive patients with visceral obesity (12 women and 22 normotensive subjects with visceral obesity (11 women constituting the control group. Plasma renin activity, plasma insulin, aldosterone and visfatin levels were determined twice, on normal-salt diet after 6-8 h in recumbent position and the second time after 3 days of dietary sodium restriction and upright position for 2 h. Dietary compliance was controlled by 24 h natriuresis measurement. Results: Hypertensive patients had significantly higher plasma visfatin level than the control group [11.0 (8.5-13.5 vs. 6.8 (6.0-7.6 ng/ml, p=0.003]. Dietary sodium restriction and upright position caused significant increase in PRA and plasma aldosterone level in both groups. While, plasma visfatin level remained unaffected. In the combined group plasma visfatin levels correlated with BMI (r=0.398, waist circumference (r=0.391, glucose (r=0.328, insulin (r=0.663, HOMA-IR (r=0.698, triglycerides (r=0.500 and CRP (r=0.546 but not with percentage of fat mass, percentage of trunk fat, and blood pressure values. Conclusions: 1 Increased plasma visfatin concentration may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in patients with visceral obesity. 2 RAA system activation by dietary sodium restriction and upright position has no effect on plasma visfatin levels in subjects with visceral obesity.

  2. Plasma, salivary and urinary cortisol levels following physiological and stress doses of hydrocortisone in normal volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Caroline; Greco, Santo; Nguyen, Hanh H T; Ho, Jui T; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J; Inder, Warrick J

    2014-11-26

    Glucocorticoid replacement is essential in patients with primary and secondary adrenal insufficiency, but many patients remain on higher than recommended dose regimens. There is no uniformly accepted method to monitor the dose in individual patients. We have compared cortisol concentrations in plasma, saliva and urine achieved following "physiological" and "stress" doses of hydrocortisone as potential methods for monitoring glucocorticoid replacement. Cortisol profiles were measured in plasma, saliva and urine following "physiological" (20 mg oral) or "stress" (50 mg intravenous) doses of hydrocortisone in dexamethasone-suppressed healthy subjects (8 in each group), compared to endogenous cortisol levels (12 subjects). Total plasma cortisol was measured half-hourly, and salivary cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio were measured hourly from time 0 (between 0830 and 0900) to 5 h. Endogenous plasma corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) levels were measured at time 0 and 5 h, and hourly from time 0 to 5 h following administration of oral or intravenous hydrocortisone. Plasma free cortisol was calculated using Coolens' equation. Plasma, salivary and urine cortisol at 2 h after oral hydrocortisone gave a good indication of peak cortisol concentrations, which were uniformly supraphysiological. Intravenous hydrocortisone administration achieved very high 30 minute cortisol concentrations. Total plasma cortisol correlated significantly with both saliva and urine cortisol after oral and intravenous hydrocortisone (P cortisol and urinary cortisol:creatinine ratio may provide useful alternatives to plasma cortisol measurements to monitor replacement doses in hypoadrenal patients.

  3. Changes in plasma catecholamine and neuropeptide Y levels after sympathetic activation in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncet, M. F.; Damase-Michel, C.; Tavernier, G.; Tran, M. A.; Berlan, M.; Montastruc, J. L.; Montastruc, P.

    1992-01-01

    1. Plasma levels of noradrenaline (NA) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were evaluated in two experimental models associated with an increase in sympathetic tone: conscious dogs which were subject to either sinoaortic denervation or acute administration of the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. 2. Dogs that had undergone sinoaortic denervation exhibited a two fold increase in plasma NA without any change in NPY levels. 3. Yohimbine (0.05 mg kg-1 i.v. as a bolus) produced similar effects. A higher dose of yohimbine (0.5 mg kg-1 i.v.) increased both plasma NA (7 fold) and NPY (6.5 fold) levels. 4. The present results indicate that changes in plasma catecholamines and NPY are not always concomitant. They suggest that the simultaneous release of NA and NPY is only observed under in vivo conditions for a marked increase in sympathetic tone. PMID:1596679

  4. Influence of acute exposure to high altitude on basal and postprandial plasma levels of gastroenteropancreatic peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf L Riepl

    Full Text Available Acute mountain sickness (AMS is characterized by headache often accompanied by gastrointestinal complaints that vary from anorexia through nausea to vomiting. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high altitude on plasma levels of gastroenteropancreatic (GEP peptides and their association to AMS symptoms. Plasma levels of 6 GEP peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 11 subjects at 490 m (Munich, Germany and, after rapid passive ascent to 3454 m (Jungfraujoch, Switzerland, over the course of three days. In a second study (n = 5, the same peptides and ghrelin were measured in subjects who consumed standardized liquid meals at these two elevations. AMS symptoms and oxygen saturation were monitored. In the first study, both fasting (morning 8 a.m. and stimulated (evening 8 p.m. plasma levels of pancreatic polypeptide (PP and cholecystokinin (CCK were significantly lower at high altitude as compared to baseline, whereas gastrin and motilin concentrations were significantly increased. Fasting plasma neurotensin was significantly enhanced whereas stimulated levels were reduced. Both fasting and stimulated plasma motilin levels correlated with gastrointestinal symptom severity (r = 0.294, p = 0.05, and r = 0.41, p = 0.006, respectively. Mean O(2-saturation dropped from 96% to 88% at high altitude. In the second study, meal-stimulated integrated (= area under curve plasma CCK, PP, and neurotensin values were significantly suppressed at high altitude, whereas integrated levels of gastrin were increased and integrated VIP and ghrelin levels were unchanged. In summary, our data show that acute exposure to a hypobaric hypoxic environment causes significant changes in fasting and stimulated plasma levels of GEP peptides over consecutive days and after a standardized meal. The changes of peptide levels were not uniform. Based on the inhibition of PP and neurotensin release a reduction of the cholinergic tone can be postulated.

  5. Plasma leptin levels in healthy children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blum, W F; Englaro, P; Hanitsch, S

    1997-01-01

    Leptin, the product of the ob gene, is thought to play a key role in the regulation of body fat mass. Beyond this function, it appears to be an integral component of various hypothalamo-pituitary-endocrine feedback loops. Because childhood and puberty are periods of major metabolic and endocrine...... changes, leptin levels and various hormonal parameters were investigated in a large cohort of healthy children and adolescents (312 males, 401 females, age 5.8-19.9 yr). For this purpose, a specific and sensitive RIA was developed that allowed the accurate measurement of low leptin levels in young lean...... children. With this assay, leptin proved to be a comparatively stable protein under common conditions of blood sampling and storage. Leptin levels increased in girls with age (r = 0.47, P

  6. Effect of explosive noise on gastrointestinal transit and plasma levels of polypeptide hormones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Bin Mu; Yu-Xin Huang; Bao-Min Zhao; Zhen-Xiong Liu; Bing-Hua Zhang; Qing-Li Wang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of firing noise on gastrointestinal transit and probe its mechanism by measuring the levels of plasma polypeptide hormones.METHODS: Atotal of 64 SD rats were randomly divided into a control group and three stimulating groups. Firing noise of different intensity by sub-machine guns was used as inflicting factor. The effect of firing noise on liquid substance gastrointestinal transit and solid substance gastrointestinal transit was observed by measuring the ratio of carbon powder suspension transmitting and barium sticks transmitting respectively.Plasma levels of polypeptide hormones were measured by radio-immunoassay.RESULTS: The noise accelerated gastrointestinal transit of solid food by more than 80 db;and accelerated gastrointestinal transit of liquid food significantly by more than 120 db. Meantime, plasma levels of plasma motilin (MTL)(157.47±16.08; 151.90±17.08), somatostatin (SS)(513.97±88.77; 458.25±104.30), substance P (SP)(115.52±20.70; 110.28±19.96) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) (214.21±63.17; 251.76±97.24)remarkably changed also.CONCLUSION: Within a certain intensity range,the firing noise changes the levels of rat plasma gastrointestinal hormones, but the gastrointestinal transit is still normal. Beyond the range, the noise induces plasma hormone levels disturbance and gastrointestinal transit disorder.

  7. Circulating FGF23 levels in response to acute changes in plasma Ca(2+).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravesen, Eva; Mace, Maria L; Hofman-Bang, Jacob; Olgaard, Klaus; Lewin, Ewa

    2014-07-01

    The regulation of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) synthesis and secretion is still incompletely understood. FGF23 is an important regulator of renal phosphate excretion and has regulatory effects on the calciotropic hormones calcitriol and parathyroid hormone (PTH). Calcium (Ca) and phosphate homeostasis are closely interrelated, and it is therefore likely that Ca is involved in FGF23 regulation. It has recently been reported that dietary Ca influenced FGF23 levels, with high Ca increasing FGF23. The mechanism remains to be clarified. It remains unknown whether acute changes in plasma Ca influence FGF23 levels and whether a close relationship, similar that known for Ca and PTH, exists between Ca and FGF23. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine whether acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia regulate FGF23 levels in the rat. Acute hypercalcemia was induced by an intravenous Ca infusion and hypocalcemia by infusion of ethylene glycol tetraacetic acid (EGTA) in normal and acutely parathyroidectomized rats. Intact plasma FGF23 and intact plasma PTH and plasma Ca(2+) and phosphate were measured. Acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia resulted as expected in adequate PTH secretory responses. Plasma FGF23 levels remained stable at all plasma Ca(2+) levels; acute parathyroidectomy did not affect FGF23 secretion. In conclusion, Ca is not a regulator of acute changes in FGF23 secretion.

  8. Relationship between Plasma Triglyceride Level and Severity of Hypertriglyceridemic Pancreatitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Huei; Chou, Yu-Ching; Shangkuan, Wei-Chuan; Wei, Kuang-Yu; Pan, Yu-Han; Lin, Hung-Che

    2016-01-01

    Background Hypertriglyceridemia is the third most common cause of acute pancreatitis, but whether the level of triglyceride (TG) is related to severity of pancreatitis is unclear. Aim To evaluate the effect of TG level on the severity of hypertriglyceridemic pancreatitis (HTGP). Design Retrospective cohort study. Methods We reviewed the records of 144 patients with HTGP from 1999 to 2013 at Tri-Service General Hospital. Patients with possible etiology of pancreatitis, such as gallstones, those consuming alcohol or drugs, or those with infections were excluded. The classification of severity of pancreatitis was based on the revised Atlanta classification. We allocated the patients into high-TG and low-TG groups based on the optimal cut-off value (2648 mg/dL), which was derived from the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve between TG level and severity of HTGP. We then compared the clinical characteristics, pancreatitis severity, and mortality rates of the groups. Results There were 66 patients in the low-TG group and 78 patients in the high-TG group. There was no significant difference in the age, sex ratio, body mass index, and comorbidity between the 2 groups. The high-TG group had significantly higher levels of glucose (P = 0.022), total cholesterol (P = 0.002), and blood urea nitrogen (P = 0.037), and lower levels of sodium (P = 0.003) and bicarbonate (P = 0.002) than the low-TG group. The incidences of local complication (P = 0.002) and severe and moderate form of pancreatitis (P = 0.004) were significantly higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group. The mortality rate was higher in the high-TG group than in the low-TG group (P = 0.07). Conclusions Higher TG level in patients with HTGP may be associated with adverse prognosis, but randomized and prospective studies are needed in the future verify this relationship. PMID:27727299

  9. Potassium and Its Discontents: New Insight, New Treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, David H; Terker, Andrew S; Gamba, Gerardo

    2016-04-01

    Hyperkalemia is common in patients with impaired kidney function or who take drugs that inhibit the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis. During the past decade, substantial advances in understanding how the body controls potassium excretion have been made, which may lead to improved standard of care for these patients. Renal potassium disposition is primarily handled by a short segment of the nephron, comprising part of the distal convoluted tubule and the connecting tubule, and regulation results from the interplay between aldosterone and plasma potassium. When dietary potassium intake and plasma potassium are low, the electroneutral sodium chloride cotransporter is activated, leading to salt retention. This effect limits sodium delivery to potassium secretory segments, limiting potassium losses. In contrast, when dietary potassium intake is high, aldosterone is stimulated. Simultaneously, potassium inhibits the sodium chloride cotransporter. Because more sodium is then delivered to potassium secretory segments, primed by aldosterone, kaliuresis results. When these processes are disrupted, hyperkalemia results. Recently, new agents capable of removing potassium from the body and treating hyperkalemia have been tested in clinical trials. This development suggests that more effective and safer approaches to the prevention and treatment of hyperkalemia may be on the horizon.

  10. Plasma ficolin levels and risk of nephritis in Danish patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanha, Nima; Pilely, Katrine; Faurschou, Mikkel; Garred, Peter; Jacobsen, Søren

    2017-02-01

    Given the scavenging properties of ficolins, we hypothesized that variation in the plasma concentrations of the three ficolins may be associated with development of lupus nephritis (LN), type of LN, end-stage renal disease (ESRD), and/or mortality among patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). SLE patients attending a Danish tertiary rheumatology referral center were included. Plasma concentrations of ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3 were determined and dichotomized by the median into high and low. LN was defined by clinical criteria; type of LN by renal biopsy; ESRD follow-up time was defined as time from onset of LN to the development of ESRD or censoring at the end of follow-up. The study included 112 SLE patients with median disease duration of 8 years of which 53 (47%) had LN at the time of inclusion. During a median follow-up of 10 years, five patients developed ESRD. Sixteen patients died. Odds ratios (ORs) of LN were 1.2 (95% CI: 0.6-2.7), 4.1 (95% CI: 1.7-9.7), and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.4-2.0) for patients with low ficolin-1, ficolin-2, and ficolin-3 plasma levels, respectively. The distribution of histological classes differed between patients with high and low plasma levels of ficolin-1 (p = 0.009). Patients with high ficolin-1 plasma levels had an increased risk of ESRD. There was no association between the levels of the analyzed plasma ficolins and mortality. Low plasma ficolin-2 levels were associated with an increased risk of having LN. High plasma levels of ficolin-1 were associated with the histological subtype of LN and development of ESRD.

  11. Treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity using low-level laser therapy and 5% potassium nitrate: A randomized, controlled, three arm parallel clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ruchi; Koppolu, Pradeep; Kalakonda, Butchibabu; Lakshmi, Bolla Vijaya; Mishra, Ashank; Reddy, Pathakota Krishnajaneya; Bollepalli, Appaiah Chowdary

    2017-01-01

    Aim: The present randomized study was aimed to compare the efficacy 5% potassium nitrate (KNO3) toothpaste, low-level laser therapy (LLLT), and LLLT with 5% KNO3 toothpaste in the treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity (DH). Materials and Methods: Total of 45 patients complaining of DH with visual analog scale (VAS) score being ≥2 were recruited and were divided into three groups. Group A was treated with 5% KNO3 toothpaste, Group B using LLLT along with the application of 5% KNO3 toothpaste, and Group C using LLLT alone. VAS scores were recorded at the baseline, 1st, 2nd, and 3rd weeks by the examiner who is blinded toward the treatment. The sensitivity response was evaluated using air spray and tactile sensation (explorer). Results: A greater reduction of DH was recorded at the end of 3 weeks in Group C and Group B when compared to Group A. Better results were noted in Group C at the end of the 1st week when compared to Group B. According to this study, there was no additional benefit of using toothpaste along with LLLT. Conclusion: A greater reduction of DH was recorded at the end of 3 weeks in Group C and Group B when compared to Group A. Better results were noted in Group C at the end of the 1st week when compared to Group B. According to this study, there was no additional benefit of using toothpaste along with LLLT. PMID:28251111

  12. PLASMA ZINC LEVEL IN LACTATING WOMEN: ISFAHAN – 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A MAHMOUDIAN

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Zinc is an important trace mineral for human health specially in children. The zinc of nursing mothers affects on their milk and so health of their childs. This study assesses the serum zinc level in lactating women of Isfahan city. Methods. In a cross sectional study, 100 lactating women who were sited under care of Isfahan rural and urban health centers were selected by multistage cluster and simple random sampling. The food recall questionnair was completed and 10 ml blood sample was obtained from each subject. Serum zinc level was measered by atomic absorption. Results. Mean age of participants was 24.7 ± 4.9 years. Mean zinc concentration was 70.4±8.01 µg/dl. About 63 percent of subjects had serum zinc level less than 75 µg/dl (significant zinc deficiency and of this group 19/1 percent had severe zinc deficiency (less than 60 µg/dl. The mean of serum zinc level by BMI (< 20, 20-25, > 25 were 63.1, 70 and 75.7 (P < 0.0001. In person s that eat more frequency of meat and dairy products weekly, zinc levels were more than others (P < 0.01. Discussion. Zinc deficiency was common problem in lactating women of Isfahsn and this have harm effects on their childrens. Zinc deiifciency in children is one of causes responsible for growth retardation, suscebtibility to infections and learning disabilities. The nutrition of our people aren"t sufficient for lactating women"s needs. Other data indicated for zinc deficiency of soils. Planning such as fortification of soils, subside to meat the important source of zinc and using of zinc supplements for lactating women and other high risk groups must be done by responsible structures.

  13. Potassium carbonate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium carbonate is a white powder used to make soap, glass, and other items. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing or breathing in potassium carbonate. This article is for information only. Do ...

  14. Potassium maldistribution revisited

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    distributor of 15% potassium chloride has printed instructions ... maldistribution of concentrated 15% potassium chloride after injection into one-liter, flexible, ... rates should be controlled, preferably using an electronic infusion controller.

  15. Determining plasma morphine levels using GC-MS after solid phase extraction to monitor drug levels in the postoperative period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Santos

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To implement a selective and sensitive analytical method to quantify morphine in small volumes of plasma by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, aimed at post-operatively monitoring the drug. METHOD: A gas-liquid chromatographic method with mass detection has been developed to determine morphine concentration in plasma after solid phase extraction. Morphine-d3 was used as an internal standard. Only 0.5 mL of plasma is required for the drug solid-phase extraction in the Bond Elut-Certify®, followed by the quantification of morphine derivative by GC-MS using a linear temperature program, a capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier and make-up gas. The method was applied to determine morphine content in plasma samples of four patients during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was performed by a venous catheter, and a series of venous blood samples were collected. After the oro-After the orotracheal extubation, morphine plasma levels were monitored for up to 36 hours. RESULTS: The run time was 16 minutes because morphine and the internal standard were eluted after 8.8 minutes. The GC-MS method had 0.5 -1000 ng/mL linearity range (r²=0.9995, 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection, intraday and interday precision equivalent to 1.9% and 6.8%, and 0.1% and 0.8% systematic error (intraday and interday, respectively. The analytical method showed optimal absolute (98% and relative (100.7% recoveries. Morphine dose requirements and plasma levels are discussed. CONCLUSION: The analytical gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method is selective and adequate for morphine measurements in plasma for applications in clinical studies.

  16. Determining plasma morphine levels using GC-MS after solid phase extraction to monitor drug levels in the postoperative period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Veronica; López, Karin Jannet Vera; Santos, Luciana Moraes; Yonamine, Mauricio; Carmona, Maria José Carvalho; Santos, Silvia Regina Cavani Jorge

    2008-06-01

    To implement a selective and sensitive analytical method to quantify morphine in small volumes of plasma by gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), aimed at post-operatively monitoring the drug. A gas-liquid chromatographic method with mass detection has been developed to determine morphine concentration in plasma after solid phase extraction. Morphine-d3 was used as an internal standard. Only 0.5 mL of plasma is required for the drug solid-phase extraction in the Bond Elut-Certify, followed by the quantification of morphine derivative by GC-MS using a linear temperature program, a capillary fused silica column, and helium as the carrier and make-up gas. The method was applied to determine morphine content in plasma samples of four patients during the postoperative period of cardiac surgery. Patient-controlled analgesia with morphine was performed by a venous catheter, and a series of venous blood samples were collected. After the oro-After the orotracheal extubation, morphine plasma levels were monitored for up to 36 hours. The run time was 16 minutes because morphine and the internal standard were eluted after 8.8 minutes. The GC-MS method had 0.5 -1000 ng/mL linearity range (r(2)=0.9995), 0.1 ng/mL limit of detection, intraday and interday precision equivalent to 1.9% and 6.8%, and 0.1% and 0.8% systematic error (intraday and interday, respectively). The analytical method showed optimal absolute (98%) and relative (100.7%) recoveries. Morphine dose requirements and plasma levels are discussed. The analytical gas-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method is selective and adequate for morphine measurements in plasma for applications in clinical studies.

  17. Acute modification in plasma lipid levels in ultramarathon runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emed, Luiz Gustavo Marin; Passaglia, Daniela Gunther; Guerios, Surya T; João, Paula G D; Moser, André I S; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S P; Guarita-Souza, Luis Cesar; Mikilita, Emanuella Stella; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino; da Costa, Ana Beatriz Brenner Affonso; Faria-Neto, José Rocha

    2016-09-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of a 24-h ultramarathon, an aerobic test of high physical load, on lipid profile and apolipoproteins B (ApoB) and A1 (ApoA1) levels, minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and oxidised LDL. Prospective evaluation of 16 male athletes who participated in an ultramarathon run, where the objective was to run the greatest distance possible in 24 h. Fourteen participants completed the run. The mean distance achieved was 133.1 km (maximum of 169.6 km). There was a trend in reduction of triglycerides and total cholesterol (P = 0.06 and 0.05, respectively), without significant modifications in high-density lipoprotein, LDL and ApoA1 levels (P = 0.16; 0.55 and 0.67). There was a marked reduction in ApoB levels (P < 0.001), correlated directly to the distance covered (Pearson R = 0.68). Accordingly, an increase in the LDL/ApoB ratio was observed. The stress of this physical activity was not associated to an increase in minimally modified LDL or oxidised LDL. Lipid profile levels were not acutely altered by prolonged physical activity. Similarly, there was no evidence of greater oxidation of LDL over a 24-h period of physical activity. The reduction in ApoB was directly proportional to the distance covered, suggesting an acute positive change in phenotype of LDL molecules.

  18. Two independent apolipoprotein a5 Haplotypes influence human plasma triglyceride levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennacchio, Len A.; Olivier, Michael; Hubacek, Jaroslav A.; Krauss, Ronald M.; Rubin, Edward M.; Cohen, Jonathan C.

    2002-09-16

    The recently identified apolipoprotein A5 gene (APOA5) has been shown to play an important role in determining plasma triglyceride concentrations in humans and mice. We previously identified an APOA5 haplotype (designated APOA5*2) that is present in {approx}16 percent of Caucasians and is associated with increased plasma triglyceride concentrations. In this report we describe another APOA5 haplotype (APOA5*3) containing the rare allele of the single nucleotide polymorphism c.56C>G that changes serine to tryptophan at codon 19 and is independently associated with high plasma triglyceride levels in three different populations. In a sample of 264 Caucasian men and women with plasma triglyceride concentrations above the 90th percentile or below the 10th percentile, the APOA5*3 haplotype was more than three-fold more common in the group with high plasma triglyceride levels. In a second independently ascertained sample of Caucasian men and women (n 1/4 419) who were studied while consuming their self-selected diets as well as after high-carbohydrate diets and high-fat diets, the APOA5*3 haplotype was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels on all three dietary regimens. In a third population comprising 2660 randomly selected individuals, the APOA5*3 haplotype was found in 12 percent of Caucasians, 14 percent of African-Americans and 28 percent of Hispanics and was associated with increased plasma triglyceride levels in both men and women in each ethnic group. These findings establish that the APOA5 locus contributes significantly to inter-individual variation in plasma triglyceride levels in humans. Together, the APOA5*2 and APOA5*3 haplotypes are found in 25 50 percent of African-Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians and support the contribution of common human variation to quantitative phenotypes in the general population.

  19. Seminal plasma zinc level may be associated with the effect of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R-Z; Gao, J-C; Zhang, H-G; Wang, R-X; Zhang, Z-H; Liu, X-Y

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal plasma zinc levels and sperm parameters, and to examine the role of seminal plasma zinc. Semen samples from 79 non-smokers and 68 smokers were obtained. There was a significant decrease in seminal plasma zinc in smokers and a clear correlation between seminal plasma zinc levels and the extent of smoking. Sperm parameters (concentration, motility and morphology) among smokers were significantly lower in comparison to non-smokers. These parameters were also significantly decreased among smokers with abnormal zinc levels, while there was no significant difference between non-smokers with normal zinc and non-smokers with abnormal zinc levels. As previous studies have shown that seminal plasma zinc is associated with a decrease of anti-oxidant defences, seminal plasma zinc could be a contributor to the effects of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters. In conclusion, cigarette smoking can affect sperm parameters and this study may help towards providing a mechanistic explanation.

  20. Progranulin Levels in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Granulin Mutation Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meeter, Lieke H.H.; Patzke, Holger; Loewen, Gordon; Dopper, Elise G.P.; Pijnenburg, Yolande A.L.; van Minkelen, Rick; van Swieten, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pathogenic mutations in the granulin gene (GRN) are causative in 5-10% of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), mostly leading to reduced progranulin protein (PGRN) levels. Upcoming therapeutic trials focus on enhancing PGRN levels. Methods Fluctuations in plasma PGRN (n = 41) and its relationship with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, n = 32) and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms were investigated in pre- and symptomatic GRN mutation carriers and controls. Results Plasma PGRN levels were lower in carriers than in controls and showed a mean coefficient of variation of 5.3% in carriers over 1 week. Although plasma PGRN correlated with CSF PGRN in carriers (r = 0.54, p = 0.02), plasma only explained 29% of the variability in CSF PGRN. rs5848, rs646776 and rs1990622 genotypes only partly explained the variability of PGRN levels between subjects. Conclusions Plasma PGRN is relatively stable over 1 week and therefore seems suitable for treatment monitoring of PGRN-enhancing agents. Since plasma PGRN only moderately correlated with CSF PGRN, CSF sampling will additionally be needed in therapeutic trials. PMID:27703466

  1. ICP-AES法测定土壤中的钾、锌、钒和钴%Determination of Potassium,Zinc,Vanadium,and Cobalt in Soil by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张继华; 张加萍

    2014-01-01

    Hydrochloric acid,nitric acid,hydrofluoric acid,and perchloric acid were applied to digest heavy met-als in soil sample.Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)method was employed to determine the contents of potassium,zinc,vanadium,and cobalt.The precision of this method to these four heavy metals was 3.09%for potassium,4.14%for zinc,3.76%for vanadium,and 3.85%for cobalt respective-ly.Generally,this method is simple and quick with wide linear range and few distractions.%采用盐酸-硝酸-氢氟酸-高氯酸全分解的方法消解,在选定的条件下以ICP-AES测定溶液中的K、Zn 、V 和Co含量,对国家标准物进行测定,方法精密度(RSD,n=16)为K 3.09%、Zn 4.14%、V 3.76%、Co3.85%。该方法具有线性范围宽、干扰少、快速、简便等优点,用于实样分析,结果令人满意。

  2. Effect of potassium and hypomagnesemia on insulin in the bovine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lentz, D.E.; Madsen, F.C.; Miller, J.K.; Hansard, S.L.

    1976-01-01

    Grass tetany in cattle has been associated with the consumption of early spring forages high in potassium (K) and low in magnesium (Mg). Alterations in serum Mg and K may affect intermediary carbohydrate metabolism, resulting in hypoglycemia and ketosis that often accompany grass tetany. We investigated these interrelationships by infusing potassium chloride (KCl) intravenously in normal (plasma Mg greater than 2.1 mg/100 ml) and Mg-deficient (plasma Mg less than .7 mg/100 ml) 9-month-old Holstein bull calves and intraruminally into nonpregnant, nonlactating Holstein cows. Plasma levels of both K and immunoreactive insulin (IRI) were elevated (P less than .01) by 1.14, 2, and 3 percent KCl (51, 64, and 135 mg K/kg) in calves and by 550 g KCl (440 mg K/kg body weight) in cows. Plasma K was lower (P less than .01) and IRI higher (P less than .01) in Mg-deficient calves than in normal calves during 2 percent KCl infusion. These results suggest that prolonged elevation of K and insulin in ruminants could lead to a series of metabolic disturbances that may play an important role in the etiology of grass tetany.

  3. Liver and plasma levels of descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) in vitamin K deficiency in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harauchi, T; Takano, K; Matsuura, M; Yoshizaki, T

    1986-04-01

    Descarboxyprothrombin (PIVKA II) is a precursor of prothrombin without biological activity, and it increases with vitamin K deficiency. We studied the time course changes in liver and plasma levels of PIVKA II during the progress of vitamin K deficiency in rats. Good correlation was observed between liver PIVKA II and plasma PIVKA II and between liver or plasma PIVKA II and plasma prothrombin in experiments in which rats were fed a vitamin K-deficient diet. Feeding of a vitamin K-deficient diet or fasting caused marked increases in liver and plasma PIVKA II in male rats and a weaker response in female rats. Warfarin, a vitamin K antagonist, caused an abrupt increase in liver PIVKA II, but the increase in plasma PIVKA II was delayed about 3 hr. Plasma prothrombin decreased from about 30 min later. Factor VII decreased similarly to prothrombin, and changes in the prothrombin time and activated partial thromboplastin time were slower than the changes in these substances. Sex differences were not seen in these warfarin actions. These observations indicate that liver and plasma PIVKA II are sensitive markers of vitamin K deficiency in rats, and assay of PIVKA II can be useful for analyzing the action mechanism of drugs which influence blood coagulation.

  4. Administration of Bioflavonoides Improves Plasma Levels of Adipocyte Hormones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boncheva M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Since time immemorial the fruits of aronia melanocarpa (rich of bioflavonoides have been known for their medicinal properties. Present-day research of the pharmacological effects of aronia melanocarpa juice and fruits intake indicates that their high contents of anthocyanins is closely related to the health enhancing properties of this plant. This is a key fact which can be used in the prevention of most commonly spread, socially significant diseases, reducing for instance the total risk of cardio-vascular diseases. The great molecular variety anthocyanins possess and the role they play in cell metabolism, are still being investigated. This gives grounds to study the effects of Aronia melanocarpa on human cells, tissues, and organs. The aim of this study is to trace the effect of 150-200 ml aronia melanokarpa juice daily oral intake on the adipocyte hormones leptin (Lp, resistine (Rs and adiponectin (Adn blood levels in 10 patients with high body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 and high waist circumference. We used ELISA methods for hormonal analyses. During the study-period of two months patients did not change anything in their lifestyle. In the study group, the levels of Rs, Lp and Adn changed significantly compared to their baseline levels (averages, ng/mL - 6.93 ± 0.137, 18.40 ±1.021 and 7.98 ± 0.077 vs. 5.06 ± 0.011, 15.23 ± 0.906 and 10.45 ± 0.103 at the end of the second month, respectively. Compared with the control group of 6 people, matched for BMI, not receiving aronia melanocarpa juice, these values were markedly different. Patients taking aronia melanokarpa juice report improvement in various conditions that have caused them discomfort before the research started: pain in the muscles and joints faded away and were replaced by a new feeling of strength, headache attacks disappeared, improvement in memory and sleep were reported, regular defecation, no signs of gastric discomfort, better vision, a quicker auditory reaction, motivation

  5. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Else Marie; Borre, Michael; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2006-01-01

    . EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: In 79 patients with prostate cancer, 23 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia, and 44 healthy individuals plasma TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 were determined with ELISAs and compared with clinical stage and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) values. Plasma levels of TFF were compared......PURPOSE: Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer...... with the immunohistochemical expression of TFF and chromogranin A in 30 prostate cancer tissue samples. RESULTS: Patients with advanced prostate cancer had significantly higher plasma concentrations of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 (P

  6. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis: Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée M Ettema

    Full Text Available Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP, are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli for copeptin release, i.e. plasma osmolality, blood volume and mean arterial pressure (MAP, are operational in hemodialysis patients.One hundred and eight prevalent, stable hemodialysis patients on a thrice-weekly dialysis schedule were studied during hemodialysis with constant ultrafiltration rate and dialysate conductivity in this observational study. Plasma levels of copeptin, sodium, MAP, and blood volume were measured before, during and after hemodialysis. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the association between copeptin (dependent variable and the physiological stimuli plasma sodium, MAP, excess weight as well as NT-pro-BNP immediately prior to dialysis and between copeptin and changes of plasma sodium, MAP and blood volume with correction for age, sex and diabetes during dialysis treatment.Patients were 63 ± 15.6 years old and 65% were male. Median dialysis vintage was 1.6 years (IQR 0.7-4.0. Twenty-three percent of the patients had diabetes and 82% had hypertension. Median predialysis copeptin levels were 141.5 pmol/L (IQR 91.0-244.8 pmol/L. Neither predialysis plasma sodium levels, nor NT-proBNP levels, nor MAP were associated with predialysis copeptin levels. During hemodialysis, copeptin levels rose significantly (p<0.01 to 163.0 pmol/L (96.0-296.0 pmol/L. Decreases in blood volume and MAP were associated with increases in copeptin levels during dialysis, whereas there was no significant association between the change in plasma sodium levels and the change in copeptin levels.Plasma copeptin levels are elevated predialysis and increase further during hemodialysis. Volume stimuli, i.e. decreases in MAP and blood volume, rather than osmotic

  7. Increased plasma free fatty acid and triglyceride levels after single administation of toluene in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Setsunori; Tanabe, Koichi; Shiono, Hiroshi (Shimane Medical Univ., Izumo (Japan)); Maseda, Chikatoshi (Shimane Prefectural Police Headquarters, Matsue (Japan)); Fukui, Yuko (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1988-01-01

    Changes of plasma lipids (triglyceride, TG: total cholesterol, Cho; and phospholipids, PL), free fatty acid (FFA), and blood glucose (BG) were studied in male rabbits after toluene administration (0.5 g/kg per os). Hypertriglyceridemia was observed at and after 2 h. Plasma FFA and BG were elevated temporarily during the early stage and lowered gradually thereafter. Initially, plasma Cho and PL were virtually unchanged, by the Cho levels increased slowly after 6 h. The hypertriglyceridemia observed may have some adverse effects on heart function.

  8. Genetic effects of an air discharge plasma on Staphylococcus aureus at the gene transcription level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zimu; Wei, Jun; Shen, Jie; Liu, Yuan; Ma, Ronghua; Zhang, Zelong; Qian, Shulou; Ma, Jie; Lan, Yan; Zhang, Hao; Zhao, Ying; Xia, Weidong; Sun, Qiang; Cheng, Cheng; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-05-01

    The dynamics of gene expression regulation (at transcription level) in Staphylococcus aureus after different doses of atmospheric-pressure room-temperature air plasma treatments are investigated by monitoring the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The plasma treatment influences the transcription of genes which are associated with several important bio-molecular processes related to the environmental stress resistance of the bacteria, including oxidative stress response, biofilm formation, antibiotics resistance, and DNA damage protection/repair. The reactive species generated by the plasma discharge in the gas phase and/or induced in the liquid phase may account for these gene expression changes.

  9. Simultaneous treatment of low-level miscellaneous solid waste by thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amakawa, T.; Adachi, K.; Yasui, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Kanagawa (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    Volume reduction is a cost saving method for the final disposal of radioactive waste. On one hand, arc plasma heating can provide sufficient heat independent of the chemical and physical properties of waste, therefore enabling stable heating at high treatment rates. CRIEPI (central research institute of electric power industry) focused on the advantages of arc plasma heating, and has clarified that arc plasma heating can be used in a simultaneous melting treatment process for low-level miscellaneous mixed solid waste, generated from nuclear power plants for volume reduction, and in the stabilization of radionuclides. (authors)

  10. Vitamin K plasma levels determination in human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusaro, Maria; Gallieni, Maurizio; Rizzo, Maria Antonietta; Stucchi, Andrea; Delanaye, Pierre; Cavalier, Etienne; Moysés, Rosa M A; Jorgetti, Vanda; Iervasi, Giorgio; Giannini, Sandro; Fabris, Fabrizio; Aghi, Andrea; Sella, Stefania; Galli, Francesco; Viola, Valentina; Plebani, Mario

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin K (phylloquinone or vitamin K1 and menaquinones or vitamin K2) plays an important role as a cofactor in the synthesis of hepatic blood coagulation proteins, but recently has also aroused an increasing interest for its action in extra-hepatic tissues, in particular in the regulation of bone and vascular metabolism. The accurate measurement of vitamin K status in humans is still a critical issue. Along with indirect assays, such as the undercarboxylated fractions of vitamin K-dependent proteins [prothrombin, osteocalcin (OC), and matrix gla protein], the direct analysis of blood levels of phylloquinone and menaquinones forms might be considered a more informative and direct method for assessing vitamin K status. Different methods for direct quantification of vitamin K serum levels are available. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods coupled with post-column reduction procedures and fluorimetric or electrochemical detection are commonly used for food and blood analysis of phylloquinone, but they show some limitations when applied to the analysis of serum menaquinones because of interferences from triglycerides. Recent advancements include liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LCMS/MS) detection, which assures higher specificity. The optimization and standardization of these methods requires specialized laboratories. The variability of results observed in the available studies suggests the need for further investigations to obtain more accurate analytical results.

  11. Plasma cortisol levels in captive wild felines after chemical restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.P. Nogueira

    1997-11-01

    Full Text Available Eight Panthera onca (Po, 13 Felis concolor (Fc, 7 Felis yagouaroundi (Fy, 7 Felis tigrina (Ft and 5 Felis pardalis (Fp specimens from São Paulo State zoos were used. All animals were restrained with darts containing 10 mg/kg ketamine and 1 mg/kg xylazine. Venous blood samples were collected as soon as possible (within 15-20 min and serum was frozen until the time for cortisol quantification. Cortisol was determined using a solid phase radioimmunoassay with an intra-assay coefficient of 8.51%. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's multiple comparisons test, and the one-sample t-test, with the level of significance set at P<0.05. Data are reported as means ± SEM. Cortisol levels differed among the captive felines: Po = 166 ± 33a, Fc = 670 ± 118b, Fy = 480 ± 83b, Ft = 237 ± 42ab, Fp = 97 ± 12a nmol/l (values followed by different superscript letters were significantly different (P<0.001. Since most of the veterinary procedures on these species involve chemical restraint, these results show the necessity of preventive measures in order to minimize the effect of restraint stress on more susceptible species

  12. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Rong Ju

    Full Text Available To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin.The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95 than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09, and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79, with each p<0.01. Significant differences were also found in plasma BNP levels among the three groups (p<0.05. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that myostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each p<0.05.Plasma myostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD.

  13. Fructose levels are markedly elevated in cerebrospinal fluid compared to plasma in pregnant women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice J Hwang

    Full Text Available Fructose, unlike glucose, promotes feeding behavior in rodents and its ingestion exerts differential effects in the human brain. However, plasma fructose is typically 1/1000 th of glucose levels and it is unclear to what extent fructose crosses the blood-brain barrier. We investigated whether local endogenous central nervous system (CNS fructose production from glucose via the polyol pathway (glucose → sorbitol → fructose contributes to brain exposure to fructose.In this observational study, fasting glucose, sorbitol and fructose concentrations were measured using gas-chromatography-liquid mass spectroscopy in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, maternal plasma, and venous cord blood collected from 25 pregnant women (6 lean, 10 overweight/obese, and 9 T2DM/gestational DM undergoing spinal anesthesia and elective cesarean section.As expected, CSF glucose was ~ 60% of plasma glucose levels. In contrast, fructose was nearly 20-fold higher in CSF than in plasma (p < 0.001, and CSF sorbitol was ~ 9-times higher than plasma levels (p < 0.001. Moreover, CSF fructose correlated positively with CSF glucose (ρ 0.45, p = 0.02 and sorbitol levels (ρ 0.75, p < 0.001. Cord blood sorbitol was also ~ 7-fold higher than maternal plasma sorbitol levels (p = 0.001. There were no differences in plasma, CSF, and cord blood glucose, fructose, or sorbitol levels between groups.These data raise the possibility that fructose may be produced endogenously in the human brain and that the effects of fructose in the human brain and placenta may extend beyond its dietary consumption.

  14. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne; Møller, Holger Jon; Moestrup, Søren K; Eugen-Olsen, Jesper; Kronborg, Gitte; Benfield, Thomas

    2016-10-15

    CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV-infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment, 73% had plasma a HIV RNA level of Plasma sCD163 levels were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (4.92 mg/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 3.29-8.65 mg/L] vs 3.16 mg/L [IQR, 2.16-4.64 mg/L]; P = .0001). The cumulative incidence of death increased with increasing plasma sCD163 levels, corresponding to a 6% or 35% increased risk of death for each milligram per liter or quartile increase, respectively, in baseline plasma sCD163 level (adjusted HR, 1.06 [95% CI, 1.03-1.09] and 1.35 [95% CI, 1.13-1.63], respectively). Plasma sCD163 was an independent marker of all-cause mortality in a cohort of HIV-infected individuals, suggesting that monocyte/macrophage activation may play a role in HIV pathogenesis and be a target of intervention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Evaluation of plasma reactive oxygen metabolites levels in obese subjects with periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snophia Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Result and Conclusion: In this study, obese subjects with chronic periodontitis (Group I had mean plasma ROM levels (442.3 ± 15.65 Carratelli unit [CARR U] showing 100% subjects with high oxidative stress. Obese subjects with chronic gingivitis (Group II had mean plasma ROM levels (358.7 ± 20.61 CARR U indicating 86.7% subjects with oxidative stress. Obese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group III had 46.7% subjects with slight oxidative stress, and the mean ROM level was 320.2 ± 17.57. Nonobese subjects with healthy periodontium (Group IV had 80% of subjects with normal oxidative stress and the mean plasma ROM level was 296.9 ± 20.35 CARR U. The intra- and inter-group comparison showed significant difference (P < 0.001. From our study, we report that obese subjects with periodontitis have more oxidative stress compared to obese subjects with healthy periodontium.

  16. Levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and antioxidant vitamins in plasma of patients with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkuş, Selami; Naziroğlu, Mustafa; Eriş, Sevilay; Yalman, Kadir; Yilmaz, Nigar; Yener, Mahmut

    2009-06-01

    The etiology of fibromyalgia is not clearly understood. In recent years, a few studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the etiology and pathogenesis of fibromyalgia. The aim of this study was to investigate plasma antioxidant vitamins, lipid peroxidation (LP), and nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with fibromyalgia and controls. The study was performed on the blood plasma of 30 female patients and 30 age-matched controls. After a fast of 12 h, blood samples were taken, and plasma samples were obtained for measurement of vitamins A, C, E, and beta-carotene concentrations and levels of LP and NO. Concentrations of vitamins A (p fibromyalgia than in controls, and LP levels were significantly (p vitamin C and beta-carotene and levels of NO did not change significantly. These results provide some evidence for a potential role of LP and fat-soluble antioxidants in the patients with fibromyalgia.

  17. Transcranial magnetic stimulation and BDNF plasma levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelucci, Francesco; Oliviero, Antonio; Pilato, Fabio; Saturno, Eleonora; Dileone, Michele; Versace, Viviana; Musumeci, Gabriella; Batocchi, Anna P; Tonali, Pietro A; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo

    2004-03-22

    Low- and high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex results in lasting changes of excitatory neurotransmission. We investigated the effects of suprathreshold 1 Hz rTMS on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plasma levels in 10 healthy subjects and effects of either 1 Hz or 20 Hz rTMS in four amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. BDNF levels were progressively decreased by 1 Hz rTMS in healthy subjects; there was no effect of 1 Hz rTMS on BDNF plasma levels in ALS patients, an effect probably due to the loss of motor cortex pyramidal cells. High frequency rTMS determined a transitory decrease in BDNF plasma levels. Cumulatively these findings suggest that rTMS might influence the BDNF production by interfering with neuronal activity.

  18. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    Background: CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human...... immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). Methods: Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV–infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. Results: At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment......, 73% had plasma a HIV RNA level of CD163 levels were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (4.92 mg/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 3.29–8.65 mg/L] vs 3.16 mg/L [IQR, 2...

  19. Plasma Soluble CD163 Level Independently Predicts All-Cause Mortality in HIV-1-Infected Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Troels Bygum; Ertner, Gideon; Petersen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: CD163, a monocyte- and macrophage-specific scavenger receptor, is shed as soluble CD163 (sCD163) during the proinflammatory response. Here, we assessed the association between plasma sCD163 levels and progression to AIDS and all-cause mortality among individuals infected with human...... immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV). METHODS: Plasma sCD163 levels were measured in 933 HIV-infected individuals. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) associated with mortality were computed by Cox proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: At baseline, 86% were receiving antiretroviral treatment......, 73% had plasma a HIV RNA level of CD163 levels were higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (4.92 mg/L [interquartile range {IQR}, 3.29-8.65 mg/L] vs 3.16 mg/L [IQR, 2...

  20. Diagnosis of drowning by summation of sodium, potassium and chloride ion levels in pleural effusion: differentiating between freshwater and seawater drowning and application to bathtub deaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yajima, Daisuke; Saito, Hisako; Sato, Kaoru; Hayakawa, Mutsumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2013-12-10

    Although electrolyte analysis of pleural effusion at autopsy is useful for the diagnosis of water aspiration (i.e., drowning), the method of comparing each level of sodium (Na(+)), potassium (K(+)), and chloride (Cl(-)) ions does not clearly differentiate between freshwater drowning, seawater drowning, and non-drowning. Therefore, here we introduce the summation of Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-) levels, that is SUM(Na+K+Cl), as a modified diagnostic indicator. In 21 autopsy cases of freshwater drowning, 32 cases of seawater drowning, and 43 non-drowning controls (with pleural effusion), mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) differed significantly between the groups (188.8±33.2, 403.5±107.9, and 239.3±21.7 mEq/L, respectively). We defined a SUM(Na+K+Cl) cut-off value of 282.7 mEq/L as strongly suggestive of seawater aspiration. When these values were applied to the two drowning groups, 15 cases (71%) of freshwater drowning and 29 cases (91%) of seawater drowning were diagnosed correctly. This new approach may be more valid than previous methods in cases found >2 days after death or those with substantial pleural effusion (>100 mL). For an additional 15 bathtub deaths, mean SUM(Na+K+Cl) was 198.8±40.0 mEq/L, and in 14 of these cases (93%) the relationship between cause of death and SUM(Na+K+Cl) could be explained using this method. Forensic pathologists should not depend exclusively on chemical findings and should consider also typical pathological indicators of drowning. This new method may be useful as a supplementary diagnostic tool when used alongside consideration of the pathological findings.

  1. Peanut consumption increases levels of plasma very long chain fatty acids in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Christina; Wong, Derek; Cederbaum, Stephen; Lim, Bennie; Qu, Yong

    2012-11-01

    Peanut consumption has been suspected of raising plasma very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) levels in humans. The effect of peanut consumption on VLCFAs was studied in six human subjects. After 3 to 4h of peanut butter ingestion, plasma C26:0 and C26:0/C22:0 were found to be significantly elevated to levels seen in patients with peroxisomal disorders. These levels returned to normal within 12h. Peanut consumption needs to be accounted for when interpreting VLCFAs.

  2. Overwinter fasting and re-feeding in rainbow trout: plasma growth hormone and cortisol levels in relation to energy mobilization

    OpenAIRE

    Pottinger, T.G.; Rand-Weaver, M; Sumpter, J.P.

    2003-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of cortisol and growth hormone during a period of fasting in overwintering salmonid fish. Indices of carbohydrate (plasma glucose, liver glycogen), lipid (plasma free fatty acids) and protein metabolism (plasma protein, total plasma amino acids) were determined, together with plasma growth hormone (GH), cortisol and somatolactin levels (SL) at intervals in three groups of rainbow trout (continuously fed; fasted for 9 weeks then fed; fasted for 17 weeks). In f...

  3. Effects of salt intake and potassium supplementation on renalase expression in the kidneys of Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wen-Ling; Wang, Jing; Mu, Jian-Jun; Liu, Fu-Qiang; Yuan, Zu-Yi; Wang, Yang; Wang, Dan; Ren, Ke-Yu; Guo, Tong-Shuai; Xiao, Hong-Yu

    2016-02-01

    Renalase is currently the only known amine oxidase in the blood that can metabolize catecholamines and regulate sympathetic activity. High salt intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), possibly through the modulation of renalase expression and secretion, whereas potassium can reverse the high salt-mediated increase in blood pressure. However, whether potassium could also modulate BP through renalase is unclear. In this study, we aim to investigate how salt intake and potassium supplementation affect the level of renalase in rats. Eighteen salt-sensitive (SS) and 18 SS-13BN rats were divided into six groups, receiving normal salt (0.3% NaCl), high salt (8% NaCl) and high salt/potassium (8% NaCl and 8% KCl) dietary intervention for four weeks. At the end of experiments, blood and kidneys were collected for analysis. mRNA level of renalase was measured by quantitative real-time PCR and protein level was determined by Western blot. We found that mRNA and protein levels of renalase in the kidneys of SS and SS-13BN rats were significantly decreased (P high salt intervention, whereas dopamine in plasma was increased (P high salt/potassium, compared with that of the high salt SS group. Taken together, the salt-induced increase and potassium-induced decrease in BP could be mediated through renalase. More studies are needed to confirm our findings and understand the underlying mechanisms.

  4. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  5. Changes of Plasma Levels of Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Xiaoyang; Pan Ying; Hu Xuesong; Li Song; Xu Yawei; Yu Xuejing

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the changes of plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) levels in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF).Methods Plasma BNP concentrations in patients with CHF (n=56) and in normal controls (n=60) were measured with specific radioimmunoassay. Left ventricular ejection fraction in patients with chronic heart failure was measured with 99mTc gated cardiac blood pool scintigraphy. Results The results showed that Plasma BNP concentrations in patients with CHF were significantly higher than normal controls (223±79 ng/L vs 40±15 ng/L, P < 0.01). Plasma BNP concentrations had a significant negative correlation with left ventricular ejection fractions(r=-0.68, P <0.01 ). Conclusions These results indicates that Plasma BNP levels are increased in patients with CHF, and they markedly increased according to the severity of heart failure classified by NYHA classification. The plasma BNP levels may be a biochemical parameter for evaluating the left ventricular function.

  6. Effect of anticonvulsants on plasma testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barragry, J M; Makin, H L; Trafford, D J; Scott, D F

    1978-01-01

    Plasma sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) and testosterone levels were measured in 29 patients with epilepsy (16 men and 13 women), most of them on chronic therapy with anticonvulsant drugs. Sex hormone binding globulin concentrations were increased in both sexes and testosterone levels in male patients. It is postulated that anticonvulsants may induce hepatic synthesis of SHBG. PMID:569688

  7. Reduced plasma taurine level in Parkinson's disease: association with motor severity and levodopa treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Yuan, Yongsheng; Tong, Qing; Jiang, Siming; Xu, Qinrong; Ding, Jian; Zhang, Lian; Zhang, Rui; Zhang, Kezhong

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the level of taurine in plasma, and its association with the severity of motor and non-motor symptoms (NMS) and chronic levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease (PD). Plasma taurine level was measured in treated PD (tPD), untreated PD (ntPD) and control groups. Motor symptoms and NMS were assessed using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, the short form of the McGill Pain Questionnaire, the Hamilton Depression Scale, the Scale for Outcomes in Parkinson's disease for Autonomic Symptoms and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Longtime exposure to levodopa was indicated by its approximate cumulative dosage. The plasma taurine levels of PD patients were decreased when compared with controls and negatively associated with motor severity but not NMS. Moreover, tPD patients exhibited lower levels of plasma taurine than ntPD patients. Interestingly, plasma taurine levels negatively correlated with cumulative levodopa dosage in tPD. After controlling for potential confounders, the association between taurine and levodopa remained significant. Our study supports that taurine may play important roles in the pathophysiology of PD and the disturbances caused by chronic levodopa administration.

  8. [Measurement and correlation analysis of plasma VEGF level in the patients of hyperthyroidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoni; Wang, Guangrong; You, Jinhui

    2013-04-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a glycoprotein that promotes endothelial regeneration, stimulates formation of collateral blood vessels and increases vascular permeability. The purpose of this study was to measure the peripheral blood plasma level of VEGF and FT3, FT4, TSH and to analyze the correlation of the level of VEGF and TSH, FT3, FT4, age and gender in the patients of hyperthyroidism. The relationship between hyperthyroidism and VEGF was investigated as well. The plasma level of VEGF in 45 hyperthyroidism patients and 27 healthy persons were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while plasma FT3, FT4, TSH were detected by chemiluminescence. The result showed that the plasma level of VEGF in hyperthyroidism patients [(92.53 +/- 62.38) pg/mL] was significantly lower than that in the control group [(158.28 +/- 77.15) pg/mL] (P hyperthyroidism patients (P > 0.05). These results suggested that the peripheral blood plasma level of VEGF in hyperthyroidism patients was significantly lower than that in the control group. Further experimental investigations are needed to estimate the relationship between VEGF and hyperthyroidism.

  9. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  10. ApoE plasma levels and risk of cardiovascular mortality in old age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Mooijaart

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4 alleles of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE encode three isoforms, apoE2, E3, and E4, respectively. The apoE isoforms circulate in different plasma concentrations, but plasma concentrations of the same isoform also differ between individuals. Whereas the isoforms have been associated with cardiovascular disease, the relation between plasma apoE levels and cardiovascular disease is unknown. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We assessed APOE genotypes, plasma levels of apoE, cardiovascular risk factors, and mortality in a population-based sample of 546 individuals aged 85 y who participated in the Leiden 85-plus Study and were prospectively followed for specific causes of death for 5 y. Participants in the highest tertile of apoE levels suffered a twofold-increased risk of cardiovascular mortality (hazard ratio compared to lowest tertile, 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.30 to 3.33. Among the 324 participants with the epsilon3epsilon3 genotype, the hazard from cardiovascular disease was threefold increased (highest versus lowest tertile 3.01; 95% CI 1.60 to 5.66, with similar estimates for men and women. Other causes of death were not increased significantly. Plasma levels of apoE in epsilon3epsilon3 participants were positively correlated with total cholesterol (p < 0.001, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (p < 0.001 and triglycerides (p < 0.001 and negatively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (p = 0.010. Adjustment for plasma lipids did not change the hazard ratios, whereas interaction was absent. The risk associated with high levels of apoE, however, was strongest in participants from the lowest tertile of C-reactive protein (CRP levels and absent in those from the highest tertile (p(interaction < 0.001. Among participants from the lowest tertile of CRP levels, those with a high apoE levels had a significantly steeper increase in CRP than those with low apoE levels (p = 0.020. Similar

  11. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  12. Plasma cell-free DNA levels are elevated in acute Puumala hantavirus infection.

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    Tuula K Outinen

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Puumala hantavirus (PUUV causes a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome called nephropathia epidemica (NE. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma cell-free DNA (cf-DNA levels and urinary cf-DNA excretion in acute NE as well as their associations with the severity of the disease. METHODS: Total plasma cf-DNA was quantified directly in plasma of 61 patients and urine of 20 patients with acute NE. We also carried out a qualitative high-sensitivity lab-on-a-chip DNA assay in 20 patients to elucidate the appearance of cf-DNA in plasma and urine. RESULTS: The maximum plasma cf-DNA values taken during acute NE were significantly higher than the control values taken after the hospitalization period (median 1.33 µg/ml, range 0.94-3.29 µg/ml vs. median 0.77 µg/ml, range 0.55-0.99 µg/ml, P<0.001. The maximum plasma cf-DNA levels correlated positively with maximum blood leukocyte count (r = 0.388, P = 0.002 and the length of hospital stay (r = 0.376, P = 0.003, and inversely with minimum blood platelet count (r = -0.297, P = 0.020. Qualitative analysis of plasma cf-DNA revealed that in most of the patients cf-DNA displayed a low-molecular weight appearance, corresponding to the size of apoptotic DNA (150-200 bp. The visually graded maximum cf-DNA band intensity correlated positively with the maximum quantity of total plasma cf-DNA (r = 0.513, P = 0.021. Maximum urinary excretion of cf-DNA in turn was not markedly increased during the acute phase of NE and did not correlate with any of the variables reflecting severity of the disease or with the maximum plasma cf-DNA level. CONCLUSIONS: The plasma levels of cf-DNA are elevated during acute PUUV infection and correlate with the apoptotic cf-DNA-band intensity. The plasma cf-DNA concentration correlates with some variables reflecting the severity of the disease. The urinary excretion of cf-DNA does not reflect the degree of inflammation in the kidney.

  13. Kinetic parameters and intraindividual fluctuations of ochratoxin A plasma levels in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer-Rohr, I. [Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland); Dept. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland); Schlatter, J. [Toxicology Section, Div. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Zurich (Switzerland); Dietrich, D.R. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland)

    2000-11-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a rodent carcinogen produced by species of the ubiquitous fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is found in a variety of food items and as a consequence is also found in human plasma (average concentrations found in this study: 0.1-1 ng OTA/ml plasma). To improve the scientific basis for cancer risk assessment the toxicokinetic profile of OTA was studied in one human volunteer following ingestion of 395 ng {sup 3}H-labeled OTA (3.8 {mu}Ci). A two-compartment open model consisting of a central compartment was found to best describe the in vivo data. This two-compartment model consisted of a fast elimination and distribution phase (T{sub 1/2} about 20 h) followed by a slow elimination phase (renal clearance about 0.11 ml/min.) and a calculated plasma half-life of 35.55 days. This half-life was approximately eight times longer than that determined previously in rats. In addition, the intraindividual fluctuation of OTA plasma levels was investigated in eight individuals over a period of 2 months. The concentrations determined ranged between 0.2 and 0.9 ng OTA/ml plasma. The plasma levels in some individuals remained nearly constant over time, while others varied considerably (e.g. increase of 0.4 ng/ml within 3 days, decrease of 0.3 ng/ml within 5 days) during the observation period. This intraindividual fluctuation in OTA plasma levels, which may represent differences in OTA exposure and/or metabolism, as well as the large difference in plasma half-life in humans compared to rats must be taken into consideration when the results of rat cancer study data are extrapolated to humans for risk assessment purposes. (orig.)

  14. Effectiveness of the aldosterone-sodium and -potassium feedback control system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, D B; McCaa, R E; Pan, U J; Guyton, A C

    1976-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine the quantitative importance of the aldosterone feedback mechanism in controlling each one of three major factors that have often been associated with aldosterone, namely, extracellular fluid sodium concentration, extracellular fluid potassium concentration, and extracellular fluid volume. To do this, the ability of the body to control these three factors in the face of marked changes in daily sodium or potassium intake was studied under two conditions: 1) in the normal dog, and 2) in the dog in which the aldosterone feedback mechanism was prevented from functioning by removing the adrenal glands and then providing a continuous fixed level of supportive aldosterone and glucocorticoids during the low and high electrolyte intake periods. Under these conditions, removal of feedback control of aldosterone secretion decreased the effectiveness of plasma potassium control by nearly fivefold (39% vs. 8% change in plasma potassium concentration), fluid volume by sixfold (12% vs. 2% change in sodium space) and had no effect on control of plasma sodium concentration (2% change with and without feedback control of aldosterone secretion.)

  15. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lian-Hua; Quan, Zhen-Yu; Piao, Jin-Mei; Zhang, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Meng-Hui; Shin, Min-Ho; Choi, Jin-Su

    2016-06-30

    Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients' clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence intervals (CI)) of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15-0.60), 0.33 (0.17-0.65), and 0.19 (0.09-0.38). Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02-3.98). HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels), whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results.

  16. Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaw-Shiun Tsai

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Frailty is an important geriatric syndrome. Adiponectin is an important adipokine that regulates energy homeostasis. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between plasma adiponectin levels and frailty in elders. METHODS: The demographic data, body weight, metabolic and inflammatory parameters, including plasma glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, c-reactive protein (CRP and adiponectin levels, were assessed. The frailty score was assessed using the Fried Frailty Index (FFI. RESULTS: The mean (SD age of the 168 participants [83 (49.4% men and 85 (50.6% women] was 76.86 (6.10 years. Judged by the FFI score, 42 (25% elders were robust, 92 (54.7% were pre-frail, and 34 (20.3% were frail. The mean body mass index was 25.19 (3.42 kg/m(2. The log-transformed mean (SD plasma adiponectin (µg/mL level was 1.00 (0.26. The log-transformed mean plasma adiponectin (µg/mL levels were 0.93 (0.23 in the robust elders, 1.00 (0.27 in the pre-frail elders, and 1.10 (0.22 in the frail elders, and the differences between these values were statistically significant (p  = 0.012. Further analysis showed that plasma adiponectin levels rose progressively with an increasing number of components of frailty in all participants as a whole (p for trend  = 0.024 and males (p for trend  = 0.037, but not in females (p for trend  = 0.223. CONCLUSION: Plasma adiponectin levels correlate positively with an increasing number of components of frailty in male elders. The difference between the sexes suggests that certain sex-specific mechanisms may exist to affect the association between adiponectin levels and frailty.

  17. Potassium Secondary Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari, Ali; Jian, Zelang; Ji, Xiulei

    2017-02-08

    Potassium may exhibit advantages over lithium or sodium as a charge carrier in rechargeable batteries. Analogues of Prussian blue can provide millions of cyclic voltammetric cycles in aqueous electrolyte. Potassium intercalation chemistry has recently been demonstrated compatible with both graphite and nongraphitic carbons. In addition to potassium-ion batteries, potassium-O2 (or -air) and potassium-sulfur batteries are emerging. Additionally, aqueous potassium-ion batteries also exhibit high reversibility and long cycling life. Because of potentially low cost, availability of basic materials, and intriguing electrochemical behaviors, this new class of secondary batteries is attracting much attention. This mini-review summarizes the current status, opportunities, and future challenges of potassium secondary batteries.

  18. Impact of plasma fibrinogen levels in benign and malignant soft tissue tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Kunihiro; Matsumine, Akihiko; Nakamura, Tomoki; Matsubara, Takao; Asanuma, Yumiko; Oi, Toru; Goto, Mikinobu; Okuno, Kazuma; Kakimoto, Takuya; Yada, Yuuki; Sudo, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Fibrinogen, a 340 kDa glycoprotein synthesized in the liver, is known to be involved in tumor angiogenesis, enlargement, and metastasis. Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with tumor progression in many cancer patients. However, there are no reports about differences in fibrinogen levels between benign and malignant soft tissue tumors. The purpose of this study was to clarify whether preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels can be used for differential diagnosis of benign or malignant soft tissue tumors. The plasma fibrinogen levels from 102 primary soft tissue tumor patients were measured before biopsy or treatment. Fibrinogen levels were analyzed and compared to various clinical parameters. According to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, a threshold of serum fibrinogen of 315 mg/dL identified malignant patients with 60.9% sensitivity and 87.5% specificity. The diagnostic accuracy was evaluated by area under the curve (AUC: 0.805). Over 315 mg/dL of fibrinogen was associated with a significantly increased risk of malignancy by multiple logistic regression analysis (OR: 6.452, p= 0.0004). We demonstrated that plasma fibrinogen levels have a relationship with tumor malignancy of soft tissue tumors. High fibrinogen levels can be a helpful subsidiary tool for the prediction of malignant soft tissue tumors with other diagnostic tools.

  19. Plasma levels of beta-endorphin and serotonin in response to specific spinal based exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Sokunbi

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercises as the primary mode of treatment for low back disorders aim to achieve pain reduction, improvement in functional abilityand quality of life of for low back disorder sufferers. However the bio-chemical events associated with the use of these exercises in terms of theireffects on pain relieving neuropeptides have not been well established. Thisstudy was carried out to investigate the effects of spinal stabilisation, backextension and treadmill walking exercises on plasma levels of serotonin andbeta-endorphin.Twenty volunteers (10 males and 10 females without low back pain participated in the study. They were randomly allocated either to one of theexercise groups, where participants carried out one of the spinal stabilisation, back extension and treadmill walkingexercises or the control (no exercise group. The main outcome measures used in this study were plasma levels of serotonin and beta-endorphin measured with Enzyme linked immuno absorbent assay (ELISA technique.The results of this study showed that spinal stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises produced significantincrease in plasma serotonin levels (P < 0.05 however there were no significant changes in the plasma levels of beta-endorphin in all the exercise groups (P > 0.05.It could be that biochemical effects associated with stabilisation and treadmill walking exercises therefore mayinvolve production of serotonin and its release into the plasma.

  20. Myoglobin plasma level related to muscle mass and fiber composition: a clinical marker of muscle wasting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Marc-André; Kinscherf, Ralf; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Aulmann, Michael; Renk, Hanna; Künkele, Annette; Edler, Lutz; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Hildebrandt, Wulf

    2007-08-01

    Progressive muscle wasting is a central feature of cancer-related cachexia and has been recognized as a determinant of poor prognosis and quality of life. However, until now, no easily assessable clinical marker exists that allows to predict or to track muscle wasting. The present study evaluated the potential of myoglobin (MG) plasma levels to indicate wasting of large locomotor muscles and, moreover, to reflect the loss of MG-rich fiber types, which are most relevant for daily performance. In 17 cancer-cachectic patients (weight loss 22%) and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy controls, we determined plasma levels of MG and creatine kinase (CK), maximal quadriceps muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) by magnetic resonance imaging, muscle morphology and fiber composition in biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle, body cell mass (BCM) by impedance technique as well as maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max). In cachectic patients, plasma MG, muscle CSA, BCM, and VO(2)max were 30-35% below control levels. MG showed a significant positive correlation to total muscle CSA (r = 0.65, p max as an important functional readout. CK plasma levels appear to be less reliable because prolonged increases are observed in even subclinical myopathies or after exercise. Notably, cancer-related muscle wasting was not associated with increases in plasma MG or CK in this study.

  1. Plasma S100A12 Levels and Peripheral Arterial Disease in End-Stage Renal Disease

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    Yayoi Shiotsu

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: S100A12 is an endogenous ligand of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE. Plasma S100A12 levels are high in end-stage renal disease (ESRD patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (HD. Peripheral arterial disease (PAD is common in HD patients and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality rates in this population. To date, however, no study has specifically assessed the relationship between plasma S100A12 and PAD in HD patients. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 152 HD patients in our affiliated hospital. We investigated PAD history and patient characteristics and quantified plasma S100A12 levels in all participants. Results: HD patients with PAD (n = 26; 21.9 [13.6–33.4] ng/ml showed significantly higher plasma S100A12 levels than HD patients without PAD (n = 126; 11.8 [7.5–17.6]ng/ml; p Conclusion: These results suggest that plasma S100A12 levels are strongly associated with PAD prevalence in ESRD patients undergoing HD.

  2. Preoperative plasma leptin levels predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue-Wu; Shi, Jun-Wu; Yang, Ping-Shan; Wu, Zhu-Qi

    2014-07-01

    Leptin is considered to be a modulator of the immune response. Hypoleptinemia increases the risk for Alzheimer's disease and vascular dementia. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of plasma leptin level to predict delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery. Postoperative delirium (pod) was evaluated using the Confusion Assessment Method. Prolonged postoperative delirium (ppod) was defined as delirium lasting more than 4 weeks. Plasma leptin levels of 186 elderly patients and 186 elderly controls were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Plasma leptin level was substantially lower in patients than in controls (4.6±2.2ng/ml vs. 7.5±1.8ng/ml, Pdelirium and also prolonged delirium in elderly patients after hip fracture surgery.

  3. Decreased plasma neurotrophin-4/5 levels in bipolar disorder patients in mania

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    Izabela G. Barbosa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate two poorly explored neurotrophins (NT, NT-3 and NT-4/5, in bipolar disorder (BD. Methods: Forty patients with type I BD (18 in remission and 22 in mania and 25 healthy controls matched for age, gender, and educational attainment were enrolled in this study. All subjects were assessed by the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview; the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale were used to evaluate severity of symptoms in BD patients. Plasma levels of NT-3 and NT-4/5 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Results: BD patients in mania presented decreased NT-4/5 plasma levels in comparison with controls (p < 0.05. There were no significant differences in NT-3 plasma levels between BD patients and controls. Conclusion: These findings corroborate the view that neurotrophin dysfunction is associated with mood states in patients with BD.

  4. Corticotropin-releasing hormone and progesterone plasma levels association with the onset and progression of labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamatelou, F; Deligeoroglou, E; Vrachnis, N; Iliodromiti, S; Iliodromiti, Z; Sifakis, S; Farmakides, G; Creatsas, G

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE OF LNVESTIGATION: To examine the relationship between maternal plasma progesterone along with corticotropin- releasing hormone (CRH) plasma levels and the progression of labor. Maternal serum CRH and progesterone were measured during the latent phase of labor, active labor, and 24 hours postpartum in women who went into spontaneous labor and delivered vaginally at term. Progesterone (P) levels in women delivered by an elective cesarean section at term were also measured as baseline. Mean maternal plasma P was 18% higher in the active phase than in the latent phase of labor (p labor (p labor progresses, P and CRH increase and subsequently decrease precipitously in the immediate postpartal period. P levels tend to drop in women who are in early labor compared with non-laboring full-term women.

  5. Effects of time of administration and dietary iodine levels on potassium iodide (KI) blockade of thyroid irradiation by 131I from radioactive fallout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanzonico, P B; Becker, D V

    2000-06-01

    Radioiodines, particularly 131I, may be released into the environment in breach-of-containment nuclear reactor accidents and localize in and irradiate the thyroid with an attendant risk of neoplastic growth and other adverse health effects. Pharmacologic thyroid blockade by oral potassium iodide (KI) (50-100 mg in adults) can substantially reduce thyroid uptake of and irradiation by internalized radioiodine. In the current analysis, computer modeling of iodine metabolism has been used to systematically elucidate the effects of two practically important but highly variable factors on the radioprotective effect of KI: the time of administration relative to exposure to radioiodine and the dietary level of iodine. In euthyroid adults receiving iodine-sufficient diets (250 microg d(-1) in the current analysis), KI administered up to 48 h before 131I exposure can almost completely block thyroid uptake and therefore greatly reduce the thyroid absorbed dose. However, KI administration 96 h or more before 131I exposure has no significant protective effect. In contrast, KI administration after exposure to radioiodine induces a smaller and rapidly decreasing blockade effect. KI administration 16 h or later after 131I exposure will have little effect on thyroid uptake and absorbed dose and therefore little or no protective effect. The 131I thyroid absorbed dose is two-fold greater with insufficient levels of dietary iodine, 2,900 cGy/37 MBq, than with sufficient levels of dietary iodine, 1,500 cGy/37 MBq. When KI is administered 48 h or less before 131I intake, the thyroid absorbed doses (in cGy/37 MBq) are comparably low with both sufficient and insufficient dietary iodine levels. When KI is administered after 131I intake, however, the protective effect of KI is less and decreases more rapidly with insufficient than with sufficient dietary iodine. For example, KI administration 2 and 8 h after 131I intake yields protective effects of 80 and 40%, respectively, with iodine

  6. Plasma and urine DNA levels are related to microscopic hematuria in patients with bladder urothelial carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Eduardo Ferreira Pedroso; Abdalla, Tomás Elias; Arrym, Tiago Pedromonico; de Oliveira Delgado, Pamela; Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; da Costa Aguiar Alves, Beatriz; de S Gehrke, Flávia; Azzalis, Ligia Ajaime; Alves, Sarah; Tobias-Machado, Marcos; de Lima Pompeo, Antonio Carlos; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso

    2016-11-01

    a) Objective: An increase in cell-free DNA was observed in the plasma of many cancer patients. This major biomarker can be used to differentiate patients with malignant neoplasms from those with benign neoplasms or healthy patients. Depending on the characteristic of the tumor, there are qualitative variations in the circulating cell-free DNA. Today, studies on the concentration of fragments of circulating cell-free DNA and their respective sizes in patients with bladder cancer are not plentiful in the literature. A 100% effective plasma tumor marker, which would help in the diagnosis and follow-up of bladder cancer, is yet to be developed; therefore, cell-free DNA levels in the plasma may represent a valuable biomarker for the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of patients with this type of tumor. b) Design and methods: In this study we analyze the kinetics of plasma and urine DNA concentrations in patients with bladder cancer, relating them to the other clinical laboratory variables. c) Results: Patients with hematuria showed a positive correlation with urine DNA. d) Conclusion: An increase in plasma and urine DNA was unprecedentedly reported over time, a fact that may come in handy in the prognosis of patients. Furthermore, microscopic haematuria is correlated with plasma and urinary DNA levels.

  7. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

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    Hai-Wen Zhao

    Full Text Available Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD. However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se, copper (Cu, iron (Fe and zinc (Zn by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  8. Effects of cytostatic drugs on plasma level and renal excretion of beta-acetyldigoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J; Zilly, W; Wilke, J

    1981-10-01

    Mucosal defects decrease digoxin absorption in patients with malabsorption syndromes. Since the intestinal mucosa can be damaged by cytostatic drugs, we investigated their effects on digoxin plasma levels and urinary digoxin excretion. In six patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.8 mg beta-acetyldigoxin before and 24 hr after treatment with a combination of cyclophosphamide, oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma digoxin concentrations were measured 0 to 8 hr after the dose and areas under the plasma concentration-time curves were calculated. In 15 patients on 0.3 mg of beta-acetyldigoxin daily, plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured daily before and after COPP, COP, cyclophosphamide, oncovin, cytosine-arabinosine, and prednisone (COAP), or adriamycin, bleomycin, and prednisone (ABP) treatment schemes. The diminished steady-state glycoside plasma concentrations and daily renal glycoside excretion during the 24 to 168 hr after the cytostatic drug established reversible impairment of digoxin absorption. The delayed time to peak after a single dose of digoxin during cytostatic drug therapy shows that extent and rate of digoxin absorption are reduced. To maintain adequate control of digoxin therapy in patients treated with cytostatic drugs, plasma levels should be monitored.

  9. Assessing plasma levels of selenium, copper, iron and zinc in patients of Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Wen; Lin, Jie; Wang, Xue-Bao; Cheng, Xing; Wang, Jian-Yong; Hu, Bei-Lei; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Xiong; Zhu, Jian-Hong

    2013-01-01

    Trace elements have been recognized to play an important role in the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is difficult to precisely identify the relationship between these elements and the progression of PD because of an insufficient number of patients. In this study, quantifications of selenium (Se), copper (Cu), iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) by atomic absorption spectrophotometry were performed in plasma from 238 PD patients and 302 controls recruited from eastern China, which is so far the largest cohort of PD patients and controls for measuring plasma levels of these elements. We found that plasma Se and Fe concentrations were significantly increased whereas Cu and Zn concentrations decreased in PD patients as compared with controls. Meanwhile, these four elements displayed differential changes with regard to age. Linear and logistic regression analyses revealed that both Fe and Zn were negatively correlated with age in PD patients. Association analysis suggests that lower plasma Se and Fe levels may reduce the risk for PD, whereas lower plasma Zn is probably a PD risk factor. Finally, a model was generated to predict PD patients based on the plasma concentrations of these four trace elements as well as other features such as sex and age, which achieved an accuracy of 80.97±1.34% using 10-fold cross-validation. In summary, our data provide new insights into the roles of Se, Cu, Fe and Zn in PD progression.

  10. Decreased plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in institutionalized elderly with depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chin-Liang; Liang, Chih-Kuang; Chou, Ming-Yueh; Lin, Yu-Te; Pan, Chih-Chuan; Lu, Ti; Chen, Liang-Kung; Chow, Philip C

    2012-06-01

    To compare the differences in plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels among institutionalized ethnic Chinese elderly participants with major depression, those with subclinical depression, and a nondepressed control group. A cross-sectional study. The veterans' home in southern Taiwan. One hundred sixty-seven residents. Questionnaires including the Minimum Data Set Nursing Home 2.1, Chinese-language version, and the short-form Geriatric Depression Scale, Chinese-language version. Depressive disorder was diagnosed by a well-trained psychiatrist using DSM-IV-TR (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision) criteria. We measured plasma BDNF levels in the following 3 groups: nondepressive subjects (n = 122), subclinically depressive subjects (n = 33), and subjects with major depression (n = 12). Plasma BDNF was assayed using the sandwich ELISA method. We noted a significantly negative association between age and plasma BDNF in the regression model. There was no significant correlation between BDNF plasma levels and body weight or platelet counts. We found that plasma BDNF was significantly lower in the major depressive group (mean, 115.1 pg/mL; SD, 57.2) than in the nondepressive group (mean, 548.8 pg/mL; SD, 370.6; P depressive group (mean, 231.8 pg/mL; SD, 92.4; P depressive disorder but also in those with subclinical depression. This makes the plasma BDNF level a potential biological marker for clinical or subclinical depression. Copyright © 2012 American Medical Directors Association, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of dietary fat level and quality on plasma lipoprotein lipids and plasma fatty acids in normocholesterolemic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, K; Johnson, L; O'Dea, K; Sinclair, A J

    1994-02-01

    This study examined the effect on the plasma lipids and plasma phospholipid and cholesteryl ester fatty acids of changing froma typical western diet to a very low fat (VLF) vegetarian diet containing one egg/day. The effect of the addition of saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) to the VLF diet was also examined. Three groups of 10 subjects (6 women, 4 men) were fed the VLF diet (10% energy as fat) for two weeks, and then in the next two weeks the dietary fat in each group was increased by 10% energy/week using butter, olive oil or safflower oil. The fat replaced dietary carbohydrate. The VLF diet reduced both the low density lipoprotein (LDL)- and high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels; addition of the monounsaturated fats and PUFA increased the HDL-cholesterol levels, whereas butter increased the cholesterol levels in both the LDL- and HDL-fractions. The VLF diet led to significant reductions in the proportion of linoleic acid (18:2 omega 6) and eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and to increases in palmitoleic (16:1), eicosatrienoic (20:3 omega 6) and arachidonic acids (20:4 omega 6) in both phospholipids and cholesteryl esters. Addition of butter reversed the changes seen on the VLF diet, with the exception of 16:1, which remained elevated. Addition of olive oil resulted in a significant rise in the proportion of 18:1 and significant decreases in all omega 3 PUFA except 22:6 compared with the usual diet. The addition of safflower oil resulted in significant increases in 18:2 and 20:4 omega 6 and significant decreases in 18:1, 20:5 omega 3 and 22:5 omega 3. These results indicate that the reduction of saturated fat content of the diet (unsaturated fat, reduced the total plasma cholesterol levels by approximately 12% in normocholesterolemic subjects. Although the VLF vegetarian diet reduced both LDL- and HDL-cholesterol levels, the long-term effects of VLF diets are unlikely to be deleterious since populations which habitually

  12. Alteration of plasma glutamate and glutamine levels in children with high-functioning autism.

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    Chie Shimmura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It has recently been hypothesized that hyperglutamatergia in the brain is involved in the pathophysiology of autism. However, there is no conclusive evidence of the validity of this hypothesis. As peripheral glutamate/glutamine levels have been reported to be correlated with those of the central nervous system, the authors examined whether the levels of 25 amino acids, including glutamate and glutamine, in the platelet-poor plasma of drug-naïve, male children with high-functioning autism (HFA would be altered compared with those of normal controls. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Plasma levels of 25 amino acids in male children (N = 23 with HFA and normally developed healthy male controls (N = 22 were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Multiple testing was allowed for in the analyses. Compared with the normal control group, the HFA group had higher levels of plasma glutamate and lower levels of plasma glutamine. No significant group difference was found in the remaining 23 amino acids. The effect size (Cohen's d for glutamate and glutamine was large: 1.13 and 1.36, respectively. Using discriminant analysis with logistic regression, the two values of plasma glutamate and glutamine were shown to well-differentiate the HFA group from the control group; the rate of correct classification was 91%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present study suggests that plasma glutamate and glutamine levels can serve as a diagnostic tool for the early detection of autism, especially normal IQ autism. These findings indicate that glutamatergic abnormalities in the brain may be associated with the pathobiology of autism.

  13. Hard photon production from unsaturated quark-gluon plasma at two-loop level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutta, D. E-mail: ddutta@apsara.barc.ernet.in; Sastry, S.V.S.; Mohanty, A.K.; Kumar, K

    2002-11-18

    The hard photon production from bremsstrahlung and annihilation with scattering that arise at two-loop level are estimated for a chemically non-equilibrated quark-gluon plasma in the framework of Hard Thermal Loop (HTL) resummed effective field theory. The rate of photon production is found to be suppressed due to unsaturated phase space compared to equilibrated plasma. For an unsaturated plasma, unlike the effective one-loop case, the reduction in the effective two-loop processes is found to be independent of gluon fugacity, due to an additional collinear enhancement arising from the decrease in thermal quark mass but strongly depends on quark and antiquark fugacities. It is also found that the photon production is dominated by bremsstrahlung mechanism, since the phase space suppression is higher for annihilation with scattering, in contrast to the equilibrated plasma where annihilation with scattering dominates the photon production.

  14. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries.

  15. Connexin 43 impacts on mitochondrial potassium uptake

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    Kerstin eBoengler

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In cardiomyocytes, connexin 43 (Cx43 forms gap junctions and unopposed hemichannels at the plasma membrane, but the protein is also present at the inner membrane of subsarcolemmal mitochondria. Both inhibition and genetic ablation of Cx43 reduce ADP-stimulated complex 1 respiration. Since mitochondrial potassium influx impacts on oxygen consumption, we investigated whether or not inhibition or ablation of mitochondrial Cx43 alters mitochondrial potassium uptake.Subsarcolemmal mitochondria were isolated from rat left ventricular (LV myocardium and loaded with the potassium-sensitive dye PBFI. Intramitochondrial potassium was replaced by TEA (tetraethylammonium. Mitochondria were incubated under control conditions or treated with 250 µM Gap19, a peptide that specifically inhibits Cx43-dependent hemichannels at plasma membranes. Subsequently, 140 mM KCl was added and the slope of the increase in PBFI fluorescence over time was calculated. The slope of the PBFI fluorescence of the control mitochondria was set to 100%. In the presence of Gap19, the mitochondrial potassium influx was reduced from 100±11.6 % in control mitochondria to 65.5±10.7 % (n=6, p<0.05. In addition to the pharmacological inhibition of Cx43, potassium influx was studied in mitochondria isolated from conditional Cx43 knockout mice. Here, the ablation of Cx43 was achieved by the injection of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (Cx43Cre-ER(T/fl + 4-OHT. The mitochondria of the Cx43Cre-ER(T/fl + 4-OHT mice contained 3±1% Cx43 (n=6 of that in control mitochondria (100±11%, n=8, p<0.05. The ablation of Cx43 (n=5 reduced the velocity of the potassium influx from 100±11.2 % in control mitochondria (n=9 to 66.6±5.5 % (p<0.05.Taken together, our data indicate that both pharmacological inhibition and genetic ablation of Cx43 reduce mitochondrial potassium influx.

  16. Crystal structure of the sodium-potassium pump

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morth, J Preben; Pedersen, Bjørn Panyella; Toustrup-Jensen, Mads S;

    2007-01-01

    The Na+,K+-ATPase generates electrochemical gradients for sodium and potassium that are vital to animal cells, exchanging three sodium ions for two potassium ions across the plasma membrane during each cycle of ATP hydrolysis. Here we present the X-ray crystal structure at 3.5 A resolution of the...

  17. Carbon dioxide-induced anesthesia results in a rapid increase in plasma levels of vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Brian; Varon, Jack; Chait, Brian T; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-06-01

    Brief anesthesia, such as after exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia of rodents, compared with use of decapitation alone. Studies of the levels of certain stress hormones in plasma such as corticosterone and ACTH have supported the use of this method of euthanasia in endocrinological and molecular studies. In the current study, rats were briefly exposed to a chamber filled with carbon dioxide until recumbent (20-25 sec), immediately killed via decapitation, and trunk blood collected; findings were compared with rats killed via decapitation with no exposure to carbon dioxide. RIAs were used to measure arginine vasopressin (AVP) and ACTH immunoreactivity (ir) in plasma. Whereas ACTH-ir levels remained steady after brief exposure to carbon dioxide (in accordance with results of other investigators), AVP-ir levels were increased by more than an order of magnitude. These results were confirmed by quantitative capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, indicating this observation of rapid increase in plasma AVP-ir levels is not due to nonspecific recognition by the antibody used in the RIA. Likewise, using capillary-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we observed a rapid increase in plasma oxytocin levels after carbon dioxide exposure. These surprising findings have important implications for the design and interpretation of studies involving brief carbon dioxide exposure prior to decapitation as well as those with euthanasia resulting from carbon dioxide-induced asphyxiation.

  18. Plasma and Saliva Irisin Levels of Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy and Non-Diabetic Proteinuria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali GÜREL

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Primary glomerular diseases or some systemic disorders such as diabetes (DM may cause proteinuria. Irisin (IRI is a hormone secreted as a response to physical exercise by the skeleton muscle and thought to be protective against many metabolic disorders such as DM, obesity. Decreased levels of irisin were observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD, type 2 DM and obesity. The aim of this study was to determine IRI levels in blood and saliva of proteinuric patients with and without diabetes. MATERIAL and METHODS: Sampling was from 15 diabetic, 15 non-diabetic proteinuria and 13 healthy control subjects. IRI concentrations were measured by using commercial ELISA kits. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 12. Groups were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test and then Mann–Whitney post hoc test was performed. RESULTS: Plasma and saliva IRI levels of non- diabetic group were higher than the diabetic group. There was a significant positive correlation between plasma IRI concentrations and HDL, albumin levels but a negative correlation between plasma IRI and LDL levels. CONCLUSION: IRI levels were low both in plasma and saliva in diabetic subjects. IRI may be an important marker and/or therapeutic agent for disorders associated with energy expenditure and kidney diseases in the future.

  19. Plasma fibrinogen levels are correlated with postoperative distant metastasis and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Danhong; Zhou, Xia; Bao, Wuan; Chen, Ying; Cheng, Lei; Qiu, Guoqin; Sheng, Liming; Ji, Yongling; Du, Xianghui

    2015-11-10

    This study investigated the correlation of preoperative plasma fibrinogen level with distant metastasis and prognosis in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). A total of 255 patients with ESCC who underwent surgery in Zhejiang cancer hospital (Hangzhou, China), between October 2006 and December 2009, were evaluated in this retrospective study. Population controls were selected from a pool of cancer-free subjects in the same region. Each patient and cancer-free people provided 3-mL pretreatment blood. Plasma fibrinogen level was measured by the Clauss method. The effects of hyperfibrinogenemia on locoregional relapse-free survival (LRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival (OS) were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. Independent prognostic factors were identified in the multivariate Cox analysis. The proportion of hyperfibrinogenemia was higher in ESCC patients than those in controls (40.4% vs 13.6%). Subjects with hyperfibrinogenemia had a significantly higher risk of ESCC than those with normal plasma fibrinogen level (adjust OR = 4.61; 95% CI = 3.02-7.01, P fibrinogen level were independent prognostic factors of ESCC (P fibrinogen level was significantly associated with elevated risk of ESCC. Preoperative plasma fibrinogen level was a predictor of distant metastasis and independently associated with prognosis of patients with ESCC.

  20. Assays to measure nanomolar levels of the renin inhibitor CGP 38 560 in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumin, F.; de Gasparo, M.; Wood, J.M.; Schnell, C.; Frueh, F.; Graf, P. (Ciba-Geigy Limited, Basel (Switzerland))

    1989-10-01

    A radioinhibitor binding assay and an enzyme inhibition assay have been developed to measure plasma levels of CGP 38 560, a potent human renin inhibitor. The detection limit of the assays was between 0.5 and 1 pmol/ml. There was a good correlation (r = 0.989) between the two assays for the measurement of human plasma spiked with CGP 38 560 in concentrations from 1.9 nM to 12 microM. Intra-assay variability was 6.1-17.3% and 4.4-27.2% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Interassay variability was 6.0-28.2% and 3.8-28.4% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Blood samples were collected during a pharmacological study performed in normotensive human volunteers on an unrestricted diet who were infused during a 30-minute period with CGP 38 560 A (50 micrograms/kg). Similar values for the concentrations of renin inhibitor in plasma were obtained with the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibitor assay, and there was a significant correlation between values obtained with the two different methodologies (r = 0.94). The plasma levels of renin inhibitor reached a maximum at the end of infusion and then decreased rapidly, indicating a short plasma half-life. The changes in biochemical parameters, plasma renin activity, and plasma concentration of active renin could be related to the concentrations of CGP 38 560 measured in the plasma.

  1. Plasma levels of cathepsins L, K, and V and risks of abdominal aortic aneurysms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lv, Bing-Jie; Lindholt, Jes S; Wang, Jing;

    2013-01-01

    Cathepsin L (CatL), cathepsin K (CatK), and cathepsin V (CatV) are potent elastases implicated in human arterial wall remodeling. Whether plasma levels of these cathepsins are altered in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains unknown.......Cathepsin L (CatL), cathepsin K (CatK), and cathepsin V (CatV) are potent elastases implicated in human arterial wall remodeling. Whether plasma levels of these cathepsins are altered in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) remains unknown....

  2. Evaluation of Zinc Plasma Level in Iranian Cirrhotic Patients due to Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Zali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Zinc (Zn has various significant roles in physiological functions of the liver. Furthermore, it has been reported that the administration of zinc has an important role in pharmacotherapy of viral hepatitis. Cirrhotic patients with decrease in plasma zinc level have been covered in previous studies. It is seemingly necessary to assess the zinc level, in Iranian cirrhotic patients, as a distinct population, Because of the large phytate amounts in Iranians diet. Regarding to etiology, disease progress, and treatment, there are some differences in the 2 most common causes of cirrhosis in the Iranian population (hepatitis B and hepatitis C and it is possible that the zinc level may be different between the two. This study was done to shadow some lights on the subject. Methods: Between April 2008 and November 2008, plasma zinc level was determined, by atomic absorption method, in 60 cirrhotic inpatients treated due to hepatitis B or hepatitis C in Talighani hospital (a referral center for gastrointestinal and liver diseases in Tehran, Iran. Results: Mean ± standard deviation (SD plasma zinc levels determined 0.34±0.22 mg/L and 0.37±0.22 mg/L in hepatitis B and hepatitis C patients respectively. Analysis of t-test showed there is no significant difference between 2 groups regarding to plasma zinc level (P = 0.745.Conclusions: It is concluded that zinc level of studied cirrhotic patients is less than half of the normal range. Moreover, there is no difference in plasma zinc level between cirrhotic patients due to hepatitis B or hepatitis C. Regarding to this result, supplementation with complementary zinc, may be recommended in both groups in order to optimize the nutritional support and probably better the treatment response.

  3. Plasma miRNA levels correlate with sensitivity to bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqiu; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Qin; Zhang, Jing

    2014-11-01

    In our study, we detect the levels of three micro-RNAs (miRNAs; miR-21, miR-133a and miR-146a) in the plasma of 120 Chinese postmenopausal women who were divided into three groups (normal, osteopenia and osteoporosis) according to the T-scores. Downregulation of miR-21, as well as upregulation of miR-133a, was validated in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients versus the normal group. The difference in expression regarding the miR-146a level in plasma among the three groups was not significant (p > 0.01). The circulating miRNA expression levels and bone mineral density (BMD) were examined during a multiple correlation analysis as a dependent variable after adjusting for age, weight and height. We have demonstrated that specific miRNAs species are significantly changed in the plasma of osteoporosis and osteopenia patients and correlated with the BMD. Our study suggested a potential use of miR-21 and miR-133a as sensitive and plasma biomarkers for postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  4. SEMINAL PLASMA LEVELS OF LEAD AND MERCURY IN INFERTILE MALES IN BENIN CITY, NIGERIA

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    Emokpae MA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Studies on environmental exposure to toxic metals and their effects on male reproductive function are scare in our setting. This study evaluates the levels of lead and mercury in seminal plasma of infertile males who are non-occupationally exposed in Benin City, Nigeria and to determine the relationship between seminal quality and these toxic metals. Materials and Methods: A total of 80 subjects participated in this study which includes 60 infertile males on routine visit to the infertility clinics in Benin City and 20 fertile males as controls. The concentration of lead in seminal plasma was assayed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer while the concentration of mercury was measured using inductively coupled plasma Mass spectrometry. Semen analyses were performed using standard techniques as recommended by World Health Organization. Results: Mean seminal plasma lead and mercury levels were significantly higher (p<0.001 in infertile males compared with controls. Mercury and lead correlated negatively (p<0.001 with sperm count, progressive motility, total motility and morphology but not with semen volume. There was no significant correlation between toxic metals and sperm indices in fertile males (controls. Conclusion: The levels of the studied toxic metals were higher in seminal plasma of infertile males and appear to have adverse effect on seminal indices in non -occupationally exposed males.

  5. Infantile Refsum Disease: Influence of Dietary Treatment on Plasma Phytanic Acid Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sá, Maria João Nabais; Rocha, Júlio C; Almeida, Manuela F; Carmona, Carla; Martins, Esmeralda; Miranda, Vasco; Coutinho, Miguel; Ferreira, Rita; Pacheco, Sara; Laranjeira, Francisco; Ribeiro, Isaura; Fortuna, Ana Maria; Lacerda, Lúcia

    2016-01-01

    Infantile Refsum disease (IRD) is one of the less severe of Zellweger spectrum disorders (ZSDs), a group of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders resulting from a generalized peroxisomal function impairment. Increased plasma levels of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) and phytanic acid are biomarkers used in IRD diagnosis. Furthermore, an increased plasma level of phytanic acid is known to be associated with neurologic damage. Treatment of IRD is symptomatic and multidisciplinary.The authors report a 3-year-old child, born from consanguineous parents, who presented with developmental delay, retinitis pigmentosa, sensorineural deafness and craniofacial dysmorphisms. While the relative level of plasma C26:0 was slightly increased, other VLCFA were normal. Thus, a detailed characterization of the phenotype was essential to point to a ZSD. Repeatedly increased levels of plasma VLCFA, along with phytanic acid and pristanic acid, deficient dihydroxyacetone phosphate acyltransferase activity in fibroblasts and identification of the homozygous pathogenic mutation c.2528G>A (p.Gly843Asp) in the PEX1 gene, confirmed this diagnosis. Nutritional advice and follow-up was proposed aiming phytanic acid dietary intake reduction. During dietary treatment, plasma levels of phytanic acid decreased to normal, and the patient's development evaluation showed slow progressive acquisition of new competences.This case report highlights the relevance of considering a ZSD in any child with developmental delay who manifests hearing and visual impairment and of performing a systematic biochemical investigation, when plasma VLCFA are mildly increased. During dietary intervention, a biochemical improvement was observed, and the long-term clinical effect of this approach needs to be evaluated.

  6. Genetic variants in ABCA1 promoter affect transcription activity and plasma HDL level in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Xiao-yong; Chu, Wei-wei; Shi, Heng-chuan; Yu, Shi-gang; Han, Hai-yin; Gu, Shu-Hua; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-25

    Excess accumulation of cholesterol in plasma may result in coronary artery disease. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ATP-binding cassette protein A1 (ABCA1) mediates the efflux of cholesterol and phospholipids to apolipoproteins, a process necessary for plasma high density lipoprotein (HDL) formation. Higher plasma levels of HDL are associated with lower risk for cardiovascular disease. Studies of human disease and animal models had shown that an increased hepatic ABCA1 activity relates to an enhanced plasma HDL level. In this study, we hypothesized that functional mutations in the ABCA1 promoter in pigs may affect gene transcription activity, and consequently the HDL level in plasma. The promoter region of ABCA1 was comparatively scanned by direct sequencing with pool DNA of high- and low-HDL groups (n=30 for each group). Two polymorphisms, c. - 608A>G and c. - 418T>A, were revealed with reverse allele distribution in the two groups. The two polymorphisms were completely linked and formed only G-A or A-T haplotypes when genotyped in a larger population (n=526). Furthermore, we found that the G-A/G-A genotype was associated with higher HDL and ABCA1 mRNA level than A-T/A-T genotype. Luciferase assay also revealed that G-A haplotype promoter had higher activity than A-T haplotype. Single-nucleotide mutant assay showed that c.-418T>A was the causal mutation for ABCA1 transcription activity alteration. Conclusively, we identified two completely linked SNPs in porcine ABCA1 promoter region which have influence on the plasma HDL level by altering ABCA1 gene transcriptional activity.

  7. Nitric Oxide Plasma Level as a Barometer of Endothelial Dysfunction in Factory Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Seiko; Noda, Akiko; Hara, Yuki; Ueyama, Jun; Kitaichi, Kiyoyuki; Kondo, Takaaki; Koike, Yasuo

    2017-07-27

    Objective Nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in the regulation of vascular tone and is known as one of the key markers of endothelial dysfunction. We investigated the relationship between NO and risk factors of lifestyle-related disease in factory workers. Methods Our study included 877 factory workers presenting hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. oxidated forms of NO, NO2-/NO3- (NOx) plasma concentrations were measured using a colorimetric method. Results NOx plasma levels in patients with lifestyle-related disease were significantly lower than those in the controls. The brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) measured in those patients was significantly greater than that of the controls. Multiple regression analysis revealed that LDL cholesterol was an independent risk factor for reducing NOx plasma concentrations. Interestingly, individuals with low NOx plasma concentrations were more likely to present type 2 diabetes compared to those with the highest plasma levels of NOx (odds ratio [OR] [95% confidence interval; CI]=3.65 [1.61-8.28], P=0.002, 2.67 [1.15-6.20], P=0.022, and 3.27 [1.43-7.48], P=0.005). Subjects with the lowest levels of plasma NOx were more likely to present dyslipidemia (OR [95% CI]=1.69 [1.13-2.53], P=0.01). Conclusion Endothelial function evaluated with plasma NOx may be indicative of lifestyle-related diseases independently from the vascular function assessed using baPWV. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Plasma Methylphenidate Levels in Youths With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Treated With OROS Formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorbik, Ozgur; Mutlu, Caner; Ozilhan, Selma; Eryilmaz, Gul; Isiten, Nuket; Alparslan, Serdar; Saglam, Esra

    2015-06-01

    There are limited studies investigating the relationship between oral release osmotic system-methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) doses and plasma methylphenidate (MPH) concentrations in children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between the doses of OROS-MPH and the plasma levels of the drug. We also examined the effects of the other drugs including aripiprazole, risperidone, fluoxetine, and sertraline on the levels of the MPH in the plasma. The files of 100 attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) subjects (76 male, 24 female) who were diagnosed as ADHD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition criteria, were screened. The ages of subjects were between 6 and 18 years (mean = 11.5 ± 3.8 years). Plasma MPH levels were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Daily mean OROS-MPH dose used in ADHD children was 0.7 ± 0.2 mg/kg (range: 0.3-1.3 mg/kg). The mean plasma OROS-MPH was 11.6 ± 7.3 ng/mL (range: 0.5-43.4 ng/mL). There was no group difference in the mean plasma MPH and dose-related MPH levels between the groups that used any additional drug including aripiprazole (n = 25), risperidone (n = 10), fluoxetine (n = 16), sertraline (n = 10), and did not use these drugs (P > 0.05). There was a positive correlation between the OROS-MPH doses (mg/kg) and the blood MPH levels (Pearson correlation = 0.40; P < 0.001). The plasma levels of MPH were found to be less than 13 ng/mL in 65% of the subjects. Our findings point to the fact that plasma levels of MPH show a wide range of changes at similar doses, correlate positively with the doses and, as expected, are not affected by using risperidone, sertraline, fluoxetine, and aripiprazole. Therapeutic drug monitoring may help to optimize MPH dose in patients not responding to treatment or in those experiencing serious side effects, but not in routine clinical practice. The presence of intermediate

  9. Alterations in potassium channel gene expression in atria of patients with persistent and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation : Differential regulation of protein and mRNA levels for K+ channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brundel, BJJM; Van Gelder, IC; Henning, RH; Tuinenburg, AE; Wietses, M; Grandjean, JG; Wilde, AAM; Van Gilst, WH; Crijns, HJGM

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Our purpose was to determine whether patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) and patients with paroxysmal AF show alterations in potassium channel expression. BACKGROUND Persistent AF is associated with a sustained shortening of the atrial action potential duration and atrial re

  10. Reduction of Amyloid-β Plasma Levels by Hemodialysis: An Anti-Amyloid Treatment Strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tholen, Susanne; Schmaderer, Christoph; Chmielewski, Stefan; Förstl, Hans; Heemann, Uwe; Baumann, Marcus; Steubl, Dominik; Grimmer, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in hemodialysis patients is common, but the underlying pathogenesis remains unclear. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia in the general elderly population. Histopathological hallmarks are, among others, senile plaques, which consist of amyloid-β (Aβ). To measure plasma levels of Aβ42 and Aβ40 during hemodialysis and to examine potential associations with cognitive performance in cognitively impaired hemodialysis patients. Plasma samples of 26 hemodialysis patients were collected shortly before, after 50% of dialysis time, and at the end of a dialysis session. Aβ42 and Aβ40 levels were measured by a high-sensitivity ELISA for human amyloid-β. Cognition was tested under standardized conditions using the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) as proposed previously. Clearance rates of both peptides during one dialysis session were 22% and 35% for Aβ42 and Aβ40, respectively. Aβ42 but not Aβ40 baseline levels were significantly associated with MoCA test results (r = 0.654, p = 0.001). In cognitively impaired hemodialysis patients plasma Aβ42 levels were associated with cognitive performance and both Aβ42 and Aβ40 plasma levels could be effectively reduced by dialysis. By inducing peripheral Aβ sink, hemodialysis may be considered as an anti-amyloid treatment strategy.

  11. Stereospecific effects of morphine on plasma opioid peptide levels and nociception in dogs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, M.L.; Morris, D.L.; Dewey, W.L.

    1986-03-05

    ..beta..-endorphin, (met)enkephalin, and (leu)enkephalin were quantitated in canine plasma by radioimmunoassay (RIA) after extraction of the peptides on Sep Pak C18 cartridges. Plasma samples were taken one hour after a 10 mg/kg s.c. injection of (-)-morphine SO/sub 4/ or (+)-morphine HBr. Antinociception, measured by a dog tail-flick test, and morphine-induced emesis, salivation, diarrhea, and ataxia were quantitated before sampling. Control levels for each dog were taken one week earlier at the same time of day after saline injections. Antinociception, morphine signs, and opioid peptide levels in plasma were significantly increased by (-)-morphine. Antinociception increased from zero to 83.54 +/- 11.0%. The number of morphine signs increased from zero to 2.9 +/- 0.28 per dog. ..beta..-endorphin levels increased from 44.52 +/- 4.25 to 90.6 +/- 7.38 pg/ml; (met)enkephalin levels increased from 253.56 +/- 22.04 to 497.1 +/- 58.12 pg/ml; (leu)-enkephalin increased from 141.65 +/- 12.9 to 313.24 +/- 35.95 pg/ml. None of these effects were observed in the dogs that received (+)-morphine. The conclude that morphine stereospecifically inhibits nociception, induces observable signs, and increases plasma opioid peptide levels in dogs.

  12. U-Shaped Association between Plasma Manganese Levels and Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Zhilei; Chen, Sijing; Sun, Taoping; Luo, Cheng; Guo, Yanjun; Yu, Xuefeng; Yang, Wei; Hu, Frank B; Liu, Liegang

    2016-12-01

    Manganese is both an essential element and a known toxicant, and it plays important roles in many mechanisms in relation to type 2 diabetes (T2D). However, epidemiological studies of this relationship are rare. We investigated the association between plasma manganese and newly diagnosed T2D as well as whether the association could be modified by manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) polymorphisms. We conducted a case-control study of 3,228 participants in China: 1,614 T2D patients and 1,614 controls. Concentrations of plasma magnesium were measured, and all participants were genotyped for the MnSOD Val16Ala polymorphism (rs4880). A U-shaped association was observed between plasma manganese and T2D, with increased odds ratios (ORs) in relation to either low or high plasma manganese levels. Compared with the middle tertile, the multivariate-adjusted ORs [95% confidence intervals (CIs)] of T2D associated with the lowest tertile and the highest tertile of plasma manganese were 1.89 (1.53, 2.33) and 1.56 (1.23, 1.97), respectively. In spline analysis, the U-shaped association was consistently indicated, with the lowest odds of T2D at the plasma manganese concentration of 4.95 μg/L. Minor allele frequencies (C allele) of the MnSOD Val16Ala polymorphism (rs4880) in the normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and the T2D groups were 13.57% and 14.50%, respectively. The MnSOD rs4880 polymorphism was not associated with T2D, and no interaction was found between plasma manganese and the MnSOD rs4880 polymorphism in relation to T2D. Our results suggested a U-shaped association between plasma manganese and T2D; both low and high levels of plasma manganese were associated with higher odds of newly diagnosed T2D. The U-shaped association was not modified by the MnSOD rs4880 polymorphism. Citation: Shan Z, Chen S, Sun T, Luo C, Guo Y, Yu X, Yang W, Hu FB, Liu L. 2016. U-shaped association between plasma manganese levels and type 2 diabetes. Environ Health Perspect 124:1876-1881;

  13. Impact of elective resection on plasma TIMP-1 levels in patients with colon cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, J. H.; Basse, L.; Svedsen, M. N.

    2006-01-01

    , 2 and 6 h after skin incision, and 1, 2, 8 and 30 days after surgery. TIMP-1 was determined concurrently in all samples by a validated ELISA method. RESULTS: Geometric mean preoperative TIMP-1 level was 142 ng/ml (range 54-559 ng/ml) among CC patients compared with 106 ng/ml (range 64-167 ng....../ml) among patients with nonmalignant diseases (Pafter skin incision compared to the preoperative levels returning to preoperative levels at 6 h. A highly significant (Pafter surgery and was decreasing......OBJECTIVE: Pre- and post-operative plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1 (TIMP-1) levels have a prognostic impact on patients with colorectal cancer. However, the surgical trauma may play an essential role in regulation of plasma TIMP-1 levels, which in turn may influence subsequent TIMP...

  14. Association between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese men

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    Nakayama Kunio

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is an adipocyte-specific protein that plays a role in obesity, insulin resistant, lipid metabolism, and anti-inflammation. Hypoadiponectinemia may be associated with a higher risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Some studies suggest that adiponectin levels are modulated by lifestyle factors, but little is known about the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in Japanese people. We therefore investigated the associations between lifestyle factors and plasma adiponectin levels in general Japanese men. Methods The subjects were 202 Japanese male workers who participated in an annual health check. They provided details about anthropometrical data, blood collection, their use of prescribed medication, and the clinical history of their families. They also completed a self-administered questionnaire about their lifestyles. Results Subjects with plasma adiponectin levels below 4.0 μg/ml had significantly lower levels of HDL cholesterol and higher levels of BMI, SBP, DBP, total cholesterol, FBG, and platelets than did subjects with higher adiponectin levels. In multiple logistic regression after multiple adjustment, a plasma adiponectin level below 4.0 μg/ml was significantly associated with smoking (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–4.30, a daily diet rich in deep-yellow vegetables (OR = 0.25, 95% CI= 0.07–0.91, frequent eating out (OR = 2.45, 95% CI = 1.19–5.08, and physical exercise two or more times a week (OR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.06–0.74. Conclusion Our findings show that adiponectin levels in general Japanese men are independently related to smoking, dietary factors, and physical exercise. We think that lifestyle habits might independently modulate adiponectin levels and that adiponectin might be the useful biomarker helping people to avoid developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease by modifying their lifestyles.

  15. Plasma PCSK9 levels are elevated with acute myocardial infarction in two independent retrospective angiographic studies.

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    Naif A M Almontashiri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9 is a circulating protein that promotes degradation of the low density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. Mutations that block PCSK9 secretion reduce LDL-cholesterol and the incidence of myocardial infarction (MI. However, it remains unclear whether elevated plasma PCSK9 associates with coronary atherosclerosis (CAD or more directly with rupture of the plaque causing MI. METHODS AND RESULTS: Plasma PCSK9 was measured by ELISA in 645 angiographically defined controls (50% stenosis in a major coronary artery from the Ottawa Heart Genomics Study. Because lipid lowering medications elevated plasma PCSK9, confounding association with disease, only individuals not taking a lipid lowering medication were considered (279 controls and 492 with CAD. Replication was sought in 357 controls and 465 with CAD from the Emory Cardiology Biobank study. PCSK9 levels were not associated with CAD in Ottawa, but were elevated with CAD in Emory. Plasma PCSK9 levels were elevated in 45 cases with acute MI (363.5±140.0 ng/ml compared to 398 CAD cases without MI (302.0±91.3 ng/ml, p = 0.004 in Ottawa. This finding was replicated in the Emory study in 74 cases of acute MI (445.0±171.7 ng/ml compared to 273 CAD cases without MI (369.9±139.1 ng/ml, p = 3.7×10(-4. Since PCSK9 levels were similar in CAD patients with or without a prior (non-acute MI, our finding suggests that plasma PCSK9 is elevated either immediately prior to or at the time of MI. CONCLUSION: Plasma PCSK9 levels are increased with acute MI.

  16. Association between IgM anti-herpes simplex virus and plasma amyloid-beta levels.

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    Catherine Féart

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Herpes simplex virus (HSV reactivation has been identified as a possible risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD and plasma amyloid-beta (Aβ levels might be considered as possible biomarkers of the risk of AD. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between anti-HSV antibodies and plasmalevels. METHODS: The study sample consisted of 1222 subjects (73.9 y in mean from the Three-City cohort. IgM and IgG anti-HSV antibodies were quantified using an ELISA kit, and plasma levels of Aβ(1-40 and Aβ(1-42 were measured using an xMAP-based assay technology. Cross-sectional analyses of the associations between anti-HSV antibodies and plasmalevels were performed by multi-linear regression. RESULTS: After adjustment for study center, age, sex, education, and apolipoprotein E-e4 polymorphism, plasma Aβ(1-42 and Aβ(1-40 levels were specifically inversely associated with anti-HSV IgM levels (β = -20.7, P=0.001 and β = -92.4, P=0.007, respectively. In a sub-sample with information on CLU- and CR1-linked SNPs genotyping (n=754, additional adjustment for CR1 or CLU markers did not modify these associations (adjustment for CR1 rs6656401, β = -25.6, P=0.002 for Aβ(1-42 and β = -132.7, P=0.002 for Aβ(1-40; adjustment for CLU rs2279590, β = -25.6, P=0.002 for Aβ(1-42 and β = -134.8, P=0.002 for Aβ(1-40. No association between the plasma Aβ(1-42-to-Aβ(1-40 ratio and anti-HSV IgM or IgG were evidenced. CONCLUSION: High anti-HSV IgM levels, markers of HSV reactivation, are associated with lower plasma Aβ(1-40 and Aβ(1-42 levels, which suggest a possible involvement of the virus in the alterations of the APP processing and potentially in the pathogenesis of AD in human.

  17. Serum Creatinine Versus Plasma Methotrexate Levels to Predict Toxicities in Children Receiving High-dose Methotrexate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Priya; Thomas, M K; Pathania, Subha; Dhawan, Deepa; Gupta, Y K; Vishnubhatla, Sreenivas; Bakhshi, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    Facilities for measuring methotrexate (MTX) levels are not available everywhere, potentially limiting administration of high-dose methotrexate (HDMTX). We hypothesized that serum creatinine alteration after HDMTX administration predicts MTX clearance. Overall, 122 cycles in 50 patients of non-Hodgkin lymphoma or acute lymphoblastic leukemia aged ≤18 years receiving HDMTX were enrolled prospectively. Plasma MTX levels were measured at 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hours; serum creatinine was measured at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 hours. Correlation of plasma MTX levels with creatinine levels and changes in creatinine from baseline (Δ creatinine) were evaluated. Plasma MTX levels at 72 hours showed positive correlation with serum creatinine at 48 hours (P = .011) and 72 hours (P = .013) as also Δ creatinine at 48 hours (P = .042) and 72 hours (P = .045). However, cut-off value of either creatinine or Δ creatinine could not be established to reliably predict delayed MTX clearance. Greater than 50% Δ creatinine at 48 and 72 hours significantly predicted grade 3/4 leucopenia (P = .036 and P = .001, respectively) and thrombocytopenia (P = .012 and P = .009, respectively) but not mucositis (P = .827 and P = .910, respectively). Delayed MTX elimination did not predict any grade 3/4 toxicity. In spite of demonstration of significant correlation between serum creatinine and Δ creatinine with plasma MTX levels at 72 hours, cut-off value of either variable to predict MTX delay could not be established. Thus, either of these cannot be used as a surrogate for plasma MTX estimation. Interestingly, Δ creatinine effectively predicted hematological toxicities, which were not predicted by delayed MTX clearance.

  18. Association between Plasma Leptin Level and Systemic Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Aggressive Periodontitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Shi; Yun-Yu Liu; Wei Li; Xin Zhang; Xiao-Jun Sun; Li Xu; Li Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Background:Increasing evidence supports an association between periodontitis and systemic diseases.Leptin is involved both in the energy metabolism and inflammatory processes and is suggested to be a link between periodontal infection and systemic health.The present study aimed to evaluate the peripheral leptin concentration in patients with aggressive periodontitis (AgP) and to explore the relationship between leptin and systemic inflammation.Methods:Ninety patients with AgP visiting the Clinic of the Periodontology Department,Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology between July 2001 and May 2006,and 44 healthy controls (staffand student volunteers in the same institute) were recruited.Plasma levels of leptin and inflammatory cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1β,I L-6,tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Correlation and multiple linear regression analysis were performed to analyze the association between plasma leptin level and other variables.Results:Plasma leptin level of AgP group was significantly higher than that of the control group (19.7-4.4 ng/ml vs.7.5 ± 1.3 ng/ml,P < 0.01).After controlling for age,gender,and body mass index,positive correlation was observed between plasma leptin concentration and log-transformed levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β,IL-6,TNF-α and CRP),and the partial correlation coefficients ranged from 0.199 to 0.376 (P < 0.05).Log-transformed IL-1β and I L-6 levels entered the final regression model (standardized β were 0.422 and 0.461 respectively,P < 0.01).Conclusions:Elevated plasma leptin concentration may be associated with increased systemic levels of inflammatory markers in AgP patients.

  19. Correlation of reversely increased level of plasma glucose during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome

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    Xiao-ya SHEN

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the correlation of the reversely increased results of 75g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT during pregnancy to the pregnancy outcome, so as to provide a reliable theoretical basis of the early intervention for the pregnant women with high plasma glucose. Methods The clinical data of 461 cases were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were chosen from the pregnant women undergoing routine antenatal examination in our hospital during 2014. According to the results of 75g OGTT, 226 patients were analyzed as the observation group, in whom the level of postprandial 2-hour plasma glucose was higher than that of postprandial 1-hour plasma glucose. Meanwhile 235 pregnant women with or without gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM were randomly selected as the control group. Results The levels of fasting plasma glucose and 1-hour postprandial plasma glucose were lower, but those of 2-hour postprandial plasma glucose was higher in observation group than in control group (P0.05 in the incidences of polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios, fetal growth restriction (FGR, premature labor (PTL, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH, complicated with premature rupture of membrane (PROM, intrauterine fetal death (IUFD and non scar uterus cesarean section rate (CSR. Compared with the observation group, the rates of neonatal dysplasia and neonatal asphyxia and the newborn transfer rate were lower in the control group, of which the newborn transfer rate was statistically different (P<0.01. Conclusions There might be a delayed plasma glucose metabolism in the patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT during pregnancy, which may affect the long-term prognosis of the newborn. Therefore, more attention should be paid to such patients with reversely increased result of 75g OGTT. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.01.09

  20. Increased plasma levels of Lp(a) enhance the development of coronary atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ying; XU Hong; ZHOU Qin; WANG Chang-yuan; LIU Yan-xia; LU Yuan-yuan; FAN Jiang-lin; SUN Hui-jun

    2008-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that increased plasma levels of Lp(a) may enhance the development of atherosclerosis in the setting of hypercholesterolemia. Methods The plasma Lp(a) was analyzed by SDS-PAGE Western blotting and quantitated using specific ELISA kits. Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and HDL-cholesterol were determined using Wako assay kits. The left coronary artery was used for the evaluation of coronary atherosclerosis (stenosis %). For quantitative study of the lesions in coronary atherosclerosis, hematoxylin- eosin and Elastica - van Gieson staining were used. To study cellular components ( SMC vs. macrophages) and Lp(a) deposits in the lesions, immunohistochemical staining was performed and then image analysis system was used. Results Plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, or HDL-C were not significantly different between transgenic (Trg) and nontransgenic (nonTrg) rabbits. Trg rabbits had 200 % increase in coronary stenosis caused by atherosclerosis. The lesions of Trg WHHL rabbits contained more SMCs and less macrophage than those of nonTrg WHHL rabbits. Conclusions The results suggest that increased plasma levels of Lp(a) enhance the development of coronary atherosclerosis.

  1. Effects of Red Palm Oil on Serum Lipids and Plasma Carotenoids Level in Chinese Male Adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAN ZHANG; CHUN-RONG WANG; AN-NA XUE; KE-YOU GE

    2003-01-01

    Objective Effects of red palm oil on major plasma carotenoids, tocopherol, retinol and serumlipids were evaluated when used in Chinese diet. Methods Red palm oil group (RPO) composed of 20 male subjects(aged 18-32) and soybean oil group (SBO) composed of 22 male subjects (aged18-32). Dietary fat provided about 28% of total calories, and the test oil accounted for about 60% of total dietary fat. In the 3 weeks of pretest period, diets were prepared with soybean oil, and then in the next 6 weeks subjects in each group consumed the diet prepared by test oil. Results Plasmaα-carotene, β-carotene and lycopene concentration of RPO group significantly increased at the time of interim (21 days) and of the end (42 days) (P<0.05), and α-tocopherol concentration significantly increased at the time of the end (42 days) in this study. Though Chinese plasma retinol level was relatively low when compared with that of Westerners, red palm oil diet showed no significant effect on adult Chinese plasma retinol level. Serum concentration of total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein AI and apolipoprotein B of all subjects showed no significant changes in RPO group during the study. Conclusions The data in our study suggest that red palm oil is a good source of carotenoids and vitamin E when used in Chinese diet preparation, and it can significantly increase plasma concentration of α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene andα-tocopherol.

  2. Comparison of plasma endothelin levels between osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biçimoğlu Ali

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been demonstrated that endothelins (ET have significant roles in bone remodeling, metabolism and physiopathology of several bone diseases. We aimed to investigate if there was any difference between the plasma ET levels of osteoporotic patients and normals. Methods 86 patients (70 women and 16 men with a mean age of 62.6 (ranges: 51–90 years were included in this study. Patients were divided into groups of osteoporosis, osteopenia and normal regarding reported T scores of DEXA evaluation according to the suggestions of World Health Organization. According to these criteria 19, 43 and 24 were normal, osteopenic and osteoporotic respectively. Then total plasma level of ET was measured in all patients with monoclonal antibody based sandwich immunoassay (EIA method. One-way analysis of variance test was used to compare endothelin values between normals, osteopenics and osteoporotics. Results Endothelin total plasma level in patients was a mean of 98.36 ± 63.96, 100.92 ± 47.2 and 99.56 ± 56.6 pg/ml in osteoporotic, osteopenic and normal groups respectively. The difference between groups was not significant (p > 0.05. Conclusion No significant differences in plasma ET levels among three groups of study participants could be detected in this study.

  3. Niacin reduces plasma CETP levels by diminishing liver macrophage content in CETP transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Z.; Wang, Y.; Sluis, R.J. van der; Hoorn, J.W.A. van der; Princen, H.M.G.; Eck, M. van; Berkel, T.J.C. van; Rensen, P.C.N.; Hoekstra, M.

    2012-01-01

    The anti-dyslipidemic drug niacin has recently been shown to reduce the hepatic expression and plasma levels of CETP. Since liver macrophages contribute to hepatic CETP expression, we investigated the role of macrophages in the CETP-lowering effect of niacin in mice. In vitro studies showed that nia

  4. Venous plasma levels of endothelin-1 are not altered immediately after nitroglycerin infusion in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Emmeluth, C;

    1995-01-01

    Endothelin-1 and nitric oxide play an important regulatory role in the control of vascular smooth muscle tone. Nitroglycerin (NTG), a nitric oxide donating drug, may inhibit endothelin production. In this double-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, plasma levels of endothelin-1 were measured...

  5. Plasma paraoxonase, oxidative status level, and their relationship with asthma control test in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emin, O; Hasan, A; Rusen, D M

    2015-01-01

    Assessment of asthma with a control test has been suggested as a relevant approach in recent years. However, no biomarker of systemic inflammation has been included in the assessment of asthma control. To evaluate plasma paraoxonase (PON1), total oxidant status (TOS), and total antioxidant status (TAS) levels in children with asthma according to the disease control, and the performance in the identification of uncontrolled patients. Stable asthmatic children (n=85) and healthy controls (n=55) were recruited for this study. Blood samples were collected for plasma PON1, TOS, and TAS measurements. Any contributing factors that may affect plasma PON1, TAS, and TOS levels were excluded from both groups. The diagnostic potential of these measures was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Comparing the asthmatic children with the control group, plasma TAS and TOS levels were significantly higher (TAS; 6.9 ± 2.1, 1.05 ± 0.32, Pasthma, respectively. Asthma Control Test (ACT) presented an AUC of 0.972 for the identification of uncontrolled asthma. PON1 and TOS levels may be systemic markers of uncontrolled asthma in children. Combined use of these two biomarkers with asthma control test may identify patients with uncontrolled asthma in children. Copyright © 2014 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Increased thrombin generation and fibrinogen level after therapeutic plasma transfusion: relation to bleeding.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schols, S.E.; Meijden, PE van der; Oerle, R. van; Curvers, J.; Heemskerk, J.W.M.; Pampus, EC van

    2008-01-01

    In a clinical setting, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) is transfused to diluted patients with complicated surgery or trauma, as guided by prolonged conventional coagulation times or low fibrinogen levels. However, the limited sensitivity of these coagulation tests may restrict their use in measuring the e

  7. Resolving futile glucose cycling and glycogenolytic contributions to plasma glucose levels following a glucose load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nunes, P.M.; Jarak, I.; Heerschap, A.; Jones, J.G.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: After a glucose load, futile glucose/glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) cycling (FGC) generates [2-(2) H]glucose from (2) H2 O thereby mimicking a paradoxical glycogenolytic contribution to plasma glucose levels. Contributions of load and G6P derived from gluconeogenesis, FGC, and glycogenolysis to

  8. Plasma levels of trefoil factors are increased in patients with advanced prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, E.M.; Borregaard, Michael Krabbe; Poulsen, Steen Seier;

    2006-01-01

    Through cDNA array analyses and immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays, trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) was recently shown to be overexpressed in prostate cancer. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the levels of trefoil factors as a plasma marker for prostate cancer....

  9. Plasma levels of PBEF/Nampt/visfatin are decreased in patients with liver cirrhosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, Jan Freark; Bahr, Matthias J.; Boeker, Klaus H. W.; Manns, Michael P.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2009-01-01

    de Boer JF, Bahr MJ, Boker KHW, Manns MP, Tietge UJF. Plasma levels of PBEF/Nampt/visfatin are decreased in patients with liver cirrhosis. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 296: G196-G201, 2009. First published December 12, 2008; doi:10.1152/ajpgi.00029.2008.-Liver cirrhosis is a catabolic dis

  10. Effect of Antiepileptic drugs on plasma lipoprotein (a) and other lipid levels in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aynaci, F M; Orhan, F; Orem, A; Yildirmis, S; Gedik, Y

    2001-05-01

    Antiepileptic drugs may alter plasma lipid status in epileptic patients. We conducted a study to assess the effect of phenobarbital, carbamazepine, and valproate on plasma levels of lipoprotein (a), total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A, and apolipoprotein B in 22 epileptic children. The children were separated as group 1, seven children, mean age 1.6+/-0.2 years, treated with phenobarbital, 5 mg/kg/day, twice daily; group 2, seven children, mean age 9.8+/-1.2 years, treated with carbamazepine, 20 mg/kg/day, twice daily; and group 3, eight children, mean age 6.8+/-0.6 years, treated with valproate, 20 mg/kg/day, twice daily. Plasma lipoprotein (a) and other lipid levels were studied before (pretreatment) and at 3 and 6 months of treatment. Friedman two-way analysis of variance and Wilcoxon's signed-rank test were used for statistical analysis, and the results were expressed as the mean and standard error of the mean. The mean age of children in group 1 was significantly low, compared with groups 2 and, 3 (P < .001). The mean pretreatment lipid levels between the groups were not significant. The increase in lipoprotein (a) at 3 and 6 months and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol at 6 months was statistically significant in group 1 (P < .025). We suggest a careful monitoring of plasma levels of lipoprotein (a) and other lipids in epileptic children treated with antiepileptic drugs.

  11. Plasma TIMP-1 levels and treatment outcome in patients treated with XELOX for metastatic colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, C; Qvortrup, C; Christensen, I J; Glimelius, B; Berglund, A; Jensen, B V; Nielsen, S E; Keldsen, N; Nielsen, H J; Brünner, N; Pfeiffer, P

    2011-02-01

    The aim was to evaluate the association between plasma tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels and outcome in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) receiving XELOX (combination chemotherapy with capecitabine and oxaliplatin) as first-line treatment. One hundred and twenty patients were included. Blood samples were collected before treatment and 3 weeks later before the next treatment cycle. Plasma TIMP-1 and serum CEA levels were correlated to treatment outcome. No significant associations between baseline TIMP-1 or CEA levels and best response to treatment or progression-free survival (PFS) could be demonstrated. In contrast, high baseline plasma TIMP-1 levels were associated with poor overall survival (OS), P = 0.008, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.80 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.17-2.78]. Furthermore, increase in TIMP-1 levels from baseline to immediately before the second cycle of chemotherapy had a significant negative effect on survival (P = 0.03, HR = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.02-1.65) while a decrease in TIMP-1 was significantly associated with a higher objective response rate (P = 0.03). Both high baseline and subsequent increase in TIMP-1 levels were associated with shorter OS in patients with mCRC receiving XELOX as first-line treatment, whereas baseline TIMP-1 levels were not associated with response or PFS following XELOX treatment.

  12. Plasma Ghrelin Levels Are Associated with Anorexia but Not Cachexia in Patients with NSCLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauwhoff-Buskermolen, Susanne; Langius, Jacqueline A. E.; Heijboer, Annemieke C.; Becker, Annemarie; de van der Schueren, Marian A. E.; Verheul, Henk M. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aims: The ghrelin receptor is one of the new therapeutic targets in the cancer anorexia-cachexia syndrome. Previous studies revealed that plasma ghrelin levels were high in patients with anorexia nervosa and low in obese subjects. We studied to what extent ghrelin levels are related with anorexia and cachexia in patients with cancer. Materials and Methods: Fasted ghrelin levels were determined as well as anorexia and cachexia in patients with stage III/IV non-small cell lung cancer before chemotherapy. Total plasma ghrelin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Anorexia was measured with the FAACT-A/CS questionnaire (cut-off value ≤ 37). Cachexia was determined as >5% weight loss (WL) in 6 months or >2% WL in 6 months in combination with low BMI or low muscle mass. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to assess differences in plasma ghrelin levels between four groups: patients with (+) or without (−) anorexia (A) or cachexia (C). Multiple regression analyses were performed to assess differences in plasma ghrelin levels between patients C+ and C− and patients with A+ and A− (adjusted for age and sex). Results: Forty patients with stage III (33%) or stage IV (68%) were recruited, of which 50% was male. Mean age was 59.6 ± 10.3 years. Sixteen patients had no anorexia or cachexia (A−C−), seven patients had both anorexia and cachexia (A+C+), ten patients had anorexia without cachexia (A+C−) and seven patients had cachexia without anorexia (A−C+). The levels of total plasma ghrelin were significantly different between the four groups of patients with or without anorexia or cachexia (p = 0.032): the A+C− patients had significantly higher ghrelin levels [median (IQR): 1,754 (1,404–2,142) compared to the A−C+ patients 1,026 (952–1,357), p = 0.003]. A+ patients had significantly higher ghrelin levels compared A− patients (C+ and C− combined, β: 304, p = 0.020). Plasma ghrelin levels were not significantly different in C+ patients

  13. Understanding the effects of potassium ferricyanide on lead hydride formation in tetrahydroborate system and its application for determination of lead in milk using hydride generation inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Biyang; Xu, Xiangshu; Xiao, Yan; Zhu, Pingchuan; Wang, Yingzi

    2015-01-01

    To understand the formation of plumbane in the Pb(II)-NaBH4-K3Fe(CN)6 system, the intermediate products produced in the reaction of lead(II) and NaBH4 in the presence of K3Fe(CN)6 were studied. The produced plumbane and elemental lead were measured through continuous flow hydride generation (HG)-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and X-ray diffraction spectrometry techniques, respectively. Based on the experimental results, the explanations can be depicted in the following steps: (1) plumbane and black lead sediment (black Pb) are formed in the reaction of lead(II) and NaBH4; (2) the black Pb is oxidized by K3Fe(CN)6 to form Pb2[Fe(CN)6], which further reacts with NaBH4 to form more plumbane and black Pb; and (3) another round starts in which the produced black Pb from the step 2 is then oxidized continuously by K3Fe(CN)6 to form more Pb2[Fe(CN)6] complex, which would produce more plumbane. In short, the black Pb and Pb2[Fe(CN)6] complex are the key intermediate products for the formation of plumbane in the Pb(II)-NaBH4-K3Fe(CN)6 system. Based on the enhancement effect of potassium ferricyanide and potassium ferrocyanide, a method was developed to analyze lead in milk with HG-ICP OES technique. The detection limit of the method was observed as 0.081 μg L(-1). The linearity range of lead was found between 0.3 and 50,000 μg L(-1) with correlation coefficient of 0.9993. The recovery of lead was determined as 97.6% (n=5) for adding 10 μg L(-1) lead into the milk sample.

  14. Clinical and Prognostic Significance of Preoperative Plasma Fibrinogen Levels in Patients with Operable Breast Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Mei

    Full Text Available Elevated plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with tumor progression and poor outcomes in different cancer patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the clinical and prognostic value of preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels in patients with operable breast cancer.Two hundred and twenty-three patients diagnosed with breast cancer were retrospectively evaluated in this study. Plasma fibrinogen levels were examined before treatment and analyzed along with patient clinicopathological parameters, disease-free survival (DFS and overall survival (OS. Both univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to identify the clinicopathological parameters associated with DFS and OS.Elevated preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels were directly associated with age of diagnose (≤47 vs. >47, p<0.001, menopause (yes vs. no, p<0.001, tumor size (T1&T2 vs. T3&T4, p = 0.033, tumor stage (I vs. II vs. III, p = 0.034 and lymph node involvement (N = 0 vs. 1≤N≤3 vs. N≥4, p<0.001, but not with histological grade, molecular type and other Immunohistochemical parameters (ER, PR, HER2 and Ki-67. In a univariate survival analysis, tumor stage, tumor size, lymph node involvement (p<0.001/p<0.001 and plasma fibrinogen (p<0.001/p<0.001 levels were associated with disease-free and overall survival, but just lymph nodes involvement (p<0.001, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.9, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.6-5.3/p = 0.006, HR = 3.2, 95% CI = 1.4-7.3 and plasma fibrinogen levels (p = 0.006, HR = 3.4, 95% CI = 1.4-8.3/p = 0.002, HR = 10.1, 95% CI = 2.3-44.6 were associated with disease-free and overall survival in a multivariate survival analysis, respectively.This study demonstrates that elevated preoperative plasma fibrinogen levels are associated with breast cancer progression and are independently associated with a poor prognosis in patients with operable breast cancer.

  15. Elevated Plasma Vitamin B12 Levels as a Marker for Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Johan Frederik Berg; Pedersen, Lars; Nexo, Ebba

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of patients referred for plasma vitamin B12 (cobalamin [Cbl]) measurement present with high Cbl levels, which have been reported in patients with different cancer types. However, the cancer risk among patients with newly diagnosed high Cbl levels has not been...... a database of laboratory test results covering the entire population. Data on cancer incidence (follow-up 1998-2010), Cbl treatment, and prior diagnoses were obtained from medical registries. Patients receiving Cbl treatment were excluded. Cancer risks were calculated as standardized incidence ratios (SIRs......) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), stratified by plasma Cbl levels. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: We identified 333 667 persons without prevalent cancer and not receiving Cbl treatment. Six percent had Cbl levels greater than the upper reference limit (≥601 pmol/L). Cancer risk...

  16. [Blood plasma level of endothelin in miners of a deep coal mine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Nikitina, I V

    2000-09-01

    In 60 miners working in a deep coal mine the blood plasma level of endoteline-1 (E-1) was measured by the immunoenzyme technique immediately after working shift. Those in the mining where the working conditions are especially harsh were found to have the highest level of E-1 exceeding the control values. In studying the age-related content of E-1 in blood plasma of coal miners the highest levels of E-1 were recordable in workers 20 to 30 years old, declining and differing in age groups 20-30 and 41-50 years old. The level of E-1 was at its greatest in those workers with minimum length of service in the underground conditions, declining with the service more than 10 years in duration.

  17. Relationship between Prolactin Plasma Levels and White Matter Volume in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. De Giglio

    2015-01-01

    two months. There was no difference in PRL plasma levels between patients with and without gadolinium enhancement on MRI. PRL plasma levels correlated with white matter volume (WMV (rho = 0.284, p=0.014 but not with grey matter volume (GMV. Moreover, PRL levels predicted changes in WMV (Beta: 984, p=0.034. Conclusions. Our data of a positive association between PRL serum levels and WMV support the role of PRL in promoting myelin repair as documented in animal models of demyelination. The lack of an increase of PRL in the presence of gadolinium enhancement, contrasts with the view considering this hormone as an immune-stimulating and detrimental factor in the inflammatory process associated with MS.

  18. Interleukin-6 gene polymorphism -174G/C influences plasma lipid levels in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henningsson, Susanne; Håkansson, Anna; Westberg, Lars; Baghaei, Fariba; Rosmond, Roland; Holm, Göran; Ekman, Agneta; Nissbrandt, Hans; Eriksson, Elias

    2006-11-01

    Elevated levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been associated with cardiovascular risk factors. The objective of this study was to investigate potential associations between the promoter polymorphism IL-6 -174G/C and the following indices of metabolism: BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, and plasma levels of IL-6, cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, leptin, and C-reactive protein in 252 42-year-old women and 245 51-year-old men. Subgroups were also studied 5 years later. The CC genotype of the IL-6 polymorphism was associated with lower levels of cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein (p polymorphism on metabolic indices in women and men. None of the associations between IL-6 genotype and lipid pattern seemed to result from an effect of the polymorphism on IL-6 plasma levels.

  19. Influence of different dietary zinc levels on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone level and zinc status in male Liaoning Cashmere goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H Y; Sun, M H; Yang, G Q; Jia, C L; Zhang, M; Zhu, Y J; Zhang, Y

    2015-10-01

    The experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of different levels of zinc (Zn) on cashmere growth, plasma testosterone and Zn profile in male Cashmere goats. Twenty-eight male Liaoning Cashmere goats, 3 years old and body weight at 56.2 ± 2.45 kg, were assigned to four groups. The animals were fed a basal diet containing of 45.9 mg Zn/kg dry matter (DM) basis and supplemented with 0, 20, 40 or 80 mg Zn (reagent grade ZnSO₄ ·7H₂ O) per kg DM for 90 days. There was no significant effect on growth and diameter of cashmere fibre for Zn supplemented in diets. However, the length and growth rate of wool were improved (p goats fed on the diet supplemented with 40 or 80 mg Zn/kg DM compared with those fed on basal diet. Plasma Zn concentrations increased (p 0.05). The activity of plasma alkaline phosphatase was increased (p 0.05). In conclusion, Zn content (45.9 mg Zn/kg DM) in control diet was insufficient for optimal wool growth performance, and we recommended the level of dietary Zn for such goats is 86 mg/kg DM during the breeding season and cashmere fibre growing period. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Unraveling atomic-level self-organization at the plasma-material interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, J. P.; Shetty, A.

    2017-07-01

    The intrinsic dynamic interactions at the plasma-material interface and critical role of irradiation-driven mechanisms at the atomic scale during exposure to energetic particles require a priori the use of in situ surface characterization techniques. Characterization of ‘active’ surfaces during modification at atomic-scale levels is becoming more important as advances in processing modalities are limited by an understanding of the behavior of these surfaces under realistic environmental conditions. Self-organization from exposure to non-equilibrium and thermalized plasmas enable dramatic control of surface morphology, topography, composition, chemistry and structure yielding the ability to tune material properties with an unprecedented level of control. Deciphering self-organization mechanisms of nanoscale morphology (e.g. nanodots, ripples) and composition on a variety of materials including: compound semiconductors, semiconductors, ceramics, polymers and polycrystalline metals via low-energy ion-beam assisted plasma irradiation are critical to manipulate functionality in nanostructured systems. By operating at ultra-low energies near the damage threshold, irradiation-driven defect engineering can be optimized and surface-driven mechanisms controlled. Tunability of optical, electronic, magnetic and bioactive properties is realized by reaching metastable phases controlled by atomic-scale irradiation-driven mechanisms elucidated by novel in situ diagnosis coupled to atomistic-level computational tools. Emphasis will be made on tailored surface modification from plasma-enhanced environments on particle-surface interactions and their subsequent modification of hard and soft matter interfaces. In this review, we examine current trends towards in situ and in operando surface and sub-surface characterization to unravel atomic-scale mechanisms at the plasma-material interface. This work will emphasize on recent advances in the field of plasma and ion

  1. Carbon Dioxide-Induced Anesthesia Results in a Rapid Increase in Plasma Levels of Vasopressin

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, Brian; Varon, Jack; Chait, Brian T.; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Brief anesthesia, such as after exposure to high levels of carbon dioxide, prior to decapitation is considered a more humane alternative for the euthanasia of rodents, compared with use of decapitation alone. Studies of the levels of certain stress hormones in plasma such as corticosterone and ACTH have supported the use of this method of euthanasia in endocrinological and molecular studies. In the current study, rats were briefly exposed to a chamber filled with carbon dioxide until recumben...

  2. Plasma osteopontin levels in prediction of prognosis in acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okyay, Kaan; Tavil, Yusuf; Sahinarslan, Asife; Tacoy, Gulten; Turfan, Murat; Sen, Nihat; Gurbahar, Ozlem; Boyaci, Bulent; Yalcin, Ridvan; Demirkan, Deniz; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-04-01

    We sought to explain the clinical importance of the osteopontin (OPN) in the setting of acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Eighty consecutive patients (55 = 11 years, 12 women and 68 men) and sixty healthy control subjects were included in the study. In all patients, plasma OPN levels were assessed on admission and on the third day (peak value). Creatinine kinase (CK)/CK-myocardial band (MB), troponin I and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic factor levels and echocardiographic findings were also recorded. Patients were classified into high and low OPN groups according to the median OPN value, and monitored for the occurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Patients with STEMI had higher OPN levels (23.8 [16.7-41.3] ng/ml) on admission than the control subjects (18.0 [11.3-31.5] ng/ml, P = 0.004).The third day value of OPN was significantly higher (39.2 [27.2-56.0] ng/ml) than the OPN level on admission (23.8 [16.7-41.3] ng/ml, P < 0.001). Admission and peak OPN levels were not correlated with CK/CK-MB, white blood cell counts, troponin I and the N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic factor. The plasma OPN levels were not correlated with left ventricular wall motion score index either. In the subgroups of infarct localization and reperfusion strategy, plasma OPN levels were similar. When the patients were compared according to the median OPN values, there were no differences in the occurrence of MACE between the high and low OPN groups. This study suggests, for the first time, that the plasma OPN level increases in the first hours of the acute STEMI; however, it could not be used as a prognostic biomarker of STEMI.

  3. The relation between serum sex steroid levels and plasma cell infiltrates in endometritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punnonen, R; Lehtinen, M; Teisala, K; Aine, R; Rantala, I; Heinonen, P K; Miettinen, A; Laine, S; Paavonen, J

    1989-01-01

    We measured serum levels of progesterone and estradiol among 35 patients with endometritis confirmed by endometrial biopsy. The onset of symptoms took place predominantly in the proliferative phase of the cycle. A negative correlation was found between the serum progesterone levels and the histopathologic severity of plasma cell endometritis. Our results suggest that the hormonal status contributes to the immune response and susceptibility to endometrial infection.

  4. Role of plasma EBV DNA levels in predicting recurrence of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in a western population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferrari Daris

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinomas can be cured by the combination of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In Eastern countries, plasma levels of viral Epstein-Barr deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA are accurate in predicting recurrence, but few data are available in Western populations. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between viral Epstein-Barr DNA copy numbers in plasma and the response rate, progression-free survival and overall survival in a cohort of Western patients with stage IIb-IVb nasopharyngeal cancer. Methods We evaluated plasma samples from 36 consecutive patients treated with induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation. EBV copy numbers were determined after DNA extraction using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan–Meier method. Results Circulating Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels were measured before treatment, at the end of concomitant chemo- and radiotherapy, and during the follow-up period. Pre-treatment levels significantly correlated with the initial stage and probability of relapse. Their increase was 100% specific and 71.3% sensitive in detecting loco-regional or metastatic recurrence (an overall accuracy of 94.4%. Three-year progression-free and overall survival were respectively 78.2% and 97.1%. Conclusions The results of this study confirm that patients from a Western country affected by loco-regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma have high plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA levels at diagnosis. The monitoring of plasma levels is sensitive and highly specific in detecting disease recurrence and metastases.

  5. The relation of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma glycine levels in propionic acidaemia, a 'ketotic hyperglycinaemia'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl-Bürgi, S; Korman, S H; Applegarth, D A; Karall, D; Lillquist, Y; Heinz-Erian, P; Davidson, A G F; Haberlandt, E; Sass, J O

    2008-06-01

    The characteristic elevation of plasma glycine concentrations observed in propionic acidaemia (PA) and other 'ketotic hyperglycinaemias' has been attributed to secondary inhibition of the hepatic glycine cleavage system (GCS) by accumulating CoA derivatives of branched-chain amino acid metabolites. In nonketotic hyperglycinaemia (NKH), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma glycine levels and their ratio are increased due to primary deficiency of central nervous system (CNS) as well as hepatic GCS. Whether the GCS in the CNS is also inhibited in PA is unclear, as there are scant data available on CSF glycine levels in this disorder. We studied the relation of CSF and plasma glycine levels in 6 paired samples from 4 PA patients, including one PA patient with bacterial meningitis who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunting and multiple CSF analyses (n = 26). In contrast to the CSF glycine levels which were generally elevated in all four PA patients, the CSF/plasma glycine concentration ratios in paired samples were normal (0.016-0.029), with the exception of a single sample (0.132) with extremely high CSF protein concentration (2010 mg/L) during the course of meningitis indicating a disturbed blood-brain barrier. This finding of normal CSF/plasma glycine ratio in PA suggests that the observed elevations of CSF glycine levels are a reflection of the concurrent hyperglycinaemia resulting from secondary inhibition of hepatic GCS, but that brain GCS is not affected, in contrast to the situation in NKH. The neurological sequelae in PA are therefore unlikely to be related to disturbed glycine metabolism.

  6. Plasma intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in women with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani Makoto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor (FGF23 is a novel phosphaturic factor associated with inorganic phosphate homeostasis. Previous human studies have shown that serum FGF23 levels increase in response to a high phosphate diet. For anorexia nervosa (AN patients, inorganic phosphate homeostasis is important in the clinical course, such as in refeeding syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23 in restricting-type AN (AN-R patients, binge-eating/purging-type AN (AN-BP patients, and healthy controls. Methods The subjects consisted of 6 female AN-R patients, 6 female AN-BP patients, and 11 healthy female controls; both inpatients and outpatients were included. Plasma iFGF23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH2D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD levels were measured. Data are presented as the median and the range. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess differences among the three groups, and a value of p Results There were no differences between AN-R patients and controls in the iFGF23 and 1,25-(OH2D levels. In AN-BP patients, the iFGF23 level (41.3 pg/ml; range, 6.1–155.5 pg/ml was significantly higher than in controls (3.8 pg/ml; range, not detected-21.3 pg/ml; p = 0.001, and the 1,25-(OH2D was significantly lower in AN-BP patients (7.0 pg/ml; range, 4.2–33.7 pg/ml than in controls (39.7 pg/ml; range, 6.3–58.5 pg/ml; p = 0.015. No differences in plasma 25-OHD levels were observed among the groups. Conclusion This preliminary study is the first to show that plasma iFGF23 levels are increased in AN-BP patients, and that these elevated plasma FGF23 levels might be related to the decrease in plasma 1,25-(OH2D levels.

  7. Elevated Plasma YKL-40 Levels and Ischemic Stroke in the General Population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaergaard, A.D.; Bojesen, S.E.; Johansen, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: We hypothesized that elevated plasma YKL-40 levels are associated with increased risk of ischemic cardiovascular disease in the general population. In contrast to C-reactive protein (CRP) produced in the liver in response to inflammation, YKL-40 is produced by lipid-laden macrophages...... inside the vessel wall. Methods: We measured plasma YKL-40 in 8,899 21- to 93-year-old participants of the Copenhagen City Heart Study 1991-1994 examination, and followed them for up to 18 years. Endpoints were ischemic stroke, ischemic cerebrovascular disease, myocardial infarction, and ischemic heart...

  8. Relationship between Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Insulin Resistance and Blood Pressure in Octogenarians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荫涛; 邵莉; 滕丽莉; 张代富; 张华

    2010-01-01

    The association between fasting plasma ghrelin levels and insulin resistance and blood pressure(BP) in octogenarians was investigated in this study.A total of 487 unrelated octogenarians(including 203 men and 284 women) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study at the Healthy Care Center of Shanghai East Hospital,Tongji University,China,from October 2008 to April 2009.Plasma ghrelin was determined by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the homeostasis ...

  9. Low plasma levels of cholecalciferol and 13-cis-retinoic acid in tuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Srinivasan, Anand; Syal, Kirtimaan; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the concentration of cholecalciferol and 13-. cis-retinoic acid (RA) in the plasma and pleural fluid of patients with tuberculosis (TB) against controls. Methods: Plasma levels of cholecalciferol and 13-. cis-RA were measured in 22 patients with TB...... with active ingredients of vitamins A and D, we feel that there is a combined deficiency of these vitamins in patients with TB. There is an evidence that concomitant vitamin A and D supplementation can kill intracellular Mycobacterium tuberculosis invitro. Therefore, the observations made in this study can...

  10. Decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasma levels in psoriasis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Brunoni

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF is associated with neuroplasticity and synaptic strength, and is decreased in conditions associated with chronic stress. Nevertheless, BDNF has not yet been investigated in psoriasis, a chronic inflammatory systemic disease that is exacerbated by stress. Therefore, our aim was to determine BDNF plasma levels in psoriasis patients and healthy controls. Adult patients (n=94 presenting with psoriasis for at least 1 year were enrolled, and age- and gender-matched with healthy controls (n=307 from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil. Participants had neither a previous history of coronary artery disease nor current episode of major depression. BDNF plasma levels were determined using the Promega ELISA kit. A general linear model was used to compare BDNF levels in psoriasis patients and controls, with age, gender, systolic blood pressure, serum fasting glucose, blood lipid levels, triglycerides, smoking status, and body mass index examined. After adjusting for clinical and demographic variables, significantly decreased BNDF plasma levels were observed in psoriasis patients (P=0.01 (estimated marginal means of 3922 pg/mL; 95%CI=2660-5135 compared with controls (5788 pg/mL; 95%CI=5185-6442. Similar BDNF levels were found in both mild and severe cases of psoriasis. Our finding, that BDNF is decreased in psoriasis, supports the concept of a brain-skin connection in psoriasis. Further studies should determine if BDNF is increased after specific psoriasis treatments, and associated with different disease stages.

  11. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unni, C. Sumithra N.; Lakshman, Lakshmi R.; Vaidyanathan, Kannan; Subhakumari, K.N.; Menon, N. Leela

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001) lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001) higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings. PMID:26658589

  12. Alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in polycystic ovary syndrome- A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumithra N Unni C

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Plasma amino acid levels are known to be altered in conditions like sepsis and burns which are situations of metabolic stress. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS, a condition which affects a woman throughout her life, is said to be associated with metabolic stress. This study was undertaken to assess if there were significant alterations in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS. Methods: Sixty five women with PCOS along with the similar number of age matched normal controls were included in this study. Levels of 14 amino acids were determined using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. Results: The levels of methionine, cystine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, valine, tyrosine, proline, glycine, lysine and histidine were found to be significantly (P<0.001 lower in cases than in controls. Arginine and alanine levels were found to be significantly (P<0.001 higher in cases compared with controls. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant derangement in the levels of plasma amino acids in women with PCOS which might be due to the oxidative and metabolic stress associated with it. Further studies need to be done to confirm the findings.

  13. The unstimulated pancreatic secretion obtained by endoscopic cannulation, and the plasma secretin levels in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osnes, M; Hanssen, L E; Larsen, S

    1979-01-01

    The technique of collecting juice from the main pancreatic duct by siphonage is described. The juice was collected in 5-min fractions under basal conditions for 20 min (32 subjects) and extended to 60 min (6 subjects). Flow rate and bicarbonate concentration were significantly higher during the first collected samples, whereas concentrations of amylase and protein rose during the first 20 min of the study. All variables remained nearly constant after this period. Immunoreactive secretin (IRS) in peripheral plasma was significantly higher immediately after cannulation of the main pancreatic duct, as compared to the pre-endoscopic level. When the catheter was left in the duct and pancreatic juice drained, the IRS stabilized at a level not significantly different from the pre-endoscopic level. Positive correlations were found between flow rate and plasma level of IRS and between flow rate and bicarbonate concentrations. A negative correlation was found between the flow rate and concentrations of amylase and protein. The higher flow rate, plasma level of IRS, and bicarbonate concentration at the beginning of the examination may be due to the presence of acid and/or bile in the duodenal contents shortly after the endoscope enters the duodenum. Later in the procedure the levels have stabilized, which indicates that little or no acid or bile is passing into the duodenum. It is also concluded that secretin may be one factor responsible for the basal pancreatic secretion in man.

  14. Reduction in plasma vasopressin levels of dehydrated rats following acute stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, L. C.; Severs, W. B.

    1977-01-01

    Results are presented for an investigation directed to substantiate and extend preliminary findings of stress-induced reduction in plasma arginine vasopressin (pAVP). Since normally hydrated rats have very low levels of pAVP, it is difficult to measure reliably any decrease in pAVP that may result from stress. To overcome this problem, the pAVP levels of the tested rats were raised by dehydration prior to application of stress. A radioimmunoassay for pAVP is described and used to determine the levels of vasopressin in the plasma of nondehydrated and dehydrated rats after exposure to ether or acceleration stress. Plasma pAVP is also determined in rats following nicotine administration. It is shown that exposure of nondehydrated rats to ether or acceleration stress does not elicit any significant alterations in circulating pAVP levels while nicotine injections stimulate a marked increase. In particular, ether and acceleration stress produce a rapid reduction in the pAVP level of dehydrated rats, the decrease being observed in both large and small animals. The mechanism for this reduction in pAVP level following stress is yet unknown.

  15. Relationship between Sustained Reductions in Plasma Lipid and Lipoprotein Concentrations with Apheresis and Plasma Levels and mRNA Expression of PTX3 and Plasma Levels of hsCRP in Patients with HyperLp(alipoproteinemia

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    Claudia Stefanutti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of lipoprotein apheresis (Direct Adsorption of Lipids, DALI (LA on plasma levels of pentraxin 3 (PTX3, an inflammatory marker that reflects coronary plaque vulnerability, and expression of PTX3 mRNA was evaluated in patients with hyperLp(alipoproteinemia and angiographically defined atherosclerosis/coronary artery disease. Eleven patients, aged 55±9.3 years (mean ± SD, were enrolled in the study. PTX3 soluble protein levels in plasma were unchanged by 2 sessions of LA; however, a downregulation of mRNA expression for PTX3 was observed, starting with the first session of LA (p<0.001. The observed reduction was progressively increased in the interval between the first and second LA sessions to achieve a maximum decrease by the end of the second session. A statistically significantly greater treatment-effect correlation was observed in patients undergoing weekly treatments, compared with those undergoing treatment every 15 days. A progressive reduction in plasma levels of C-reactive protein was also seen from the first session of LA, with a statistically significant linear correlation for treatment-effect in the change in plasma levels of this established inflammatory marker (R2=0.99; p<0.001. Our findings suggest that LA has anti-inflammatory and endothelium protective effects beyond its well-established efficacy in lowering apoB100-containing lipoproteins.

  16. Further evaluation of plasma sphingomyelin levels as a risk factor for coronary artery disease

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    Lackner Karl J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sphingomyelin (SM is the major phospholipid in cell membranes and in lipoproteins. In human plasma, SM is mainly found in atherogenic lipoproteins; thus, high levels of SM may promote atherogenesis. Methods We investigated in a median follow up of 6.0 years the association of SM with the incidence of a combined endpoint (myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death in stable and unstable patients, and its relation to other marker of atherosclerosis in 1,102 patients with angiographically documented CAD and 444 healthy controls. Results and discussion Logistic regression analysis showed that SM categorized by median was associated with an elevated risk for CAD (HR 3.2, 95%CI 2.5–4.0, p Conclusion The results of our study reveal that 1 human plasma SM levels are a risk factor for CAD; 2 the pro-atherogenic property of plasma SM might be related to metabolism of apoB-containing or triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; and 3 plasma SM levels are a predictor for outcome of patients with acute coronary syndrome.

  17. Relationship of plasma level of NT- ProBNP with development of AF in CABG patients

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    Tanaray B

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Studies of the association between post operative AF and Plasma level of NT- Pro BNP have reported conflicting findings. The aim of the present study was evaluation of the association between post coronary bypass graft- Atrial Fibrillation (AF and Plasma level of NT- ProBNP as an independent risk factor of AF development in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft."n "nMethods: In a cohort study, 79 patients with sinus rhythm who admitted in Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran, during February 2009 and February 2010 for CABG are included the study and followed for developing post operative AF rhythm."n "nResults: Post operative AF was found in 17.7% of patients. The peak time from the operation to the first AF episode was in second post op day in ten patients (71.4%. The serum level of ProBNP in patients with AF was significantly higher (1624± 647 versus 221± 238 pg/ml, p< 0/0001. Increased age, Increased LA size and high plasma level of ProBNP were associated with increased risk for post op AF. After adjustment of risk factors, plasma level of ProBNP was the most important risk factor with odds ratio of 15.34 with CI 95% 1.77-132.95 and then LA diameter with odds ratio of 6.11 with CI 95% 0.99-37.42 was independently correlated with post op AF. Correlation between plasma level of ProBNP with age and LA size was seen too (LA size r = 0.0281, p= 0.012. Between age and ProBNP (r= 0.337, p= 0.002. The best cut off point for plasma ProBNP as a predictor of post op AF was 854 pg/ml."n "nConclusion: Increased level of preoperative ProBNP levels could be an independent predictor of post operative Atrial Fibrillation.

  18. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 and D3 levels and incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuladottir, G V; Cohen, A; Arnar, D O; Hougaard, D M; Torfason, B; Palsson, R; Indridason, O S

    2016-01-01

    Low circulating levels of total 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) have been associated with an increased risk of adverse effects after cardiac surgery. The metabolites, 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3, provide a good index of vitamin D status. In this study, we examined the association between preoperative plasma levels of total 25(OH)D, 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 and the risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation (POAF) following open heart surgery. The levels of plasma 25(OH)D2 and 25(OH)D3 in 118 patients, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting and/or valvular surgery, were measured immediately prior to surgery and on postoperative day 3 by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Patients who developed POAF had higher median plasma levels of 25(OH)D2 than those who remained in sinus rhythm (SR) (P = 0·003), but no significant difference was noted in levels of 25(OH)D3 or total 25(OH)D between the two groups (P > 0·05). By univariate analysis, patients with total 25(OH)D and 25(OH)D2 levels above the median had higher frequency of POAF (P D2 (P = 0·001), an association that was independent of confounding factors. In both the SR and POAF groups, the median plasma levels of 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3 and total 25(OH)D were lower (P D2 are associated with increased risk of POAF, while this is not the case for 25(OH)D3 or total 25(OH)D. The reason for these discrepant results is not clear but warrants further study.

  19. Urinary and plasma fluoride levels in pregnant women from Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Deena B; Basu, Niladri; Martinez-Mier, E Angeles; Sánchez, Brisa N; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Liu, Yun; Parajuli, Rajendra Prasad; Peterson, Karen; Mercado-Garcia, Adriana; Bashash, Morteza; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Hu, Howard; Téllez-Rojo, Martha Maria

    2016-10-01

    There is need to assess the developmental neurotoxicity of fluoride. Our knowledge of prenatal fluoride exposure is challenged as few population-based studies have been conducted and these generally date back several decades, provide incomplete data on sociodemographic variables, and have methodological limitations. To measure urinary and plasma fluoride levels across three time points in pregnant mothers who were enrolled in the Early Life Exposures in Mexico to Environmental Toxicants (ELEMENT) birth cohort study. Fluoride levels were characterized in archived urine and plasma from 872 pregnant mothers sampled from the ELEMENT cohort. Various statistical methods were used to analyze the fluoride data with particular consideration for changes across three stages of pregnancy and against sociodemographic variables. All samples had detectable levels of fluoride. The mean urinary and plasma fluoride levels were 0.91 and 0.0221mg/L respectively, and these were not statistically different across three stages of pregnancy. Fluoride levels correlated across the stages of pregnancy studied, with stronger correlations between neighboring stages. Urinary fluoride changed as pregnancy progressed with levels increasing until ~23 weeks and then decreasing until the end of pregnancy. For plasma fluoride, there was a decreasing trend but this was not of statistical significance. Creatinine-adjusted urinary fluoride levels did not associate consistently with any of the sociodemographic variables studied. This study provides the most extensive characterization to date of fluoride exposure throughout pregnancy. These results provide the foundation to explore exposure-related health outcomes in the ELEMENT cohort and other studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Plasma apelin level in patients with restless legs syndrome and its association with periodic leg movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Selda; Aksu, Murat; Baskol, Gulden

    2017-03-01

    Apelin is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecule secreted by adipose tissue and has a protective effect on cardiac and neuronal tissue. Recent studies have reported that the risk of vascular disease is increased in restless legs syndrome (RLS). We aimed to measure plasma levels of apelin in patients with RLS. Additionally, we wanted to determine if there is any relationship between apelin levels and RLS disease severity and the periodic leg movement index (PLMI). A total of 14 RLS patients with moderate-to-severe symptoms and 14 age- and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls participated in the study. All participants had no concomitant medical disorder nor took medications. The international RLS rating scale (IRLSS) was used to determine disease severity. Polysomnography (PSG) served to exclude other sleep disorders such as sleep-related breathing disorders and to measure sleep parameters. The mean plasma apelin level was significantly lower in the patient group compared to the control group independent of IRLSS score and PSG findings (p = 0.004). After comparison between the RLS patient group and control group, the patient group was divided into two subgroups based on a PLMI above or below 15 events per hour. A reduced mean apelin level was observed in the patient group having a PLMI above 15 compared to the patient group with PLMI below 15 and the control group (p = 0.003). There was no correlation between plasma apelin levels and disease severity and PLMI in the two patient subgroups. RLS patients especially those with a PLMI above 15 have low plasma apelin levels independent of disease severity and sleep parameters such as sleep duration and quality. Decreased apelin levels may explain the increased risk for vascular diseases in those patients.

  1. Plasma selenium levels and oxidative stress biomarkers: a gene-environment interaction population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan-Chilet, Inmaculada; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Guallar, Eliseo; De Marco, Griselda; Lopez-Izquierdo, Raul; Gonzalez-Manzano, Isabel; Carmen Tormos, M; Martin-Nuñez, Gracia M; Rojo-Martinez, Gemma; Saez, Guillermo T; Martín-Escudero, Juan C; Redon, Josep; Javier Chaves, F

    2014-09-01

    The role of selenium exposure in preventing chronic disease is controversial, especially in selenium-repleted populations. At high concentrations, selenium exposure may increase oxidative stress. Studies evaluating the interaction of genetic variation in genes involved in oxidative stress pathways and selenium are scarce. We evaluated the cross-sectional association of plasma selenium concentrations with oxidative stress levels, measured as oxidized to reduced glutathione ratio (GSSG/GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxo-dG) in urine, and the interacting role of genetic variation in oxidative stress candidate genes, in a representative sample of 1445 men and women aged 18-85 years from Spain. The geometric mean of plasma selenium levels in the study sample was 84.76 µg/L. In fully adjusted models the geometric mean ratios for oxidative stress biomarker levels comparing the highest to the lowest quintiles of plasma selenium levels were 0.61 (0.50-0.76) for GSSG/GSH, 0.89 (0.79-1.00) for MDA, and 1.06 (0.96-1.18) for 8-oxo-dG. We observed nonlinear dose-responses of selenium exposure and oxidative stress biomarkers, with plasma selenium concentrations above ~110 μg/L being positively associated with 8-oxo-dG, but inversely associated with GSSG/GSH and MDA. In addition, we identified potential risk genotypes associated with increased levels of oxidative stress markers with high selenium levels. Our findings support that high selenium levels increase oxidative stress in some biological processes. More studies are needed to disentangle the complexity of selenium biology and the relevance of potential gene-selenium interactions in relation to health outcomes in human populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased oxidative stress and plasma Hsp70 levels among gasoline filling station attendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Bing; Chen, Kangcheng; Lv, Yingnan; Huang, Damin; Liu, Jing; Liang, Guiqiang; Zhang, Li'e; Wang, Fenfen; Su, Cheng; Zou, Yunfeng; Yang, Xiaobo

    2017-02-01

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic derivative of manganese (Mn) and is used as an antiknock agent and octane enhancer in gasoline. In this article, we tested the oxidative stress and heat stress protein (Hsp) 70 levels of gasoline station attendants to explore potential plasma biomarkers. Furthermore, the dose-response relationship was also identified. A total of 144 workers, including 96 petrol fillers and 48 cashiers, participated in the study. Ambient concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) and Mn were monitored at nine filling stations. During the measuring process, the individual cumulative exposure index was calculated. Plasma oxidative stress and Hsp70 levels were also analysed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The BTEX time-weighted average in office areas was significantly lower than in refuelling areas ( p stress indicators compared with the control group, respectively: superoxide dismutase (SOD), 39.18 ± 6.05 U/mL versus 52.84 ± 3.87 U/mL; glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), 186.07 ± 15.63 U versus 194.38 ± 10.42 U; and malondialdehyde (MDA), 1.68 ± 0.52 nmol/L versus 1.43 ± 0.64 nmol/L (in all comparisons, p level in the exposed group (2.77 ± 0.64 ng/mL) was significantly higher than in the control group (2.32 ± 0.87 ng/mL; p levels were inversely correlated with the activities of SOD ( r = -0.305) and GSH-Px ( r = -0.302) in the exposed group ( p levels and plasma MDA levels ( p stress among filling station attendants. Plasma Hsp70 levels could be used as a sensitive responsive biomarker for exposed workers.

  3. Renal function and plasma levels of arginine vasotocin during free flight in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giladi, I; Goldstein, D L; Pinshow, B; Gerstberger, R

    1997-12-01

    We examined urinary water loss and plasma levels of arginine vasotocin (AVT) in free-flying, tippler pigeons trained to fly continuously for up to 5 h. First, we used [3H]polyethyleneglycol ([3H]PEG) as a glomerular filtration marker by implanting an osmotic minipump into each bird. In two flights (10 birds in winter at an ambient temperature of 13-15 degrees C and seven in summer at 23 degrees C), we measured pre-flight (hydrated, resting control birds) and post-flight [3H]PEG activity and osmolality in blood and ureteral urine. For comparison, we measured these variables in 10 birds in winter before and after controlled dehydration (24 h at 25 or 30 degrees C). Second, we measured plasma levels of AVT in 6-8 birds before and immediately after each of three different summer flights. Urine osmolality increased significantly by up to three times the control level in both post-flight and dehydrated pigeons; urine:plasma osmolality ratios did not exceed 2. Compared with controls, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was significantly lower after flight in summer, but did not change in either post-flight or dehydrated winter pigeons. In winter, mean post-flight urine flow rate (UFR) decreased significantly to less than half the control level, while in summer, post-flight UFR did not differ from control levels. In general, mean filtered water reabsorption (FrH2O) increased from 95 % in controls to 98 % in post-flight and dehydrated birds. Plasma levels of AVT increased after flight to between three and eight times the preflight levels. The data from this first study of kidney function during flight are consistent with previous studies of dehydration in birds and exercise in mammals in which both increased FrH2O and decreased GFR contribute to renal conservation of water.

  4. Low plasma vitamin D levels and muscle-related adverse effects in statin users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisen, Alon; Lev, Eli; Iakobishvilli, Zaza; Porter, Avital; Brosh, David; Hasdai, David; Mager, Aviv

    2014-01-01

    Treatment with HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) is often complicated by muscle-related adverse effects (MAEs). Studies of the association between low plasma vitamin D levels and MAEs have yielded conflicting results. To determine if low plasma vitamin D level is a risk factorfor MAEs in statin users. Plasma levels of 25(OH) vitamin D were measured as part of the routine evaluation of unselected statin-treated patients attending the coronary and lipid clinics at our hospital during the period 2007-2010. Medical data on muscle complaints and statin use were retrieved from the medical files. Creatine kinase (CK) levels were derived from the hospital laboratory database. The sample included 272 patients (141 men) aged 33-89 years. Mean vitamin D level was 48.04 nmol/L. Levels were higher in men (51.0 +/- 20.5 versus 44.7 +/- 18.9 nmol/L, P = 0.001) and were unaffected by age. MAEs were observed in 106 patients (39%): myalgia in 95 (35%) and CK elevation in 20 (7%); 9 patients (3%) had both. There was no difference in plasma vitamin D levels between patients with and without myalgia (46.3 +/- 17.7 versus 48.9 +/- 21.0 nmol/L, P = 0.31), with and without CK elevation (50.2 +/- 14.6 versus 47.8 +/- 20.3 nmol/L, P = 0.60), or with or without any MAE (50.4 +/- 15.0 versus 47.8 +/- 10.2 nmol/L, P = 0.27). These findings were consistent when analyzed by patient gender and presence/absence of coronary artery disease, and when using a lower vitamin D cutoff (statin users.

  5. The effect of oral Isotretinoin on plasma level of folic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    amir majdein amir javanbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Acne vulgaris is one of the most common skin disorders and Isotretinoin has widely been used as a treatment for its severe and resistant cases in recent years. Considering the controversy over the effect of systemic Isotretinoin on reducing the plasma level of folic acid and the negative effect of this reduction on health, this study was conducted to assess the influence of systemic Isotretinoin on the plasma level of folic acid during the years 2008 and 2009 in Khorramabad city. Materials and Methods: 61 patients including 38 women and 23 men with severe or moderate acne (age mean 23.6+6 y/o who were resistant to conventional treatments were supplemented with 0.5mg/kg/day of oral Isotretinoin for 30 days. They were instructed not to use any other drugs with an effect on folic acid level or change their diet. The serum levels of folic acid were measured at the baseline and at the end of the treatment period. The statistical analyses were carried out using the paired T-test. Results: The mean levels of folic acid were 26.75+9.42 nmol/lit and 23.6+8.42 nmol/lit at the baseline and after 30 days of Isotretinoin supplementation respectively. This showed a significant decrease in plasma folic acid level (p=0.008. Conclusion: This study revealed a significant reduction in plasma level of folic acid following a 30 day use of oral Isotretinoin in acne patients. Concerning the important role of folic acid in metabolic functions, we recommend further studies to assess the effect of longer periods of Isotretinoin treatment as well as other relevant factors on folic acid metabolism. Moreover, folic acid supplementation and simultaneous use of Isotretinoin is recommended in patients with acne.

  6. Elevated plasma levels of endostatin are associated with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Hamm, L Lee; Kleinpeter, Myra A; Husserl, Fred; Khan, Islam Enver; Chen, Chung-Shiuan; Liu, Yanxi; Mills, Katherine T; He, Chuan; Rifai, Nader; Simon, Eric E; He, Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Angiogenesis may play an important role in the renal repair process after injury. We investigated the association between plasma endostatin, an endothelial-specific antiangiogenic factor, and chronic kidney disease (CKD). We compared plasma endostatin levels in 201 CKD patients and 201 controls. CKD was defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73 m(2) or presence of albuminuria (≥30 mg/24 h). After adjustment for established CKD risk factors, the median (interquartile range) of plasma endostatin was 276.7 ng/dl (199.3-357.5) in patients with CKD and 119.4 ng/dl (103.7-134.6) in controls without CKD (p < 0.0001 for group difference). log-transformed plasma endostatin was significantly and inversely correlated with eGFR (r = -0.83, p < 0.0001) and positively correlated with log-transformed urine albumin (r = 0.66, p < 0.0001) in the study participants. In addition, one standard deviation increase in log-transformed plasma endostatin (0.55 ng/dl) was associated with a decline in eGFR of -26.2 ml/min and an increase in urine albumin of 3.26 mg/ 24 h after adjusting for multiple covariables. Furthermore, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for CKD comparing the highest tertile (≥131.4 ng/dl) to the two lower tertiles of plasma endostatin was 21.6 (95% CI: 10.2-45.5; p < 0.0001). These data indicate that elevated plasma endostatin is strongly and independently associated with CKD. Prospective cohort studies and clinical trials are warranted to further examine the causal relationship between endostatin and risk of CKD and to develop novel interventions targeting circulating endostatin aimed at reducing CKD risk. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. High plasma triglyceride levels strongly correlate with low kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus of male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, A; Axel, A M; Lie, M E;

    2015-01-01

    signals to the GnRH neurons. METHODS: In this study, we measured body weight and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, testosterone, and triglycerides after high fat diet exposure and correlated these parameters with the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of male rats....... In this model, a high fat diet (45% or 60% energy from fat, respectively) or a control diet (10% energy from fat) was provided after weaning for three months. RESULTS: We find a significant increase in body weight and plasma leptin concentration, but no change in the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells...... with increased fat in the diet. Kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells are not correlated with body weight, testosterone, leptin or insulin. However, we find that the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells is strongly and negatively correlated with the level of plasma triglycerides (R2=0.49, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: We...

  8. Possibility of Combining Nuclear Level Pumping in Plasma with Lasing in Solid

    CERN Document Server

    Karamian, S A

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear isomers can be used for the storage and release of "clean" nuclear energy, and the visible schemes are discussed. Resonance between the atomic and nuclear transitions may be manifested in a form of the hybridization of atomic-nuclear excitation at the appropriate case. The nuclear levels - candidates for triggering via atomic transitions are described. A variety of the ionization states and atomic-shell configurations arizes in hot plasma generated by the short powerful pulse of laser light. The nonradiative conversion of the ionization energy within atom can be suppressed in the hot-plasma surroundings. Time-scales of different processes in nuclear, atomic and condensed-matter subsystems are compared. The processes of fast ionization in solid, X-ray radiance in plasma, sample melting and recrystallisation may precede nuclear fluorescence. Time-scale shorter 0.1 ns makes this sequence promising for the group excitation of short-lived modes in nuclear subsystem.

  9. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (phealthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  10. YKL-40 tissue expression and plasma levels in patients with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgdall, Estrid V S; Ringsholt, Merete; Høgdall, Claus K;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: YKL-40 (chitinase-3-like-1) is a member of "mammalian chitinase-like proteins". The protein is expressed in many types of cancer cells and the highest plasma YKL-40 levels have been found in patients with metastatic disease, short recurrence/progression-free intervals, and short overall...... survival. The aim of the study was to determine the expression of YKL-40 in tumor tissue and plasma in patients with borderline ovarian tumor or epithelial ovarian cancer (OC), and investigate prognostic value of this marker. METHODS: YKL-40 protein expression was determined by immunohistochemistry...... in tissue arrays from 181 borderline tumors and 473 OC. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by ELISA in preoperative samples from 19 patients with borderline tumor and 76 OC patients. RESULTS: YKL-40 protein expression was found in cancer cells, tumor associated macrophages, neutrophils and mast cells. The tumor...

  11. In vivo evidence that Agxt2 can regulate plasma levels of dimethylarginines in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kittel, Anja; Maas, Renke; König, Jörg; Mieth, Maren; Weiss, Norbert; Jarzebska, Natalia; Hohenstein, Bernd; Martens-Lobenhoffer, Jens; Bode-Böger, Stefanie M; Rodionov, Roman N

    2013-01-01

    Elevated plasma concentrations of the asymmetric (ADMA) and symmetric (SDMA) dimethylarginine have repeatedly been linked to adverse cardiovascular clinical outcomes. Both dimethylarginines can be degraded by alanine-glyoxylate aminotransferase 2 (Agxt2), which is also the key enzyme responsible for the degradation of endogenously formed β-aminoisobutyrate (BAIB). In the present study we wanted to investigate the effect of BAIB on Agxt2 expression and Agxt2-mediated metabolism of dimethylarginines. We infused BAIB or saline intraperitoneally for 7days in C57/BL6 mice via minipumps. Expression of Agxt2 was determined in liver and kidney. The concentrations of BAIB, dimethylarginines and the Agxt2-specific ADMA metabolite α-keto-δ-(N(G),N(G)-dimethylguanidino)valeric acid (DMGV) was determined by LC-MS/MS in plasma and urine. As compared to controls systemic administration of BAIB increased plasma and urine BAIB levels by a factor of 26.5 (p<0.001) and 25.8 (p<0.01), respectively. BAIB infusion resulted in an increase of the plasma ADMA and SDMA concentrations of 27% and 31%, respectively, (both p<0.05) and a 24% decrease of plasma DMGV levels (p<0.05), while expression of Agxt2 was not different. Our data demonstrate that BAIB can inhibit Agxt2-mediated metabolism of dimethylarginines and show for the first time that endogenous Agxt2 is involved in the regulation of systemic ADMA, SDMA and DMGV levels. The effect of BAIB excess on endogenous dimethylarginine levels may have direct clinical implications for humans with the relatively common genetic trait of hyper-β-aminoisobutyric aciduria.

  12. Low blood and plasma carnitine levels in children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, K A; Ament, M E; Moukarzel, A; Vinton, N E; Cederblad, G

    1990-10-01

    Total and free carnitine and acylcarnitine concentrations were analyzed in whole blood and plasma in 12 children with a mean age of 68.4 +/- 42.9 months who had received carnitine-free total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for an average of 4 years. The purpose of the study was to see if the children had become carnitine deficient and, if so, whether this correlated with poor lipid clearance. Compared to controls, the TPN-dependent children had significantly decreased concentrations of total and free carnitine in blood (26.6 +/- 9.4 (SD) mumols/L vs. 43.3 +/- 9.1 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, and 17.1 +/- 7.7 mumols/L vs. 35.2 +/- 8.1 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, respectively). Similar results were found in plasma (total carnitine of 19.0 +/- 8.0 mumols/L vs. 41.9 +/- 5.2 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, and free carnitine of 15.7 +/- 7.3 mumols/L vs. 36.1 +/- 5.2 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, respectively). The acylcarnitine concentration in plasma was decreased in the TPN children (3.3 +/- 1.5 mumols/L vs. 5.8 +/- 3.0 mumols/L, p less than 0.01) compared to controls. Despite the low carnitine concentrations, serum triglyceride levels and serum free fatty acid levels were within the normal range. There was no correlation between carnitine concentrations in plasma and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. Our data show that children receiving carnitine-free TPN for many years developed markedly decreased concentrations of carnitine in blood and plasma. However, no adverse effects of the low carnitine levels were found on triglyceride and free fatty acid metabolism under stable conditions.

  13. Antibiotic plasma levels in dogs with otitis externa treated routinely with various topical preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voget, Michael; Armbruster, Martin; Meyer, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether, and at what levels, topical antibiotics applied to treat Otitis externa in dogs are absorbed systemically, leading to an increased risk of antibiotic resistance. 75 dogs brought to a veterinarian for Otitis externa were recruited for a non-interventional study. Selection criteria included diagnosis of Otitis externa and owner consent.The animals were divided into five groups of 15 dogs each. Each group received one of five commonly prescribed topical medications for up to 14 days according to the labeled instructions. Development and validation of low residue detection methods (HPLC-MS/MS) for all active substances studied was performed. Plasma concentrations were evaluated for gentamicin (Otomax, Easotic), marbofloxacin (Aurizon), orbifloxacin (Posatex) and polymyxin B (Surolan). Low-level plasma concentrations of the topically applied antibiotics were detected after multiple administrations. In several samples, the concentrations detected were less than the limit of detection (LOD) of the corresponding analytical method. However, at the end of the treatment period, mean plasma concentrations were in the low pmol/ml range and exceeded the LOD for gentamicin, marbofloxacin and orbifloxacin. None of the plasma samples examined for polymyxin showed levels above the LOD. After routine topical antibiotic use in the treatment of Otitis externa in dogs, low systemic plasma concentrations are likely to develop.This low-level exposure may facilitate cellular changes that lead to an increased possibility for antibiotic resistance. These findings should provoke veterinary clinicians to optimise therapy for Otitis externa in light of minimising the development of antibiotic resistance.

  14. Correlation between Saliva and Plasma Levels of Endothelin Isoforms ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roma Gurusankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Although saliva endothelins are emerging as valuable noninvasive cardiovascular biomarkers, reports on the relationship between isoforms in saliva and plasma remain scarce. We measured endothelins in concurrent saliva and plasma samples (n=30 males; age 18–63 by HPLC-fluorescence. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlations among all isoforms between saliva and plasma: big endothelin-1 (BET-1, 0.55 ± 0.27 versus 3.35 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; r=0.38, p=0.041, endothelin-1 (ET-1, 0.52 ± 0.21 versus 3.45 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; r=0.53, p=0.003, endothelin-2 (ET-2, 0.21 ± 0.07 versus 1.63 ± 0.66 pmol/mL; r=0.51, p=0.004, and endothelin-3 (ET-3, 0.39 ± 0.19 versus 2.32 ± 1.44 pmol/mL; r=0.75, p<0.001. Correlations of BET-1, ET-1, and ET-3 within each compartment were positive in both plasma (p<0.05 and saliva (p≤0.1, whereas ET-2 was not significantly correlated with other isoforms in either plasma or saliva. For all isoforms, concentrations varied on average fivefold between individuals (90th/10th percentiles; individuals with high plasma endothelin levels generally had high saliva endothelin levels. Our results reveal that salivary ET isoform profiles portray the plasmatic profiles and support the view of coordinated regulation of ET-1 and ET-3, but distinct regulatory pathways for ET-2.

  15. A role for eisosomes in maintenance of plasma membrane phosphoinositide levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Florian; Christiano, Romain; Olson, Daniel K; Alcazar-Roman, Abel; DeCamilli, Pietro; Walther, Tobias C

    2014-09-15

    The plasma membrane delineates the cell and mediates its communication and material exchange with the environment. Many processes of the plasma membrane occur through interactions of proteins with phosphatidylinositol(4,5)-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), which is highly enriched in this membrane and is a key determinant of its identity. Eisosomes function in lateral organization of the plasma membrane, but the molecular function of their major protein subunits, the BAR domain-containing proteins Pil1 and Lsp1, is poorly understood. Here we show that eisosomes interact with the PI(4,5)P2 phosphatase Inp51/Sjl1, thereby recruiting it to the plasma membrane. Pil1 is essential for plasma membrane localization and function of Inp51 but not for the homologous phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate phosphatases Inp52/Sjl2 and Inp53/Sjl3. Consistent with this, absence of Pil1 increases total and available PI(4,5)P2 levels at the plasma membrane. On the basis of these findings, we propose a model in which the eisosomes function in maintaining PI(4,5)P2 levels by Inp51/Sjl1 recruitment. © 2014 Fröhlich et al. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). Two months after publication it is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  16. Effect of exogenous insulin on plasma free carnitine levels during exercise in normal man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broderick, T L; Poirier, P; Tremblay, A; Catellier, C; Nadeau, A

    1989-12-01

    Preliminary data from our laboratory have shown that the decrease in plasma free carnitine levels normally found during prolonged exercise is blunted in type 1 diabetic man. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that this might be due to the sustained peripheral hyperinsulinemia seen during exercise in diabetics treated by subcutaneous insulin. Ten male subjects underwent 90 min of cycle ergometry at 60% of their maximal oxygen uptake capacity on two occasions, one with and the other without a constant 0.13 mU.kg-1.min-1 i.v. insulin infusion. Blood samples were taken at rest, during exercise, and after exercise for measurement of plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, free fatty acids, and carnitine. Plasma glucose dropped significantly (p less than 0.01) from basal during both infusions, but values at 30, 45, and 60 min of exercise were lower (p less than 0.05) during insulin infusion compared with the saline infusion. Exercise produced a significant (p less than 0.01) fall in plasma insulin in both infusions. However, from 30 to 90 min of exercise, the plateau insulin level was higher during the insulin infusion compared with the saline infusion (91.4 +/- 3.0 vs. 32.9 +/- 3.0 pmol/L; p less than 0.001). Plasma C-peptide decreased significantly (p less than 0.01) during exercise and recovery in both infusions, but values between infusions were not significantly different. Plasma free fatty acids increased significantly (p less than 0.01) at 90 min of exercise during the saline infusion, while during the insulin infusion this was noted during recovery only.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Increased Levels of Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC in Plasma of Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahed El-Najjar

    Full Text Available Recent developments in lipid mass spectrometry enable extensive lipid class and species analysis in metabolic disorders such as diabesity and metabolic syndrome. The minor plasma lipid class sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC was identified as a ligand for lipid sensitive G-protein coupled receptors playing a key role in cell growth, differentiation, motility, calcium signaling, tissue remodeling, vascular diseases and cancer. However, information about its role in diabesity patients is sparse. In this study, we analyzed plasma lipid species in patients at risk for diabesity and the metabolic syndrome and compared them with healthy controls. Our data show that SPC is significantly increased in plasma samples from metabolic syndrome patients but not in plasma from patients at risk for diabesity. Detailed SPC species analysis showed that the observed increase is due to a significant increase in all detected SPC subspecies. Moreover, a strong positive correlation is observed between total SPC and individual SPC species with both body mass index and the acute phase low grade inflammation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163. Collectively, our study provides new information on SPC plasma levels in metabolic syndrome and suggests new avenues for investigation.

  18. Increased Levels of Sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) in Plasma of Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Najjar, Nahed; Orsó, Evelyn; Wallner, Stefan; Liebisch, Gerhard; Schmitz, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in lipid mass spectrometry enable extensive lipid class and species analysis in metabolic disorders such as diabesity and metabolic syndrome. The minor plasma lipid class sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) was identified as a ligand for lipid sensitive G-protein coupled receptors playing a key role in cell growth, differentiation, motility, calcium signaling, tissue remodeling, vascular diseases and cancer. However, information about its role in diabesity patients is sparse. In this study, we analyzed plasma lipid species in patients at risk for diabesity and the metabolic syndrome and compared them with healthy controls. Our data show that SPC is significantly increased in plasma samples from metabolic syndrome patients but not in plasma from patients at risk for diabesity. Detailed SPC species analysis showed that the observed increase is due to a significant increase in all detected SPC subspecies. Moreover, a strong positive correlation is observed between total SPC and individual SPC species with both body mass index and the acute phase low grade inflammation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163). Collectively, our study provides new information on SPC plasma levels in metabolic syndrome and suggests new avenues for investigation.

  19. Determinants of plasma pepsinogen levels in a population at high risk for stomach cancer in Venezuela.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, I; Miki, K; Muñoz, N; Vivas, J H; Lopez, G; Peraza, S; Carillo, E; Castro, D; Andrade, O; Sanchez, V

    1995-09-04

    Determinants of plasma pepsinogens (PG) levels were studied in 1365 participants in a chemoprevention trial for gastric pre-cancerous lesions being conducted in Venezuela. Gastric biopsies, plasma samples and information on smoking and dietary habits were obtained at baseline examination. Both PG-I and PG-II levels increased progressively with the level of Helicobacter pylori infection in gastric biopsies, resulting in no clear trend in the I/II ratio. Instead, there was a progressive decrease in the I/II ratio with increasing degrees of infiltration of polynuclear cells and monocytes, atrophy, intestinal metaplasia and the stage of pre-cancerous lesions. The mean I/II ratios for atrophic gastritis or more advanced lesions were less than 4.0. When subjects with the I/II ratio 4 or higher were used as controls, severe reduction in the I/II ratio (food on the development of atrophic gastritis need to be studied further.

  20. Soluble CD206 plasma levels in rheumatoid arthritis reflect decrease in disease activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heftdal, Line Dam; Stengaard-Pedersen, Kristian; Ørnbjerg, Lykke Midtbøll

    2017-01-01

    and after 3, 6, 12 and 24 months. Baseline plasma level of sCD206 in treatment naïve RA patients was 0.33 mg/L (CI: 0.33-0.38 mg/L) corresponding to the upper part of the reference interval for healthy controls (0.10-0.43 mg/L). In the PLA group, sCD206 levels decreased after 3 months, but did not differ...... from baseline after 6 months. In the ADA group, however, levels remained lower than baseline throughout the treatment period. In conclusion, initially, plasma sCD206 in early RA patients decreased in accordance with disease activity and initiation of DMARD treatment. Treatment with anti-TNFα preserved...... this decrease throughout the study period....

  1. Correlations between plasma endothelin-1 levels and breakthrough pain in patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan XB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Xue-bin Yan, Tuo-chao Peng, Dong Huang Department of Anesthesiologist, The Third Xiangya Hospital of Central South University, Changsha, Hunan Province, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Endothelin-1 (ET-1 may be involved in driving pain in patients with advanced cancer. However, a few studies focus on the role of ET-1 in breakthrough pain (BP. The aim of this pivotal study was to explore the correlation between the plasma (ET-1 level and BP intensity. A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study, and they were divided into two groups: BP group and non-BP group. Moreover, 20 healthy adults were used as the normal control group. Pain intensity was measured using visual analog scale (VAS scores of 1–10. Plasma ET-1 levels were detected by an ET radioimmunoassay kit. Subsequently, the correlation of ET-1 level with the VAS score and cancer types was analyzed by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. The plasma ET-1 level in the BP group (35.31±8.02 pg/mL was higher than that in the non-BP group (29.51±6.78 pg/mL and the normal control group (24.77±10.10 pg/mL, P<0.05. In addition, the VAS score in the BP group (7.45±0.82 was higher than that in the non-BP group (2.80±1.23, P<0.05. The plasma ET-1 level was positively correlated with the VAS score of the BP group (Pearson’s r=0.42. There was no significant correlation between the plasma ET-1 level and VAS score of the non-BP group (Pearson’s r=–0.22 or/and cancer types (P>0.05. The elevated plasma ET-1 levels were positively related to BP, and targeting ET-1 may provide a novel pain-reducing therapeutic treatment in BP. Keywords: visual analog scale, correlation, cancer types, background pain

  2. von Willebrand factor antigen levels in plasma of patients with malignant breast disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. Röhsig

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available von Willebrand factor (vWF is a protein that mediates platelet adherence to the subendothelium during primary hemostasis. High plasma vWF concentrations have been reported in patients with various types of cancer, such as head and neck, laryngeal and prostatic cancer, probably representing an acute phase reactant. In the present study we determined the plasma levels of vWF antigen (vWF:Ag by quantitative immunoelectrophoresis in 128 female patients with breast cancer as well as in 47 women with benign breast disease and in 27 healthy female controls. The levels of vWF:Ag were 170.7 ± 78 U/dl in patients with cancer, 148.4 ± 59 U/dl in patients with benign disease and 130.6 ± 45 U/dl in controls (P<0.005. We also detected a significant increase in the levels of vWF:Ag (P<0.0001 in patients with advanced stages of the disease (stage IV = 263.3 ± 113 U/dl, stage IIIB = 194.0 ± 44 U/dl as compared to those with earlier stages of the disease (stage I = 155.3 ± 65 U/dl, stage IIA = 146.9 ± 75 U/dl. In conclusion, vWF levels were increased in plasma of patients with malignant breast disease, and these levels correlated with tumor progression.

  3. Simvastatin Effect on Calcium and Silicon Plasma Levels in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horecka, Anna; Hordyjewska, Anna; Blicharski, Tomasz; Kocot, Joanna; Żelazowska, Renata; Lewandowska, Anna; Kurzepa, Jacek

    2016-05-01

    Postmenopausal women more often suffered from knee osteoarthritis and its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Calcium and silicon are significant elements involved in bone and joint metabolism, especially in older people. Cardiovascular diseases are common worldwide and simvastatin is the most prescribed drug in such population of patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin administration on calcium and silicon concentration in the plasma of postmenopausal women with osteoarthritis. Sixty postmenopausal mild hypercholesterolemic women (mean age 61.4 years, range 54-68) were enrolled. Thirty patients received simvastatin (20 or 40 mg/day) for at least 1 year before being enrolled (simvastatin "+" group). Control group consists of remaining 30 women (simvastatin "-"group). Silicon and calcium concentrations were measured spectrophotometrically. Plasma simvastatin level was determined 3 h after the drug administration using HPLC-UV-Vis. Calcium but not silicon level was significantly lower in patients receiving simvastatin in comparison with non-statin group (1.91 ± 0.32 vs. 2.33 ± 0.19 mmol/l, p silicon and simvastatin levels (r = 0.3, p silicon dioxide as an inactive ingredient. The mean simvastatin concentration was 9.02 ng/ml. All hypotheses were verified at the significance level of p silicon level in the plasma suggests that both might prompt the positive effect of osteoarthritis treatment.

  4. Changes in plasma noradrenaline and serotonin levels and craving during alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patkar, Ashwin A; Gopalakrishnan, Raman; Naik, Prakash C; Murray, Heather W; Vergare, Michael J; Marsden, Charles A

    2003-01-01

    Despite substantial preclinical evidence that supports the involvement of noradrenergic (NA) and serotonergic (5-HT) mechanisms in alcohol withdrawal, human data remain inconsistent. We examined whether plasma levels of NA and 5-HT were altered during alcohol withdrawal and whether these measures were related to craving. We also explored whether alterations in NA and 5-HT activity differ between type I and type II alcohol-dependent patients during withdrawal. Plasma measurements of NA and 5-HT and assessments of craving were performed longitudinally in 26 Caucasian alcohol-dependent men who were hospitalized for detoxification, at baseline (day 0), and on the 1st, 7th and 14th days of withdrawal. These measures were compared with NA and 5-HT levels obtained in 28 controls. During withdrawal, NA levels declined significantly from day 1 through day 14, whereas 5-HT levels and craving declined significantly from day 0 through day 14. The NA levels on days 0 and 1 of withdrawal were significantly higher than those in controls; however, by day 7 the NA levels were similar to the control values. In contrast, the 5-HT levels on day 0 of withdrawal resembled control values; however, the 5-HT concentrations on days 1, 7 and 14 were significantly lower than those in controls. There were no significant correlations between NA and 5-HT levels or between craving and the biological measures during withdrawal. Type I and type II patients did not differ in NA or 5-HT levels during withdrawal. These findings indicate that both plasma NA and 5-HT levels change during withdrawal; however, the pattern of change is different for the two measures. Also, while alterations in NA activity appear to normalize by late withdrawal, 5-HT changes seem to be more persistent. Neither craving nor subtypes of alcoholism seem to be related to alterations in NA or 5-HT during withdrawal.

  5. Hyperhomocysteinemia is associated with low plasma pyridoxine levels in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasa, Vinod V; Kalinyak, Karen A; Bean, Judy A; Stroop, Davis; Gruppo, Ralph A

    2002-01-01

    Elevated plasma homocysteine levels have been shown to be a risk factor for endothelial cell damage and thrombosis, which are implicated in sickle cell disease (SCD)-related vaso-occlusion. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in SCD. Fasting and postmethionine load (PML) homocysteine, red cell folate, and the MTHFR C677T mutation were determined in 77 patients with SCD and 110 African-American controls. Plasma methylmalonic acid and pyridoxine levels were determined in 54 patients and all controls. For analysis, the subjects were divided into two age groups (2-10 years and 10.1-21 years). In both age groups, median PML homocysteine levels were significantly elevated in patients with SCD compared with controls. Fasting homocysteine levels were elevated in patients with SCD versus controls only in those older than 10 years. Hyperhomocysteinemia was noted in 38% of patients versus 7% in controls. Folate levels were higher among patients than controls and showed a significant negative correlation with PML homocysteine levels in patients with SCD. Pyridoxine levels in patients with SCD were significantly lower than in controls and showed a negative correlation with PML homocysteine levels. Among patients with SCD, pyridoxine deficiency was more common (62%) among those with hyperhomocysteinemia compared with those with normal homocysteine levels (30%). Homozygosity for the MTHFR C677T mutation was rare. These data suggest that children with SCD have significant hyperhomocysteinemia, associated with pyridoxine and relative folate deficiencies.

  6. Potassium food supplement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourland, C. T.; Huber, C. S.; Rambaut, C.; Heidelbaugh, N. D.

    1973-01-01

    Potassium gluconate is considered best supplementary source for potassium. Gluconate consistently received highest taste rating and was indistinguishable from nonsupplemented samples. No unfavorable side effects were found during use, and none are reported in literature. Gluconate is normal intermediary metabolite that is readily adsorbed and produces no evidence of gastrointestinal ulcerations.

  7. Penicillin V Potassium Oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    V-Cillin K® ... Penicillin V potassium is an antibiotic used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia, scarlet fever, ... Penicillin V potassium comes as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It is usually taken every 6 ...

  8. Elevated plasma homocysteine level is possibly associated with skin sclerosis in a series of Japanese patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Toki, Sayaka; Yamada, Kazuya; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-11-01

    Homocysteine is a sulfhydryl-containing amino acid that is derived from dietary methionine, and there has been increasing evidence that elevated plasma homocysteine levels are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, including carotid, coronary and peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The association of plasma homocysteine levels with peripheral vascular involvements, such as Raynaud phenomenon (RP), digital ulcers (DU) in systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients has not been well studied. The objective of this study was to examine plasma homocysteine levels and their clinical associations in patients with SSc. Plasma homocysteine levels in 151 Japanese patients with SSc and 20 healthy controls were examined. No significant differences were observed in plasma homocysteine levels between SSc patients and healthy individuals. Demographic and clinical features of the SSc patients revealed that severe skin sclerosis, anti-topoisomerase I antibody positivity, complications of DU, acro-osteolysis (AO) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) were significantly more prevalent among the patients with elevated plasma homocysteine levels. The plasma homocysteine levels were positively correlated with modified Rodnan total skin score. The plasma homocysteine levels in the SSc patients with DU, AO and ILD were significantly higher than those in the SSc without DU, AO and ILD, respectively. Plasma homocysteine levels did not correlate with either the mean or max intima-media thickness (IMT) or plaque score, suggesting that plasma homocysteine levels might not be associated with carotid artery atherosclerosis in SSc patients. The measurement of plasma homocysteine levels in SSc patients might be useful for the risk stratifications of severe skin sclerosis, DU and AO.

  9. Association between Leptin gene polymorphisms and plasma leptin level in three consanguineous families with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourati, Mouna; Mnif, Mouna; Kharrat, Najla; Charfi, Nédia; Kammoun, Mahdi; Fendri, Nourhène; Sessi, Salwa; Abid, Mohamed; Rebai, Ahmed; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2013-09-15

    Leptin (LEP) gene is one of the most promising candidate genes for obesity. Previous studies have tested the association of polymorphisms in LEP gene with obesity and obesity-related metabolic biomarkers (anthropometric variables, glucose, insulin level, leptin level and lipid profile). However, the results of these studies were still controversial. To determine whether LEP gene is associated with obesity in Tunisian population, we performed a family-based association study between LEP polymorphisms and obesity and obesity-related metabolic biomarkers. Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 5' region of LEP gene were genotyped in three consanguineous families including 33 individuals. The previously reported LEP SNPs (H1328084, H1328082, rs10487506, H1328081, H1328080, G-2548A and A19G) were evaluated by PCR-RFLP and direct sequencing methods. Single SNP association and haplotype association analyses were performed using the family-based association test (FBAT). To determine allele frequencies of these SNPs in general population, 52 unrelated individuals from the general Tunisian population were also analyzed. Two SNPs showed significant associations with plasma leptin level (H1328084: A>G, Z=2.058, p=0.039; A19G: G>A, Z=2.058, p=0.039). When haplotypes were constructed with these two-markers, the risk AA haplotype (frequency 57.1%) was positively associated with plasma leptin level (Z=2.058, p=0.039). Moreover, SNPs H1328084 and A19G are predicted to modify transcription-factor binding sites. Our study provided that two functional variants in 5' regulatory region of LEP gene are associated with plasma leptin level as a quantitative trait. It suggested that H1328084 and A19G have an important role in regulating plasma leptin level. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 不同施肥条件下甘蔗对钾的吸收利用研究%Potassium uptake and its utilization in sugarcane under the different fertilization levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭宏伟; 周柳强; 谢如林; 黄美福

    2011-01-01

    [目的]明确不同施肥条件下甘蔗对钾的吸收利用规律.[方法]以甘蔗品种新台糖22号为试材,进行第1年新植蔗、第2年宿根蔗不同施肥处理田间试验,各生育阶段分别测定各处理甘蔗对钾的吸收强度、对钾肥的利用率以及土壤中钾养分的盈余量,并用阴阳离子交换树脂监测施钾和不施钾处理耕作层土壤钾离子淋溶量.[结果]不同施肥条件下,甘蔗各生育阶段对钾的吸收强度存在较大差异;随着生长量的增加,钾养分在甘蔗植株体内的稀释效应明显,植株含钾量以苗期较高,成熟期较低;增施钾肥后甘蔗吸钾量明显增加,新植蔗、宿根蔗对钾肥的利用率分别为34.3%~40.6%、29.4%~31.7%;不同施肥条件下,新植蔗的土壤速效钾和缓效钾含量均有所降低,而宿根蔗中施钾处理的土壤速效钾和缓效钾含量则有所增加;施钾处理较不施钾处理耕作层土壤钾离子淋溶量明显增加;不同施肥条件下,新植蔗和宿根蔗土壤中钾养分平衡均表现为P2K2、N2P2K3处理有所盈余,N2P2K2、N2P2K1、N2P2处理有所亏损,但以N2P2处理亏损最大.[结论]不同施肥条件对甘蔗吸收利用钾素以及土壤中钾素的移动和平衡均有影响,实际生产中应注重氮、磷、钾合理配施,提高肥料利用率,为甘蔗高产优质栽培提供施肥指导.%[Objective]The present experiment was conducted to study the mechanism of potassium uptake and its utilization in sugarcane under the different fertilization levels. [Method]A field experiment was conducted on plant crop and first ratoon crop of sugarcane variety ROC22 to find out the uptake amount and utilization rate of potassium in plants and its surplus content in the soil at different growth stages under different treatments. The cation-anion exchange resin was used to monitor the amount of leaching potassium in the treatments with and without potassium fertilizer. [Result ]Great differences in

  11. Extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 plasma levels are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Fibulin-1 is one of the few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1...... of plasma fibulin-1. CONCLUSIONS: Increased plasma fibulin-1 levels were associated with impaired kidney function and diabetes. Fibulin-1 levels were also associated with hemodynamic cardiovascular risk markers. We conclude, that fibulin-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease observed...

  12. [Pattern of plasma sex steroid hormone levels during the breeding season of male and female skink: Eumeces chinensis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jian Rao; Du, Ji Zeng; Ji, Xiang

    2004-12-01

    Changes in gonadal activity and plasma sex steroid hormone levels in male and female Eumece chinensis during the breeding season were described. The results showed that: The vitellogensis of follicles of female Eumeces chinensis needed the stimulation of 17beta-estradiol (E2). As ovary masses reached peak values between late April and mid-May, E2 levels rose to the top value by late March, and then sharply declined but went up again before preovulation; The physiological functions of plasma progesterone (P) consisted in its oviductal egg retention, embryo development, and eggshell formation. P levels fluctuated near the basic value between mid-March and late April. In mid-May, with the onset of ovulation, plasma P levels rose rapidly, reached peak value by late May and declined sharply after ovulation. Plasma E2 levels declined as plasma P levels rose, showing an inverse relationship between them; In males, plasma Testosterone (T) levels were closely correlated with the maintenance of spermatogenesis activities, male and male combat, sexual display, and mating. Plasma T levels tended to rise after the termination of hibernation, and reached peak value by mid-April. After mid-May, with the testis aggressing, plasma T levels gradually went down and reached bottom value by late June.

  13. Zinc levels in seminal plasma are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Marzony, Eisa Tahmasbpour; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad

    2009-02-01

    Zinc has antioxidative properties and plays an important role in scavenging reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that in the absence of Zn, the possibility of increased oxidative damage exists that would contribute to poor sperm quality. Therefore, measurement of seminal Zn in the seminal plasma of males with a history of subfertility or idiopathic infertility is necessary and can be helpful in fertility assessment. The primary objective of the present study was to assess the relationship between Zn levels in seminal plasma with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. Semen samples were provided by fertile (smoker [n = 17], nonsmoker [n = 19]) and infertile men (smoker [n = 15], nonsmoker [n = 21]). After semen analysis, concentrations of Zn, Mg, Ca, Na, and K in the seminal plasma of all groups were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Element concentrations in seminal plasma of all groups were in the order Na > K > Ca > Zn > Mg. Fertile subjects, smoker or not, demonstrated significantly higher seminal Zn levels than any infertile group (P sperm count (P sperm (P sperm and idiopathic male infertility.

  14. Low levels of plasma endothelin-1 in patients with retinitis pigmentosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ohguro

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hiroshi Ohguro1, Yukihiko Mashima2, Mitsuru Nakazawa31Department of Ophthalmology, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, 2Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Hirosaki University School of Medicine, JapanPurpose: The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of endothelin-1 (ET-1 in the pathophysiology of retinitis pigmentosa (RP.Methods: Plasma ET-1 levels and ophthalmic features in 50 RP patients were compared with those in 20 healthy-eye control subjects. Plasma ET-1 concentrations were determined using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.Results: Mean plasma ET-1 levels of RP patients (1.88 ± 0.56 pg/mL were significantly lower than those of control subjects (2.30 ± 0.30 pg/mL, Mann-Whitney’s U test; P < 0.01. However, ET-1 concentrations varied markedly in each patient. Among RP patients, a significant correlation of ET-1 concentrations was not observed in terms of its hereditary forms or other clinical factors.Conclusion: ET-1 may be important in the pathogenesis of RP, and measurement of its plasma concentrations may also contribute to additional insights into the retinal hemodynamics of RP.Keywords: endothelin-1, retinitis pigmentosa, retinal hemodynamics

  15. Plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) during mineralocorticoid escape in normal man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambach, G; Götz, S; Suckau, G; Kaufmann, W

    1986-01-01

    A natriuretic factor has long been postulated to play a role in renal mineralocorticoid escape. We therefore investigated changes in plasma levels of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) during chronic treatment with 9 alpha-fluorohydrocortisone. Five normal subjects were studied on a constant diet (300 meq Na+ and 72 meq K+ per day) and received 0.8 mg 9 alpha-fluorohydrocortisone for up to 14 days. Sodium balance became positive and body weight increased between 1.0-4.5 kg maximally. Serum aldosterone was suppressed and plasma levels of ANP were stimulated up to 10-fold. Increment in plasma ANP was positively correlated with the gain in body weight (r = 0.666, p less than 0.001). Renormalization of sodium balance was seen in two subjects, however the maximum in plasma ANP did not occur during the time of renal escape. ANP-secretion is stimulated during sodium retention induced by mineralocorticoids, however ANP does not seem to trigger the escape mechanism.

  16. Cytostatic drugs are without significant effect on digitoxin plasma level and renal excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlmann, J; Wilke, J; Rietbrock, N

    1982-11-01

    In three patients with malignant lymphoma who received 0.5 mg digitoxin before and 24 hr after combination therapy with cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) or cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, and prednisone (COP), plasma glycoside concentrations and renal excretion were measured 0 to 168 hr after digitoxin and the areas under plasma concentration-time curves *(AUCs) were calculated. In 10 patients receiving 0.1 mg digitoxin, daily plasma glycoside concentration and daily renal excretion were measured before and after COPP, COP, or cyclophosphamide, Oncovin, cytosine-arabinoside, and prednisone (COAP) treatment schemes. In contrast to previous reports on digoxin, cytostatic drug therapy does not lead to a reduction in steady-state digitoxin plasma levels and daily renal excretion. During cytostatic therapy attainment of peak digitoxin level was delayed after a single dose, showing that the rate of digitoxin absorption was reduced, but that the AUCs and renal excretion of digitoxin (parameters of the extent of digitoxin absorption) were not diminished. Since the absorption rate is not clinically relevant in patients on long-term glycoside therapy, our results indicate that digitoxin is preferable to digoxin in such patients.

  17. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banni, Sebastiano; Carta, Gianfranca; Murru, Elisabetta; Cordeddu, Lina; Giordano, Elena; Sirigu, Anna Rita; Berge, Kjetil; Vik, Hogne; Maki, Kevin C; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Griinari, Mikko

    2011-01-30

    We have previously shown that krill oil (KO), more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats.We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO), which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO) for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects.The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  18. Krill oil significantly decreases 2-arachidonoylglycerol plasma levels in obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giordano Elena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We have previously shown that krill oil (KO, more efficiently than fish oil, was able to downregulate the endocannabinoid system in different tissues of obese zucker rats. We therefore aimed at investigating whether an intake of 2 g/d of either KO or menhaden oil (MO, which provides 309 mg/d of EPA/DHA 2:1 and 390 mg/d of EPA/DHA 1:1 respectively, or olive oil (OO for four weeks, is able to modify plasma endocannabinoids in overweight and obese subjects. The results confirmed data in the literature describing increased levels of endocannabinoids in overweight and obese with respect to normo-weight subjects. KO, but not MO or OO, was able to significantly decrease 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG, although only in obese subjects. In addition, the decrease of 2-AG was correlated to the plasma n-6/n-3 phospholipid long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA ratio. These data show for the first time in humans that relatively low doses of LCPUFA n-3 as KO can significantly decrease plasma 2-AG levels in obese subjects in relation to decrease of plasma phospholipid n-6/n-3 LCPUFA ratio. This effect is not linked to changes of metabolic syndrome parameters but is most likely due to a decrease of 2-AG biosynthesis caused by the replacement of 2-AG ultimate precursor, arachidonic acid, with n-3 PUFAs, as previously described in obese Zucker rats.

  19. New level-resolved collision data for neutral argon, benchmarked against the ALEXIS plasma experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Nicholas; Loch, Stuart; Ballance, Connor; Thomas, Ed

    2016-10-01

    Performing spectroscopic measurements of emission lines in low temperature laboratory plasmas is challenging because the plasma is often neutral-dominated and not in thermal equilibrium. The densities and temperatures are such that coronal models do not apply; meaning that generalized collisional-radiative (GCR) methods must be employed to theoretically analyze atomic processes. However, for most noble gases, detailed, level-resolved atomic data for neutral and low-charge states does not exist in the literature. We report on a new project, where we use existing atomic physics codes to calculate level-resolved atomic data for neutral and low charge states of argon and compare with previously published, term-resolved theoretical results. In addition, we use the Atomic Structure and Data Analysis (ADAS) suite of codes to calculate a GCR model for low temperature neutral argon, which we compare to published measurements of argon optical emission cross sections. Finally, we compare synthetic spectra generated from our data with observations taken from the Auburn Linear Experiment for Instability Studies (ALEXIS) in an attempt to develop new optical plasma diagnostics for electron temperature and plasma density measurements. This project is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Grant Number: DE-FG02-00ER54476.

  20. Relationship among plasma vitamin B12 and folic acid levels and coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoomeh Tohidhi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a new risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It is a sensitive marker of the vitamin B12 and folate insufficiency. Folate and vitamin B12 may be a protective effect on cardiovascular disease. According to limited data about role of vitamin B12 and folate in coronary artery disease (CAD, we conducted this study to measure these factors in patients with coronary artery disease and in control subjects. Methods: This case-control study was performed on 139 subjects who underwent coronary angiography in Shiraz. Plasma vitamin B12 and folate level were measured and compared between patients with CAD and control subjects. Results: 139 individuals with a mean age 56.99±11.93 were enrolled in this study. 31.2% of them had a normal coronary angiography. Mean plasma level of folate in patients with CAD was lower than control subjects (4.46±1.28 ng/ml versus 5.00±1.81 ng/ml, P = 0.04. Also mean plasma level of vitamin B12 in patients CAD and control subjects were 451.43±138.90 and 503.60±199.35 pg/ml respectively. Although mean level of vitamin B12 in patients with CAD was lower than control group, but it was not statistically significant (P = 0.07. Conclusion: Mean plasma level of vitamin B12 and folate were lower in patients with CAD than control group. It seems that supplementation with this vitamins may be useful in patients with CAD.

  1. Plasma Level of IL-4 Differs in Patients Infected with Different Modern Lineages of M. tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adane Mihret

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological evidence from tuberculosis outbreaks revealed that some genotypes of M. tuberculosis are more transmissible and capable of causing disease than others. We analysed the plasma cytokine levels of pulmonary tuberculosis patients infected with different strains of M. tuberculosis to test the hypothesis that immune responses would be linked to the bacterial genotype. Spoligotyping was carried out for genotyping, and we used Luminex technology to measure 17 cytokines (EGF, fractalkine, GM-CSF, IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-10, IL-12, IL-17, IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IP-10, MCP-1, MCP-3, MIP-1β, TNF, and VEGF from plasma samples of tuberculosis patients. The levels of IL-12 (p40, IL-4, IL-7, and MIP-1beta were higher in patients infected with lineage 3, however, it was only IL-4 which showed statistically significant difference (P<0.05 between lineage 3 and lineage 4. We further grouped the lineages into families (CAS, H and T families, and we found that the plasma level of IL-4 was significantly higher in patients infected with the CAS family (P<0.05 in comparison with T and H families. However, there was no difference between T and H families. Therefore, the higher level of IL-4 in lineage 3 families might indicate that possible differences in the response elicited from host depend on strain lineages in the studied population.

  2. Lack of association between plasma leptin levels and appetite in children with iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topaloglu, A K; Hallioglu, O; Canim, A; Duzovali, O; Yilgor, E

    2001-01-01

    A negative correlation between leptin and appetite or food intake has been shown in healthy individuals. However, the role of leptin in clinical conditions characterized by anorexia has not been established. One of the well-known clinical features of iron-deficiency anemia is poor appetite. We examined the changes in plasma leptin levels in relation to expected improvement in appetite with iron treatment in children with iron deficiency. In 24 infants and small children (mean age +/- standard deviation = 19.6 +/- 7.7 months) with iron deficiency, we studied plasma leptin levels before and after iron therapy. After 15.0 +/- 2.4 wk of iron treatment, serum ferritin levels improved significantly, with accompanying increases in their subjective appetite scores and food intakes. However, as their mean age and plasma leptin levels adjusted their body mass indexes were unchanged. Serum ferritin correlated significantly with appetite score (r = 0.680, P appetite in iron-deficient children treated with iron suggests a leptin-independent mechanism for the observed increase in appetite.

  3. Increase in plasma platelet-activating factor levels in enterally fed preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKendrick, W; Hill, N; Hsueh, W; Caplan, M

    1993-01-01

    Because platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), we designed a prospective study to examine plasma PAF levels during the first 14 days of feeding in a population of neonates of less than 32 weeks gestation. We found that significantly more patients had detectable plasma PAF levels on days 3 and 14 of feeding when compared to their prefeeding levels (7% on day 0 vs. 26% at day 3, p = 0.04; none on day 0 vs. 18.5% at day 14, p = 0.01). This finding could not be explained by decreased plasma activity of acetylhydrolase, the PAF breakdown enzyme, spontaneous endotoxinemia or a maturational effect. None of the infants who developed detectable PAF levels after feedings were begun went on to develop NEC. We conclude that our findings may reflect increased intestinal PAF production with the provision of feedings to some premature infants. However, this phenomenon by itself does not appear to be a sufficient condition for the subsequent development of NEC.

  4. Plasma, tissue and urinary levels of aloin in rats after the administration of pure aloin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Young; Kwon, Hoon-Jeong; Sung, Mi-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Aloin is a physiologically active anthraquinone present in aloe. There are two isomers of aloin, aloin A and aloin B, occurring as a mixture of diastereomers. The objective of this study was to determine the bioavailability and tissue distribution of aloin. Rats were gavaged with 11.8g/kg aloin, and the levels of aloin and its conjugates were measured in plasma, tissues, and urine. Plasma aloin level showed a peak at 1hr after the administration and the concentration was 59.07+/-10.5 ng/ml. The 24 h cumulated urinary aloin was 0.03% of the initial dose. These results suggest that aloin is absorbed and reaches a peak plasma level within 1-1.5 h after the administration and a significant portion is possibly metabolized or is excreted in feces. These results can apply to the determination of the adequate intake level of aloe and aloe products to achieve the desired biological effect, and to interprete in vitro study results.

  5. Plasma Level of Interleukin-35 as an Independent Prognostic Indicator in Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Xiangting; Wang, Xinhua; Song, Yucui; Chen, Lingling

    2016-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma is a major type of liver cancer with poor prognosis. The aim of the study was to determine the prognostic significance of plasma interleukin-35 level in hepatocellular carcinoma. A total of 153 hepatocellular carcinoma patients and 153 healthy controls were enrolled. Blood samples were obtained at admission. Plasma interleukin-35 level was analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Distribution of T cell subset and expression of Fas/FasL protein were detected by flow cytometry. The patients were followed up for 2 years. Poor prognosis was defined as death of hepatocellular carcinoma. The plasma levels of interleukin-35 were significantly higher in the patients than the controls (25.1 ± 13.1, 9.3 ± 6.3 pg/mL, P interleukin-35 (≥25.0 pg/mL) was associated with the poor prognosis in the patients (OR 6.63, 95 % CI 3.27-13.47). Compared with the patients with low level of interleukin-35 (interleukin-35 showed higher frequencies of CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ and CD3+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (P interleukin-35 concentration might be an independent prognostic indicator in hepatocellular carcinoma. Such prognostic significance could be partly involved in the activation of regulatory T cell and the apoptosis of CD8+ T cell.

  6. Plasma insulin levels are increased by sertraline in rats under oral glucose overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Recognition and control of depression symptoms are important to increase patient compliance with treatment and to improve the quality of life of diabetic patients. Clinical studies indicate that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI are better antidepressants for diabetic patients than other drugs. However, preclinical trials have demonstrated that not all SSRI reduce plasma glucose levels. In fact, fluoxetine increases and sertraline decreases glycemia in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. In the present study we evaluated plasma insulin levels during fasting and after glucose overload after treatment with sertraline. Adult male Wistar rats were fasted and treated with saline or 30 mg/kg sertraline and submitted or not to glucose overload (N = 10. Blood was collected and plasma insulin was measured. The mean insulin levels were: fasting group: 25.9 ± 3.86, sertraline + fasting group: 31.10 ± 2.48, overload group: 34.1 ± 3.40, and overload + sertraline group: 43.73 ± 5.14 µU/ml. Insulinemia was significantly increased in the overload + sertraline group. There were no differences between the other groups. No difference in glucose/insulin ratios could be detected between groups. The overload + sertraline group was the only one in which a significant number of individuals exceeded the upper confidence limit of insulin levels. This study demonstrates that sertraline increases glucose-stimulated insulin secretion without any change in peripheral insulin sensitivity.

  7. Rising plasma nociceptin level during development of HCC:A case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrea Horvath; Aniko Folhoffer; Peter Laszlo Lakatos; Judit Halász; Gyorgy Illyés; Zsuzsa Schaff; Monika Beatrix Hantos; Kornelia Tekes; Ferenc Szalay

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Although liver cirrhosis is a predisposing factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), relatively few reports are available on HCC in primary biliary cirrhosis. High plasma nociceptin (N/OFQ) level has been shown in Wilson disease and in patients with acute and chronic pain.METHODS: We report a follow-up case of HCC, whichdeveloped in a patient with primary biliary cirrhosis. The tumor appeared 18 years after the diagnosis of PBC and led to death within two years. Alfa fetoprotein and serum nociceptin levels were monitored before and during the development of HCC.Nociceptin content was also measured in the tumor tissue.RESULTS: The importance and the curiosity of the presented case was the novel finding of the progressive elevation of plasma nociceptin level up to 17-fold (172 pg/mL) above the baseline (9.2±1.8 pg/mL), parallel with the elevation of alpha fetoprotein (from 13 ng/mL up to 3 480 ng/mL) during tumor development. Nociceptin content was more than 15-fold higher in the neoplastic tissue (0.16 pg/mg) than that in the tumorfree liver tissue samples (0.01 pg/mg) taken during the autopsy.CONCLUSION: Results are in concordance with our previousobservation that a very high plasma nociceptin level may be considered as an indicator for hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. Bile Acid Sequestration Reduces Plasma Glucose Levels in db/db Mice by Increasing Its Metabolic Clearance Rate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meissner, M.; Herrema, H.J.; Dijk, van Th.; Gerding, A.; Havinga, R.; Boer, T.; Müller, M.R.; Reijngoud, D.J.; Groen, A.K.; Kuipers, F.

    2011-01-01

    Aims/Hypothesis: Bile acid sequestrants (BAS) reduce plasma glucose levels in type II diabetics and in murine models of diabetes but the mechanism herein is unknown. We hypothesized that sequestrant-induced changes in hepatic glucose metabolism would underlie reduced plasma glucose levels.

  9. Plasma polychlorinated biphenyl levels in Dutch preschool children either breast-fed or formula-fed during infancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patandin, S; WeisglasKuperus, N; deRidder, MAJ; KoopmanEsseboom, C; vanStaveren, WA; vanderPaauw, CG; Sauer, PJJ

    1997-01-01

    Objectives. This study examined the influence of lactational and in utero exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on plasma PCB levels in children. Methods. Plasma PCB levels were measured in 173 children at 3.5 years, of whom 91 were breast-fed and 82 were formula-fed in infancy. Results. Medi

  10. The relative prognostic value of plasma HIV RNA levels and CD4 lymphocyte counts in advanced HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A; Katzenstein, T L; Ullum, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that the plasma HIV RNA level is a better predictor of AIDS and death than the CD4 lymphocyte count. We assessed whether the prognostic value of plasma virus levels was different according to the CD4 count. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients...

  11. Association between Plasma Homocysteine Levels and Neuronal Injury in HIV Infection.

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    Erika Ahlgren

    Full Text Available To investigate the role of homocysteine in neuronal injury in HIV infection.Using a cross-sectional design and archived samples, we compared concentrations of plasma homocysteine and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF neurofilament light protein (NFL, a sensitive marker of neuronal injury, in 83 HIV-1-infected subjects without antiretroviral treatment. We also analyzed plasma vitamin B12, serum folate, CSF, and plasma HIV RNA, the immune activation marker neopterin in CSF and serum, and albumin ratio as a marker of blood-brain barrier integrity. Twenty-two subjects provided a second sample median of 12.5 months after antiretroviral treatment initiation.A significant correlation was found between plasma homocysteine and CSF NFL concentrations in untreated individuals (r = 0.52, p < 0.0001. As expected, there was a significant inverse correlation between homocysteine and B12 (r = -0.41, p < 0.001 and folate (r = -0.40, p = < 0.001 levels. In a multiple linear regression analysis homocysteine stood out as an independent predictor of CSF NFL in HIV-1-infected individuals. The correlation of plasma homocysteine and CSF NFL was also present in the group receiving antiretroviral therapy (r = 0.51, p = 0.016.A correlation between plasma homocysteine and axonal injury, as measured by CSF NFL, was found in both untreated and treated HIV. While this study is not able to prove a causal link, homocysteine and functional B12/folate deficiency appear to play a role in neural injury in HIV-infected individuals.

  12. Plasma lysophosphatidylcholine levels are reduced in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa N Barber

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2DM are associated with increased circulating free fatty acids and triacylglycerols. However, very little is known about specific molecular lipid species associated with these diseases. In order to gain further insight into this, we performed plasma lipidomic analysis in a rodent model of obesity and insulin resistance as well as in lean, obese and obese individuals with T2DM. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Lipidomic analysis using liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry revealed marked changes in the plasma of 12 week high fat fed mice. Although a number of triacylglycerol and diacylglycerol species were elevated along with of a number of sphingolipids, a particularly interesting finding was the high fat diet (HFD-induced reduction in lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC levels. As liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue play an important role in metabolism, we next determined whether the HFD altered LPCs in these tissues. In contrast to our findings in plasma, only very modest changes in tissue LPCs were noted. To determine when the change in plasma LPCs occurred in response to the HFD, mice were studied after 1, 3 and 6 weeks of HFD. The HFD caused rapid alterations in plasma LPCs with most changes occurring within the first week. Consistent with our rodent model, data from our small human cohort showed a reduction in a number of LPC species in obese and obese individuals with T2DM. Interestingly, no differences were found between the obese otherwise healthy individuals and the obese T2DM patients. CONCLUSION: Irrespective of species, our lipidomic profiling revealed a generalized decrease in circulating LPC species in states of obesity. Moreover, our data indicate that diet and adiposity, rather than insulin resistance or diabetes per se, play an important role in altering the plasma LPC profile.

  13. Progranulin gene variability and plasma levels in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Daniela; Dell'Osso, Bernardo; Fenoglio, Chiara; Villa, Chiara; Cortini, Francesca; Serpente, Maria; Kittel-Schneider, Sarah; Weigl, Johannes; Neuner, Maria; Volkert, Juliane; Leonhard, C; Olmes, David G; Kopf, Juliane; Cantoni, Claudia; Ridolfi, Elisa; Palazzo, Carlotta; Ghezzi, Laura; Bresolin, Nereo; Altamura, A C; Scarpini, Elio; Reif, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Basing on the assumption that frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (BPD) might share common aetiological mechanisms, we analyzed genetic variation in the FTLD risk gene progranulin (GRN) in a German population of patients with schizophrenia (n = 271) or BPD (n = 237) as compared with 574 age-, gender- and ethnicity-matched controls. Furthermore, we measured plasma progranulin levels in 26 German BPD patients as well as in 61 Italian BPD patients and 29 matched controls.A significantly decreased allelic frequency of the minor versus the wild-type allele was observed for rs2879096 (23.2 versus 34.2%, Pschizophrenia, and progranulin plasma levels are significantly lower in BPD patients than in controls. Nevertheless, a larger replication analysis would be needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  14. Plasma levels of apolipoprotein E and risk of dementia in the general population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Katrine L.; Tybjaerg-Hansen, Anne; Nordestgaard, Børge G;

    2015-01-01

    whether low plasma levels of apoE at study enrollment were associated with increased risk of future Alzheimer disease and all dementia, and whether this association was independent of ε2/ε3/ε4 APOE genotype. RESULTS: Multifactorially adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for Alzheimer disease and all dementia......OBJECTIVE: The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a major genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease and dementia. However, it remains unclear whether plasma levels of apoE confer additional risk. We tested this hypothesis. METHODS: Using 75,708 participants from the general population, we tested...... increased from the highest to the lowest apoE tertile (p for trends dementia, respectively. After further...

  15. GDNF plasma levels in spina bifida: correlation with severity of spinal damage and motor function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaretti, Antonio; Rendeli, Claudia; Antonelli, Alessia; Barone, Giuseppe; Focarelli, Benedetta; Tabacco, Fabrizia; Massimi, Luca; Ausili, Emanuele

    2008-12-01

    Glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is one of several powerful survival factors for spinal motoneurons that play a key role in sprouting, synaptic plasticity, and reorganization after spinal cord damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of GDNF in plasma of children with spina bifida (SB) and to determine its correlation with both the severity of spinal cord damage and the motor function of these patients. To measure the GDNF expression, we collected plasma samples from 152 children with SB and in 149 matched controls. Endogenous GDNF levels were quantified using a two-site immuno-enzymatic assay. The statistical analysis was performed using the Mann-Whitney two-tailed two-sample test. In children with SB the mean levels of GDNF (131.2 +/- 69.6 pg/mL) were significantly higher (p spine injury.

  16. Altered apolipoprotein A-V expression during the acute phase response is independent of plasma triglyceride levels in mice and humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becker, S.; Schomburg, L.; Renko, K.; Tolle, M.; van der Giet, M.; Tietge, U.J.F.

    2006-01-01

    Plasma triglyceride (TG) levels are altered during the acute phase response (APR). Plasma levels of the recently discovered apolipoprotein AN (apoA-V) are inversely associated with plasma TG. The aim of this study was to investigate the change of apoA-V plasma levels and hepatic apoA-V expression

  17. Evaluation of Plasma Melatonin Levels in Children With Afebrile and Febrile Seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabak, Orçun; Altun, Demet; Arslan, Mutluay; Yaman, Halil; Vurucu, Sabahattin; Yesilkaya, Ediz; Unay, Bulent

    2016-04-01

    Melatonin modulates central nervous system neuronal activity. We compared the melatonin levels of patients with febrile and afebrile seizures during and after seizure with those of healthy controls. We enrolled 59 individuals with afebrile and febrile seizures (mean age, 6.09 ± 4.46 years) and 28 age-, sex-, and weight-matched healthy children. Melatonin levels were measured near the time of a seizure (0 to 1 hour) and at 12 and 24 hours post-seizure, and control melatonin levels were measured from a single venous blood sample. Plasma melatonin levels increased during seizures in the study group (P seizure plasma melatonin levels were significantly lower in the study group than in the control group (P seizures who had and had not used antiepileptic drugs. Daytime (8 AM to 8 PM) and nighttime (8 PM to 8 AM) post-seizure melatonin levels were not significantly different. Melatonin levels were lower in pediatric patients prone to seizures than in healthy children and increased during seizures. Further research is needed to test the role of melatonin in the pathophysiology and treatment of epilepsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Beneficial effects of icodextrin on plasma level of adipocytokines in peritoneal dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuya, Ryuichi; Odamaki, Mari; Kumagai, Hiromichi; Hishida, Akira

    2006-02-01

    Leptin and adiponectin, well-recognized adipocytokines, are reported to contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of icodextrin-based dialysis solution on adipocytokine metabolism. In 12 non-diabetic anuric patients on peritoneal dialysis, dialysis solution was changed from glucose-based dialysis solution to icodextrin-based dialysis solution for 6 months. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, lipids (total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride), insulin, blood glucose and insulin sensitivity index by the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-IR) were compared before and after the use of the icodextrin solution. Plasma leptin level was decreased from 15.6 (2.5-69.0) to 7.3 (2.9-45.9) ng/ml (P = 0.018) and plasma adiponectin level increased from 11.6 (6.2-19.6) to 17.6 (7.8-33.0) microg/ml (P = 0.002). A reduction in plasma insulin level from 33.1 (13.8-54.1) to 19.1 (5.8-37.3) muU/ml (P = 0.009) and HOMA-IR from 8.22 (3.68-15.09) to 5.15 (1.40-13.78) (P = 0.015) was observed. While plasma total cholesterol level remained similar, HDL-cholesterol level increased, from 36.0 (22-45) to 43.5 (30-69) mg/dl (P = 0.008) and the triglyceride level decreased, from 174.0 (140-250) to 116.5 (81-207) mg/dl (P = 0.012). Icodextrin-based dialysis solution improves abnormal adipocytokine metabolism, dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, which are known to be associated with atherosclerosis. These results suggest that the use of icodextrin-based dialysis solution might be useful in preventing atherosclerosis in PD patients. Long-term effects of icodextrin-based dialysis solution on the atherosclerosis in peritoneal dialysis patients should be tested.

  19. Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon Leads to Acute but Transient Increase in Cerebral Water Diffusivity and Plasma Biomarkers Levels Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; Millet, Grégoire P.; Giardini, Guido; Croisille, Pierre; Haller, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pioneer studies demonstrate the impact of extreme sport load on the human brain, leading to threatening conditions for athlete's health such as cerebral edema. The investigation of brain water diffusivity, allowing the measurement of the intercellular water and the assessment of cerebral edema, can give a great contribution to the investigation of the effects of extreme sports on the brain. We therefore assessed the effect of supra-physiological effort (extreme distance and elevation changes) in mountain ultra-marathons (MUMs) athletes combining for the first time brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood parameters. Methods:This longitudinal study included 19 volunteers (44.2 ± 9.5 years) finishing a MUM (330 km, elevation + 24000 m). Quantitative measurements of brain diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were performed at 3 time-points: Before the race, upon arrival and after 48 h. Multiple blood biomarkers were simultaneously investigated. Data analyses included brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and physiological data comparisons between three time-points. Results:The whole brain ADC significantly increased from baseline to arrival (p = 0.005) and then significantly decreased at recovery (p = 0.005) to lower values than at baseline (p = 0.005). While sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride as well as hematocrit (HCT) changed over time, the serum osmolality remained constant. Significant correlations were found between whole brain ADC changes and osmolality (p = 0.01), cholesterol (p = 0.009), c-reactive protein (p = 0.04), sodium (p = 0.01), and chloride (p = 0.002) plasma level variations. Conclusions:These results suggest the relative increase of the inter-cellular volume upon arrival, and subsequently its reduction to lower values than at baseline, indicating that even after 48 h the brain has not fully recovered to its equilibrium state. Even though serum electrolytes may only indirectly indicate modifications at the brain level due

  20. Effect of colostral fat level on fat deposition and plasma metabolites in the newborn pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Dividich, J; Esnault, T; Lynch, B; Hoo-Paris, R; Castex, C; Peiniau, J

    1991-06-01

    The effects of colostral fat level on fat deposition and plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, and free fatty acids (FFA) were determined in 28 newborn pigs during the first postnatal day. Soon after birth, pigs were allotted to four treatments groups. Group 1 was killed at birth. The remaining pigs were fed intragastrically sow colostrum that contained high (10.2%; HFC), normal (4.8%; NFC) or low (1.0%; LFC) levels of total fat at the rate of 15 to 18 g/kg birth weight at 65- to 70-min intervals. A total of 21 feedings was provided and pigs were killed 1 h after the last feeding. Body fat deposition increased linearly (P less than .01) with the amount of ingested fat by .32 (+/- .04) g per 1-g increase in fat intake. Fatty acid composition of the pigs changed toward that of the colostrum with increased fat in colostrum. More liver glycogen was lost (P less than .01) in pigs given LFC. Plasma concentrations of glucose and insulin were similar in pigs fed HFC and NFC. After the 11th feeding (14 h postnatal), LFC resulted in lower plasma glucose concentrations (P less than .05) than HFC or NFC. Plasma insulin concentrations also were lower in pigs fed LFC. Plasma FFA concentrations remained unchanged in pigs fed LFC but increased with both fat content in colostrum (P less than .05) and time (P less than .05) in the other two groups. Colostral fat plays a major role in the supply of energy and in glucose homeostasis in the neonatal pig.

  1. Relationship between plasma glutamate levels and post-stroke depression in patients with acute ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱方媛

    2014-01-01

    Objective To test the association between the plasma glutamate levels during acute ischemic stroke andpost-stroke depression(PSD)initially.Methods Seventy-four ischemic stroke patients admitted to the hospital within the first day of stroke onset were evaluated at a follow-up of 2 weeks.The Beck Depression Inventory(BDI,21-item)and DSM-Ⅳcriteria was used to diagnose post-stroke depression(PSD)at 2 weeks after stroke.

  2. Caffeine suppresses β-amyloid levels in plasma and brain of Alzheimer’s transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Cao, Chuanhai; Cirrito, John R.; Lin, Xiaoyang; Wang, Lilly; Verges, Deborah K.; Dickson, Alexander; Mamcarz, Malgorzata; Zhang, Chi; Mori, Takashi; Arendash, Gary W.; Holtzman, David M.; Potter, Huntington

    2009-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies suggest that caffeine may be protective against Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Supportive of this premise, our previous studies have shown that moderate caffeine administration protects/restores cognitive function and suppresses brain β-amyloid (Aβ) production in AD transgenic mice. In the present study, we report that acute caffeine administration to both young adult and aged AD transgenic mice rapidly reduces Aβ levels in both brain interstitial fluid and plasma with...

  3. Fluctuating plasma phosphorus level by changes in dietary phosphorus intake induces endothelial dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Watari, Eriko; Taketani, Yutaka; Kitamura, Tomoyo; Tanaka, Terumi; Ohminami, Hirokazu; Abuduli, Maerjianghan; Harada, Nagakatsu; Yamanaka-Okumura, Hisami; Yamamoto, Hironori; Takeda, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    High serum phosphorus (P) impairs endothelial function by increasing oxidative stress and decreasing nitric oxide production. Serum P levels fluctuate due to circadian rhythms or dietary P intake in healthy people and due to dialysis in end-stage chronic kidney disease patients. Here we examined whether fluctuating plasma P caused by changes in dietary P intake may be involved in endothelial dysfunction, resulting in increased cardiovascular risk. Rats were fed a diet containing 0.6% P for 16...

  4. Plasma levels of osteocalcin and retinol binding protein-4 in patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabar Lotfi

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: According to difference between plasma levels of osteocalcin and retinol binding protein-4 in patients suffered of medullary thyroid carcinoma comparison with normal subjects, it can be said that, probably medullary thyroid carcinoma has effect on bone and adipose tissue metabolism, so osteocalcin and retinol binding protein-4 hormones have potential to be used for confirmation of diagnosis or following treatment of medullary thyroid carcinoma.

  5. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  6. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Karine M; Alves, André F; Barbaro, Katia C; Santoro, Marcelo L

    2014-05-01

    Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF), resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a) whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b) the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) and serine proteinases (SVSP) to hemostatic disturbances. Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV) was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in engendering bleeding manifestations in severely-envenomed patients.

  7. Bothrops jararaca venom metalloproteinases are essential for coagulopathy and increase plasma tissue factor levels during envenomation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine M Yamashita

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIMS: Bleeding tendency, coagulopathy and platelet disorders are recurrent manifestations in snakebites occurring worldwide. We reasoned that by damaging tissues and/or activating cells at the site of the bite and systemically, snake venom toxins might release or decrypt tissue factor (TF, resulting in activation of blood coagulation and aggravation of the bleeding tendency. Thus, we addressed (a whether TF and protein disulfide isomerase (PDI, an oxireductase involved in TF encryption/decryption, were altered in experimental snake envenomation; (b the involvement and significance of snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP and serine proteinases (SVSP to hemostatic disturbances. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Crude Bothrops jararaca venom (BjV was preincubated with Na2-EDTA or AEBSF, which are inhibitors of SVMP and SVSP, respectively, and injected subcutaneously or intravenously into rats to analyze the contribution of local lesion to the development of hemostatic disturbances. Samples of blood, lung and skin were collected and analyzed at 3 and 6 h. Platelet counts were markedly diminished in rats, and neither Na2-EDTA nor AEBSF could effectively abrogate this fall. However, Na2-EDTA markedly reduced plasma fibrinogen consumption and hemorrhage at the site of BjV inoculation. Na2-EDTA also abolished the marked elevation in TF levels in plasma at 3 and 6 h, by both administration routes. Moreover, increased TF activity was also noticed in lung and skin tissue samples at 6 h. However, factor VII levels did not decrease over time. PDI expression in skin was normal at 3 h, and downregulated at 6 h in all groups treated with BjV. CONCLUSIONS: SVMP induce coagulopathy, hemorrhage and increased TF levels in plasma, but neither SVMP nor SVSP are directly involved in thrombocytopenia. High levels of TF in plasma and TF decryption occur during snake envenomation, like true disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, and might be implicated in

  8. Detection of metal ions in potassium hydroxide with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry method%电感耦合等离子光谱法测定氢氧化钾中金属离子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁灵; 张天兰; 弓创周; 夏俊玲

    2012-01-01

    Silicate,iron,sodium,aluminum,calcium,and nickel in high-quality flaky potassium hydroxide were respectively detected with visual colorimetry, spectrophotorrietry, and atomic absorption spectrometry .These methods are too complex and need too much time.Now the six elements (silicate, iron, sodium, aluminum, calcium, and nickel) can be detected at the same time with inductively coupled plasma spectrometry .The method is simple and rapid, and has a high precision and accuracy.%高品质片状氢氧化钾中硅酸盐、铁、钠、铝、钙、镍6项指标通常分别采用目视比色法、分光光度法、原子吸收法测定,其操作繁琐并且耗费时间较长.采用电感耦合等离子发射光谱仪可同时测定硅酸盐、铁、钠、铝、钙、镍6项指标.该法简便、快速,并有较高的精密度和准确度.

  9. Factors associated with fasting plasma ghrelin levels in children and adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao-Chun Zou; Li Liang; Zheng-Yan Zhao

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To measure plasma ghrelin levels in children and adolescents,analyze the associated factors,and investigate the role of ghrelin in obesity,insulin resistance and reproductive physiology.METHODS:A total of 283 subjects aged 4.8-15.8 year were enrolled.Fasting blood samples were collected and plasma ghrelin levels were measured by radioimmunoassay.Fasting glucose (FG),fasting insulin (FI),baseline testosterone (T),estradiol (E2),prolactin (PRL),luteinizing hormone (LH),follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH),serum total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and uric acid (UA) were measured.Body mass index (BMI),insulin resistance by homeostasis model (HOMA-IR) and beta cell function by homeostasis model (HOMA-β) were calculated.RESULTS:The median ghrelin level was 290 ng/L (15.0-1325.0 ng/i).Bivariate correlation analysis showed that ghrelin levels were inversely correlated with BMI,ALT,TG,UA,LH,FI and HOMA-IR (all P<0.05).No other significant correlation was found between ghrelin levels and age,gender,TC,E2,FSH,PRL,FG and HOMA-β.Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that only BMI and FI were independent determinants of plasma ghrelin levels in these children and adolescents (P = 0.018 and P = 0.046,respectively),which explained 25.4% of the variance.CONCLUSION:These data suggest that the lower ghrelin levels in obese subjects may be the result of obesity and hyperinsulinemia,which is very common in obese subjects.Moreover,ghrelin may regulate human reproductive physiology indirectly.

  10. Elevated plasma angiopoietin-2 levels and primary graft dysfunction after lung transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M Diamond

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Primary graft dysfunction (PGD is a significant contributor to early morbidity and mortality after lung transplantation. Increased vascular permeability in the allograft has been identified as a possible mechanism leading to PGD. Angiopoietin-2 serves as a partial antagonist to the Tie-2 receptor and induces increased endothelial permeability. We hypothesized that elevated Ang2 levels would be associated with development of PGD. METHODS: We performed a case-control study, nested within the multi-center Lung Transplant Outcomes Group cohort. Plasma angiopoietin-2 levels were measured pre-transplant and 6 and 24 hours post-reperfusion. The primary outcome was development of grade 3 PGD in the first 72 hours. The association of angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and PGD was evaluated using generalized estimating equations (GEE. RESULTS: There were 40 PGD subjects and 79 non-PGD subjects included for analysis. Twenty-four PGD subjects (40% and 47 non-PGD subjects (59% received a transplant for the diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF. Among all subjects, GEE modeling identified a significant change in angiopoietin-2 level over time in cases compared to controls (p = 0.03. The association between change in angiopoietin-2 level over the perioperative time period was most significant in patients with a pre-operative diagnosis of IPF (p = 0.02; there was no statistically significant correlation between angiopoietin-2 plasma levels and the development of PGD in the subset of patients transplanted for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD (p = 0.9. CONCLUSIONS: Angiopoietin-2 levels were significantly associated with the development of PGD after lung transplantation. Further studies examining the regulation of endothelial cell permeability in the pathogenesis of PGD are indicated.

  11. Feed deprivation in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858) juveniles: effects on blood plasma metabolites and free amino acid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costas, Benjamín; Aragão, Cláudia; Ruiz-Jarabo, Ignacio; Vargas-Chacoff, Luis; Arjona, Francisco Jesús; Dinis, Maria Teresa; Mancera, Juan Miguel; Conceição, Luís E C

    2011-09-01

    The effects of prolonged feed deprivation were assessed on blood plasma metabolites and free amino acid levels in Solea senegalensis. Juvenile specimens were maintained at two experimental conditions (24 h fasted and 21 days feed-deprived). In feed-deprived fish, relative growth rate and hepatosomatic index as well as plasma triglycerides and proteins levels were significantly lower. However, plasma cortisol levels were higher in feed-deprived fish, while plasma glucose and lactate values were not significantly different between treatments. Furthermore, feed-deprived fish showed higher levels of total plasma free amino acids than 24 h fasted fish. In 21 days feed-deprived sole, an increase in plasma cortisol levels may suggest a functional role in mobilizing energy due to the catabolic action of this hormone in teleosts. Higher levels of glutamine, arginine and ornithine in 21 days feed-deprived fish may be indicative of a dual role for these amino acids: ammonia detoxification and carbon source for gluconeogenesis. The increased plasma glucogenic and branched-chain amino acid levels, together with the maintenance of plasma glucose in 21 days feed-deprived sole, suggest active liver gluconeogenic processes supported by tissue proteolysis.

  12. Changes in salivary and plasma cortisol levels in Purebred Arabian horses during race training session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędzierski, Witold; Cywińska, Anna; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity and stress both cause an increase in cortisol release ratio. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of saliva samples for the determination of cortisol concentrations indicating the work-load level in horses during race training. Twelve Purebred Arabian horses aged 3-5 years were studied during the routine training session. After the warm-up, the horses galloped on the 800 m sand track at a speed of 12.8 m/s. Three saliva samples, and three blood samples were collected from each horse. Both types of samples were taken at rest, immediately after return from the track and after 30 min restitution. The concentrations of blood lactic acid (LA), and cortisol in saliva and plasma samples were measured and analyzed. Blood LA, plasma and salivary cortisol levels increased significantly after exercise (P < 0.05). Salivary cortisol concentration determined 30 min after the exercise correlated significantly with plasma cortisol level obtained immediately after exercise (P < 0.05) as well as measured 30 min after the end of exercise (P < 0.05). The determination of cortisol concentration in saliva samples taken from racehorses 30 min after the end of exercise can be recommended to use in field conditions to estimate the work-load in racehorses.

  13. Lower oxytocin plasma levels in borderline patients with unresolved attachment representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea eJobst

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Interpersonal problems and affective dysregulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD. BPD patients predominantly show unresolved attachment representations. The oxytocin (OT system is associated with human social attachment and affiliative behavior, and OT dysregulation may be related to distinct attachment characteristics. Here, we investigated whether attachment representations are related to peripheral OT levels in BPD patients. Twenty-one female BPD patients and 20 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls were assessed with clinical scales and measures of interpersonal and attachment-related characteristics, including the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP. Plasma OT concentrations were measured prior to and during social exclusion in a virtual ball tossing game (Cyberball. The majority of BPD patients (63.2% but no healthy controls showed unresolved (disorganized attachment representations. In this subgroup of patients, baseline OT plasma levels were significantly lower than in BPD patients with organized attachment representations. This pilot study extends previous findings of altered OT regulation in BPD as a putative key mechanism underlying interpersonal dysregulation. Our results provide first evidence that altered OT plasma levels are related to disorganized attachment representations in BPD patients.

  14. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, R; Kindahl, H; Lagerstedt, A-S

    2006-01-01

    Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite), progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β) levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra. PMID:16722306

  15. [Fluoxetine (FX) efficacy in the treatment of cocaine dependence methadone maintenance patients. Interaction with plasma levels].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baño, M D; Agujetas, M; López, M L; Tena, T; Rodríguez, A; Lora-Tamayo, C; Guillén, J L

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the efficacy of fluoxetine (FX) treatment in cocaine dependent methadone (MTD) maintenance patients, to assess decrease or interruption of cocaine use and pharmacokinetic interaction between fluoxetine an methadone plasma levels. The sample was composed of 11 patients with DSM IV criteria for opioid and cocaine dependence. We added Fluoxetine (20 mg per day) during 9 weeks in Majadahonda Drug Program. All patients were in methadone program a mean of 7.5 months. We made a psychiatry interview and the baseline severity of the mood disorder was assessed with the Clinical Global Impression ICG for therapeutic improvement. Cocaine use and fluoxetine treatment was measured in urine analysis and pharmacokinetic interaction between FX-MTD were measured with plasma levels of methadone. Fluoxetine was well tolerated combined with methadone. FX-MTD interaction didn't occur, resulting in no increased of MTD plasma level to dose before and after fluoxetine treatment. After fluoxetine treatment decreased cocaine use, changed cocaine tract from injected to smoked and improvement depressive symptoms.

  16. Lower Oxytocin Plasma Levels in Borderline Patients with Unresolved Attachment Representations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobst, Andrea; Padberg, Frank; Mauer, Maria-Christine; Daltrozzo, Tanja; Bauriedl-Schmidt, Christine; Sabass, Lena; Sarubin, Nina; Falkai, Peter; Renneberg, Babette; Zill, Peter; Gander, Manuela; Buchheim, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Interpersonal problems and affective dysregulation are core characteristics of borderline personality disorder (BPD). BPD patients predominantly show unresolved attachment representations. The oxytocin (OT) system is associated with human social attachment and affiliative behavior, and OT dysregulation may be related to distinct attachment characteristics. Here, we investigated whether attachment representations are related to peripheral OT levels in BPD patients. Twenty-one female BPD patients and 20 age-, gender-, and education-matched healthy controls (HCs) were assessed with clinical scales and measures of interpersonal and attachment-related characteristics, including the Adult Attachment Projective Picture System (AAP). Plasma OT concentrations were measured prior to and during social exclusion in a virtual ball tossing game (Cyberball). The majority of BPD patients (63.2%) but no HCs showed unresolved (disorganized) attachment representations. In this subgroup of patients, baseline OT plasma levels were significantly lower than in BPD patients with organized attachment representations. This pilot study extends previous findings of altered OT regulation in BPD as a putative key mechanism underlying interpersonal dysregulation. Our results provide first evidence that altered OT plasma levels are related to disorganized attachment representations in BPD patients.

  17. Relationship Between Plasma Insulin Level and Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphysm in Alzheimer′s Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Zhuming; Yuan Qiang

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To study relationship between plasma insulin level and apolipoprotein E Gene polymorphysm in Alzheimcr′s Disease. Background: Recent researches have shown that there was a close relationship between ApoE- ε 4 allele and AD. Because of the discovery of hyperinsulineamia in AD patients, the study of insulin on the pathogenesis of AD become a hot point of AD reseearch. Methods: We apply PCR-RFLP to the ApoE genotype study of 45 AD paticnts and 32 normal controls. At the same time, plasma insulin and glucose level was measured in the abovc objects. Results and Discussion: The frequency of ApoE- ε 4 in AD (32.2%) is much higher than in controls (10.9%). On the contrary, the frequency of ApeE- ε 4 is relatively lower in AD than in thc controls. The resistence of hyperinsulineamia in AD. Insulin sensitivity decreased in AD. Conclusion: When gene dose of ApoE- ε 4 increases, the prcvalance of AD increase, while the on-set ages of AD decrease (P<0.05). These findings indicatc that AD patients may have insulin resistance anbd insulin probably play a role in AD pathogenesis. In addition, the s 4 homozygote AD patients seem to have loweer plasma insulin level that the non- ε 4 homozygote AD patients (P<0.05). But this situation need to be replicated in studies of larger sample.

  18. Pyometra in Bitches Induces Elevated Plasma Endotoxin and Prostaglandin F2α Metabolite Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hagman R

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Endotoxemia in bitches with pyometra can cause severe systemic effects directly or via the release of inflammatory mediators. Plasma endotoxin concentrations were measured in ten bitches suffering from pyometra with moderately to severely deteriorated general condition, and in nine bitches admitted to surgery for non-infectious reasons. Endotoxin samples were taken on five occasions before, during and after surgery. In addition, urine and uterine bacteriology was performed and hematological, blood biochemical parameters, prostaglandin F2α metabolite 15-ketodihydro-PGF2α (PG-metabolite, progesterone and oestradiol (E2-17β levels were analysed. The results confirm significantly increased plasma levels of endotoxin in bitches with pyometra and support previous reports of endotoxin involvement in the pathogenesis of the disease. Plasma concentrations of PG-metabolite were elevated in pyometra bitches and provide a good indicator of endotoxin release since the concentrations were significantly correlated to the endotoxin levels and many other hematological and chemistry parameters. The γ-globulin serum protein electrophoresis fraction and analysis of PG-metabolite can be valuable in the diagnosis of endotoxin involvement if a reliable, rapid and cost-effective test for PG-metabolite analysis becomes readily available in the future. Treatment inhibiting prostaglandin biosynthesis and related compounds could be beneficial for bitches suffering from pyometra.

  19. Nocturnal plasma levels of melatonin in quails (Coturnix japonica injected with l-5-hydroxy-tryptophan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LC. Reis

    Full Text Available This study aimed to demonstrate the influence of the systemic administration of l-5-hydroxy-tryptophan (L-HTP on the plasma levels of melatonin during the dark period in quails. Throughout daylight, the plasma levels of melatonin did not differ significantly, oscillating between 110.2 ± 15.8 pg.mL-1 and 157.4 ± 34.8 pg.mL-1, from 8 to 16 hours. L-HTP (25 mg.kg-1, through the intracelomic route administered at 18 hours lessened significantly the nocturnal increase of the plasma levels of melatonin (controls, 327.3 ± 20.1 and 315.8 ± 20.9 pg.mL-1 vs. 242.1 ± 24.8 and 217.5 ± 21 pg.mL-1, respectively, at 20 and 24 hours, P < 0.05. The results obtained showed that the administration of LHTP reduced the nocturnal melatonin release, possibly by bringing about an increase in serotonin synthesis and synaptic release in the pineal. Therefore, the serotoninergic transmission from the raphe towards the pineal would constitute a mechanism of modulation of the synthesis and melatonin release in quails.

  20. Plasma homocysteine level is a risk factor for osteoporotic fractures in elderly patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Y

    2016-08-01

    .Conclusion: In this study, we found that the plasma Hcy level in elderly patients with OPF is higher than that of nonosteoporotic patients. It is not correlated with BMD, but positively correlated with bone resorption markers. An increased Hcy level appears to be a risk factor for OPFs in elderly people. Keywords: elderly patient, osteoporosis, fracture, homocysteine, bone mineral density, bone turnover marker

  1. Effects of Different Potassium Levels on Eggplant Solanine Content and Distribution%不同钾水平对茄子茄碱含量和分配的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菲; 李银科; 叶学见; 王正银

    2015-01-01

    采用盆栽试验的方式,就不同钾水平对盆栽茄子生物量和茄碱含量、累积量及分配的影响进行研究,以期从植物营养角度控制茄子茄碱的形成和累积,达到改善茄子口感和风味品质的目的.结果表明,施用钾肥后茄子各器官以果实增产效果最为明显.施钾处理可使茄子果实中茄碱含量显著降低,果蒂、根、茎、花等器官的茄碱含量总体上也表现为降低.两个采收期茄子果实茄碱累积量均在施用钾肥后升高,以中量和高量钾处理影响最大,而果蒂、茎、花的茄碱累积量呈下降趋势.茄子果实中茄碱分配最多,其次为叶片,花瓣分配最少.两个采收期果蒂、花等器官茄碱分配系数随钾水平增加而降低.施用钾肥能降低果实茄碱含量,但对茄碱在果实中的累积和分配有增加趋势.%This experiment studies the effect of different potassium levels on eggplant biomass,solanine content,solanine accumulation and distribution,so as to understand from plant nutrition view point how to control by certain extent the solanine formation and accumulation in eggplant,and then to improve the taste and flavor quality. Pot experiment was conducted in this experiment. The results indicated that eggplant fruit weight increase was distinct after applying potassium fertilizer. The solanine content in eggplant fruit was reduced remarkably after applying potassium fertilizer,that in other organs were also reduced. During 2 harvesting times,the solanine accumulation in eggplant fruit increased after applying potassium fertilizer,especially with moderate and large quantity of potassium fertilization. But that in fruit base,stem and flower showed declining tendency. The largest solanine distribution was observed in eggplant fruit ,then followed by leaf,and the least was in flower. While, solanine distribution coefficient in fruit base, flower,etc. organs were decreased along with the increase of potassium level

  2. Thermal diffusion of potassium on the modified iron surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narkiewicz, U. [Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Technical University of Szczecin, PuIaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland)]. E-mail: urszula.narkiewicz@ps.pl; Moszynski, D. [Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Technical University of Szczecin, PuIaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland); BrosIawski, M. [Institute of Chemical and Environment Engineering, Technical University of Szczecin, PuIaskiego 10, 70-322 Szczecin (Poland)

    2005-10-31

    The diffusion of potassium on the polycrystalline iron surface modified by adsorbed oxygen and nitrogen has been studied by means of AES. The migration of potassium atoms has been observed independently on the constitution of the iron surface in the temperature range between 300 and 450 deg. C. The final concentration of potassium on the iron surface increases with temperature from 300 to 400 deg. C, irrespective of what atoms accompany potassium on the surface. At 450 deg. C, the final level of potassium concentration is decreased. The profiles of the concentration on the surface along the line crossing the source of potassium were also acquired. Applying the diffusion model of finite source, the diffusion coefficient of potassium for oxygen-covered and nitrogen-covered surfaces were evaluated.

  3. Neuropeptide Y Gene Polymorphism and Plasma Neuropeptide Y Level in Febrile Seizure Patients in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lung-Chang Lin

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY has been shown to depress the hyperexcitability of neurons. In the present study, we investigated the association between the nucleotide (nt 5671 C/T polymorphism of the NPY gene and the plasma NPY level in patients with febrile seizures (FS. Fifty-six patients with FS and 55 control subjects were enrolled. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared. The frequencies of genotypes TT, TC and CC for the NPY gene nt 5671 C/T polymorphism were 21.4%, 28.6% and 50.0%, respectively, in patients with FS, and 14.6%, 40.0% and 45.4%, respectively, in control subjects. The frequencies of alleles T and C were 35.7% and 64.3%, respectively, in patients with FS, while those in the control group were 34.5% and 65.5%, respectively. We found no significant relationship between the NPY gene nt 5671 C/T polymorphism and FS. The plasma NPY concentrations of the FS group, the age-matched non-FS group, and subjects aged > 6 years in the non-FS group were 48.23±32.49, 55.36±23.12, and 70.10±60.31 pg/mL, respectively. These results indicate no statistical difference in plasma NPY concentration between FS patients and the non-FS group. However, plasma NPY concentration was found to increase significantly with age.

  4. Association between seminal plasma zinc level and asthenozoospermia: a meta-analysis study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taravati, A; Tohidi, F

    2016-08-01

    Zinc is proposed to have an important role in the morphology, viability and motility of spermatozoa. There are inconsistent reports on the association between seminal plasma zinc concentration and male infertility. For this purpose, papers reporting the level of seminal zinc among asthenozoospermic groups were selected and used for further analysis. This meta-analysis of previous published studies was performed to obtain more precise information on the association between seminal plasma zinc and asthenozoospermia. Relevant studies for inclusion were identified after preliminary investigation of research papers published on electronic databases up to February 2015. Eight reports and 475 subjects were finally included in the meta-analysis. In the overall analysis, a statistically significant reduction in seminal plasma zinc concentrations was observed in asthenozoospermic infertile men. Random-effects method was used to evaluate the summary effect size due to the presence of significant heterogeneity. The effect of zinc on asthenozoospermia was significant (Hedge's G effect size = -0.506, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -0.998 to -0.014, P = 0.044). Taken together, despite of significant statistical heterogeneity between studies, our findings were indicative of significant association between zinc concentration and asthenozoospermia. In conclusion, the meta-analysis suggests that seminal plasma zinc concentration is negatively associated with male infertility.

  5. Dietary Intake and Plasma Levels of Choline and Betaine in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna C. Hamlin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormalities in folate-dependent one-carbon metabolism have been reported in many children with autism. Because inadequate choline and betaine can negatively affect folate metabolism and in turn downstream methylation and antioxidant capacity, we sought to determine whether dietary intake of choline and betaine in children with autism was adequate to meet nutritional needs based on national recommendations. Three-day food records were analyzed for 288 children with autism (ASDs who participated in the national Autism Intervention Research Network for Physical Health (AIR-P Study on Diet and Nutrition in children with autism. Plasma concentrations of choline and betaine were measured in a subgroup of 35 children with ASDs and 32 age-matched control children. The results indicated that 60–93% of children with ASDs were consuming less than the recommended Adequate Intake (AI for choline. Strong positive correlations were found between dietary intake and plasma concentrations of choline and betaine in autistic children as well as lower plasma concentrations compared to the control group. We conclude that choline and betaine intake is inadequate in a significant subgroup of children with ASDs and is reflected in lower plasma levels. Inadequate intake of choline and betaine may contribute to the metabolic abnormalities observed in many children with autism and warrants attention in nutritional counseling.

  6. Efeito da fertirrega com azoto e potássio num olival sobre os teores de nitratos e de potássio do solo Effect of nitrogen and potassium fertigation in an olive grove on soil levels of nitrate and potassium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Encarnação Marcelo

    2011-07-01

    os teores de potássio extraível não sofreram alterações significativas nas quatro camadas de solo estudadas.The use of drip irrigation systems allows the application of fertilizers through water providing the necessary nutrients to crops in times of greater consumption. In the case of the olive tree, it is increasingly common the use of this cultural technique, especially in young olive groves, but in most cases this fertilization is carried out empirically. In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen and potassium applied by fertigation on yield, on foliar nutrient concentrations and on some soil parameters, a field experiment was established on an olive grove, cv. Cobrançosa, planted in 1990 in Safara, in the Portuguese region of Alentejo. Three levels of nitrogen (0, 50 and 100 kg ha-1 N and potassium (0, 42 and 84 kg ha-1 K were used, arranged into a factorial experiment with three replications. The trees were irrigated with a drip irrigation system. The management of irrigation was made using tensiometers, and all trees received the same amount of water. The nitrogen (UAN solution was applied through fertigation from March to September and the potassium (potassium sulphate from April to October. The present paper reports the results on nitrate and potassium concentrations at different soil depths (0-0.2 m, 0.2-0.4 m, 0.4-0.6 m and 0.6-0.8 m in the first two years. Nitrogen fertilization caused an increase in soil N-NO3- concentration between 0.2 and 0.8 m depth. This effect was more pronounced in the samples taken in the two deeper layers and when it was applied the highest level of nitrogen (100 kg ha-1 N. For the potassium, the effect of potassium fertilization occurred on exchangeable potassium only in 0-0.2 m and 0.2-0.4 m depths, whereas the levels of extractable potassium did not suffer significant changes in four soil layers studied.

  7. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    identified as being crucial mediators of this process in a variety of smooth muscle. Recently, KV7 channels have been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, as well as being implicated in other smooth muscle disorders, providing a new and inviting target for smooth muscle disorders.......Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  8. Alteration of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide Level After Acute Moderate Exercise in Professional Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Sheikhani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cardiac fatigue or myocardial damage following exercise until complete exhaustion can increase blood levels of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP in athletes. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of resistance and acute moderate aerobic exercise on alterations in BNP levels in professional athletes. Materials and Methods: Forty professional athletes who had at least 3 years of a championship background in track and field (aerobic group or body building (resistance group volunteered to participate in the present study. Track and field athletes (n = 20 were requested to run 8 km at 60% to 70% of maximum heart rate. Body building athletes (n = 20 performed a resistance training session of 5 exercises in 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% of 1 RM (bench press, seated row, leg extension, leg curl, and leg press. Before and immediately after the exercise, plasma BNP levels of both groups of athletes were measured by PATHFASTTM NT-proBNP assay, an immunochemiluminescent assay using two polyclonal antibodies in sandwich test format, on a PATHFASTTM automated analyzer. Results: Plasma BNP levels immediately following exercise increased significantly as compared with baseline values. Plasma BNP concentrations in the aerobic group were significantly higher than in the resistance group before and after exercise. Moreover, the increase in mean BNP concentrations in aerobic athletes was 7 times more than in resistance athletes. Conclusions: BNP levels in athlete who performed distance exercises increased significantly compared with resistance training. Possibly exercise program type, intensity of exercise, volume of exercise program, and field sport can be factors of changes in BNP levels

  9. Relationship between Plasma Homocysteine Level and Glaucomatous Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Defect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yeun; Kim, Joon Mo; Kim, In Tae; Yoo, Chung Kwon; Won, Yu Sam; Kim, Jung Hoon; Kwon, Hyun Seok; Park, Ki Ho

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the association between plasma homocysteine levels and glaucomatous retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) defect in South Korean population. This retrospective cross-sectional study included subjects who underwent screening at Kangbuk Samsung Hospital Health Screening Center between August 2012 and July 2013. Subjects underwent physical examination and provided samples for laboratory analysis of homocysteine. Subjects were divided equally into four quartiles (Qs) based on plasma homocysteine level. Digital fundus photographs of both eyes were obtained. Determination of glaucomatous disc appearance was based on criteria set forth by the International Society of Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology and based on the appearance of the RNFL and optic disc. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to define elevated glaucoma risk with P < 0.2 on univariate analysis. A total of 78,049 subjects were included; 76,093 subjects were male, and 1956 subjects were female. When analyzed by gender, the mean homocysteine level in the male group with glaucomatous RNFL defects (11.05 ± 3.80 µmol/L) was higher than those without RNFL defects (10.81 ± 4.12 µmol/L (P = 0.000, χ(2) test). Upon multifactorial logistic regression analysis adjusted for age, gender, creatinine, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia, glaucomatous RNFL defects had a significant correlation with plasma homocysteine level. Based on the Q2 level, the odds ratio (OR) of Q3 was 1.267, while the OR of Q4 was 1.285 (95% CI = 1.067-1.505, 1.081-1.529, respectively, P for trend = 0.001). Our results suggest that homocysteine level is associated with the presence of glaucomatous RNFL defects.

  10. Plasma levels of catecholamine metabolites predict the response to sulpiride or fluvoxamine in major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, N; Yoshimura, R; Shinkai, K; Nakamura, J

    2002-09-01

    We investigated the relationships between the changes in plasma catecholamine metabolites obtained from depressed patients before and after administration of sulpiride, a benzamide compound, or fluvoxamine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), and between clinical responses to treatment with each of these drugs. Responders to sulpiride had significantly lower plasma homovanillic acid (pHVA) levels before administration of sulpiride than did non-responders or controls (responders: 4.5 +/- 3.1 ng/ml, non-responders: 11.1 +/- 5.9 ng/ml, controls: 10.9 +/- 5.3 ng/ml). Positive relationships were observed between changes in pHVA levels and improvement rates in the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D). In contrast, responders to fluvoxamine had significantly higher plasma free 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol (pMHPG) levels before administration of fluvoxamine than did non-responders or controls (responders: 8.5 +/- 1.8 ng/ml, non-responders: 5.9 +/- 2.I ng/ml, controls: 5.2 +/- 2.9 ng/ml). Negative relationships were observed between changes in pMHPG levels and improvement rates in Ham-D. These results suggest that lower pretreatment pHVA levels and higher pretreatment levels of pMHPG might be predictors of response to sulpiride and fluvoxamine, respectively, and that sulpiride might produce a functional increase in the dopaminergic system, resulting in improvement in some depressive symptoms; fluvoxamine, on the other hand, might produce a functional decrease in the noradrenergic system via serotonergic neurons, resulting in improvement of those symptoms.

  11. A Multi Level Multi Domain Method for Particle In Cell Plasma Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Innocenti, M E; Markidis, S; Beck, A; Vapirev, A

    2012-01-01

    A novel adaptive technique for electromagnetic Particle In Cell (PIC) plasma simulations is presented here. Two main issues are identified in designing adaptive techniques for PIC simulation: first, the choice of the size of the particle shape function in progressively refined grids, with the need to avoid the exertion of self-forces on particles, and, second, the necessity to comply with the strict stability constraints of the explicit PIC algorithm. The adaptive implementation presented responds to these demands with the introduction of a Multi Level Multi Domain (MLMD) system (where a cloud of self-similar domains is fully simulated with both fields and particles) and the use of an Implicit Moment PIC method as baseline algorithm for the adaptive evolution. Information is exchanged between the levels with the projection of the field information from the refined to the coarser levels and the interpolation of the boundary conditions for the refined levels from the coarser level fields. Particles are bound to...

  12. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chun Lu

    Full Text Available This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters.631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT, estradiol (E2 and SHBG levels were detected.Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001, while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05. For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042. There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV, sperm concentration (SC, total sperm count (TSC, sperm motility, progressive motility (PR and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS. Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012, both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002, and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051.The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility.

  13. Changes in Plasma Sex Hormone Levels in Women with Severe Concomitant Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. N Yezhova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to perform a complex study of the plasma levels of 11 sex hormones and their functional values in women with severe concomitant injury (SCI. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 16 women aged 18—45 years who had SCI. Admission APACHE II scores were 18.9±1.3. According to the outcome of a posttraumatic period, all the patients were divided into 2 groups: A survivors; B deceased subjects. The normal values were used to comparatively analyze the concentrations of reproductive hormones. The time course of changes in hormone concentration was studied on postoperative days 1, 3, and 7. The hormone profile was examined by BSL test kits (USA on a STAT Fax 2100 enzyme immunoanalyzer (Awareness Technology Inc., USA. The content of prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S, androstendione (A, testosterone (T, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, and estradiol (E were measured. Results. The complex study of changes in the profile of 11 plasma sex hormones was first conducted in women in the posttraumat-ic period. Moreover, the typical plasma hormonal changes were elevated prolactin levels, a decrease in the concentrations of gonadotropins, and increases in some androgens, A, T, and E. The deceased women showed lower concentrations of DHEA-S and T. Analysis revealed an inverse correlation between the plasma concentration of DHEA-S and the injury severity. This change seems to suggest that an adrenal adaptation reaction is exhausted. The changes revealed in hormonal levels are of significance in understanding the pathogenesis of SCT. This may serve as a basis for the development of new therapy modalities using reproductive hormones in the postresuscitative period. Key words: severe concomitant injury, sex hormones, prolactin, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androgens, estrogens.

  14. Plasma iron levels appraised 15 days after spinal cord injury in a limb movement animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, F M; Esteves, A M; Tufik, S; de Mello, M T

    2011-03-01

    Experimental, controlled trial. The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma iron and transferrin levels in a limb movement animal model with spinal cord injury (SCI). Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Departamento de Psicobiologia. In all, 72 male Wistar rats aged 90 days were divided into four groups: (1) acute SCI (1 day, SCI1), (2) 3 days post-SCI (SCI3), (3) 7 days post-SCI (SCI7) and (4) 15 days post-SCI (SCI15). Each of these groups had corresponding control (CTRL) and SHAM groups. Plasma iron and transferrin levels of the different groups were analyzed using a one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's test. We found a significant reduction in iron plasma levels after SCI compared with the CTRL group: SCI1 (CTRL: 175±10.58 μg dl(-1); SCI: 108.28±11.7 μg dl(-1)), SCI3 (CTRL: 195.5±11.00 μg dl(-1); SCI: 127.88±12.63 μg dl(-1)), SCI7 (CTRL: 186±2.97 μg dl(-1); SCI: 89.2±15.39 μg dl(-1)) and SCI15 (CTRL: 163±5.48 μg dl(-1); SCI: 124.44±10.30 μg dl(-1)) (P<0.05; ANOVA). The SHAM1 group demonstrated a reduction in iron plasma after acute SCI (CTRL: 175±10.58 μg dl(-1); SHAM: 114.60±7.81 μg dl(-1)) (P<0.05; ANOVA). Reduced iron metabolism after SCI may be one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of sleep-related movement disorders.

  15. Plasma apolipoprotein C-III levels, triglycerides, and coronary artery calcification in type 2 diabetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamar, Arman; Khetarpal, Sumeet A; Khera, Amit V; Qasim, Atif; Rader, Daniel J; Re