WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma parameter measurements

  1. Langmuir probe Diagnostic for local parameter measurement in Magnetized Plasma using LabVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijal Vara

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, plasma technology is used by Semiconductor, thin film industries for deposit layers, etching process and surface modification. So it is necessary to understanding internal plasma parameter. Langmuir probe is one of the simplest techniques which is used to measure wide range of plasma parameter like plasma potential, floating potential, electron temperature, electron energy distribution function (EEDF etc. Langmuir current voltage characteristic is obtained by varying bias voltage of the probe. LabVIEW is most powerful Microsoft window compatible software which is used to immediate data acquisition and analysis. In this paper describes analysis of Langmuir data using LabVIEW software which automatically measure I-V Plasma probe Characteristics and obtain EEDF of plasma.

  2. Automatic measurements of plasma parameters in the PUPR mirror and cusp plasma machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, S; Colmenares, F; Gonzalez-Lizardo, A; Leal-Quiros, E [Plasma Engineering Laboratory, Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico, San Juan, PR 00918 (Puerto Rico)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presents an ongoing effort to develop an automatic measurement system for plasma diagnostics at the Plasma Engineering Laboratory of the Polytechnic University of Puerto Rico (PUPR), along with an example of its operation. The system is intended to be used with electrostatic probes such as single and double Langmuir probes, emissive probes, ion and electron energy analyzers, etc. The automatic measurement system includes automatic positioning of the probes inside the plasma chamber, automatic voltage sweep of the probes for each position, and automatic analysis of the probe I-V characteristic. The results of measurements obtained by using this automatic measurement system during a particular experiment are shown and compared with a traditional method with satisfactory results.

  3. Measurements of egg shell plasma parameters using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wenfeng Luo; Xiaoxia Zhao; Shuyuan Lv; Haiyan Zhu

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of 1064 nm laser-induced egg shell plasma parameters are presented in this paper. Of special interests were its elemental identification and the determination of spectroscopic temperature and electron density. The electron temperature of 5956 K was inferred using an improved iterative Boltzmann plot method with six calcium atomic emission lines, and the electron number density of 6.1 × 1016 cm−3 was determined by measuring the width of Stark-broadened once-ionized calcium line at 393.37 nm. Based on the experimental results, the laser-induced egg shell plasma was verified to be optically thin and satisfy local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). Furthermore, experiments also demonstrated that the loss of energy due to the reflection of the laser beam from the plasma can be neglected and the inverse bremsstrahlung (IB) absorption was the dominant mechanism of plasma heating at the IR wavelength.

  4. Measurement Of Plasma Parameters In Micro-Discharge By Wall Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifutdinov, Almaz; Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Sysoev, Sergey

    2016-09-01

    The increasing scientific and practical interest for glow discharge at high pressure is largely determined by the fact that their use does not require expensive and huge vacuum equipment. The analysis shows that, in contrast to the well-studied positive column (PC), the basic parameters of the plasma negative glow (NG) and Faraday dark space (FDS) of micro-discharges are studied insufficiently. The difficulties of the experimental diagnostics are associated with the fact that for the fixed values of pL with the increasing gas pressure the length of the micro-discharge decreases. And a small size is extremely difficult to diagnose spatial parameters distribution of micro discharges. Since at a small size introducing traditional Langmuir probe into the plasma capacity is not possible technically, it was proposed to use an additional measuring electrode (wall probe) disposed between the cathode and the anode for measurement of the fast EEDF. With its use we have registered EEDF fast electrons produced in the reaction of Penning ionization out of earlier reach range of high-pressure gas (from 20 to 200 Torr). In this paper by using wall probe we measured the basic parameters of NG plasma in micro-discharge in helium in a wide range of pressures. It is shown that the electrons temperature in the NG plasma is low and amounts to few fraction of 1 eV, which differs from the electron temperature in PC plasma. This allows the use of NG plasma for analysis by gas plasma electron spectroscopy. Authors thanks RNF (Grant 14-19-00311) for the support.

  5. Reconstruction of the ion plasma parameters from the current measurements: mathematical tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    Full Text Available Instrument d’Analyse du Plasma (IAP is one of the instruments of the newly prepared ionospheric mission Demeter. This analyser was developed to measure flows of thermal ions at the altitude of ~ 750 km and consists of two parts: (i retarding potential analyser (APR, which is utilised to measure the energy distribution of the ion plasma along the sensor look direction, and (ii velocity direction analyser (ADV, which is used to measure the arrival angle of the ion flow with respect to the analyser axis. The necessity to obtain quick and precise estimates of the ion plasma parameters has prompted us to revise the existing mathematical tool and to investigate different instrumental limitations, such as (i finite angular aperture, (ii grid transparency, (iii potential depression in the space between the grid wires, (iv losses of ions during their passage between the entrance diaphragm and the collector. Simple analytical expressions are found to fit the currents, which are measured by the APR and ADV collectors, and show a very good agreement with the numerical solutions. It was proven that the fitting of the current with the model functions gives a possibility to properly resolve even minor ion concentrations and to find the arrival angles of the ion flow in the multi-species plasma. The discussion is illustrated by an analysis of the instrument response in the ionospheric conditions which are predicted by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model.

    Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection; instruments and techniques – Space plasma physics (experimental and mathematical techniques

  6. Rocket measurements within a polar cap arc - Plasma, particle, and electric circuit parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E. J.; Ballenthin, J. O.; Basu, S.; Carlson, H. C.; Hardy, D. A.; Maynard, N. C.; Kelley, M. C.; Fleischman, J. R.; Pfaff, R. F.

    1989-01-01

    Results are presented from the Polar Ionospheric Irregularities Experiment (PIIE), conducted from Sondrestrom, Greenland, on March 15, 1985, designed for an investigation of processes which lead to the generation of small-scale (less than 1 km) ionospheric irregularities within polar-cap F-layer auroras. An instrumented rocket was launched into a polar cap F layer aurora to measure energetic electron flux, plasma, and electric circuit parameters of a sun-aligned arc, coordinated with simultaneous measurements from the Sondrestrom incoherent scatter radar and the AFGL Airborne Ionospheric Observatory. Results indicated the existence of two different generation mechanisms on the dawnside and duskside of the arc. On the duskside, parameters are suggestive of an interchange process, while on the dawnside, fluctuation parameters are consistent with a velocity shear instability.

  7. Solar Cluster: multipoint magnetic field and plasma parameter measurements in the solar wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, L. E.; Echer, E.; dal Lago, A.; Schuch, N. J.

    This paper has the objective to discus the technical-scientific feasibility of a deep space mission to be proposed to the Brazilian Space Agency (AEB). This mission will be proposed to study the interplanetary magnetic field and the plasma structure of the solar wind. It will consist of a set of identical spacecraft flying in formation in the inner heliosphere during the ascending and maximum phase of the solar cycle 24. It is know that the primary cause of magnetic storms are intense, long duration southward interplanetary magnetic field structures which interconnect with the earth's magnetic field and allow solar wind energy transport into the Earth's magnetotail/magnetosphere. During the most active phase of the solar cycle, solar maximum, the sun's activity is dominated by flares and disappearing filaments, and their concomitant Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs). Coronal Holes are present, but the holes are small and do not extend from the poles to the equator as often happens in the descending phase of the solar cycle. The fast (>500 km/s) CMEs coming from the sun into the interplanetary space are the solar/coronal features that contain high magnetic fields. These intense southward magnetic fields are observed in the sheath, in the ejection itself and in the rear of the ejection. The interaction between CMEs and the background solar wind, fast co rotating streams and other CMEs are also very important sources of intense southward magnetic fields. In order to study the interplanetary origin of intense geomagnetic storms, several studies have analyzed plasma parameters, composition, ionization state and the interplanetary magnetic field measured by instruments on board of spacecraft as ISEE3, IMP8, Helios, Ulysses, Wind, SOHO and ACE. Great advance on the understanding of the CME structure and interaction with the background solar wind have been reached. However, the spatial scale of these structures could be greater than 0.2 AU, and this kind of observation usually

  8. Measuring the parameters of a high flux plasma in Proto-MPEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeen, C.; Biewer, T. M.; Cantrell, C. L.; Klemm, J. C.; Musick, R. A.; Nunley, G.; Salazar Sanchez, J. S.; Sawyer, D. J.; Ray, H.; Shaw, G.; Showers, M.

    2016-10-01

    The Prototype Material Plasma Exposure Experiment (Proto-MPEX) is a linear, magnetically confined plasma production device, utilizing a helicon antenna. The plasma column interacts with a material target at the end of the device, creating plasma-material interaction conditions that are relevant to the conditions that are expected in future fusion reactors. Moreover, helicon antenna plasma sources have been proposed as propulsion devices for spacecraft. It has been observed that in some circumstances the Proto-MPEX plasma exerts sufficient force on the target plate to cause the target to recoil. A ballistic probe has been designed to measure the force and heat flux profile of the plasma. The probe response has been calibrated, using scales, thermocouples, and fast camera imaging. The ballistic probe has been inserted into Proto-MPEX plasmas and the heat flux profile of the plasma has been measured. Also the maximum force that is exerted on the probe has been estimated. This work was supported by the US. D.O.E. contract DE-AC05-00OR22725, and the Oak Ridge Associated Universities ARC program.

  9. Experimental measurements of the hollow cathode DC glow discharge parameters in Ar and He plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omrani, M.; Amrollahi, R.; Iraji, D.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we focus on some of the fundamental parameters of SS316L hollow cathode glow discharge. Four SS316L samples are placed at different locations on the cathode surface and the current passed through them is measured in Ar and He glow discharge plasmas. The wall current densities of Ar and He are in the range of 8-25 µA cm-2 and 8-35 µA cm-2, respectively. Results also show that with decreasing working pressure, the ion flux and current density distribution on the wall surface becomes more uniform. The ion flux of the Ar and He is in the range of 1013 to 1014 ~\\text{ion} \\text{c}{{\\text{m}}-2} . Total energy losses of Ar and He are measured at the pressure range of 1.4-5.5  ×  10-2 torr and 3.2-7.1  ×  10-1, respectively. In both Ar and He, total energy losses decreased with increasing pressure. The secondary electron emission coefficients of Ar and He, which are evaluated for the hallow cathode configuration, are about 0.42 and 0.26, respectively, and are higher in comparison with the plate cathode configuration.

  10. Pre-Analytical Parameters Affecting Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Measurement in Plasma: Identifying Confounders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna M Walz

    Full Text Available Vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A is intensively investigated in various medical fields. However, comparing VEGF-A measurements is difficult because sample acquisition and pre-analytic procedures differ between studies. We therefore investigated which variables act as confounders of VEGF-A measurements.Following a standardized protocol, blood was taken at three clinical sites from six healthy participants (one male and one female participant at each center twice one week apart. The following pre-analytical parameters were varied in order to analyze their impact on VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant (EDTA vs. PECT / CTAD, cannula (butterfly vs. neonatal, type of centrifuge (swing-out vs. fixed-angle, time before and after centrifugation, filling level (completely filled vs. half-filled tubes and analyzing method (ELISA vs. multiplex bead array. Additionally, intrapersonal variations over time and sex differences were explored. Statistical analysis was performed using a linear regression model.The following parameters were identified as statistically significant independent confounders of VEGF-A measurements: analyzing center, anticoagulant, centrifuge, analyzing method and sex of the proband. The following parameters were no significant confounders in our data set: intrapersonal variation over one week, cannula, time before and after centrifugation and filling level of collection tubes.VEGF-A measurement results can be affected significantly by the identified pre-analytical parameters. We recommend the use of CTAD anticoagulant, a standardized type of centrifuge and one central laboratory using the same analyzing method for all samples.

  11. An improved model to analyze Langmuir probe assisted photo-detachment signal for measuring electronegative plasma parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirse, Nishant; Oudini, Noureddine; Bendib, Abderrezeg; Ellingboe, Albert R.

    2016-09-01

    A diagnostic technique for measuring negative ion parameters based on Langmuir probe assisted laser photo-detachment relies on a theoretical model which relates the rise in the electron saturation current to electronegativity in the plasma. The existing model depend on various assumptions and neglect electrostatic potential barrier formed between the laser column (electropositive column) and the surrounding electronegative plasma in order to prevent the outward flow of electrons from the electropositive plasma column. These assumptions leads to erroneous estimation of the plasma electronegativity. In the present work, we present an analytical model to analyze Langmuir probe assisted photo-detachment signal in order to improve the accuracy of measured electronegativity and extended this technique for measuring electron temperature and charged species density. The analytical model is validated using both experiments and particle-in-cell simulation. The results shows improved accuracy in the measured parameters when compared to existing model. This work was supported by the Korea Institute for the Advancement of Technology and Ministry of Knowledge Economy (L-2010-1438-000), Republic of Korea, Enterprise Ireland and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) under NSRF 2007-2013.

  12. Real time measurement of plasma macroscopic parameters on RFX-mod using a limited set of sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlacek, Ondrej; Zanca, Paolo; Finotti, Claudio; Marchiori, Giuseppe; Cavazzana, Roberto; Marrelli, Lionello

    2015-10-01

    A method to estimate the plasma boundary and global parameters such as βp+li/2 and the edge safety factor q95 is described. The method is based on poloidal flux extrapolation in the vacuum region between the plasma and the magnetic measurements, and it is efficient and accurate even if a limited set of sensors is used. The discrepancy between the plasma boundary provided by this method and the boundary computed by the Grad-Shafranov solver MAXFEA is lower than 8 mm in all the considered cases. Moreover, the method is robust against the noise level present in the RFX-mod measurements. The difference between the estimated global parameters and the MAXFEA simulation results is lower than 4%. The method was finally implemented in the RFX-mod shape control system, working at 5 kHz cycle frequency, to provide a reliable set of plasma-wall distances (gaps) used as feedback signals. Experimental results obtained in one year of RFX-mod operation are shown.

  13. Comparison between measured scrape-off layer plasma parameters and 2D model calculations for JET X-point discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loarte, A. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Chankin, A. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Clement, S. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Corrigan, G. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Harbour, P. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Horton, L. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Janeschitz, G. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Lingertat, J. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Matthews, G. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Simonini, R. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Tagle, J.A. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Taroni, A. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom); Vlases, G. [JET Joint Undertaking, Abingdon, Oxon, OX14 3EA (United Kingdom)

    1995-04-01

    Modelling with the EDGE2D/U-NIMBUS code of the measured scrape-off layer plasma parameters for JET divertor discharges is presented. Model results agree with the experiment if very small values (< or {approx}0.1 m{sup 2}/s in H-modes and low power L-modes) for the anomalous particle transport diffusion coefficient in the SOL are used. While the assumption of the power flow out of the main plasma being carried equally by the electrons and the ions describes satisfactorily the global power balance for Ohmic and L-mode discharges, more power flowing out through the ion channel is consistent with the power balance in hot ion H-modes. Some sensitivity studies of the code results on the modelling hypothesis are discussed. ((orig.)).

  14. Planetary Rotation Modulation of Various Measured Plasma Parameters in Saturns Magnetosphere: a Possible Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Brandt, P. C.; Carbary, J. F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Mauk, B. E.; Paranicas, C. P.; Roelof, E. C.; Jones, G.; Krupp, N.; Lagg, A.; Gurnett, D. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Dougherty, M. K.; Southwood, D. J.; Saur, J.; Zarka, P.

    2006-05-01

    The period of Saturn kilometric radiation (SKR) modulation established by Voyagers 1 and 2 in 1980 and 1981 (10 hours, 39 minutes, 22.4 +/- 7s) has been adopted by the International Astronomical Union as the official rotation period of Saturn. Other quantities seen to exhibit modulation at about the same period include the magnetic field, energetic electron spectral slope, and energetic neutral atom (ENA) emission. However first the Ulysses spacecraft, and later Cassini, have measured a significantly different the SKR period than the Voyagers (approximately 10 hours, 45minutes). This change is problematic, because if the field is truly locked to Saturns rotation, this would imply a huge change in angular momentum over a relatively short period. Furthermore, no consensus model has been accepted to explain how the effects of the rotation are communicated from the planetary body out to distances as large as over 20 Rs (Saturn radii). In this paper, we explore the possibility that the observed SKR period is not Saturns intrinsic rotation period, but rather stems from friction between the ionosphere and Saturns zonal wind flows. We suggest that the SKR location reflects a high conductivity anomaly in Saturns ionosphere, whereby rigid rotation is imposed on that part of the magnetosphere that connects via the magnetic field and field-aligned currents with this high conductivity anomaly (this is similar to the hypothesis of the camshaft model for the magnetic perturbation suggested by Espinosa et al., 2003). In that work, Espinosa et al. suggest that the high conductivity region exists because of a high order magnetic anomaly, that affects ionospheric conductivity locally. We extend that model to include a feed-back loop with the magnetosphere. In this scenario, a magnetospheric disturbance initially triggered by interaction with the field-aligned currents results in additional energy deposition in the ionosphere. This further increases the ionospheric conductivity, but

  15. Optimization of nitrogen plasma source parameters by measurements of emitted light intensity for growth of GaN by molecular beam epitaxy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klosek, K.; Sobanska, M.; Tchutchulashvili, G.; Zytkiewicz, Z.R., E-mail: zytkie@ifpan.edu.pl; Teisseyre, H.; Klopotowski, L.

    2013-05-01

    A comprehensive analysis of operating parameters of Addon RF nitrogen plasma source was made in order to determine how a ratio of different active nitrogen species depends on operating parameters of the source such as supplied power and nitrogen flow. We show that output signal of the optical sensor that measures intensity of the light emitted by the plasma is a direct measure of the amount of active nitrogen available for growth. Results of optical emission spectroscopy and measurements of growth kinetics show that nitrogen excited metastable molecules are the species mainly contributing to the growth of GaN under Ga-rich conditions. A procedure is presented allowing to find an optimal conditions of the plasma cell for high-quality GaN growth. Under these conditions the nitrogen flux contains maximum amount of excited metastable molecules and minimal amount of ionic and atomic nitrogen species to minimize GaN lattice damage, even at high growth rates. - Highlights: ► Operating parameters of Addon radio-frequency nitrogen plasma source studied ► Their influence on molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of GaN analyzed ► MBE growth rate of GaN well correlates with output of the plasma emission sensor. ► Optical emission spectroscopy measurements of the nitrogen plasma made ► Nitrogen excited molecules mainly contribute to plasma-assisted MBE growth of GaN.

  16. Current state-of-the-art for the measurement of non-Maxwellian plasma parameters with the EISCAT UHF Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hubert

    Full Text Available New results on the information that can be extracted from simulated non-Maxwellian incoherent radar spectra are presented. The cases of a pure ionosphere and of a composite ionosphere typical of a given altitude of the auroral F region are considered. In the case of a pure ionosphere of NO+ or O+ ions it has been shown that the electron temperature and the electron density can be derived from a Maxwellian analysis of radar spectra measured at aspect angles of 0° or 21° respectively; the ion temperature and ion temperature anisotropy can be derived from a non- constraining model such as the 1D Raman fitting of a complementary measurement made at an aspect angle larger than 0° for the NO+ ions, or at an aspect angle larger than 21° for the O+ ions. Moreover with such measurements at large aspect angles, the shape of the velocity ion distribution functions can simultaneously be inferred. The case of a composite ionosphere of atomic O+ and molecular NO+ ions is a difficult challenge which requires simultaneously a complementary measurement of the electron temperature to provide the ion composition and the electron density from the incoherent radar spectra at a specific aspect angle of 21°; hence, a model dependent routine is necessary to derive the ion temperatures and ion temperature anisotropies. In the case where the electron temperature is not given, a routine which depends on ion distribution models is required first: the better the ion distribution models are, the more accurately derived the plasma parameters will be. In both cases of a composite ionosphere, the 1D Raman fitting can be used to keep a check on the validity of the results provided by the ion distribution model dependent routine.

  17. Plasma diagnostics discharge parameters and chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Auciello, Orlando

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Diagnostics, Volume 1: Discharge Parameters and Chemistry covers seven chapters on the important diagnostic techniques for plasmas and details their use in particular applications. The book discusses optical diagnostic techniques for low pressure plasmas and plasma processing; plasma diagnostics for electrical discharge light sources; as well as Langmuir probes. The text also describes the mass spectroscopy of plasmas, microwave diagnostics, paramagnetic resonance diagnostics, and diagnostics in thermal plasma processing. Electrical engineers, nuclear engineers, microwave engineers, che

  18. Sensor for monitoring plasma parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bolshakov, A A; Sharma, S P; Bol'shakov, Alexander A.; Cruden, Brett A.; Sharma, Surendra P.

    2004-01-01

    A spectrally tunable VCSEL (vertical cavity surface-emitting laser) was used as part of sensing hardware for measurements of the radial-integrated gas temperature inside an inductively coupled plasma reactor. The data were obtained by profiling the Doppler-broadened absorption of metastable Ar atoms at 763.51 nm in argon and argon/nitrogen plasmas (3, 45, and 90% N2 in Ar) at pressure 0.5-70 Pa and inductive power of 100 and 300 W. The results were compared to rotational temperature derived from the N2 emission at the (0,0) transition of the C - B system. The differences in integrated rotational and Doppler temperatures were attributed to non-uniform spatial distributions of both temperature and thermometric species (Ar* and N2*) that varied depending on conditions. A two-dimensional, two-temperature fluid plasma simulation was employed to explain these differences. This work should facilitate further development of a miniature sensor for non-intrusive acquisition of data (temperature and densities of multipl...

  19. Electrostatic energy analyzer measurements of low energy zirconium beam parameters in a plasma sputter-type negative ion source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malapit, Giovanni M; Mahinay, Christian Lorenz S; Poral, Matthew D; Ramos, Henry J

    2012-02-01

    A plasma sputter-type negative ion source is utilized to produce and detect negative Zr ions with energies between 150 and 450 eV via a retarding potential-type electrostatic energy analyzer. Traditional and modified semi-cylindrical Faraday cups (FC) inside the analyzer are employed to sample negative Zr ions and measure corresponding ion currents. The traditional FC registered indistinct ion current readings which are attributed to backscattering of ions and secondary electron emissions. The modified Faraday cup with biased repeller guard ring, cut out these signal distortions leaving only ringings as issues which are theoretically compensated by fitting a sigmoidal function into the data. The mean energy and energy spread are calculated using the ion current versus retarding potential data while the beam width values are determined from the data of the transverse measurement of ion current. The most energetic negative Zr ions yield tighter energy spread at 4.11 eV compared to the least energetic negative Zr ions at 4.79 eV. The smallest calculated beam width is 1.04 cm for the negative Zr ions with the highest mean energy indicating a more focused beam in contrast to the less energetic negative Zr ions due to space charge forces.

  20. Measuring the chargino parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Kalinowski

    2000-07-01

    After the supersymmetric particles have been discovered, the priority will be to determine independently the fundamental parameters to reveal the structure of the underlying supersymmetric theory. In my talk I discuss how the chargino sector can be reconstructed completely by measuring the cross-sections with polarized beams at e+e- collider experiments: $\\tilde{X}^{+}_{i}\\tilde{X}^{-}_{j}[i,j=1,2]$. The closure of the two-chargino system can be investigated by analysing sum rules for the production cross-sections.

  1. Parameters of atmospheric plasmas produced by electrosurgical devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alexey; Canady, Jerome

    2013-10-01

    Electrosurgical systems are extensively utilized in general surgery, surgical oncology, plastic and reconstructive surgery etc. In this work we study plasma parameters created by electrosurgical system SS-200E/Argon 2 of US Medical Innovations. The maximal length of the discharge plasma column at which the discharge can be sustained was determined as function of discharge power and argon flow rate. Electrical parameters including discharge current and voltage were measured. Recently proposed Rayleigh microwave scattering method for temporally resolved density measurements of small-size atmospheric plasmas was utilized. Simultaneously, evolution of plasma column was observed using intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera.

  2. Measurement of performance parameters of plasma source for plasma opening switch on Qiangguang-Ⅰ generator%强光一号POS等离子体源性能参数测量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗维熙; 曾正中; 雷天时; 王亮平; 呼义翔; 孙铁平; 黄涛

    2012-01-01

    以强光一号等离子体源(电缆枪)为研究对象,采用电荷收集器(法拉第杯)对强光一号等离子体源性能参数进行测量.实验结果表明:等离子体发射密度与电缆等离子体枪枪芯到枪口的距离正相关,而发射速度与电缆等离子体枪枪芯到枪口的距离负相关;增大电缆枪驱动电压时,等离子体发射密度增速远小于驱动电流增速.重复性研究表明,对由数十支电缆枪组成的等离子体源而言,单支电缆枪放电分散性对其输出等离子体整体分布均匀性影响不大.不确定度分析表明,通过多次重复实验求平均值,可以有效减小实验结果的不确定度,发射密度测量结果的合成标准不确定度在10%以内.%The plasma source (cable guns) of the plasma opening switch(POS) on Qiangguang I generator was chosen as the study object. The plasma source performance was investigated by using charge collectors. Experimental results show that the plasma ejection density is positively correlated with the structural parameter, the distance between gun core tip and muzzle plane, and the plasma ejection velocity is negatively correlated with the parameter. The increasing rate of plasma ejection density is less than that of drive current. As far as a plasma source with tens of cable plasma guns is concerned, the influence of single cable gun's discharge dispersancy on plasma uniformity is little. Analysis of uncertainty shows that the uncertainty of measurement can be reduced by increasing the number of experiments and averaging the results. The combined standard uncertainty of plasma ejection density is less than 10%.

  3. Optimization of audio - ultrasonic plasma system parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleem, N. A.; Abdelrahman, M. M.; Ragheb, M. S.

    2016-10-01

    The present plasma is a special glow plasma type generated by an audio ultrasonic discharge voltage. A definite discharge frequency using a gas at a narrow band pressure creates and stabilizes this plasma type. The plasma cell is a self-extracted ion beam; it is featured with its high output intensity and its small size. The influence of the plasma column length on the output beam due to the variation of both the audio discharge frequency and the power applied to the plasma electrodes is investigated. In consequence, the aim of the present work is to put in evidence the parameters that influence the self-extracted collected ion beam and to optimize the conditions that enhance the collected ion beam. The experimental parameters studied are the nitrogen gas, the applied frequency from 10 to 100 kHz, the plasma length that varies from 8 to 14 cm, at a gas pressure of ≈ 0.25 Torr and finally the discharge power from 50 to 500 Watt. A sheet of polyethylene of 5 micrometer covers the collector electrode in order to confirm how much ions from the beam can go through the polymer and reach the collector. To diagnose the occurring events of the beam on the collector, the polymer used is analyzed by means of the FTIR and the XRF techniques. Optimization of the plasma cell parameters succeeded to enhance and to identify the parameters that influence the output ion beam and proved that its particles attaining the collector are multi-energetic.

  4. Measuring Kinetic Plasma Eigenmodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Sean; Berumen, Jorge; Chu, Feng; Hood, Ryan; Skiff, Fred

    2015-11-01

    We present a method for measuring kinetic plasma eigenmodes of a cylindrical axially magnetized (1 kG) laboratory plasma (n ~109cm-3 , Te ~ 5eV , Ti ~ 0 . 06eV) by measuring velocity space correlation functions. This method simultaneously observes two separate laser induced fluorescence schemes. Each scheme has its own indepedently tunable laser and its own set of collection optics. With this setup, we are able to measure the time - averaged correlation function as a function of position on the cylindrical axis parallel to the magnetic field (z) and velocity on the deconvolved ion velocity distribution function (v) : C (z , v ,z' ,v' , τ) = t. The freedom of two lasers allows us to measure a two dimensional velocity correlation matrix. This matrix is investigated with the Vlasov equation in the collisionless and weakly collisional regime. The former case, which is continuous, is diagonalized with an integral transform defined by P. J. Morrison while the latter case, which is discrete, is diagonalized through the use of Hermite polynomials.

  5. Sensitivity of transient synchrotron radiation to tokamak plasma parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisch, N.J.; Kritz, A.H.

    1988-12-01

    Synchrotron radiation from a hot plasma can inform on certain plasma parameters. The dependence on plasma parameters is particularly sensitive for the transient radiation response to a brief, deliberate, perturbation of hot plasma electrons. We investigate how such a radiation response can be used to diagnose a variety of plasma parameters in a tokamak. 18 refs., 13 figs.

  6. Investigation of plasma parameters in an active screen cage-pulsed dc plasma used for plasma nitriding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, M.; Khattak, Z. I.; Zaka-ul-Islam, M.; Shabir, S.; Khan, A. W.; Zakaullah, M.

    2014-11-01

    Active screen cage-pulsed dc plasmas are widely used in the material processing applications such as plasma nitriding, carburizing and nitrocarburizing. Specifically for plasma nitriding applications, a H2-N2 mixture is used. In this article, a study of the electron number density (ne), atomic nitrogen density ([N]), electron temperature ? and the excitation temperature ? is reported in the presence of an active screen cage-pulsed dc plasma. The ne and ? are determined here by a triple Langmuir probe, while [N] and ? are estimated by optical emission spectroscopy (OES). The two temperatures and their ratio ? are compared for different input parameters (such as applied power, gas pressure and H2 percentage). This study is useful in active screen cage plasma nitriding applications where only few plasma diagnostic measurements have been reported.

  7. Use of a probing pulsed magnetic field for determining plasma parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousskikh, A. G.; Oreshkin, V. I.; Zhigalin, A. S.; Yushkov, G. Yu.

    2016-11-01

    A novel, simple, and readily usable method is proposed for measuring the electrical conductivity and temperature of a plasma. The method is based on the interaction of the test plasma with a pulsed magnetic field. The electric signals induced by the magnetic field in the circuits of two probes (miniature solenoids), one immersed in the test plasma and the other placed outside the plasma, provide data for estimating the plasma parameters. The method was verified experimentally by determining the parameters of the plasma flows generated in the cathode spots high-current pulsed vacuum arcs that were used to form cylindrical shells of bismuth Z-pinch plasma.

  8. Variation of plasma parameters in a modified mode of plasma production in a double plasma device

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Phukan; M K Mishra; B K Saikia; M Chakraborty

    2010-03-01

    A modified mode of plasma production in a double plasma device is presented and plasma parameters are controlled in this configuration. Here plasma is produced by applying a discharge voltage between the hot filaments in the source (cathode) and the target magnetic cage (anode) of the device. In this configuration, the hot electron emitting filaments are present only in the source and the magnetic cage of this is kept at a negative bias such that due to the repulsion of the cage bias, the primary electrons can go to the grounded target and produce plasma there. The plasma parameters can be controlled by varying the voltages applied to the source magnetic cage and the separation grid of the device.

  9. Plasma Beam Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-01

    GUN PLASMA BEAM / ,I 21 cm diameter = 0 GLASS DRIFT TUBE 50 cm diameter MCP CAMERA CLASS CROSSES (a) Gun muzzle /"- PLASA BEAM / TAROT z = 10 m MCP...discusses some of the hydrodynamic issues related to the calcula- tions. The reader may well wonder why hydrodynamics should be an issue in a 116 WL-TR-90...answer is yes for the slow beam cases and no for the fast beam cases. This is explained further. 118 WL-TR-90-83 The reader will recall the

  10. Programmable physical parameter optimization for particle plasma simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragan-Kelley, Benjamin; Verboncoeur, John; Lin, Ming-Chieh

    2012-10-01

    We have developed a scheme for interactive and programmable optimization of physical parameters for plasma simulations. The simulation code Object-Oriented Plasma Device 1-D (OOPD1) has been adapted to a Python interface, allowing sophisticated user or program interaction with simulations, and detailed numerical analysis via numpy. Because the analysis/diagnostic interface is the same as the input mechanism (the Python programming language), it is straightforward to optimize simulation parameters based on analysis of previous runs and automate the optimization process using a user-determined scheme and criteria. An example use case of the Child-Langmuir space charge limit in bipolar flow is demonstrated, where the beam current is iterated upon by measuring the relationship of the measured current and the injected current.

  11. High pressure rinsing parameters measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaliere, E. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Fusetti, M. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Michelato, P. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Pagani, C. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy)]. E-mail: carlo.pagani@mi.infn.it; Pierini, P. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Paulon, R. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Sertore, D. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    High pressure rinsing with ultra pure water jet is an essential step in the high field superconducting cavity production process. In this paper, we illustrate the experimental characterization of a HPR system, in terms of specific power and energy deposition on the cavity surfaces and on the damage threshold for niobium. These measurements are used to tentatively derive general rules for the optimization of the free process parameters (nozzle geometry, speeds and water pressure)

  12. Turbulence measurements in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    Turbulence measurements in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas have a long history and relevance due to the detrimental role of turbulence induced transport on particle, energy, impurity and momentum confinement. The turbulence—the microscopic random fluctuations in particle density, temperature, potential and magnetic field—is generally driven by radial gradients in the plasma density and temperature. The correlation between the turbulence properties and global confinement, via enhanced diffusion, convection and direct conduction, is now well documented. Theory, together with recent measurements, also indicates that non-linear interactions within the turbulence generate large scale zonal flows and geodesic oscillations, which can feed back onto the turbulence and equilibrium profiles creating a complex interdependence. An overview of the current status and understanding of plasma turbulence measurements in the closed flux surface region of magnetic confinement fusion devices is presented, highlighting some recent developments and outstanding problems.

  13. Profiles of plasma parameters and density of negative hydrogen ions by laser detachment measurements in RF-driven ion sources; Profile der Plasmaparameter und Dichte negativer Wasserstoffionen mittels Laserdetachmentmessungen in HF-angeregten Ionenquellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ-Koch, Sina

    2007-12-20

    This work shows the application of the Laserdetachment method for spatially resolved measurements of negative Hydrogen/Deuterium ion density. It was applied on a high power low pressure RF-driven ion source. The Laser detachment method is based on the measurement of electron currents on a positively biased Langmuir probe before and during/after a laser pulse. The density ratio of negative ions to electrons can be derived from the ratio of currents to the probe. The absolute density of negative ions can be obtained when the electron density is measured with the standard Langmuir probe setup. Measurements with the Langmuir probe additionally yield information about the floating and plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density of positive ions. The Laser detachment setup had to be adapted to the special conditions of the RF-driven source. In particular the existence of RF fields (1 MHz), high source potential (-20 kV), magnetic fields ({proportional_to} 7 mT) and caesium inside the source had to be considered. The density of negative ions could be identified in the range of n(H{sup -})=1.10{sup 17} 1/m{sup 3}, which is in the same order of magnitude as the electron density. Only the application of the Laser detachment method with the Langmuir probe measurements will yield spatially resolved plasma parameters and H- density profiles. The influence of diverse external parameters, such as pressure, RF-power, magnetic fields on the plasma parameters and their profiles were studied and explained. Hence, the measurements lead to a detailed understanding of the processes inside the source. (orig.)

  14. Multi-parameter gradient procedure for polarimetry data inversion in tokamak plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chrzanowski, J., E-mail: j.chrzanowski@am.szczecin.pl [Maritime University, Szczecin Wały Chrobrego 1/2 (Poland); Kravtsov, Yu. A. [Maritime University, Szczecin Wały Chrobrego 1/2 (Poland); Mazon, D. [Association Euratom/CEA, CEA Cadarache DSM/IRFM, 13108 St. Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); JET, Culham (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► We use gradient procedure to fit plasma parameters to polarimetric data. ► Calculations are performed in developed by authors angular variables technique. ► Numerical results are compared with experimentally measured angular parameters. ► We observe satisfied accuracy of inversion procedure after several iterations. -- Abstract: Multi-parameter gradient procedure is suggested which allows fitting tokamak plasma model to polarimetric data. One of the simplest version of gradient procedure deals with four parameters model: maximum values of electron density, maximum value of electric current density in plasma, common radius of electron density, electric current distributions and increment of the safety factor inside plasma. Using recently developed by authors angular variables technique (AVT) in plasma polarimetry we may compute angular parameters of polarization ellipse for a given set of four plasma parameters and compare them with experimentally measured angular parameters. With angular parameters, measured in two channels polarimetric system (two azimuthal and two ellipticity angles, totally four experimental values). Applying then gradient procedure for squared difference between computed and measured parameters, we find four parameters of plasma model and thereby perform inversion of polarimetric data. Numerical simulations have approved that gradient procedure provides acceptable accuracy of inversion already after several iterations.

  15. Thomson Scattering Measurements of Plasma Dynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holl, A; Redmer, R; Tschentscher, T; Toleikis, S; Forster, E; Cao, L; Glenzer, S H; Neumayer, P

    2006-03-29

    The authors propose to investigate the dynamics of plasmas in the warm dense matter (WDM) regime on ultra-short time scales. Accessible plasma conditions are in the density range of n = 10{sup 20} - 10{sup 23} cm{sup -3} and at moderate temperatures of T = 1 - 20 eV. These plasmas are of importance for laboratory astrophysics, high energy density science and inertial confinement fusion. They are characterized by a coupling parameter of {Lambda} {approx}> 1, where electromagnetic interactions are of the same order as the kinetic energy. The high density of the plasma makes it opaque to radiation in the visible range and, as a consequence, UV up to x-ray radiation can be used to probe such systems. Therefore a wide range in the temperature-density plane of WDM is presently unexplored and only the VUV-FEL opens for the first time the opportunity for its detailed investigation. In equilibrium, the macroscopic state of the plasma is completely characterized by its density and temperature. In pump-probe experiments however, the plasma is initially in a nonequilibrium state and relaxes towards equilibrium within the relaxation time {tau}{sub R}. For t > {tau}{sub R}, the plasma is in an equilibrium state and expands hydrodynamically on a time scale {tau}{sub H}. The proposed experiment measures the time-resolved Thomson scattering signal with the VUV-FEL radiation characterizing the plasma in equilibrium and nonequilibrium states. Both regimes are extremely interesting and will provide new insight into the following phenomena: (1) details of nonequilibrium correlations, (2) relaxation phenomena, (3) hydrodynamic expansion, (4) recombination kinetics. The time-resolved Thomson scattering signal is obtained in a pump-probe experiment by varying the delay between pump and probe. The final stage of the relaxation process (t {approx} {tau}{sub R}) is of special interest since the plasma components (electrons and ion species) can be assumed to be in quasi-equilibrium. This

  16. Measuring neutrino oscillation parameters using $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhouse, Christopher James [Oriel College, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    MINOS is a long-baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It consists of two large steel-scintillator tracking calorimeters. The near detector is situated at Fermilab, close to the production point of the NuMI muon-neutrino beam. The far detector is 735 km away, 716m underground in the Soudan mine, Northern Minnesota. The primary purpose of the MINOS experiment is to make precise measurements of the 'atmospheric' neutrino oscillation parameters (Δmatm2 and sin2atm). The oscillation signal consists of an energy-dependent deficit of vμ interactions in the far detector. The near detector is used to characterize the properties of the beam before oscillations develop. The two-detector design allows many potential sources of systematic error in the far detector to be mitigated by the near detector observations. This thesis describes the details of the vμ-disappearance analysis, and presents a new technique to estimate the hadronic energy of neutrino interactions. This estimator achieves a significant improvement in the energy resolution of the neutrino spectrum, and in the sensitivity of the neutrino oscillation fit. The systematic uncertainty on the hadronic energy scale was re-evaluated and found to be comparable to that of the energy estimator previously in use. The best-fit oscillation parameters of the vμ-disappearance analysis, incorporating this new estimator were: Δm2 = 2.32-0.08+0.12 x 10-3 eV2, sin 2 2θ > 0.90 (90% C.L.). A similar analysis, using data from a period of running where the NuMI beam was operated in a configuration producing a predominantly $\\bar{v}$μ beam, yielded somewhat different best-fit parameters Δ$\\bar{m}${sup 2} = (3.36-0.40+0.46(stat.) ± 0.06(syst.)) x 10-3eV2, sin2 2$\\bar{θ}$ = 0.86-0.12_0

  17. Spectroscopic studies of the parameters of plasma jets during their propagation in the background plasma on the PF-3 facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan’ko, S. A.; Ananyev, S. S.; Kalinin, Yu G.; Krauz, V. I.; Myalton, V. V.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents measurement results of neon and helium plasma parameters in axial jets generated in plasma focus discharge. They were obtained in the course of experiments on laboratory modeling of astrophysical jets performed at the PF-3 facility. The plasma concentration was determined according to Stark broadening of spectral lines; the ionization temperature was determined by the average ion charge. The values of the concentration and temperature of jet plasma and background plasma at two distances from the pinch are also presented. In addition, an estimation was made of the heat content losses of the neon and helium jets during their movement through the surrounding medium.

  18. A study on plasma parameters in Ar/SF6 inductively coupled plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung-Ju; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) gas or Ar/SF6 mixing gas is widely used in plasma processes. However, there are a little experimental studies with various external parameters such as gas pressure and mixing ratio. In this work, a study of the plasma parameters by changing the gas mixing ratio was done in an Ar/SF6 inductively coupled plasma from the measurement of the electron energy distribution function. At a low gas pressure, as the mixing ratio of SF6 gas increased at a fixed inductively coupled plasma (ICP) power, the electron density decreased and the electron temperature increased, while they were not changed drastically. At a high gas pressure, a remarkable increase in the electron temperature was observed with the decrease in the electron density. These variations are due to the electron loss reactions such as the electron attachment. It was also found that at a fixed ICP power, the negative ion creation with the diluted SF6 gas can change the discharge mode transition from an inductive mode to a capacitive mode at the high gas pressure. The electron attachment reactions remove the low energy electrons and change the mean electron energy towards higher energies with diluting SF6 gas at high pressure. The measured results were compared with the simplified global model, and the global model is in relatively good agreement with the measured plasma parameters except for the result in the case of the large portion of SF6 gas at the high pressure and the capacitive mode, which causes strong negative ion formation by the electron attachment reactions.

  19. Plasma Anemometer Measurements and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Curtis; Matlis, Eric; Corke, Thomas; Gogineni, Sivaram

    2013-11-01

    Velocity measurements using a constant-current plasma anemometer were performed in a Mach 0.4 jet in order to further optimize the anemometer design. The plasma anemometer uses an AC glow discharge (plasma) formed in the air gap between two protruding low profile electrodes as the flow sensing element. The output from the anemometer is an amplitude modulated version of the AC voltage input that contains information about the mean fluctuating velocity components. Experiments were performed to investigate the effect of the electrode gap, AC current, and AC frequency on the mean and fluctuating velocity sensitivity and repeatability of the sensor. This involved mean velocity calibrations from 0 to 140 m/s and mean and fluctuating velocity profiles through the shear layer of the jet. Measurements with a constant temperature hot-wire anemometer were used for reference. The results showed an improvement in performance with increasing AC frequency that was attributed a more stable glow discharge. The agreement with the hot-wire were good, with the advantage of the plasma anemometer being its 100-times higher frequency response. Supported by Air Force SBIR Phase II FA8650-11-C-2199.

  20. Local measurement of transport parameters for laser injected trace impurities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannella, R.; Lauro-Taroni, L. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking

    1994-07-01

    A procedure has been developed that determines local measurements of transport parameters`s profiles for injected impurities. The measured profiles extend from the plasma centre up to a certain radial position (usually {rho} = 0.6-0.7). In the outer region of the plasma the procedure supplies ``most suitable extensions`` up to the plasma edge of the measured transport profiles. The procedure intrinsically assures consistency and excellent agreement between the simulated and experimental data of local broad band soft X-ray emissivity and intensities of individual emission lines from different ion states of the injected impurities. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Numerical Simulation of Basic Parameters in Plasma Spray

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范群波; 王鲁; 王富耻

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of energy balance in the plasma gas, a new, simplified but effective mathematical model is developed to predict the temperature, velocity and ionization degrees of different species at the torch exit, which can be directly calculated just by inputting the general spraying parameters, such as current, voltage, flow rates of gases, etc. Based on this method, the effects of plasma current and the flow rate of Ar on the basic parameters at the torch exit are discussed. The results show that the temperature, velocity and ionization degrees of gas species will increase with increasing the plasma current; while increasing Ar flow rate can increase the velocity at the exit but decrease the temperature and ionization degrees of plasma species. The method would be helpful to predict the temperature and velocity fields in a plasma jet in future, and direct the practical plasma spray operations.

  2. Evolution of plasma parameters in a He - N2/Ar magnetic pole enhanced inductive plasma source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younus, Maria; Rehman, N. U.; Shafiq, M.; Zakaullah, M.; Abrar, M.

    2016-02-01

    A magnetic pole enhanced inductively coupled H e - N2/A r plasma is studied at low pressure, to monitor the effects of helium mixing on plasma parameters like electron number density (ne) , electron temperature (Te) , plasma potential (Vp ) , and electron energy probability functions (EEPFs). An RF compensated Langmuir probe is employed to measure these plasma parameters. It is noted that electron number density increases with increasing RF power and helium concentration in the mixture, while it decreases with increase in filling gas pressure. On the other hand, electron temperature shows an increasing trend with helium concentration in the mixture. At low RF powers and low helium concentration in the mixture, EEPFs show a "bi-Maxwellian" distribution with pressure. While at RF powers greater than 50 W and higher helium concentration in the mixture, EEPFs evolve into "Maxwellian" distribution. The variation of skin depth with RF power and helium concentration in the mixture, and its relation with EEPF are also studied. The effect of helium concentrations on the temperatures of two electron groups ( Tb u l k and Tt a i l ) in the "bi-Maxwellian" EEPFs is also observed. The temperature of low energy electron group ( Tb u l k) shows significant increase with helium addition, while the temperature of tail electrons ( Tt a i l) increases smoothly as compared to ( Tb u l k).

  3. Plasma parameters controlled by remote electron shower in a double plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, M. K.; Phukan, A.

    2012-07-01

    The principal feature of this experiment is the electron showers consisting of three tungsten wires embedded by the plasma, which are heated up consequently emitting electrons inside the diffused plasma to control the plasma parameters in the discharge section of a double plasma device. These cold electrons emitted by the heated filament are free from maintenance of discharge which is sustained in the source section. The target plasma, where electrons are injected is produced as a result of diffusion from the source section. It is found that, plasma density and plasma potential can be effectively controlled in this way.

  4. Study of parameters of a facility generating compressive plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyvi, A. Ya

    2017-05-01

    The prosperity of plasma technologies stimulates making of a facility generating compressive plasma flows at the South Ural State University. The facility is a compact-geometry magnetoplasma compressor with the following parameters: stored energy up to 15 kJ, voltage of a bank from 3 to 5 kV; nitrogen, air, and other gases can serve as its operating gas. The investigation of parameters of the facility showed the following parameters of compressive plasma flows: impulse duration of up to 120 μs, discharge current of 50-120 kA, speed of plasma flow of 15-30 km/s. By contrast to the available facilities, the parameters of the developed facility can be adjusted in a wide range of voltage from 2 kV to 10 kV, its design permits generating CPF in horizontal and vertical positions.

  5. Collisionless expansion of pulsed radio frequency plasmas. II. Parameter study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, T.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.

    2016-01-01

    The plasma parameter dependencies of the dynamics during the expansion of plasma are studied with the use of a versatile particle-in-cell simulation tailored to a plasma expansion experiment [Schröder et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 055207 (2014); Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The plasma expansion into a low-density ambient plasma features a propagating ion front that is preceding a density plateau. It has been shown that the front formation is entangled with a wave-breaking mechanism, i.e., an ion collapse [Sack and Schamel, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 27, 717 (1985); Sack and Schamel, Phys. Lett. A 110, 206 (1985)], and the launch of an ion burst [Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The systematic parameter study presented in this paper focuses on the influence on this mechanism its effect on the maximum velocity of the ion front and burst. It is shown that, apart from the well known dependency of the front propagation on the ion sound velocity, it also depends sensitively on the density ratio between main and ambient plasma density. The maximum ion velocity depends further on the initial potential gradient, being mostly influenced by the plasma density ratio in the source and expansion regions. The results of the study are compared with independent numerical studies.

  6. Integral electrical characteristics and local plasma parameters of a RF ion thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masherov, P. E.; Riaby, V. A., E-mail: riaby2001@yahoo.com [Research Institute of Applied Mechanics and Electrodynamics of the Moscow Aviation Institute (National Research University), Moscow (Russian Federation); Godyak, V. A. [Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109, USA and RF Plasma Consulting, Brookline, Massachusetts 02446 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    Comprehensive diagnostics has been carried out for a RF ion thruster based on inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source with an external flat antenna coil enhanced by ferrite core. The ICP was confined within a cylindrical chamber with low aspect ratio to minimize plasma loss to the chamber wall. Integral diagnostics of the ICP electrical parameters (RF power balance and coil current) allowed for evaluation of the antenna coils, matching networks, and eddy current loss and the true RF power deposited to plasma. Spatially resolved electron energy distribution functions, plasma density, electron temperatures, and plasma potentials were measured with movable Langmuir probes.

  7. Plasma Arc Cutting Dimensional Accuracy Optimization employing the Parameter Design approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kechagias John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC is a thermal manufacturing process used for metal plates cutting. This work experimentally investigates the influence of process parameters onto the dimensional accuracy performance of the plasma arc cutting process. The cutting parameters studied were cutting speed (mm/min, torch standoff distance (mm, and arc voltage (volts. Linear dimensions of a rectangular workpiece were measured after PAC cutting following the full factorial design experimental approach. For each one of the three process parameters, three parameter levels were used. Analysis of means (ANOM and analysis of variances (ANOVA were performed in order for the effect of each parameter on the leaner dimensional accuracy to be assessed.

  8. Study on plasma parameters and dust charging in an electrostatically plugged multicusp plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-06-01

    The effect of the electrostatic confinement potential on the charging of dust grains and its relationship with the plasma parameters has been studied in an electrostatically plugged multicusp dusty plasma device. Electrostatic plugging is implemented by biasing the electrically isolated magnetic multicusp channel walls. The experimental results show that voltage applied to the channel walls can be a controlling parameter for dust charging.

  9. Increasing plasma parameters using sheared flow stabilization of a Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Claveau, E. L.; Forbes, E. G.; Golingo, R. P.; Hughes, M. C.; Oberto, R. J.; Ross, M. P.; Weber, T. R.

    2017-05-01

    The ZaP and ZaP-HD Flow Z-pinch experiments at the University of Washington have successfully demonstrated that sheared plasma flows can be used as a stabilization mechanism over a range of parameters that has not previously been accessible to long-lived Z-pinch configurations. The stabilization is effective even when the plasma column is compressed to small radii, producing predicted increases in magnetic field and electron temperature. The flow shear value, extent, and duration are shown to be consistent with theoretical models of the plasma viscosity, which places a design constraint on the maximum axial length of a sheared flow stabilized Z-pinch. Measurements of the magnetic field topology indicate simultaneous azimuthal symmetry and axial uniformity along the entire 100 cm length of the Z-pinch plasma. Separate control of plasma acceleration and compression has increased the accessible plasma parameters and has generated stable plasmas with radii of 0.3 cm, as measured with a high resolution digital holographic interferometer. Compressing the plasma with higher pinch currents has produced high magnetic fields (8.5 T) and electron temperatures (1 keV) with an electron density of 2 ×1017 cm-3, while maintaining plasma stability for many Alfvén times (approximately 50 μs). The results suggest that sheared flow stabilization can be applied to extend Z-pinch plasma parameters to high energy densities.

  10. Hemolysis interference in measuring fish plasma biochemical indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirghaed, Ali Taheri; Ghelichpour, Melika; Hoseini, Seyyed Morteza; Amini, Kourosh

    2017-08-01

    The present study aimed to determine hemolysis interference in measurement of plasma biochemical parameters in fish specimens. For this purpose, blood samples were harvested from 24 Huso huso juveniles. After centrifugation, each plasma sample was divided into seven portions to make seven levels of hemolysis. Hemolysis was induced by addition of different percentages of the corresponding whole blood [0 (non-hemolyzed control group), 1, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20% of whole blood]. Albumin, total protein, calcium, phosphorus, glucose, sodium, potassium, chloride, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), and alanine transaminase (ALT) were measured in different samples. Results showed that plasma albumin, ALP, potassium, and AST significantly increased (more than 200% at the highest hemolysis level) in the hemolyzed samples. Also, plasma total protein and phosphorus showed significant elevation in the hemolyzed samples (more than 70% at the highest hemolysis level). Plasma glucose, calcium, chloride, and ALT showed narrow but significant increase in hemolyzed samples (11.8-35.2% at the highest hemolysis level). Plasma sodium showed no significant changes in the hemolyzed samples. In conclusion, the present results show that hemolysis markedly affects plasma parameters levels, which interferes with plasma results interpretation. Therefore, analysis of hemolyzed samples should be avoided or the results should be interpreted with caution. This study encourages further investigations to develop methods for omitting the effects of hemolysis by sample blanking and/or presenting correction coefficients for measurement of plasma parameters in samples with different levels of hemolysis.

  11. EFFECT OF PLASMA CUTTING PARAMETERS UPON SHAPES OF BEARING CURVE OF C45 STEEL SURFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Skoczylas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies on the effect of plasma cutting technological parameters upon the shape of bearing curves and the parameters of the curve. The topography of surface formed by plasma cutting were analyzed. For measuring surface roughness and determining the bearing curve the appliance T8000 RC120 – 400 by Hommel-Etamic was used together with software.

  12. Software Development for JSA Dynamic Parameter Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO; Huang-da

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a series of experiment measurement system for Jordan sub-critical assembly.The dynamic parameter measurement system is used for measuring the prompt neutron decaying constant,a physics parameter of reactor character.It mainly consists of a 3He neutron detector in the reactor core,

  13. Parameters influencing plasma column potential in a reflex discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liziakin, G. D.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Murzaev, Y. A.; Usmanov, R. A.; Smirnov, V. P.

    2016-12-01

    Distribution of electrostatic potential in direct current reflex discharge plasma has been studied experimentally. Measurements have been conducted by the single floating probe method. The influence of 0-0.2 T magnetic field, 1-200 mTorr pressure, 0-2 kV discharge voltage, and electrodes geometry on plasma column electrostatic potential was investigated. The possibility for the formation of a preset potential profile required for the realization of plasma separation of spent nuclear fuel was demonstrated.

  14. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, 85748 Garching (Germany)

    2015-04-08

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high j{sub H{sup −}}, low j{sub e}) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H{sup −}, its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H{sup −} density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa)

  15. Dependence of the source performance on plasma parameters at the BATMAN test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimmer, C.; Fantz, U.

    2015-04-01

    The investigation of the dependence of the source performance (high jH-, low je) for optimum Cs conditions on the plasma parameters at the BATMAN (Bavarian Test MAchine for Negative hydrogen ions) test facility is desirable in order to find key parameters for the operation of the source as well as to deepen the physical understanding. The most relevant source physics takes place in the extended boundary layer, which is the plasma layer with a thickness of several cm in front of the plasma grid: the production of H-, its transport through the plasma and its extraction, inevitably accompanied by the co-extraction of electrons. Hence, a link of the source performance with the plasma parameters in the extended boundary layer is expected. In order to characterize electron and negative hydrogen ion fluxes in the extended boundary layer, Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy and Langmuir probes have been applied for the measurement of the H- density and the determination of the plasma density, the plasma potential and the electron temperature, respectively. The plasma potential is of particular importance as it determines the sheath potential profile at the plasma grid: depending on the plasma grid bias relative to the plasma potential, a transition in the plasma sheath from an electron repelling to an electron attracting sheath takes place, influencing strongly the electron fraction of the bias current and thus the amount of co-extracted electrons. Dependencies of the source performance on the determined plasma parameters are presented for the comparison of two source pressures (0.6 Pa, 0.45 Pa) in hydrogen operation. The higher source pressure of 0.6 Pa is a standard point of operation at BATMAN with external magnets, whereas the lower pressure of 0.45 Pa is closer to the ITER requirements (p ≤ 0.3 Pa).

  16. Methods for measurement of durability parameters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place

    1996-01-01

    Present selected methods for measurement of durabilty parameters relating to chlorides, corrosion, moisture and freeze-thaw, primarly on concrete. Advantages and drawbacks of the different methods are included.......Present selected methods for measurement of durabilty parameters relating to chlorides, corrosion, moisture and freeze-thaw, primarly on concrete. Advantages and drawbacks of the different methods are included....

  17. ECE Measurements of Helical Plasmas in LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Ito, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Sasao, H.; de Vries, P.

    1999-11-01

    This paper presents ECE measurements on LHD, which is the l=2, n=10 heriotron with the major radius of 3.8 m, with the averaged minor radius of 60 cm and with the helical field of up to 3 T. The ECE is collected from both inner and outer sides, since the magnetic field has a peaked profile. ECE is detcted with Michelson, GPC and 70 GHz and 140 GHz radiometers. The LHD plasma is generated using ECH of up to 1 MW and is heated using NBI of up to 8 GW. Notch filters reduce the ECH leakage. The polarization of ECE is theoretically and experimentally investigated in the heriotoron system, where the field angle rotates -30 to 30^o. The polarization follows as the field angle changes. Since the density profile is flat, ECE is cut off in the edge region in the high density LHD plasma. An interesting observation is the breathing phenomena, which is as follows: the electron temperature and other plasma parameters oscillate with frequency of 0.5-1Hz like a sine-wave when the NBI power is about 1 MW.

  18. Simulation of density measurements in plasma wakefields using photo acceleration

    CERN Document Server

    Kasim, Muhammad Firmansyah; Ceurvorst, Luke; Sadler, James; Burrows, Philip N; Trines, Raoul; Holloway, James; Wing, Matthew; Bingham, Robert; Norreys, Peter

    2015-01-01

    One obstacle in plasma accelerator development is the limitation of techniques to diagnose and measure plasma wakefield parameters. In this paper, we present a novel concept for the density measurement of a plasma wakefield using photon acceleration, supported by extensive particle in cell simulations of a laser pulse that copropagates with a wakefield. The technique can provide the perturbed electron density profile in the laser’s reference frame, averaged over the propagation length, to be accurate within 10%. We discuss the limitations that affect the measurement: small frequency changes, photon trapping, laser displacement, stimulated Raman scattering, and laser beam divergence. By considering these processes, one can determine the optimal parameters of the laser pulse and its propagation length. This new technique allows a characterization of the density perturbation within a plasma wakefield accelerator.

  19. Alteration of Lysophosphatidylcholine-Related Metabolic Parameters in the Plasma of Mice with Experimental Sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Won-Gyun; Jung, Jun-Sub; Kwon, Hyeok Yil; Song, Dong-Keun

    2017-04-01

    Plasma concentration of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) was reported to decrease in patients with sepsis. However, the mechanisms of sepsis-induced decrease in plasma LPC levels are not currently well known. In mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), a model of polymicrobial peritoneal sepsis, we examined alterations in LPC-related metabolic parameters in plasma, i.e., the plasma concentration of LPC-related substances (i.e., phosphatidylcholine (PC) and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA)), and activities or levels in the plasma of some enzymes that can be involved in the regulation of plasma LPC concentration (i.e., secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2), lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), acyl-CoA:lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT), and autotaxin (ATX)), as well as plasma albumin concentration. We found that levels of LPC and albumin and enzyme activities of LCAT, ATX, and sPLA2 were decreased, whereas levels of PC, LPA, and LPCAT1-3 were increased in the plasma of mice subjected to CLP. Bacterial peritonitis led to alterations in all the measured LPC-related metabolic parameters in the plasma, which could potentially contribute to sepsis-induced decrease in plasma LPC levels. These findings could lead to the novel biomarkers of sepsis.

  20. Hollow ballistic pendulum for plasma momentum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, S. F.; Pashinin, P. P.; Perov, V. Y.; Serov, R. V.; Yanovsky, V. P.

    1988-05-01

    A novel pendulum design—hollow ballistic pendulum—is suggested for plasma momentum measurements. It has an advantage over the pendula used earlier in laser plasma experiments of being insensitive to a momentum of matter evaporated and scattered by the pendulum wall exposed to the plasma, which usually exceeds plasma momentum to be measured. Simple expressions describing pendulum performance are derived, and requirements of shape and size are established. Using this kind of pendulum in experiments on laser acceleration of thin foils made it possible to measure the momentum of accelerated foil with an accuracy of about 10%.

  1. Interferometer measurements in pulsed plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisitsyn, I.V.; Kohno, Susumu; Kawauchi, Toshinori; Sueda, Tsuyoshi; Katsuki, Sunao; Akiyama, Hidenori [Kumamoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-11-01

    The interferometer measurements are extremely informative in plasma experiments allowing direct evaluations of the electron density. The primary goal of the work presented, is to build a laser interferometer which meets the requirements of the highest possible simplicity, economy, convenience and ease of construction. These requirements are successfully satisfied while maintaining high sensitivity ({+-}0.5deg - of phase shift) and a wide density range (10{sup 14} and 10{sup 19} cm{sup -2} - line-integrated) of the interferometer. In our experiments we used a low average power (5 mW) He-Ne laser without complicated and costly stabilization or detection environments. The He-Ne laser interferometer with the Michelson arrangement was used to measure the line-integrated plasma densities in various plasma experiments. Time- and spatially-resolved density measurements were performed for a plasma opening switch, a laser produced plasma, an electrothermal launcher and railgun plasmas. (author)

  2. Measurements of thermal parameters of solar modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, K.; Krac, E.

    2016-04-01

    In the paper the methods of measuring thermal parameters of photovoltaic panels - transient thermal impedance and the absorption factor of light-radiation are presented. The manner of realising these methods is described and the results of measurements of the considered thermal parameters of selected photovoltaic panels are presented. The influence of such selected factors as a type of the investigated panel and its mounting manner on transient thermal impedance of the considered panels is also discussed.

  3. Synthesis of Single Wall Carbon Nanotubes by Plasma Arc: Role of Plasma Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhart, Samir; Scott, Carl D.

    2000-01-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) are porous objects on the molecular scale and have a low density, which gives them potential applications as adsorbent for molecular hydrogen. Their H2 absorption capacity published in the literature varies from 4 to 10% by mass according to the purity of the materials and storage conditions. Optimization of production methods of SWNTs should permit improving these new materials for storage of hydrogen. In this article, we show the potential of using SWNTs in hydrogen storage. In particular, we pose problems associated with synthesis, purification, and opening up of the nanotubes. We present an electric arc process currently used at laboratory scale to produce single wall carbon nanotubes. We discuss, in particular, operating conditions that permit growth of nanotubes and some plasma parameters that assure control of the material. Analysis of the process is carried out with the aid of local measurements of temperature and scanning and transmission electron microscopy of the materials.

  4. Effect of gasification parameter on coal gasification in thermal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, S.; Pang, X.; Bao, W.; Lo, Y.; Zhu, S. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2004-12-01

    The influence of several parameters such as the power input of plasma jet, vapor and air input etc on gas composition and carbon conversion from coal gasification in an air-steam plasma jet was studied. The main gaseous products are H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 2}4 and tar was discovered. Results show that the concentration of H{sub 2}, CO and carbon conversion increases, and the concentration of CO{sub 2} significantly decreases, when the power input of plasma jet is raised. The concentration of H{sub 2} increases when the vapor flux is increased, but excessive steam can decrease carbon conversion. The carbon conversion is enhanced by decreasing feed rate. The air flux should be reduced to improve the quality of coal gas in a certain range. The carbon conversion of Datong coal can exceed 95% at appropriate condition. 18 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Effects of cigarette smoking on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergun, Dilek Duzgun; Karis, Denizhan; Alkan, Fatma Ates; Cakmak, Gulfidan; Yenigun, Mustafa; Ercan, Meltem

    2016-10-05

    Cigarette smoking deteriorates human health via vascular disorders, cancer and especially respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of cigarette smoking on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function in individuals without diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients diagnosed without COPD utilizing respiratory function test were enrolled in the study with three groups, ex-smokers (n = 21), current-smokers (n = 35) and never-smokers (n = 43). Hemorheologic parameters and plasma osmolality were measured in hemorheology laboratory. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Blood and plasma viscosity, fibrinogen and hematocrit levels, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly elevated in ex-smokers and current-smokers compared to never-smokers. The standardized red blood cell deformability and oxygen delivery index and lung function were statistically lower in current-smokers than never-smokers. Pulmonary blood flow rate was statistically lower in current-smokers and ex-smokers than never-smokers. Plasma osmolality was statistically significantly higher in ex-smokers and current-smokers than never-smokers. Our findings clearly show that cigarette smoking has severe effects on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function even in individuals without COPD. Blood and plasma viscosity with plasma osmolality might be useful markers to detect early hemorheologic-hemodynamic alterations in cigarette smokers.

  6. Study on Performance Parameters of the Plasma Source for a Short-Conduction-Time Plasma Opening Switch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Weixi; ZENG Zhengzhong; WANG Liangping; LEI Tianshi; HU Yixiang; HUANG Tao; SUN Tieping

    2012-01-01

    Plasma source performance parameters, including plasma ejection density and velocity, greatly affect the operation of a short-conduction-time plasma opening switch (POS). In this paper, the plasma source used in the POS of Qiangguang I generator is chosen as the study object. At first the POS working process is analyzed. The result shows that the opening performance of the POS can be improved by increasing the plasma ejection velocity and decreasing the plasma density. The influence of the cable plasma gun structure and number on the plasma ejection parameters is experimentally investigated with two charge collectors. Finally a semi-empirical model is proposed to describe the experimental phenomenon.

  7. Transmission Electron Microscope Measures Lattice Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, William T.

    1996-01-01

    Convergent-beam microdiffraction (CBM) in thermionic-emission transmission electron microscope (TEM) is technique for measuring lattice parameters of nanometer-sized specimens of crystalline materials. Lattice parameters determined by use of CBM accurate to within few parts in thousand. Technique developed especially for use in quantifying lattice parameters, and thus strains, in epitaxial mismatched-crystal-lattice multilayer structures in multiple-quantum-well and other advanced semiconductor electronic devices. Ability to determine strains in indivdual layers contributes to understanding of novel electronic behaviors of devices.

  8. Effect of Substrate Potential on Plasma Parameters of Magnetic Multicusp Plasma Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshio; Goto, Masahiro

    1998-06-01

    The effect of substrate potential on plasmas produced in a magnetic multicusp plasma source has been studied experimentally. Plasma parameters such as electron temperature and plasma potential are estimated from electron energy distribution function numerically calculated from probe current-voltage characteristics. For a substrate potential of -150 V with respect to the source chamber, which is much lower than substrate floating potentials, the plasma parameters are not affected by the application of the potential. However, for the case where the substrate is shorted with the source chamber, the high energy component of electrons significantly decreases in comparison with the floating case leading to the reduction of electron temperature. In this case, plasma potential is positive with respect to the substrate to suppress electron loss but its absolute value is only of the order of electron temperature in eV, which is much lower than the potential between the plasma and the substrate in the floating case. This discharge mode could be advantageous in significantly reducing the ion impact energy to the substrate plate.

  9. On the measurement of cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Croft, Rupert A C

    2011-01-01

    We have catalogued and analysed cosmological parameter determinations and their error bars published between the years 1990 and 2010. Our study focuses on the number of measurements, their precision and their accuracy. The accuracy of past measurements is gauged by comparison with the WMAP7 results. The 637 measurements in our study are of 12 different parameters and we place the techniques used to carry them out into 12 different categories. We find that the number of published measurements per year in all 12 cases except for the dark energy equation of state parameter w_0 peaked between 1995 and 2004. Of the individual techniques, only BAO measurements were still rising in popularity at the end of the studied time period. The fractional error associated with most measurements has been declining relatively slowly, with several parameters, such as the amplitude of mass fluctutations sigma_{8} and the Hubble constant H_0 remaining close to the 10% precision level for a 10-15 year period. The accuracy of recent...

  10. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters with reactors

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    We review the potential of long and intermediate baseline reactor neutrino experiments in measuring the mass and mixing parameters. The KamLAND experiment can measure the solar mass squared difference very precisely. However it is not at the ideal baseline for measuring the solar neutrino mixing angle. If low-LMA is confirmed by the next results from KamLAND, a reactor experiment with a baseline of 70 km should be ideal to measure precisely the solar neutrino mixing angle. If on the contrary ...

  11. Plasma Measurements: An Overview of Requirements and Status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth M. Young

    2008-01-04

    This paper introduces this special issue on plasma diagnostics for magnetic fusion devices. Its primary purpose is to relate the measurements of plasma parameters to the physics challenges to be faced on operating and planned devices, and also to identify the diagnostic techniques that are used to make these measurements. The specific physics involved in the application of the techniques will be addressed in subsequent chapters. This chapter is biased toward measurements for tokamaks because of their proximity to the burning plasma frontier, and to set the scene for the development work associated with ITER. Hence, there is some emphasis on measurements for alpha-physics studies and the needs for plasma measurements as input to actuators to control the plasma, both for optimizing the device performance and for protection of the surrounding material. The very different approach to the engineering of diagnostics for a burning plasma is considered, emphasizing the needs for new calibration ideas, reliability and hardness against, and compatibility with, radiation. New ideas take a long time to be converted into "work-horse" sophisticated diagnostics so that investment in new developments is essential for ITER, particularly for the measurement of alpha-particles.

  12. Plasma Diagnostics by Antenna Impedance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, C. M.; Baker, K. D.; Pound, E.; Jensen, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    The impedance of an electrically short antenna immersed in a plasma provides an excellent in situ diagnostic tool for electron density and other plasma parameters. By electrically short we mean that the wavelength of the free-space electromagnetic wave that would be excited at the driving frequency is much longer than the physical size of the antenna. Probes using this impedance technique have had a long history with sounding rockets and satellites, stretching back to the early 1960s. This active technique could provide information on composition and temperature of plasmas for comet or planetary missions. Advantages of the impedance probe technique are discussed and two classes of instruments built and flown by SDL-USU for determining electron density (the capacitance and plasma frequency probes) are described.

  13. Opacity measurements in shock-generated argon plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erskine, D.

    1993-07-01

    Dense plasmas having uniform and constant density and temperature are generated by passage of a planar shock wave through gas. The opacity of the plasma is accurately measured versus wavelength by recording the risetime of emitted light. This technique is applicable to a wide variety of species and plasma conditions. Initial experiments in argon have produced plasmas with 2 eV temperatures, 0.004--0.04 g/cm{sup 3} densities, and coupling parameters {Gamma} {approximately}0.3--0.7. Measurements in visible light are compared with calculations using the HOPE code. An interesting peak in the capacity at 400 nm is observed for the first time and is identified with the 4s-5p transition in excited neutral argon atoms.

  14. Study on spatial distribution of plasma parameters in a magnetized inductively coupled plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheong, Hee-Woon; Lee, Woohyun; Kim, Ji-Won; Whang, Ki-Woong, E-mail: kwhang@snu.ac.kr [Plasma Laboratory, Inter-University Semiconductor Research Center, Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyuk [Samsung Electronics Co., Banwol-dong, Hwaseong 445-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Wanjae [Tokyo Electron Miyagi Ltd., Taiwa-cho, Kurokawa-gun, Miyagi 981-3629 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    Spatial distributions of various plasma parameters such as plasma density, electron temperature, and radical density in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and a magnetized inductively coupled plasma (M-ICP) were investigated and compared. Electron temperature in between the rf window and the substrate holder of M-ICP was higher than that of ICP, whereas the one just above the substrate holder of M-ICP was similar to that of ICP when a weak (<8 G) magnetic field was employed. As a result, radical densities in M-ICP were higher than those in ICP and the etch rate of oxide in M-ICP was faster than that in ICP without severe electron charging in 90 nm high aspect ratio contact hole etch.

  15. Measurement of the Muon Decay Parameter delta

    CERN Document Server

    Gaponenko, A N; Davydov, Yu I; Depommier, P; Doornbos, J; Faszer, W; Fujiwara, M C; Gagliardi, C A; Gill, D R; Green, P; Gumplinger, P; Hasinoff, M D; Henderson, R S; Hu, J; Jamieson, B; Kitching, P; Koetke, D D; Krushinsky, A A; Lachin, Yu Yu; MacDonald, J A; MacDonald, R P; Marshall, G M; Mathie, E L; Miasoedov, L V; Mischke, R E; Musser, J R; Nord, P M; Nozar, M; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Openshaw, R; Porcelli, T A; Poutissou, J M; Poutissou, R; Quraan, M A; Rodning, N L; Selivanov, V; Sheffer, G; Shin, B; Sobratee, F; Stanislaus, T D S; Tacik, R; Torokhov, V D; Tribble, R E; Vasilev, M A; Wright, D H

    2004-01-01

    The muon decay parameter delta has been measured by the TWIST collaboration. We find delta = 0.74964 +- 0.00066(stat.) +- 0.00112(syst.), consistent with the Standard Model value of 3/4. This result implies that the product Pmuxi of the muon polarization in pion decay, Pmu, and the muon decay parameter xi falls within the 90% confidence interval 0.9960 < Pmuxi < xi < 1.0040. It also has implications for left-right-symmetric and other extensions of the Standard Model.

  16. Measurements of an expanding surface flashover plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, J. R., E-mail: john.harris@colostate.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80523 (United States)

    2014-05-21

    A better understanding of vacuum surface flashover and the plasma produced by it is of importance for electron and ion sources, as well as advanced accelerators and other vacuum electronic devices. This article describes time-of-flight and biased-probe measurements made on the expanding plasma generated from a vacuum surface flashover discharge. The plasma expanded at velocities of 1.2–6.5 cm/μs, and had typical densities of 10{sup 10}–10{sup 12} cm{sup −3}. The expansion velocity of the plasma leading edge often exhibited a sharp increase at distances of about 50 mm from the discharge site. Comparison with biased-probe data suggests that, under most conditions, the plasma leading edge was dominated by negative ions, with the apparent increase in velocity being due to fast H{sup −} overtaking slower, heavier ions. In some cases, biased-probe data also showed abrupt discontinuities in the plasma energy distribution co-located with large changes in the intercepted plasma current, suggesting the presence of a shock in the leading edge of the expanding plasma.

  17. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2009-05-15

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5 mN with a resolution of 15 {mu}N. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  18. A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument for plasma thruster exhausts and diffusive plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Michael D.; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod W.

    2009-05-01

    A high sensitivity momentum flux measuring instrument based on a compound pendulum has been developed for use with electric propulsion devices and radio frequency driven plasmas. A laser displacement system, which builds upon techniques used by the materials science community for surface stress measurements, is used to measure with high sensitivity the displacement of a target plate placed in a plasma thruster exhaust. The instrument has been installed inside a vacuum chamber and calibrated via two different methods and is able to measure forces in the range of 0.02-0.5mN with a resolution of 15μN. Measurements have been made of the force produced from the cold gas flow and with a discharge ignited using argon propellant. The plasma is generated using a Helicon Double Layer Thruster prototype. The instrument target is placed about 1 mean free path for ion-neutral charge exchange collisions downstream of the thruster exit. At this position, the plasma consists of a low density ion beam (10%) and a much larger downstream component (90%). The results are in good agreement with those determined from the plasma parameters measured with diagnostic probes. Measurements at various flow rates show that variations in ion beam velocity and plasma density and the resulting momentum flux can be measured with this instrument. The instrument target is a simple, low cost device, and since the laser displacement system used is located outside the vacuum chamber, the measurement technique is free from radio frequency interference and thermal effects. It could be used to measure the thrust in the exhaust of other electric propulsion devices and the momentum flux of ion beams formed by expanding plasmas or fusion experiments.

  19. Constitutive Parameter Measurement Using Double Ridge Waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    PARAMETER MEASUREMENT USING DOUBLE RIDGE WAVEGUIDE Nathan J. Lehman, B.S.E.E. Captain, USAF Approved: Michael Havrilla , PhD (Chairman) Maj Milo Hyde, PhD...would like express my gratitude to Dr. Michael Havrilla , my research advisor. Your ability to illustrate the entire picture of the subject was...electromagnetics U U U UU 83 Dr. Michael J. Havrilla (ENG) (937) 255-3636 x4582 michael.havrilla@afit.edu

  20. Plasma Processes : Sheath and plasma parameters in a magnetized plasma system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bornali Singha; A Sharma; J Chutia

    2000-11-01

    The variation of electron temperature and plasma density in a magnetized 2 plasma is studied experimentally in presence of a grid placed at the middle of the system. Plasma leaks through the negatively biased grid from the source region into the diffused region. It is observed that the electron temperature increases with the magnetic field in the diffused region whereas it decreases in the source region of the system for a constant grid biasing voltage. Also, investigation is done to see the change of electron temperature with grid biasing voltage for a constant magnetic field. This is accompanied by the study of the variation of sheath structure across the grid for different magnetic field and grid biasing voltage as well. It reveals that with increasing magnetic field and negative grid biasing voltage, the sheath thickness expands.

  1. Precision measurement of oscillation parameters with reactors

    CERN Document Server

    Choubey, S

    2003-01-01

    We review the potential of long and intermediate baseline reactor neutrino experiments in measuring the mass and mixing parameters. The KamLAND experiment can measure the solar mass squared difference very precisely. However it is not at the ideal baseline for measuring the solar neutrino mixing angle. If low-LMA is confirmed by the next results from KamLAND, a reactor experiment with a baseline of 70 km should be ideal to measure precisely the solar neutrino mixing angle. If on the contrary KamLAND re-establishes high-LMA as a viable solution, then a 20--30 km intermediate baseline reactor experiment could yield very rich phenomenology.

  2. Diagnostics of recombining laser plasma parameters based on He-like ion resonance lines intensity ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryazantsev, S. N.; Skobelev, I. Yu; Faenov, A. Ya; Pikuz, T. A.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.; Pikuz, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    While the plasma created by powerful laser expands from the target surface it becomes overcooled, i.e. recombining one. Improving of diagnostic methods applicable for such plasma is rather important problem in laboratory astrophysics nowadays because laser produced jets are fully scalable to young stellar objects. Such scaling is possible because of the plasma hydrodynamic equations invariance under some transformations. In this paper it is shown that relative intensities of the resonance transitions in He-like ions can be used to measure the parameters of recombining plasma. Intensity of the spectral lines corresponding to these transitions is sensitive to the density in the range of 1016-1020 cm-3 while the temperature ranges from 10 to 100 eV for ions with nuclear charge Zn ∼ 10. Calculations were carried out for F VIII ion and allowed to determine parameters of plasma jets created by nanosecond laser system ELFIE (Ecole Polytechnique, France) for astrophysical phenomenon modelling. Obtained dependencies are quite universal and can be used for any recombining plasma containing He-like fluorine ions.

  3. Inductive Measurement of Plasma Jet Electrical Conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Matthew W.; Hawk, Clark W.; Litchford, Ron J.

    2005-01-01

    An inductive probing scheme, originally developed for shock tube studies, has been adapted to measure explosive plasma jet conductivities. In this method, the perturbation of an applied magnetic field by a plasma jet induces a voltage in a search coil, which, in turn, can be used to infer electrical conductivity through the inversion of a Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. A 1-inch diameter probe was designed and constructed, and calibration was accomplished by firing an aluminum slug through the probe using a light-gas gun. Exploratory laboratory experiments were carried out using plasma jets expelled from 15-gram high explosive shaped charges. Measured conductivities were in the range of 3 kS/m for unseeded octol charges and 20 kS/m for seeded octol charges containing 2% potassium carbonate by mass.

  4. Kinetic Parameter Measurements in the MINERVE Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perret, Grégory; Geslot, Benoit; Gruel, Adrien; Blaise, Patrick; Di-Salvo, Jacques; De Izarra, Grégoire; Jammes, Christian; Hursin, Mathieu; Pautz, Andréas

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of an international collaboration, teams of the PSI and CEA research institutes measure the critical decay constant (α0 = β/A), delayed neutron fraction (β) and generation time (A) of the Minerve reactor using the Feynman-α, Power Spectral Density and Rossi-α neutron noise measurement techniques. These measurements contribute to the experimental database of kinetic parameters used to improve nuclear data files and validate modern methods in Monte Carlo codes. Minerve is a zero-power pool reactor composed of a central experimental test lattice surrounded by a large aluminum buffer and four high-enriched driver regions. Measurements are performed in three slightly subcritical configurations (-2 cents to -30 cents) using two high-efficiency 235U fission chambers in the driver regions. Measurement of α0 and β obtained by the two institutes and with the different techniques are consistent for the configurations envisaged. Slight increases of the β values are observed with the subcriticality level. Best estimate values are obtained with the Cross-Power Spectral Density technique at -2 cents, and are worth: β = 716.9±9.0 pcm, α0 = 79.0±0.6 s-1 and A = 90.7±1.4 μs. The kinetic parameters are predicted with MCNP5-v1.6 and TRIPOLI4.9 and the JEFF-3.1/3.1.1 and ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data libraries. The predictions for β and α0 overestimate the experimental results by 3-5% and 10-12%, respectively; that for A underestimate the experimental result by 6-7%. The discrepancies are suspected to come from the driven system nature of Minerve and the location of the detectors in the driver regions, which prevent accounting for the full reactor.

  5. The effect of plasma operating parameters on analyte signals in inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlick, G.; Tan, S. H.; Vaughan, M. A.; Rose, C. A.

    Utilizing the SCIEX ICP-MS an extensive study of the effects that plasma operating parameters have on analyte ion signals in ICP-MS has been carried out. Parameters studied included aerosol flow rate (nebulizer pressure), auxiliary flow rate, power and sampling depth (sampling position from the load coil). The two key parameters are aerosol flow rate (nebulizer pressure) and power. Elements can be grouped into characteristic behaviour patterns based on the overall dependence of their ion count signal on these two parameters. The nebulizer pressure-power behavior patterns allow a sensible selection of compromise operating conditions and significantly clarify single parameter observations which often indicate confusing trends in behavior. In addition to characterizing analyte ion signals the parameter behavior plots have also been used to study oxide species and plus two ions in ICP-MS. While aerosol flow rate and power appear to be the key ICP parameters in ICP-MS, ion signals are dependent on sampling depth and auxiliary flow rate and some data are also presented illustrating the signal dependence on these two parameters.

  6. Measuring Structural Parameters Through Stacking Galaxy Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yubin; Zheng, Xian Zhong; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Peng; Wen, Zhang Zheng; Guo, Kexin; An, Fang Xia

    2016-12-01

    It remains challenging to detect the low surface brightness structures of faint high-z galaxies, which are key to understanding the structural evolution of galaxies. The technique of image stacking allows us to measure the averaged light profile beneath the detection limit and probe the extended structure of a group of galaxies. We carry out simulations to examine the recovery of the averaged surface brightness profile through stacking model Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys images of a set of galaxies as functions of the Sérsic index (n), effective radius (R e) and axis ratio (AR). The Sérsic profile best fitting the radial profile of the stacked image is taken as the recovered profile, in comparison with the intrinsic mean profile of the model galaxies. Our results show that, in general, the structural parameters of the mean profile can be properly determined through stacking, though systematic biases need to be corrected when spreads of R e and AR are counted. We find that the Sérsic index is slightly overestimated and R e is underestimated at {AR}\\lt 0.5 because the stacked image appears to be more compact due to the presence of inclined galaxies; the spread of R e biases the stacked profile to have a higher Sérsic index. We stress that the measurements of structural parameters through stacking should take these biases into account. We estimate the biases in the recovered structural parameters from stacks of galaxies when the samples have distributions of {R}{{e}}, AR and n seen in local galaxies.

  7. Analyses of plasma parameter profiles in JT-60U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirai, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Katsuhiro; Hayashi, Nobuhiko [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment; Itakura, Hirofumi; Takase, Keizou [CSK Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    The methods how diagnostics data are treated as the surface quantity of magnetic surface and processed to the profile data in the JT-60U plasmas are summarized. The MHD equilibrium obtained by solving Grad-Shafranov equation on the MHD equilibrium calculation and registration software FBEQU are saved shot by shot as a database. Various experimental plasma data measured at various geometrical positions on JT-60 are mapped onto the MHD equilibrium and treated as functions of the volume averaged minor radius {rho} on the experimental data time slice monitoring software SLICE. Experimental data are integrated and edited on SLICE. The experimental data measured as the line integral values are transformed by Able inversion. The mapped data are fitted to a functional form and saved to the profile database MAP-DB. SLICE can also read data from MAP-DB and redisplay and transform them. In addition, SLICE can generate the profile data TOKRD as run data for orbit following Monte-Carlo (OFMC) code, analyzer for current drive consistent with MHD equilibrium (ACCOME) code and tokamak predictive and interpretive code system (TOPICS). (author)

  8. Influence of the initial parameters of the magnetic field and plasma on the spatial structure of the electric current and electron density in current sheets formed in helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V., E-mail: galya-ostr@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Markov, V. S.; Frank, A. G., E-mail: annfrank@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The influence of the initial parameters of the magnetic field and plasma on the spatial structure of the electric current and electron density in current sheets formed in helium plasma in 2D and 3D magnetic configurations with X-type singular lines is studied by the methods of holographic interferometry and magnetic measurements. Significant differences in the structures of plasma and current sheets formed at close parameters of the initial plasma and similar configurations of the initial magnetic fields are revealed.

  9. Revisiting linear plasma waves for finite value of the plasma parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismayer, Thomas; Fahlen, Jay; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren

    2010-11-01

    We investigate through theory and PIC simulations the Landau-damping of plasma waves with finite plasma parameter. We concentrate on the linear regime, γφB, where the waves are typically small and below the thermal noise. We simulate these condition using 1,2,3D electrostatic PIC codes (BEPS), noting that modern computers now allow us to simulate cases where (nλD^3 = [1e2;1e6]). We study these waves by using a subtraction technique in which two simulations are carried out. In the first, a small wave is initialized or driven, in the second no wave is excited. The results are subtracted to provide a clean signal that can be studied. As nλD^3 is decreased, the number of resonant electrons can be small for linear waves. We show how the damping changes as a result of having few resonant particles. We also find that for small nλD^3 fluctuations can cause the electrons to undergo collisions that eventually destroy the initial wave. A quantity of interest is the the life time of a particular mode which depends on the plasma parameter and the wave number. The life time is estimated and then compared with the numerical results. A surprising result is that even for large values of nλD^3 some non-Vlasov discreteness effects appear to be important.

  10. HUBBLE PARAMETER MEASUREMENT CONSTRAINTS ON DARK ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farooq, Omer; Mania, Data; Ratra, Bharat, E-mail: omer@phys.ksu.edu, E-mail: mania@phys.ksu.edu, E-mail: ratra@phys.ksu.edu [Department of Physics, Kansas State University, 116 Cardwell Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2013-02-20

    We use 21 Hubble parameter versus redshift data points from Simon et al., Gaztanaga et al., Stern et al., and Moresco et al. to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmologies. The inclusion of the eight new measurements results in H(z) constraints more restrictive than those derived by Chen and Ratra. These constraints are now almost as restrictive as those that follow from current Type Ia supernova (SNIa) apparent magnitude versus redshift data, which now more carefully account for systematic uncertainties. This is a remarkable result. We emphasize, however, that SNIa data have been studied for a longer time than the H(z) data, possibly resulting in a better estimate of potential systematic errors in the SNIa case. A joint analysis of the H(z), baryon acoustic oscillation peak length scale, and SNIa data favors a spatially flat cosmological model currently dominated by a time-independent cosmological constant but does not exclude slowly evolving dark energy.

  11. Hubble parameter measurement constraints on dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Farooq, Omer; Ratra, Bharat

    2012-01-01

    We use 21 Hubble parameter versus redshift data points, from Gazta\\~{n}aga et al. (2009), Stern et al. (2010), and Moresco et al. (2012), to place constraints on model parameters of constant and time-evolving dark energy cosmologies. This is the largest set of H(z) data considered to date. The inclusion of the 8 new Moresco et al. (2012) measurements results in H(z) constraints more restrictive than those derived by Chen & Ratra (2011b). These constraints are now almost as restrictive as those that follow from current Type Ia supernova (SNIa) apparent magnitude versus redshift data (Suzuki et al. 2012), which now more carefully account for systematic uncertainties. This is a remarkable result. We emphasize however that SNIa data have been studied for a longer time than the H(z) data, possibly resulting in a better estimate of potential systematic errors in the SNIa case. A joint analysis of the H(z), baryon acoustic oscillation peak length scale, and SNIa data favors a spatially-flat cosmological model cu...

  12. Self-bias Dependence on Process Parameters in Asymmetric Cylindrical Coaxial Capacitively Coupled Plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Upadhyay, J; Popović, S; Valente-Feliciano, A -M; Phillips, L; Vušković, L

    2015-01-01

    An rf coaxial capacitively coupled Ar/Cl2 plasma is applied to processing the inner wall of superconducting radio frequency cavities. A dc self-bias potential is established across the inner electrode sheath due to the surface area difference between inner and outer electrodes of the coaxial plasma. The self-bias potential measurement is used as an indication of the plasma sheath voltage asymmetry. The understanding of the asymmetry in sheath voltage distribution in coaxial plasma is important for the modification of the inner surfaces of three dimensional objects. The plasma sheath voltages were tailored to process the outer wall by providing an additional dc current to the inner electrode with the help of an external dc power supply. The dc self-bias potential is measured for different diameter electrodes and its variation on process parameters such as gas pressure, rf power and percentage of chlorine in the Ar/Cl2 gas mixture is studied. The dc current needed to overcome the self-bias potential to make it ...

  13. The effect of thermophoresis on the discharge parameters in complex plasma experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Land, Victor; Creel, James; Schmoke, Jimmy; Cook, Mike; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell

    2010-01-01

    Thermophoresis is a tool often applied in complex plasma experiments. One of the usual stated benefits over other experimental tools is that changes induced by thermophoresis neither directly depend on, nor directly influence, the plasma parameters. From electronic data, plasma emission profiles in the sheath, and Langmuir probe data in the plasma bulk, we conclude that this assumption does not hold. An important effect on the levitation of dust particles in argon plasma is observed as well. The reason behind the changes in plasma parameters seems to be the change in neutral atom density accompanying the increased gas temperature while running at constant pressure.

  14. The effect of electrode heating on the discharge parameters in complex plasma experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, Victor; Carmona-Reyes, Jorge; Creel, James; Schmoke, Jimmy; Cook, Mike; Matthews, Lorin; Hyde, Truell, E-mail: victor_land@baylor.edu [Center for Astrophysics, Space Physics, and Engineering Research, Baylor University, Waco, TX, 76798-7316 (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Thermophoresis is a tool often applied in complex plasma experiments. One of the usual stated benefits over other experimental tools is that electrode temperature changes required to induce thermophoresis do not directly influence the plasma parameters. From electronic data, plasma emission profiles in the sheath, and Langmuir probe data in the plasma bulk, we conclude that this assumption does not hold. An important effect on the levitation of dust particles in argon plasma is observed as well. The reason behind the changes in plasma parameters seems to be the change in neutral atom density accompanying the increased gas temperature while running at constant pressure.

  15. Plasma parameter characterization of a dc multicusp plasma chamber operating in He, Ar and Xe gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suanpoot, Pradoong; Vilaithong, Thiraphat; Boonyawan, Dheerawan [Fast Neutron Research Facility, Dept. of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai Univ. (Thailand); Rhodes, M.W.

    1998-12-31

    A large dc multicusp plasma chamber has been constructed and installed at Chiang Mai University. The first prototype has a 31.2 cm diameter and a 42.5 cm length and is surrounded by 632 ceramic permanent magnet buttons with a maximum magnetic field of about 2.2 kG for each. The magnetic field at the stainless steel wall with a thickness of 2 mm is about 670 G. A tungsten (W) filament was used as a source of primary electrons. The estimated discharge voltage for helium gas (He), argon gas (Ar), and xenon gas (Xe) was 40 V and the discharge operating current varies from 500 mA to 1 A. Plasmas can be confined within a 20 cm diameter region which are uniformly distributed along the axial path. The plasma density was measured by a single cylindrical Langmuir probe to be between 4.8 x 10{sup 8} - 4.9 x 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3} with 650 watts of power applied to the tungsten filament and the gas pressure inside the chamber of 3.8 x 10{sup -4} Torr. Results of the ion density measurements are described. The proportionality constants in the relation between the ion current density arriving at the plasma electrode and the maximum plasma density and the ion sound speed for helium, argon and xenon are found to be 0.42 {+-} 0.07, 0.59 {+-} 0.08, and 0.46 {+-} 0.06, respectively. (author)

  16. Nonlinear Optical Parameters of Magnetoactive Semiconductor-Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Joseph, D.; Duhan, S.

    The nonlinear optical parameters (absorption coefficient and refractive index) of semiconductor-plasmas subjected to a transverse magnetic field have been investigated analytically. By employing the coupled-mode scheme, an expression of third-order optical susceptibility and resultant nonlinear absorption and refractive index of the medium are obtained. The analysis has been applied to both cases, viz., centrosymmetric (β = 0) and noncentrosymmetric (β ≠ 0) in the presence of magnetic field. The numerical estimates are made for InSb crystal at liquid nitrogen temperature duly irradiated by a 10-nanosecond pulsed 10.6 μm CO2 laser. The influence of doping concentration and magnetic field on both the nonlinear absorption and refractive index has been explored, and the results are found to be well in agreement with theory and experiment. Analysis further establishes that absorption coefficient and refractive index can be controlled with precision in semiconductors by the proper selection of doping concentration and an external magnetic field, and hence these media may be used for fabrication of fast cubic nonlinear optical devices under off-resonant transition regime.

  17. Preliminary Results of Plasma Flow Measurements in a 2 KW Segmented Hall Thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Raitses; D. Staack; A. Dunaevsky; L. Dorf; N.J. Fisch

    2003-03-01

    A 2-kW Hall thruster was developed, built, and operated in an upgraded vacuum facility. The thruster performance and parameters of the plasma flow were measured by new diagnostics for plume measurements and plasma measurements inside the thruster channel. The thruster demonstrated efficient operation in terms of propellant and current utilization efficiencies in the input power range of 0.5-3.5 kW. Preliminary measurements of the ion energy spectra from the thruster axis region and the distribution of plasma parameters in the vicinity of the thruster exit are reported.

  18. Plasma Density Measurements on Refuelling by Solid Hydrogen Pellets in a Rotating Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, A. H.

    1978-01-01

    The authors used laser interferometry to directly measure the increase in plasma density caused by the ablation of a solid hydrogen pellet situated in a rotating plasma.......The authors used laser interferometry to directly measure the increase in plasma density caused by the ablation of a solid hydrogen pellet situated in a rotating plasma....

  19. Measuring Structural Parameters Through Stacking Galaxy Images

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yubin; Gu, Qiu-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Peng; Wen, ZhangZheng; Guo, Kexin; An, FangXia

    2016-01-01

    It remains challenging to detect the low surface brightness structures of faint high-z galaxies, which is key to understanding the structural evolution of galaxies. The technique of image stacking allows us to measure the averaged light profile beneath the detection limit and probe the extended structure of a group of galaxies. We carry out simulations to examine the recovery of the averaged surface brightness profile through stacking model HST/ACS images of a set of galaxies as functions of Sersic index (n), effective radius (Re) and axis ratio (AR). The Sersic profile best fitting the radial profile of the stacked image is taken as the recovered profile, in comparison with the intrinsic mean profile of the model galaxies. Our results show that, in general, the structural parameters of the mean profile can be properly determined through stacking, although systematic biases need to be corrected when spreads of Re and AR are counted. We find that Sersic index is slightly overestimated and Re is underestimated ...

  20. Parameters Optimization of Plasma Hardening Process Using Genetic Algorithm and Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gu; WANG Liu-ying; CHEN Gui-ming; HUA Shao-chun

    2011-01-01

    Plasma surface hardening process was performed to improve the performance of the AISI 1045 carbon steel.Experiments were carried out to characterize the hardening qualities.A predicting and optimizing model using genetic algorithm-back propagation neural network(GA-BP) was developed based on the experimental results.The non-linear relationship between properties of hardening layers and process parameters was established.The results show that the GA-BP predicting model is reliable since prediction results are in rather good agreement with measured results.The optimal properties of the hardened layer were deduced from GA.And through multi optimizations,the optimum comprehensive performances of the hardened layer were as follows:plasma arc current is 90 A,hardening speed is 2.2 m/min,plasma gas flow rate is 6.0 L/min and hardening distance is 4.3 mm.It concludes that GA-BP mode developed in this study provides a promising method for plasma hardening parameters prediction and optimization.

  1. Measurement of the effective plasma ion mass in large tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lister, J.B.; Villard, L.; Ridder, G. de [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1997-06-01

    There is not yet a straightforward method for the measurement of the D-T ratio in the centre of a tokamak plasma. One of the simpler measurements put forward in the past is the interpretation of the MHD spectrum in the frequency range of the Global Alfven Eigenmodes (GAE). However, the frequencies of these modes do not only depend on the plasma mass, but are also quite strongly dependent on the details of the current and density profiles, creating a problem of deconvolution of the estimate of the plasma mass from an implicit relationship between several measurable plasma parameters and the detected eigenmode frequencies. This method has been revised to assess its likely precision for the JET tokamak. The low n GAE modes are sometimes too close to the continuum edge to be detectable and the interpretation of the GAE spectrum is rendered less direct than had been hoped. We present a statistical study on the precision with which the D-T ratio could be estimated from the GAE spectrum on JET. (author) 4 figs., 8 refs.

  2. Determining tumor blood flow parameters from dynamic image measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertini, Jessica M.

    2008-11-01

    Many recent cancer treatments focus on preventing angiogenesis, the process by which a tumor promotes the growth of large and efficient capillary beds for the increased nourishment required to support the tumor's rapid growth[l]. To measure the efficacy of these treatments in a timely fashion, there is an interest in using data from dynamic sequences of contrast-enhanced medical imaging, such as MRI and CT, to measure blood flow parameters such as perfusion, permeability-surface-area product, and the relative volumes of the plasma and extracellular-extravascular space. Starting with a two compartment model presented by the radiology community[2], this work challenges the application of a simplification to this problem, which was originally developed to model capillary reuptake[3]. While the primary result of this work is the demonstration of the inaccuracy of this simplification, the remainder of the paper is dedicated to presenting alternative methods for calculating the perfusion and plasma volume coefficients. These methods are applied to model data sets based on real patient data, and preliminary results are presented.

  3. Determining tumor blood flow parameters from dynamic image measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libertini, Jessica M [Division of Applied Mathematics, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island 02906 (United States)], E-mail: Jessica_Libertini@brown.edu

    2008-11-01

    Many recent cancer treatments focus on preventing angiogenesis, the process by which a tumor promotes the growth of large and efficient capillary beds for the increased nourishment required to support the tumor's rapid growth. To measure the efficacy of these treatments in a timely fashion, there is an interest in using data from dynamic sequences of contrast-enhanced medical imaging, such as MRI and CT, to measure blood flow parameters such as perfusion, permeability-surface-area product, and the relative volumes of the plasma and extracellular-extravascular space. Starting with a two compartment model presented by the radiology community, this work challenges the application of a simplification to this problem, which was originally developed to model capillary reuptake. While the primary result of this work is the demonstration of the inaccuracy of this simplification, the remainder of the paper is dedicated to presenting alternative methods for calculating the perfusion and plasma volume coefficients. These methods are applied to model data sets based on real patient data, and preliminary results are presented.

  4. Plasma ion composition measurements for Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E. C.; Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Christian, E. R.; Lipatov, A. S.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Paschalidis, N. P.; Coplan, M. A.; Cassidy, T. A.; Richardson, J. D.; Fegley, B.; Andre, N.

    2013-11-01

    Jupiter magnetospheric interactions and surface composition, both important to subsurface ocean detection for the Galilean icy moons Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, can be measured using plasma ion mass spectrometry on either an orbiting spacecraft or one designed for multiple flybys of these moons. Detection of emergent oceanic materials at the Europa surface is more likely than at Ganymede and Callisto. A key challenge is to resolve potential intrinsic Europan materials from the space weathering patina of iogenic species implanted onto the sensible surface by magnetospheric interactions. Species-resolved measurements of pickup ion currents are also critical to extraction of oceanic induced magnetic fields from magnetospheric interaction background dominated by these currents. In general the chemical astrobiological potential of Europa should be determined through the combination of surface, ionospheric, and pickup ion composition measurements. The requisite Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) for these measurements would need to work in the high radiation environment of Jupiter's magnetosphere between the orbits of Europa and Ganymede, and beyond. A 3D hybrid model of the moon-magnetosphere interaction is also needed to construct a global model of the electric and magnetic fields, and the plasma environment, around Europa. Europa's ionosphere is probably usually dominated by hot pickup ions with 100-1000 eV temperatures, excursions to a "classical" cold ionosphere likely being infrequent. A field aligned ionospheric wind driven by the electron polarization electric field should arise and be measurable.

  5. Versatile particle collection concept for correlation of particle growth and discharge parameters in dusty plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinz, A. M.; von Wahl, E.; Faupel, F.; Strunskus, T.; Kersten, H.

    2015-02-01

    The feasibility of collecting nanoparticles from a dusty plasma by means of the neutral drag force is investigated. The nanoparticles are formed in a capacitively coupled asymmetric discharge running in an Ar/C2H2—mixture at a frequency of 13.56 MHz and an RF-power of 9 W. By opening a gate valve between the plasma reactor and a vacuum chamber at a lower pressure at any desired point of the growth cycle of the dust particles a neutral gas flux is induced that drags the particles out of the plasma onto a substrate. By changing the parameters of the collection process, e.g. the substrate positioning or the substrate temperature, the efficiency of the collection process can be adjusted. Information about the particle size distributions is obtained by performing ex situ SEM measurements. As the collection process creates a time stamp in the in situ recorded control parameters, e.g. the self-bias voltage or the process gas pressure, a direct and precise correlation between the control parameters and the particle size distribution is obtained.

  6. Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H; Neumayer, P; Doeppner, T; Landen, L; Lee, R W; Wallace, R; Weber, S; Lee, H J; Kritcher, A L; Falcone, R; Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Meyerhofer, D D; Gregori, G; Fortmann, C; Schwarz, V; Redmer, R

    2007-10-02

    Compton scattering has been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, while in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.

  7. Compton scattering measurements from dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenzer, S H; Neumayer, P; Doeppner, T; Landen, O L; Lee, R W; Wallace, R J; Weber, S [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Lee, H J; Kritcher, A L; Falcone, R [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94709 (United States); Regan, S P; Sawada, H; Meyerhofer, D D [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, Rochester, NY (United States); Gregori, G [Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Fortmann, C; Schwarz, V; Redmer, R [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Rostock, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)], E-mail: glenzer1@llnl.gov

    2008-05-15

    Compton scattering techniques have been developed for accurate measurements of densities and temperatures in dense plasmas. One future challenge is the application of this technique to characterize compressed matter on the National Ignition Facility where hydrogen and beryllium will approach extremely dense states of matter of up to 1000 g/cc. In this regime, the density, compressibility, and capsule fuel adiabat may be directly measured from the Compton scattered spectrum of a high-energy x-ray line source. Specifically, the scattered spectra directly reflect the electron velocity distribution. In non-degenerate plasmas, the width provides an accurate measure of the electron temperatures, while in partially Fermi degenerate systems that occur in laser-compressed matter it provides the Fermi energy and hence the electron density. Both of these regimes have been accessed in experiments at the Omega laser by employing isochorically heated solid-density beryllium and moderately compressed beryllium foil targets. In the latter experiment, compressions by a factor of 3 at pressures of 40 Mbar have been measured in excellent agreement with radiation hydrodynamic modeling.

  8. Electron density measurement in gas discharge plasmas by optical and acoustic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagioni, A.; Anania, M. P.; Bellaveglia, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Di Giovenale, D.; Di Pirro, G.; Ferrario, M.; Filippi, F.; Mostacci, A.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.; Vaccarezza, C.; Villa, F.; Zigler, A.

    2016-08-01

    Plasma density represents a very important parameter for both laser wakefield and plasma wakefield acceleration, which use a gas-filled capillary plasma source. Several techniques can be used to measure the plasma density within a capillary discharge, which are mainly based on optical diagnostic methods, as for example the well-known spectroscopic method using the Stark broadening effect. In this work, we introduce a preliminary study on an alternative way to detect the plasma density, based on the shock waves produced by gas discharge in a capillary. Firstly, the measurements of the acoustic spectral content relative to the laser-induced plasmas by a solid target allowed us to understand the main properties of the acoustic waves produced during this kind of plasma generation; afterwards, we have extended such acoustic technique to the capillary plasma source in order to calibrate it by comparison with the stark broadening method.

  9. Simplified micromethod for the HPLC measurement of diclofenac in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S R; Donzella, H; Bertoline, M A; Pereira, M D; Omosako, C E; Porta, V

    1992-01-01

    A simple and sensitive micromethod based on HPLC is described for the measurement of diclofenac in 200 microliters plasma. A single extraction with dichloromethane in acidic medium was an essential clean-up step. Diclofenac and its internal standard (cyclohexendiphenyl propionic acid) was eluted at 3.3 and 6.5 min from a 4-micron C18 reverse-phase column using a mobile phase consisting of 0.75 M sodium acetate buffer, pH 5.0, and acetonitrile (55:45, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.9 ml/min with detection at 282 nm. The method, validated on the basis of parameters evaluated for the confidence limits of diclofenac measurements in spiked plasma, presented 1 ng/ml sensitivity, 10-10,000 ng/ml linearity, and 3.5% and 5.7% intra- and interassay precision, respectively. Peak plasma diclofenac levels ranging from 177 to 841 ng/ml and from 276 to 1008 ng/ml were obtained for two slow-release formulations. A wide range (1 ng/ml-3 micrograms/ml) was observed for plasma diclofenac levels of volunteers during a 24-h study period.

  10. Integration of optical measurement methods with flight parameter measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopecki, Grzegorz; Rzucidlo, Pawel

    2016-05-01

    During the AIM (advanced in-flight measurement techniques) and AIM2 projects, innovative modern techniques were developed. The purpose of the AIM project was to develop optical measurement techniques dedicated for flight tests. Such methods give information about aircraft elements deformation, thermal loads or pressure distribution, etc. In AIM2 the development of optical methods for flight testing was continued. In particular, this project aimed at the development of methods that could be easily applied in flight tests in an industrial setting. Another equally important task was to guarantee the synchronization of the classical measuring system with cameras. The PW-6U glider used in flight tests was provided by the Rzeszów University of Technology. The glider had all the equipment necessary for testing the IPCT (image pattern correlation technique) and IRT (infrared thermometry) methods. Additionally, equipment adequate for the measurement of typical flight parameters, registration and analysis has been developed. This article describes the designed system, as well as presenting the system’s application during flight tests. Additionally, the results obtained in flight tests show certain limitations of the IRT method as applied.

  11. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Chun Lu

    Full Text Available This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters.631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT, estradiol (E2 and SHBG levels were detected.Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P < 0.001, while only seminal plasma TG was positively related to them (P < 0.05. For lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042. There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV, sperm concentration (SC, total sperm count (TSC, sperm motility, progressive motility (PR and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS. Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012, both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002, and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051.The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility.

  12. Interpreting Power Anisotropy Measurements in Plasma Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, C H K; Horbury, T S; Schekochihin, A A

    2009-01-01

    A relationship between power anisotropy and wavevector anisotropy in turbulent fluctuations is derived. This can be used to interpret plasma turbulence measurements, for example in the solar wind. If fluctuations are anisotropic in shape then the ion gyroscale break point in spectra in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field would not occur at the same frequency, and similarly for the electron gyroscale break point. This is an important consideration when interpreting solar wind observations in terms of anisotropic turbulence theories. Model magnetic field power spectra are presented assuming a cascade of critically balanced Alfven waves in the inertial range and kinetic Alfven waves in the dissipation range. The variation of power anisotropy with scale is compared to existing solar wind measurements and the similarities and differences are discussed.

  13. Nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabonomics reveals strong sex effect on plasma metabolism in 17-year-old Scandinavians and correlation to retrospective infant plasma parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertram, Hanne Christine; Duus, Jens Ø; Petersen, Bent O; Hoppe, Camilla; Larnkjaer, Anni; Schack-Nielsen, Lene; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2009-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabonomics was carried out on plasma samples from a total of seventy-five 17-year-old Danes to investigate the impact of key parameters such as sex, height, weight, and body mass index on the plasma metabolite profile in a normal, healthy population. Principal component analysis identified sex to have a large impact on the NMR plasma metabolome, whereas no apparent effects of height, weight, and body mass index were found. Partial least square regression discriminant analysis and quantification of relative metabolite concentrations by integration of NMR signals revealed that the sex effect included differences in plasma lipoproteins (mainly high-density lipoprotein), glucose, choline, and amino acid content. Accordingly, the present study suggests a higher lipid synthesis in young women than young men and a higher protein turnover in young men compared with women. Data on plasma content of triglyceride, lipoprotein fractions, and cholesterol at an age of 9 months were available for selected individuals (n = 40); and partial least square regressions revealed correlations between these infant parameters and the NMR plasma metabolome at an age of 17 years. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the feasibility of NMR-based metabonomics for obtaining a deeper insight into interindividual differences in metabolism and for exploring relationships between parameters measured early in life and metabolic status at a later stage.

  14. Beam Parameters Measurement Based On Tv Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Klimenkov, E; Milichenko, Yu; Voevodin, V

    2004-01-01

    The paper describes hardware and software used to control TV-cameras and to process TV-images of luminescent screens placed along the beam transfer lines. Industrial devices manually control the movements and focusing of the cameras. All devices are linked to PC via PCI interfaces with homemade drivers for Linux OS and provide both selection of camera and digitizing of video signal synchronized with beam. One part of software provides means to set initial parameters using PC consol. Thus an operator can choose contrast, brightness, some number of significant points on TV-image to calculate beam position and its size. Second part supports remote TV controls and data processing from Control Rooms of U-70 complex using set initial parameters. First experience and results of the method realization are discussed.

  15. Relationship between Lipids Levels of Serum and Seminal Plasma and Semen Parameters in 631 Chinese Subfertile Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Qi; Fan, Kai; Wang, Guo-Hong; Feng, Rui-Xiang; Liang, Yuan-Jiao; Chen, Li; Ge, Yi-Feng; Yao, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective study was designed to investigate the relationship between lipids levels in both serum and seminal plasma and semen parameters. Methods 631 subfertile men were enrolled. Their obesity-associated markers were measured, and semen parameters were analyzed. Also, seminal plasma and serum TC, TG, HDL and LDL and serum FFA, FSH, LH, total testosterone (TT), estradiol (E2) and SHBG levels were detected. Results Seminal plasma and serum TG, TC and LDL levels were positively related to age. Serum TC, TG and LDL were positively related to obesity-associated markers (P lipids levels in serum and seminal plasma, only TG level had slightly positive correlation between them (r = 0.081, P = 0.042). There was no significant correlation between serum lipids levels and semen parameters. However, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels were negatively related to one or several semen parameters, including semen volume (SV), sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), sperm motility, progressive motility (PR) and total normal-progressively motile sperm counts (TNPMS). Moreover, seminal plasma TG, TC, LDL and HDL levels in patients with oligospermatism, asthenospermia and teratozoospermia were higher than those with normal sperm concentration, motility or morphology. After adjusting age and serum LH, FSH, TT, E2 and SHBG levels, linear regression analysis showed that SV was still significantly correlated with seminal plasma LDL (P = 0.012), both of SC and TSC with seminal plasma HDL (P = 0.028 and 0.002), and both of PR and sperm motility with seminal plasma TC (P = 0.012 and 0.051). Conclusion The abnormal metabolism of lipids in male reproductive system may contribute to male factor infertility. PMID:26726884

  16. Thomson scattering measurement of a shock in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, T.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Moritaka, T. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H. [Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikane-yama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Tomita, K.; Nakayama, K.; Inoue, K.; Uchino, K. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-1, Kasugakoen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Ide, T.; Tsubouchi, K. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Nishio, K.; Ide, H.; Kuwada, M. [Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, 1-1 Machikane-yama, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2013-09-15

    We report the first direct measurement of temporally and spatially resolved plasma temperatures at a shock as well as its spatial structure and propagation in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas. Two shocks are formed in counter-streaming collisionless plasmas early in time, and they propagate opposite directions. This indicates the existence of counter-streaming collisionless flows to keep exciting the shocks, even though the collisional effects increase later in time. The shock images are observed with optical diagnostics, and the upstream and downstream plasma parameters of one of the shocks are measured using Thomson scattering technique.

  17. Theory and measurements of emittance preservation in plasma wakefield acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederico, Joel

    2016-12-01

    In this dissertation, we examine the preservation and measurement of emittance in the plasma wakefield acceleration blowout regime. Plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA) is a revolutionary approach to accelerating charged particles that has been demonstrated to have the potential for gradients orders of magnitude greater than traditional approaches. The application of PWFA to the design of a linear collider will make new high energy physics research possible, but the design parameters must first be shown to be competitive with traditional methods. Emittance preservation is necessary in the design of a linear collider in order to maximize luminosity. We examine the conditions necessary for circular symmetry in the PWFA blowout regime, and demonstrate that current proposals meet these bounds. We also present an application of beam lamentation which describes the process of beam parameter and emittance matching. We show that the emittance growth saturates as a consequence of energy spread in the beam. The initial beam parameters determine the amount of emittance growth, while the contribution of energy spread is negligible. We also present a model for ion motion in the presence of a beam that is much more dense than the plasma. By combining the model of ion motion and emittance growth, we find the emittance growth due to ion motion is minimal in the case of marginal ion motion. In addition, we present a simulation that validates the ion motion model, which is under further development to examine emittance growth of both marginal and pronounced ion motion. Finally, we present a proof-of-concept of an emittance measurement which may enable the analysis of emittance preservation in future PWFA experiments.

  18. Parameters of measuring of european political consciousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Pikula

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article the author analyzes the parameters of European political consciousness, i.e. European research field of political consciousness in qualitative and quantitative terms, which may be based on different indicators. The issue of emergence and development of European political consciousness becomes topical because firstly, its formation as the subjective dimension of European integration policy is not a spontaneous process and, secondly, European integration is carried out not only from the top but from the bottom, requiring deliberate interference of the public with the process; the public possesses the formed European political consciousness. Since the latter is a specific mental construct, the author offers to apply the triad «criteria ­ parameters – indicators». The characteristic that makes it possible to evaluate certain processes or phenomena in the system of Europeanness / Europeanism and specifies the quality system of views and opinions, which are realized in European behavior, is considered to be the criterion of European political consciousness. The European political consciousness parameters are seen to include the relevant historical memory, trends of public opinion and awareness regarding the European Union and position of its members in the European integration process, including the assessment of the existence and development of the EU; knowledge and views on the main EU institutions, assessing the importance of the main institutions of the EU and trust in them; a positive vision for the future of the European Union etc. The author considers the performance and objective characteristics and dimensions, including positive correlation of national and European levels of identity (European identity and European behavior to be the indicatiors of European political awareness. On the basis of these indicators the control of the condition and trends of European political consciousness development will be carried out.

  19. Plasma parameters in the vicinity of the quartz window of a low pressure surface wave discharge produced in O2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakao, S.; Stamate, Eugen; Sugai, H.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma parameters in the vicinity of the dielectric window of a low density, microwave discharge produced in 0, at 915 N/FHz are investigated by a spherical probe and optical emission spectroscopy while the microwave field distribution is measured by a spectrum analyzer. The electron energy...

  20. On Improving Impedance Probe Plasma Potential Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-21

    assumption of a collisionless, stationary Maxwellian plasma and are seen to work well in non -flowing plasmas of sufficient density. However, as plasma...collection area. For Maxwellian electrons, np = n exp(Vp-φp)/Te and so at low frequency from Eq. (1) above, the resistive component of the ac

  1. Electron Temperature and Plasma Flow Measurements of NIF Hohlraum Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, M. A.; Liedahl, D. A.; Schneider, M. B.; Jones, O.; Brow, G. V.; Regan, S. P.; Fournier, K. B.; Moore, A. S.; Ross, J. S.; Eder, D.; Landen, O.; Kauffman, R. L.; Nikroo, A.; Kroll, J.; Jaquez, J.; Huang, H.; Hansen, S. B.; Callahan, D. A.; Hinkel, D. E.; Bradley, D.; Moody, J. D.; LLNL Collaboration; LLE Collaboration; GA Collaboration; SNL Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    Characterizing the plasma conditions inside NIF hohlraums, in particular mapping the plasma Te, is critical to gaining insight into mechanisms that affect energy coupling and transport in the hohlraum. The dot spectroscopy platform provides a temporal history of the localized Te and plasma flow inside a NIF hohlraum, by introducing a Mn-Co tracer dot, at strategic locations inside the hohlraum, that comes to equilibrium with the local plasma. K-shell X-ray spectroscopy of the tracer dot is recorded onto an absolutely calibrated X-ray streak spectrometer. Isoelectronic and interstage line ratios are used to infer localized Te through comparison with atomic physics calculations using SCRAM. Time resolved X-ray images are simultaneously taken of the expanding dot, providing plasma (ion) flow information. We present recent results provided by this platform and compare with simulations using HYDRA. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  2. Plasma arc cutting optimization parameters for aluminum alloy with two thickness by using Taguchi method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulnasser, B.; Bhuvenesh, R.

    2016-07-01

    Manufacturing companies define the qualities of thermal removing process based on the dimension and physical appearance of the cutting material surface. The surface roughness of the cutting area for the material and the material removal rate being removed during the manual plasma arc cutting process were importantly considered. Plasma arc cutter machine model PS-100 was used to cut the specimens made from aluminium alloy 1100 manually based on the selected parameters setting. Two different thicknesses of specimens, 3mm and 6mm were used. The material removal rate (MRR) was measured by determining the difference between the weight of specimens before and after the cutting process. The surface roughness (Ra) was measured by using MITUTOYO CS-3100 machine and analysis was conducted to determine the average roughness (Ra) value, Taguchi method was utilized as an experimental layout to obtain MRR and Ra values. The results indicate that the current and cutting speed is the most significant parameters, followed by the arc gap for both rate of material removal and surface roughness.

  3. FBX aqueous chemical dosimeter for measurement of dosimetric parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussous, O., E-mail: o.moussous@crna.d [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), 02 Boulevard Frantz Fanon B.P. 399, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Medjadj, T. [Centre de Recherche Nucleaire d' Alger (CRNA), 02 Boulevard Frantz Fanon B.P. 399, 16000 Alger (Algeria); Benguerba, M. [Faculte de Physique, Universite des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari-Boumediene USTHB, Alger (Algeria)

    2011-02-15

    We investigated the ferrous sulphate-benzoic acid-xylenol orange (FBX) aqueous chemical dosimeter for measurement of dosimetric parameters such as the output factor, backscatter factor and lateral beam profiles for different square fields sizes for {sup 60}Co {gamma}-rays. A water phantom was employed to measure these parameters. An ionization chamber (IC) was used for calibration and comparison. A comparison of the resulting measurements with an ionization chamber's measured parameters showed good agreement. We thus believe that the tissue equivalent FBX dosimetry system can measure the dosimetric parameters for {sup 60}Co with reasonable accuracy.

  4. Stability of parameters in repeated TVA measures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik

    Several recent studies have explored the limitations of human visual short-term memory or VSTM (e.g. Luck & Vogel, 1997; Wheeler & Treisman, 2002; Alvarez & Cavanagh, 2004). Usually researchers agree that VSTM is limited to a capacity of about 3 to 4 objects at any given moment (Cowan, 2001......). Capacity of short-term memory is measured in a range of studies often using the change detection paradigm (CD). However, the whole report paradigm (WR) may be a more reliable paradigm (Cusack, Lehmann, Veldsman, & Mitchell, 2009). Moreover, each individual WR trial yield more information compared to a CD...

  5. Tokamak Plasmas : Electron temperature $(T_{e})$ measurements by Thomson scattering system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Rajesh; B Ramesh Kumar; S K Varshney; Manoj Kumar; Chhaya Chavda; Aruna Thakkar; N C Patel; Ajai Kumar; Aditya Team

    2000-11-01

    Thomson scattering technique based on high power laser has already proved its superoirity in measuring the electron temperature (e) and density (e) in fusion plasma devices like tokamaks. The method is a direct and unambiguous one, widely used for the localised and simultaneous measurements of the above parameters. In Thomson scattering experiment, the light scattered by the plasma electrons is used for the measurements. The plasma electron temperature is measured from the Doppler shifted scattered spectrum and density from the total scattered intensity. A single point Thomson scattering system involving a -switched ruby laser and PMTs as the detector is deployed in ADITYA tokamak to give the plasma electron parameters. The system is capable of providing the parameters e from 30 eV to 1 keV and e from 5 × 1012 cm-3-5× 1013 cm-3. The system is also able to give the parameter profile from the plasma center ( = 0 cm) to a vertical position of = +22 cm to = -14 cm, with a spatial resolution of 1 cm on shot to shot basis. This paper discusses the initial measurements of the plasma temperature from ADITYA.

  6. Determination of Some Biochemical Parameters in the Seminal Plasma of German Shepherd Dogs

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNAY, Ülgen

    2003-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to determine the levels of some biochemical parameters in the seminal plasma of German Shepherd dogs. Seven German Shepherd dogs were used as materials. A total of 35 ejaculates, five from each dog, were collected. The seminal plasma of each ejaculate was separated by centrifugation at 5000 rpm for 10 min. Biochemical analyses of the seminal plasma were performed. In conclusion, the average concentrations of total protein, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium and pot...

  7. Statistical analysis of plasma thermograms measured by differential scanning calorimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Daniel J; Brewood, Greg P; Kim, Jong Sung; Garbett, Nichola C; Chaires, Jonathan B; Benight, Albert S

    2010-11-01

    Melting curves of human plasma measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), known as thermograms, have the potential to markedly impact diagnosis of human diseases. A general statistical methodology is developed to analyze and classify DSC thermograms to analyze and classify thermograms. Analysis of an acquired thermogram involves comparison with a database of empirical reference thermograms from clinically characterized diseases. Two parameters, a distance metric, P, and correlation coefficient, r, are combined to produce a 'similarity metric,' ρ, which can be used to classify unknown thermograms into pre-characterized categories. Simulated thermograms known to lie within or fall outside of the 90% quantile range around a median reference are also analyzed. Results verify the utility of the methods and establish the apparent dynamic range of the metric ρ. Methods are then applied to data obtained from a collection of plasma samples from patients clinically diagnosed with SLE (lupus). High correspondence is found between curve shapes and values of the metric ρ. In a final application, an elementary classification rule is implemented to successfully analyze and classify unlabeled thermograms. These methods constitute a set of powerful yet easy to implement tools for quantitative classification, analysis and interpretation of DSC plasma melting curves.

  8. Influence of geometrical parameters on performance of plasma synthetic jet actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Hao-hua; Wu, Yun; Jia, Min; Song, Hui-min; Liang, Hua; Li, Ying-hong; Zhang, Zhi-bo

    2016-01-01

    Plasma synthetic jet actuator (PSJA) has shown wide and promising application prospects in a high speed flow control field, due to its rapid response, high exhaust velocity, and non-moving components. In this paper, the total pressure profile of a plasma synthetic jet (PSJ) is measured and a new method is developed to evaluate the pulsed thrust of the PSJA. The influence of geometrical parameters including the electrode distance, the orifice diameter, and the throat length on PSJA performance is analyzed based on the pulsed thrust, the discharge characteristics, and the schlieren images. When varying the electrode distance, the dominant factor determining the jet intensity is the heating volume instead of the discharge energy. For the arc discharge, the electrode distance should be extended to increase both the jet velocity and the jet duration time. The design of the orifice diameter should be based on the controlled flow field. A large orifice diameter produces a strong perturbation with short time duration, while a small orifice diameter induces a lasting jet with low mass flux. In order to obtain better high frequency performance, the throat length should be shortened on the condition that the structural strength of the PSJA is maintained, while there is almost no influence of the throat length on the single cycle performance of the PSJA. Once the discharge energy is fixed, the pulsed thrust remains almost unchanged with different orifice diameters and throat lengths. These three geometrical parameters are independent to some extent and can be optimized separately.

  9. Towards ambulatory mental stress measurement from physiological parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, J.L.P; Vullers, Ruud; Polito, Salvatore; Agell, Carlos; Penders, Julien; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    Ambulatory mental stress monitoring requires longterm physiological measurements. This paper presents a data collection protocol for ambulatory recording of physiological parameters for stress measurement purposes. We present a wearable sensor system for ambulatory recording of ECG, EMG, respiration

  10. Towards ambulatory mental stress measurement from physiological parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijsman, Jacqueline; Vullers, Ruud; Polito, Salvatore; Agell, Carlos; Penders, Julien; Hermens, Hermie

    2013-01-01

    Ambulatory mental stress monitoring requires longterm physiological measurements. This paper presents a data collection protocol for ambulatory recording of physiological parameters for stress measurement purposes. We present a wearable sensor system for ambulatory recording of ECG, EMG, respiration

  11. The role of spatial confinement for improvement of laser-induced Mg plasma parameters and growth of surface features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Asma; Bashir, Shazia; Rafique, Muhammad Shahid; Ahmad, Riaz; Akram, Mahreen; Mahmood, Khaliq; Zaheer, Ali

    2017-08-01

    The role of spatial confinement for improvement of laser-induced Mg plasma parameters and growth of surface features is investigated by introducing a metallic blocker. Nd: YAG laser at various fluences ranging from 7 to 28 J cm-2 was employed as an irradiation source. All measurements were performed in the presence of Ar under different pressures. Confinement effects offered by metallic blocker are investigated by placing the blocker at different distances of 6, 8 and 10 mm from the target surface. It is revealed from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis that both plasma parameters, i.e., excitation temperature and electron number density initially increase with increasing laser fluence due to enhancement in energy deposition. With further increase in laser fluence, a decreasing trend followed by saturation is observed which is attributable to shielding effect and self-regulating regime. It is also observed that spatial confinement offered by metallic blocker is responsible for the significant enhancement of both electron temperature and electron number density of Mg plasma. This is true for all laser fluences and pressures of Ar. Maximum values of electron temperature and electron number density without blocker are 8335 K and 2.4 × 1016 cm-3, respectively, whereas these values are enhanced to 12,200 K and 4 × 1016 cm-3 in the presence of the blocker. The physical mechanisms responsible for the enhancement of Mg plasma parameters are plasma compression, confinement and pronounced collisional excitations due to reflection of shock waves. Scanning electron microscope analysis was performed to explore the surface morphology of laser-ablated Mg. It reveals the formation of cones, cavities and ripples. These features become more distinct and well defined in the presence of the blocker due to plasma confinement. The optimum combination of blocker distance, fluence and Ar pressure can identify the suitable conditions for defining the role of plasma parameters

  12. Downstream plasma parameters in laminar shocks from ion kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gedalin, M.

    2016-10-01

    Ion dynamics in oblique shocks is governed by the macroscopic electric and magnetic fields of the shock front. In laminar shocks, these fields are time-independent and depend only on the coordinate along the shock normal. The shock ramp is narrow and the ion motion across the shock is manifestly non-adiabatic. The ion distribution just behind the ramp is significantly non-gyrotropic. Gyrotropy is achieved well behind the ramp mainly due to the gyrophase mixing. The asymptotic values of the ion density and temperature are determined by the eventual collisionless relaxation of the gyrating ion distribution. Given a distribution at the downstream edge of the ramp, the moments of the distribution after gyrophase mixing are derived using proper spatial averaging. The obtained expressions can be used for independent determination of the downstream plasma state and implementation in Rankine-Hugoniot relations.

  13. Influence of direct current plasma magnetron sputtering parameters on the material characteristics of polycrystalline copper films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, K.-Y. [Thin Film Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)], E-mail: k.y.chan@fz-juelich.de; Luo, P.-Q.; Zhou, Z.-B. [Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, 800 Dongchuan Road, 200240 Shanghai (China); Tou, T.-Y.; Teo, B.-S. [Thin Film Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Multimedia University, Jalan Multimedia, 63100 Cyberjaya, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2009-03-01

    Physical vapor processes using glow plasma discharge are widely employed in microelectronic industry. In particular magnetron sputtering is a major technique employed for the coating of thin films. This paper addresses the influence of direct current (DC) plasma magnetron sputtering parameters on the material characteristics of polycrystalline copper (Cu) thin films coated on silicon substrates. The influence of the sputtering parameters including DC plasma power and argon working gas pressure on the electrical and structural properties of the thin Cu films was investigated by means of surface profilometer, four-point probe and atomic force microscopy.

  14. Relevant parameter space and stability of spherical tokamaks with a plasma center column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampugnani, L. G.; Garcia-Martinez, P. L.; Farengo, R.

    2017-02-01

    A spherical tokamak (ST) with a plasma center column (PCC) can be formed inside a simply connected chamber via driven magnetic relaxation. From a practical perspective, the ST-PCC could overcome many difficulties associated with the material center column of the standard ST reactor design. Besides, the ST-PCC concept can be regarded as an advanced helicity injected device that would enable novel experiments on the key physics of magnetic relaxation and reconnection. This is because the concept includes not only a PCC but also a coaxial helicity injector (CHI). This combination implies an improved level of flexibility in the helicity injection scheme required for the formation and sustainment phases. In this work, the parameter space determining the magnetic structure of the ST-PCC equilibria is studied under the assumption of fully relaxed plasmas. In particular, it is shown that the effect of the external bias field of the PCC and the CHI essentially depends on a single parameter that measures the relative amount of flux of these two entities. The effect of plasma elongation on the safety factor profile and the stability to the tilt mode are also analyzed. In the first part of this work, the stability of the system is explained in terms of the minimum energy principle, and relevant stability maps are constructed. While this picture provides an adequate insight into the underlying physics of the instability, it does not include the stabilizing effect of line-tying at the electrodes. In the second part, a dynamical stability analysis of the ST-PCC configurations, including the effect of line-tying, is performed by numerically solving the magnetohydrodynamic equations. A significant stability enhancement is observed when the PCC contains more than the 70% of the total external bias flux, and the elongation is not higher than two.

  15. Rotation Rate of Saturn's Magnetosphere using CAPS Plasma Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Simpson, D.; Johnson, R.; Thomsen, M.; Arridge, C.

    2011-01-01

    We present the present status of an investigation of the rotation rate of Saturn's magnetosphere using a 3D velocity moment technique being developed at Goddard which is similar to the 2D version used by Sittler et al. for SOI and similar to that used by Thomsen et al.. This technique allows one to nearly cover the full energy range of the Cassini Plasma Spectrometer (CAPS) IMS from 1 V . E/Q work during roll maneuvers. We make comparisons with the bi-Maxwellian fitting technique developed by Wilson et al. and the similar velocity moment technique by Thomsen et al. . We concentrate our analysis when ion composition data is available, which is used to weight the non-compositional data, referred to as singles data, to separate H+, H2+ and water group ions (W+) from each other. The chosen periods have high enough telemetry rates (4 kbps or higher) so that coincidence ion data, similar to that used by Sittler et al. for SOI is available. The ion data set is especially valuable for measuring flow velocities for protons, which are more difficult to derive using singles data within the inner magnetosphere, where the signal is dominated by heavy ions (i.e., proton peak merges with W+ peak as low energy shoulder). Our technique uses a flux function, which is zero in the proper plasma flow frame, to estimate fluid parameter uncertainties. The comparisons investigate the experimental errors and potential for systematic errors in the analyses, including ours. The rolls provide the best data set when it comes to getting 4PI coverage of the plasma but are more susceptible to time aliasing effects. In the future we will then make comparisons with magnetic field observations, Saturn ionosphere conductivities as presently known and the field aligned currents necessary for the planet to enforce corotation of the rotating plasma.

  16. Seminal plasma zinc level may be associated with the effect of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, R-Z; Gao, J-C; Zhang, H-G; Wang, R-X; Zhang, Z-H; Liu, X-Y

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cigarette smoking on seminal plasma zinc levels and sperm parameters, and to examine the role of seminal plasma zinc. Semen samples from 79 non-smokers and 68 smokers were obtained. There was a significant decrease in seminal plasma zinc in smokers and a clear correlation between seminal plasma zinc levels and the extent of smoking. Sperm parameters (concentration, motility and morphology) among smokers were significantly lower in comparison to non-smokers. These parameters were also significantly decreased among smokers with abnormal zinc levels, while there was no significant difference between non-smokers with normal zinc and non-smokers with abnormal zinc levels. As previous studies have shown that seminal plasma zinc is associated with a decrease of anti-oxidant defences, seminal plasma zinc could be a contributor to the effects of cigarette smoking on sperm parameters. In conclusion, cigarette smoking can affect sperm parameters and this study may help towards providing a mechanistic explanation.

  17. Plasma scattering of electromagnetic radiation theory and measurement techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Froula, Dustin H; Luhmann, Neville C Jr; Sheffield, John

    2011-01-01

    This work presents one of the most powerful methods of plasma diagnosis in exquisite detail to guide researchers in the theory and measurement techniques of light scattering in plasmas. Light scattering in plasmas is essential in the research and development of fusion energy, environmental solutions, and electronics.Referred to as the "Bible" by researchers the work encompasses fusion and industrial applications essential in plasma research. It is the only comprehensive resource specific to the plasma scattering technique. It provides a wide-range of experimental examples and discussion of the

  18. Measurement of solar cell parameters using impedance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh, M.S. [Battery Division, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India)

    1996-08-15

    Measurement of solar cell parameters is important for the design of satellite power systems. These parameters can be measured using impedance spectroscopy and an equivalent circuit model developed. In this study parameters of a Back Surface Reflector Field solar cell (BSFR) have been measured using impedance spectroscopy. The results show high diffusion capacitance of BSFR cells and their exponential relation to the operating voltage. Cell dynamic resistance, diode factor, transition capacitance, and series resistance could also be measured. The minority carrier life time also has been calculated

  19. SIMULATION-MEASUREMENT INVERSION OF ENVIRONMENT PARAMETERS DURING WELDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Tao; D.Q. Li; C.L. Fan; H.Y. Fang

    2005-01-01

    The manual selection of environment parameters during welding simulation will bring a significant error to the simulation result of welding temperature field. By a combination of finite element method (FEM) and infrared thermography, these environment parameters were inversed mathematically in place of previous manual selection. First, FEM model of the welding process was constructed, and the temperature field was computed with initial environment parameters.Then, a real welding process was conducted and the temperature field was measured by infrared thermography. Last, the simulation and measurement results were compared, and the environment parameters were adjusted continuously with the genetic algorithm(GA) until the simulation matched the measurement best. Parameters according to the best-matched simulation results were considered as the most appropriate parameters.

  20. Characterisation of a micro-plasma device sensor using electrical measurements and emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariotti, D

    2002-04-01

    This thesis reports on research undertaken on the characterisation of a micro-plasma device to be used for gas analysis by mean of plasma emission spectroscopy. The work covers aspects related to the micro-plasma electrical and optical emission parameters, and their importance for the utilisation of the micro-plasma device in gas analysis. Experimental results have been used to analyse the fundamental micro-plasma processes and to develop a model, which could provide additional information. This dissertation contains a general literature review of topics related to plasma physics, plasma emission spectroscopy, gas analysis (chemical analysis and artificial olfaction) and other micro-plasma applications. Experimental work focuses on two main areas: electrical measurements and emission measurements. Firstly, electrical measurements are taken and interpretations are given. Where necessary, new theoretical treatments are suggested in order to describe better the physical phenomena. Plasma emission has been considered under different working conditions. This allowed the characterisation of the micro-plasma emission and also a better understanding of the micro-plasma processes. On the basis of the experimental data obtained and other assumptions a model has been developed. A computer simulation based on this model provided additional useful information on the micro- plasma behaviour. The first fundamental implication of this new research is the peculiar behaviour of the micro-plasma. This micro-plasma exhibited deviations from Paschen law and strong dependency on cathode material, which contributed to the formation of a low current stable regime. These results have been followed by physical interpretations and theoretical descriptions. The second implication is the establishment of the boundaries and of the influencing parameters for plasma emission spectroscopy as an analytical tool in this particular micro-plasma. From the applied perspective this study has shown that

  1. Spectroscopic measurements of plasma emission light for plasma-based acceleration experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, F.; Anania, M. P.; Biagioni, A.; Chiadroni, E.; Cianchi, A.; Ferrario, M.; Mostacci, A.; Palumbo, L.; Zigler, A.

    2016-09-01

    Advanced particle accelerators are based on the excitation of large amplitude plasma waves driven by either electron or laser beams. Future experiments scheduled at the SPARC_LAB test facility aim to demonstrate the acceleration of high brightness electron beams through the so-called resonant Plasma Wakefield Acceleration scheme in which a train of electron bunches (drivers) resonantly excites wakefields into a preformed hydrogen plasma; the last bunch (witness) injected at the proper accelerating phase gains energy from the wake. The quality of the accelerated beam depends strongly on plasma density and its distribution along the acceleration length. The measurements of plasma density of the order of 1016-1017 cm-3 can be performed with spectroscopic measurements of the plasma-emitted light. The measured density distribution for hydrogen filled capillary discharge with both Balmer alpha and Balmer beta lines and shot-to-shot variation are here reported.

  2. Calibration procedure for plasma polarimetry based on the complex amplitude ratio measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bieg, Bohdan, E-mail: b.bieg@am.szczecin.pl [Maritime University, Szczecin (Poland); Kravtsov, Yury A.; Cieplik, Marek [Maritime University, Szczecin (Poland)

    2013-10-15

    New methodology for plasma polarimeters calibration is suggested, based on the complex amplitude ratio (CAR) measurements. This methodology reduces calibration to determination of three complex parameters of transfer matrix, characterizing polarization changes in optical system. Having obtained transfer matrix, full characteristic of the optic system could be obtained: eigenstates, phase shift and relative attenuation of the slow and fast wave. Polarization state of the sounding electromagnetic wave after the plasma is determined from the measured complex amplitude ratio by simple inversion of transfer matrix. Calibration procedure under discussion is simpler, more transparent and reliable than traditional procedures, using Stokes vector technique or angular parameters of polarization ellipse.

  3. Langmuir Probe Measurements in an Inductively Coupled Ar/CF4 Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. V. V. S.; Meyyappan, M.; Sharma, S. P.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Technological advancement in the microelectronics industry requires an understanding of the physical and chemical processes occurring in plasmas of fluorocarbon gases, such as carbon tetrafluoride (CF4) which is commonly used as an etchant, and their mixtures to optimize various operating parameters. In this paper we report data on electron number density (ne), electron temperature'(Te), electron energy distribution function (EEDF), mean electron energy, ion number density (ni), and plasma potential (Vp) measured by using Langmuir probe in an inductively coupled 13.56 MHz radio frequency plasmas generated in 50%Ar:50%CF4 mixture in the GEC cell. The probe data were recorded at various radial positions providing radial profiles of these plasma parameters at 10-50 mTorr pressures and 200 W and 300 W of RF power. Present measurements indicate that the electron and ion number densities increase with increase in pressure and power. Whereas the plasma potential and electron temperature decrease with increase in pressure, and they weakly depend on RF power. The radial profiles exhibit that the electron and ion number densities and the plasma potential peak at the center of the plasma with an exponential fall away from it, while the electron temperature has a minimum at the center and it increases steadily towards the electrode edge. The EEDFs have a characteristic drop near the low energy end at all pressures and pressures and their shapes represent non-Maxwellian plasma and exhibit more like Druyvesteyn energy distribution.v

  4. Constraints on Cosmological Parameters: Combining Planck With Other Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    The recent measurements from Planck have set a new high bar for accuracy in the measurement of cosmological parameters. In parallel, new and increasingly accurate measurements of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations, Type Ia supernovae, and the Hubble Constant offer independent probes of various cosmological parameters. The increased accuracy in cosmic microwave background fluctuation measurements make direct comparisons with other methods even more critical, given the intrinsic physical degeneracies amongst different cosmological parameters in the acoustic oscillation spectrum. There has been fundamental progress over the last couple of decades in measuring extragalactic distances. I will discuss the current limits, and the prospects for reaching 1% uncertainty in measurement of the Hubble constant, which, combined with measurements from Planck, will be critical for providing independent constraints on dark energy, the geometry, and matter density of the universe.

  5. Plasma polymers deposited in atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharges: Influence of process parameters on film properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, Katja, E-mail: k.fricke@inp-greifswald.de [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology e.V. (INP Greifswald), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Girard-Lauriault, Pierre-Luc [Plasma Processing Laboratory, Department of Chemical Engineering, McGill University, 3610 rue University, Montreal, QC H3A 0C5 (Canada); Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter [Leibniz Institute for Plasma Science and Technology e.V. (INP Greifswald), Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, 17489 Greifswald (Germany); Wertheimer, Michael R. [Department of Engineering Physics, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Box 6079, Station Centre-Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3A7 (Canada)

    2016-03-31

    We present results on the deposition of plasma polymer (PP) films in a dielectric barrier discharge system fed with mixtures of argon or nitrogen carrier gas plus different hydrocarbon precursors, where the latter possess different carbon-to-hydrogen ratios: CH{sub 4} < C{sub 2}H{sub 6} < C{sub 2}H{sub 4} = C{sub 3}H{sub 6} < C{sub 2}H{sub 2}. The influence of precursor gas mixture and flow rate, excitation frequency, and absorbed power on PP film compositions and properties has been investigated. The discharge was characterized by electrical measurements, while the chemical compositions and structures of coatings were analysed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, total combustion, and elastic recoil detection analyses, the latter two for determining carbon-to-hydrogen ratios. Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the coatings' morphology, and profilometry for evaluating deposition rates. - Highlights: • Atmospheric pressure DBD is used to deposit organic hydrocarbon films. • High deposition rates can be achieved by varying the power and/or gas mixture ratio. • Process parameters affect the films' surface chemical composition and morphology. • Deposited films are not soluble in aqueous environment. • No delamination of coatings produced from argon plasma.

  6. Plasma actuator electron density measurement using microwave perturbation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirhosseini, Farid; Colpitts, Bruce [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, New Brunswick E3B 5A3 (Canada)

    2014-07-21

    A cylindrical dielectric barrier discharge plasma under five different pressures is generated in an evacuated glass tube. This plasma volume is located at the center of a rectangular copper waveguide cavity, where the electric field is maximum for the first mode and the magnetic field is very close to zero. The microwave perturbation method is used to measure electron density and plasma frequency for these five pressures. Simulations by a commercial microwave simulator are comparable to the experimental results.

  7. First Measurements of Higher Order Optics Parameters in the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Vanbavinckhove, G; Bartolini, R; Calaga, R; Giovannozzi, M; Maclean, E H; Miyamoto, R; Schmidt, F; Tomas, R

    2011-01-01

    Higher order effects can play an important role in the performance of the LHC. Lack of knowledge of these pa- rameters can increase the tune footprint and compromise the beam lifetime. First measurements of these parameters at injection and flattop have been conducted. Detailed sim- ulations are compared to the measurements together with discussions on the measurement limitations.

  8. Lamb-shift and electric field measurements in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doveil, F.; Chérigier-Kovacic, L.; Ström, P.

    2017-01-01

    The electric field is a quantity of particular relevance in plasma physics. Indeed, its fluctuations are responsible for different macroscopic phenomena such as anomalous transport in fusion plasmas. Answering a long-standing challenge, we offer a new method to locally and non-intrusively measure weak electric fields and their fluctuations in plasmas, by means of a beam of hydrogen ions or atoms. We present measurements of the electric field in vacuum and in a plasma where Debye shielding is measured. For the first time, we have used the Lamb-shift resonance to measure oscillating electric fields around 1 GHz and observed the strong enhancement of the Lyman-α signal. The measurement is both direct and non-intrusive. This method provides sensitivity (mV cm-1) and temporal resolution (ns) that are three orders higher compared to current diagnostics. It thus allows measuring fluctuations of the electric field at scales not previously reached experimentally.

  9. MODERN MEASUREMENT APPROACHES OF BROADBAND WIRELESS TRANSCEIVER MODULES PARAMETERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Murauyou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article contains results of development and use of non-standard methods for measuring parameters of broadband radio transceiver modules for compliance with the technical regulations of the Customs Union. 

  10. Genetic parameters of testicular measurements in Merino rams and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NARGA

    Genetic parameters of testicular measurements in Merino rams and the influence of scrotal ... firmly and evenly to the bottom of the scrotum until ventral skin folds were eliminated. The testes were then ..... Ph.D. (Agric) treatise. University of.

  11. Effect of magnetic barrier on the plasma parameters in a Trimix-M galatea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morozov, A. I.; Bugrova, A. I.; Bishaev, A. M.; Lipatov, A. S.; Kozintseva, M. V.

    2006-11-01

    The parameters of plasma trapped in a Trimix-M galatea with increased values of the magnetic barrier and the energy of a hydrogen plasma bunch injected in the trap have been determined. For a barrier magnetic field of B b ˜ 0.1 T, the plasma confinement time in the trap is τp ≈ 300 μs (which agrees with estimates obtained using formulas describing the classical transfer), the maximum electron density is n e ˜ 5 × 1013 cm-3, and the electron and ion temperatures are T e ≈ 20 eV and T i ˜ 2T e, respectively. The energy of trapped plasma is ˜110 J, and the ratio of the gaskinetic to magnetic pressure in the plasma is β0 ˜ 0.2.

  12. Remote measurements of electro-physical parameters of layer mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, Vladimir T.; Dmitriev, Vladimir A.; Lobatch, Yaroslav V.

    1999-07-01

    The paper deals with the problem of measuring electrical and geometrical parameters of the layer medium. The measurements are based on the control of radio wave reflection coefficient as a function of frequency. Based on solution of the system of transcendental equations for reflection coefficient such parameters of the homogeneous layer medium as complex dielectric permeability, depth of the layer and complex dielectric permeability of the lower homogeneous hemispace.

  13. Impact of plasma parameter on self-organization of electron temperature gradient driven turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, C.; Idomura, Y.; Maeyama, S.; Ogawa, Y.

    2017-04-01

    Self-organization in the slab electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) turbulence is investigated based on gyrokinetic simulations and the Hasegawa-Mima (HM) equation. The scale and the anisotropy of self-organized turbulent structures vary depending on the Rhines scale and the characteristic scale given by the adiabatic response term in the HM equation. The former is determined by competition between the linear wave dispersion and the nonlinear turbulent cascade, while the latter is given as the scale, at which the turbulent cascade is impeded. These scales are controlled by plasma parameters such as the density and temperature gradient, and the temperature ratio of ion to electron. It is found that depending on the plasma parameters, the ETG turbulence shows either isotropic turbulence or zonal flows, which give significantly different transport levels. Although the modulational instability excites zonal modes regardless of the plasma parameters, the final turbulent structure is determined by the self-organization process.

  14. Variation of plasma parameters of vacuum arc column with gap distance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wen; Yuan, Zhao; He, Junjia

    2016-07-01

    On the basis of a two-dimensional (2D) magneto-hydrodynamic model, we studied long-gap-distance vacuum arcs in a uniform axial magnetic field and determined the effect of gap distance varying in a large range on plasma parameters. Simulation results showed that with increasing gap distance, the parameters of the plasma near the cathode are almost invariant, except for ion number density, but the parameters of the plasma in front of the anode clearly vary; meanwhile, joule heat gradually becomes the main source of energy for the arc column. In a short gap, a clear current constriction can be found in the entire arc column. Whereas when the gap distance exceeds a certain value, a sharp contraction of the current only arises in front of the anode.

  15. Internal oscillating current-sustained RF plasmas: Parameters, stability, and potential for surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Tsakadze, Z.L.;

    2005-01-01

    plasma parameters by the optical and Langmuir probes are presented. It is shown that the spatial profiles of the electron density, the effective electron temperature and plasma potential feature a great deal of the radial and axial uniformity compared with conventional sources of inductively coupled......A new source of low-frequency (0.46 MHz) inductively coupled plasmas sustained by the internal planar "unidirectional" RF current driven through a specially designed internal antenna configuration has been developed. The experimental results of the investigation of the optical and global argon...... applications and surface engineering. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  16. Levels of oxidative stress biomarkers in seminal plasma and their relationship with seminal parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarghami Nosratollah

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is growing evidence that damage to spermatozoa by reactive oxygen species (ROS play a key role in male infertility. The aim of the present study was to assess seminal plasma levels of total antioxidant capacity (TAC, free 8-Isoprostane and activities of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD in men with asthenozoospermia, asthenoteratozoospermia and oligoasthenoteratozoospermia compared with normozoospermic males. Methods The patients consisted of 46 men with seminal parameters abnormalities. The patients were grouped into asthenozoospermic (n = 15, asthenoteratozoospermic (n = 16 and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic (n = 15. The control group consisted of 16 healthy males with normozoospermia. Catalase activity was measured by Aebi spectrophotometeric method. Levels of TAC and SOD were measured by commercially available colorimetric assays. Level of free 8-Isoprostane was assessed by commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA method. Differences between groups were assessed using Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal-Wallis test. Coefficients of correlation were calculated using Spearman's correlation analysis. All hypothesis tests were two-tailed with statistical significance assessed at the p value Results Levels of catalase and TAC were significantly lower in patients than the control group. No significant changes were seen in SOD activities. Levels of free 8-Isoprostane were significantly higher in patients than the control group. Furthermore, asthenozoospermic, asthenoteratozoospermic and oligoasthenoteratozoospermic groups had significantly lower values of catalase activity and TAC when compared to normozoospermic males. Levels of free 8-Isoprostane were significantly higher in all patients subgroups than the control group. Levels of catalase and TAC were positively correlated with sperm motility and morphology. Free 8-Isoprostane levels showed an inverse correlation with sperm motility and morphology. Conclusion

  17. In situ impedance measurement of microwave atmospheric pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. T.; Nam, W. J.; Lee, J. K.; Yun, G. S.

    2017-04-01

    The impedance of atmospheric pressure argon plasma jets driven by microwave frequency is determined in situ by a novel ‘two frequency method’. In the conventional method of reflection coefficient ({{S}}11) measurement, the frequency of the driving microwave power is scanned, which inevitably affects the plasma characters and leads to uncertainty in the estimated plasma impedance. In our proposed method, the frequency-scanning signal additional to the driving power is used to measure {{S}}11 over a wide frequency range, which enables accurate determination of the plasma impedance based on an equivalent circuit model. The measured resistance and reactance of the plasma increase with the driving power in agreement with the transmission line theory. Based on this in situ measurement of the plasma impedance, the net power coupled to the plasma has been determined. The overall power efficiency remains approximately unchanged around 45% for different input power levels owing to the competing effects between the impedance mismatch and the volume change of the plasma.

  18. Toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation measurements in Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, W.R.; Garbet, X.; Guirlet, R.; Hesse, M.; Payan, J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee

    1993-12-31

    Plasma rotation measurements by visible spectroscopy and by a CO{sub 2}-laser scattering experiment (ALTAIR) are presented. The ALTAIR diagnostic is used to study the turbulence changes at the plasma edge during operation of the ergodic divertor (ED). Heterodyne detection allows discrimination between waves propagating in the electron or in the ion diamagnetic direction. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Measurement of parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghodke, A D; Husain, Riyasat; Kumar, Pradeep; Yadav, Surendra; Puntambekar, T A

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the measurement of optics parameters in Indus-2 synchrotron radiation source, which include betatron tune, beta function, dispersion function, natural chromaticity, corrected chromaticity, central RF frequency, momentum compaction factor, and linear betatron coupling. Two methods were used for beta function measurement; a conventional quadrupole scan method and a method using the fitting of the orbit response matrix. A robust Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm was used for nonlinear least square fitting of the orbit response matrix. In this paper, detailed methods for the parameter measurements are described. The measured results are discussed and compared with the theoretical values obtained using accelerator simulation code Accelerator Toolbox in MATLAB.

  20. Electro-optic probe measurements of electric fields in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiura, M.; Yoshida, Z.; Mushiake, T.; Kawazura, Y.; Osawa, R.; Fujinami, K.; Yano, Y.; Saitoh, H.; Yamasaki, M.; Kashyap, A.; Takahashi, N.; Nakatsuka, M.; Fukuyama, A.

    2017-02-01

    The direct measurements of high-frequency electric fields in a plasma bring about significant advances in the physics and engineering of various waves. We have developed an electro-optic sensor system based on the Pockels effect. Since the signal is transmitted through an optical fiber, the system has high tolerance for electromagnetic noises. To demonstrate its applicability to plasma experiments, we report the first result of measurement of the ion-cyclotron wave excited in the RT-1 magnetosphere device. This study compares the results of experimental field measurements with simulation results of electric fields in plasmas.

  1. Measurement Error Effects of Beam Parameters Determined by Beam Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Jang, Ji-Ho; Jeon, Dong-O

    2015-01-01

    A conventional method to determine beam parameters is using the profile measurements and converting them into the values of twiss parameters and beam emittance at a specified position. The beam information can be used to improve transverse beam matching between two different beam lines or accelerating structures. This work is related with the measurement error effects of the beam parameters and the optimal number of profile monitors in a section between MEBT (medium energy beam transport) and QWR (quarter wave resonator) of RAON linear accelerator.

  2. Determination of complex microcalorimeter parameters with impedance measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saab, T. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)]. E-mail: tsaab@phys.ufl.edu; Bandler, S.R. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Chervenak, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Finkbeiner, F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Iyomoto, N. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kelley, R.L. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kilbourne, C.A. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Lindeman, M.A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Porter, F.S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Sadleir, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2006-04-15

    The proper understanding and modeling of a microcalorimeter's response requires accurate knowledge of a handful of parameters, such as C, G, {alpha}. While a few of these parameters are directly determined from the IV characteristics, some others, notoriously the heat capacity (C) and {alpha}, appear in degenerate combinations in most measurable quantities. The consideration of a complex microcalorimeter leads to an added ambiguity in the determination of the parameters. In general, the dependence of the microcalorimeter's complex impedance on these various parameters varies with frequency. This dependence allows us to determine individual parameters by fitting the prediction of the microcalorimeter model to impedance data. In this paper we describe efforts at characterizing the Goddard X-ray microcalorimeters. With the parameters determined by this method, we compare the pulse shape and noise spectra predictions to data taken with the same devices.

  3. Hildebrand solubility parameters measurement via sessile drops evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaohua; Li, Bingquan; Sokolov, Jonathan C.; Rafailovich, Miriam H.; Gewaily, Dina

    2005-08-01

    A method for the measurement of Hildebrand solubility parameter has been developed. This method was based on the measurement of the sessile drop contact angle and contact base width during its evaporation. Experimental results showed that this method is accurate and insensitive to the measurement conditions. The major advantages of this method are that it is time efficient and requires a small amount of liquid (microliter) for the measurement.

  4. Time resolved measurements of the CF{sub 2} rotational temperature in pulsed fluorocarbon rf plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, O; Stepanov, S; Pfafferott, M; Meichsner, J [Institute of Physics, University of Greifswald, Domstrasse 10a, D-17498, Greifswald (Germany)

    2006-11-01

    Knowledge of the absolute densities of small radicals like CF, CF{sub 2} and CF{sub 3} in fluorocarbon plasmas is essential for a fundamental understanding of plasma chemical processes and plasma surface interaction. Infrared absorption spectroscopy by means of tunable diode lasers (IR-TDLAS) was established and widely used for density measurements in the last decade. The often unknown parameter in the calculation of absolute radical densities from a measured absorption of a single line is the rotational temperature. In particular, a strong dependence of the line strength on rotational temperature has a significant influence on density calculation. In this paper we report on measurements of the CF{sub 2} rotational temperature in capacitively coupled CF{sub 4}/H{sub 2} plasmas (CCP) with rf (13.56 MHz) powers up to 200 W. Rotational temperatures in continuous and pulsed modes of the discharge were found to be between 300 and 450 K. Furthermore, first measurements of the time dependence of the rotational temperature in pulsed rf plasma are presented. The rotational temperature rises in the plasma phase within 0.1 s and goes down again to the temperature of the background gas in the plasma pause within 0.5 s. It is also shown that accurate density measurements of the radicals by means of single line absorption need correct information about the rotational temperature and careful selection of a suitable absorption line.

  5. Ion sensitive probe measurement in the linear plasma device PSI-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezumi, N. [Nagano National College of Technology, 716 Tokuma, Nagano 381-8550 (Japan)]. E-mail: ezumi@ec.nagano-nct.ac.jp; Kiss' ovski, Zh. [Faculty of Physics, Sofia University, Sofia 1164 (Bulgaria); Bohmeyer, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Bereich Plasmadiagnostik, Brook-Taylor-Str. 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Fussmann, G. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Bereich Plasmadiagnostik, Brook-Taylor-Str. 6, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2005-03-01

    The suitability of an ion sensitive probe (ISP) with respect to ion temperature (T {sub i}) measurements has been tested in the linear plasma generator in PSI-2. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics were recorded as a function of two key parameters: shielding height (h) and potential differences between inner and outer electrodes (V {sub B}). It could be experimentally confirmed that the current within the electron saturation region is reduced with increasing h. Furthermore, the I-V characteristics change drastically when V {sub B} is varied. Radial profiles of the plasma parameters including plasma and floating potentials could be taken. Whereas the T {sub i} values determined by ISP in the plasma core region agree fairly with those obtained by using a local optical probe, severe interpretation difficulties occurred for the outer regions.

  6. Gas Temperature Measurements of Fluctuating Coal - MHD Plasmas Using Modified Line Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkleman, Bradley Carl

    The technique of modified line reversal is investigated and developed to allow accurate measurements on fluctuating coal fired magnetohydrodynamic plasmas and flows. Generalized modified line reversal equations applicable to any geometry and optical system are developed and presented. The generalized equations are specialized to the two most common optical systems, focussed and collimated, employed for modified line reversal measurements. Approximations introduced by specializing to the specific optical systems are investigated. Vignetting of the optical system images is shown to introduce large biases in the temperature measurement for certain optical configurations commonly applied. It is shown that symmetric optical systems are unacceptable for line reversal measurements. The errors introduced by non-simultaneous measurement of the required line reversal parameters due to rapidly fluctuating plasma characteristics are characterized. Line reversal signal and temperature measurements made on a coal fired MHD plasma are used to quantify the error in the temperature measurement due to non-simultaneous sampling of the measured line reversal parameters. A simple modified line reversal system based on interference filters and photodiodes that employs spatial separation to obtain the required line reversal parameters is described. Gas temperatures measured with devices using both the spatial and temporal separation techniques are compared. Modified line reversal temperature measurements are compared to theoretically predicted temperatures as well as CARS and high velocity thermocouple temperature measurements.

  7. Profiles of ion beams and plasma parameters on a multi-frequencies microwaves large bore electron cyclotron resonance ion source with permanent magnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yushi; Sakamoto, Naoki; Kiriyama, Ryutaro; Takenaka, Tomoya; Kurisu, Yosuke; Nozaki, Dai; Sato, Fuminobu; Iida, Toshiyuki

    2012-02-01

    In order to contribute to various applications of plasma and beams based on an electron cyclotron resonance, a new concept on magnetic field with all magnets on plasma production and confinement has been proposed with enhanced efficiency for broad and dense ion beam. The magnetic field configuration consists of a pair of comb-shaped magnet surrounding plasma chamber cylindrically. Resonance zones corresponding for 2.45 GHz and 11-13 GHz frequencies are positioned at spatially different positions. We launch simultaneously multiplex frequencies microwaves operated individually, try to control profiles of the plasma parameters and the extracted ion beams, and to measure them in detail.

  8. Subclinical hypocalcemia, plasma biochemical parameters, lipid metabolism, postpartum disease, and fertility in postparturient dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlin, W G; Middleton, J R; Spain, J N; Johnson, G C; Ellersieck, M R; Pithua, P

    2013-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential association between Ca status at calving and postpartum energy balance, liver lipid infiltration, disease occurrence, milk yield and quality parameters, and fertility in Holstein cows. One hundred cows were assigned to 1 of 2 groups based on whole-blood ionized Ca concentration ([iCa]) on the day of calving [d 0; hypocalcemic [iCa] Cows were blocked based on calving date and parity. Blood samples were collected approximately 14 d from expected calving date (d -14), the day of calving (d 0), and on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of plasma nonesterified fatty acid, iCa, total Ca, glucose, and total and direct bilirubin concentrations, and plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities. Liver biopsies were obtained from a subset of cows on d 0, 7, and 35 for quantification of lipid content. Milk samples were collected on d 3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 postpartum for measurement of somatic cell count and percentages of protein, fat, and solids-not-fat. Data for peak test-day milk yield, services per conception, and days open were obtained from Dairy Herd Improvement Association herd records. Disease occurrence was determined based on herd treatment records. Hypocalcemic cows had significantly higher nonesterified fatty acids on d 0. Hypocalcemic cows also had significantly more lipid in hepatocytes on d 7 and 35 postpartum. However, no statistically significant differences were observed between groups for plasma aspartate aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transferase activities or total and direct bilirubin concentrations. Milk protein percentage was lower in hypocalcemic cows on d 21 and 35. However other milk quality variables (somatic cell count, milk fat percentage, and solids-not-fat) and milk yield variables (peak test-day milk yield and 305-d mature-equivalent 4% fat-corrected milk yield) did not differ between groups. No differences were observed between groups in the

  9. Distribution Line Parameter Estimation Under Consideration of Measurement Tolerances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prostejovsky, Alexander; Gehrke, Oliver; Kosek, Anna Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    State estimation and control approaches in electric distribution grids rely on precise electric models that may be inaccurate. This work presents a novel method of estimating distribution line parameters using only root mean square voltage and power measurements under consideration of measurement...

  10. Influence of measurement errors and estimated parameters on combustion diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Payri, F.; Molina, S.; Martin, J. [CMT-Motores Termicos, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n. 46022 Valencia (Spain); Armas, O. [Departamento de Mecanica Aplicada e Ingenieria de proyectos, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha. Av. Camilo Jose Cela s/n 13071,Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2006-02-01

    Thermodynamic diagnosis models are valuable tools for the study of Diesel combustion. Inputs required by such models comprise measured mean and instantaneous variables, together with suitable values for adjustable parameters used in different submodels. In the case of measured variables, one may estimate the uncertainty associated with measurement errors; however, the influence of errors in model parameter estimation may not be so easily established on an experimental basis. In this paper, a simulated pressure cycle has been used along with known input parameters, so that any uncertainty in the inputs is avoided. Then, the influence of errors in measured variables and geometric and heat transmission parameters on the results of a diagnosis combustion model for direct injection diesel engines have been studied. This procedure allowed to establish the relative importance of these parameters and to set limits to the maximal errors of the model, accounting for both the maximal expected errors in the input parameters and the sensitivity of the model to those errors. (author)

  11. Measurement of Heat Propagation in a Laser Produced Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Knight, J; Niemann, C; Price, D; Froula, D H; Edwards, J; Town, R P J; Brantov, A; Bychenkov, V Y; Rozmus, W

    2003-08-22

    We present the observation of a nonlocal heat wave by measuring spatially and temporally resolved electron temperature profiles in a laser produced nitrogen plasma. Absolutely calibrated measurements have been performed by resolving the ion-acoustic wave spectra across the plasma volume with Thomson scattering. We find that the experimental electron temperature profiles disagree with flux-limited models, but are consistent with transport models that account for the nonlocal effects in heat conduction by fast electrons.

  12. Design and testing of miniaturized plasma sensor for measuring hypervelocity impact plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goel, A., E-mail: ashish09@stanford.edu; Tarantino, P. M.; Lauben, D. S.; Close, S. [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    An increasingly notable component of the space environment pertains to the impact of meteoroids and orbital debris on spacecraft and the resulting mechanical and electrical damages. Traveling at speeds of tens of km/s, when these particles, collectively referred to as hypervelocity particles, impact a satellite, they vaporize, ionize, and produce a radially expanding plasma that can generate electrically harmful radio frequency emission or serve as a trigger for electrostatic discharge. In order to measure the flux, composition, energy distribution, and temperature of ions and electrons in this plasma, a miniaturized plasma sensor has been developed for carrying out in-situ measurements in space. The sensor comprises an array of electrostatic analyzer wells split into 16 different channels, catering to different species and energy ranges in the plasma. We present results from numerical simulation based optimization of sensor geometry. A novel approach of fabricating the sensor using printed circuit boards is implemented. We also describe the test setup used for calibrating the sensor and show results demonstrating the energy band pass characteristics of the sensor. In addition to the hypervelocity impact plasmas, the plasma sensor developed can also be used to carry out measurements of ionospheric plasma, diagnostics of plasma propulsion systems, and in other space physics experiments.

  13. Design and testing of miniaturized plasma sensor for measuring hypervelocity impact plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, A.; Tarantino, P. M.; Lauben, D. S.; Close, S.

    2015-04-01

    An increasingly notable component of the space environment pertains to the impact of meteoroids and orbital debris on spacecraft and the resulting mechanical and electrical damages. Traveling at speeds of tens of km/s, when these particles, collectively referred to as hypervelocity particles, impact a satellite, they vaporize, ionize, and produce a radially expanding plasma that can generate electrically harmful radio frequency emission or serve as a trigger for electrostatic discharge. In order to measure the flux, composition, energy distribution, and temperature of ions and electrons in this plasma, a miniaturized plasma sensor has been developed for carrying out in-situ measurements in space. The sensor comprises an array of electrostatic analyzer wells split into 16 different channels, catering to different species and energy ranges in the plasma. We present results from numerical simulation based optimization of sensor geometry. A novel approach of fabricating the sensor using printed circuit boards is implemented. We also describe the test setup used for calibrating the sensor and show results demonstrating the energy band pass characteristics of the sensor. In addition to the hypervelocity impact plasmas, the plasma sensor developed can also be used to carry out measurements of ionospheric plasma, diagnostics of plasma propulsion systems, and in other space physics experiments.

  14. Effect of applying static electric field on the physical parameters and dynamics of laser-induced plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmaa Elhassan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the performance of the LIBS technique – in particular its sensitivity, reproducibility and limit of detection – we studied the effect of applying a static electric field with different polarities on the emission spectra obtained in a typical LIBS set-up. The physical parameters of the laser-induced plasma, namely the electron density Ne and the plasma temperature Te, were studied under such circumstances. In addition to the spectroscopic analysis of the plasma plume emission, the laser-induced shock waves were exploited to monitor the probable changes in the plasma plume dynamics due to the application of the electric field. The study showed a pronounced enhancement in the signal-to-noise (S/N ratio of different Al, neutral and ionic lines under forward biasing voltage (negative target and positive electrode. On the other hand, a clear deterioration of the emission line intensities was observed under conditions of reversed polarity. This negative effect may be attributed to the reduction in electron-ion recombinations due to the stretched plasma plume. The plasma temperature showed a constant value in the average with the increasing electric field in both directions. This effect may be due to the fact that the measured values of Te were averaged over the whole plasma emission volume. The electron density was observed to decrease slightly in the case of forward biasing while no significant effect was noticed in the case of reversed biasing. This slight decrease in Ne can be interpreted in view of the increase in the rate of electron–ion recombinations due to the presence of the electric field. No appreciable effects of the applied electric field on the plasma dynamics were noticed.

  15. Plasma absorption evidence via chirped pulse spectral transmission measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia, E-mail: ottavia.jedrkiewicz@ifn.cnr.it [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie, CNR and CNISM UdR Como, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy); Minardi, Stefano [Institute of Applied Physics, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Couairon, Arnaud; Jukna, Vytautas [Centre de Physique Theorique, CNRS, Ecole Polytechnique, F-91128 Palaiseau (France); Selva, Marco; Di Trapani, Paolo [Dipartimento di Scienza e Alta Tecnologia, University of Insubria and CNISM UdR Como, Via Valleggio 11, I-22100 Como (Italy)

    2015-06-08

    This work aims at highlighting the plasma generation dynamics and absorption when a Bessel beam propagates in glass. We developed a simple diagnostics allowing us to retrieve clear indications of the formation of the plasma in the material, thanks to transmission measurements in the angular and wavelength domains. This technique featured by the use of a single chirped pulse having the role of pump and probe simultaneously leads to results showing the plasma nonlinear absorption effect on the trailing part of the pulse, thanks to the spectral-temporal correspondence in the measured signal, which is also confirmed by numerical simulations.

  16. Influence of instrumental parameters on the kinetic energy of ions and plasma temperature for a hexapole collision/reaction-cell-based inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favre, Georges; Brennetot, René; Chartier, Frédéric; Tortajada, Jeanine

    2009-02-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is widely used in inorganic analytical chemistry for element and/or isotope ratio measurements. The presence of interferences, which is one of the main limitations of this method, has been addressed in recent years with the introduction of collision/reaction cell devices on ICP-MS apparatus. The study of ion-molecule reactions in the gas phase then became of great importance for the development of new analytical strategies. Knowing the kinetic energy and the electronic states of the ions prior to their entrance into the cell, i.e., just before they react, thereby constitutes crucial information for the interpretation of the observed reactivities. Such studies on an ICP-MS commonly used for routine analyses require the determination of the influence of different instrumental parameters on the energy of the ions and on the plasma temperature from where ions are sampled. The kinetic energy of ions prior to their entrance into the cell has been connected to the voltage applied to the hexapole according to a linear relationship determined from measurements of ion energy losses due to collisions with neutral gas molecules. The effects of the plasma forward power, sampling depth, and the addition of a torch shield to the ICP source were then examined. A decrease of the plasma potential due to the torch shielding, already mentioned in the literature, has been quantified in this study at about 3 V.

  17. Measurement of the Acoustic Nonlinearity Parameter for Biological Media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Wesley Nelson

    In vitro measurements of the acoustic nonlinearity parameter are presented for several biological media. With these measurements it is possible to predict the distortion of a finite amplitude wave in biological tissues of current diagnostic and research interest. The measurement method is based on the finite amplitude distortion of a sine wave that is emmitted by a piston source. The growth of the second harmonic component of this wave is measured by a piston receiver which is coaxial with and has the same size as the source. The experimental measurements and theory are compared in order to determine the nonlinearity parameter. The density, sound speed, and attenuation for the medium are determined in order to make this comparison. The theory developed for this study accounts for the influence of both diffraction and attenuation on the experimental measurements. The effects of dispersion, tissue inhomogeneity and gas bubbles within the excised tissues are studied. To test the measurement method, experimental results are compared with established values for the nonlinearity parameter of distilled water, ethylene glycol and glycerol. The agreement between these values suggests that the measurement uncertainty is (+OR-) 5% for liquids and (+OR-) 10% for solid tissues. Measurements are presented for dog blood and bovine serum albumen as a function of concentration. The nonlinearity parameters for liver, kidney and spleen are reported for both human and canine tissues. The values for the fresh tissues displayed little variation (6.8 to 7.8). Measurements for fixed, normal and cirrhotic tissues indicated that the nonlinearity parameter does not depend strongly on pathology. However, the values for fixed tissues were somewhat higher than those of the fresh tissues.

  18. Cloud and Thermodynamic Parameters Retrieved from Satellite Ultraspectral Infrared Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Schluessel, Peter; Strow, L. Larrabee; Mango, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric-thermodynamic parameters and surface properties are basic meteorological parameters for weather forecasting. A physical geophysical parameter retrieval scheme dealing with cloudy and cloud-free radiance observed with satellite ultraspectral infrared sounders has been developed and applied to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS). The retrieved parameters presented herein are from radiance data gathered during the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx). JAIVEx provided intensive aircraft observations obtained from airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) systems, in-situ measurements, and dedicated dropsonde and radiosonde measurements for the validation of the IASI products. Here, IASI atmospheric profile retrievals are compared with those obtained from dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and the airborne FTS system. The IASI examples presented here demonstrate the ability to retrieve fine-scale horizontal features with high vertical resolution from satellite ultraspectral sounder radiance spectra.

  19. Classical Heat-Flux Measurements in Coronal Plasmas from Collective Thomson-Scattering Spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchen, R. J.; Hu, S. X.; Katz, J.; Froula, D. H.; Rozmus, W.

    2016-10-01

    Collective Thomson scattering was used to measure heat flux in coronal plasmas. The relative amplitude of the Thomson-scattered power into the up- and downshifted electron plasma wave features was used to determine the flux of electrons moving along the temperature gradient at three to four times the electron thermal velocity. Simultaneously, the ion-acoustic wave features were measured. Their relative amplitude was used to measure the flux of the return-current electrons. The frequencies of these ion-acoustic and electron plasma wave features provide local measurements of the electron temperature and density. These spectra were obtained at five locations along the temperature gradient in a laser-produced blowoff plasma. These measurements of plasma parameters are used to infer the Spitzer-Härm flux (qSH = - κ∇Te ) and are in good agreement with the values of the heat flux measured from the scattering-feature asymmetries. Additional experiments probed plasma waves perpendicular to the temperature gradient. The data show small effects resulting from heat flux compared to probing waves along the temperature gradient. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  20. Lindhard's polarization parameter and atomic sum rules in the local plasma approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, R.; Apell, P.; Oddershede, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we analyze the effects of Lindhard polarization parameter, χ, on the sum rule, Sp, within the local plasma approximation (LPA) as well as on the logarithmic sum rule Lp = dSp/dp, in both cases for the system in an initial excited state. We show results for a hydrogenic atom with nuc...

  1. Testing THEMIS wave measurements against the cold plasma theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubenschuss, Ulrich; Santolik, Ondrej; Le Contel, Olivier; Bonnell, John

    2016-04-01

    The THEMIS (Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms) mission records a multitude of electromagnetic waves inside Earth's magnetosphere and provides data in the form of high-resolution electric and magnetic waveforms. We use multi-component measurements of whistler mode waves and test them against the theory of wave propagation in a cold plasma. The measured ratio cB/E (c is speed of light in vacuum, B is magnetic wave amplitude, E is electric wave amplitude) is compared to the same quantity calculated from cold plasma theory over linearized Faraday's law. The aim of this study is to get estimates for measurement uncertainties, especially with regard to the electric field and the cold plasma density, as well as evaluating the validity of cold plasma theory inside Earth's radiation belts.

  2. Langmuir-Probe Measurements in Flowing-Afterglow Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnsen, R.; Shunko, E. V.; Gougousi, T.; Golde, M. F.

    1994-01-01

    The validity of the orbital-motion theory for cylindrical Langmuir probes immersed in flowing- afterglow plasmas is investigated experimentally. It is found that the probe currents scale linearly with probe area only for electron-collecting but not for ion-collecting probes. In general, no agreement is found between the ion and electron densities derived from the probe currents. Measurements in recombining plasmas support the conclusion that only the electron densities derived from probe measurements can be trusted to be of acceptable accuracy. This paper also includes a brief derivation of the orbital-motion theory, a discussion of perturbations of the plasma by the probe current, and the interpretation of plasma velocities obtained from probe measurements.

  3. Influence of atmospheric plasma spray parameters on YSZ coatings obtained from micro and nano structured feedstocks; Influencia de los parametros de proyeccion por plasma atmosferico en recubrimientos de YSZ obtenidos a partir de polvos micro y nanoestructurados

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpio, P.; Bannier, E.; Borrell, A.; Salvador, M. d.; Sanchez, E.

    2014-07-01

    In the present work, the influence of atmospheric plasma spray (APS) parameters on the deposition of two commercial YSZ feedstocks, one conventional and one non-conductor's, has been studied. First the study focused on how the variability of the different parameters affects the particle behaviour during spraying. For this purpose, a sensor which enables to measure the particle temperature and velocity inside the plasma was used. Once the spraying parameters influence was known, both powders were deposited by APS onto stainless steel substrates modifying the higher influencing parameters. These coatings have been characterised and the influence of the particle behaviour on the coating microstructure and properties has been analysed. This work concludes the spraying parameters variation affects on the particle velocity and temperature inside the plasma plume and this behaviour influences, in turn but in a different way, on the final coating characteristics when using different powders (micro- and nano structured). (Author)

  4. In vivo triglyceride synthesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of humans correlates with plasma HDL parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Munoz, Alejandro O.; Ruiz-Barros, Viviana; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Montalto, Giuseppe; Chandalia, Manisha; Sowers, Lawrence C.; Rizzo, Manfredi; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Abate, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Low concentrations of plasma HDL-C are associated with the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Here we aimed to explore the relationship between the in vivo fractional synthesis of triglycerides (fTG) in subcutaneous (s.q.) abdominal adipose tissue (AT), HDL-C concentrations and HDL particle size composition in non-diabetic humans. Methods The fTG in s.q. abdominal AT was measured in 16 non-diabetic volunteers (7 women, 9 men; Age: 49±20 years; BMI: 31±5 kg/m; Fasting Plasma Glucose: 90±10 mg/dl) after 2H2O labeling. HDL-C concentration and subclasses, large (L-HDL), intermediate (I-HDL) and small (S-HDL) were measured. Results Linear regression analyses demonstrated significant associations of fTG with plasma concentration of HDL-C (r=0.625,p=0.009) and percent contribution of L-HDL (r=0.798,pHDL (r=−0.765,pHDL (r=−0.629, p=0.009). When analyses were performed by gender, the associations remained significant in women (HDL-C: r=0.822,p=0.023; L-HDL: r=0.892,p=0.007; I-HDL: r=−0.927,p=0.003) but not men. Conclusions Our study demonstrated an in vivo association between subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics and HDL parameters in humans, but this was true for women not men. Positive association with L-HDL and negative with I-HDL suggest that subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics may play an important role in production of mature functional HDL particles. Further studies evaluating the mechanism responsible for these associations and the observed gender differences are important and warranted to identify potential novel targets of intervention to increase the production of atheroprotective subclasses of HDL-Cs and thus decreasing the risks of development of atherosclerotic conditions. PMID:27323227

  5. Investigation of Normalization Methods using Plasma Parameters for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) under simulated Martian Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vogt, David; Schröder, Susanne; Hübers, H.-W.

    2017-01-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy data need to be normalized, especially in the field of planetary exploration We investigated plasma parameters as temperature and electron density for this purpose.

  6. Measurements and modeling of the impact of weak magnetic fields on the plasma properties of a planar slot antenna driven plasma source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Jun, E-mail: jun.yoshikawa@tel.com; Susa, Yoshio; Ventzek, Peter L. G. [Tokyo Electron Ltd., Akasaka Biz Tower, 3-1 Akasaka 5-chome, Minato-ku, Tokyo 107-6325 (Japan)

    2015-05-15

    The radial line slot antenna plasma source is a type of surface wave plasma source driven by a planar slot antenna. Microwave power is transmitted through a slot antenna structure and dielectric window to a plasma characterized by a generation zone adjacent to the window and a diffusion zone that contacts a substrate. The diffusion zone is characterized by a very low electron temperature. This renders the source useful for soft etch applications and thin film deposition processes requiring low ion energy. Another property of the diffusion zone is that the plasma density tends to decrease from the axis to the walls under the action of ambipolar diffusion at distances far from where the plasma is generated. A previous simulation study [Yoshikawa and. Ventzek, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 31, 031306 (2013)] predicted that the anisotropy in transport parameters due to weak static magnetic fields less than 50 G could be leveraged to manipulate the plasma profile in the radial direction. These simulations motivated experimental tests in which weak magnetic fields were applied to a radial line slot antenna source. Plasma absorption probe measurements of electron density and etch rate showed that the magnetic fields remote from the wafer were able to manipulate both parameters. A summary of these results is presented in this paper. Argon plasma simulation trends are compared with experimental plasma and etch rate measurements. A test of the impact of magnetic fields on charge up damage showed no perceptible negative effect.

  7. Influence of argon fraction on plasma parameters in H2-N2 mixture discharge with cathodic cage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Muhammad; Zaka-ul-Islam, Mujahid; Khattak, Zahid Iqbal; Shafiq, Muhammad; Zakaullah, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Low-pressure H2-N2 mixture pulsed DC plasmas with a cathodic cage (active screen) are widely used for plasma nitriding applications. In this study, the low-pressure H2-N2 mixture plasma with a cathodic cage generated by 50 Hz pulsed DC source is investigated with triple Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy. The electron temperature (TeLP T e LP ) and electron number density (ne) are measured using a triple Langmuir probe (TLP). The excitation temperature (TexcOES T e xc OES ) is calculated spectroscopically using Boltzmann plot method whereas nitrogen dissociation fraction is estimated using actinometry as well as the intensity ratio method (IN (746.83 nm)/IN2(337.1 nm)). The results show that the electron and excitation temperatures, electron density and nitrogen atomic species density [N] all increase with the argon admixture, however, the important molecular ionized species density [N2+ N 2 + ] significantly decreases beyond 30% addition. This study provides useful information about the influence of the argon addition on plasma parameters and active species generation. As a result it helps to optimize the plasma nitriding system as a function of argon admixture to avoid random trials in the processing.

  8. Impact of anomalous dispersion on the interferometer measurements of plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, J; Johnson, W R; Iglesias, C A; Scofield, J H

    2004-12-16

    For many decades optical interferometers have been used to measure the electron density of plasmas. During the last ten years X-ray lasers in the wavelength range 14 to 47 nm have enabled researchers to use interferometers to probe even higher density plasmas. The data analysis assumes that the index of refraction is due only to the free electrons, which makes the index of refraction less than one and the electron density proportional to the number of fringe shifts. Recent experiments in Al plasmas observed plasmas with an index of refraction greater than one and made us question the validity of the usual formula for calculating the index of refraction. Recent calculations showed how the anomalous dispersion from the bound electrons can dominate the index of refraction in many types of plasma and make the index greater than one or enhance the index such that one would greatly overestimate the electron density of the plasma using interferometers. In this work we calculate the index of refraction of C, Al, Ti, and Pd plasmas for photon energies from 0 to 100 eV (12.4 nm) using a new average-atom code. The results show large variations from the free electron approximation under many different plasma conditions. We validate the average-atom code against the more detailed OPAL code for carbon and aluminum plasmas. During the next decade X-ray free electron lasers and other sources will be available to probe a wider variety of plasmas at higher densities and shorter wavelengths so understanding the index of refraction in plasmas will be even more essential.

  9. The effect of degeneracy parameter on Weibel instability in dense plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahdavi, M. [Physics Department, Mazandaran University, P.O. Box 47415-416 Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khodadadi Azadboni, F. [Physics Department, Mazandaran University, P.O. Box 47415-416 Babolsar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Young Researchers Club, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 48161-194 Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, the role of degeneracy parameter, in both directions parallel and perpendicular with propagation direction of the laser beam in plasma, on the growth rate of Weibel instability, is studied. Calculations show that with the temperature anisotropy, β = T{sub ∥}/T{sub ⊥} = 0.2 and a 0.75 times reduction of the degeneracy parameter, the increased rate of the the Weibel instability growth rate is 72%. The degeneracy required for minimal growth rate in interaction laser plasma with a density of 1.2 × 10{sup 32}m{sup −3}, is larger than 3. The reduction of temperature and the degeneracy parameter of plasma in parallel direction will also increase growth rate about 30% more than incrossing degeneracy parameter in transverse direction. With the minimum pressure costs of cold compression, subsequent degeneracy parameters, and the minimum value of electron quiver energy, we can expect growth rate of Weibel instability order 0.01.

  10. Research On The Measure Method Of Oblique Pinhole Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Yu-Zhen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many special advantages in measuring the diameter of blind and deep holes with a capacitive probe, there are still some challenges for the measurement of a oblique pinhole parameters because the measuring device is inconvenient to stretch into the oblique pinhole exactly. A five-dimensional measurement system was adopted in the paper which included a capacitive sensor probe and a three-coordinate measuring machine to accomplish the measurement for oblique pinholes. With the help of the three-dimensional coordinates measured from the pinhole axis, we put forward a comprehensive method of combining the projection method and the least squares method together for fitting spatial straight line to obtain the optimal equation of the spacial axis. Finally, a reliable and entire measurement system was set up.

  11. Thrust Stand Measurements of the Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Emsellem, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters [1-3] are spacecraft propulsion devices in which electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil. This type of pulsed thruster is electrodeless, with a time-varying current in the coil interacting with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, pulsed inductive plasma thrusters require high pulse energies to inductively ionize propellant. The Microwave Assisted Dis- charge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA), shown in Fig. 1, is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that addressees this issue by partially ionizing propellant inside a conical inductive coil before the main current pulse via an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge. The ECR plasma is produced using microwaves and a static magnetic field from a set of permanent magnets arranged to create a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation, and in turn current sheet formation, to a region where the magnetic coupling between the plasma and the theta-pinch coil is high. The use of a conical theta-pinch coil also serves to provide neutral propellant containment and plasma plume focusing that is improved relative to the more common planar geometry of the Pulsed Inductive Thruster (PIT) [1, 2]. In this paper, we describe thrust stand measurements performed to characterize the performance (specific impulse, thrust efficiency) of the MAD-IPA thruster. Impulse data are obtained at various pulse energies, mass flow rates and inductive coil geometries. Dependencies on these experimental parameters are discussed in the context of the current sheet formation and electromagnetic plasma

  12. Evaluation of measurement of human TNF in plasma by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelberts, I; Möller, A; Schoen, G J; van der Linden, C J; Buurman, W A

    1991-04-01

    The performance of a sandwich-ELISA for TNF measurement in plasma and serum was studied. The ELISA was first statistically analyzed. Interassay coefficient of variance and the intraassay coefficient of variance for the concentration range between 0.5 and 5 ng/ml was less than 10%. The sensitivity of the sandwich-ELISA for TNF in culture medium was 10 pg/ml. The ELISA was shown to be specific for biologically active TNF, since a good correlation between the ELISA and the WEHI bioassay was observed when partially inactive, denatured TNF was measured. The effect of various anticoagulation systems on the reliability of human TNF measurement has been evaluated. The oxalate/NaF and EDTA systems were both appropriate, as appeared from the observed blockade of the production of TNF in the tube, either in the cell-glycolysis-blocked or in the calcium-depleted situation, respectively. An eventual decrease in the recovery of rTNF after collection of blood was prevented in the oxalate/NaF tubes. Recovery of TNF in the ELISA was diminished in the presence of plasma or serum. Techniques to enhance the efficiency of the measurement of TNF in plasma by ELISA were compared. The data indicate that in the presence of 1.1 M NaCl, the TNF masking effect of normal plasma was largely abrogated. The presence and role of inhibiting plasma components in plasma of healthy and diseased individuals are discussed.

  13. Power dissipated in a non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet measured by miniaturized electrical probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golda, Judith; Schulz-von der Gathen, Volker

    2016-09-01

    Non-thermal atmospheric pressure plasma jets are used in bio-medicine, because they generate reactive species at a low gas temperature. Knowledge and control of plasma parameters is required for stable and reliable operation. Therefore, measuring dissipated power in these plasmas is necessary. However, this is challenging because the delivered sender power is often orders of magnitudes higher than the power dissipated in the discharge itself. To measure this dissipated power, we built miniaturized electrical probes directly attached to the jet device. We observed that the dissipated power is a more comprehensive parameter than the common parameter voltage: For example, gas temperature and emission line intensities rose exponentially with increasing voltage but linearly with increasing power. Our analyses further revealed that a substantial proportion of the dissipated power is transformed into heat. In conclusion, miniaturized electrical probes give a fundamental insight into the energy balance of atmospheric pressure plasmas. In the future, these probes can also be adapted to different types of atmospheric pressure plasmas. This work was supported by DFG within the frameworks of the Package Project PAK 816.

  14. Plasma parameters and electromagnetic forces induced by the magneto hydro dynamic interaction in a hypersonic argon flow experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristofolini, Andrea; Neretti, Gabriele; Borghi, Carlo A.

    2012-08-01

    This work proposes an experimental analysis on the magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) interaction induced by a magnetic test body immersed into a hypersonic argon flow. The characteristic plasma parameters are measured. They are related to the voltages arising in the Hall direction and to the variation of the fluid dynamic properties induced by the interaction. The tests have been performed in a hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach 6 and Mach 15. The plasma parameters are measured in the stagnation region in front of the nozzle of the wind tunnel and in the free stream region at the nozzle exit. The test body has a conical shape with the cone axis in the gas flow direction and the cone vertex against the flow. It is placed at the nozzle exit and is equipped with three permanent magnets. In the configuration adopted, the Faraday current flows in a closed loop completely immersed into the plasma of the shock layer. The electric field and the pressure variation due to MHD interaction have been measured on the test body walls. Microwave adsorption measurements have been used for the determination of the electron number density and the electron collision frequency. Continuum recombination radiation and line radiation emissions have been detected. The electron temperature has been determined by means of the spectroscopic data by using different methods. The electron number density has been also determined by means of the Stark broadening of Hα and the Hβ lines. Optical imaging has been utilized to visualize the pattern of the electric current distribution in the shock layer around the test body. The experiments show a considerable effect of the electromagnetic forces produced by the MHD interaction acting on the plasma flow around the test body. A comparison of the experimental data with simulation results shows a good agreement.

  15. Evolution of plasma parameters in an Ar-N2/He inductive plasma source with magnetic pole enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, Younus; N, U. Rehman; M, Shafiq; M, Naeem; M, Zaka-Ul-Islam; M, Zakaullah

    2017-02-01

    Magnetic pole enhanced inductively coupled plasmas (MaPE-ICPs) are a promising source for plasma-based etching and have a wide range of material processing applications. In the present study Langmuir probe and optical emission spectroscopy were used to monitor the evolution of plasma parameters in a MaPE-ICP Ar-N2/He mixture plasma. Electron density ({n}{{e}}) and temperature ({T}{{e}}), excitation temperature ({T}{{exc}}), plasma potential ({V}{{p}}), skin depth (δ ) and the evolution of the electron energy probability function (EEPF) are reported as a function of radiofrequency (RF) power, pressure and argon concentration in the mixture. It is observed that {n}{{e}} increases while {T}{{e}} decreases with increase in RF power and argon concentration in the mixture. The emission intensity of the argon line at 750.4 nm is also used to monitor the variation of the ‘high-energy tail’ of the EEPF with RF power and gas pressure. The EEPF has a ‘bi-Maxwellian’ distribution at low RF powers and higher pressure in a pure {{{N}}}2 discharge. However, it evolves into a ‘Maxwellian’ distribution at RF powers greater than 70 W for pure {{{N}}}2, and at 50 W for higher argon concentrations in the mixture. The effect of argon concentration on the temperatures of two electron groups in the ‘bi-Maxwellian’ EEPF is examined. The temperature of the low-energy electron group {T}{{L}} shows a decreasing trend with argon addition until the ‘thermalization’ of the two temperatures occurs, while the temperature of high-energy electrons {T}{{H}} decreases continuously.

  16. Characterization of Nuclease Activity in Human Seminal Plasma and its Relationship to Semen Parameters, Sperm DNA Fragmentation and Male Infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Encinas, Alba; García-Peiró, Agustí; Ribas-Maynou, Jordi; Abad, Carlos; Amengual, María José; Navarro, Joaquima; Benet, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Some studies have shown that complementary biomarkers are needed in semen analysis to provide a more accurate diagnosis for couples with infertility problems. To our knowledge no study has been done to determine the relationships among nuclease activity in seminal plasma, semen parameters, sperm DNA fragmentation and male infertility. A total of 94 semen samples were collected according to WHO 2010 semen analysis parameters. Samples were analyzed using the single radial enzyme diffusion method for nuclease activity in seminal plasma, and alkaline and neutral Comet assay for sperm DNA fragmentation. Samples were obtained from 11 fertile donors with proven fertility, 17 patients with normozoospermia in an infertile couple, and 16 patients with asthenozoospermia, 19 with teratozoospermia, 21 with asthenoteratozoospermia and 10 with azoospermia. Nuclease activity analyzed in seminal plasma was higher in patients than in controls. It correlated with sperm motility and morphology, and sperm DNA fragmentation measured by the alkaline Comet assay. No correlation with sperm DNA fragmentation was measured by the neutral Comet assay. ROC curves to determine male infertility revealed 0.658 sensitivity, 0.727 specificity and 0.705 cm(2) AUC for the single radial enzyme diffusion method, 0.918, 1 and 0.994 cm(2) for the alkaline Comet assay, and 0.917, 0.250 and 0.373 cm(2), respectively, for the neutral Comet assay. Nuclease activity in seminal plasma corrected by sperm count is a good variable to predict male infertility. Results indicate that it could be a useful complementary parameter for male infertility diagnosis. Copyright © 2016 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Analysis of distorted measurements -- parameter estimation and unfolding

    CERN Document Server

    Zech, Guenter

    2016-01-01

    1. Parameter inference from distorted measurements is discussed. 2. Smeared measurements are unfolded without explicit regularization. The corresponding results are unbiased and permit to fit parameters and to apply quantitative goodness-of-fit tests. 3. Common unfolding methods (iterative EM with early stopping, truncated SVD, ML fits with curvature, entropy and norm penalties) are tested and compared to each other with the regularization parameter adjusted to minimize the integrated square error (ISE) in all cases. Apart from histogram representations, spline approximations are considered. All simulations indicate that the EM method leads to smaller ISEs than the competing approaches. Especially promising is the EM unfolding to spline approximations. The studies are based on different distributions, event numbers, resolutions and enough independent simulations to obtain conclusive results. It is proposed to unfold data with the EM method to b-spline approximations and to supplement the results with histogra...

  18. Solar Model Parameters and Direct Measurements of Solar Neutrino Fluxes

    CERN Document Server

    Bandyopadhyay, A; Goswami, S; Petcov, S T; Bandyopadhyay, Abhijit; Choubey, Sandhya; Goswami, Srubabati

    2006-01-01

    We explore a novel possibility of determining the solar model parameters, which serve as input in the calculations of the solar neutrino fluxes, by exploiting the data from direct measurements of the fluxes. More specifically, we use the rather precise value of the $^8B$ neutrino flux, $\\phi_B$ obtained from the global analysis of the solar neutrino and KamLAND data, to derive constraints on each of the solar model parameters on which $\\phi_B$ depends. We also use more precise values of $^7Be$ and $pp$ fluxes as can be obtained from future prospective data and discuss whether such measurements can help in reducing the uncertainties of one or more input parameters of the Standard Solar Model.

  19. Association of Irisin Plasma Levels with Anthropometric Parameters in Children with Underweight, Normal Weight, Overweight, and Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Elizondo-Montemayor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlations between irisin levels, physical activity, and anthropometric measurements have been extensively described in adults with considerable controversy, but little evidence about these relationships has been found in children. The objective of this study is to correlate the plasma levels of irisin in underweight, normal weight, overweight, and obese children with anthropometric parameters and physical activity levels. A cross-sample of 40 children was divided into the following groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI percentile. The correlations of plasma irisin levels with physical activity, anthropometric, and metabolic measurements were determined. Plasma irisin levels (ng/mL were lower for the underweight group (164.2 ± 5.95 than for the normal weight and obese groups (182.8 ± 5.58; p<0.05. Irisin levels correlated positively with BMI percentile (0.387, waist circumference (0.373, and fat-free mass (0.353; p<0.05, but not with body muscle mass (−0.027. After a multiple linear regression analysis, only BMI percentile (0.564; p<0.008 showed a positive correlation with irisin. Our results indicated no association with metabolic parameters. A negative correlation with physical activity was observed. Interrelationships among body components might influence irisin levels in children.

  20. Effect of Plasma Nitriding Parameters on the Wear Resistance of Alloy Inconel 718

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovací, Halim; Ghahramanzadeh ASL, Hojjat; Albayrak, Çigdem; Alsaran, Akgün; Çelik, Ayhan

    2016-11-01

    The effect of the temperature and duration of plasma nitriding on the microstructure and friction and wear parameters of Inconel 718 nickel alloy is investigated. The process of plasma nitriding is conducted in a nitrogen-hydrogen gaseous mixture at a temperature of 400, 500 and 600°C for 1 and 4 h. The modulus of elasticity of the nitrided layer, the micro- and nanohardness, the surface roughness, the friction factor and the wear resistance of the alloy are determined prior to and after the nitriding. The optimum nitriding regime providing the best tribological characteristics is determined.

  1. Effect of process parameters on induction plasma reactive deposition of tungsten carbide from tungsten metal powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Tungsten carbide deposit was made directly from tungsten metal powder through the reaction with methane in radio frequency induction plasma. Effect of major process parameters on the induction plasma reactive deposition of tungsten carbide was studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, water displacement method, and microhardness test. The results show that methane flow rate, powder feed rate, particle size, reaction chamber pressure and deposition distance have significant influences on the phase composition, density, and microhardness of the deposit. Extra carbon is necessary to ensure the complete conversion of tungsten metal into the carbide.

  2. Measurement of speech parameters in casual speech of dementia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ossewaarde, Roelant; Jonkers, Roel; Jalvingh, Fedor; Bastiaanse, Yvonne

    Measurement of speech parameters in casual speech of dementia patients Roelant Adriaan Ossewaarde1,2, Roel Jonkers1, Fedor Jalvingh1,3, Roelien Bastiaanse1 1CLCG, University of Groningen (NL); 2HU University of Applied Sciences Utrecht (NL); 33St. Marienhospital - Vechta, Geriatric Clinic Vechta

  3. Influence of Discharge Parameters on Tuned Substrate Self-Bias in an Radio-Frequency Inductively Coupled Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ding Zhenfeng; Sun Jingchao; Wang Younian

    2005-01-01

    The tuned substrate self-bias in an rf inductively coupled plasma source is controlled by means of varying the impedance of an external LC network inserted between the substrate and the ground. The influencing parameters such as the substrate axial position, different coupling coils and inserted resistance are experimentally studied. To get a better understanding of the experimental results, the axial distributions of the plasma density, electron temperature and plasma potential are measured with an rf compensated Langmuir probe; the coil rf peak-to-peak voltage is measured with a high voltage probe. As in the case of changing discharge power, it is found that continuity, instability and bi-stability of the tuned substrate bias can be obtained by means of changing the substrate axial position in the plasma source or the inserted resistance. Additionally,continuity can not transit directly into bi-stability, but evolves via instability. The inductance of the coupling coil has a substantial effect on the magnitude and the property of the tuned substrate bias.

  4. Rotation Rate of Saturn's Magnetosphere using CAPS Plasma Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Simpson, D.; Paterson, W.

    2012-01-01

    We present the present status of an investigation of the rotation rate of Saturn 's magnetosphere using a 3D velocity moment technique being developed at Goddard which is similar to the 2D version used by Sittler et al. (2005) [1] for SOI and similar to that used by Thomsen et al. (2010). This technique allows one to nearly cover the full energy range of the CAPS IMS from 1 V less than or equal to E/Q less than 50 kV. Since our technique maps the observations into a local inertial frame, it does work during roll manoeuvres. We have made comparisons with Wilson et al. (2008) [2] (2005-358 and 2005-284) who performs a bi-Maxwellian fit to the ion singles data and our results are nearly identical. We will also make comparisons with results by Thomsen et al. (2010) [3]. Our analysis uses ion composition data to weight the non-compositional data, referred to as singles data, to separate H+, H2+ and water group ions (W+) from each other. The ion data set is especially valuable for measuring flow velocities for protons, which are more difficult to derive using singles data within the inner magnetosphere, where the signal is dominated by heavy ions (i.e., proton peak merges with W+ peak as low energy shoulder). Our technique uses a flux function, which is zero in the proper plasma flow frame, to estimate fluid parameter uncertainties. The comparisons investigate the experimental errors and potential for systematic errors in the analyses, including ours. The rolls provide the best data set when it comes to getting 4PI coverage of the plasma but are more susceptible to time aliasing effects. Since our analysis is a velocity moments technique it will work within the inner magnetosphere where pickup ions are important and velocity distributions are non-Maxwellian. So, we will present results inside Enceladus' L shell and determine if mass loading is important. In the future we plan to make comparisons with magnetic field observations, use Saturn ionosphere conductivities as

  5. Laboratory measurements of the resistivity of warm dense plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Nicola; Robinson, Alex; Hakel, Peter; Gregori, Ginaluca; Rajeev, Pattathil; Woolsey, Nigel

    2015-11-01

    In this talk we will present a method for studying material resistivity in warm dense plasmas in the laboratory in which we interrogate the microphysics of the low energy electron distributions associated with an anisotropic return current. Through experimental measurements of the polarization of the Ly- α doublet emission (2s1 / 2-2p1 / 2,3/2 transitions) of sulphur, we determine the resistivity of a sulphur-doped plastic target heated to warm dense conditions by an ultra-intense laser at relativistic intensities, I ~ 5 ×1020 Wcm-2. We describe a method of exploiting classical x-ray scattering to separately measure both the π- and σ- polarizations of Ly-α1 spectral emission in a single shot. These measurements make it possible to explore fundamental material properties such as resistivity in warm and hot dense plasmas through matching plasma physics modelling to atomic physics calculations of the experimentally measured large, positive, polarisation.

  6. Impact of plasma noise on a direct thrust measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottinger, S. J.; Lamprou, D.; Knoll, A. K.; Lappas, V. J.

    2012-03-01

    In order to evaluate the accuracy and sensitivity of a pendulum-type thrust measurement system, a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) and a laser optical displacement sensor have been used simultaneously to determine the displacement resulting from an applied thrust. The LVDT sensor uses an analog interface, whereas the laser sensor uses a digital interface to communicate the displacement readings to the data acquisition equipment. The data collected by both sensors show good agreement for static mass calibrations and validation with a cold gas thruster. However, the data obtained using the LVDT deviate significantly from that of the laser sensor when operating two varieties of plasma thrusters: a radio frequency (RF) driven plasma thruster, and a DC powered plasma thruster. Results establish that even with appropriate shielding and signal filtering the LVDT sensor is subject to plasma noise and radio frequency interactions which result in anomalous thrust readings. Experimental data show that the thrust determined using the LVDT system in a direct current plasma environment and a RF discharge is approximately a factor of three higher than the thrust values obtained using a laser sensor system for the operating conditions investigated. These findings are of significance to the electric propulsion community as LVDT sensors are often utilized in thrust measurement systems and accurate thrust measurement and the reproducibility of thrust data is key to analyzing thruster performance. Methods are proposed to evaluate system susceptibility to plasma noise and an effective filtering scheme presented for DC discharges.

  7. Oxygen plasma flow properties deduced from laser-induced fluorescence and probe measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhle, Stefan; Eichhorn, Christoph; Steinbeck, Andreas; Lein, Sebastian; Herdrich, Georg; Röser, Hans-Peter; Auweter-Kurtz, Monika

    2008-04-01

    Estimation of the local dissociation degree and the local mass-specific enthalpy of a pure oxygen plasma flow determined mainly from laser-induced fluorescence measurements are reported. Measurements have been conducted for several generator parameters in an inductively heated plasma wind tunnel. Additional probe measurements of total pressure together with the deduced translational temperature are used to estimate the local mass-specific enthalpy. For a reference condition, full dissociation has been measured. The measured translational temperature of atomic oxygen for this condition is T = 3500 K. Subsequently, the local mass-specific enthalpy has been derived using these local density and temperature measurements. For the reference condition the estimated value of h = 27 MJ/kg is in good agreement with the probe measurements and results from diode laser absorption spectroscopy.

  8. Tokamak Plasmas : Internal magnetic field measurement in tokamak plasmas using a Zeeman polarimeter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Jagadeeshwari; J Govindarajan

    2000-11-01

    In a tokamak plasma, the poloidal magnetic field profile closely depends on the current density profile. We can deduce the internal magnetic field from the analysis of circular polarization of the spectral lines emitted by the plasma. The theory of the measurement and a detailed design of the Zeeman polarimeter constructed to measure the poloidal field profile in the ADITYA tokamak are presented. The Fabry-Perot which we have employed in our design, with photodiode arrays followed by lock-in detection of the polarization signal, allows the measurement of the fractional circular polarization. In this system He-II line with wavelength 4686 Å is adopted as the monitoring spectral line. The line emission used in the present measurement is not well localized in the plasma, necessiating the use of a spatial inversion procedure to obtain the local values of the field.

  9. A measurement system of magnetism parameters for motion control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-ming; HUANG Xu-yan; LEI Tao

    2007-01-01

    Magnetism parameters vary with the position and the speed of electromagnetic actuator's motion parts. The measurement unit presented in the paper can be applied to get the position and the speed feedback information from the measurement of electromagnetism parameters, and can constitute the untouched feedback sensing unit in the closed-loop motion control, and it adapts to the diversified feedback control of electromagnetic actuator. The digital miniaturization meter, based on MSP430 single chip processor, which can do the multiformance evaluation and improvement, and also the online quality control in production process. Both real-time data graph and data table can be displayed in the meter. The paper presents the system's structure, describes the principle, discusses the working modes, and shows the software flowchart and the measuring results.

  10. The algorithm of measuring parameters of separate oil streams components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopteva, A. V.; Voytyuk, I. N.

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes a development in the area of non-contact measurement of moving flows, including mass flow, the number of components and their mass ratios in a multicomponent flow, as well as measurement of flows based on algorithms and functional developed for various industries and production processes. The paper demonstrates that at the core of the proposed systems, there is the physical information field created in the cross section of the moving flow by hard electromagnetic radiation. The substantiation and measurement of the information parameters are performed by the hardware and the software of the automatic measuring system. A new way of statistical pulsation measurements by the radioisotope technique is described, being alternative to the existing stream control methods and allowing improving accuracy of measurements. The basic formula fundamental for the method of calibration characteristics correction is shown.

  11. A new method for measurement of liquid dilatation parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondris, Lubomír; Rusina, Viktor

    1997-04-01

    A new user-friendly method for measuring dilatation parameters of non-volatile liquids, based on an optoelectronic hydrolevelling sensor, is described. The system is capable of measuring a liquid column height with an accuracy of about 0957-0233/8/4/004/img1 and allows determination of the temperature dilatation volume coefficient for transparent liquids with an accuracy that depends on the used thermometer accuracy. The method is also suitable for specific mass or density measurements with an accuracy comparable to that obtained with the pycnometric method.

  12. Optical and thermophysical parameters measurement using sandwich photodetectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turinov, Valery I.

    1993-12-01

    A method is reported for estimating thermophysical and optical parameters, in which a two- spectral band sandwich photodetector is used. The sensitivity ranges of such a sensor are 2 - 5 micrometers and 8 - 14 micrometers . On irradiating an object's surface by a short radiation pulse the photodetector collected signals U1, U2 and the rates of their changes (dU1/dt), (dU2/dt) are recorded. These pertain to the same area on the object's surface and belong to the two spectral ranges mentioned. The parameters of the object are evaluated by means of calculations with the values measured.

  13. Determination of the Ion Velocity Distribution in a Rotating Plasma from Measurements of Doppler Broadening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, L. W.; Sillesen, Alfred Hegaard

    1979-01-01

    The Doppler-broadened profile of the He II 4685.75 AA line was measured along a chord in a rotating plasma, transverse to the magnetic field. Using a single-particle orbit picture, the corresponding velocity spectrum of ions confirm the measurements, so it can be concluded that the single......-particle orbit picture is valid for the discharge period under investigation, except for the first few microseconds during breakdown when a strong interaction between plasma and remaining neutral gas takes place by Alfvens critical velocity mechanism. A simple relation is given between the measured half......-width and shift of the Doppler profile and the macroscopic quantities of ion velocity and energy. Several Doppler-broadened profiles are shown for different plasma parameters....

  14. Modeling a short cold cathode DC discharge device with controllable plasma parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, Anatoly; Adams, Steven; Demidov, Vladimir; Bogdanov, Yevgeny

    2009-11-01

    A short (without positive column) DC gas-discharge device with a cold cathode has been modeled. The device consists of the plane disk-shaped cathode and anode while the inter-electrode gap is bounded by a cylindrical wall. The cathode and anode are each 2.5 cm in diameter, and the inter-electrode gap is 12 mm. The wall is made of conducting parts divided by an insulator. The modeling has been performed for argon plasma at 1 Torr pressure. It is demonstrated in the model that spatial distributions of electron density and temperature and argon metastable atom density depend on the DC voltage applied to different conducting parts of the wall. Applied voltage can trap within the device volume energetic electrons arising from atomic and molecular processes in the plasma. This leads to a modification in the heating of slow electrons by energetic electrons and as a result modifies the controlling plasma parameters.

  15. Simultaneous Multi-angle Measurements of Plasma Turbulence at HAARP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Naomi; Golkowski, Mark; Sheerin, James; University of Colorado Denver Team

    2013-10-01

    We report the results from a recent series of experiments employing the HAARP HF transmitter to generate and study strong Langmuir turbulence (SLT) in the interaction region of overdense ionospheric plasma. Diagnostics included the Modular UHF Ionospheric Radar (MUIR) located at HAARP, the Super DARN-Kodiak HF radar, and HF receivers to record stimulated electromagnetic emissions (SEE). Short pulse, low duty cycle experiments demonstrate control and suppression of artificial field-aligned irregularities (AFAI). This allows the isolation of ponderomotive plasma turbulence effects. For the first time, plasma line spectra measured simultaneously in different spots of the interaction region displayed marked but contemporaneous differences dependent on the aspect angle of the HF pump beam and the pointing angle of the MUIR diagnostic radar. Outshifted Plasma Line (OPL) spectra, rarely observed in past experiments, occurred with sufficient regularity for experimentation. Experimental results are compared to previous high latitude experiments and predictions from recent modeling efforts.

  16. Measurement of multicomponent solubility parameters for graphene facilitates solvent discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Yenny; Lotya, Mustafa; Rickard, David; Bergin, Shane D; Coleman, Jonathan N

    2010-03-02

    We have measured the dispersibility of graphene in 40 solvents, with 28 of them previously unreported. We have shown that good solvents for graphene are characterized by a Hildebrand solubility parameter of delta(T) approximately 23 MPa(1/2) and Hansen solubility parameters of delta(D) approximately 18 MPa(1/2), delta(P) approximately 9.3 MPa(1/2), and delta(H) approximately 7.7 MPa(1/2). The dispersibility is smaller for solvents with Hansen parameters further from these values. We have used transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis to show that the graphene is well exfoliated in all cases. Even in relatively poor solvents, >63% of observed flakes have <5 layers.

  17. Measurement of diagnostic neutral beam parameters on J-TEXT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Cheng, Z. F.; Li, Z.; Li, Y.; Luo, J.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhuang, G.

    2016-11-01

    A Doppler frequency shift spectrum (DFSS) system composed of two spectrometers has been developed for the joint Texas experimental tokamak to measure diagnostic neutral beam parameters including the beam energy fractions, intensity distributions, and divergences. The beam energy fractions are derived from measurements of H-alpha (Hα) emission using collisional excitation cross sections. The beam intensity distributions are obtained using an 11-channel measurement with a reconstruction technique. The beam divergences are obtained from spectrum broadening and geometric calculations. The results of preliminary investigations indicate that the DFSS system works well and can be used to obtain all of these parameters simultaneously. According to the preliminary experiment, the one-third energy fraction has the largest proportion (about 45%) of the beam energy and the full energy fraction is about 10%. The beam diameter is about 8.1 cm at a distance of 2.04 m from the accelerator. The beam divergence angle is about 3.3°. The current beam parameters are insufficient for charge-exchange measurements.

  18. Inferring Flare Loop Parameters with Measurements of Standing Sausage Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Chen, Shao-Xia; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Standing fast sausage modes in flare loops were suggested to account for a considerable number of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the light curves of solar flares. This study continues our investigation into the possibility of inverting the measured periods P and damping times τ of sausage modes to deduce the transverse Alfvén time R/v_{Ai}, density contrast ρi/ρe, and the steepness of the density distribution transverse to flare loops. A generic dispersion relation governing linear sausage modes is derived for pressureless cylinders where density inhomogeneity of arbitrary form takes place within the cylinder. We show that in general the inversion problem is under-determined for QPP events where only a single sausage mode exists, whether the measurements are spatially resolved or unresolved. While R/v_{Ai} can be inferred to some extent, the range of possible steepness parameters may be too broad to be useful. However, for spatially resolved measurements where an additional mode is present, it is possible to deduce self-consistently ρi/ρe, the profile steepness, and the internal Alfvén speed v_{Ai}. We show that at least for a recent QPP event that involves a fundamental kink mode in addition to a sausage one, flare loop parameters are well constrained even if the specific form of the transverse density distribution remains unknown. We conclude that spatially resolved, multi-mode QPP measurements need to be pursued to infer flare loop parameters.

  19. OPACITY MEASUREMENT AND THEORETICAL INVESTIGATION OF HOT SILICON PLASMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Gang; Yang, Jiamin; Zhang, Jiyan; Hu, Zhimin; Zhao, Yang; Qing, Bo; Yang, Guohong; Wei, Minxi; Yi, Rongqing; Song, Tianming; Li, Hang; Yuan, Zheng; Lv, Min [Research Center of Laser Fusion, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900 (China); Meng, Xujun; Xu, Yan; Wu, Zeqing; Yan, Jun, E-mail: zhangjiyanzjy@sina.com, E-mail: zhimin.hu@yahoo.com [Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, Beijing 100088 (China)

    2016-01-01

    We report on opacity measurements of a silicon (Si) plasma at a temperature of (72 ± 5) eV and a density of (6.0 ± 1.2) mg cm{sup −3} in the photon energy range of 1790–1880 eV. A 23 μg cm{sup −2} Si foil tamped by 50 μg cm{sup −2} CH layers on each side was heated to a hot-dense plasma state by X-ray radiation emitted from a D-shaped gold cavity that was irradiated by intense lasers. Absorption lines of 1s − 2p transitions of Si xiii to Si ix ions have been measured using point-projection spectroscopy. The transmission spectrum of the silicon plasma was determined by comparing the light passing through the plasma to the light from the same shot passing by the plasma. The density of the Si plasma was determined experimentally by side-on radiography and the temperature was estimated from the radiation flux data. Radiative hydrodynamic simulations were performed to obtain the temporal evolutions of the density and temperature of the Si plasma. The experimentally obtained transmission spectra of the Si sample plasma have been reproduced using a detailed term account model with the local thermodynamic equilibrium approximation. The energy levels, oscillator strengths and photoionization cross-sections used in the calculation were generated by the flexible atomic code. The experimental transmission spectrum was compared with the theoretical calculation and good agreement was found. The present experimental spectrum and theoretical calculation were also compared with the new opacities available in the Los Alamos OPLIB database.

  20. Electrostatic Probe with Shielded Probe Insulator Tube for Low Disturbing Plasma Measurements in Hall Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. Staack, Y. Raitses, and N.J. Fisch

    2003-07-10

    Electrostatic probes are widely used to measure spatial plasma parameters of the quasi-neutral plasma in Hall thrusters and similar ExB electric discharge devices. Significant perturbations of the plasma, induced by such probes, can mask the actual physics involved in operation of these devices. In Hall thrusters, probe-induced perturbations can produce changes in the discharge current and plasma parameters on the order of their steady state values. These perturbations are explored by varying the material, penetration distance, and residence time of various probe designs. A possible cause of these perturbations appears to be the secondary electron emission, induced by energetic plasma electrons, from insulator ceramic tubes in which the probe wire is inserted. A new probe in which a low secondary electron emission material, such as metal, shields the probe ceramic tube, is shown to function without producing such large perturbations. A segmentation of this shield further prevents probe -induced perturbations, by not shortening the plasma through the conductive shield. In a set of experiments with a segmented shield probe, the thruster was operated in the input power range of 500-2.5 kW and discharge voltages of 200-500 V, while the probe-induced perturbations of the discharge current were below 4% of its steady state value in the region in which 90% of the voltage drop takes place.

  1. Reflectometry techniques for density profile measurements on fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laviron, C. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee; Donne, A.J.H. [Associatie Euratom-FOM, Nieuwegein (Netherlands). FOM-Instituut voor Plasmafysica; Manso, M.E. [Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal). Lab. de Quimica Organica; Sanchez, J. [EURATOM-CIEMAT for Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain)

    1996-03-01

    Reflectometry applied to the measurement of density profiles on fusion plasmas has been subject to many recent developments. After a brief reminder of the principles of reflectometry, the theoretical accuracy of reflectometry measurements is discussed. The main difficulties limiting the performance, namely the plasma fluctuations and the quality of the transmission lines, are analysed. The different techniques used for reflectometry are then presented. The present status and achievements of actual implementations of these techniques are shown, with an analysis of their respective limitations and merits, as well as foreseen developments. (author). 70 refs.

  2. Life Prediction of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Using Temperature-Dependent Model Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, B.; Chen, Kuiying; Baddour, N.; Patnaik, P. C.

    2017-06-01

    The failure analysis and life prediction of atmospheric plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (APS-TBCs) were carried out for a thermal cyclic process. A residual stress model for the top coat of APS-TBC was proposed and then applied to life prediction. This residual stress model shows an inversion characteristic versus thickness of thermally grown oxide. The capability of the life model was demonstrated using temperature-dependent model parameters. Using existing life data, a comparison of fitting approaches of life model parameters was performed. A larger discrepancy was found for the life predicted using linearized fitting parameters versus temperature compared to those using non-linear fitting parameters. A method for integrating the residual stress was proposed by using the critical time of stress inversion. The role of the residual stresses distributed at each individual coating layer was explored and their interplay on the coating's delamination was analyzed.

  3. The possible role of hydrogen sulfide as a modulator of hemostatic parameters of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan

    2014-09-05

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well known toxic gas at high levels. However, at physiological levels, H2S may play a role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases. The objective was to study the effects of exogenous H2S on the hemostatic parameters (coagulation and fibrinolytic activity) of human plasma. Human plasma was incubated (5, 15 and 30 min) with NaHS as a H2S donor at the final concentration of 0.01-100 μM. Hemostatic factors, such as maximum velocity of clot formation, fibrin lysis half-time, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), and thrombin time (TT) were estimated. Moreover, the aim of our study was to establish the influence of NaHS (10 μM; 5, 15 and 30 min) on the clot formation using the purified fibrinogen. We demonstrated that coagulation/fibrinolytic properties of human plasma incubated with NaHS were changed. APPT, PT and TT of plasma treated with NaHS at tested concentrations--0.01-100 μM were prolonged. We observed that NaHS (0.01-100 μM) reduced fibrin polymerization in whole plasma and 10 μM NaHS also reduced polymerization of purified fibrinogen. In the presence of NaHS (at the low tested concentration--1 μM) the decrease was about 18% (in plasma, p<0.05). Our experiments also showed that NaHS (0.01-100 μM) stimulated the fibrin lysis in whole plasma. However, the time-dependent (5, 15 and 30 min) reduction of fibrin/fibrinogen polymerization and stimulation of fibrin lysis by NaHS (10 μM) was not observed. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates the anticoagulant properties of exogenous H2S in vitro.

  4. Spontaneous mutation parameters for Arabidopsis thaliana measured in the wild.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Matthew T; Shaw, Frank H; Fenster, Charles B

    2010-06-01

    Mutations are the ultimate source of genetic diversity and their contributions to evolutionary process depend critically on their rate and their effects on traits, notably fitness. Mutation rate and mutation effect can be measured simultaneously through the use of mutation accumulation lines, and previous mutation accumulation studies measuring these parameters have been performed in laboratory conditions. However, estimation of mutation parameters for fitness in wild populations requires assays in environments where mutations are exposed to natural selection and natural environmental variation. Here we quantify mutation parameters in both the wild and greenhouse environments using 100 25th generation Arabidopsis thaliana mutation accumulation lines. We found significantly greater mutational variance and a higher mutation rate for fitness under field conditions relative to greenhouse conditions. However, our field estimates were low when scaled to natural environmental variation. Many of the mutation accumulation lines have increased fitness, counter to the expectation that nearly all mutations decrease fitness. A high mutation rate and a low mutational contribution to phenotypic variation may explain observed levels of natural genetic variation. Our findings indicate that mutation parameters are not fixed, but are variables whose values may reflect the specific environment in which mutations are tested.

  5. Sampling errors in the measurement of rain and hail parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gertzman, H. S.; Atlas, D.

    1977-01-01

    Attention is given to a general derivation of the fractional standard deviation (FSD) of any integrated property X such that X(D) = cD to the n. This work extends that of Joss and Waldvogel (1969). The equation is applicable to measuring integrated properties of cloud, rain or hail populations (such as water content, precipitation rate, kinetic energy, or radar reflectivity) which are subject to statistical sampling errors due to the Poisson distributed fluctuations of particles sampled in each particle size interval and the weighted sum of the associated variances in proportion to their contribution to the integral parameter to be measured. Universal curves are presented which are applicable to the exponential size distribution permitting FSD estimation of any parameters from n = 0 to n = 6. The equations and curves also permit corrections for finite upper limits in the size spectrum and a realistic fall speed law.

  6. Void alignment and density profile applied to measuring cosmological parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, De-Chang

    2015-01-01

    We study the orientation and density profiles of the cosmological voids with SDSS10 data. Using voids to test Alcock-Paczynski effect has been proposed and tested in both simulations and actual SDSS data. Previous observations imply that there exist an empirical stretching factor which plays an important role in the voids' orientation. Simulations indicate that this empirical stretching factor is caused by the void galaxies' peculiar velocities. Recently Hamaus et al. found that voids' density profiles are universal and their average velocities satisfy linear theory very well. In this article we first confirm that the stretching effect exists using independent analysis. We then apply the universal density profile to measure the cosmological parameters. We find that the void density profile can be a tool to measure the cosmological parameters.

  7. Theoretical motivations for precision measurements of oscillation parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Pascoli, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    We discuss two theoretical motivations of precision measurements of oscillation parameters. One is the guidance for flavour model building with flavour symmetries, and the other is the connection with the origin of matter-antimatter asymmetry. We also present our recent progress in these aspects, a new approach of flavour model building based on cross coupling in the flavon potential and a novel mechanism of leptogenesis via phase transition.

  8. Roughness parameters and surface deformation measured by coherence radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettl, Peter; Schmidt, Berthold E.; Schenk, M.; Laszlo, Ildiko; Haeusler, Gerd

    1998-09-01

    The 'coherence radar' was introduced as a method to measure the topology of optically rough surfaces. The basic principle is white light interferometry in individual speckles. We will discuss the potentials and limitations of the coherence radar to measure the microtopology, the roughness parameters, and the out of plane deformation of smooth and rough object surfaces. We have to distinguish objects with optically smooth (polished) surfaces and with optically rough surfaces. Measurements at polished surfaces with simple shapes (flats, spheres) are the domain of classical interferometry. We demonstrate new methods to evaluate white light interferograms and compare them to the standard Fourier evaluation. We achieve standard deviations of the measured signals of a few nanometers. We further demonstrate that we can determine the roughness parameters of a surface by the coherence radar. We use principally two approaches: with very high aperture the surface topology is laterally resolved. From the data we determine the roughness parameters according to standardized evaluation procedures, and compare them with mechanically acquired data. The second approach is by low aperture observation (unresolved topology). Here the coherence radar supplies a statistical distance signal from which we can determine the standard deviation of the surface height variations. We will further discuss a new method to measure the deformation of optically rough surfaces, based on the coherence radar. Unless than with standard speckle interferometry, the new method displays absolute deformation. For small out-of-plane deformation (correlated speckle), the potential sensitivity is in the nanometer regime. Large deformations (uncorrelated speckle) can be measured with an uncertainty equal to the surface roughness.

  9. Express method for contactless measurement of parameters of thermoelectric materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashcheulov A. A.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an original method for contactless express measurement of parameters of thermoelectric materials. The presence of a combination of AC and DC magnetic fields in the gap of the oscillating circuit, where the monitored sample of the thermoelectric material is located, leads — due to Ampere force — to delamination of geometric regions of the occurrence of half-cycles of Foucault current. This in turn causes the appearance of additional heat losses in the oscillating circuit caused by Peltier effect. Computer modeling of these processes with the use of the software package ComsolFenlab 3.3 allowed determining the nature and magnitude of the electric currents in oscillating circuit, the range of operating frequencies, and the ratio of amplitudes of the variable and fixed components of the magnetic field. These components eventually cause a certain temperature difference along the controlled sample, which difference is proportional to the thermoelectric figure of merit Z of the material. The basic expressions are obtained for determining the value of the Seebeck coefficient a, thermal conductivity ?, electrical conductivity ? and thermoelectric figure of merit Z. A description is given to the design of the device for contactless express measurement of parameters of thermoelectric materials based on Bi—Te—Se—Sb solid solutions. Its distinctive feature is the ability to determine the symmetric and asymmetric components of the electric conductivity of the material values. The actual error in parameter measurement in this case is 2%.

  10. Measurement of the Z Resonance Parameters at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Barate, R; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Merle, E; Minard, M N; Pietrzyk, B; Alemany, R; Casado, M P; Chmeissani, M; Comas, P; Crespo, J M; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Garrido, L; Graugès-Pous, E; Juste, A; Martínez, M; Merino, G; Miquel, R; Mir, L M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Park, I C; Perlas, J A; Riu, I; Sánchez, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Tricomi, A; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Abbaneo, D; Bazarko, A; Becker, U; Boix, G; Bird, F; Blucher, E; Bonvicini, G; Bright-Thomas, P G; Cattaneo, M; Cerutti, F; Ciulli, V; Dissertori, G; Drevermann, H; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Greening, T C; Hagelberg, R; Halley, A W; Hansen, J B; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Knobloch, J; Lazeyras, Pierre; Lehraus, Ivan; Maley, P; Mato, P; May, J; Moutoussi, A; Ranjard, F; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmitt, M; Schneider, O; Spagnolo, P; Tejessy, W; Teubert, F; Tomalin, I R; Tournefier, E; Veenhof, R; Wiedenmann, W; Wright, A E; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Badaud, F; Chazelle, G; Deschamps, O; Falvard, A; Ferdi, C; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Bertelsen, H; Fernley, T; Hansen, F; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Lindahl, A; Møllerud, R; Nilsson, B S; Rensch, B; Wäänänen, A; Daskalakis, G; Kyriakis, A; Markou, C; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Swynghedauw, M; Tanaka, R; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Zachariadou, K; Cavanaugh, R J; Corden, M; Georgiopoulos, C H; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Passalacqua, L; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Picchi, P; Colrain, P; ten Have, I; Hughes, I S; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; Raine, C; Reeves, P; O'Shea, V; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Thompson, A S; Turnbull, R M; Buchmüller, O L; Dhamotharan, S; Geweniger, C; Hanke, P; Hansper, G; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Sommer, J; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Dornan, Peter J; Girone, M; Goodsir, S M; Martin, E B; Marinelli, N; Nash, J; Sciabà, A; Sedgbeer, J K; Thomson, E; Williams, M D; Ghete, V M; Girtler, P; Kneringer, E; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Buck, P G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Jones, R W L; Keemer, N R; Robertson, N A; Sloan, Terence; Snow, S W; Williams, M I; Bauerdick, L A T; Van Gemmeren, P; Giehl, I; Jakobs, K; Kasemann, M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Renk, B; Rohne, E; Sander, H G; Schmelling, M; Wachsmuth, H W; Wanke, R; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Carr, J; Coyle, P; Etienne, F; Motsch, F; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Thulasidas, M; Aleppo, M; Antonelli, M; Ragusa, F; Büscher, V; Dietl, H; Ganis, G; Hüttmann, K; Lütjens, G; Mannert, C; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Stenzel, H; Wolf, G; Azzurri, P; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Chen, S; Cordier, A; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacholkowska, A; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Schune, M H; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Zerwas, D; Bagliesi, G; Bettarini, S; Boccali, T; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Giassi, A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Palla, Fabrizio; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sguazzoni, G; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Vannini, C; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Blair, G A; Cowan, G D; Green, M G; Medcalf, T; Strong, J A; Von Wimmersperg-Töller, J H; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Edwards, M; Haywood, S J; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Vallage, B; Black, S N; Dann, J H; Kim, H Y; Konstantinidis, N P; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Booth, C N; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Lehto, M H; Thompson, L F; Affholderbach, K; Barberio, E; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Burkhardt, H; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Hess, J; Lutters, G; Meinhard, H; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Mirabito, L; Misiejuk, A; Neugebauer, E; Prange, G; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Schäfer, U; Sieler, U; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Trier, H; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Musolino, G; Pitis, L; Kim, H; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Cinabro, D; Conway, J S; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; Jin, S; Johnson, R P; Kile, J; McNamara, P A; Nielsen, J; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Walsh, A M; Walsh, J; Wear, J; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zobernig, G

    2000-01-01

    The properties of the Z resonance are measured from the analysis of 4.5 million Z decays into fermion pairs collected with the \\Aleph\\ detector at L EP. The data are consistent with lepton universality. The resonance parameters are measured to be $\\MZ=(91.1885 \\pm 0.0031)~\\Gevcc$, $\\GZ= (2.4951 \\pm 0.0043)~\\GeV$, $\\spol=(41.559 \\pm 0.058)$~nb and, combining the three lepton flavours $\\Rl= 20.725\\pm 0.039$. The corresponding number of light neutrino species is $N_{\

  11. Measurements of Parity-Violation Parameters at SLD

    CERN Document Server

    Iwasaki, M; Adam, I; Akimoto, H; Aston, D; Baird, K G; Baltay, C; Band, H R; Barklow, Timothy L; Bauer, J M; Bellodi, G; Berger, R; Blaylock, G; Bogart, J R; Bower, G R; Brau, J E; Breidenbach, M; Bugg, W M; Burke, D; Burnett, T H; Burrows, P N; Calcaterra, A; Cassell, R; Chou, A; Cohn, H O; Coller, J A; Convery, M R; Cook, V; Cowan, R F; Crawford, G; Damerell, C J S; Daoudi, M; Dasu, S; De Groot, N; De Sangro, R; Dong, D N; Doser, Michael; Dubois, R; Erofeeva, I; Eschenburg, V; Etzion, E; Fahey, S; Falciai, D; Fernández, J P; Flood, K; Frey, R; Hart, E L; Hasuko, K; Hertzbach, S S; Huffer, M E; Huynh, X; Jackson, D J; Jacques, P; Jaros, J A; Jiang, Z Y; Johnson, A S; Johnson, J R; Kajikawa, R; Kalelkar, M S; Kang, H J; Kofler, R R; Kroeger, R S; Langston, M; Leith, D W G S; Lia, V; Lin, C; Mancinelli, G; Manly, S L; Mantovani, G C; Markiewicz, T W; Maruyama, T; McKemey, A K; Messner, R; Moffeit, K C; Moore, T B; Morii, M; Müller, D; Murzin, V S; Narita, S; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Nesom, G; Oishi, N; Onoprienko, D V; Osborne, L S; Panvini, R S; Park, C H; Peruzzi, I; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Plano, R J; Prepost, R; Prescott, C Y; Ratcliff, B N; Reidy, J; Reinertsen, P L; Rochester, L S; Rowson, P C; Russell, J J; Saxton, O H; Schalk, T L; Schumm, B A; Schwiening, J; Serbo, V V; Shapiro, G; Sinev, N B; Snyder, J A; Stängle, H; Stahl, A; Stamer, P E; Steiner, H; Su, D; Suekane, F; Sugiyama, A; Suzuki, S; Swartz, M; Taylor, F E; Thom, J; Torrence, E; Usher, T; Vavra, J; Verdier, R; Wagner, D L; Waite, A P; Walston, S; Weidemann, A W; Weiss, E R; Whitaker, J S; Williams, S H; Willocq, S; Wilson, R J; Wisniewski, W J; Wittlin, J L; Woods, M; Wright, T R; Yamamoto, R K; Yashima, J; Yellin, S J; Young, C C; Yuta, H; Iwasaki, Masako

    2001-01-01

    We present direct measurements of the parity-violation parameters $A_b$, $A_c$, and $A_s$ at the $Z^0$ resonance with the SLD detector. The measurements are based on approximately 530k hadronic $Z^0$ events collected in 1993-98. Obtained results are $A_b = 0.914\\pm0.024$ (SLD combined: preliminary), $A_c = 0.635\\pm0.027$ (SLD combined: preliminary), and $A_s = 0.895\\pm0.066(stat.)\\pm 0.062(sys.)$.

  12. Modeling Approach and Analysis of the Structural Parameters of an Inductively Coupled Plasma Etcher Based on a Regression Orthogonal Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Jia; ZHU Yu; JI Linhong

    2012-01-01

    The geometry of an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) etcher is usually considered to be an important factor for determining both plasma and process uniformity over a large wafer. During the past few decades, these parameters were determined by the "trial and error" method, resulting in wastes of time and funds. In this paper, a new approach of regression orthogonal design with plasma simulation experiments is proposed to investigate the sensitivity of the structural parameters on the uniformity of plasma characteristics. The tool for simulating plasma is CFD-ACE+, which is commercial multi-physical modeling software that has been proven to be accurate for plasma simulation. The simulated experimental results are analyzed to get a regression equation on three structural parameters. Through this equation, engineers can compute the uniformity of the electron number density rapidly without modeling by CFD-ACE+. An optimization performed at the end produces good results.

  13. Development and application of spectacles frame parameter measurement apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qing; Gary Ming Guo; Hu Hongzhi; Hu Jinquan

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the spectacles frame parameters has substantial effects on both the production and export of spectacles products. In fact, this measurement is the measurement of related three-dimensional trajectory.The working principles of the measurement apparatus developed based on capacitive grating technology are introduced in this paper. Capacitive grating technology is a precision length measurement method. Its advantages are small volume, low price, low production cost, and easy to obtain precise readings of the measured data. The measurement apparatus is composed of one industrial control computer, two microcontrollers and corresponding circuits. The system stability is guaranteed during the design of the circuit with the practical situation of its industry application taken into account. The software is divided into lower layer and upper layer. Each layer has different emphasis. The causes of system errors and the method of error elimination are also analyzed. The analysis of the data obtained from experiments and the operating results of prototype apparatus both indicate that the proposed measurement apparatus has achieved outstanding competitive technical level of same kind products in international market and thus has ideal implications for mass production.

  14. Measuring the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma using potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessutti, L S; Macedo, D V; Kubota, L T; Alves, A A

    2013-10-15

    The use of potentiometry to measure plasma antioxidant capacity to contribute to oxidative stress evaluation is presented. In this assay, plasma (n=60) diluted (0.3 to 1 ml) in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, NaCl 9%, was submitted to potentiometry. A platinum wire was the working electrode and saturated calomel the reference. The results are presented as the difference between sample and buffer potential (ΔE). ΔE presented a good inverse correlation with added increasing concentrations of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L; R=-0.99), urate (9.0-150 μmol/L; R=-0.99), and bilirubin (0.78-13 μmol/L; R=-0.99). Increase in the antioxidant capacity decreased ΔE. Depletion of the antioxidant capacity by tert-butylhydroperoxide (6.5-50 μmol/L) presented a direct correlation (0.97) with ΔE. Furthermore, ΔE presented an inverse correlation (R=-0.99) with increased antioxidant capacity of plasma (FRAP) induced by the addition of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L). The response of the potentiometric method proved be adequate for measuring the plasma antioxidant depletion induced by acute exhaustive exercise in rats (control, n=15; exercised, n=15). This exercise decreased the concentration of urate (ppotentiometry for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma samples.

  15. Two spacecraft measurements of the Martian plasma environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, David; Luhmann, Janet G.; Barabash, Stas; Fedorov, A.; Winningham, D. L.; Acuna, Mario; Frahm, Rudy

    For a period of nearly three years from early 2004 through late 2006, two spacecraft made complementary in situ measurements of the Martian plasma environment. The Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer and electron reflectometer (MGS MAG/ER) measured magnetic fields and suprathermal electrons from an orbit fixed in local time and altitude. The Mars Express Analyzer of Space Plasma and Energetic Atoms (MEX ASPERA-3) measured and still measures ions and suprathermal electrons from a precessing elliptical orbit. MGS lacked an ion instrument, and MEX lacks a magnetometer. Study of the two sets of measurements together provides an opportunity to better understand the complete Martian plasma environment spatially and temporally. We will discuss several advantageous configurations of MEX and MGS, and present examples of each. 'Close conjunctions' are defined as periods when the spacecraft passed very close to each other, within an ion gyroradius or inertial length, allowing examination of more complete particle and field measurements in a given region. 'Delay conjunctions' are defined as instances when the two spacecraft passed through the same region of space separated by a time delay, allowing examination of the evolution of electron distributions in a given region. 'Flux tube conjunctions' are defined as instances when it was likely that the two spacecraft occupied the same flux tube some distance apart, allowing study of the spatial evolution of plasma as it moves along a flux tube. We will also present examples of other fortuitous configurations of MEX and MGS, such as times when they were on opposite sides of a given plasma boundary.

  16. Intrahippocampal Infusion of Crotamine Isolated from Crotalus durissus terrificus Alters Plasma and Brain Biochemical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rithiele Gonçalves

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Crotamine is one of the main constituents of the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. Here we sought to investigate the inflammatory and toxicological effects induced by the intrahippocampal administration of crotamine isolated from Crotalus whole venom. Adult rats received an intrahippocampal infusion of crotamine or vehicle and were euthanized 24 h or 21 days after infusion. Plasma and brain tissue were collected for biochemical analysis. Complete blood count, creatinine, urea, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT, glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT, creatine-kinase (CK, creatine kinase-muscle B (CK-MB and oxidative parameters (assessed by DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in leukocytes, lipid peroxidation and protein carbonyls in plasma and brain were quantified. Unpaired and paired t-tests were used for comparisons between saline and crotamine groups, and within groups (24 h vs. 21 days, respectively. After 24 h crotamine infusion promoted an increase of urea, GOT, GPT, CK, and platelets values (p ≤ 0.01, while red blood cells, hematocrit and leukocytes values decreased (p ≤ 0.01. Additionally, 21 days after infusion crotamine group showed increased creatinine, leukocytes, TBARS (plasma and brain, carbonyl (plasma and brain and micronucleus compared to the saline-group (p ≤ 0.01. Our findings show that crotamine infusion alter hematological parameters and cardiac markers, as well as oxidative parameters, not only in the brain, but also in the blood, indicating a systemic pro-inflammatory and toxicological activity. A further scientific attempt in terms of preserving the beneficial activity over toxicity is required.

  17. Application of coherent lidar to ion measurements in plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Bennett, C.A.; Simpson, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    A coherent lidar system has been constructed for the measurement of alpha particles in a burning plasma. The lidar system consists of a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser transmitter and a heterodyne receiver. The receiver local oscillator is a cw, sequence-band CO{sub 2} laser operating with a 63.23 GHz offset from the transmitter.

  18. Ignitor Plasma Physics Performance in the H-Regime at Various Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detragiache, P.; Coppi, B.

    2010-11-01

    The plasma physics performance of Ignitor at full (BT = 13 T, Ip = 10 MA) as well as at reduced parameters (BT = 8 T, Ip = 5 MA) in the high confinement mode (H-regime) is assessed using global 0-D modelling. At full parameters, high-Q operation is possible if the heating power (a combination of Ohmic, α and limited ICRF power) is above the threshold value Pthr for H-regime confinement. Different scaling expressions for Pthr yield significantly different results when used with Ignitor parameters. Even with the most pessimistic among the proposed scalingsootnotetextY. R. Martin et al., Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 123, 012033 (2008). the access to H-regime confinement is possible for Ignitor at full field when the ICRH system is operated at the highest frequency and the generated power is less than at lower frequencies. At reduced parameters, the lower Pthr and the augmented ICRF power available (about 10 MW) facilitate access to H-regime confinement, while the plasma performance remains respectable.

  19. Kinetic parameters calculation and measurements during the OPAL commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hergenreder, D.F.; Lecot, C.A.; Villarino, E.A. [INVAP S.E., Nuclear Projects Dept., Nuclear Engineering Div., Rio Negro (Argentina)

    2007-07-01

    During the Commissioning Stage of the OPAL Research Reactor (Australia) the Prompt Neutron Decay constant ({alpha}) was measured by analysing the inherent fluctuations that occur in the neutron population. The ratio of the variance to the mean number of counts as a function of counting time is used to determine experimentally the {alpha} parameter. This technique is also called Feynman-{alpha} Method. The CITVAP and MCNP codes were used to calculate the prompt neutron decay constant for the first core configuration. By means of two different MCNP calculations, one considering prompt fission neutrons only and another with total fission neutrons; the effective delayed neutron fraction is estimated. The experimental method, the measured value as well as the numerical assessment are presented in this paper. A good agreement was obtained between measurements and calculations, particularly it is worth noticing that the measured value for the {alpha} parameter, when {rho} = 0, is 38.1 s{sup -1} while the calculated value is 37.2 s{sup -1}.

  20. Assays to measure nanomolar levels of the renin inhibitor CGP 38 560 in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumin, F.; de Gasparo, M.; Wood, J.M.; Schnell, C.; Frueh, F.; Graf, P. (Ciba-Geigy Limited, Basel (Switzerland))

    1989-10-01

    A radioinhibitor binding assay and an enzyme inhibition assay have been developed to measure plasma levels of CGP 38 560, a potent human renin inhibitor. The detection limit of the assays was between 0.5 and 1 pmol/ml. There was a good correlation (r = 0.989) between the two assays for the measurement of human plasma spiked with CGP 38 560 in concentrations from 1.9 nM to 12 microM. Intra-assay variability was 6.1-17.3% and 4.4-27.2% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Interassay variability was 6.0-28.2% and 3.8-28.4% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Blood samples were collected during a pharmacological study performed in normotensive human volunteers on an unrestricted diet who were infused during a 30-minute period with CGP 38 560 A (50 micrograms/kg). Similar values for the concentrations of renin inhibitor in plasma were obtained with the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibitor assay, and there was a significant correlation between values obtained with the two different methodologies (r = 0.94). The plasma levels of renin inhibitor reached a maximum at the end of infusion and then decreased rapidly, indicating a short plasma half-life. The changes in biochemical parameters, plasma renin activity, and plasma concentration of active renin could be related to the concentrations of CGP 38 560 measured in the plasma.

  1. Determination of Stark parameters by cross-calibration in a multi-element laser-induced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Truscott, Benjamin S.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.

    2016-05-01

    We illustrate a Stark broadening analysis of the electron density Ne and temperature Te in a laser-induced plasma (LIP), using a model free of assumptions regarding local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The method relies on Stark parameters determined also without assuming LTE, which are often unknown and unavailable in the literature. Here, we demonstrate that the necessary values can be obtained in situ by cross-calibration between the spectral lines of different charge states, and even different elements, given determinations of Ne and Te based on appropriate parameters for at least one observed transition. This approach enables essentially free choice between species on which to base the analysis, extending the range over which these properties can be measured and giving improved access to low-density plasmas out of LTE. Because of the availability of suitable tabulated values for several charge states of both Si and C, the example of a SiC LIP is taken to illustrate the consistency and accuracy of the procedure. The cross-calibrated Stark parameters are at least as reliable as values obtained by other means, offering a straightforward route to extending the literature in this area.

  2. The effects of process parameters on yield and properties of iron nanoparticles from ferrocene in a low-pressure plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchal, V.; Lahoti, G.; Bhandarkar, U.; Neergat, M.

    2011-08-01

    The effects of process parameters on iron nanoparticle formation and properties while using ferrocene as a precursor in a low-pressure capacitively coupled plasma are investigated. The L18 array of the Taguchi method, followed by the L4 array, is used with the notional objective of increasing the yield of nanoparticles. A study of the size, shape and composition of the particles (using transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, CHON and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analysis) gives an insight into the role played by various process parameters. Pressure is the most critical parameter in increasing nanoparticle yield, whereas hydrogen flow plays a key role in determining the nanoparticle size and composition. Atomic hydrogen helps in removing amorphous carbon and reducing the nanoparticle size. RF power plays an important role in the dissociation of ferrocene thus also affecting the composition. Nanoparticles obtained using optimized conditions are a mixture of Fe3O4 and Fe2O3 with cluster size 25-40 nm in diameter that are further made up of 2-4 nm crystallites. Magnetic property measurements indicate that the nanoparticles are super-paramagnetic in nature.

  3. The effects of process parameters on yield and properties of iron nanoparticles from ferrocene in a low-pressure plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panchal, V; Neergat, M [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India); Lahoti, G; Bhandarkar, U, E-mail: bhandarkar@iitb.ac.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Powai, Mumbai 400076 (India)

    2011-08-31

    The effects of process parameters on iron nanoparticle formation and properties while using ferrocene as a precursor in a low-pressure capacitively coupled plasma are investigated. The L{sub 18} array of the Taguchi method, followed by the L{sub 4} array, is used with the notional objective of increasing the yield of nanoparticles. A study of the size, shape and composition of the particles (using transmission electron microscopy, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, CHON and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy analysis) gives an insight into the role played by various process parameters. Pressure is the most critical parameter in increasing nanoparticle yield, whereas hydrogen flow plays a key role in determining the nanoparticle size and composition. Atomic hydrogen helps in removing amorphous carbon and reducing the nanoparticle size. RF power plays an important role in the dissociation of ferrocene thus also affecting the composition. Nanoparticles obtained using optimized conditions are a mixture of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} with cluster size 25-40 nm in diameter that are further made up of 2-4 nm crystallites. Magnetic property measurements indicate that the nanoparticles are super-paramagnetic in nature.

  4. Measurement of plasma momentum exerted on target by a small helicon plasma thruster and comparison with direct thrust measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira

    2015-02-01

    Momentum, i.e., force, exerted from a small helicon plasma thruster to a target plate is measured simultaneously with a direct thrust measurement using a thrust balance. The calibration coefficient relating a target displacement to a steady-state force is obtained by supplying a dc to a calibration coil mounted on the target, where a force acting to a small permanent magnet located near the coil is directly measured by using a load cell. As the force exerted by the plasma flow to the target plate is in good agreement with the directly measured thrust, the validity of the target technique is demonstrated under the present operating conditions, where the thruster is operated in steady-state. Furthermore, a calibration coefficient relating a swing amplitude of the target to an impulse bit is also obtained by pulsing the calibration coil current. The force exerted by the pulsed plasma, which is estimated from the measured impulse bit and the pulse width, is also in good agreement with that obtained for the steady-state operation; hence, the thrust assessment of the helicon plasma thruster by the target is validated for both the steady-state and pulsed operations.

  5. Design Parameter Studies of Emission-Based Iron Opacity Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Madison E.; London, Richard A.; Goluoglu, Sedat; Whitley, Heather D.

    2016-10-01

    Opacity is a critical parameter in the transport of radiation in systems such as inertial confinement fusion capsules and stars. The resolution of current disagreements between solar models and helioseismological observations would benefit from experimental validation of theoretical opacity models. Short pulse lasers can be used to heat targets to higher temperatures and densities than long pulse lasers and pulsed power machines, thus potentially enabling access to x-ray emission spectra at conditions relevant to solar models. The radiation-hydrodynamic code HYDRA is used to investigate the effects of modifying laser energy, laser pulse length, and target dimensions on the plasma conditions, x-ray emission, and inferred opacity of a buried layer iron target. The accuracy of the opacity inference is sensitive to tamper emission and optical depth effects. An example design that reaches temperatures and densities relevant to the radiative zone of the sun while reducing optical depth and tamper emission effects will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC.

  6. Measurement of plasma hydrogen sulfide in vivo and in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Shen, Xinggui; Pattillo, Christopher B.; Pardue, Sibile; Bir, Shyamal C.; Wang, Rui; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2011-01-01

    The gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide is known to regulate multiple cellular functions during normal and pathophysiological states. However, a paucity of concise information exists regarding quantitative amounts of hydrogen sulfide involved in physiological and pathological responses. This is primarily due to disagreement among various methods employed to measure free hydrogen sulfide. In this article, we describe a very sensitive method of measuring the presence of H2S in plasma down to nanom...

  7. Large-scale drifts observed on electron temperature measurements on JET plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbaud, Thomas; Alper, Barry; Beausang, Kieran; Beurskens, Marc; Flanagan, Joanne; Kempenaars, Mark; Sirinelli, Antoine; Maslov, Mikhail; Dif-Pradalier, Guilhem; Contributors, JET EFDA

    2012-01-01

    Between 1995 and 2009, electron temperature (Te) measurements of more than 15000 plasmas produced in the Joint European Torus (JET) have been carefully reviewed using the two main diagnostics available over this time period: Michelson interferometer and Thomson scattering systems. Long term stability of JET Te is experimentaly observed by defining the ECE TS ratio as the ratio of central Te measured by Michelson and LIDAR. This paper, based on a careful review of Te measurement from 15 years of JET plasmas, concludes that JET Te exhibits a 15-20% effective uncertainty mostly made of large-scale temporal drifts, and an overall uncertainty of 16-22%. Variations of 18 plasma parameters are checked in another data set, made of a "reference data set" made of ohmic pulses as similar as possible between 1998 and 2009. Time drifts of ECE TS ratios appear to be mostly disconnected from the variations observed on these 18 plasma parameters, except for the very low amplitude variations of the field which are well correl...

  8. Temperature measurements in thermal plasmas; Mesures de temperatures dans les plasmas thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauchais, P.; Coudert, J.F. [Limoges Univ., 87 (France)

    1996-05-01

    Thermal plasmas are characterized by a high pressure (10{sup 4} to 10{sup 6} Pa) and a high density of particles. Plasmas considered in this paper are produced by electric discharges, arcs, injection torches with cold or hot cathodes, water vortex torches, RF devices and are characterized by temperatures ranging from 6000 to 40000 K and ionization energies ranging from 13.5 and 16 eV (in argon, argon-hydrogen, nitrogen, nitrogen-hydrogen, argon-helium, air, oxygen, CO{sub 2} or water). Temperature measurements in thermal plasmas are difficult due to their extreme luminosity, flow rate and thermal flux, and to their temperature and flow rate gradients. The most common measurement methods are the emission spectroscopy, the laser scattering (Rayleigh, Thomson and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering) and the enthalpy probes. The first two methods are non-intrusive, while the last method is intrusive. This paper gives first some general remarks about the principles of each technique and focusses on the problem of fluctuations due to the plasma jet instabilities. Then, it describes briefly each technique and gives some examples of results. Finally, it compares the spectroscopic measurements with other measurements. (J.S.) 80 refs.

  9. Effect of process parameters on coating composition of cathodic-plasma-electrolysis-treated copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ASIYEH HABIBI; S MOHAMMAD MOUSAVI KHOIE; FARZAD MAHBOUBI; MUSTAFA URGEN

    2017-04-01

    Cathodic plasma electrolysis is a novel technique to form nanostructured layers on metallic surfaces by application of high voltage in a suitable aqueous electrolyte. In the present study, copper is treated by plasma electrolysisin 50 vol% ethanol electrolyte and coatings comprising carbon nanostructure and copper oxide are formed on the copper. The effect of some process parameters such as electrical conductivity, volume and temperature of electrolyte and ratio of anode to cathode surface area on current–voltage behaviour and subsequently coating compositions are investigated at 150V deposition voltage. The composition and morphology of these coatings are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Different current–voltage behaviours, temperatures of substrate and the contents and energies of radicals and ions around the substrate by changes in the mentioned parameters cause different compositions from 100 vol% copper oxide to different ratios of copper oxide to carbon, the structure changing from amorphous to graphitic structure in carbon and amorphous to cubic morphology in copper oxide on the substrate. Therefore, the understanding of cathodic plasma electrolysiscan be developed.

  10. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  11. A microwave interferometer for small and tenuous plasma density measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudisco, O; Lucca Fabris, A; Falcetta, C; Accatino, L; De Angelis, R; Manente, M; Ferri, F; Florean, M; Neri, C; Mazzotta, C; Pavarin, D; Pollastrone, F; Rocchi, G; Selmo, A; Tasinato, L; Trezzolani, F; Tuccillo, A A

    2013-03-01

    The non-intrusive density measurement of the thin plasma produced by a mini-helicon space thruster (HPH.com project) is a challenge, due to the broad density range (between 10(16) m(-3) and 10(19) m(-3)) and the small size of the plasma source (2 cm of diameter). A microwave interferometer has been developed for this purpose. Due to the small size of plasma, the probing beam wavelength must be small (λ = 4 mm), thus a very high sensitivity interferometer is required in order to observe the lower density values. A low noise digital phase detector with a phase noise of 0.02° has been used, corresponding to a density of 0.5 × 10(16) m(-3).

  12. A microwave interferometer for small and tenuous plasma density measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tudisco, O.; Falcetta, C.; De Angelis, R.; Florean, M.; Neri, C.; Mazzotta, C.; Pollastrone, F.; Rocchi, G.; Tuccillo, A. A. [ENEA CR Frascati, Via E. Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati (Italy); Lucca Fabris, A.; Manente, M.; Ferri, F.; Tasinato, L.; Trezzolani, F. [CISAS ' G.Colombo,' Universita degli studi di Padova, Via Venezia 15, 35131 Padova (Italy); Accatino, L. [ACC Antenna and MW tech, Via Trieste 16/B, 10098 Rivoli (Italy); Pavarin, D. [Dip. di Ingegneria Industriale (DII), Universita degli Studi di Padova, Via Venezia 1, 35131 Padova (Italy); Selmo, A. [RESIA, Studio Progettazione e Realizzazione di Apparati Elettronici, via Roma 17, 37041 Albaredo d' Adige (Italy)

    2013-03-15

    The non-intrusive density measurement of the thin plasma produced by a mini-helicon space thruster (HPH.com project) is a challenge, due to the broad density range (between 10{sup 16} m{sup -3} and 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) and the small size of the plasma source (2 cm of diameter). A microwave interferometer has been developed for this purpose. Due to the small size of plasma, the probing beam wavelength must be small ({lambda}= 4 mm), thus a very high sensitivity interferometer is required in order to observe the lower density values. A low noise digital phase detector with a phase noise of 0.02 Degree-Sign has been used, corresponding to a density of 0.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} m{sup -3}.

  13. Plasma resistivity measurements in the Wisconsin levitated octupole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouchous, D. A.

    1980-11-01

    Resistivity measurements parallel to the magnetic field were made on gun injected plasmas ranging in density from 10/sup 9/cm/sup -3/ to 10/sup 1/parallelcm/sup -3/ in the Wisconsin levitated octupole with toroidal and poloidal magnetic fields. The 10/sup 9/cm/sup -3/ plasma was collisionless with lambda/sub mfp/ > 100 mirror lengths, had T/sub e/ = 10 eV, T/sub i/ = 30 eV and was found to have anomalous resistivity scaling like eta = ..sqrt..T/sub e//n/sub e/ when E/sub parallel/ > E/su c/ is the Dreicer critical field. The 10/sup 12/cm/sup -3/ plasma was collisional with lambda/sub mfp/ < mirror length, had T/sub e/ = T/sub i/ approx. = .2 eV and was found to have Spitzer resistivity when E/sub parallel/ < E/sub c/.

  14. [The research advance of measuring techniques on corneoscleral constitutive parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Fangjun; Deng, Manli; Wang, Qinmei

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence and development of myopia and keratoconus is closely related to the changes of scleral and corneal biomechanical properties. The accurate measurement of biomechanical properties for corneoscleral tissure is very important on diagnosis of eye diseases, improvement of ocular operation, ocular biological parameter measurement and invention of ophthalmic instrument. Corneoscleral tissue, composed of bundles of compact and staggered collagen fiber and extracellular matrix, constitute the outer surface of the eyeball. The inhomogeneous distribution of the diameter, gap and amount of collagen fiber, makes its biomechanical characteristics really complex, characterized by nonlinear, viscoelastic, anisotropic, regional variation and age-related variation and etc. With the development of medical diagnostic technology, the importance of the ocular biomechanical property measurement is increasingly recognized. Nevertheless, measuring technology on ocular biomechanics properties are still not well understood by the majority of ophthalmologists. In order to facilitate the researchers to select a suitable measuring platform and method, the development of international corneoscleral biomechanical propertiy measuring technology was reviewed in this article.

  15. Measurements of the Motion of Plasma Filaments in a Plasma Ball

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campanell, M.; Laird, J.; Provost, T.; Vasquez, S.; Zweben, S. J.

    2010-01-26

    Measurements were made of the motion of the filamentary structures in a plasma ball using high speed cameras and other optical detectors. These filaments traverse the ball radially at ~106 cm/sec at the driving frequency of ~26 kHz, and drift upward through the ball at ~1 cm/sec. Varying the applied high voltage and frequency caused the number, length, and diameter of the filaments to change. A custom plasma ball was constructed to observe the effects of varying gas pressure and species on the filament structures.

  16. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Tim; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-01-16

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  17. MEASURING INTERMITTENCY PARAMETERS OF ENERGY CASCADE IN TURBULENCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    佘振苏; 刘立

    2003-01-01

    Method of measuring physical parameters characterizing intermittency effects of energy cascade in turbulence is presented in the framework of the Hierarchical Structure model. The method of β-test and γ-test enables to verify the existence of hierarchical symmetry and to derive the degree of singularity for the most intermittent structures. The method is applied to analyze data for a high Reynolds number, low-temperature helium turbulent flow. Evidence for universal hierarchical symmetry constant β is reported. Effects of finite statistical sample size are discussed in detail.

  18. Felinic principle and measurement of the Hubble parameter

    CERN Document Server

    Piškur, Yodovina

    2013-01-01

    Intelligent life can only appear in Universes, whose physical laws support sufficient complexity to make evolution of intelligent beings possible. Even inside those Universes, intelligent life does not appear randomly, but in parts with realized complexity, e.g. around stars in our Universe. As a consequence, the observational point of an intelligent observer cannot be assumed to be random and one must correct for this selection effect. In this paper we calculate how direct measurements of the Hubble parameter are affected when subject to the condition that they are observed from a Milky Way-like galaxy.

  19. Inkjet-printed multi-parameter measuring sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Chih; Chiang, Yu-Hsin; Wu, Chun-Wei; Estroff, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    Printed organic sensors on flexible substrates have generated great interest due to their flexibility and low cost manufacturing. Methods such as inkjet printing, screen printing, etching or flexography are among many that have been used for the production process. In this paper, we report the fabrication and characterization of a free-standing, high aspect ratio PEDOT:PSS micro cylinder (20 um in diameter and 1 mm height) multi-parameter sensor printed by an inkjet process. Calibration fabrication and preliminary sensor measurement results from the fabricated sensor will be presented and future applications are discussed.

  20. Temporal evolution of the spectral lines emission and temperatures in laser induced plasmas through characteristic parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredice, F., E-mail: faustob@ciop.unlp.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones Ópticas, P.O. Box 3 C. P.1897 Gonnet, La Plata (Argentina); Pacheco Martinez, P. [Grupo de Espectroscopía Óptica de Emisión y Láser, Universidad del Atlántico, Barranquilla (Colombia); Sánchez-Aké, C.; Villagrán-Muniz, M. [Laboratorio de Fotofísica, Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnológico, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-186, México D.F. 04510 (Mexico)

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we propose an extended Boltzmann plot method to determine the usefulness of spectral lines for plasma parameter calculations. Based on the assumption that transient plasmas are under ideal conditions during an specific interval of time Δt, (i.e. thin, homogeneous and in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE)), the associated Boltzmann plots describe a surface in the space defined by the coordinates X = Energy, Y = Time and Z = ln (λ{sub jl}I{sub j}/g{sub j}A{sub jl}), where I{sub j} is the integrated intensity of the spectral line, g{sub j} is the statistical weight of the level j, λ{sub jl} is the wavelength of the considered line and A{sub jl} is its transition rate. In order to express the Boltzmann plot surface in terms of a reduced set of constants B{sub i}, and δ{sub i}, we developed as a power series of time, the logarithm of I{sub n}(t)/I{sub n}(t{sub 0}), where I{sub n}(t) is the integrated intensity of any spectral line at time t, and I{sub n}(t{sub 0}) at initial time. Moreover, the temporal evolution of the intensity of any spectral line and consequently the temperature of the plasma can be also expressed with these constants. The comparison of the temporal evolution of the line intensity calculated using these constants with their experimental values, can be used as a criterion for selecting useful lines in plasma analysis. Furthermore, this method can also be applied to determine self-absorption or enhancement of the spectral lines, to evaluate a possible departure of LTE, and to check or estimate the upper level energy value of any spectral line. An advantage of this method is that the value of these constants does not depend on the spectral response of the detection system, the uncertainty of the transition rates belonging to the analyzed spectral lines or any other time-independent parameters. In order to prove our method, we determined the constants B{sub i} and δ{sub i} and therefore the Boltzmann plot surface from the temporal

  1. Thomson scattering measurements from asymmetric interpenetrating plasma flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J. S., E-mail: ross36@llnl.gov; Moody, J. D.; Fiuza, F.; Ryutov, D.; Divol, L.; Huntington, C. M.; Park, H.-S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Imaging Thomson scattering measurements of collective ion-acoustic fluctuations have been utilized to determine ion temperature and density from laser produced counter-streaming asymmetric flows. Two foils are heated with 8 laser beams each, 500 J per beam, at the Omega Laser facility. Measurements are made 4 mm from the foil surface using a 60 J 2ω probe laser with a 200 ps pulse length. Measuring the electron density and temperature from the electron-plasma fluctuations constrains the fit of the multi-ion species, asymmetric flows theoretical form factor for the ion feature such that the ion temperatures, ion densities, and flow velocities for each plasma flow are determined.

  2. Turbulence in Wendelstein 7-AS plasmas measured by collective light scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basse, Nils Plesner

    2002-08-01

    This Ph.D. thesis contains theoretical and experimental work on plasma turbulence measurements using collective light scattering. The motivation for measuring turbulence in hot fusion plasmas is, along with the method used and results obtained, the subject of chapter 1. The theoretical part is divided into three chapters. Chapter 2 contains a full analytical derivation of the expected dependency of the detected signal on plasma parameters. Thereafter, spatial resolution of the measurements using different methods is treated in chapter 3. Finally, the spectral analysis tools used later in the thesis are described and illustrated in chapter 4. The experimental part is divided into four chapters. In chapter 5 transport concepts relevant to the thesis are outlined. Main parameters of the Wendelstein 7-AS (W7-AS) stellarator in which measurements were made are collected in chapter 6. The setup used to study fluctuations in the electron density of W7-AS plasmas is covered in chapter 7. This localised turbulence scattering (LOTUS) diagnostic is based on a CO{sub 2} laser radiating at a wavelength of 10.59 {mu}m. Fast, heterodyne, dual volume detection at variable wavenumbers between 14 and 62 cm{sup -1} is performed. The central chapter of the thesis, chapter 8, contains an analysis of the measured density fluctuations before, during and after several confinement transition types. The aim was to achieve a better understanding of the connection between turbulence and the confinement quality of the plasma. Conclusions and suggestions for further work are summarised in chapter 9. (au)

  3. Temperature Measurement Challenges and Limitations for In-Flight Particles in Suspension Plasma Spraying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Bishoy; Gougeon, Patrick; Moreau, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) acquires a significant interest from the industry. The deposited coatings using this technique were proved to have unique microstructural features compared to those built by conventional plasma spraying techniques. In order to optimize this process, in-flight particle diagnostics is considered a very useful tool that helps to control various spraying parameters and permits better coating reproducibility. In that context, the temperature of in-flight particles is one of the most important key elements that helps to optimize and control the SPS process. However, the limitations and challenges associated with this process have a significant effect on the accuracy of two-color pyrometric techniques used to measure the in-flight particle temperature. In this work, the influence of several nonthermal radiation sources on the particle temperature measurement is studied. The plasma radiation scattered by in-flight particles was found to have no significant influence on temperature measurement. Moreover, the detection of the two-color signals at two different locations was found to induce a significant error on temperature measurement. Finally, the plasma radiation surrounding the in-flight particles was identified as the main source of error on the temperature measurement of in-flight particles.

  4. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick David [US Geological Survey, Storrs, CT (United States); Singha, Kamini [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Haggerty, Roy [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Binley, Andrew [Lancaster Univ. (United Kingdom); Lane, John W. [US Geological Survey, Storrs, CT (United States)

    2014-11-25

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  5. Cosmological Parameters from Pre-Planck CMB Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Calabrese, Erminia; Battaglia, Nick; Battistelli, Elia S; Bond, J Richard; Chluba, Jens; Crichton, Devin; Das, Sudeep; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Farhang, Marzieh; Gralla, Megan B; Hajian, Amir; Halpern, Mark; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hincks, Adam D; Irwin, Kent D; Kosowsky, Arthur; Louis, Thibaut; Marriage, Tobias A; Moodley, Kavilan; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D; Nolta, Mike R; Page, Lyman A; Sehgal, Neelima; Sherwin, Blake D; Sievers, Jonathan L; Sifón, Cristóbal; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Switzer, Eric R; Wollack, Ed

    2013-01-01

    Recent data from the WMAP, ACT and SPT experiments provide precise measurements of the cosmic microwave background temperature power spectrum over a wide range of angular scales. The combination of these observations is well fit by the standard, spatially flat LCDM cosmological model, constraining six free parameters to within a few percent. The scalar spectral index, n_s = 0.9678 +/- 0.0088, is less than unity at the 3.6 sigma level, consistent with simple models of inflation. The damping tail of the power spectrum at high resolution, combined with the amplitude of gravitational lensing measured by ACT and SPT, constrains the effective number of relativistic species to be N_eff = 3.24 +/- 0.39, in agreement with the standard model's three species of light neutrinos.

  6. Strongly correlated two-dimensional plasma explored from entropy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntsevich, A Y; Tupikov, Y V; Pudalov, V M; Burmistrov, I S

    2015-06-23

    Charged plasma and Fermi liquid are two distinct states of electronic matter intrinsic to dilute two-dimensional electron systems at elevated and low temperatures, respectively. Probing their thermodynamics represents challenge because of lack of an adequate technique. Here, we report a thermodynamic method to measure the entropy per electron in gated structures. Our technique appears to be three orders of magnitude superior in sensitivity to a.c. calorimetry, allowing entropy measurements with only 10(8) electrons. This enables us to investigate the correlated plasma regime, previously inaccessible experimentally in two-dimensional electron systems in semiconductors. In experiments with clean two-dimensional electron system in silicon-based structures, we traced entropy evolution from the plasma to Fermi liquid regime by varying electron density. We reveal that the correlated plasma regime can be mapped onto the ordinary non-degenerate Fermi gas with an interaction-enhanced temperature-dependent effective mass. Our method opens up new horizons in studies of low-dimensional electron systems.

  7. Charge exchange fast neutral measurement with natural diamond detectors in neon plasma on LHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saida, T.; Sasao, M.; Isobe, M.; Krasilnikov, A. V.

    2003-03-01

    Charge exchange (CX) fast neutral spectra produced by ion cyclotron resonance frequency hydrogen minority heating in neon and helium majority plasmas sustained by neutral beam injection were measured with perpendicular Natural Diamond Detectors during the fifth campaign in 2002 on large helical devices (LHDs). It was observed that there were differences between fast neutral spectra shapes in neon plasma and those in helium of the same discharge condition with similar plasma parameters. Dominant CX processes in neon and helium plasmas were studied for ionization components from outside of the last closed flux surface. High-energy proton spectra were obtained by taking account of each charge state distribution and responsible charge exchange cross sections. The high-energy proton tail formations in both plasmas were similar for the same heating regime. The relaxation time tendencies of the effective temperatures of a high-energy proton have also shown no differences, indicating that the acceleration and confinement of energetic ions in LHDs are similar in neon and helium plasmas.

  8. Typical Profiles and Distributions of Plasma and Magnetic Field Parameters in Magnetic Clouds at 1 AU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Masías-Meza, J. J.; Dasso, S.; Démoulin, P.; Zhukov, A. N.; Gulisano, A. M.; Mierla, M.; Kilpua, E.; West, M.; Lacatus, D.; Paraschiv, A.; Janvier, M.

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic clouds (MCs) are a subset of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). They are important because of their simple internal magnetic field configuration, which resembles a magnetic flux rope, and because they represent one of the most geoeffective types of solar transients. In this study, we analyze their internal structure using a superposed epoch method on 63 events observed at L1 by the Advance Composition Explorer (ACE), between 1998 and 2006. In this way, we obtain an average profile for each plasma and magnetic field parameter at each point of the cloud. Furthermore, we take a fixed time-window upstream and downstream from the MC to also sample the regions preceding the cloud and the wake trailing it. We then perform a detailed analysis of the internal characteristics of the clouds and their surrounding solar wind environments. We find that the parameters studied are compatible with log-normal distribution functions. The plasma β and the level of fluctuations in the magnetic field vector are the best parameters to define the boundaries of MCs. We find that one third of the events shows a peak in plasma density close to the trailing edge of the flux ropes. We provide several possible explanations for this result and investigate if the density peak is of a solar origin ( e.g. erupting prominence material) or formed during the magnetic cloud travel from the Sun to 1 AU. The most plausible explanation is the compression due to a fast overtaking flow, coming from a coronal hole located to the east of the solar source region of the magnetic cloud.

  9. Penentuan Efektifitas Oksitetrasiklin Melalui Parameter Farmakokinetik/farmakodinamik pada Plasma dan Jaringan Ayam Broiler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina Dwi Wijayanti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of oxytetracycline on the basis of itspharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD parameters in the plasma and tissues of broiler following a50 mg/kg single dose of intravenous administration. The male broiler were injected with oxytetracycline attarsal medial venous. The blood, liver, kidney and abdominal muscle were collected at 14 points of timesamplings. Blood was centrifuged to obtain plasma and all tissues were extracted with Mc Ilvine buffer.Drug concentration in samples was determined by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLCusing AOAC standard reference for tetracycline. The pharmacokinetic parameters of oxytetracycline werecalculated using non compartment method. The results were as follows. For plasma: the AUC was 790,615,5 ?g/mL minute , Clearance was 63,242 mL/min/kg bb, Tmax/Cmax was 1 minute/0,7 ?g/mL, T1/2elimination was 6,4, hours, Vd was 37 L/kg. For liver ; AUC was 36418,89, minute , Tmax/Cmax was 16hours/17,15 ?g/g, and T1/2 elimination was 24,5, hours. For kidney; AUC6808,41 ?g/g minute , Tmax/Cmax 1 minute/16,73 ?g/g, , T1/2 elimination was 11,55 hours. For muscle; AUC was 3502 ?g/g minute,Tmax/Cmax was 1 minute/2,58 ?g/g, T1/2 elimination was 167,39 hours. The ratio of AUC/MIC inplasma and tissues appeared to a good pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic parameter to determine theeffectiveness of oxytetracycline.

  10. Measurement of the cp violation parameter sin 2 beta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K.F. Kelley

    1999-01-26

    This thesis presents a measurement of the time-dependent asymmetry in the rate of {anti B}{sub d}{sup 0} versus B{sub d}{sup 0} decays to J/{psi}K{sub s}{sup 0}. In the context of the Standard Model this is interpreted as a measurement of the CP violation parameter sin(2{beta}). A total of 198{+-}17 B{sub d}{sup 0}/{anti B}{sub d}{sup 0} decays were observed in p{anti p} collisions at {radical}s=1.8 TeV by the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The initial B flavor (whether B{sup 0} or {anti B}{sup 0}) is determined by a same-side flavor tagging technique. The analysis results in sin(2{beta})=1.8{+-}1.1(stat.){+-}0.3(syst.). This analysis demonstrates the feasibility of studying CP violation in the B{sup 0}-{anti B}{sup 0} system at a hadron collider. By applying the methods used in this analysis, future, higher-statistics experiments should be able to tightly constrain the parameters of the Standard Model.

  11. Measurement of the cp violation parameter sin 2β

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, Kenneth Francis [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1999-02-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the time-dependent asymmetry in the rate of $\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{d}$ versus B$0\\atop{d}$ decays to J/ΨK$0\\atop{s}$. In the context of the Standard Model this is interpreted as a measurement of the CP violation parameter sin(2β). A total of 198{+-}17 B$0\\atop{d}$/$\\bar{B}$$0\\atop{d}$ decays were observed in p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s=1.8 TeV by the CDF detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. The initial B flavor (whether B0 or $\\bar{B}$0) is determined by a same-side flavor tagging technique. The analysis results in sin(2β)=1.8±1.1(stat.)±0.3(syst.). This analysis demonstrates the feasibility of studying CP violation in the B0-$\\bar{B}$0 system at a hadron collider. By applying the methods used in this analysis, future, higher-statistics experiments should be able to tightly constrain the parameters of the Standard Model.

  12. Geoelectrical Measurement of Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day-Lewis, Frederick; Singha, Kamini; Haggerty, Roy; Johnson, Tim; Binley, Andrew; Lane, John

    2014-01-16

    Mass transfer affects contaminant transport and is thought to control the efficiency of aquifer remediation at a number of sites within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. An improved understanding of mass transfer is critical to meeting the enormous scientific and engineering challenges currently facing DOE. Informed design of site remedies and long-term stewardship of radionuclide-contaminated sites will require new cost-effective laboratory and field techniques to measure the parameters controlling mass transfer spatially and across a range of scales. In this project, we sought to capitalize on the geophysical signatures of mass transfer. Previous numerical modeling and pilot-scale field experiments suggested that mass transfer produces a geoelectrical signature—a hysteretic relation between sampled (mobile-domain) fluid conductivity and bulk (mobile + immobile) conductivity—over a range of scales relevant to aquifer remediation. In this work, we investigated the geoelectrical signature of mass transfer during tracer transport in a series of controlled experiments to determine the operation of controlling parameters, and also investigated the use of complex-resistivity (CR) as a means of quantifying mass transfer parameters in situ without tracer experiments. In an add-on component to our grant, we additionally considered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to help parse mobile from immobile porosities. Including the NMR component, our revised study objectives were to: 1. Develop and demonstrate geophysical approaches to measure mass-transfer parameters spatially and over a range of scales, including the combination of electrical resistivity monitoring, tracer tests, complex resistivity, nuclear magnetic resonance, and materials characterization; and 2. Provide mass-transfer estimates for improved understanding of contaminant fate and transport at DOE sites, such as uranium transport at the Hanford 300 Area. To achieve our objectives, we implemented a 3

  13. Measurements of line-averaged electron density of pulsed plasmas using a He-Ne laser interferometer in a magnetized coaxial plasma gun device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, D.; Sakuma, I.; Kitagawa, Y.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2012-10-01

    In next step of fusion devices such as ITER, lifetime of plasma-facing materials (PFMs) is strongly affected by transient heat and particle loads during type I edge localized modes (ELMs) and disruption. To clarify damage characteristics of the PFMs, transient heat and particle loads have been simulated by using a plasma gun device. We have performed simulation experiments by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG) device at University of Hyogo. The line-averaged electron density measured by a He-Ne interferometer is 2x10^21 m-3 in a drift tube. The plasma velocity measured by a time of flight technique and ion Doppler spectrometer was 70 km/s, corresponding to the ion energy of 100 eV for helium. Thus, the ion flux density is 1.4x10^26 m-2s-1. On the other hand, the MCPG is connected to a target chamber for material irradiation experiments. It is important to measure plasma parameters in front of target materials in the target chamber. In particular, a vapor cloud layer in front of the target material produced by the pulsed plasma irradiation has to be characterized in order to understand surface damage of PFMs under ELM-like plasma bombardment. In the conference, preliminary results of application of the He-Ne laser interferometer for the above experiment will be shown.

  14. [Changes in Kinetics of Chemiluminescence of Plasma as a Measure of Systemic Oxidative Stress in Humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sozarukova, M M; Polimova, A M; Proskurnina, E V; Vladimirov, Yu A

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a pathogenetic factor of many diseases. The control of its level is important for early diagnosis and therapy adjustment. In this work, antioxidant status was estimated in blood plasma. In the system of 2,2'-azo-bis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride-luminol a set of chemiluminescence kinetic curve parameters is proposed for oxidative stress level estimation (the latent period τ(lat) and the increasing of analytical signal ΔI(CL)). Uric acid and albumin were shown as the main components that responsible for changes in chemiluminescence kinetic curve of plasma. Serum albumin undergoes oxidative modification in dose-depend manner under the action of UV irradiation, it causes the enhancement of antioxidant properties. Changes in plasma chemiluminescence kinetics are proposed as a measure of oxidative stress in human body.

  15. Selenium, copper and zinc in seminal plasma of men with varicocele, relationship with seminal parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camejo, María Isabel; Abdala, Lyzeth; Vivas-Acevedo, Giovanny; Lozano-Hernández, Ricardo; Angeli-Greaves, Miriam; Greaves, Eduardo D

    2011-12-01

    Varicocele has been associated with decrease in seminal parameters. Selenium (Se), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) are trace elements essential for normal spermatogenesis of mammals and play a critical role as antioxidant defense system enzymes. Se, Cu, and Zn are associated with sperm quality in fertile and infertile men. However, there is little information about Se, Cu, and Zn concentrations in semen in patients with varicocele and its association with seminal parameters. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of Se, Cu, and Zn in semen of patients with varicocele and the relationship with seminal parameters. Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence was used for the fist time in the seminal fluid analysis. The concentration of selenium in men with varicocele was smaller than the normozoospermic group, while no differences were observed for both concentrations of zinc and copper. A significant positive correlation between zinc and selenium concentration was observed. Selenium in seminal plasma correlates with a good spermatozoa concentrations, motility, and morphology. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was observed between zinc levels and sperm count. In conclusion, a decrease in selenium concentration was associated with detriment of seminal parameters. A study should be conducted to evaluate the benefits of both zinc and selenium supplementation to improve seminal parameters in patients with varicocele.

  16. Expanded Ion Energy Distribution Measurements on MST RFP Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jerry; Titus, J. B.; Mezonlin, E. D.; Anderson, J. K.; Almagri, A. F.

    2016-10-01

    The Compact Neutral Particle Analyzer (CNPA) is a low energy (0.34 - 5.2 keV), high energy resolution (25 channels) neutral particle analyzer for ion energy distribution and temperature measurements on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST). In MST plasmas during neutral beam injection, deuterium ions are known to have energies out to 40 keV. A retarding potential was built, installed, and calibrated to allow CNPA measurements to explore this region with high energy resolution, expanding ion energy distribution measurements, allowing us to better understand the dynamics of the bulk and fast ion populations during global magnetic reconnection events. Work supported by US DOE and NSF.

  17. Comparing turbulent parameters obtained from LITOS and radiosonde measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, A.; Gerding, M.; Lübken, F.-J.

    2015-02-01

    Stratospheric turbulence is important for the mixing of trace species and the energy balance, but direct measurements are sparse due to the required resolution and accuracy. Recently, turbulence parameters such as the energy dissipation rate ɛ were inferred from standard radiosonde data by means of a Thorpe analysis. To this end, layers with vertically decreasing potential temperature are analysed, which is expected to indicate turbulence. Such an application assumes a proportionality between the Thorpe length LT and the Ozmidov scale LO. While this relation is accepted for the ocean, experimental evidence for such proportionality in the stratosphere is sparse. We have developed a high-resolution (8 kHz) turbulence measurement system called LITOS (Leibniz Institute Turbulence Observations in the Stratosphere), which for the first time resolves the inner scale of turbulence in the stratosphere. Therewith the energy dissipation rate ɛ can be determined by spectral analysis. This independent value for ɛ enables us to check the relation LO ∝ LT. In our measurements no such proportionality can be seen, although the mean of the ratio LO/LT is close to what is assumed in radiosonde analyses. Dissipation rates for individual layers obtained from radiosondes deviate up to a factor of ~3000 from those obtained by spectral analysis. Some turbulent layers measured by LITOS are not observed by the radiosonde at all, and vice versa. However, statements about the statistical mean seem to be possible by Thorpe analysis.

  18. Measurement and simulation of the TRR BNCT beam parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarnegin, Elham; Sadremomtaz, Alireza; Khalafi, Hossein; Kasesaz, Yaser; Golshanian, Mohadeseh; Ghods, Hossein; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Haddadi, Mohammad

    2016-09-01

    Recently, the configuration of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) thermal column has been modified and a proper thermal neutron beam for preclinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been obtained. In this study, simulations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the BNCT beam parameters including the beam uniformity, the distribution of the thermal neutron dose, boron dose, gamma dose in a phantom and also the Therapeutic Gain (TG). To do this, the entire TRR structure including the reactor core, pool, the thermal column and beam tubes have been modeled using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. To measure in-phantom dose distribution a special head phantom has been constructed and foil activation techniques and TLD700 dosimeter have been used. The results show that there is enough uniformity in TRR thermal BNCT beam. TG parameter has the maximum value of 5.7 at the depth of 1 cm from the surface of the phantom, confirming that TRR thermal neutron beam has potential for being used in treatment of superficial brain tumors. For the purpose of a clinical trial, more modifications need to be done at the reactor, as, for example design, and construction of a treatment room at the beam exit which is our plan for future. To date, this beam is usable for biological studies and animal trials. There is a relatively good agreement between simulation and measurement especially within a diameter of 10 cm which is the dimension of usual BNCT beam ports. This relatively good agreement enables a more precise prediction of the irradiation conditions needed for future experiments.

  19. Measurement and simulation of the TRR BNCT beam parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bavarnegin, Elham [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sadremomtaz, Alireza [Department of Physics, University of Guilan, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalafi, Hossein [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kasesaz, Yaser, E-mail: ykasesaz@aeoi.org.ir [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Golshanian, Mohadeseh; Ghods, Hossein; Ezzati, Arsalan; Keyvani, Mehdi; Haddadi, Mohammad [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute (NSTRI), Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-09-11

    Recently, the configuration of the Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) thermal column has been modified and a proper thermal neutron beam for preclinical Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) has been obtained. In this study, simulations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the BNCT beam parameters including the beam uniformity, the distribution of the thermal neutron dose, boron dose, gamma dose in a phantom and also the Therapeutic Gain (TG). To do this, the entire TRR structure including the reactor core, pool, the thermal column and beam tubes have been modeled using MCNPX Monte Carlo code. To measure in-phantom dose distribution a special head phantom has been constructed and foil activation techniques and TLD700 dosimeter have been used. The results show that there is enough uniformity in TRR thermal BNCT beam. TG parameter has the maximum value of 5.7 at the depth of 1 cm from the surface of the phantom, confirming that TRR thermal neutron beam has potential for being used in treatment of superficial brain tumors. For the purpose of a clinical trial, more modifications need to be done at the reactor, as, for example design, and construction of a treatment room at the beam exit which is our plan for future. To date, this beam is usable for biological studies and animal trials. There is a relatively good agreement between simulation and measurement especially within a diameter of 10 cm which is the dimension of usual BNCT beam ports. This relatively good agreement enables a more precise prediction of the irradiation conditions needed for future experiments.

  20. Pulse compression radar reflectometry for density measurements on fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costley, A.; Prentice, R. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Laviron, C. [Compagnie Generale des Matieres Nucleaires (COGEMA), 78 - Velizy-Villacoublay (France); Prentice, R. [Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Centre d`Etude Spatiale des Rayonnements

    1994-07-01

    On tokamaks and other toroidal machines, reflectometry is a very rapidly developing technique for density profile measurements, particularly near the edge. Its principle relies on the total reflection of an electromagnetic wave at a cutoff layer, where the critical density is reached and the local refractive index goes to zero. With the new fast frequency synthesizers now available, a method based on pulse compression radar is proposed for plasma reflectometry, overcoming the limitations of the previous reflectometry methods. The measurement can be made on a time-scale which is effectively very short relatively to the plasma fluctuations, and the very high reproducibility and stability of the source allows an absolute calibration of the waveguides to be made, which corrects for the effects of the parasitic reflections. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  1. Measurements of Plasma Potential Distribution in Segmented Electrode Hall Thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Raitses; D. Staack; N.J. Fisch

    2001-10-16

    Use of a segmented electrode placed at the Hall thruster exit can substantially reduce the voltage potential drop in the fringing magnetic field outside the thruster channel. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of this effect on thruster operating conditions and segmented electrode configuration. A fast movable emissive probe is used to measure plasma potential in a 1 kW laboratory Hall thruster with semented electrodes made of a graphite material. Relatively small probe-induced perturbations of the thruster discharge in the vicinity of the thruster exit allow a reasonable comparison of the measured results for different thruster configurations. It is shown that the plasma potential distribution is almost not sensitive to changes of the electrode potential, but depends on the magnetic field distribution and the electrode placement.

  2. Blood serum and seminal plasma selenium, total antioxidant capacity and coenzyme q10 levels in relation to semen parameters in men with idiopathic infertility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eroglu, Mustafa; Sahin, Sadik; Durukan, Birol; Ozakpinar, Ozlem Bingol; Erdinc, Nese; Turkgeldi, Lale; Sofuoglu, Kenan; Karateke, Ates

    2014-06-01

    In this case-control study, we aimed to evaluate the serum and seminal plasma levels of Selenium (Se), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ-10) and determine their relationship with sperm concentration, motility, and morphology in men with idiopathic infertility. A total of 59 subjects were enrolled in the study. Forty four patients were diagnosed with idiopathic male infertility and had abnormal sperm parameters, and 15 subjects had normal sperm parameters with proven fertility. Serum Se, semen Se, and semen TAC levels were significantly different in the fertile and infertile groups (pspermatozoa concentration, motility, and morphology. Additionally, seminal plasma levels of TAC correlated positively with all these sperm parameters. On the other hand, seminal plasma levels of CoQ-10 correlated only with sperm morphology but not with concentration or motility. No relationship was observed between serum levels of TAC or serum levels of CoQ-10 and sperm parameters. In conclusion, serum and seminal plasma Se deficiency may be a prominent determinant of abnormal sperm parameters and idiopathic male infertility. Measurement of serum Se levels may help determine nutritional status and antioxidant capacity in infertile patients, which may help distinguish those patients who will benefit from supplementation therapy.

  3. Spectroscopy Measurements on Ablation Testing in High Enthalpy Plasma Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    stagnation point, are located on the ablative material sample. 3.5 InfraRed THERMOGRAPHY Surface temperature measurement is a topic of great concern...high temperature material at two different narrow wavelengths. The temperature is calculated by building the ratio of the radiation intensities. The...this work is to develop the capability of testing and characterization of ablative materials exposed to high enthalpy plasma flows including both

  4. A viscometric method of measuring plasma fibrinogen concentrations.

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, E.; Resch, K L; Saradeth, T.; A. Maier; Matrai, A

    1992-01-01

    A technique based on deducing the viscosity of serum from that of plasma was compared with the commonly used Clauss method. The two methods correlated closely (r = 0.914). The reproducibility of the viscometric method was slightly poorer than the Clauss technique at low fibrinogen concentrations, equal to that at medium fibrinogen concentrations, and marginally better at high concentrations. Fibrinogen can therefore be measured reasonably accurately with the viscometric method, and can be rec...

  5. Langmuir Probe and Mass Spectroscopic Measurements in Inductively Coupled CF4 Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, M. V. V. S.; Sharma, Surendra; Cruden, B. A.; Meyyappan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Electron and ion energy distribution functions and other plasma parameters such as plasma potential (V(sub p)) , electron temperature (T(sub e)), and electron and ion number densities (n (sub e) and n(sub i)) in low pressure CF4 plasmas have been measured. The experiments were conducted in a GEC cell using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) device powered by a 13.56 MHz radio-frequency (rf) power source. The measurements were made at 300 W of input rf power at 10, 30 and 50 mTorr gas pressures. Langmuir probe measurements suggest that n(sub e), n(sub i) and V(sub p) remain constant over 60% of the central electrode area, beyond which they decrease. Within the limits of experimental error (+/- 0.25 eV), T(sub e) remains nearly constant over the electrode area. T(sub e) and V(sub p) increase with a decrease in pressure. n(sub e) and n(sub i) are not affected as significantly as T(sub e) or V(sub p) by variation in the gas pressure. The electron energy distribution function (EEDF) measurements indicate a highly non-Maxwellian plasma. CF3+ is the most dominant ion product of the plasma, followed by CF2+ and CF+. The concentrations of CF2+ and CF+ are much larger than that is possible from direct electron impact ionization of the parent gas. The cross-section data suggest that the direct electron impact ionization of fragment neutrals and negative ion production by electron attachment may be responsible for increase of the minor ions.

  6. A measurement of the tau Michel parameters at SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, J.

    1997-05-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the tau Michel parameters. This measurement utilizes the highly polarized SLC electron beam to extract these quantities directly from the measured tau decay spectra using the 1993--95 SLD sample of 4,528 tau pair events. The results are {rho}{sup e} = 0.71 {+-} 0.14 {+-} 0.05, {xi}{sup e} = 1.16 {+-} 0.52 {+-} 0.06, and ({xi}{delta}){sup e} = 0.85 {+-} 0.43 {+-} 0.08 for tau decays to electrons and {rho}{sup {mu}} = 0.54 {+-} 0.28 {sup {minus}} 0.14, {eta}{sup {mu}} = {minus}0.59 {+-} 0.82 {+-} 0.45, {xi}{sup {mu}} = 0.75 {+-} 0.50 {+-} 0.14, and ({xi}{delta}){sup {mu}} = 0.82 {+-} 0.32 {+-} 0.07 for tau decays to muons. Combining all leptonic tau decays gives {rho} = 0.72 {+-} 0.09 {+-} 0.03, {xi} = 1.05 {+-} 0.35 {+-} 0.04, and {Xi}{delta} = 0.88 {+-} 0.27 {+-} 0.04. These results agree well with the current world average and the Standard Model.

  7. Inferring flare loop parameters with measurements of standing sausage modes

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Ming-Zhe; Li, Bo; Xia, Li-Dong; Yu, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Standing fast sausage modes in flare loops were suggested to account for a considerable number of quasi-periodic pulsations (QPPs) in the light curves of solar flares. This study continues our investigation into the possibility to invert the measured periods $P$ and damping times $\\tau$ of sausage modes to deduce the transverse Alfv\\'en time $R/v_{\\rm Ai}$, density contrast $\\rho_{\\rm i}/\\rho_{\\rm e}$, and the steepness of the density distribution transverse to flare loops. A generic dispersion relation (DR) governing linear sausage modes is derived for pressureless cylinders where density inhomogeneity of arbitrary form takes place within the cylinder. We show that in general the inversion problem is under-determined for QPP events where only a single sausage mode exists, be the measurements spatially resolved or unresolved. While $R/v_{\\rm Ai}$ can be inferred to some extent, the range of possible steepness parameters may be too broad to be useful. However, for spatially resolved measurements where an addit...

  8. A measurement of the tau Michel parameters at SLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, James A. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the tau Michel parameters. This measurement utilizes the highly polarized SLC electron beam to extract these quantities directly from the measured tau decay spectra using the 1993--95 SLD sample of 4,528 tau pair events. The results are ρe = 0.71 ± 0.14 ± 0.05, ζe = 1.16 ± 0.52 ± 0.06, and (ζδ)e = 0.85 ± 0.43 ± 0.08 for tau decays to electrons and ρμ = 0.54 ± 0.28 μ 0.14, ημ = -0.59 ± 0.82 ± 0.45, ζsup>μ = 0.75 ± 0.50 ± 0.14, and (ζδ)μ = 0.82 ± 0.32 ± 0.07 for tau decays to muons. Combining all leptonic tau decays gives ρ = 0.72 ± 0.09 ± 0.03, ζ = 1.05 ± 0.35 ± 0.04, and ζδ = 0.88 ± 0.27 ± 0.04. These results agree well with the current world average and the Standard Model.

  9. Performance Testing of Suspension Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings Produced with Varied Suspension Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Curry

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Suspension plasma spraying has become an emerging technology for the production of thermal barrier coatings for the gas turbine industry. Presently, though commercial systems for coating production are available, coatings remain in the development stage. Suitable suspension parameters for coating production remain an outstanding question and the influence of suspension properties on the final coatings is not well known. For this study, a number of suspensions were produced with varied solid loadings, powder size distributions and solvents. Suspensions were sprayed onto superalloy substrates coated with high velocity air fuel (HVAF -sprayed bond coats. Plasma spray parameters were selected to generate columnar structures based on previous experiments and were maintained at constant to discover the influence of the suspension behavior on coating microstructures. Testing of the produced thermal barrier coating (TBC systems has included thermal cyclic fatigue testing and thermal conductivity analysis. Pore size distribution has been characterized by mercury infiltration porosimetry. Results show a strong influence of suspension viscosity and surface tension on the microstructure of the produced coatings.

  10. Magnetopause Reconnection Impact Parameters from Multiple Spacecraft Magnetic Field Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Deirdre E.; Reiff, Patricia H.

    2009-01-01

    We present a novel technique that exploits multiple spacecraft data to determine the impact parameters of the most general form of magnetic reconnection at the magnetopause. The method consists of a superposed epoch of multiple spacecraft magnetometer measurements that yields the instantaneous magnetic spatial gradients near a magnetopause reconnection site. The gradients establish the instantaneous positions of the spacecraft relative to the reconnection site. The analysis is well suited to evaluating the spatial scales of singular field line reconnection, which is characterized by a two-dimensional x-type topology adjacent and perpendicular to a reconnecting singular field line. Application of the method to Cluster data known to lie in the vicinity of a northward IMF reconnection site establishes a field topology consistent with singular field line reconnection and a normal magnetic field component of 20 nT. The corresponding current structure consists of a 130 km sheet possibly embedding a thinner. bifurcated sheet.

  11. Beta Beams for Precision Measurements of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Wildner, E; Hansen, C; De Melo Mendonca, T; Stora, T; Damjanovic, S; Payet, J; Chancé, A; Zorin, V; Izotov, I; Rasin, S; Sidorov, A; Skalyga, V; De Angelis, G; Prete, G; Cinausero, M; Kravchuk, V; Gramegna, F; Marchi, T; Collazuol, G; Mezzetto, M; Delbar, T; Loiselet, M; Keutgen, T; Mitrofanov, S; Burt, G; Dexter, A; Lamy, T; Latrasse, L; Marie-Jeanne, M; Sortais, P; Thuillier, T; Debray, F; Trophime, C; Hass, M; Hirsh, T; Berkovits, D; Stahl, A; Vardaci, E; Di Nitto, A; Brondi, A; La Rana, G; Moro, R; De Rosa, G; Palladino, V

    2012-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations have implications for the Standard Model of particle physics. The CERN Beta Beam has outstanding capabilities to contribute to precision measurements of the parameters governing neutrino oscillations. The FP7 collaboration EUROnu (2008-2012) is a design study that will review three facilities (Super-Beams, Beta Beams and Neutrino Factories) and perform a cost assessment that, coupled with the physics performance, will give means to the European research authorities to make decisions on future European neutrino oscillation facilities. ”Beta Beams” produce collimated pure electron (anti)neutrinos by accelerating beta active ions to high energies and having them decay in a storage ring. Using existing machines and infrastructure is an advantage for the cost evaluation; however, this choice is also constraining the Beta Beams. Recent work to make the Beta Beam facility a solid option will be described: production of Beta Beam isotopes, the 60 GHz pulsed ECR source development, integratio...

  12. An optimised method for calculating the O+-O collision parameter from aeronomical measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Aruliah

    Full Text Available A study has been made of the interaction between the thermosphere and the ionosphere at high latitudes, with particular regard to the value of the O+-O collision parameter. The European incoherent scatter radar (EISCAT was used to make tristatic measurements of plasma parameters at F-region altitudes while simultaneous measurements of the neutral wind were made by a Fabry-Perot interferometer (FPI. The radar data were used to derive the meridional neutral winds in a way similar to that used by previous authors. The accuracy of this technique at high latitudes is reduced by the dynamic nature of the auroral ionosphere and the presence of significant vertical winds. The derived winds were compared with the meridional winds measured by the FPI. For each night, the value of the O+-O collision parameter which produced the best agreement between the two data sets was found. The precision of the collision frequency found in this way depends on the accuracy of the data. The statistical method was critically examined in an attempt to account for the variability in the data sets. This study revealed that systematic errors in the data, if unaccounted for by the analysis, have a tendency to increase the value of the derived collision frequency. Previous analyses did not weight each data set in order to account for the quality of the data; an improved method of analysis is suggested.

  13. [Measurement and analysis of anatomical parameter values in tree shrews].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Rong-Ping; Li, Jin-Tao; He, Bao-Li; Zhen, Hong; Wang, Li-Mei; Jiao, Jian-Lin

    2013-04-01

    Anatomical parameter values in tree shrews are major biological characteristic indicators in laboratory animals. Body size, bones and mammilla, organ weights, coefficient intestinal canal and other anatomical data were measured and analyzed in laboratory domesticated tree shrews (7 to 9 months of age). Measurement of 31 anatomical parameters showed that body height, width of the right ear, ileum and colon had significant differences between males and females (P<0.05). Highly significant differences were also found in body slanting length, chest depth, torso length, left and right forelimb length, right hind limb length, left and right ear length, left ear width, keel bone length, left and right tibia length, duodenum and jejunum (P<0.01). With body length as the dependent variable, and tail length, torso length, right and left forelimb length, and left and right hind limb length as independent variables for stepwise regression analysis, the regression equation for body length = 13.90 + tail length × 0.16. The results of 37 organs weights between female and male tree shrews showed very significant differences (P<0.01) for weight of heart, lungs, spleen, left and right kidney, bladder, left and right hippocampus, left submandibular gland, and left and right thyroid gland, as well as significant (P<0.05) differences in the small intestine, right submandibular gland, and left adrenal gland. The coefficient of heart, lung, stomach, bladder, small and large intestine, brain, right hippocampus, and left adrenal gland showed highly significant differences (P<0.01), while differences in the right kidney, left hippocampus, left submandibular gland, right adrenal gland, and left and right thyroid gland were significant (P<0.05). With animal weight as the dependent variable and indicators of heart, lung, liver, spleen, left and right kidney and brain as independent variables for stepwise regression analysis, the regression equation showed that weight = 62.73 + left kidney

  14. Comparisons of Simulated and Observed Stormtime Magnetic Intensities and Ion Plasma Parameters in the Ring Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M. W.; Guild, T. B.; Lemon, C.; Roeder, J. L.; Le, G.; Schulz, M.

    2009-12-01

    Recent progress in ring current and plasma sheet modeling has shown the importance of a self-consistent treatment of particle transport and magnetic and electric fields in the inner magnetosphere. Models with and without self-consistency can lead to significantly different magnitudes and spatial distributions of plasma pressure and magnetic intensity during disturbed times. In this study we compare simulated and observed stormtime magnetic intensities (GOES and Polar/MFE) and ion densities (LANL/MPA and Polar/CAMMICE) to test how well self-consistent simulations can simultaneously reproduce these quantities. We simulate the ring current and plasma sheet for conditions corresponding to the 11 August 2000 storm using the self-consistent Rice Convection Model-Equilibrium (RCM-E) [Lemon et al., JGR, 2004] with a constant magnetopause location. Using the empirical IMF-dependent model of Tsyganenko and Mukai [JGR, 2003], we specify the plasma sheet pressure and density at 10 RE as the plasma boundary location in the RCM-E. The simulated ion densities at different magnetic local times agree fairly well with those from the re-analysis model of LANL/MPA densities of O’Brien and Lemon [Space Weather, 2007]. We compare the simulated magnetic intensity with the magnetic intensity measured by magnetometers on the GOES satellites at geosynchronous altitude (6.6 RE) and on the Polar satellite. Agreement between the simulated and observed magnetic intensities tends to agree better on the nightside than on the dayside in the inner magnetosphere. In particular, the model cannot account for observed drops in the dayside magnetic intensity during decreases in the solar wind pressure. We will modify the RCM-E to include a time-varying magnetopause location to simulate compressions and expansions associated with variations in the solar wind pressure. We investigate whether this will lead to improved agreement between the simulated and model magnetic intensities.

  15. Measurement of the Electron-Ion Temperature Relaxation Rate in a Dense Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taccetti, J. M.; Shurter, R. P.; Goodwin, P. M.; Benage, J. F., Jr.

    2008-11-01

    Current theoretical approaches to temperature relaxation, which can be categorized as binary-collision and many-body approaches, disagree. Existing experimental evidence infers a lower relaxation rate compared to the binary-collision approach, but is insufficient to determine which approach is correct. We present the most recent results from an experiment aimed at obtaining the temperature relaxation rate between ions and electrons in a dense, strongly coupled plasma by directly measuring the temperature of each component. The plasma is formed by heating a gas jet with a 10 ps laser pulse. The electrons are preferentially heated by the short pulse laser (Te 100 eV), while the ions, after undergoing very rapid (sub-ps time-scale) disorder-induced heating, should only reach a temperature of 10-15 eV. This results in a strongly coupled ion plasma with an ion-ion coupling parameter γii 3-5. We plan to measure the electron and ion temperatures of the resulting plasma independently during and after heating, using collective Thomson scattering for electrons and a high-resolution x-ray spectrometer for the ions (measuring Doppler-broadened absorption lines).

  16. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E.; Cooper, J.; Hartle, R.; Lipatov, A.; Mahaffy, P.; Paterson, W.; Paschalidis, N.; Coplan, M.; Cassidy, T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphasis to Europa and Ganymede, respectively. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter's magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA's Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter's magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4n surface composition to trace elemental [1] and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa's sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa's or Ganymede's surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA's Astrobiology Instrument Development Program, would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged.

  17. GeV electron acceleration by a Gaussian field laser with effect of beam width parameter in magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghotra, Harjit Singh; Kant, Niti

    2017-01-01

    Electron acceleration due to a circularly polarized (CP) Gaussian laser field has been investigated theoretically in magnetized plasma. A Gaussian laser beam possesses trapping forces on electrons during its propagation through plasma. A single particle simulation indicates a resonant enhancement of electron acceleration with a Gaussian laser beam. The plasma is magnetized with an axial magnetic field in same direction as that of laser beam propagation. The dependence of laser beam width parameter on electron energy gain with propagation distance has been presented graphically for different values of laser intensity. Electron energy gain is relatively high where the laser beam parameter is at its minimum value. Enhanced energy gain of the order of GeV is reported with magnetic field under 20 MG in plasma. It is also seen that the axial magnetic field maintains the electron acceleration for large propagation distance even with an increasing beam width parameter.

  18. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and Ganymede

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, E. C.; Cooper, J. F.; Hartle, R. E.; Paterson, W. R.; Lipatov, A. S.; Paschalidis, N. P.; Coplan, M. A.; Cassidy, T. A.

    2010-12-01

    NASA and ESA are planning the joint Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) to the Jupiter system with specific emphases on Europa and Ganymede from these respective space agencies. The Japanese Space Agency is also planning an orbiter mission to explore Jupiter’s magnetosphere and the Galilean satellites. For NASA’s Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) we are developing the 3D Ion Mass Spectrometer (IMS) with two main goals which can also be applied to the other Galilean moons, 1) measure the plasma interaction between Europa and Jupiter’s magnetosphere and 2) infer the 4π surface composition to trace elemental and significant isotopic levels. The first goal supports the magnetometer (MAG) measurements, primarily directed at detection of Europa’s sub-surface ocean, while the second gives information about transfer of material between the Galilean moons, and between the moon surfaces and subsurface layers putatively including oceans. The measurement of the interactions for all the Galilean moons can be used to trace the in situ ion measurements of pickup ions back to either Europa’s or Ganymede’s surface from the respectively orbiting spacecraft. The IMS instrument, being developed under NASA’s Astrobiology Instrument Development Program (ASTID), would maximally achieve plasma measurement requirements for JEO and EJSM while moving forward our knowledge of Jupiter system composition and source processes to far higher levels than previously envisaged. The ASTID-supported IMS, applicable to the NASA spacecraft, is designed to operate in a high radiation environment with minor and trace ion detection capability. The latter goal is achieved by measuring pickup ions at spacecraft altitudes and using a 3D hybrid model of the interaction in order to construct 3D global model of the electric and magnetic fields around these bodies. The pickup ion trajectories can then be traced back down to the surface. In the case of Europa we also show that Europa’s ionosphere is

  19. A measurement of the Michel parameter {rho} in muon decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mischke, R.E.; Amann, J.F.; Bolton, R.D. [and others

    1994-07-01

    An improved measurement of the Michel parameter {rho} in normal muon decay has been made using the MEGA positron spectrometer. Muons were stopped in the center of a large solenoid (1.5 T nominal field) and the momenta of positrons with energies over about 35 MeV were measured with a precision of about 0.6 MeV/c FWHM. There over 15 million events in each spectrum taken for three operating configurations. The previous result has a precision of {delta}{rho}/{rho} = 0.003 based on a sample of about 1 million events in the positron energy spectrum. The present experiment expects to improve the precision by a factor of three to six, depending on the level of systematic uncertainties. The improved result is a precise test of the standard model of electroweak interactions for a purely leptonic process. It also provides a better constraint on the mixing angle in a left-right symmetric extension to the standard model.

  20. Material measurement method based on femtosecond laser plasma shock wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Dong; Li, Zhongming

    2017-03-01

    The acoustic emission signal of laser plasma shock wave, which comes into being when femtosecond laser ablates pure Cu, Fe, and Al target material, has been detected by using the fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) acoustic emission sensing probe. The spectrum characters of the acoustic emission signals for three kinds of materials have been analyzed and studied by using Fourier transform. The results show that the frequencies of the acoustic emission signals detected from the three kinds of materials are different. Meanwhile, the frequencies are almost identical for the same materials under different ablation energies and detection ranges. Certainly, the amplitudes of the spectral character of the three materials show a fixed pattern. The experimental results and methods suggest a potential application of the plasma shock wave on-line measurement based on the femtosecond laser ablating target by using the fiber F-P acoustic emission sensor probe.

  1. Keratoconus diagnosis using Corvis ST measured biomechanical parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roghiyeh Elham

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: The A1T seems a valuable parameter in the diagnosis of keratoconic eyes. It showed excellent diagnostic ability even when controlled for CCT. None of the parameters were reliable index for keratoconus staging.

  2. A cartridge based sensor array platform for multiple coagulation measurements from plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, O; Ermek, E; Kilinc, N; Bulut, S; Baris, I; Kavakli, I H; Yaralioglu, G G; Urey, Hakan

    2015-01-07

    This paper proposes a MEMS-based sensor array enabling multiple clot-time tests for plasma in one disposable microfluidic cartridge. The versatile LoC (Lab-on-Chip) platform technology is demonstrated here for real-time coagulation tests (activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (aPTT) and Prothrombin Time (PT)). The system has a reader unit and a disposable cartridge. The reader has no electrical connections to the cartridge. This enables simple and low-cost cartridge designs and avoids reliability problems associated with electrical connections. The cartridge consists of microfluidic channels and MEMS microcantilevers placed in each channel. The microcantilevers are made of electroplated nickel. They are actuated remotely using an external electro-coil and the read-out is also conducted remotely using a laser. The phase difference between the cantilever oscillation and the coil drive is monitored in real time. During coagulation, the viscosity of the blood plasma increases resulting in a change in the phase read-out. The proposed assay was tested on human and control plasma samples for PT and aPTT measurements. PT and aPTT measurements from control plasma samples are comparable with the manufacturer's datasheet and the commercial reference device. The measurement system has an overall 7.28% and 6.33% CV for PT and aPTT, respectively. For further implementation, the microfluidic channels of the cartridge were functionalized for PT and aPTT tests by drying specific reagents in each channel. Since simultaneous PT and aPTT measurements are needed in order to properly evaluate the coagulation system, one of the most prominent features of the proposed assay is enabling parallel measurement of different coagulation parameters. Additionally, the design of the cartridge and the read-out system as well as the obtained reproducible results with 10 μl of the plasma samples suggest an opportunity for a possible point-of-care application.

  3. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical–chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) may affect various physiological parameters in birds including blood chemistry. We therefore examined blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters and OHCs in golden eagle, white-tailed eagle and goshawk chicks from Northern Norway. Correlation analyses on pooled da...

  4. Prediction of Betavoltaic Battery Output Parameters Based on SEM Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.B. Yakimov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach for the prediction of betavoltaic battery output parameters based on EBIC investigations of semiconductor converters of beta-radiation energy into electric power is presented. Using this approach the parameters of battery based on porous Si are calculated. These parameters are compared with those of battery based on a planar Si p-n junction.

  5. Relation of Plasma Uric Acid Levels and the Lipid Parameters in Han and Uygur Ethnicity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yuping; Yao Hua; Yao Wenhai; Li Qing; You Lan; Wang Qiuyun; Jiang Yan

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Hyperuricemia is a common finding in hypertension and hyperlipidemia,they are all correlated to cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to find the relationship of uric acid and plasma lipid parameters of Han and Uygur ethnicity in Xinjiang. Methods This cross-sectional health examination survey was based on a population random sample from the Urumchi, It included 1166 subjects aged from 20 to 70 years. Serum biochemical testing by Automatic Analyzer (HITACHI 7600-010).Results The uric acid in Han was higher than in Uygur(P< 0.05), men were higher than women in two ethnicities; For lipid parameters men were higher than women, in TG and HDL women were higher than in men in two ethnicity (P < 0.05). Serum uric acid was strongly related to serum triglycerides in Han as well as Uygur ethnicity ( P < 0.001); Compared with the normal group, UA, TG, CHOL, VLDL had ascending trend and HDL had descending trend (P <0.05 ) among groups in Han and Uygur ethnicity,especially Hyperuricemia-hypertriglyceridemia group,uric acid and most some lipid parameters was higher than Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia group,The prevalence of different groups in Han and Urgur was significantly different (P < 0.05). Conclusions This study shows that the UA and some lipid parameters are different in Han and Uygur ethnicity and show sexual difference; serum uric acid is markedly related to serum triglycerides; Hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia show cooperated effect in uric acid and most lipid parameters. Considering the growing incidence of the potential link between hyperuricemia/hypertriglyceridemia and cardiovascular diseases, more emphasis should be put on the evolving prevalence of hyperuricemia and hypertriglyceridemia in Xinjiang.

  6. Measurement of plasma hydrogen sulfide in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xinggui; Pattillo, Christopher B; Pardue, Sibile; Bir, Shyamal C; Wang, Rui; Kevil, Christopher G

    2011-05-01

    The gasotransmitter hydrogen sulfide is known to regulate multiple cellular functions during normal and pathophysiological states. However, a paucity of concise information exists regarding quantitative amounts of hydrogen sulfide involved in physiological and pathological responses. This is primarily due to disagreement among various methods employed to measure free hydrogen sulfide. In this article, we describe a very sensitive method of measuring the presence of H₂S in plasma down to nanomolar levels, using monobromobimane (MBB). The current standard assay using methylene blue provides erroneous results that do not actually measure H₂S. The method presented herein involves derivatization of sulfide with excess MBB in 100 mM Tris-HCl buffer (pH 9.5, 0.1 mM DTPA) for 30 min in 1% oxygen at room temperature. The fluorescent product sulfide-dibimane (SDB) is analyzed by RP-HPLC using an eclipse XDB-C18 (4.6 × 250 mm) column with gradient elution by 0.1% (v/v) trifluoroacetic acid in acetonitrile. The limit of detection for sulfide-dibimane is 2 nM and the SDB product is very stable over time, allowing batch storage and analysis. In summary, our MBB method is suitable for sensitive quantitative measurement of free hydrogen sulfide in multiple biological samples such as plasma, tissue and cell culture lysates, or media.

  7. Direct measurement of the plasma loss width in an optimized, high ionization fraction, magnetic multi-dipole ring cusp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, C. M.; Weisberg, D. B.; Khalzov, I.; Milhone, J.; Flanagan, K.; Peterson, E.; Wahl, C.; Forest, C. B.

    2016-10-01

    The loss width of plasma in the WiPAL multi-dipole magnetic ring cusp [Cooper et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 13505 (2014); Forest et al., J. Plasma Phys. 81, 345810501 (2015)] has been directly measured using a novel array of probes embedded in the insulating plasma limiters. The large plasma volume ( ˜10 m3), small loss area associated with strong rare earth permanent magnets ( Bo˜2.23 kG at face), and large heating power ( ≤200 kW) produces a broad range of electron temperatures ( 2 magnetic fields, differs from previous devices: the cusp loss width is much larger than the Debye length and electron gyroradius and comparable to the collision length. Plasma parameters measured at the surface of ceramic limiter tiles covering the magnets and along radial chords in the cusp magnetic field indicate that electron density and temperature are nearly constant on magnetic field lines and that the mirror forces play little role in confining the plasma other than to constrict the loss area. Particle balance modeling is used to determine the cross field diffusion coefficient base on the measured losses to the limiters. The experimentally determined cross field diffusion coefficient (which determines the cusp loss width) is consistent with ambipolar diffusion across five orders of magnitude. The ambipolar diffusion across a given field line is set primarily by the electron-neutral collisions in the region where the magnetic field is the weakest, even though these plasmas can have ionization fractions near 1.

  8. A Network of Small Spacecraft for Multipoint Measurement of Auroral Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, T. Maximillian; Lynch, Kristina; Clayton, Robert; Hampton, Donald

    2016-10-01

    Measurement of ionospheric plasma is often performed by a single in-situ device, or remotely using cameras and radar. This constrains determination of small scale variation in plasma structure to somewhat restrictive assumptions. We have developed and tested a local, multipoint measurement system composed of a network of small spacecraft which are ejected from a main payload carried by sounding rocket. The low-resource, spin-stabilized projectiles radio measurements to the main payload for transmission to ground. Measurements from an onboard LED array and IMU are used to determine the separation of the devices from the main payload and orientation relative to the geomagnetic field. The primary measurements are made by two orthogonal retarding potential analyzers on each spacecraft, allowing for determination of local ion parameters. A test flight in October 2015 demonstrated the successful application of this system, as well as revealing several important design issues. This work is in preparation for the February 2017 ISINGLASS sounding rocket mission to study the gradient scale lengths in auroral plasma, involving the deployment of two of these spacecraft networks. Supported by NASA Grants NNX14AH07G and NNX15AK51A.

  9. Measurements of conductivity nonuniformities and fluctuations in combustion MHD plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalik, R. M.

    1980-03-01

    Diagnostics for the characterization of electrical conductivity nonuniformities in combustion magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasmas were developed. An initial characterization of nonuniformities in the Stanford M-2 linear generator was obtained and recommendations were made concerning the use of the diagnostics in practical MHD generator configurations. A laser induced fluorescene (LIF) diagnostic for nonintrusive measurements of local conductivity fluctuations was developed. This diagnostic and other line of sight averaged optical nonuniformity diagnostics were successfully demonstrated in several experiments in the Standford M-2 combustion systems. Results were used to characterize the nonuniformities in the M-2 system and to compare and evaluate the diagnostics. Conductivity nonuniformities were found to be predominantly streamers which had relatively long length scales of the order of l m in the axial flow direction. Shortet transverse length scales of the order of 0.1 m were found perpendicular to the flow direction. A combination of LIF and plasma luminosity diagnostics is recommended for future characterizations of conductivity uniformities in combustion MHD plasmas.

  10. Flowing dusty plasma experiments: generation of flow and measurement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, S.; Bandyopadhyay, P.; Sen, A.

    2016-12-01

    A variety of experimental techniques for the generation of subsonic/supersonic dust fluid flows and means of measuring such flow velocities are presented. The experiments have been carried out in a \\Pi -shaped dusty plasma experimental device with micron size kaolin/melamine formaldehyde particles embedded in a background of argon plasma created by a direct current glow discharge. A stationary dust cloud is formed over the cathode region by precisely balancing the pumping speed and gas flow rate. A flow of dust particles/fluid is generated by additional gas injection from a single or dual locations or by altering the dust confining potential. The flow velocity is then estimated by three different techniques, namely, by super particle identification code, particle image velocimetry analysis and the excitation of dust acoustic waves. The results obtained from these three different techniques along with their merits and demerits are discussed. An estimation of the neutral drag force responsible for the generation as well as the attenuation of the dust fluid flow is made. These techniques can be usefully employed in laboratory devices to investigate linear and non-linear collective excitations in a flowing dusty plasma.

  11. Diagnostic techniques for measuring suprathermal electron dynamics in plasmas (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coda, S

    2008-10-01

    Plasmas, both in the laboratory and in space, are often not in thermodynamic equilibrium, and the plasma electron distribution function is accordingly non-Maxwellian. Suprathermal electron tails can be generated by external drives, such as rf waves and electric fields, or internal ones, such as instabilities and magnetic reconnection. The variety and importance of the phenomena in which suprathermal electrons play a significant role explains an enduring interest in diagnostic techniques to investigate their properties and dynamics. X-ray bremsstrahlung emission has been studied in hot magnetized plasmas for well over two decades, flanked progressively by electron-cyclotron emission in geometries favoring the high-energy end of the distribution function (high-field-side, vertical, oblique emission), by electron-cyclotron absorption, by spectroscopic techniques, and at lower temperatures, by Langmuir probes and electrostatic analyzers. Continuous progress in detector technology and in measurement and analysis techniques, increasingly sophisticated layouts (multichannel and tomographic systems, imaging geometries), and highly controlled suprathermal generation methods (e.g., perturbative rf modulation) have all been brought to bear in recent years on an increasingly detailed, although far from complete, understanding of suprathermal electron dynamics.

  12. Feed gas humidity: a vital parameter affecting a cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jet and plasma-treated human skin cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J.; Wende, K.; Masur, K.; Iseni, S.; Dünnbier, M.; Hammer, M. U.; Tresp, H.; Weltmann, K.-D.; Reuter, S.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the effect of feed gas humidity on the reactive component generation of an atmospheric-pressure argon plasma jet and its effect on human skin cells are investigated. Feed gas humidity is identified as one key parameter that strongly influences stability and reproducibility of plasma medical studies. The plasma jet is investigated by absorption spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and infrared spectral region for its ozone production depending on the humidity concentration in the feed gas. By optical emission spectroscopy the dependence of present excited plasma species such as hydroxyl radicals, molecular nitrogen, argon and atomic oxygen on the feed gas humidity is investigated. As an interface layer between the plasma jet effluent and the biological cell, a buffer solution is treated and the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production is studied with two independent colorimetric assays as a function of humidity admixture to the feed gas. Ultimately, the effect of varying feed gas humidity on the cell viability of indirect plasma treated adherent HaCAT cells is investigated. The highest viability is found for the driest feed gas condition. Furthermore, this work shows answers for the relevance of unwanted—or intended—feed gas humidity in plasma medical experiments and their comparatively large relevance with respect to ambient humidity. The findings will lead to more reproducible experiments in the field of plasma medicine.

  13. On bias of kinetic temperature measurements in complex plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantor, M.; Moseev, D.; Salewski, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    The kinetic temperature in complex plasmas is often measured using particle tracking velocimetry. Here, we introduce a criterion which minimizes the probability of faulty tracking of particles with normally distributed random displacements in consecutive frames. Faulty particle tracking results...... in a measurement bias of the deduced velocity distribution function and hence the deduced kinetic temperature. For particles with a normal velocity distribution function, mistracking biases the obtained velocity distribution function towards small velocities at the expense of large velocities, i.e., the inferred...... velocity distribution is more peaked and its tail is less pronounced. The kinetic temperature is therefore systematically underestimated in measurements. We give a prescription to mitigate this type of error....

  14. Boom accomodation effects on plasma and field measurements with RPWI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes Correa, P.; Eriksson, A. I.; Wahlund, J.-E.; Odelstad, E.; Vaivads, A.; Bergman, J.

    2013-09-01

    While the JUICE spacecraft configuration and main contractor are yet to be decided, it is still possible to investigate general issues on the impact of various boom accomodation alternatives for measurements of plasma and electric fields using the Langmuir probe system of the Radio and Plasma Waves Investigation. These probes can be used as classical Langmuir probes, as electric field probes, or for mutual impedance measurements, and the impact of e.g. varying illumination and wake interference are different for each type of measurement. While there is a nominal JUICE trajectory for the main science mission, we have to do assumptions on the spacecraft pointing, e.g. nadir pointing during flybys of the various moons. The detailed spacecraft layout is not known, but we can arrive at general conclusions on the suitability of various boom accomodations by assuming a cube-like spacecraft with solar panels as rectangular wings. For disturbing structures like wakes and photoelectron clouds we use simple models based on previous simulations. Even though the detailed pointing and spacecraft design will quite certainly deviate from our assumptions, and the model has uncertainties also in other respects, we can still give some general conclusions on boom accomodation alternatives.

  15. Measurement of the dynamo effect in a plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, H. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Plasma Physics Lab.; Prager, S.C.; Almagri, A.F.; Sarff, J.S. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Hirano, Y. [Electrotechnical Lab., Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Plasma Section; Toyama, H. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    1995-11-01

    A series of the detailed experiments has been conducted in three laboratory plasma devices to measure the dynamo electric field along the equilibrium field line (the {alpha} effect) arising from the correlation between the fluctuating flow velocity and magnetic field. The fluctuating flow velocity is obtained from probe measurement of the fluctuating E x B drift and electron diamagnetic drift. The three major findings are (1) the {alpha} effect accounts for the dynamo current generation, even in the time dependence through a ``sawtooth`` cycle; (2) at low collisionality the dynamo is explained primarily by the widely studied pressureless Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model, i.e., the fluctuating velocity is dominated by the E x B drift; (3) at high collisionality, a new ``electron diamagnetic dynamo`` is observed, in which the fluctuating velocity is dominated by the diamagnetic drift. In addition, direct measurements of the helicity flux indicate that the dynamo activity transports magnetic helicity from one part of the plasma to another, but the total helicity is roughly conserved, verifying J.B. Taylor`s conjecture.

  16. Measurement of plasma-surface energy fluxes in an argon rf-discharge by means of calorimetric probes and fluorescent microparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, H. R.; Hannemann, M.; Basner, R.; Kersten, H.

    2010-11-01

    Measured energy influx densities toward a tungsten dummy substrate in an argon rf-plasma are presented and a model for the description of the energy influx density based on plasma parameters, which have been obtained by Langmuir probe measurements, is applied. Furthermore, temperature measurements of microparticles are presented, which are confined in the plasma sheath. An extension of the model is developed for the description of the energy influx density to the particles. The comparison of model and experimental results offer the possibility to obtain an improved understanding of plasma-surface interactions.

  17. Precision Measurement of Neutrino Oscillation Parameters with KamLAND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Donnell, Thomas [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-12-01

    This dissertation describes a measurement of the neutrino oscillation parameters m2 21, θ12 and constraints on θ13 based on a study of reactor antineutrinos at a baseline of ~ 180 km with the KamLAND detector. The data presented here was collected between April 2002 and November 2009, and amounts to a total exposure of 2.64 ± 0.07 × 1032 proton-years. For this exposure we expect 2140 ± 74(syst) antineutrino candidates from reactors, assuming standard model neutrino behavior, and 350±88(syst) candidates from background. The number observed is 1614. The ratio of background-subtracted candidates observed to expected is (NObs - NBkg)/ (NExp) = 0.59 ± 0.02(stat) ± 0.045(syst) which confirms reactor neutrino disappearance at greater than 5σ significance. Interpreting this deficit as being due to neutrino oscillation, the best-fit oscillation parameters from a three-flavor analysis are m2 21= 7.60+0.20 -0.19×10-5eV2, θ12 = 32.5 ± 2.9 degrees and sin2 θ13 = 0.025+0.035 -0.035, the 95% confidence-level upper limit on sin2 θ13 is sin2 θ13 < 0.083. Assuming CPT invariance, a combined analysis of KamLAND and solar neutrino data yields best-fit values: m2 21 = 7.60+0.20 -0.20 × 10-5eV2, θ12 = 33.5+1.0 -1.1 degrees, and sin2 θ13 = 0.013 ± 0.028 or sin2 θ13 < 0.06 at the 95% confidence level.

  18. Broadband microwave measurement of electron temperature of a large coaxial gridded hollow cathode helium plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Ruilin; Yuan, Chengxun; Jia, Jieshu; Zhou, Zhong-Xiang; Wang, Ying; Wang, Xiaoou; Li, Hui; Wu, Jian

    2016-10-01

    This paper reports a new kind of large coaxial gridded hollow cathode discharge at low pressure in a helium atmosphere. A method is presented to determine the electron temperature by measuring the broadband microwave properties; typically, the frequency band extends from 2 to 12 GHz. The method involves positioning the discharge device between the two antenna ports to measure the scattering parameter using a network analyzer. For a weak ionized plasma, this method is stable over the entire frequency range. A microwave signal loss of 0.27-37.83 dB was measured within the frequency range. Based on the measured attenuation of the microwaves, the electron temperature was estimated to range from 1.6-4.6 eV under different conditions, which showed good agreements with the results of Langmuir Probe measurements.

  19. An automated system for measuring parameters of nematode sinusoidal movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stirbl Robert C

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nematode sinusoidal movement has been used as a phenotype in many studies of C. elegans development, behavior and physiology. A thorough understanding of the ways in which genes control these aspects of biology depends, in part, on the accuracy of phenotypic analysis. While worms that move poorly are relatively easy to describe, description of hyperactive movement and movement modulation presents more of a challenge. An enhanced capability to analyze all the complexities of nematode movement will thus help our understanding of how genes control behavior. Results We have developed a user-friendly system to analyze nematode movement in an automated and quantitative manner. In this system nematodes are automatically recognized and a computer-controlled microscope stage ensures that the nematode is kept within the camera field of view while video images from the camera are stored on videotape. In a second step, the images from the videotapes are processed to recognize the worm and to extract its changing position and posture over time. From this information, a variety of movement parameters are calculated. These parameters include the velocity of the worm's centroid, the velocity of the worm along its track, the extent and frequency of body bending, the amplitude and wavelength of the sinusoidal movement, and the propagation of the contraction wave along the body. The length of the worm is also determined and used to normalize the amplitude and wavelength measurements. To demonstrate the utility of this system, we report here a comparison of movement parameters for a small set of mutants affecting the Go/Gq mediated signaling network that controls acetylcholine release at the neuromuscular junction. The system allows comparison of distinct genotypes that affect movement similarly (activation of Gq-alpha versus loss of Go-alpha function, as well as of different mutant alleles at a single locus (null and dominant negative alleles

  20. Prospects for measuring the fuel ion ratio in burning ITER plasmas using a DT neutron emission spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellesen, C.; Skiba, M.; Dzysiuk, N.; Weiszflog, M.; Hjalmarsson, A.; Ericsson, G.; Conroy, S.; Andersson-Sundén, E.; Eriksson, J.; Binda, F.

    2014-11-01

    The fuel ion ratio nt/nd is an essential parameter for plasma control in fusion reactor relevant applications, since maximum fusion power is attained when equal amounts of tritium (T) and deuterium (D) are present in the plasma, i.e., nt/nd = 1.0. For neutral beam heated plasmas, this parameter can be measured using a single neutron spectrometer, as has been shown for tritium concentrations up to 90%, using data obtained with the MPR (Magnetic Proton Recoil) spectrometer during a DT experimental campaign at the Joint European Torus in 1997. In this paper, we evaluate the demands that a DT spectrometer has to fulfill to be able to determine nt/nd with a relative error below 20%, as is required for such measurements at ITER. The assessment shows that a back-scattering time-of-flight design is a promising concept for spectroscopy of 14 MeV DT emission neutrons.

  1. Ptychographic measurements of ultrahigh-intensity laser-plasma interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, A.; Monchocé, S.; Bourassin-Bouchet, C.; Kahaly, S.; Quéré, F.

    2016-04-01

    The extreme intensities now delivered by femtosecond lasers make it possible to drive and control relativistic motion of charged particles with light, opening a path to compact particle accelerators and coherent X-ray sources. Accurately characterizing the dynamics of ultrahigh-intensity laser-plasma interactions as well as the resulting light and particle emissions is an essential step towards such achievements. This remains a considerable challenge, as the relevant scales typically range from picoseconds to attoseconds in time, and from micrometres to nanometres in space. In these experiments, owing to the extreme prevalent physical conditions, measurements can be performed only at macroscopic distances from the targets, yielding only partial information at these microscopic scales. This letter presents a major advance by applying the concepts of ptychography to such measurements, and thus retrieving microscopic information hardly accessible until now. This paves the way to a general approach for the metrology of extreme laser-plasma interactions on very small spatial and temporal scales.

  2. Analytical estimation of particle shape formation parameters in a plasma-chemical reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhukov Ilya A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical estimation of particle shape formation parameters in a plasma-chemical reactor implementing the process of thermochemical decomposition of liquid droplet agents (precursors in the flow of a high-temperature gaseous heat-transfer medium was obtained. The basic factor which determines the process is the increase of concentration of a dissolved salt precursor component at the surface of a liquid particle due to solvent evaporation. According to the physical concept of the method of integral balance the diffusion process of concentration change is divided into two stages: the first stage is when the size of gradient layer does not reach the center of a spherical droplet and the second stage when the concentration at the center of a liquid droplet begins to change. The solutions for concentration fields were found for each stage using the method of integral balance taking into account the formation of salt precipitate when the concentration at the surface of the droplet reaches certain equilibrium value. The results of estimation of the influence of various reactor operation parameters and characteristics of initial solution (precursor on the morphology of particles formed – mass fraction and localization of salt precipitate for various levels of evaporation.

  3. Effect of plasma parameters on characteristics of silicon nitride film deposited by single and dual frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, B. B.; Yin, Yongyi; Han, Jeon G.

    2016-03-01

    This work investigates the deposition of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride films using various low-temperature plasmas. Utilizing radio-frequency (RF, 13.56 MHz) and ultra-high frequency (UHF, 320 MHz) powers, different plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition processes are conducted in the mixture of reactive N2/NH3/SiH4 gases. The processes are extensively characterized using different plasma diagnostic tools to study their plasma and radical generation capabilities. A typical transition of the electron energy distribution function from single- to bi-Maxwellian type is achieved by combining RF and ultra-high powers. Data analysis revealed that the RF/UHF dual frequency power enhances the plasma surface heating and produces hot electron population with relatively low electron temperature and high plasma density. Using various film analysis methods, we have investigated the role of plasma parameters on the compositional, structural, and optical properties of the deposited films to optimize the process conditions. The presented results show that the dual frequency power is effective for enhancing dissociation and ionization of neutrals, which in turn helps in enabling high deposition rate and improving film properties.

  4. Measurements of the asymmetric, dynamic sheath around a pulse biased sphere immersed in flowing metal plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anders, Andre; Wu, Hongchen; Anders, Andre

    2008-06-13

    A long-probe technique was utilized to record the expansion and retreat of the dynamic sheath around a spherical substrate immersed in pulsed cathode arc metal plasma. Positively biased, long cylindrical probes were placed on the side and downstream of a negatively pulsed biased stainless steel sphere of 1" (25.4 mm) diameter. The amplitude and width of the negative high voltage pulses (HVP) were 2 kV, 5 kV, 10 kV, and 2 mu s, 4 mu s, 10 mu s, respectively. The variation of the probe (electron) current during the HVP is a direct measure for the sheath expansion and retreat. Maximum sheath sizes were determined for the different parameters of the HVP. The expected rarefaction zone behind the biased sphere (wake) due to the fast plasma flow was clearly established and quantified.

  5. A study of evolution/suppression parameters of equatorial postsunset plasma instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. S. Oyekola

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Evening equatorial pre-reversal vertical ion E×B drift (VZP and the peak of the ionospheric F2 maximum altitude (hmF2P of the postsunset equatorial F-layer, which are the essential parameters requisite for the generation or inhibition of postsunset bottomside equatorial irregularities were deduced from ionosonde observations made in the Africa region (Ouagadougou: ~3° N dip latitude between January 1987 and December 1990 for solar activity minimum, medium, and maxima (F10.7=85, 141, 214, and 190, respectively for quiet geomagnetic conditions. We investigate variations of evening equatorial pre-reversal drift and the corresponding altitude at four levels of solar activity. Our observations show strong variations with solar variability. Correlation analysis between these parameters indicates that the correlation coefficient value between hmF2P versus VZP decreases considerably with increasing solar flux value. There seems to be no significant link between these parameters under high solar activity, especially for solar intensity F10.7>200 units. We conclude that meridional neutral wind in the F-region contributes substantially to the variations of the pre-reversal vertical plasma drifts enhancement and the peak hmF2, particularly the electrodynamics during twilight high solar flux conditions.

  6. Application of reflectometry power flow for magnetic field pitch angle measurements in tokamak plasmas (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdain, P-A; Peebles, W A

    2008-10-01

    Reflectometry has successfully demonstrated measurements of many important parameters in high temperature tokamak fusion plasmas. However, implementing such capabilities in a high-field, large plasma, such as ITER, will be a significant challenge. In ITER, the ratio of plasma size (meters) to the required reflectometry source wavelength (millimeters) is significantly larger than in existing fusion experiments. This suggests that the flow of the launched reflectometer millimeter-wave power can be realistically analyzed using three-dimensional ray tracing techniques. The analytical and numerical studies presented will highlight the fact that the group velocity (or power flow) of the launched microwaves is dependent on the direction of wave propagation relative to the internal magnetic field. It is shown that this dependence strongly modifies power flow near the cutoff layer in a manner that embeds the local magnetic field direction in the "footprint" of the power returned toward the launch antenna. It will be shown that this can potentially be utilized to locally determine the magnetic field pitch angle at the cutoff location. The resultant beam drift and distortion due to magnetic field and relativistic effects also have significant consequences on the design of reflectometry systems for large, high-field fusion experiments. These effects are discussed in the context of the upcoming ITER burning plasma experiment.

  7. Behavior of Plasma and Field Parameters and their Relationship with Geomagnetic Indices during Intense Geomagnetic Storms of Solar Cycle 23

    CERN Document Server

    Joshi, Navin Chandra; Pande, Seema; Pande, Bimal; Pandey, Kavita

    2010-01-01

    A correlative study between the geomagnetic indices and the peak values of various plasma and field parameters during rising, maximum and decay phases as well as during complete solar cycle 23 have been presented. We have also presented the lag/lead analysis between the maximum of Dst and peak values of plasma and field parameters and found that peak values of lag/lead time lies in the +/-10 hr interval. Three geomagnetic storms (GMSs) and associated solar sources observed during these phases of this solar cycle have also been studied and found that GMSs are associated with large flares and halo CMEs.

  8. Measurement of Water Quality Parameters for Before and After Maintenance Service in Water Filter System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaharudin Nuraida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An adequate supply of safe drinking water is one of major ways to obtain healthy life. Water filter system is one way to improve the water quality. However, to maintain the performance of the system, it need to undergo the maintenance service. This study evaluate the requirement of maintenance service in water filter system. Water quality was measured before and after maintenance service. Parameters measured were pH, turbidity, residual chlorine, nitrate and heavy metals and these parameters were compared with National Drinking Water Quality Standards. Collection of data were involved three housing areas in Johor. The quality of drinking water from water filter system were analysed using pH meter, turbidity meter, DR6000 and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. pH value was increased from 16.4% for before maintenance services to 30.7% for after maintenance service. Increment of removal percentage for turbidity, residual chlorine and nitrate after maintenance were 21.5, 13.6 and 26.7, respectively. This result shows that maintenance service enhance the performance of the system. However, less significant of maintenance service for enhance the removal of heavy metals which the increment of removal percentage in range 0.3 to 9.8. Only aluminium shows percentage removal for after maintenance with 92.8% lower compared to before maintenance service with 95.5%.

  9. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and the Other Galilean Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward; Cooper, John; Hartle, Richard; Lipatov, Alexander; Mahaffy, Paul; Paterson, William; Pachalidis, Nick; Coplan, Mike; Cassidy, Tim

    2010-01-01

    sputtering of the surfaces of Europa and Ganymede has been shown to be representative of the surface composition. Level 2 science on surface geology and composition can then be further enhanced by addition of the following: 3D Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INNS), 3D plasma electron spectrometer (ELS), and hot plasma energetic particle instrument. The measurement approach is to alternate between times measuring pickup ions and times measuring plasma and magnetic field parameters along the spacecraft trajectory. By measuring the pickup ion energy, arrival direction and mass-per-charge, the ion can be traced back along the ejection trajectory to the approximate area of origin if the 3-D electric field and magnetic field are known. In situ observations of plasma flow velocities and vector magnetic fields can be used to determine the local convective electric field (E = -VXB) along the spacecraft trajectory. By combining this information with models of the magnetospheric interaction with Europa, one can generate 3D maps of the electric and magnetic field and compute the trajectories of the pickup ions back to the surface or exospheric points of origin. In the case of Ganymede there is the additional complexity of its own internal dipole magnetic field, while Io's volcanic activity introduces the complexity of a highly structured denser atmosphere. Callisto with its less globally extended exosphere will have a simpler interaction than for Europa (i.e., more like our moon). We will discuss these differences in light of the above proposed technique. Finally, the INNS observations and neutral exosphere models are needed to estimate production rates of pickup ions. The hot plasma measurements are needed to correct for sputtering rates which can be time dependent and electron plasma observations for electron impact ionization rates. Instrument characteristics, field-of-view requirements, modes of operation and effects of radiation on instrument functionality will be discussed.

  10. Higher resolution helium measuring system for deuterium plasma on EAST tokamak via normal Penning gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houyin, Wang; Jiansheng, Hu; Yaowei, Yu; Bin, Cao; Jinhua, Wu; Guoqing, Shen; Zhao, Wan; EAST, Contributors

    2017-01-01

    Although the deuterium and helium have almost the same mass, a Penning Optical Gas Analyzer (POGA) system on the basis of the spectroscopic method and Penning discharging has been designed on EAST, since 2014. The POGA system was developed successfully in 2015, it was the first time that EAST could detect helium partial pressure in deuterium plasma (wall conditioning and plasma operation scenario). With dedicated calibration and proper adjustment of the parameters, the minimum concentration of helium in deuterium gas can be measured as about 0.5% instead of 1% on the other tokamak devices. Moreover, the He and D2 partial pressures are measured simultaneously. At present, the measurable range of deuterium partial pressure is 1 × 10-7 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar, meanwhile the range of helium is 1 × 10-8 mbar to 1 × 10-5 mbar. The measurable range can be modified by means of the adjustment of POGA system’s parameters. It is possible to detect the interesting part of the gas with a time resolution of less than 5 ms (the 200 ms because of conductance of transfer pipe at present). The POGA system was routinely employed to wall conditioning and helium enrichment investigation in 2015. Last but not the least, the low temperature plasma of POGA is generated by normal penning gauge Pfeiffer IKR gauge instead of Alcatel CF2P, which has been suspended for a few years and was used for almost all the POGA systems in the world.

  11. Measurement of effective renal plasma flow in congestive heart failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tauxe, W.N.; Dubovsky, E.V.; Mantle, J.A.; Dustan, H.P.; Logic, J.R.

    1981-12-01

    In the management of patients with congestive heart failure (CHF), it is often desirable to have precise knowledge of overall renal function, including the effective renal plasma flow (ERPF). It has long been recognized that ERPF is diminished in CHF. Since glomerular filtration rate is often decreased to a much lesser extent, other noninvasive procedures such as the measurement of creatinine clearances may not be entirely suitable. ERPF determination by the single plasma sampling (SPS) method affords a rapid, simple, noninvasive, and economical technique that is quite accurate and reproducible. A SPS method has been well-tested in patients following renal transplantation plus a wide variety of nephrological disorders. We have been concerned whether the SPS method would be valid in volume expanded patients. In 28 determinations of ERPF in patients with CHF, and in five patients who did not have CHF, we have found the SPS estimation of ERPF to yield results that are not clinically significantly different from those obtained by the detailed compartmental analysis method. The volumes of /sup 131/I-orthoiodohippurate (OIH) distribution were found to be somewhat higher in CHF than in controls, but fractional rate constants were proportionately lower so that intercompartmental flow rates and OIH concentrations were not different from controls. Therefore, the SPS estimation of ERPF is valid in patients with CHF and may be useful in monitoring the renal effects of various hemodynamic and pharmacological interventions.

  12. Flowing dusty plasma experiments: Generation of flow and measurement techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Jaiswal, S; Sen, A

    2016-01-01

    A variety of experimental techniques for the generation of subsonic/supersonic dust fluid flows and means of measuring such flow velocities are presented. The experiments have been carried out in a $\\Pi-$shaped Dusty Plasma Experimental (DPEx) device with micron size kaolin/Melamine Formaldehyde (MF) particles embedded in a background of Argon plasma created by a direct current (DC) glow discharge. A stationary dust cloud is formed over the cathode region by precisely balancing the pumping speed and gas flow rate. A flow of dust particles/fluid is generated by additional gas injection from a single or dual locations or by altering the dust confining potential. The flow velocity is then estimated by three different techniques, namely, by super Particle Identification (sPIT) code, Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) analysis and the excitation of Dust Acoustic Waves (DAWs). The results obtained from these three different techniques along with their merits and demerits are discussed. An estimation of the neutral dr...

  13. Continuous Emission Spectrum Measurement for Electron Temperature Determination in Low-Temperature Collisional Plasmas%Continuous Emission Spectrum Measurement for Electron Temperature Determination in Low-Temperature Collisional Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秋艳; 李弘; 陈志鹏; 谢锦林; 刘万东

    2011-01-01

    Continuous emission spectrum measurement is applied for the inconvenient diagnos- tics of low-temperature collisional plasmas. According to the physical mechanism of continuous emission, a simplified model is presented to analyze the spectrum in low temperature plasma. The validity of this model is discussed in a wide range of discharge parameters, including electron tem- perature and ionization degree. Through the simplified model, the continuous emission spectrum in a collisional argon internal inductively coupled plasma is experimentally measured to determine the electron temperature distribution for different gas pressures and radio-frequency powers. The inverse Abel transform is also applied for a better spatially resoluted results. Meanwhile, the result of the continuous emission spectrum measurement is compared to that of the electrostatic double probes, which indicates the effectiveness of this method.

  14. Precise Measurement of Solar Neutrino Oscillation Parameters from Recent Experiments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Ping; LIU Qiu-Yu

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the available data of solar neutrino experiments up to the date May 2008,including SK-I,SK-II,SNO phase-I,SNO phase-II and first-generation Ga and C1 experiments.They show great improvement in constraints on solar neutrino oscillation parameters.Together with the new results from long base line reactor experiment KamLAND,the parameters are precisely determined,with la allowed region in △m212 = 7 586+0.212-0.203×10-5 eV2,tan2 θ12=0.457+0.076-0.067

  15. Active Measurement of Mercury's Plasma experiment: a part of the Plasma Wave Investigation consortium aboard the BepiColombo Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotignon, Jean Gabriel; Trotignon, Jean Gabriel; Lagoutte, Dominique; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Kojima, Hiro; Blomberg, Lars; Lebreton, Jean-Pierre

    The Active Measurement of Mercury's Plasma experiment, AM2 P, is designed to measure the thermal electron density and temperature in the environment of planet Mercury from the solar wind down to the inner magnetosphere. Detailed analyses of the returned data should also give more information on the electron distribution function itself. AM2 P as part of the Plasma Wave Investigation consortium, PWI, shall then contribute to the study of the intricate and poorly known interaction between the solar wind and the Mercury's magnetosphere, exosphere, and surface. AM2 P shall indeed give another insight into the thermal coupling between neutral and charged particles, the characterization of the spectral distribution of natural waves, the detection of plasma boundaries, and the identification of the plasma regimes inside the Hermean magnetosphere. The AM2 P basic mode is to measure the self-impedance of the MEFISTO (Mercury Electric Field In Situ TOol) double-sphere antenna in a frequency range comprising the plasma frequency which is expected to lie in the various regions encountered by the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter, MMO. In this mode, different operations are possible, giving complementary plasma parameter information, mainly in the vicinity of the plasma resonance: normal dipole, monopole, and mutual impedance, according to the antenna elements that are used for the transmitting and receiving functions. In the secondary MEFISTO double-wire antenna mode, the external shield of the wire-boom is used as a 2 x 15 m long dipole antenna. As the dependence upon plasma parameters of the double-wire antenna impedance differs significantly from the double-sphere one, both modes may be of great benefit for achieving reliable and complementary plasma diagnoses. This is actually very useful in the Mercury's dilute media. As a bonus, AM2 P will contribute to the onboard calibrations of the WPT wire electric-antenna and the SC-DB and SC-LF search coils (calibration signal

  16. Plasma kynurenine and related measures in tic disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Anderson, George M.; Troost, Pieter W.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Increased plasma kynurenine has been reported in tic disorder patients, and this observation has been suggested to be indicative of immune dysregulation. In the present study, we examined plasma levels of kynurenine and related molecules in a group of tic disorder patients. Methods Plasma

  17. Plasma kynurenine and related measures in tic disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Anderson, George M.; Troost, Pieter W.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective Increased plasma kynurenine has been reported in tic disorder patients, and this observation has been suggested to be indicative of immune dysregulation. In the present study, we examined plasma levels of kynurenine and related molecules in a group of tic disorder patients. Methods Plasma

  18. Plasma kynurenine and related measures in tic disorder patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Anderson, George M.; Troost, Pieter W.; Kallenberg, Cees G. M.; Minderaa, Ruud B.

    Objective Increased plasma kynurenine has been reported in tic disorder patients, and this observation has been suggested to be indicative of immune dysregulation. In the present study, we examined plasma levels of kynurenine and related molecules in a group of tic disorder patients. Methods Plasma

  19. Magnetic Fluctuation Measurement in Sino United Spherical Tokamak Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fei; WANG Wen-Hao; HE Ye-Xi; LIU Jun; TAN Yi; XIE Li-Feng; ZENG Long

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the magnetic fluctuations and for further transport study, the poloidal and radial magnetic field measurement is conducted on the Sino United Spherical Tokamak (SUNIST). Auto-power spectral density indicates that the magnetic fluctuation energy mainly concentrates in the frequency region lower than 10kHz. The magnetic field oscillations, which are characterized by harmonic frequencies of 40 kHz, are observed in the scrapeoff layer; by contrast, in the plasma core, the magnetic fluctuations are of Gaussian type. The time-frequency profiles show that the poloidal magnetic fluctuations are temporally intermittent. The autocorrelation calculation indicates that the fluctuations in decorrelation time vary between the core and the edge.

  20. Effect of basic physical parameters to control plasma meniscus and beam halo formation in negative ion sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, K. [Naruto University of Education, 748 Nakashima, Takashima, Naruto-cho, Naruto-shi, Tokushima 772-8502 (Japan); Okuda, S.; Nishioka, S.; Hatayama, A. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan)

    2013-09-14

    Our previous study shows that the curvature of the plasma meniscus causes the beam halo in the negative ion sources: the negative ions extracted from the periphery of the meniscus are over-focused in the extractor due to the electrostatic lens effect, and consequently become the beam halo. In this article, the detail physics of the plasma meniscus and beam halo formation is investigated with two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation. It is shown that the basic physical parameters such as the H{sup −} extraction voltage and the effective electron confinement time significantly affect the formation of the plasma meniscus and the resultant beam halo since the penetration of electric field for negative ion extraction depends on these physical parameters. Especially, the electron confinement time depends on the characteristic time of electron escape along the magnetic field as well as the characteristic time of electron diffusion across the magnetic field. The plasma meniscus penetrates deeply into the source plasma region when the effective electron confinement time is short. In this case, the curvature of the plasma meniscus becomes large, and consequently the fraction of the beam halo increases.

  1. Genetic Parameters for Fertility Measurements in Holstein Heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lydia Henriette; Sørensen, Anders Christian; Mark, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    Our aim was to investigate whether four fertility traits were different in herds using the activity tag Heatime for reproduction management compared within other herds. The genetic parameters were estimated using animal models. The fertility traits were number of inseminations (NINS), interval fr...

  2. Vega interstage multi-parameter measurements using FBG sensor array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, L.K.; Ahlers, B.

    2006-01-01

    A new generation launcher, called Vega, has undergone its first qualification tests of force loading. Multi-parameter FBG sensor array has been installed on the Interstage 1/2 for temperature monitoring and direct comparison with conventional strain gauges. © 2006 OSA/OFS 2006.

  3. Effect of dietary protein sources on production performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaocui; Zhang, Haijun; Wang, Hao; Wang, Jing; Wu, Shugeng; Qi, Guanghai

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary protein sources (soybean meal, SBM; low-gossypol cottonseed meal, LCSM; double-zero rapeseed meal, DRM) on laying performance, egg quality, and plasma parameters of laying hens. Methods A total of 432 32-wk-old laying hens were randomly divided into 6 treatments with 6 replicates of 12 birds each. The birds were fed diets containing SBM, LCSM100, or DRM100 individually or in combination with an equal amount of crude protein (CP) (LCSM50, DRM50, and LCSM50-DRM50). The experimental diets, which were isocaloric (metabolizable energy, 11.11 MJ/kg) and isonitrogenous (CP, 16.5%), had similar digestible amino acid profile. The feeding trial lasted 12 weeks. Results The daily egg mass was decreased in the LCSM100 and LCSM50-DRM50 groups (p0.05) and showed increased yolk color at the end of the trial (p0.05). Conclusion Together, our results suggest that the LCSM100 or DRM100 diets may produce the adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality after feeding for 8 more weeks. The 100.0 g/kg LCSM diet or the148.7 g/kg DRM diet has no adverse effects on laying performance and egg quality. PMID:27608634

  4. Characteristics and plasma parameters of a short-wavelength low-pressure discharge lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaibov, A. K.; Shevera, I. V.; Malinina, A. A.

    2008-10-01

    We have studied the working optical characteristics and electron kinetic coefficients of a short-wavelength, electric discharge exciplex-halogen UV-VUV lamp employing a mixture of argon and chlorine with a total pressure of P = 0.5 10 kPa. The lamp operates on a system of broadened electron-vibrational bands of ArCl (175 nm) and chlorine (200, 258 nm) molecules, which overlap to form a continuum in the spectral range of 160 260 nm. It is established that the optimum mixtures are those with p(Ar) - p(Cl2) = (2 4)-(0.15 0.30) kPa. The average output power of the short-wavelength radiation is 1 2 W at an efficiency of ˜5%. The electron energy distribution functions (EDFs) and the discharge plasma parameters have been calculated by solving the Boltzmann equation for a gas mixture with the experimentally determined optimum composition in the range of E/ P values from 1 to 200 V/(cm Torr), where E is the electric field strength and P is the total gas pressure. Using the obtained EDFs, the electron transport characteristics, specific discharge power losses for the main elementary processes, and rate constants of electron processes are determined.

  5. Parameter Study of Plasma-Induced Atmospheric Sputtering and Heating at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Hayley N.; Johnson, Robert E.; Leblanc, Francois

    2014-11-01

    Atoms and molecules in Mars’ upper atmosphere are lost predominately through sputtering, caused by the impact of ions into the exosphere, dissociative recombination, and thermal escape. While all three processes are thought to occur on Mars, a detailed understanding must ascertain the relative importance of each process, due to time variations in pick-up and solar wind ions. In this project, using case studies of an oxygen atmosphere modeled with Direct Simulation Monte Carlo techniques, we have endeavored to categorize when the momentum transfer or thermal escape is more likely to occur. To do this, we vary the incident plasma flux and energy based on models of the interaction of the solar wind with the Martian atmosphere. We first repeat the heating and sputtering rates due to a flux of pick-up O+ examined previously (Johnson et al. 2000; Michael and Johnson 2005; Johnson et al 2013). We have used multiple examples of particle fluxes for various solar wind conditions, from steady solar wind conditions (Luhmann et al. 1992; Chaufray et al. 2007) to more extreme cases (Fang et al. 2013; Wang et al. 2014), which are thought to increase escape by several orders of magnitude. The goal is to explore the escape parameter space in preparation for the expected data from MAVEN on hot atoms and molecules in the Martian exosphere.

  6. Towards higher stability of resonant absorption measurements in pulsed plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britun, Nikolay, E-mail: nikolay.britun@umons.ac.be [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Michiels, Matthieu [Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Snyders, Rony [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2015-12-15

    Possible ways to increase the reliability of time-resolved particle density measurements in pulsed gaseous discharges using resonant absorption spectroscopy are proposed. A special synchronization, called “dynamic source triggering,” between a gated detector and two pulsed discharges, one representing the discharge of interest and another being used as a reference source, is developed. An internal digital delay generator in the intensified charge coupled device camera, used at the same time as a detector, is utilized for this purpose. According to the proposed scheme, the light pulses from the reference source follow the gates of detector, passing through the discharge of interest only when necessary. This allows for the utilization of short-pulse plasmas as reference sources, which is critical for time-resolved absorption analysis of strongly emitting pulsed discharges. In addition to dynamic source triggering, the reliability of absorption measurements can be further increased using simultaneous detection of spectra relevant for absorption method, which is also demonstrated in this work. The proposed methods are illustrated by the time-resolved measurements of the metal atom density in a high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge, using either a hollow cathode lamp or another HiPIMS discharge as a pulsed reference source.

  7. Wavefront-sensor-based electron density measurements for laser-plasma accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plateau, Guillaume; Matlis, Nicholas; Geddes, Cameron; Gonsalves, Anthony; Shiraishi, Satomi; Lin, Chen; van Mourik, Reinier; Leemans, Wim

    2010-02-20

    Characterization of the electron density in laser produced plasmas is presented using direct wavefront analysis of a probe laser beam. The performance of a laser-driven plasma-wakefield accelerator depends on the plasma wavelength, hence on the electron density. Density measurements using a conventional folded-wave interferometer and using a commercial wavefront sensor are compared for different regimes of the laser-plasma accelerator. It is shown that direct wavefront measurements agree with interferometric measurements and, because of the robustness of the compact commercial device, have greater phase sensitivity, straightforward analysis, improving shot-to-shot plasma-density diagnostics.

  8. Plasma protein-binding parameters of prednisolone in immune disease patients receiving long-term prednisone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, J G; Wexler, D; Ağabeyoğlu, I T; Bergstrom, R F; Sakmar, E; Kay, D R

    1981-04-01

    Prednisone and prednisolone bind in plasma to albumin and transcortin. In am attempt to determine whether prednisone side effects and/or type of disease correlated with prednisolone plasma protein binding, multiple plasma samples from 17 patients (three asthma, eight SLE, three RA, two PSS, one PAN) receiving long-term prednisone therapy were monitored during an interval between two prednisone doses. Prednisolone plasma protein binding was nonlinear and exhibited large intrapatient and interpatient variability. For the group, mean association constants of the prednisolone-albumin complex and the prednisolone-transcortin complex were 2.3 X 10(3) M-1 and 2.9 X 10(7) M-1, with coefficients of variation of 82% and 127%, respectively. SLE patients tended to have lower mean prednisolone association constants for albumin and transcortin than did other patients. The presence of corticosteroid side effects did not correlate with prednisolone plasma protein-binding parameters. The wide range of prednisolone free fraction noted in plasma from patients who achieved comparable total prednisolone plasma concentrations implies that administration of a uniform prednisone dose will not lead to a predictable clinical response.

  9. Measuring Biological Parameters in Rivers: Relevance of the Spatial Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romani, A. M.

    2009-07-01

    The analyses of biological parameters in river ecosystems have been traditionally used as indicative of water quality with the advantage over chemical or physical analyses that they integrate the effects of punctual as well as long term effects. However, analyses of biological parameters (such as biomass and metabolism) performed at different spatial scales (from the microbial communities to the whole river) inform about different key processes. At the finer scale, microbial interactions and the structure of the microbial community (biofilm microbial biomass, three dimensional structure, and relevance of polysaccharide matrix) can be detected. At the reach scale, the different stream bed substrate (sediment, rocks, and particulate organic matter accumulation) are shown to play differential and specific roles on the processing of organic and inorganic materials in the flowing water. (Author)

  10. A Procedure for High Reproducible Measurements of ADC Spectral Parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Nunzi, Emilia; Carbone, Paolo; Petri, Dario

    2004-01-01

    The evaluation of spectral parameters characterizing analog–to–digital converters (ADC) is addressed by applying a single or dual tone generator to the device input and by properly processing its output data stream. The coherent sampling condition, highly recommended by the IEEE standards 1057 and 1241 which list the most effective ADC testing procedures, is usually difficult to achieve, and sometimes even unfeasible. In fact, it requires a fine synchronization between the input and the sampl...

  11. Posture parameters optimization of a structured light 3D angle measuring system

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    To improve the measurement precision of the structured light target angle, this paper studies the relation between the structured light system parameters and measurement accuracy of the angle. Firstly, the main system structure parameters influencing the angle measurement precision are analyzed based on the structured light measurement principle; secondly, simulation research on the laws of how the structured parameters influence the angle measurement precision are conducted, and the optimize...

  12. Wideband high frequency (HF) skywave channel parameters from narrowband measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, Cynthia L.; Uffelman, Donald R.; Walton, Thomas L.

    The HF wideband channel allow the use of spread-spectrum techniques to provide covert communications with low probability of intercept (LPI) and antijam protection. The objective of this work is to determine the extent to which oblique narrowband channel measurements can be used to infer effects in the wideband skywave channel. If oblique narrowband channel measurements can be used as a basis for developing wideband channel models, a large number of existing narrowband measurements can be made available for this task.

  13. Optimization of digestion parameters for analysing the total sulphur of mine tailings by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Raquibul; Shang, Julie Q; Cheng, Xiangrong

    2012-05-01

    The oxidation of sulphidic mine tailings and consequent acid generation poses challenges for the environment. Accurate and precise analysis of sulphur content is necessary for impact assessment and management of mine tailings. Here, the authors aim at developing a rapid and easy digestion procedure, which may analyse and measure the total amount of sulphur in mine tailings by using inductively coupled plasma. For evaluating effects of several variables, the researchers used a univariate (analysis of variance (ANOVA)) strategy and considered factors such as composition of the acid mixture, heating time, and refluxing device to optimize the performance. To do the experiment, the researchers have used two certified reference materials (KZK-1 and RTS-2) and samples of tailings from Musselwhite mine. ANOVA result shows that heating time is the most influencing factor on acid digestion of the reference materials whereas in case of a digestion of tailings sample, hydrochloric acid proved to be the most significant parameter. Satisfactory results between the measured and referenced values are found for all experiments. It is found that the aqua regia (1 ml HNO(3) + 3 ml HCl) digestion of 0.1 g of samples after only 40 min of heating at 95°C produced fast, safe, and accurate analytical results with a recovery of 97% for the selected reference materials.

  14. In vivo triglyceride synthesis in subcutaneous adipose tissue of humans correlates with plasma HDL parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuvdendorj, Demidmaa; Munoz, Alejandro O; Ruiz-Barros, Viviana; Schwarz, Jean-Marc; Montalto, Giuseppe; Chandalia, Manisha; Sowers, Lawrence C; Rizzo, Manfredi; Murphy, Elizabeth J; Abate, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    Low concentrations of plasma HDL-C are associated with the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Here we aimed to explore the relationship between the in vivo fractional synthesis of triglycerides (fTG) in subcutaneous (s.q.) abdominal adipose tissue (AT), HDL-C concentrations and HDL particle size composition in non-diabetic humans. The fTG in s.q. abdominal AT was measured in 16 non-diabetic volunteers (7 women, 9 men; Age: 49 ± 20 years; BMI: 31 ± 5 kg/m; Fasting Plasma Glucose: 90 ± 10 mg/dl) after (2)H2O labeling. HDL-C concentration and subclasses, large (L-HDL), intermediate (I-HDL) and small (S-HDL) were measured. Linear regression analyses demonstrated significant associations of fTG with plasma concentration of HDL-C (r = 0.625,p = 0.009) and percent contribution of L-HDL (r = 0.798,p HDL (r = -0.765,p HDL (r = -0.629, p = 0.009). When analyses were performed by gender, the associations remained significant in women (HDL-C: r = 0.822,p = 0.023; L-HDL: r = 0.892,p = 0.007; I-HDL: r = -0.927,p = 0.003) but not men. Our study demonstrated an in vivo association between subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics and HDL parameters in humans, but this was true for women not men. Positive association with L-HDL and negative with I-HDL suggest that subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipid dynamics may play an important role in production of mature functional HDL particles. Further studies evaluating the mechanism responsible for these associations and the observed gender differences are important and warranted to identify potential novel targets of intervention to increase the production of atheroprotective subclasses of HDL-Cs and thus decreasing the risks of development of atherosclerotic conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. SNR dependence of optimal parameters for apparent diffusion coefficient measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saritas, Emine U; Lee, Jin H; Nishimura, Dwight G

    2011-02-01

    Optimizing the diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters (i.e., the b-value and the number of image averages) to the tissue of interest is essential for producing high-quality apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps. Previous investigation of this optimization was performed assuming Gaussian noise statistics for the ADC map, which is only valid for high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) imaging. In this work, the true statistics of the noise in ADC maps are derived, followed by an optimization of the DWI parameters as a function of the imaging SNR. Specifically, it is demonstrated that the optimum b-value is a monotonically increasing function of the imaging SNR, which converges to the optimum b-value from previously proposed approaches for high-SNR cases, while exhibiting a significant deviation from this asymptote for low-SNR situations. Incorporating the effects of T(2) weighting further increases the SNR dependence of the optimal parameters. The proposed optimization scheme is particularly important for high-resolution DWI, which intrinsically suffers from low SNR and therefore cannot afford the use of the conventional high b-values. Comparison scans were performed for high-resolution DWI of the spinal cord, demonstrating the improvements in the resulting images and the ADC maps achieved by this method.

  16. Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Some Antioxidants on Liver Antioxidant Status and Plasma Biochemistry Parameters of Heat-Stressed Quail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Sarıca

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the dietary supplementation of oleuropein (O and α-tocopherol acetate (TA alone or with organic selenium (Se on liver antioxidant status and some plasma biochemistry parameters in Japanese quails reared under heat stress (HS. A total of 800, two-weeks old quails were kept in wire cages in the temperature-controlled rooms at either 22°C or 34°C for 8 h/d and fed on a basal diet (NC or the diets supplemented with TA (TA200 or O (O200 at 200 mg/kg alone or with OSe (TA200+OSe and O200+OSe to the NC diet. HS decreased the total antioxidant status (TAS and increased the total oxidative stress (TOS and oxidative stress index (OSI of liver compared to thermoneutral temperature (TN. The TA200, O200, TA200+OSe and O200+OSe diets increased TAS and decreased TOS of liver compared to those of quails fed NC. OSI was decreased by the TA200, O200 and TA200+OSe diets compared to NC and O200+OSe diets. HS reduced plasma albumin (A and total protein (TP concentrations, on the other hand, increased plasma glucose (G, total cholesterol (CHO and triglyceride (TG levels compared to TN. The TA200, O200, TA200+OSe and O200+OSe diets reduced plasma total CHO and TG levels and increased plasma A level. The TA200 and TA200+OSe diets reduced plasma G level and increased plasma TP levels compared to those of quails fed the other diets. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of vitamin E and oleuropein alone or with organic selenium is necessary to remove the negative effects of heat stress on liver antioxidant status and some plasma parameters of quails.

  17. Measurement of transient gas flow parameters by diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolshov, M A; Kuritsyn, Yu A; Liger, V V; Mironenko, V R [Institute of Spectroscopy, Russian Academy of Sciences, Troitsk, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nadezhdinskii, A I; Ponurovskii, Ya Ya [A M Prokhorov General Physics Institute, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Leonov, S B; Yarantsev, D A [Reserch Center of High Energy Densities Physics, Joint Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation)

    2015-04-30

    An absorption spectrometer based on diode lasers is developed for measuring two-dimension maps of temperature and water vapour concentration distributions in the combustion zones of two mixing supersonic flows of fuel and oxidiser in the single run regime. The method of measuring parameters of hot combustion zones is based on detection of transient spectra of water vapour absorption. The design of the spectrometer considerably reduces the influence of water vapour absorption along the path of a sensing laser beam outside the burning chamber. The optical scheme is developed, capable of matching measurement results in different runs of mixture burning. A new algorithm is suggested for obtaining information about the mixture temperature by constructing the correlation functions of the experimental spectrum with those simulated from databases. A two-dimensional map of temperature distribution in a test chamber is obtained for the first time under the conditions of plasma-induced combusion of the ethylene – air mixture. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  18. Analysis of conductive target influence in plasma jet experiments through helium metastable and electric field measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darny, T.; Pouvesle, J.-M.; Puech, V.; Douat, C.; Dozias, S.; Robert, Eric

    2017-04-01

    The use of cold atmospheric pressure plasma jets for in vivo treatments implies most of the time plasma interaction with conductive targets. The effect of conductive target contact on the discharge behavior is studied here for a grounded metallic target and compared to the free jet configuration. In this work, realized with a plasma gun, we measured helium metastable HeM (23S1) concentration (by laser absorption spectroscopy) and electric field (EF) longitudinal and radial components (by electro-optic probe). Both diagnostics were temporally and spatially resolved. Mechanisms after ionization front impact on the target surface have been identified. The remnant conductive ionized channel behind the ionization front electrically transiently connects the inner high voltage electrode to the target. Due to impedance mismatching between the ionized channel and the target, a secondary ionization front is initiated and rapidly propagates from the target surface to the inner electrode through this ionized channel. This leads to a greatly enhanced HeM production inside the plasma plume and the capillary. Forward and reverse dynamics occur with further multi reflections of more or less damped ionization fronts between the inner electrode and the target as long as the ionized channel is persisting. This phenomenon is very sensitive to parameters such as target distance and ionized channel conductivity affecting electrical coupling between these two and evidenced using positive or negative voltage polarity and nitrogen admixture. In typical operating conditions for the plasma gun used in this work, it has been found that after the secondary ionization front propagation, when the ionized channel is conductive enough, a glow like discharge occurs with strong conduction current. HeM production and all species excitation, especially reactive ones, are then driven by high voltage pulse evolution. The control of forward and reverse dynamics, impacting on the production of the glow

  19. Influence of laser design parameters on the hydrodynamics of microfusion plasmas; Influencia de los parametros basicos del laser sobre la hidrodinamica de plasmas para microfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanmartin, J. A.; Barrero, A.

    1976-07-01

    The quasi neutral, one dimensional motion generated in a cold, infinite, uniform plasma of density n{sub 0}, by the absorption, In a given plane, of a linear pulse of energy per unit time and area {phi} - {phi}{sub 0}t/{tau}, 0< t {<=} {tau}, is considered; the analysis allows for thermal conduction and viscosity of ions and electrons, their energy exchange, and an electron thermal flux limiter. The motion is found to be self similar and governed by single non dimensional parameter {alpha} similar{sub t}o(n{sup 2}{sub 0} {tau}/{phi}{sub 0}){sup 2}/3. Detailed asymptotic results are obtained for both {alpha}<<1and {alpha}>>1; the general (behaviour of the solution for arbitrary {alpha} is discussed. The analysis can be easily extended to the case of a plasma initially occupying a half-space, and throws light on the hydrodynamics of laser fusion plasmas. (Author) 51 refs.

  20. Plasma oxidative stress parameters in men and women with early stage Alzheimer type dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puertas, M C; Martínez-Martos, J M; Cobo, M P; Carrera, M P; Mayas, M D; Ramírez-Expósito, M J

    2012-08-01

    It is well known that oxidative stress is one of the earliest events in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, indicating that may play a key role in this disease. In our study, we measured the levels of oxidative stress indicators (TBARS and protein carbonyls content) and the non-enzymatic (glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG)) and enzymatic (glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) defense systems in the plasma of 46 patients diagnosed of ATD and 46 age-matched controls. We found decreased levels in total GSH in ATD patients, although healthy control women showed lower levels of total GSH than healthy control men. On the contrary, we found increased levels of TBARS and carbonyl groups content in ATD patients in both genders. The activity of the plasma antioxidant enzymes showed no changes for SOD activity in ATD patients, independently of the gender, although western blot analysis showed an increase in SOD-1 protein. CAT activity was also decreased in ATD patients, although this decrease is mainly due to the decrease found in men but not in women. However, western blot analysis did not show differences in CAT protein between controls and ATD patients. Finally, a decrease of GPx activity was found in ATD patients in both genders. However, as with CAT protein, western blot analysis did not show differences in GPx protein between controls and ATD patients. Our results suggest that there is a defect in the antioxidant defense system that is incapable of responding to increased free radical production, which may lead to oxidative damage and the development of the pathological alterations that characterize the neurodegenerative disorder of patients with ATD. Thus, oxidative damage could be one important aspect for the onset of ATD and oxidative stress markers could be useful to diagnose the illness in their earliest stages through both non-invasive, reliable and cost-affordable methods.

  1. Medium energy measurements of N-N parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, P.J.

    1990-10-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: pp elastic absolute cross section measurement; spin transfer measurements in np elastic scattering; single pion production in np scattering; photoproduction of high P{sub t} jets in the wide band beam of the tevatron; and search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}e, K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} ee.

  2. Thrust Stand Measurements of a Conical Pulsed Inductive Plasma Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Emsellem, Gregory D.

    2012-01-01

    Pulsed inductive plasma thrusters [1-3] are spacecraft propulsion devices in which electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil. The thruster is electrodeless, with a time-varying current in the coil interacting with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current. Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10-100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, pulsed inductive plasma thrusters can su er from both high pulse energy requirements imposed by the voltage demands of inductive propellant ionization, and low propellant utilization efficiencies. The Microwave Assisted Discharge Inductive Plasma Accelerator (MAD-IPA)[4], shown in Fig. 1 is a pulsed inductive plasma thruster that is able to operate at lower pulse energies by partially ionizing propellant with an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharge inside a conical inductive coil whose geometry serves to potentially increase propellant and plasma plume containment relative to at coil geometries. The ECR plasma is created with the use of permanent mag- nets arranged to produce a thin resonance region along the inner surface of the coil, restricting plasma formation and, in turn, current sheet formation to areas of high magnetic coupling to the driving coil.

  3. A physical parameter method for the design of broad-band X-ray imaging systems to do coronal plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, S.; Krieger, A. S.

    1978-01-01

    The technique commonly used for the analysis of data from broad-band X-ray imaging systems for plasma diagnostics is the filter ratio method. This requires the use of two or more broad-band filters to derive temperatures and line-of-sight emission integrals or emission measure distributions as a function of temperature. Here an alternative analytical approach is proposed in which the temperature response of the imaging system is matched to the physical parameter being investigated. The temperature response of a system designed to measure the total radiated power along the line of sight of any coronal structure is calculated. Other examples are discussed.

  4. Effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the current sheets developing in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V.; Frank, A. G.; Bogdanov, S. Yu.

    2010-07-01

    The effect of the initial plasma parameters on the structure of the plasma of the current sheets that form in two-dimensional magnetic fields with a null line is studied by holographic interferometry. The evolution of the plasma sheets that develop in an initial low-density plasma, where a gas is mainly ionized by a pulse current passing through the plasma and initiating the formation of a current sheet, has been comprehensively studied for the first time. At the early stage of evolution, the spatial structure of such a plasma sheet differs substantially from the classic current sheets forming in a dense plasma. Nevertheless, extended plasma sheets with similar parameters form eventually irrespective of the initial plasma density.

  5. Correlation of Seminal Plasma Total Antioxidant Capacity and Malondialdehyde Levels With Sperm Parameters in Men With Idiopathic Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazeli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Oxidative stress is the result of an imbalance between the production and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Recently, oxidative stress has been introduced as a major cause of male infertility. Objectives The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation between total antioxidant capacity (TAC and malondialdehyde (MDA as markers of oxidative stress in relation to idiopathic male infertility and sperm parameters. Patients and Methods This case control study was conducted using 35 men with idiopathic infertility and 34 men with proven fertility. Seminal plasma TAC and MDA were measured by ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP and thiobarbituric acid (TBA reaction methods, respectively. Results Seminal TAC levels were significantly lower and seminal MDA levels were significantly higher in men with idiopathic infertility than in fertile men (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.004, respectively. A positive correlation was shown between sperm motility, sperm morphology, and TAC levels in men with idiopathic infertility (P = 0.002 and P = 0.002, respectively. In addition, there was a correlation between sperm motility and TAC levels in fertile men (P = 0.005. There was no correlation between sperm count and TAC levels in either men with idiopathic infertility or in fertile men. Negative correlations were observed between MDA levels and sperm motility, morphology, and sperm count only in men with idiopathic infertility (P = 0.003, P = 0.001, and P = 0.006, respectively. Conclusions Our results show that oxidative stress could play an important role in male infertility as well as in sperm motility and sperm morphology.

  6. Clusters as benchmarks for measuring fundamental stellar parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Bell, Cameron P M

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution I will discuss fundamental stellar parameters as determined from young star clusters; specifically those with ages less than or approximately equal to that of the Pleiades. I will focus primarily on the use of stellar evolutionary models to determine the ages and masses of stars, as well as discuss the limitations of such models using a combination of both young clusters and eclipsing binary systems. In addition, I will also highlight a few interesting recent results from large on-going spectroscopic surveys (specifically Gaia-ESO and APOGEE/IN-SYNC) which are continuing to challenge our understanding of the formation and early evolutionary stages of young clusters.

  7. Measurement of Plasma Density Produced in Dielectric Barrier Discharge for Active Aerodynamic Control with Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; ZHANG Yi; XU Yan-Ji; LIN Bin; LI Yu-Tong; ZHU Jun-Qiang

    2009-01-01

    We utilize an interferometer to investigate the changes of the refractive index caused by dielectric barrier discharge plasma.The electronic density of the plasma produced is measured and analyzed tentatively.The results show that density of the plasma increases linearly with exciting voltages.

  8. Simulation of Main Plasma Parameters of a Cylindrical Asymmetric Capacitively Coupled Plasma Micro-Thruster using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amelia eGreig

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations of a radio-frequency (13.56 MHz electro-thermal capacitively coupled plasma (CCP micro-thruster have been performed using the commercial CFD-ACE+ package. Standard operating conditions of a 10 W, 1.5 Torr argon discharge were used to compare with previously obtained experimental results for validation. Results show that the driving force behind plasma production within the thruster is ion-induced secondary electrons ejected from the surface of the discharge tube, accelerated through the sheath to electron temperatures up to 33.5 eV. The secondary electron coefficient was varied to determine the effect on the discharge, with results showing that full breakdown of the discharge did not occur for coefficients coefficients less than or equal to 0.01.

  9. Toothbrush probe for instantaneous measurement of radial profile in tokamak boundary plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uehara, Kazuya; Sengoku, Seio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Amemiya, Hiroshi

    1997-04-01

    A new probe for the instantaneous measurement of radial profiles of the boundary scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma has been developed in a tokamak. Five asymmetric double-probe chips are aligned in parallel to a strong magnetic field in the boundary plasma in a tokamak. This probe is named the `toothbrush probe` and can measure the ion temperature as well as the electron temperature and the plasma density in the SOL plasma within only one tokamak plasma shot. First, only one asymmetric probe is mounted on the divertor plate and it is tried to determine the ion temperature. Then, a manufactured toothbrush probe is mounted in the SOL plasma and the radial plasma profiles are simultaneously obtained. Data on the e-folding length of the plasma profile obtained by the toothbrush probe can determine the information on the transport properties such as the diffusion coefficient and the thermal conductivity of electrons and ions. (author)

  10. Gelation of fibrinogen in plasma. A kinetic study by turbidity measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regañon, E; Vila, V; Aznar, J

    1984-01-01

    Studies of the turbidity profiles of diluted (1/55, v/v) normal plasma, thrombin activity free serum plus commercial fibrinogen, and 0.15 M NaCl, pH 7.4, plus commercial fibrinogen, activated by thrombin or reptilase and measured at 350 nm, have shown that the latency time (LT) hardly varies for the fibrinogen concentration within limits of 0.03-0.15 mg/ml; however, it does vary for the thrombin concentration. The rate of gelation (RG) varies linearly with the fibrinogen (FG) concentration, conforming to the equation RG = 0.027 (FG)1.8; it hardly varies for thrombin concentrations greater than 0.50 NIH U/ml. On the other hand, RG values obtained for 0.46 NIH U/ml of thrombin or 0.92 BU/ml of reptilase show no significant differences. The variation in LT for the thrombin or reptilase concentration allows the rate of activation to be estimated, giving values of 5.9 X 10(-12) and 3.2 X 10(-12) mol/U/s, respectively, for a fibrinogen concentration in plasma of 1.1 X 10(-10) mol/ml. The mean value estimated for the ratio LT/FG in normal plasma is 35.76 +/- 18.3 and 85.62 +/- 18.3 s mg-1 ml for activation by thrombin and reptilase, respectively. We have studied in normal plasma the parameters that define the gelation of fibrin as measured by turbidity curves and their variation according to the fibrinogen concentration. This permits us to establish the kinetics of fibrin gel formation and normal range values.

  11. Measurements of the parameters of a condensed deuterated Z-pinch on the angara-5-1 facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, V. V.; Bryzgunov, V. A.; Grabovski, E. V.; Gritsuk, A. N.; Volobuev, I. V.; Kazakov, E. D.; Kalinin, Yu. G.; Korolev, V. D.; Laukhin, Ya. I.; Medovshchikov, S. F.; Mitrofanov, K. N.; Oleinik, G. M.; Pimenov, V. G.; Smirnova, E. A.; Ustroev, G. I.; Frolov, I. N.

    2016-04-01

    Results are presented from measurements of the parameters of high-temperature plasma in the Z-pinch neck formed when a current of up to 3.5 MA flows through a low-density polymer load. To enhance the effect of energy concentration, a deuterated microporous polyethylene neck with a mass density of 100 mg/cm3 and diameter of 1-1.3 mm was placed in the central part of the load. During the discharge current pulse, short-lived local hot plasma spots with typical dimensions of about 200-300 μm formed in the neck region. Their formation was accompanied by the generation of soft X-ray pulses with photon energies of E > 0.8 keV and durations of 3-4 ns. The plasma electron temperature in the vicinity of the hot spot was measured from the vacuum UV emission spectra of the iron diagnostic admixture and was found to be about 200-400 eV. The appearance of hot plasma spots was also accompanied by neutron emission with the maximum yield of 3 × 1010 neutrons/shot. The neutron energy spectra were studied by means of the time-of-flight method and were found to be anisotropic with respect to the direction of the discharge current.

  12. Influence of plasma parameters on the growth and properties of magnetron sputtered CNx thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellgren, Niklas; Macák, Karol; Broitman, Esteban; Johansson, Mats P.; Hultman, Lars; Sundgren, Jan-Eric

    2000-07-01

    Carbon nitride CNx thin films were grown by unbalanced dc magnetron sputtering from a graphite target in a pure N2 discharge, and with the substrate temperature Ts kept between 100 and 550 °C. A solenoid coil positioned in the vicinity of the substrate was used to support the magnetic field of the magnetron, so that the plasma could be increased near the substrate. By varying the coil current and gas pressure, the energy distribution and fluxes of N2+ ions and C neutrals could be varied independently of each other over a wide range. An array of Langmuir probes in the substrate position was used to monitor the radial ion flux distribution over the 75-mm-diam substrate, while the flux and energy distribution of neutrals was estimated through Monte Carlo simulations. The structure, surface roughness, and mechanical response of the films are found to be strongly dependent on the substrate temperature, and the fluxes and energies of the deposited particles. By controlling the process parameters, the film structure can thus be selected to be amorphous, graphite-like or fullerene-like. When depositing at 3 mTorr N2 pressure, with Ts>200 °C, a transition from a disordered graphite-like to a hard and elastic fullerene-like structure occurred when the ion flux was increased above ˜0.5-1.0 mA/cm2. The nitrogen-to-carbon concentration ratio in the films ranged from ˜0.1 to 0.65, depending on substrate temperature and gas pressure. The nitrogen film concentration did, however, not change when varying the nitrogen ion-to-carbon atom flux ratios from ˜1 to 20.

  13. Measuring Digital PCR Quality: Performance Parameters and Their Optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, A; Jacchia, S; Kagkli, D; Savini, C; Querci, M

    2016-01-01

    Digital PCR is rapidly being adopted in the field of DNA-based food analysis. The direct, absolute quantification it offers makes it an attractive technology for routine analysis of food and feed samples for their composition, possible GMO content, and compliance with labelling requirements. However, assessing the performance of dPCR assays is not yet well established. This article introduces three straightforward parameters based on statistical principles that allow users to evaluate if their assays are robust. In addition, we present post-run evaluation criteria to check if quantification was accurate. Finally, we evaluate the usefulness of Poisson confidence intervals and present an alternative strategy to better capture the variability in the analytical chain.

  14. Measuring Digital PCR Quality: Performance Parameters and Their Optimization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Lievens

    Full Text Available Digital PCR is rapidly being adopted in the field of DNA-based food analysis. The direct, absolute quantification it offers makes it an attractive technology for routine analysis of food and feed samples for their composition, possible GMO content, and compliance with labelling requirements. However, assessing the performance of dPCR assays is not yet well established. This article introduces three straightforward parameters based on statistical principles that allow users to evaluate if their assays are robust. In addition, we present post-run evaluation criteria to check if quantification was accurate. Finally, we evaluate the usefulness of Poisson confidence intervals and present an alternative strategy to better capture the variability in the analytical chain.

  15. Measurement of ultrasonic nonlinear parameter by using electromagnetic acoustic transducer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Zhichao; Liu, Suzhen; Zhang, Chuang

    2017-02-01

    The nonlinear ultrasonic technology is generally known as an effective method for the microcrack detection. However, most of the previous experimental studies were limited by a contact nonlinearity method. Since measurement by the contact method is affected by the coupling conditions, additional nonlinear coefficient are lead into the measurement. This research presents a novel technique for nonlinear ultrasonic wave measurements that uses a non-contact electromagnetic ultrasonic transducer (EMAT). And for a better understanding and a more in-depth analysis of the macroscopic nonlinear behavior of microcrack, the developed FEM modeling approach was built to simulate microcrack induced nonlinearities manifested in electromagnetic ultrasonic waves and validated experimentally. This study has yielded a quantitative characterization strategy for microcrack using EMAT, facilitating deployment of structural health monitoring by noncontact electromagnetic nondestructive testing.

  16. Measurements of the equations of state and spectrum of nonideal xenon plasma under shock compression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J; Gu, Y J; Chen, Z Y; Chen, Q F

    2010-08-01

    Experimental equations of state on generation of nonideal xenon plasma by intense shock wave compression was presented in the ranges of pressure of 2-16 GPa and temperature of 31-50 kK, and the xenon plasma with the nonideal coupling parameter Γ range from 0.6-2.1 was generated. The shock wave was produced using the flyer plate impact and accelerated up to ∼6 km/s with a two-stage light gas gun. Gaseous specimens were shocked from two initial pressures of 0.80 and 4.72 MPa at room temperature. Time-resolved spectral radiation histories were recorded by using a multiwavelength channel pyrometer. The transient spectra with the wavelength range of 460-700 nm were recorded by using a spectrometer to evaluate the shock temperature. Shock velocity was measured and particle velocity was determined by the impedance matching methods. The equations of state of xenon plasma and ionization degree have been discussed in terms of the self-consistent fluid variational theory.

  17. Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by quantum measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus

    Quantum systems, ranging from atomic systems to field modes and mechanical devices are useful precision probes for a variety of physical properties and phenomena. Measurements by which we extract information about the evolution of single quantum systems yield random results and cause a back action...... strategies, we address the Fisher information and the Cramér-Rao sensitivity bound. We investigate monitoring by photon counting, homodyne detection and frequent projective measurements respectively, and exemplify by Rabi frequency estimation in a driven two-level system....

  18. A method to estimate the absolute ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter from relative measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jongbeom; Song, Dong-Gi; Jhang, Kyung-Young

    2017-02-17

    The ultrasonic nonlinearity parameter, β, is determined from the displacement amplitude of the second-order harmonic frequency component generated during the propagation of ultrasonic waves through a material. This parameter is generally referred to as the absolute parameter. Meanwhile, it is difficult to measure the small displacement amplitude of the second-order harmonic component; therefore, most studies measure the relative parameter determined from the detected signal amplitude. However, for quantitative assessment of material degradation, the absolute parameter is still required. This study proposes a method to estimate the absolute parameter for damaged material by measuring the relative parameter. This method is based on the fact that the fractional ratio of the relative parameters between different materials is identical to that of the absolute parameters after compensation for material dependent differences such as the wavenumber and detection-sensitivity. In order to experimentally verify the method, the relative parameters of heat-treated Al6061-T6 alloy specimens with different aging times were measured to compare with absolute parameters directly measured by piezo-electric detection. The results show that the fluctuations of both parameters with respect to aging time were very similar to each other, and that the absolute parameters estimated by the proposed method were in good agreement with those measured directly.

  19. Investigation of the effect of laser parameters on the target, plume and plasma behavior during and after laser-solid interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stancalie, A.; Ciobanu, S. S.; Sporea, D.

    2017-09-01

    A detailed theoretical and experimental analysis is performed for a wide range of laser operating conditions, typical for laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and laser ablation (LA) experiments on copper metallic target. The plasma parameters were experimentally estimated from the line intensities ratio which reflects the relative population of neutral excited species in the plasma. In the case of LA experiments the highest temperature observed was 8210 ± 370 K. In case of LIBS measurements, a maximum temperature of 8123 K has been determined. The experimental results are in good agreement with a stationary, hydrodynamic model. We have theoretically investigated the plasma emission based on the generalized collisional-radiative model as implemented in the ADAS interconnected set of computer codes and data collections. The ionic population density distribution over the ground and excited states into the cooper plasma is graphically displayed as output from the code. The theoretical line intensity ratios are in good agreement with experimental values for the electron density and temperature range measured in our experiments.

  20. Transmission Measurement and Resonance Parameter Determination of 169Tm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The transmission rate of 169Tm, ranging from 0.01 to 100 eV, were measured with n-TOF method at the Pohang Neutron Facility (PNF), which consists of an electron linac, a water-cooled Ta target, and a 12

  1. Image based measurement systems: object recognition and parameter estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, Ferdinand

    What makes this book unique is that besides information on image processing of objects to yield knowledge, the author has devoted a lot of thought to the measurement factor of image processing. This is of direct practical use in numerous sectors from industrial quality and robotics to medicine and

  2. Rainbow technique for multi-parameter measurement of absorbing cylinder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feihu Song; Chuanlong Xu; Shimin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Rainbow refractometry is widely used to measure the radius and real part of refractive index of a cylinder.However,studies on the detection of imaginary part of the refractive index with rainbow technique were scarce.This paper presents a new method for simultaneously measuring the radius,real and imaginary part of the refractive index of a cylinder,on the basis of the Airy theory and the Bouguer theory.The rainbows produced by the illuminated cylinder at a capillary exit are captured by a CCD camera in a labscale system,and then processed by the proposed method.Experimental results showed that the radius,real and imaginary part of the refractive index can be accurately determined when the SNR (signal to noise ratio) of the ripple structure is sufficiently high.However,the SNR of the ripple structure gradually decreases with decreasing scattering intensity of the cylinder,leading to larger measurement errors of the radius and real part of the refractive index.The relative error of the imaginary part of the refractive index derived from the measurement errors of the radius and real part of the refractive index,is less than 3.4%.

  3. Bin-bin correlation measurement by bunching-parameter method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chekanov, S.V.; Kittel, W. [High Energy Physics Inst. Nijmegen, Univ. of Nijmegen/NIKHEF, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Kuvshinov, V.I. [Inst. of Physics, Academy of Sciences of Belarus, Minsk (Belgium)

    1996-08-01

    A new method for the experimental study of bin-bin correlations is proposed. It is shown that this method is able to reveal important additional information on bin-bin correlations, beyond that of factorial-correlator measurements. (author) 15 refs, 1 fig

  4. Design parameters for measurements of local catalytic activity on surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Martin; Johannessen, Tue; Jørgensen, Jan Hoffmann;

    2006-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics in combination with experiments is used to characterize a gas sampling device for measurements of the local catalytic activity on surfaces. The device basically consists of a quartz capillary mounted concentrically inside an aluminum tube. Reactant gas is blown toward...

  5. Lipid parameters for measuring risk of cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.J. Arsenault; S.M. Boekholdt; J.J.P. Kastelein

    2011-01-01

    Besides measuring blood pressure and glucose levels, assessing the lipid spectrum is the method most commonly used to identify individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as those who are likely to benefit most from lipid-lowering therapy. Although lowering LDL-cholesterol leve

  6. Fabry-Perot spectroscopy for kinetic temperature and velocity measurements of a high enthalpy air plasma flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zander, Fabian; Löhle, Stefan; Hermann, Tobias; Fulge, Hannes

    2017-08-01

    The atomic translational temperatures and velocities of a low pressure, high enthalpy air plasma are measured using Fabry-Perot spectroscopy. The measurements presented here are the first measurements using this system at this enthalpy level. The sub-picometre resolution of the unique system has allowed accurate translational temperature and velocity measurements of the atomic species in the plasma. The detection system allows the Doppler broadening of multiple atomic nitrogen and oxygen lines to be measured simultaneously. Additionally, having two optical paths, one perpendicular to the flow and one at 45 deg. allows the Doppler shift to be measured. Measurements were taken during three different plasma wind tunnel tests. Mean atomic nitrogen temperatures of 1.08+/- 0.11 × 104 K and atomic oxygen translational temperatures of 1.23+/- 0.12 ×104 K were measured. The thermal non-equilibrium determined verified earlier measurements of the same phenomena, however, the mechanism behind this has not yet been determined. The mean measured flow velocity was 3350+/- 840~m~s-1 and was consistent between the atomic species. The translational temperature and velocity contribute approximately 35% of the local enthalpy of the flow. The direct measurement of these parameters, removing previously required assumptions, increases the fidelity of the flow characterisation significantly. This allows high quality testing to be conducted in this flow field.

  7. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of axial velocity, velocity shear, and parallel ion temperature profiles during the route to plasma turbulence in a linear magnetized plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Adriany, K.; Gosselin, J. J.; McKee, J.; Scime, E. E.; Sears, S. H.; Tynan, G. R.

    2016-11-01

    We report experimental measurements of the axial plasma flow and the parallel ion temperature in a magnetized linear plasma device. We used laser induced fluorescence to measure Doppler resolved ion velocity distribution functions in argon plasma to obtain spatially resolved axial velocities and parallel ion temperatures. We also show changes in the parallel velocity profiles during the transition from resistive drift wave dominated plasma to a state of weak turbulence driven by multiple plasma instabilities.

  8. Langmuir Probe Measurements of Inductively Coupled CHF3/Ar and Ar/CHF3/O2 Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. P.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Meyyappan, M.

    2000-01-01

    Plasma parameters, such as, electron number density (ne), electron temperature (Te), y electron energy distribution function (EEDF), mean electron energy (Ee), ion number density (ni), and plasma potential (Vp), have been measured by using Langmuir probe in low-pressure (10-50 mTorr) inductively coupled CHF3/Ar and CHF3/Ar/O2 plasmas generated in the GEC cell. The measurements were made at the center of the plasma, keeping the lower electrode grounded, for various CHF3/Ar and Ar/CHF3/O2 mixtures operating at 10-50 mTorr pressures and two input RF power levels, 200 and 300 W. EEDF data show a strong Druyvesteyn distribution with relatively lower number of low energy electrons as compared to a Maxwell distribution and a large electron population with energies higher than the plasma potential. The results further show that at low CHF3 concentrations (less than 50%) the electron number density remains nearly constant with increase in pressure. At higher CHF3 concentrations, however, it decreases with increase in pressure. Plasma potential and electron temperature increase with decrease in pressure and with increase in CHF3 concentration. An analysis of the above observations and mechanisms will be presented.

  9. An accurate automated technique for quasi-optics measurement of the microwave diagnostics for fusion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianqiang; Liu, Ahdi; Zhou, Chu; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Mingyuan; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Xi; Li, Hong; Xie, Jinlin; Liu, Wandong; Yu, Changxuan

    2017-08-01

    A new integrated technique for fast and accurate measurement of the quasi-optics, especially for the microwave/millimeter wave diagnostic systems of fusion plasma, has been developed. Using the LabVIEW-based comprehensive scanning system, we can realize not only automatic but also fast and accurate measurement, which will help to eliminate the effects of temperature drift and standing wave/multi-reflection. With the Matlab-based asymmetric two-dimensional Gaussian fitting method, all the desired parameters of the microwave beam can be obtained. This technique can be used in the design and testing of microwave diagnostic systems such as reflectometers and the electron cyclotron emission imaging diagnostic systems of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak.

  10. CO{sub 2} laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    A CO{sub 2} laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  11. Nicotine, cotinine, and trans-3-hydroxycotinine levels in seminal plasma of smokers: effects on sperm parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacifici, R; Altieri, I; Gandini, L; Lenzi, A; Pichini, S; Rosa, M; Zuccaro, P; Dondero, F

    1993-10-01

    Sperm samples from 44 cigarette smokers and 50 nonsmokers attending an infertility clinic were examined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay and HPLC-mass spectrometry for the presence of nicotine (NIC), cotinine (COT), and trans-3'-hydroxycotinine (THOC) in seminal plasma. Smokers were found to have levels of COT and THOC in seminal plasma that were similar to those found in serum. The level of NIC was significantly increased in seminal plasma compared to serum. Total motility of spermatozoa was significantly and negatively correlated to COT and THOC levels in seminal plasma. Forward motility of spermatozoa was correlated only with cotinine semen levels. On the basis of these results, we suggest that the presence of tobacco smoke constituents in seminal plasma could provide a warning of the adverse effects of cigarette smoke on the physiology of reproduction.

  12. Experimental measurement of ablation effects in plasma armature railguns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, J.V.; Parsons, W.M.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental evidence supporting the importance of ablation in plasma armature railguns is presented. Experiments conducted using the HYVAX and MIDI-2 railguns are described. Several indirect effects of ablation are identified from the experimental results. An improved ablation model of plasma armature dynamics is proposed which incorporates the restrike process.

  13. Ion Temperature-Measurements in Tokamak Plasmas by Rutherford Scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanblokland, A. A. E.; Barbian, E. P.; Donne, A. J. H.; van der Grift, A. F.; Grimbergen, T. W. M.; Oyevaar, T.; Schüller, F. C.; Tammen, H. F.; Vanderven, H. W.; Vijverberg, T. F.; Dewinter, F. D. A.; Bertschinger, G.; Cosler, A.; Korten, M.

    1992-01-01

    A Rutherford scattering diagnostic has been applied at the TEXTOR tokamak to obtain spatially and temporally resolved information on the temperature of the bulk ions in the plasma. In the experimental setup, a helium atomic beam (30-keV, 12-mA equivalent current) passes vertically through the plasma

  14. Accurate and precise plasma clearance measurement using four 99mTc-DTPA plasma samples over 4 h

    OpenAIRE

    Wanasundara, Surajith N.; Wesolowski, Michal J.; Barnfield, Mark C.; Waller, Michael L.; Murray, Anthony W.; Burniston, Maria T.; Babyn, Paul S.; Wesolowski, Carl A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Glomerular filtration rate can be measured as the plasma clearance (CL) of a glomerular filtration rate marker despite body fluid disturbances using numerous, prolonged time samples. We desire a simplified technique without compromised accuracy and precision. Materials and methods We compared CL values derived from two plasma concentration curve area methods – (a) biexponential fitting [CL (E2)] and (b) Tikhonov adaptively regularized gamma variate fitting [CL (Tk-GV)] – for 4 vers...

  15. Effect of technique parameters on characteristics of hydrogen-free DLC films deposited by surface wave-sustained plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junqi; Kousaka, Hiroyuki; Umehara, Noritsugu; Diao, Dongfeng

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited by a new-type surface wave-sustained plasma physical vapor deposition (SWP-PVD) system under various technique conditions. Electron density was measured by a Langmuir probe, while the film thickness and hardness were characterized using a surface profilometer and a nanoindenter, respectively. Surface morphology was investigated by an atomic force microscope (AFM). It was found that the electron density and deposition rate increased following the increase in microwave power, target voltage, or gas pressure. The typical electron density and deposition rate were about 1.87-2.04×10 11 cm -3 and 1.61-14.32 nm/min respectively. AFM images indicated that the grains of films changes as the technique parameters vary. The optical constants, refractive index n and extinction coefficient k, were obtained using an optical ellipsometry. With the increase in microwave power from 150 to 270 W, the extinction coefficient of DLC films increased from 0.05 to 0.27 while the refractive index decreased from 2.31 to 2.18.

  16. Measurement of the external parameters in quantitative active thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmi, R.; Inglese, G.

    2017-10-01

    Infrared thermography is widely used in non-destructive testing and in the non-destructive evaluation of subsurface defects in several materials. The detection and reconstruction (location and shape) of a defect inside a material from thermal data requires the solution of an inverse heat conduction problem. Here the problem is tackled by the thin-plate approximation of the investigated domain. A number of physical quantities must be known for the reconstruction procedure to be successful: some relating to the material (thermal conductivity, heat capacity, density), usually known, and others relating to the heating process. This paper proposes procedures for accurately measuring the latter, whose importance is often not given due consideration. Those procedures allow us to accurately measure the heat flux distribution produced by the sources on the heated surface, and the heat exchange coefficient at the remaining surfaces, and are easily applicable in ‘on field’ situations.

  17. Parameter Estimation in Ultrasonic Measurements on Trabecular Bone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marutyan, Karen R.; Anderson, Christian C.; Wear, Keith A.; Holland, Mark R.; Miller, James G.; Bretthorst, G. Larry

    2007-11-01

    Ultrasonic tissue characterization has shown promise for clinical diagnosis of diseased bone (e.g., osteoporosis) by establishing correlations between bone ultrasonic characteristics and the state of disease. Porous (trabecular) bone supports propagation of two compressional modes, a fast wave and a slow wave, each of which is characterized by an approximately linear-with-frequency attenuation coefficient and monotonically increasing with frequency phase velocity. Only a single wave, however, is generally apparent in the received signals. The ultrasonic parameters that govern propagation of this single wave appear to be causally inconsistent [1]. Specifically, the attenuation coefficient rises approximately linearly with frequency, but the phase velocity exhibits a decrease with frequency. These inconsistent results are obtained when the data are analyzed under the assumption that the received signal is composed of one wave. The inconsistency disappears if the data are analyzed under the assumption that the signal is composed of superposed fast and slow waves. In the current investigation, Bayesian probability theory is applied to estimate the ultrasonic characteristics underlying the propagation of the fast and slow wave from computer simulations. Our motivation is the assumption that identifying the intrinsic material properties of bone will provide more reliable estimates of bone quality and fracture risk than the apparent properties derived by analyzing the data using a one-mode model.

  18. The measurement of Twiss parameters using SFC's

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosing, M.; Hummer, C.; Zolecki, R.

    1989-01-01

    The Segmented Faraday Cup (SFC) consists of 48 copper plates that are 1 mm /times/ 75 mm /times/ 10 mm. These plates are stacked against each other on the 75 mm /times/ 10 mm face with a layer of kapton between them for electrical insulation. When the assembly is viewed in the direction of the incident beam, the beam sees 48 vertical electrodes that are 1 mm /times/ 75 mm and 10 mm thick. The copper plates and the kapton are held together in an aluminum frame which is mounted on a rotating shaft. This assembly can be placed in the beam by rotating the shaft. Another SFC of the same construction is also mounted on this shaft. This other SFC, however, has its plates mounted horizontally rather than vertically. Thus by rotating the shaft either the vertical SFC, the horizontal SFC, or a scintillator screen may be placed into the beam. In addition, the shaft can be rotated so that none of these elements are in the beam. The SFC's were used to measure the emittance of the beam by using a scanning slit. The theory and the method for this measurement are presented. A description of the electronics is presented. A sample of a beam profile and the results of an emittance measurement are presented. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Plasma diagnosis as a tool for the determination of the parameters of electron beam evaporation and sources of ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Jaya; Dileep Kumar, V.; Yadav, S. P.; Barnwal, Tripti A.; Dikshit, Biswaranjan

    2016-07-01

    The atomic vapor generated by electron beam heating is partially ionized due to atom-atom collisions (Saha ionization) and electron impact ionization, which depend upon the source temperature and area of evaporation as compared to the area of electron beam bombardment on the target. When electron beam evaporation is carried out by inserting the target inside an insulating liner to reduce conductive heat loss, it is expected that the area of evaporation becomes significantly more than the area of electron beam bombardment on the target, resulting in reduced electron impact ionization. To assess this effect and to quantify the parameters of evaporation, such as temperature and area of evaporation, we have carried out experiments using zirconium, tin and aluminum as a target. By measuring the ion content using a Langmuir probe, in addition to measuring the atomic vapor flux at a specific height, and by combining the experimental data with theoretical expressions, we have established a method for simultaneously inferring the source temperature, evaporation area and ion fraction. This assumes significance because the temperature cannot be reliably measured by an optical pyrometer due to the wavelength dependent source emissivity and reflectivity of thin film mirrors. In addition, it also cannot be inferred from only the atomic flux data at a certain height as the area of evaporation is unknown (it can be much more than the area of electron bombardment, especially when the target is placed in a liner). Finally, the reason for the lower observed electron temperatures of the plasma for all the three cases is found to be the energy loss due to electron impact excitation of the atomic vapor during its expansion from the source.

  20. Preliminary validation of assays to measure parameters of calcium metabolism in captive Asian and African elephants in western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Sonsbeek, Gerda R; van der Kolk, Johannes H; van Leeuwen, Johannes P T M; Schaftenaar, Willem

    2011-05-01

    Hypocalcemia is a well known cause of dystocia in animals, including elephants in captivity. In order to study calcium metabolism in elephants, it is of utmost importance to use properly validated assays, as these might be prone to specific matrix effects in elephant blood. The aim of the current study was to conduct preliminary work for validation of various parameters involved in calcium metabolism in both blood and urine of captive elephants. Basal values of these parameters were compared between Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana). Preliminary testing of total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, and creatinine appeared valid for use in plasma and creatinine in urine in both species. Furthermore, measurements of bone alkaline phosphatase and N-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen appeared valid for use in Asian elephants. Mean heparinized plasma ionized calcium concentration and pH were not significantly affected by 3 cycles of freezing and thawing. Storage at 4 °C, room temperature, and 37 °C for 6, 12, and 24 hr did not alter the heparinized plasma ionized calcium concentration in Asian elephants. The following linear regression equation using pH (range: 6.858-7.887) and ionized calcium concentration in heparinized plasma was utilized: iCa(7.4) (mmol/l) = -2.1075 + 0.3130·pH(actual) + 0.8296·iCa(actual) (mmol/l). Mean basal values for pH and plasma in Asian elephant whole blood were 7.40 ± 0.048 and 7.49 ± 0.077, respectively. The urinary specific gravity and creatinine concentrations in both Asian and African elephants were significantly correlated and both were significantly lower in Asian elephants.

  1. Instrument maintenance of ultrasonic influences parameters measurement in technological processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomal V. S.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The contact and non-contact vibration meters for intermittent and continuous control of the vibration amplitude in the ultrasonic technological equipment have been developed. And in order to estimate the cavitation intensity in liquids the authors have developed cavitation activity indicators and cavitation sensitivity meters, allowing to measure the magnitude of the signal level in the range of maximum spectral density of cavitation noise. The developed instruments allow to improve the quality of products, reduce the defect rate and power consumption of equipment by maintaining optimum conditions of the process.

  2. Measurement of Device Parameters Using Image Recovery Techniques in Large-Scale IC Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheick, Leif; Edmonds, Larry

    2004-01-01

    Devices that respond to radiation on a cell level will produce histograms showing the relative frequency of cell damage as a function of damage. The measured distribution is the convolution of distributions from radiation responses, measurement noise, and manufacturing parameters. A method of extracting device characteristics and parameters from measured distributions via mathematical and image subtraction techniques is described.

  3. Methodical errors of measurement of the human body tissues electrical parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniuk, O.; Pokhodylo, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Sources of methodical measurement errors of immitance parameters of biological tissues are described. Modeling measurement errors of RC-parameters of biological tissues equivalent circuits into the frequency range is analyzed. Recommendations on the choice of test signal frequency for measurement of these elements is provided.

  4. Cosmic variance and the measurement of the local Hubble parameter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Valerio; Amendola, Luca; Sawicki, Ignacy; Valkenburg, Wessel

    2013-06-14

    There is an approximately 9% discrepancy, corresponding to 2.4 σ, between two independent constraints on the expansion rate of the Universe: one indirectly arising from the cosmic microwave background and baryon acoustic oscillations and one more directly obtained from local measurements of the relation between redshifts and distances to sources. We argue that by taking into account the local gravitational potential at the position of the observer this tension--strengthened by the recent Planck results--is partially relieved and the concordance of the Standard Model of cosmology increased. We estimate that measurements of the local Hubble constant are subject to a cosmic variance of about 2.4% (limiting the local sample to redshifts z > 0.010) or 1.3% (limiting it to z > 0.023), a more significant correction than that taken into account already. Nonetheless, we show that one would need a very rare fluctuation to fully explain the offset in the Hubble rates. If this tension is further strengthened, a cosmology beyond the Standard Model may prove necessary.

  5. Measurement and modeling of hyperfine parameters in ferroic materials

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, João Nuno; Correia, J G

    This thesis presents the results of perturbed angular correlation (PAC) experiments , an experimental technique which measures the hyperfine interaction at probes (radioactive ions implanted in the materials to study), from which one infers local information on an atomic scale. Furthermore, abinitio calculations using density functional theory electronic obtain results that directly complement the experiments, and are also used for theoretical research. These methods were applied in two families of materials. The manganites, with the possible existence of magnetic, charge, orbital and ferroelectric orders, are of fundamental and technological interest. The experimental results are obtained in the alkaline-earth manganites (Ca, Ba, Sr), with special interest due to the structural variety of possible polymorphs. With probes of Cd and In the stability of the probe and its location in a wide temperature range is established and a comparison with calculations allows the physical interpretation of the results. Cal...

  6. Measurement of Plasma Clotting Using Shear Horizontal Surface Acoustic Wave Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Tatsuya; Kondoh, Jun; Oonishi, Tomoko; Hosokawa, Kazuya

    2013-07-01

    The monitoring of blood coagulation is important during operation. In this study, a shear horizontal surface acoustic wave (SH-SAW) sensor is applied to monitor plasma clotting. An SH-SAW sensor with a metallized surface for mechanical perturbation detection can detect plasma clotting. As plasma clotting is a gel formation reaction, the SH-SAW sensor detects viscoelastic property changes. On the other hand, an SH-SAW sensor with a free surface for electrical perturbation detection detects only the liquid mixing effect. No electrical property changes due to plasma clotting are obtained using this sensor. A planar electrochemical sensor is also used to monitor plasma clotting. In impedance spectral analysis, plasma clotting is measured. However, in the measurement of time responses, no differences between clotting and nonclotting are obtained. Therefore, the SH-SAW sensor is useful for monitoring plasma clotting.

  7. Measurement of atomic Stark parameters of many Mn I and Fe I spectral lines using GMAW process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zielinska, S; Pellerin, S; Valensi, F [GREMI, Universite d' Orleans (Site de Bourges)/CNRS, BP 4043, 18028 Bourges cedex (France); Dzierzega, K; Musiol, K [Marian Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagellonian University, Krakow (Poland); Briand, F, E-mail: sylwia.zielinska@airliquide.co, E-mail: stephane.pellerin@univ-orleans.f, E-mail: krzycho@netmail.if.uj.edu.p, E-mail: flavien.valensi@laplace.univ-tsle.f, E-mail: ufmusiol@cyf-kr.edu.p, E-mail: francis.briand@airliquide.co [CTAS-Air Liquide Welding, Saint Ouen l' Aunone, 95315 Cergy-Pontoise cedex (France)

    2010-11-03

    The particular character of the welding arc working in pure argon, whose emission spectrum consists of many spectral lines strongly broadened by the Stark effect, has allowed measurement, sometimes for the first time, of the Stark parameters of 15 Mn I and 10 Fe I atomic spectral lines, and determination of the dependence on temperature of normalized Stark broadening in N{sub e} = 10{sup 23} m{sup -3} of the 542.4 nm atomic iron line. These results show that special properties of the MIG plasma may be useful in this domain because composition of the wire-electrode may be easily adapted to the needs of an experiment.

  8. Effect of magnetic configuration on plasma parameters in the H-1 heliac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, B.D.; Pretty, D.G.; Harris, J.H.; Howard, J.; Shats, M.G.; Collis, S.M.; Gardner, H.J.; Michael, C.A.; Punzmann, H. [Plasma Research Laboratory, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering Australian National University, ACT (Australia)

    2003-07-01

    The H-1 heliac is a current-free stellarator with a helical magnetic axis which twists around the machine axis (a circular ring conductor, radius 1m) three times in one toroidal rotation. It us a ''flexible'' heliac composed almost entirely of circular coils with the exception of the helical control winding, which also wraps around the ring conductor, in phase with the magnetic axis of the plasma, but with a smaller swing radius (95 mm c.f. {proportional_to} 230 mm). In addition to indicating particle confinement times, this phenomenon may be sensitive to plasma generation efficiency. There may be some interaction between configuration and impurity generation, as plasma boundaries and strike points are varied. Various plasma conditions and formation techniques are compared. (orig.)

  9. Evaluation of the operational parameters for NBI-driven fusion in low-gain tokamaks with two-component plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirkov, A. Yu.

    2015-09-01

    Low gain (Q ~ 1) fusion plasma systems are of interest for concepts of fusion-fission hybrid reactors. Operational regimes of large modern tokamaks are close to Q  ≈  1. Therefore, they can be considered as prototypes of neutron sources for fusion-fission hybrids. Powerful neutral beam injection (NBI) can support the essential population of fast particles compared with the Maxwellial population. In such two-component plasma, fusion reaction rate is higher than for Maxwellian plasma. Increased reaction rate allows the development of relatively small-size and relatively inexpensive neutron sources. Possible operating regimes of the NBI-heated tokamak neutron source are discussed. In a relatively compact device, the predictions of physics of two-component fusion plasma have some volatility that causes taking into account variations of the operational parameters. Consequent parameter ranges are studied. The feasibility of regimes with Q  ≈  1 is shown for the relatively small and low-power system. The effect of NBI fraction in total heating power is analyzed.

  10. Kinetic parameters and intraindividual fluctuations of ochratoxin A plasma levels in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer-Rohr, I. [Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland); Dept. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland); Schlatter, J. [Toxicology Section, Div. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Zurich (Switzerland); Dietrich, D.R. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland)

    2000-11-01

    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a rodent carcinogen produced by species of the ubiquitous fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is found in a variety of food items and as a consequence is also found in human plasma (average concentrations found in this study: 0.1-1 ng OTA/ml plasma). To improve the scientific basis for cancer risk assessment the toxicokinetic profile of OTA was studied in one human volunteer following ingestion of 395 ng {sup 3}H-labeled OTA (3.8 {mu}Ci). A two-compartment open model consisting of a central compartment was found to best describe the in vivo data. This two-compartment model consisted of a fast elimination and distribution phase (T{sub 1/2} about 20 h) followed by a slow elimination phase (renal clearance about 0.11 ml/min.) and a calculated plasma half-life of 35.55 days. This half-life was approximately eight times longer than that determined previously in rats. In addition, the intraindividual fluctuation of OTA plasma levels was investigated in eight individuals over a period of 2 months. The concentrations determined ranged between 0.2 and 0.9 ng OTA/ml plasma. The plasma levels in some individuals remained nearly constant over time, while others varied considerably (e.g. increase of 0.4 ng/ml within 3 days, decrease of 0.3 ng/ml within 5 days) during the observation period. This intraindividual fluctuation in OTA plasma levels, which may represent differences in OTA exposure and/or metabolism, as well as the large difference in plasma half-life in humans compared to rats must be taken into consideration when the results of rat cancer study data are extrapolated to humans for risk assessment purposes. (orig.)

  11. Effects of APOE rs429358, rs7412 and GSTM1/GSTT1 Polymorphism on Plasma and Erythrocyte Antioxidant Parameters and Cognition in Old Chinese Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhong Yuan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Apolipoprotein E (APOE and oxidative damage were correlated with the risk of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. Glutathione S-transferase (GST polymorphism was proved to be associated with body antioxidant capacity and involved in the oxidative damage related chronic diseases. To explore the combined effects of APOE rs429358, rs7412 and GSTM1/T1 polymorphism on antioxidant parameters and cognition in old Chinese adults, a community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in 477 Chinese adults aged from 55 to 75. Information on demography and lifestyle of the participants was collected with a questionnaire. Cognitive function was measured by using a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA test. Fasting venous blood samples were collected for APOE rs429358, rs7412 and GSTM1/T1 genotyping, and parameter measurement. No association of APOE rs7412, rs429358 and GSTM1/T1 polymorphisms with cognition was detected in the old Chinese adults. APOE rs429358, rs7412 polymorphism was mainly associated with plasma α-tocopherol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C and plasma total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC levels (p < 0.05. Interaction of APOE rs429358 and GSTT1 genotype on the plasma triglyceride (TG level and erythrocyte catalase (CAT and GST enzyme activities were detected (p < 0.05. The subjects with APOE rs429358 T/C + C/C and GSTT1− genotype were found to have the highest plasma TG level, erythrocyte CAT enzyme activity, and the lowest GST enzyme activity compared to subjects with other genotypes (p < 0.05. Lowest erythrocyte CAT enzyme activity and highest glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px enzyme activity were detected in the subjects with APOE rs7412 T/C + T/T and GSTM1+ genotype as compared with subjects with other genotypes. The levels of plasma and erythrocyte antioxidant parameters were APOE genotype associated. GSTM1 or GSTT1 genotype modified the influence of APOE rs7412, rs429358 polymorphism on antioxidant parameters.

  12. Thrust Stand Measurements of a Conical Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2013-01-01

    Inductive Pulsed Plasma Thrusters (iPPT) spacecraft propulsion devices in which electrical energy is capacitively stored and then discharged through an inductive coil. The thruster is electrodeless, with a time-varying current in the coil interacting with a plasma covering the face of the coil to induce a plasma current Propellant is accelerated and expelled at a high exhaust velocity (O(10 -- 100 km/s)) by the Lorentz body force arising from the interaction of the magnetic field and the induced plasma current. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, inductive pulsed plasma thrusters can suffer from both high pulse energy requirements imposed by the voltage demands of inductive propellant ionization, and low propellant utilization efficiencies. While this class of thruster mitigates the life-limiting issues associated with electrode erosion, inductive pulsed plasma thrusters can suffer from both high pulse energy requirements imposed by the voltage demands of inductive propellant ionization, and low propellant utilization efficiencies. A conical coil geometry may offer higher propellant utilization efficiency over that of a at inductive coil, however an increase in propellant utilization may be met with a decrease in axial electromagnetic acceleration, and in turn, a decrease in the total axially-directed kinetic energy imparted to the propellant.

  13. Electronic Structure Measurement of Solid Density Plasmas using X-Ray Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregori, G; Glenzer, S H; Rogers, F J; Landen, O L; Blancard, C; Faussurier, G; Renaudin, P; Kuhlbrodt, S; Redmer, R

    2003-08-23

    We present an improved analytical expression for the x-ray dynamic structure factor from a dense plasma which includes the effects of weakly bound electrons. This result can be applied to describe scattering from low to moderate Z plasmas, and it covers the entire range of plasma conditions that can be found in inertial confinement fusion experiments, from ideal to degenerate up to moderately coupled systems. We use our theory to interpret x-ray scattering experiments from solid density carbon plasma and to extract accurate measurements of electron temperature, electron density and charge state. We use our experimental results to validate various equation-of-state models for carbon plasmas.

  14. Study of the interrelation between the electrotechnical parameters of the plasma focus discharge circuit and the plasma compression dynamics on the PF-3 and PF-1000 facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitrofanov, K. N., E-mail: mitrkn@inbox.ru [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Krauz, V. I., E-mail: krauz-vi@nrcki.ru, E-mail: vkrauz@yandex.ru [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Grabovski, E. V. [Troitsk Institute for Innovation and Fusion Research (Russian Federation); Myalton, V. V.; Vinogradov, V. P. [National Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Paduch, M. [Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (Poland); Scholz, M. [Polish Academy of Sciences, Niewodniczański Institute of Nuclear Physics (Poland); Karpiński, L. [Łukasiewicz University of Technology, Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering (Poland)

    2015-05-15

    The main stages of the plasma current sheath (PCS) dynamics on two plasma focus (PF) facilities with different geometries of the electrode system, PF-3 (Filippov type) and PF-1000 (Mather type), were studied by analyzing the results of the current and voltage measurements. Some dynamic characteristics, such as the PCS velocity in the acceleration phase in the Mather-type facility (PF-1000), the moment at which the PCS reaches the anode end, and the plasma velocity in the radial stage of plasma compression in the PF-3 Filippov-type facility, were determined from the time dependence of the inductance of the discharge circuit with a dynamic plasma load. The energy characteristics of the discharge circuit of the compressing PCS were studied for different working gases (deuterium, argon, and neon) at initial pressures of 1.5–3 Torr in discharges with energies of 0.3–0.6 MJ. In experiments with deuterium, correlation between the neutron yield and the electromagnetic energy deposited directly in the compressed PCS was investigated.

  15. Effect of q-nonextensive parameter and saturation time on electron density steepening in electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemzadeh, M.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of q-nonextensive parameter and saturation time on the electron density steepening in electron-positron-ion plasmas is studied by particle in cell method. Phase space diagrams show that the size of the holes, and consequently, the number of trapped particles strongly depends on the q-parameter and saturation time. Furthermore, the mechanism of the instability and exchange of energy between electron-positron and electric field is explained by the profiles of the energy density. Moreover, it is found that the q-parameter, saturation time, and electron and positron velocities affect the nonlinear evolution of the electron density which leads to the steepening of its structure. The q-nonextensive parameter or degree of nonextensivity is the relation between temperature gradient and potential energy of the system. Therefore, the deviation of q-parameter from unity indicates the degree of inhomogeneity of temperature or deviation from equilibrium. Finally, using the kinetic theory, a generalized q-dispersion relation is presented for electron-positron-ion plasma systems. It is found that the simulation results in the linear regime are in good agreement with the growth rate results obtained by the kinetic theory.

  16. On the fundamental relation of laser schlieren deflectometry for temperature measurements in filamentary plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäfer, Jan; Bonaventura, Zdeněk; Foest, Rüdiger

    2015-07-01

    Recently, laser schlieren deflectometry (LSD) had been successfully employed as a temperature measurement method to reveal the heat convection generated by micro filaments of a self-organized non-thermal atmospheric plasma jet. Based on the theory of the temperature measurements using LSD, in this work, three approaches for an application of the method are introduced: (i) a hyperbolic-like model of refractive index is applied which allows an analytical theory for the evaluation of the deflection angle to be developed, (ii) a Gaussian shape model for the filament temperature is implemented which is analyzed numerically and (iii) an experimental calibration of the laser deflection with a gas mixture of helium and argon is performed. Thus, these approaches demonstrate that a universal relation between the relative maximum temperature of the filament core (T1/T0) and a the maximum deflection angle δ1 of the laser beam can be written as T1/T0=(1 - δ1/δ0)-1, where δ0 is a parameter that is defined by the configuration of the experiment and by the assumed model for the shape of the temperature profile. Contribution to the topical issue "The 14th International Symposium on High Pressure Low Temperature Plasma Chemistry (HAKONE XIV)", edited by Nicolas Gherardi, Ronny Brandenburg and Lars Stollenwark

  17. Estimation of genetic parameters for wool fiber diameter measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iman, N Y; Johnson, C L; Russell, W C; Stobart, R H

    1992-04-01

    Genetic and phenotypic correlations and heritability estimates of side, britch, and core diameters; side and britch CV; side and britch diameter difference; and clean fleece weight were investigated using 385 western white-faced ewes produced by 50 sires and maintained at two locations on a selection study. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance procedures, and effects in the final model included breed of sire-selection line combination, sire within breed-selection line, and location. Heritabilities were estimated by paternal half-sib analysis. Sires within breed-selection line represented a significant source of variation for all traits studied. Location had a significant effect on side diameter, side and britch diameter difference, and clean fleece weight. Age of ewe only affected clean fleece weight. Phenotypic and genetic correlations among side, britch, and core diameter measures were high and positive. Phenotypic correlations ranged from .68 to .75 and genetic correlations ranged from .74 to .89. The genetic correlations between side and britch diameter difference and side diameter or core diameter were small (-.16 and .28, respectively). However, there was a stronger genetic correlation between side and britch diameter difference and britch diameter (.55). Heritability of the difference between side and britch diameter was high (.46 +/- .16) and similar to heritability estimates reported for other wool traits. Results of this study indicate that relatively rapid genetic progress through selection for fiber diameter should be possible. In addition, increased uniformity in fiber diameter should be possible through selection for either side and britch diameter difference or side or britch CV.

  18. Plasma, magnetic, and electromagnetic measurements at nonmagnetic bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, C. T.; Luhmann, J. G.

    The need to explore the magnetospheres of the Earth and the giant planets is widely recognized and is an integral part of our planetary exploration program. The equal need to explore the plasma, magnetic, and electromagnetic environments of the nonmagnetic bodies is not so widely appreciated. The previous, albeit incomplete, magnetic and electric field measurements at Venus, Mars, and comets have proven critical to our understanding of their atmospheres and ionospheres in areas ranging from planetary lightning to solar wind scavenging and accretion. In the cases of Venus and Mars, the ionospheres can provide communication paths over the horizon for low-altitude probes and landers, but we know little about their lower boundaries. The expected varying magnetic fields below these planetary ionospheres penetrates the planetary crusts and can be used to sound the electrical conductivity and the thermal profiles of the interiors. However, we have no knowledge of the levels of such fields, let alone their morphology. Finally, we note that the absence of an atmosphere and an ionosphere does not make an object any less interesting for the purposes of electromagnetic exploration. Even weak remanent magnetism such as that found on the Moon during the Apollo program provides insight into the present and past states of planetary interiors. We have very intriguing data from our space probes during times of both close and distant passages of asteroids that suggest they may have coherent magnetization. If true, this observation will put important constraints on how the asteroids formed and have evolved. Our planetary exploration program must exploit its full range of exploration tools if it is to characterize the bodies of the solar system thoroughly. We should especially take advantage of those techniques that are proven and require low mass, low power, and low telemetry rates to undertake.

  19. STUDY ON THE PRESSURE IN PLASMA ARC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The axial pressure in plasma arc is measured under different conditions. The effects of the parameters, such as welding current, plasma gas flow rate, electrode setback and arc length, on the pressure in plasma arc are investigated and quantitative analyzed to explain the relationship between the quality of weld and the matching of parameters in plasma arc welding process.

  20. Measurements of plasma composition in the TEXTOR tokamak by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Korsholm, Søren Bang; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh;

    2012-01-01

    with wave vector components nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. Under such conditions the sensitivity of the CTS spectrum to plasma composition is enhanced by the spectral signatures of the ion cyclotron motion and of weakly damped ion Bernstein waves. Recent experiments on TEXTOR demonstrated......We demonstrate the use of collective Thomson scattering (CTS) for spatially localized measurements of the isotopic composition of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. The experiments were conducted in the TEXTOR tokamak by scattering millimeter-wave probe radiation off plasma fluctuations...... the ability to resolve these signatures in the CTS spectrum as well as their sensitivity to the ion species mix in the plasma. This paper shows that the plasma composition can be inferred from the measurements through forward modeling of the CTS spectrum. We demonstrate that spectra measured in plasmas...

  1. Influence of operating parameters on surface properties of RF glow discharge oxygen plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET film for biomedical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandiyaraj, K. Navaneetha, E-mail: dr.knpr@gmail.com [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L and T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Deshmukh, R.R. [Department of Physics, Institute of Chemical Technology, Matunga, Mumbai 400 019 (India); Mahendiran, R. [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Department of Physics, Sri Shakthi Institute of Engineering and Technology, L and T by pass, Chinniyam Palayam (post), Coimbatore 641062 (India); Su, Pi-G [Department of Chemistry, Chinese Culture University, Taipei 111, Taiwan (China); Yassitepe, Emre; Shah, Ismat [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, 208 Dupont Hall, Newark (United States); Perni, Stefano [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Prokopovich, Polina [School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Cardiff University, Cardiff (United Kingdom); Institute of Medical Engineering and Medical Physics, School of Engineering, Cardiff University (United Kingdom); Nadagouda, Mallikarjuna N., E-mail: Nadagouda.Mallikarjuna@epamail.epa.gov [The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, ORD, NRMRL, WSWRD, 26W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a thin transparent titania (TiO{sub 2}) film was coated on the surface of flexible poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film using the sol–gel method. The surface properties of the obtained TiO{sub 2}/PET film were further improved by RF glow discharge oxygen plasma as a function of exposure time and discharge power. The changes in hydrophilicity of TiO{sub 2}/PET films were analyzed by contact angle measurements and surface energy. The influence of plasma on the surface of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films was analyzed by atomic force microscopy (AFM) as well as the change in chemical state and composition that were investigated by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS). The cytotoxicity of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films was analyzed using human osteoblast cells and the bacterial eradication behaviors of TiO{sub 2}/PET films were also evaluated against Staphylococcus bacteria. It was found that the surface roughness and incorporation of oxygen containing polar functional groups of the plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET films increased substantially as compared to the untreated one. Moreover the increased concentration of Ti{sup 3+} on the surface of plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET films was due to the transformation of chemical states (Ti{sup 4+} → Ti{sup 3+}). These morphological and chemical changes are responsible for enhanced hydrophilicity of the TiO{sub 2}/PET films. Furthermore, the plasma treated TiO{sub 2}/PET film exhibited no citotoxicity against osteoblast cells and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus bacteria which can find application in manufacturing of biomedical devices. - Graphical abstract: Mechanism of plasma treatment on the surface of TiO{sub 2}/PET films. - Highlights: • Investigated the surface properties of TiO{sub 2}/PET films modified by O{sub 2} plasma • Studied the effect of operating parameters on surface properties of TiO{sub 2}/PET films • Mechanism of the plasma treatment on TiO{sub 2}/PET was clearly investigated.

  2. Plasma IMS Composition Measurements for Europa and the Other Galilean Moons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittler, Edward; Cooper, John; Hartle, Richard; Lipatov, Alexander; Mahaffy, Paul; Paterson, William; Pachalidis, Nick; Coplan, Mike; Cassidy, Tim

    2010-05-01

    sputtering of the surfaces of Europa and Ganymede has been shown to be representative of the surface composition [2,3]. Level 2 science on surface geology and composition can then be further enhanced by addition of the following: 3D Ion Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS), 3D plasma electron spectrometer (ELS), and hot plasma energetic particle instrument. The measurement approach is to alternate between times measuring pickup ions and times measuring plasma and magnetic field parameters along the spacecraft trajectory. By measuring the pickup ion energy, arrival direction and mass-per-charge, the ion can be traced back along the ejection trajectory to the approximate area of origin if the 3-D electric field and magnetic field are known. In situ observations of plasma flow velocities and vector magnetic fields can be used to determine the local convective electric field (E = -VXB) along the spacecraft trajectory. By combining this information with models of the magnetospheric interaction with Europa [3,4], one can generate 3D maps of the electric and magnetic field and compute the trajectories of the pickup ions back to the surface or exospheric points of origin. In the case of Ganymede there is the additional complexity of its own internal dipole magnetic field, while Io's volcanic activity introduces the complexity of a highly structured denser atmosphere. Callisto with its less globally extended exosphere will have a simpler interaction than for Europa (i.e., more like our moon). We will discuss these differences in light of the above proposed technique. Finally, the INMS observations and neutral exosphere models are needed to estimate production rates of pickup ions. The hot plasma measurements are needed to correct for sputtering rates which can be time dependent and electron plasma observations for electron impact ionization rates. Instrument characteristics, field-of-view requirements, modes of operation and effects of radiation on instrument functionality will be

  3. Posture parameters optimization of a structured light 3D angle measuring system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xun DING

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve the measurement precision of the structured light target angle, this paper studies the relation between the structured light system parameters and measurement accuracy of the angle. Firstly, the main system structure parameters influencing the angle measurement precision are analyzed based on the structured light measurement principle; secondly, simulation research on the laws of how the structured parameters influence the angle measurement precision are conducted, and the optimized range of values of the structured parameters is proposed; finally, the experimental studies show that, the optimized parameters can improve the angle measurement precision effectively, which lays the design foundation for later improvement schemes of the structured light 3D four-wheel alignment instrument.

  4. Ballistic pendula for measuring the momentum of a laser-produced plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grun, J.; Ripin, B. H.

    1982-12-01

    We describe the use of a ballistic pendulum array to measure the momentum of a laser-produced plasma. An in situ calibration method is described and the pendulum results are compared to measurements made with other diagnostics.

  5. Interaction of CLAM Steel with Plasma in HT-7 Tokamak During High Parameter Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chunjing; HUANG Qunying; FENG Yan; LI Jiangang; KONG Mingguang

    2007-01-01

    A Plasma Surface Interaction(PSI)experiment on China Low Activation Martensitic(CLAM)steel was done to check if CLAM steel could be used as a Plasma Facing Material (PFM).A specimen with a diameter of 45 mm was exposed to 897 shots of deuterium plasmas with a total duration of 712 sec at a minor radius of 30 cm in HT-7 tokamak.During the exposure experiment,no observable influence Was found on plasma performance.After exposure,the surface of the specimen seemed as smooth as before but with some colour change at the margin of the specimen.Even though some micro-damage,such as dense blisters,melting,splashing,depositions,and dust,Was found on local surfaces with Scanning Electron Microscopic(SEM)observation.The reflectivity of the specimen decreased only slightly.All of these shows CLAM steel has good stability and irradiation resistance.With further optimization,it could possibly be used as the first mirror material for plasma diagnostics in tokamaks.

  6. Research on three-dimensional trajectory parameter measurement of industrial products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Qing; Guo Ming; Hu Jingquan; Hu Hongzhi

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional trajectory parameter measurement of industrial products is the key technical criteria that drives the product qualification. It has recently become one of the hotspots in the measurement field. This paper presents a method for measuring the eyeglass frame parameters using the inner trajectory as measurement object. The three-dimensional parameters can be measured and calculated from top view and front view. The preprocessing is performed to ensure the reliability of data acquisition. The necessary derivation and explanation for formulas of important parameters are provided. A standard square board is used as the template and is measured multi-times to verify the measurement method. The experimental data are processed and the type A uncertainty is calculated, which concludes that the measurement results are convincible and comply with the product standard, and the proposed method is correct and the design requirements are met.

  7. Measurements of plasma temperature and electron density in laser-induced copper plasma by time-resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion emissions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V K Unnikrishnan; Kamlesh Alti; V B Kartha; C Santhosh; G P Gupta; B M Suri

    2010-06-01

    Plasma produced by a 355 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser with a pulse duration of 6 ns focussed onto a copper solid sample in air at atmospheric pressure is studied spectroscopically. The temperature and electron density characterizing the plasma are measured by time-resolved spectroscopy of neutral atom and ion line emissions in the time window of 300–2000 ns. An echelle spectrograph coupled with a gated intensified charge coupled detector is used to record the plasma emissions. The temperature is obtained using the Boltzmann plot method and the electron density is determined using the Saha– Boltzmann equation method. Both parameters are studied as a function of delay time with respect to the onset of the laser pulse. The results are discussed. The time window where the plasma is optically thin and is also in local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), necessary for the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis of samples, is deduced from the temporal evolution of the intensity ratio of two Cu I lines. It is found to be 700–1000 ns.

  8. Acoustic and perceptual parameters relating to connected speech are more reliable measures of hoarseness than parameters relating to sustained vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstam, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    This report investigates the correlations between acoustic parameters and the perception of hoarseness by trained listeners. Both sustained vowels and connected speech were examined. Fourteen acoustic parameters from samples of sustained vowels and 2 from connected speech were measured. The results show that jitter, shimmer and cepstral peak prominence (CPP) are correlated with the perception of hoarseness in sustained vowels. CPP is strongly correlated with the perception of hoarseness in connected speech. Some evidence is seen that perception of hoarseness in connected speech is more valid than the perception of hoarseness in sustained vowels. It is concluded that CPP for connected speech is a more valid objective measure of hoarseness than jitter, shimmer or CPP for sustained vowels and that perception of hoarseness may be most accurate in connected speech, rather than isolated vowels. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Measurements and non-local thermodynamic equilibrium modeling of mid-Z plasma emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacquet, L., E-mail: laurent.jacquet@cea.fr; Primout, M.; Kaiser, P.; Clouët, J. F.; Girard, F.; Villette, B.; Reverdin, C.; Oudot, G. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2015-12-15

    The x-ray yields from laser-irradiated thin foils of iron, copper, zinc, and germanium have been measured in the soft and multi-keV x-ray ranges at the OMEGA laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. The incident laser power had a pre-pulse to enhance the x-ray emission of a 1 ns flat-top main pulse. The experimental results have been compared with post-shot simulations performed with the two-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamics code FCI2. A new non-local thermodynamic equilibrium model, NOO-RAD, have been incorporated into FCI2. In this approach, the plasma ionization state is in-line calculated by the atomic physics NOHEL package. In the soft x-ray bands, both simulations using RADIOM [M. Busquet, Phys. Fluids B 5, 4191 (1993)] and NOO-RAD clearly over-predict the powers and energies measured by a broad-band spectrometer. In one case (the iron foil), the discrepancy between the measured and simulated x-ray output is nevertheless significantly reduced when NOO-RAD is used in the simulations. In the multi-keV x-ray bands, the simulations display a strong sensitivity to the coupling between the electron thermal conductivity and the NLTE models, and for some particular combinations of these, provide a close match to the measured emission. The comparison between the measured and simulated H-like to He-like line-intensity ratios deduced from high-resolution spectra indicates higher experimental electron temperatures were achieved, compared to the simulated ones. Measurements of the plasma conditions have been achieved using the Thomson-scattering diagnostic. The electron temperatures are found to range from 3 to 5 keV at the end of the laser pulse and are greater than predicted by the simulations. The measured flow velocities are in reasonable agreement with the calculated ones. This last finding gives us confidence in our numerical predictions for the plasma parameters, which are over that time mainly determined by hydrodynamics, such as the mass densities and

  10. Using Selected Transient Methods for Measurements of Thermophysical Parameters of Building Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cviklovič Vladimír

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with thermophysical properties of red and white bricks. If we want to protect the high standard of quality building materials, we need to know the physical parameters which can evaluate the quality. The most important for building materials are mainly thermophysical, mechanical parameters and parameters which can determine the structure of materials. The article presents results of thermophysical parameters measurements of red and white bricks during the temperature stabilization for different values of moisture content. For our measurements, we have chosen a hot wire method and a dynamic plane source method. Both methods are classified as transient methods and they are very convenient for measurements of thermophysical parameters of materials with a compact structure. The results of measurements show that temperature and moisture content have a significant effect on thermophysical parameters of bricks.

  11. Composition Measurements at the Magnetopause and in the Plasma Mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary, S. P.

    1998-01-01

    This final report describes activities under NASA grant NAGW-4049 to Lockheed Missiles and Space Company. The report covers the entire period of the grant from 15 August 1994 to 31 January 1998. The original grant was for 3 years ending in August 1997; however the grant was extended 6 months to accomodate additional data analysis that added significantly to the scientific results. This is a grant under the NASA Supporting Research and Technology Program for the analysis and interpretation of the combined scientific data from the ISEE-1 Plasma Composition Experiment and the AMPTE/CCE Hot Plasma Composition Experiment. These combined data sets were used in a study of the Earth's magnetopause to develop a fundamental understanding of plasma entry and dynamics at the boundary and formation and maintenance of the low latitude boundary layer under a variety of solar wind and magnetospheric conditions and at a wide range of local times.

  12. Measuring the inboard side scrape-off layer of DIII-D plasmas using Swing-Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsui, Cedric

    The scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma of a tokamak often has a complicated spatial dependence. The temperatures, densities and flow speeds can vary significantly on the same magnetic flux tube at different poloidal locations. To fully understand the plasma variation, we must make active measurements along the full length of the flux tubes by expanding our diagnostic capability to include the critically under-diagnosed inboard side. To accomplish this, a new pair of in-situ reciprocating Mach probes called Swing-Probes have been developed and deployed on the DIII D centerpost. This design is unique in that the probe swings vertically through the SOL plasma, taking measurements along a 180° arc with a 20 cm radius. Two electrodes maintain a Mach-pair orientation throughout the swing and provide measurements of saturation current, electron temperature, and parallel flow speeds. The probes can handle very high heat fluxes and have taken measurements up to the Last Closed Flux Surface (LCFS) in high-powered H-Mode at 10 MW. The Swing-Probe temperature and density measurements have been verified against the floor Langmuir probes, the core Thomson scattering and the divertor Thomson scattering systems in DIII-D for conditions where poloidal variation are expected to be small. Measurements have been taken across a wide range of plasma conditions and provide informative relationships between the plasma parameters at the entrance of the inner divertor and the crown of the plasma. The low-turbulence plasmas on the inboard scrape-off layer make it possible to clearly quantify the sheath-expansion around Langmuir probes. An I-V fitter has been developed which can account for sheath-expansion in a theoretically consistent way, improving the reliability of Langmuir probe data analysis. In an inner-wall limited experiment in DIII-D requested by ITER, the Swing-Probes made the first Langmuir probe measurements of an enhanced heat flux feature just outside the LCFS. These measurements

  13. Instability Parameters of Optical Oscillation Frequency in Plasma Central Discharge and Periphery Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhu-Wen; M.A.LIEBERMAN; Sungjin KIM

    2006-01-01

    @@ We have observed relaxation oscillations in a capacitive discharge in Ar gas, connected to a peripheral ground chamber. The plasma oscillations observed from time-varying optical emission from the main discharge chamber show, for example, a high frequency (75.37kHz) relaxation oscillation, at 100mTorr and 8 W absorbed power,and a low frequency (2.72 Hz) relaxation oscillation, 100mTorr and 325 W absorbed power. Time-varying optical emission intensity and plasma density are also detected with a Langmuir probe. The theoretical result agrees well with experiments.

  14. Comparisons between computer simulations of room acoustical parameters and those measured in concert halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Shiokawa, Hiroyoshi; Christensen, Claus Lynge;

    1999-01-01

    A number of European concert halls were surveyed in 1989. In this paper comparisons are made between measured room acoustical parameters and those obtained from computer simulations on concert halls using the odeon program version 3.1. The key parameter compared with measured data is the reverber......A number of European concert halls were surveyed in 1989. In this paper comparisons are made between measured room acoustical parameters and those obtained from computer simulations on concert halls using the odeon program version 3.1. The key parameter compared with measured data...... is the reverberation time, and this is mainly used to adjust the absorption data of the surfaces in the computer model. But five additional parameters are calculated and compared with measured data as well. In order to determine the sensitivity of the computer model, comparisons are also made between the results...

  15. Edge plasma pressure measurements using a mechanical force sensor on the tokamak ISTTOK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunt, T [Humboldt-Universitaet zu Berlin, Newtonstrasse 15, 12489, Berlin (Germany); Silva, C [Associaco Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Fernandes, H [Associaco Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Hidalgo, C [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Pedrosa, M A [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas, CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Duarte, P [Associaco Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Figueiredo, H [Associaco Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal); Pereira, T [Associaco Euratom/IST, Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Instituto Superior Tecnico, Avenida Rovisco Pais, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2007-11-15

    In the present paper we report on a novel mechanical probe, which is able to measure the plasma pressure directly. The probe consists of two pendulums whose heads are exposed to the tokamak edge plasma, while the deflection is measured very sensitively outside the plasma by means of semi-conductor strain gauges. The plasma pressure was successfully measured in the ISTTOK edge plasma, its value being in good agreement with that derived from the electrical probe data (p{sub p} = 1-10 Pa). Furthermore, we discuss the possibility of determining the ion temperature T{sub i} = p{sub p}/n - T{sub e} by combining the pressure measurement with those of n and T{sub e} from the electrical probes. Although the derived ion temperatures-besides that in the region close to the limiter-were reasonable, its uncertainty is still very large.

  16. Plasma Density Measurements in Cable Gun Experiments with a Sensitive He-Ne Interferometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Lin; HE An; JIANG Wei; XU Min; WU Shoudong; LI Ye

    2007-01-01

    A time-resolved sensitive He-Ne laser interferometer without complicated active stabilization was built up and applied to low-density plasma measurements. A precision of about 0.2° in phase measurements was achieved with a minimum line-integrated plasma density as low as 8.3×l013 cm-2. With this interferometer, the characteristics of the plasma generated by a cable plasma gun was investigated systematically. The reproducibility, spatial and temporal distributions and the averaged injection velocity of the plasma are presented. In addition, the interaction of the plasma flow with a conductor was studied by placing a metal plate in the downstream of the cable gun.

  17. Simultaneous streak and frame interferometry for electron density measurements of laser produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, H. J., E-mail: hjquevedo@utexas.edu; McCormick, M.; Wisher, M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, T. [Center for High Energy Density Science, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A system of two collinear probe beams with different wavelengths and pulse durations was used to capture simultaneously snapshot interferograms and streaked interferograms of laser produced plasmas. The snapshots measured the two dimensional, path-integrated, electron density on a charge-coupled device while the radial temporal evolution of a one dimensional plasma slice was recorded by a streak camera. This dual-probe combination allowed us to select plasmas that were uniform and axisymmetric along the laser direction suitable for retrieving the continuous evolution of the radial electron density of homogeneous plasmas. Demonstration of this double probe system was done by measuring rapidly evolving plasmas on time scales less than 1 ns produced by the interaction of femtosecond, high intensity, laser pulses with argon gas clusters. Experiments aimed at studying homogeneous plasmas from high intensity laser-gas or laser-cluster interaction could benefit from the use of this probing scheme.

  18. Simultaneous streak and frame interferometry for electron density measurements of laser produced plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quevedo, H. J.; McCormick, M.; Wisher, M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, T.

    2016-01-01

    A system of two collinear probe beams with different wavelengths and pulse durations was used to capture simultaneously snapshot interferograms and streaked interferograms of laser produced plasmas. The snapshots measured the two dimensional, path-integrated, electron density on a charge-coupled device while the radial temporal evolution of a one dimensional plasma slice was recorded by a streak camera. This dual-probe combination allowed us to select plasmas that were uniform and axisymmetric along the laser direction suitable for retrieving the continuous evolution of the radial electron density of homogeneous plasmas. Demonstration of this double probe system was done by measuring rapidly evolving plasmas on time scales less than 1 ns produced by the interaction of femtosecond, high intensity, laser pulses with argon gas clusters. Experiments aimed at studying homogeneous plasmas from high intensity laser-gas or laser-cluster interaction could benefit from the use of this probing scheme.

  19. Simulations and Measurement of Electron Energy and Effective Electron Temperature of Nanosecond Pulsed Argon Plasma%Simulations and Measurement of Electron Energy and Effective Electron Temperature of Nanosecond Pulsed Argon Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻雪晴; 信裕; 冯春雷; 丁洪斌

    2012-01-01

    The behavior of argon plasma driven by nanosecond pulsed plasma in a low-pressure plasma reactor is investigated using a global model, and the results are compared with the experimental measurements. The time evolution of plasma density and the electron energy probability function are calculated by solving the energy balance and Boltzmann equations. During and shortly after the discharge pulse, the electron energy probability function can be represented by a bi-Maxwellian distribution, indicating two energy groups of electrons. According to the effective electron temperature calculation, we find that there are more high-energy electrons that play an important role in the excitation and ionization processes than low-energy electrons. The effective electron temperature is also measured via optical emission spectroscopy to evaluate the simulation model. In the comparison, the simulation results are found to be in agreement with the measure- ments. Furthermore, variations of the effective electron temperature are presented versus other discharge parameters, such as pulse width time, pulse rise time and gas pressure.

  20. A Multi-Parameter Optimization of Plasma Density for an Advanced Linear Collider*

    CERN Document Server

    Muggli, P; Hillenbrand, S

    2011-01-01

    Recent plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA) experiments showed that an accelerating gradient as high as 50 GV/m can be driven and sustained over a meter-long plasma [1]. Based on this result, a straw man design for a future, multi-stage, PWFA-based electron/positron collider with an energy gain of ~ 25 GeV/stage has been generated [2]. However, the choice of plasma density remains open. On one hand, high density means large accelerating gradients and possibly a shorter collider. On the other it means that the accelerating structure dimensions become very small, on the order of the plasma wavelength. Operating at high gradient and with such small structure imposes very strong constraints on the particle bunches: small dimensions and spacing, large current or limited charge, etc. These constraints result is challenges in producing the bunches (compression, shaping for optimum loading, etc.) and could limit the achievable collider luminosity. We explore the global implications of operating at a lower accelerating...

  1. Surface temperature: A key parameter to control the propanethiol plasma polymer chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiry, Damien, E-mail: damien.thiry@umons.ac.be; Aparicio, Francisco J. [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons (Belgium); Laha, Priya; Terryn, Herman [Research Group Electrochemical and Surface Engineering (SURF), Department of Materials and Chemistry (MACH), Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussel (Belgium); Snyders, Rony [Chimie des Interactions Plasma Surface (ChIPS), CIRMAP, Université de Mons, 23 Place du Parc, B-7000 Mons, Belgium and Materia Nova Research Center, Parc Initialis, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2014-09-01

    In this work, the influence of the substrate temperature (T{sub s}) on the chemical composition of propanethiol plasma polymers was investigated for a given set of plasma conditions. In a first study, a decrease in the atomic sulfur content (at. %S) with the deposition time (t{sub d}) was observed. This behavior is explained by the heating of the growing film during deposition process, limiting the incorporation of stable sulfur-based molecules produced in the plasma. Experiments carried out by controlling the substrate temperature support this hypothesis. On the other hand, an empirical law relating the T{sub s} and the at. %S was established. This allows for the formation of gradient layer presenting a heterogeneous chemical composition along the thickness, as determined by depth profile analysis combining X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and C{sub 60} ion gun sputtering. The experimental data fit with the one predicted from our empiric description. The whole set of our results provide new insights in the relationship between the substrate temperature and the sulfur content in sulfur-based plasma polymers, essential for future developments.

  2. The effect of plasma fluctuations on parallel transport parameters in the SOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havlíčková, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, Volker

    2011-01-01

    in the scrape-off layer (SOL) taking into account these fluctuations is presented. Plasma transport in the SOL along the magnetic field between two targets is calculated by a one-dimensional fluid code in order to estimate the response to transient conditions along the SOL and the attention is given...

  3. Evolution of the plasma parameters in the expanding laser ablation plume of silver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bo Toftmann; Schou, Jørgen; Hansen, T.N.;

    2002-01-01

    The angular and radial variation of the ion density and electron temperature in the plasma plume produced by laser ablation of silver at fluences of 0.8-1.3 J cm(-2) at 355 nm have been studied using a time-resolving Langmuir probe. The angular dependence of the electron temperature and the magni...

  4. The relationship between HbA(1c) and fasting plasma glucose in patients with increased plasma liver enzyme measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, R; Rasmussen, L Melholt; Nybo, H;

    2012-01-01

    levels of increased liver enzyme concentrations. Methods:  Data from 10 065 patients with simultaneous measurement of HbA(1c) , venous fasting plasma glucose, alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase were extracted from our laboratory database. Correlations were investigated in four patient...

  5. Stark broadening measurements in plasmas produced by laser ablation of hydrogen containing compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, Miloš; Hermann, Jörg

    2016-08-01

    We present a method for the measurement of Stark broadening parameters of atomic and ionic spectral lines based on laser ablation of hydrogen containing compounds. Therefore, plume emission spectra, recorded with an echelle spectrometer coupled to a gated detector, were compared to the spectral radiance of a plasma in local thermal equilibrium. Producing material ablation with ultraviolet nanosecond laser pulses in argon at near atmospheric pressure, the recordings take advantage of the spatially uniform distributions of electron density and temperature within the ablated vapor. By changing the delay between laser pulse and detector gate, the electron density could be varied by more than two orders of magnitude while the temperature was altered in the range from 6,000 to 14,000 K. The Stark broadening parameters of transitions were derived from their simultaneous observation with the hydrogen Balmer alpha line. In addition, assuming a linear increase of Stark widths and shifts with electron density for non-hydrogenic lines, our measurements indicate a change of the Stark broadening-dependence of Hα over the considered electron density range. The presented results obtained for hydrated calcium sulfate (CaSO4ṡ2H2O) can be extended to any kind of hydrogen containing compounds.

  6. Space Plasma Studies by In-Situ and Remote Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Awarded by Lenin Prize (highest in USSR). 1962 Plasma experiments aboard KOSMOS 2, evidence of the lack of charged particles thermodynamic equilibrium...ionosphere of Venus. 1970- 1979 Ionospheric experiments aboard COSMOS 378, INTERCOSMOS 8,10,12,14,18,19 and KOSMOS 900. 1970- 1981 Series of in

  7. Simultaneous measurement of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in plasma and neurohypophysis by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R. (Deutsche Hochschule fuer Koerperkultur, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Forschungsinstitut Koerperkultur und Sport)

    1981-12-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) were measured simultaneously in the same sample by specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIAs). The antibodies used did not cross-react to a variety of analogs and related peptides. The extraction procedure using Vycor glass powder resulted in mean recoveries of 84.4% (AVP) and 64.6% (OXT). In both assays, the sensitivity was 1 to 2 pg/ml plasma. A preincubation procedure that depresses plasma levels of both AVP and OXT selectively, provided specific blank values for a given plasma sample. To confirm the validity of the RIAs, dehydration experiments were performed. In rats, the basal levels of plasma AVP and OXT (means: 2,63 pg/ml and 6.80 pg/ml, respectively) are increased significantly after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of water deprivation. Relationships are presented between both neurohormones in the plasma and neurohypophyses of control and dehydrated animals. As shown in cows, a significant correlation exists between plasma AVP and plasma osmolality but not between plasma OXT and osmolality or plasma AVP and OXT. Basal levels as well as physiological changes in plasma and neurohypophyseal AVP and OXT can be measured by the RIAs described.

  8. Feasibility of measuring density and temperature of laser produced plasmas using spectroscopic techniques.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edens, Aaron D.

    2008-09-01

    A wide variety of experiments on the Z-Beamlet laser involve the creation of laser produced plasmas. Having a direct measurement of the density and temperature of these plasma would an extremely useful tool, as understanding how these quantities evolve in space and time gives insight into the causes of changes in other physical processes, such as x-ray generation and opacity. We propose to investigate the possibility of diagnosing the density and temperature of laser-produced plasma using temporally and spatially resolved spectroscopic techniques that are similar to ones that have been successfully fielded on other systems. Various researchers have measured the density and temperature of laboratory plasmas by looking at the width and intensity ratio of various characteristic lines in gases such as nitrogen and hydrogen, as well as in plasmas produced off of solid targets such as zinc. The plasma conditions produce two major measurable effects on the characteristic spectral lines of that plasma. The 1st is the Stark broadening of an individual line, which depends on the electron density of the plasma, with higher densities leading to broader lines. The second effect is a change in the ratio of various lines in the plasma corresponding to different ionization states. By looking at the ratio of these lines, we can gain some understanding of the plasma ionization state and consequently its temperature (and ion density when coupled with the broadening measurement). The hotter a plasma is, the higher greater the intensity of lines corresponding to higher ionization states. We would like to investigate fielding a system on the Z-Beamlet laser chamber to spectroscopically study laser produced plasmas from different material targets.

  9. A fibre based triature interferometer for measuring rapidly evolving, ablatively driven plasma densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, J.; Bland, S. N.; Threadgold, J.

    2015-08-01

    We report on the first use of a fibre interferometer incorporating triature analysis for measuring rapidly evolving plasma densities of ne ˜ 1013/cm3 and above, such as those produced by simple coaxial plasma guns. The resultant system is extremely portable, easy to field in experiments, relatively cheap to produce, and—with the exception of a small open area in which the plasma is sampled—safe in operation as all laser light is enclosed.

  10. Platelets confound the measurement of extracellular miRNA in archived plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Adam J.; Gray, Warren D; Hayek, Salim S.; Yi-An Ko; Sheena Thomas; Kim Rooney; Mosaab Awad; John D. Roback; Arshed Quyyumi; Searles, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular miRNAs are detectable in biofluids and represent a novel class of disease biomarker. Although many studies have utilized archived plasma for miRNA biomarker discovery, the effects of processing and storage have not been rigorously studied. Previous reports have suggested plasma samples are commonly contaminated by platelets, significantly confounding the measurement of extracellular miRNA, which was thought to be easily addressed by additional post-thaw plasma processing. In a c...

  11. Plasma-cavity ringdown spectroscopy for analytical measurement: Progress and prospectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Sida; Liu, Wei [Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Analytical and Testing Center, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Zhang, Xiaohe [College of Water Resources and Hydropower, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China); Duan, Yixiang, E-mail: yduan@scu.edu.cn [Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation, Analytical and Testing Center, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu (China)

    2013-07-01

    Plasma-cavity ringdown spectroscopy is a powerful absorption technique for analytical measurement. It combines the inherent advantages of high sensitivity, absolute measurement, and relative insensitivity to light source intensity fluctuations of the cavity ringdown technique with use of plasma as an atomization/ionization source. In this review, we briefly describe the background and principles of plasma-cavity ringdown spectroscopy(CRDS) technology, the instrumental components, and various applications. The significant developments of the plasma sources, lasers, and cavity optics are illustrated. Analytical applications of plasma-CRDS for elemental detection and isotopic measurement in atomic spectrometry are outlined in this review. Plasma-CRDS is shown to have a promising future for various analytical applications, while some further efforts are still needed in fields such as cavity design, plasma source design, instrumental improvement and integration, as well as potential applications in radical and molecular measurements. - Highlights: • Plasma-based cavity ringdown spectroscopy • High sensitivity and high resolution • Elemental and isotopic measurements.

  12. Lupin seeds lower plasma lipid concentrations and normalize antioxidant parameters in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman, M.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test bitter and sweet lupin seeds for lipid-lowering and for their antioxidative activities in hypercholesterolemic rats. The levels of plasma lipid, malondialdehyde (MDA and whole blood reduced glutathione (GSH, as well as the activities of transaminases (ALT and AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in plasma, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GPx in erythrocytes and plasma glutathione reductase (GR, glutathione-S-transferase (GST and catalase (CAT were examined. A hypercholesterolemia-induced diet manifested in the elevation of total lipids (TL, total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, LDL-C and MDA levels, ALT, AST, LDH activities and the depletion of GSH and enzymic antioxidants. The supplementation of a hypercholesterolemia-induced diet with bitter and sweet lupin seeds significantly lowered the plasma levels of TL, TC, TG and LDL-C. ALT, AST and LDH activities slightly decreased in treated groups compared with the hypercholesterolemic group (HC. Furthermore, the content of GSH significantly increased while MDA significantly decreased in treated groups compared with the HC group. In addition, the bitter lupin seed group improved enzymic antioxidants compared with the HC group. In general, the results indicated that the bitter lupin seed supplements are better than those containing sweet lupin seeds. These results suggested that the hypocholesterolemic effect of bitter and sweet lupin seed supplements might be due to their abilities to lower the plasma cholesterol level as well as to slow down the lipid peroxidation process and to enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity.

    Este estudio fue diseñado para evaluar semillas de altramuces dulces y amargas como agentes que bajan los lípidos y estudiar su efecto en la actividad antioxidante en ratas hipercolesterolémicas. El nivel de lípidos en plasma, malondialdehido (MDA y glutatión reducido (GSH, así como la actividad transaminasa (ALT y AST

  13. Measurement of plasma cell-free DNA concentrations in dogs with sepsis, trauma, and neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, Jo-Annie; Goggs, Robert

    2017-05-01

    To determine if cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was identifiable in canine plasma, to evaluate 3 techniques for the measurement of plasma cfDNA concentrations in dogs presented to an emergency service, and to compare the plasma cfDNA concentrations of healthy dogs to those with sepsis, trauma, and neoplasia. Retrospective study of banked canine plasma samples collected between May 2014 and December 2014. Dogs presented to the emergency service of a university veterinary teaching hospital. Plasma cfDNA was measured on residual plasma samples obtained from 15 dogs with sepsis, 15 dogs with moderate-severe trauma, 15 dogs diagnosed with a sarcoma. Plasma cfDNA was also measured in 15 healthy dogs. None. Assay linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility were evaluated. Quantification of cfDNA was performed in duplicate on diluted citrated plasma and following DNA purification using 2 fluorescence assays (SYBR-Gold; Quant-iT) and by ultraviolet absorbance spectroscopy. Fluorescence intensities (FIs) were converted to cfDNA concentrations using standard curves. Median FI values and cfDNA concentrations were compared to healthy controls using the Kruskal-Wallis test, with adjustment for multiple comparisons. Alpha was set at 0.05. Both assays had excellent linearity, and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility. Compared to controls, plasma cfDNA concentrations were significantly increased in dogs with sepsis or moderate-severe trauma with both assays (P ≤ 0.003). Dogs with neoplasia had significantly increased cfDNA concentrations with the Quant-iT assay only (P = 0.003). When measurements were performed on purified DNA, only dogs with moderate-severe trauma had significantly increased cfDNA concentrations (P plasma using 2 fluorescence assays. DNA extraction offers no advantage over direct measurement. Compared to healthy controls, dogs with sepsis or moderate-severe trauma have significantly increased plasma cfDNA concentrations. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care

  14. Progress Toward Accurate Measurements of Power Consumptions of DBD Plasma Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpis, David E.; Laun, Matthew C.; Griebeler, Elmer L.

    2012-01-01

    The accurate measurement of power consumption by Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) plasma actuators is a challenge due to the characteristics of the actuator current signal. Micro-discharges generate high-amplitude, high-frequency current spike transients superimposed on a low-amplitude, low-frequency current. We have used a high-speed digital oscilloscope to measure the actuator power consumption using the Shunt Resistor method and the Monitor Capacitor method. The measurements were performed simultaneously and compared to each other in a time-accurate manner. It was found that low signal-to-noise ratios of the oscilloscopes used, in combination with the high dynamic range of the current spikes, make the Shunt Resistor method inaccurate. An innovative, nonlinear signal compression circuit was applied to the actuator current signal and yielded excellent agreement between the two methods. The paper describes the issues and challenges associated with performing accurate power measurements. It provides insights into the two methods including new insight into the Lissajous curve of the Monitor Capacitor method. Extension to a broad range of parameters and further development of the compression hardware will be performed in future work.

  15. Pose measurement method with six parameters for microassembly based on an optical micrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xin; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Zhi-jing; Sun, Yuan; Zhang, Xiao-feng

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents a new pose measurement method of microminiature parts that is capable of transforming one dimension (1D) contour size obtained by optical micrometer to three dimension (3D) data with six parameters for microassembly. Pose measurement is one of the most important processes for microminiature parts' alignment and insertion in microassembly. During the past few years, researchers have developed their microassembly systems focusing on visual identification to obtain two or three dimension data with no more than three parameters. Scanning electronic microscope (SEM), optical microscope, and stereomicroscope are applied in their systems. However, as structures of microminiature parts become increasingly complex, six parameters to represent their position and orientation are specifically needed. Firstly, The pose measurement model is established based on the introduction of measuring objects and measuring principle of optical micrometer. The measuring objects are microminiature parts with complex 3D structure. Two groups of two dimension (2D) data are gathered at two different measurement positions. Then part pose with 6 parameters is calculated, including 3 position parameters of feature point of the part and 3 orientation parameters of the part axis. Secondly, pose measurement process for a small shaft, vertical orientation determination, and position parameters obtaining are presented. 2D data is gathered by scanning the generatrix of the part, and valid data is extracted and saved in arrays. A vertical orientation criterion is proposed to determine whether the part is parallel to the Z-axis of the coordinate. If not, 2D data will be fixed into a linear equation using least square algorithm. Then orientation parameters are calculated. Center of Part End (CPE) is selected as feature point of the part, and its position parameters are extracted form two group of 2D data. Finally, a fast pose measurement device is developed and representative

  16. Measurements And Particle In Cell vs. Fluid Simulations Of A New Time Domain Impedance Probe For Ionospheric Plasma Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, E. A.; Russ, S.; Kerrigan, B.; Leggett, K.; Mullins, J.; Clark, D. C.; Mizell, J.; Gollapalli, R.; Vassiliadis, D.; Lusk, G. D.

    2015-12-01

    A plasma impedance probe is used to obtain plasma parameters in the ionosphere by measuring the magnitude, shape and location of resonances in the frequency spectrum when a probe structure is driven with RF excitation. The measured magnitude and phase response with respect to frequency can be analyzed via analytical and simulational means. We have designed and developed a new Time Domain Impedance Probe capable of making measurements of absolute electron density and electron neutral collision frequency at temporal and spatial resolutions not previously attained. A single measurement can be made in a time as short as 50 microseconds, which yields a spatial resolution of 0.35 meters for a satellite orbital velocity of 7 km/s. The method essentially consists of applying a small amplitude time limited voltage signal into a probe and measuring the resulting current response. The frequency bandwidth of the voltage signal is selected in order that the electron plasma resonances are observable. A prototype of the instrument will be flown in October 2015 on a NASA Undergraduate Student Instrument Progam (USIP) sounding rocket launched out of Wallops Flight Facility. To analyze the measurements, we use a Particle In Cell (PIC) kinetic simulation to calculate the impedance of a dipole antenna immersed in a plasma. The electromagnetic solver utilizes the Finite Difference Time Domain method, while the particle to grid and grid to particle interpolation schemes are standard. The plasma sheath formation electron flux into the dipole surface is not included. The bulk velocity of the plasma around the dipole is assumed to be zero. For completeness, the hot plasma and nonlinear effects of probe plasma interaction are explored, including the appearance of cyclotron harmonics. In this work the electron neutral collisions are simulated via a Poisson process approximation. Our results are compared to sounding rocket data from the NASA Tropical Storms mission in 2007, as well as the

  17. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    plasma, in cold activated plasma and in FVII deficient plasma. There was a positive correlation (r=0.96) between FVII:Ag and FVII:Am with slightly but significantly higher values for FVII:Ag (FVII:Ag= 106 U/ml and FVII:Am=100 U/ml; p ...Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII......:Ag) or estimated with an amidolytic method (FVII:Am). We have investigated whether FVII:Am is a valuable alternative to FVII:Ag. FVII:Ag and FVII:Am were measured in 147 plasma samples from blood donors, patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy, in postprandial...

  18. Measurements of Electron Density Profiles of Plasmas Produced by Nike KrF Laser for Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Karasik, M.; Chan, L.-Y.; Serlin, V.; Phillips, L.

    2013-10-01

    Knowing spatial profiles of electron density (ne) in the underdense coronal region (n Nike LPI experiment, a side-on grid imaging refractometer (GIR) was deployed for measuring the underdense plasma profiles. Plasmas were produced from flat CH targets illuminated by Nike KrF laser with total energies up to 1 kJ of 0.5 ~ 1 nsec FWHM pulses. The GIR resolved ne up to 3 ×1021 /cm3 in space taking 2D snapshot images of probe laser (λ = 263 nm, Δt = 10 ps) beamlets (50 μm spacing) refracted by the plasma at a selected time during the laser illumination. The individual beamlet transmittances were also measured for Te estimation. Time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array and a streak camera simultaneously detected light emission from the plasma in spectral ranges relevant to Raman (SRS) and two plasmon decay instabilities. The measured spatial profiles are compared with simulation results from the FAST3D radiation hydrocode and their effects on the LPI observations are investigated. Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.

  19. Mechanism and operation parameters of a plasma-driven micro-particle accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG JianGuo; FENG ChunHua; HAN dianWei; LI HongWei; CAI MingHui; LI XiaoYin; ZHANG ZhenLong; CHEN ZhaoFeng; WANG Long; YANG XuanZong

    2009-01-01

    There is a large amount of micro debris ranging between millimeters and micrometers in space, which has significant influence on the reliability and life of spacecrafts through long-duration integrated im-pacts and has to be considered in designing a vehicle's suitability to the space environment. In order to simulate the micro-impacts on exposed materials, a plasma-driven micro-particle accelerator was de-veloped. The major processes, including the acceleration, compression and ejection of plasmas, were modeled. By comparing the theoretical simulations with the experimental results, the acceleration mechanism was clarified. Moreover, through a series of experiments, the optimum operation range was investigated, and the acceleration ability was primarily determined.

  20. Parameters of the plasma of a dc pulsating discharge in a supersonic air flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibkov, V. M., E-mail: shibkov@phys.msu.ru; Shibkova, L. V.; Logunov, A. A. [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    A dc discharge in a cold (T = 200 K) supersonic air flow at a static pressure of 200–400 Torr was studied experimentally. The excited unsteady pulsating discharge has the form of a thin plasma channel with a diameter of ≤1 mm, stretched downstream the flow. Depending on the discharge current, the pulsation frequency varies from 800 to 1600 Hz and the electron temperature varies from 8000 to 15000 K.

  1. Plasma Oxytocin in Children with Autism and Its Correlations with Behavioral Parameters in Children and Parents

    OpenAIRE

    Husarova, Veronika Marcincakova; Lakatosova, Silvia; Pivovarciova, Anna; Babinska, Katarina; Bakos, Jan; Durdiakova, Jaroslava; Kubranska, Aneta; Ondrejka, Igor; Ostatnikova, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Objective Oxytocin (OT) has been implicated to play an important role in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) etiology. We aimed to find out the differences in plasma OT levels between children with autism and healthy children, the associations of OT levels with particular autism symptoms and the associations of particular parental autistic traits with their ASD children OT levels. Methods We included 19 boys with autism and 44 healthy age-matched boys. OT levels were analyzed by ELISA method. Chi...

  2. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  3. Interpretation of fast measurements of plasma potential, temperature and density in SOL of ASDEX Upgrade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horacek, J.; Adamek, J.; Müller, H.W.

    2010-01-01

    This paper focuses on interpretation of fast (1 µs) and local (2–4 mm) measurements of plasma density, potential and electron temperature in the edge plasma of tokamak ASDEX Upgrade. Steady-state radial profiles demonstrate the credibility of the ball-pen probe. We demonstrate that floating poten...

  4. Drifting plasma collection by a positive biased tether wire in LEO-like plasma conditions: current measurement and plasma diagnostic

    OpenAIRE

    Siguier, Jean-Michel; Sarrailh, Pierre; Roussel, Jean-François; Inguimbert, Virgine; Murat, Gaël; Sanmartín Losada, Juan Ramón

    2013-01-01

    BETs is a three-year project financed by the Space Program of the European Commission, aimed at developing an efficient deorbit system that could be carried on board any future satellite launched into Low Earth Orbit (LEO). The operational system involves a conductive tape-tether left bare to establish anodic contact with the ambient plasma as a giant Langmuir probe. As a part of this project, we are carrying out both numerical and experimental approaches to estimate the collected current by ...

  5. [Preoperative digitalization. Measurement of digoxin plasma levels (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, H J; Rietbrock, N

    1976-09-01

    In a study of 233 patients from the department of surgery and anesthesiology taking digoxin preparations 64, per cent exhibit digoxin levels in the therapeutic range (0.6--1.5 ng/ml), 19 per cent had subtoxic concentrations ranged from 1.6--2.0 ng/ml and 7 per cent were in the toxic range (greater than 2 ng/ml). In patients treated with digoxin before admission to hospital subtherapeutic levels were most frequent. An average loading dose of digoxin 1 mg or more on one day may result in subtoxic and toxic digoxin levels on the second day, in patients receiving less than 1 mg digoxin daily an increasing frequency of plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.5 ng/ml or higher values was present on the third day. Averaged plasma digoxin concentrations were correlated with daily maintenance dose. There was, however, a wide individual variation in digoxin plasma concentrations. A low incidence of toxic digoxin plasma levels was observed in patients receiving a daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg digoxin (Lanicor). For prophylactic digitalization of patients with normal renal and thyroid function the following schedules or statistical guidlines are proposed: Lanicor (bioavailability 60%): oral loading dose of 0.75 mg over two days, and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg; Novodigal (bioavailability 80%): oral loading dose of 0.6 mg over two days and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.3 mg; Digoxin i.v.: intravenous loading dose of 0.5 (0.4) mg over two days and then 0.25 (0.2) mg daily intravenous maintenance dose. For any patient needing treatment with digitalis glycosides therapy must be individual and dynamic. The reasons for toxic concentrations were frequently attributed to wrong dosage.

  6. Soft X-ray measurements in magnetic fusion plasma physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botrugno, A.; Gabellieri, L.; Mazon, D.; Pacella, D.; Romano, A.

    2010-11-01

    Soft X-ray diagnostic systems and their successful application in the field of magnetic fusion plasma physics are discussed. Radiation with wavelength in the region of Soft X-Ray (1-30 keV) is largely produced by high temperature plasmas, carrying important information on many processes during a plasma discharge. Soft X-ray diagnostics are largely used in various fusion devices all over the world. These diagnostic systems are able to obtain information on electron temperature, electron density, impurity transport, Magneto Hydro Dynamic instabilities. We will discuss the SXR diagnostic installed on FTU in Frascati (Italy) and on Tore Supra in Cadarache (France), with special emphasis on diagnostic performances. Moreover, we will discuss the two different inversion methods for tomographic reconstruction used in Frascati and in Cadarache, the first one is relied on a guessed topology of iso-emissivity surfaces, the second one on regularization techniques, like minimum Fisher or maximum entropy. Finally, a new and very fast 2D imaging system with energy discrimination and high time resolution will be summarized as an alternative approach of SXR detection system.

  7. Calibrated automated thrombin generation measurement in clotting plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemker, H Coenraad; Giesen, Peter; Al Dieri, Raed; Regnault, Véronique; de Smedt, Eric; Wagenvoord, Rob; Lecompte, Thomas; Béguin, Suzette

    2003-01-01

    Calibrated automated thrombography displays the concentration of thrombin in clotting plasma with or without platelets (platelet-rich plasma/platelet-poor plasma, PRP/PPP) in up to 48 samples by monitoring the splitting of a fluorogenic substrate and comparing it to a constant known thrombin activity in a parallel, non-clotting sample. Thus, the non-linearity of the reaction rate with thrombin concentration is compensated for, and adding an excess of substrate can be avoided. Standard conditions were established at which acceptable experimental variation accompanies sensitivity to pathological changes. The coefficients of variation of the surface under the curve (endogenous thrombin potential) are: within experiment approximately 3%; intra-individual: AVK, heparin(-likes), direct inhibitors]. In PRP, it is diminished in von Willebrand's disease, but it also shows the effect of platelet inhibitors (e.g. aspirin and abciximab). Addition of activated protein C (APC) or thrombomodulin inhibits thrombin generation and reflects disorders of the APC system (congenital and acquired resistance, deficiencies and lupus antibodies) independent of concomitant inhibition of the procoagulant pathway as for example by anticoagulants.

  8. Modeling of plasma distortions by laser-induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) and implications for the interpretation of LIAS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, M. Z.; Gierse, N.; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.

    2015-09-01

    For the interpretation of the line radiation observed from laser induced ablation spectroscopy (LIAS) such parameters as the density and temperature of electrons within very compact clouds of atoms and singly charged ions of ablated material have to be known. Compared to the local plasma conditions prior to the laser pulse, these can be strongly changed during LIAS since new electrons are generated by the ionisation of particles ejected from the irradiated target. Because of their transience and spatial inhomogeneity it is technically difficult to measure disturbances induced in the plasma by LIAS. To overcome this uncertainty a numerical model has been elaborated, providing a self-consistent description for the spreading of ablated particles and accompanying modifications in the plasma. The results of calculations for LIAS performed on carbon-containing targets in Ohmic and additionally heated discharges in the tokamak TEXTOR are presented. Due to the increase in the electron density the ‘ionisation per photon’ ratio, S/XB factor, is significantly enhanced compared to unperturbed plasma conditions. The impact of the amount of material ablated and of the plasma conditions before LIAS on the level of the S/XB-enhancement is investigated.

  9. Effects of magnesium on erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport and some of plasma biochemical parameters in rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnesium acts as an essential cofactor for the activity of many enzymes. It regulates the work of cardiovascular system. The activity of sodium–lithium countertransport (SLC and the concentrations of plasma biochemical parameters such as VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine are changed in cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of magnesium on SLC activity and some of the plasma biochemical parameters. Methods: New Zealand white rabbits (weighed 1350 ± 50g were chosen for these experiments. This study was conducted through two in vitro and in vivo techniques. Through in vitro method, the effects of different concentrations of magnesium on SLC activity were investigated. In order to conduct in vivo method, the rabbits were divided into two groups (5 /group. One group was treated by MgSo4 (40 mg/kg body weight through peritoneum for two weeks. For the second group, deionized water was used. The activity of SLC and mentioned biochemical parameters were determined. Results: The results of both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that magnesium can significantly decrease the SLC activity and also causes an increase in Km and decreased Vmax/Km of the system and plasma concentrations of VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly decreased. Conclusion: Magnesium may cause a reduction in blood pressure through decreasing the SLC activity and affecting the concentrations of VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides and so improvement the cardiovascular diseases.

  10. In-situ measurement of deuterium retention in W under plasma exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, T., E-mail: watanabe-takashi13@ees.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kaneko, T. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Matsunami, N. [Faculty of Science and Technology, Meijo University, Nagoya 468-0073 (Japan); Ohno, N. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Kajita, S.; Kuwabara, T. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan)

    2015-08-15

    The time dependence of the deuterium (D) retention in tungsten (W) was investigated by conducting successive D and hydrogen (H) plasma exposure using the plasma surface dynamics with ion beam analysis (PS-DIBA) device, which can conduct in-situ D retention measurement. At the sample temperature of 450 K, D retention rapidly dropped after the termination of D plasma exposure. On the other hand, at the sample temperature of 350 K, a slow decay of D retention after termination of D plasma was observed. The results indicate that the sample temperature has a strong influence on the dynamic behavior of D retention in W. Furthermore, by successive H plasma exposure to D retained W, D retention in W decreased exponentially in time. The result suggests that successive H plasma exposure is one of effective methods to remove tritium in W.

  11. A methodology for measurements of basic parameters in a xDSL system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Edson, Jr.; de Souza, Lamartine V.; Patrício, Éder T.; Castro, Agostinho L. S.; P. dos S. Cavalcante, Gervásio; Costa, João Crisóstomo W. A.; Ericson, Klas; Lindqvist, Fredrik; Rius I Riu, Jaume

    2006-10-01

    In order to qualify a subscriber loops for xDSL transmission, basic parameters like transfer function, scattering parameter S11 and characteristic impedance should be known. The aim of this paper is to present a test methodology for measurements of these basic parameters. The characteristic impedance is measured by open/short method and it is compared with the terminated measurement method defined in IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) 611156-1. Transfer function and scattering parameter S11 of DSL loop are also measured on a real cable. The methodology is based on measurements of a 0.4 mm, 10 pairs, balanced twisted-pair cable of 1400 m of length. In order to improve the analysis of results, we compared the measurements from real cable with results from wireline simulators. The measurement of parameters of xDSL copper loop is done in an infrastructure set up in the LABIT (Technological Innovation in Telecommunications Lab) at UFPA (Federal University of Para), that consist of a wireline simulators, a precision impedance analyzer, and a network analyzer. The results show a difference between the measurements performed with real cables and wireline simulators for transfer function parameter. Characteristic impedance obtained by both methods presented quite similar results.

  12. Innovation of Methods for Measurement and Modelling of Twisted Pair Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Cepa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this paper is to optimize a measurement methodology for the most accurate broadband modelling of characteristic impedance and other parameters for twisted pairs. Measured values and theirs comparison is presented in this article. Automated measurement facility was implemented at the Department of telecommunication of Faculty of electrical engineering of Czech technical university in Prague. Measurement facility contains RF switches allowing measurements up to 300 MHz or 1GHz. Measured twisted pair’s parameters can be obtained by measurement but for purposes of fundamental characteristics modelling is useful to define functions that model the properties of the twisted pair. Its primary and secondary parameters depend mostly on the frequency. For twisted pair deployment, we are interested in a frequency band range from 1 MHz to 100 MHz.

  13. Effects of Various Architectural Parameters on Six Room Acoustical Measures in Auditoria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Wei-Hwa

    The effects of architectural parameters on six room acoustical measures were investigated by means of correlation analyses, factor analyses and multiple regression analyses based on data taken in twenty halls. Architectural parameters were used to estimate acoustical measures taken at individual locations within each room as well as the averages and standard deviations of all measured values in the rooms. The six acoustical measures were Early Decay Time (EDT10), Clarity Index (C80), Overall Level (G), Bass Ratio based on Early Decay Time (BR(EDT)), Treble Ratio based on Early Decay Time (TR(EDT)), and Early Inter-aural Cross Correlation (IACC80). A comprehensive method of quantifying various architectural characteristics of rooms was developed to define a large number of architectural parameters that were hypothesized to effect the acoustical measurements made in the rooms. This study quantitatively confirmed many of the principles used in the design of concert halls and auditoria. Three groups of room architectural parameters such as the parameters associated with the depth of diffusing surfaces were significantly correlated with the hall standard deviations of most of the acoustical measures. Significant differences of statistical relations among architectural parameters and receiver specific acoustical measures were found between a group of music halls and a group of lecture halls. For example, architectural parameters such as the relative distance from the receiver to the overhead ceiling increased the percentage of the variance of acoustical measures that was explained by Barron's revised theory from approximately 70% to 80% only when data were taken in the group of music halls. This study revealed the major architectural parameters which have strong relations with individual acoustical measures forming the basis for a more quantitative method for advancing the theoretical design of concert halls and other auditoria. The results of this study provide

  14. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Marzoki JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jasim M Al-Marzoki1, Zainab W Al-Maaroof2, Ali H Kadhum31Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Pathology, Babylon Medical College, 3Babylon Gynecology and Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Hilla, IraqBackground: The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq.Methods: A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually.Results: Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3 g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6 × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472 × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count.Conclusion: Most results

  15. Association of plasma adiponectin levels with cellular hydration state measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikawa T

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Takahiro Yoshikawa,1 Hiroshi Kanazawa21Department of Sports Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, Osaka City University Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka, JapanBackground: It is widely recognized that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD includes a variety of extra pulmonary complications and comorbidities. Recently, adiponectin was shown to regulate cellular metabolism in humans. Cellular hydration state is affected by a variety of hormonal factors and regulates cellular metabolic state. Therefore, this study was designed to determine whether adiponectin is a possible factor involved in cellular hydration state in COPD.Methods: Thirty patients with COPD and 41 age-matched controls participated in the study. Plasma levels of total and high molecular weight (HMW adiponectin were measured and anthropometry and pulmonary function tests were conducted. Intracellular water (ICW, extracellular water (ECW, and ECW/ICW ratio, which are parameters of cellular hydration state, were measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis.Results: Higher levels of total and HMW adiponectin in plasma were found in patients with COPD compared with levels in controls. A significant inverse correlation was observed between body mass index and plasma levels of total and HMW adiponectin in the control group. However, this significant correlation was not observed in patients with COPD. The plasma levels of total and HMW adiponectin were also not significantly correlated with any pulmonary function parameters in patients with COPD. Regarding the state of cellular hydration, the plasma levels of total adiponectin were inversely correlated with the ECW/ICW ratio and positively with ICW values in patients with COPD. Moreover, closer correlations were found between these parameters and plasma HMW adiponectin levels.Conclusion: The results of the present study suggest a novel association of the plasma

  16. Automatic Quality Measurement and Parameter Selection for Example-based Texture Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Lasse Farnung; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas

    cover research to directly estimate specific texture synthesis parameters, such as patch size and iteration convergence, based on input textures. We also examine various similarity measures and evaluate their effectiveness. The goal for each measure is to properly evaluate how well the resulting...... far, automatically selecting parameters suitable for synthesis has been a relatively unexplored topic. In effect, this makes texture synthesis supervised rather than fully automatic. In this technical paper, we propose automatic parameter optimization methods for example based texture synthesis. We...... synthesis compares to the original input. A good similarity measure will enable the search for the optimal texture synthesis parameters by maximizing the quality of the synthesis as a function of parameters. We apply presented methods to a state of the art texture synthesis algorithm, namely the one...

  17. A dedicated setup for the measurement of the electron transport parameters in gases at large electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fonte, P. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Departamento de Fisica da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Coimbra, Rua Pedro Nunes, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Mangiarotti, A. [Laboratorio de Instrumentacao e Fisica Experimental de Particulas, Departamento de Fisica da Universidade de Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Botelho, S.; Goncalves, J.A.C. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, 05508-000 Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo, 01303-050 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Ridenti, M.A. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, 05508-090 Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bueno, C.C., E-mail: ccbueno@ipen.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares, 05508-000 Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Departamento de Fisica, Pontificia Universidade Catolica de Sao Paulo, 01303-050 Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-01-21

    Electron transport parameters are important in several areas ranging from particle detectors to plasma-assisted processing reactors. Nevertheless, especially at high fields strengths and for complex gases, relatively few data are published. A dedicated setup has been developed to measure the electron drift velocity and the first Townsend coefficient in parallel plate geometry. An RPC-like cell has been adopted to reach high field strengths without the risk of destructive sparks. The validation data obtained with pure Nitrogen will be presented and compared to a selection of the available literature and to calculations performed with Magboltz 2 version 8.6. The new data collected in pure Isobutane will then be discussed. This is the first time the electron drift velocity in pure Isobutane is measured well into the saturation region. Good agreement is found with expectations from Magboltz.

  18. Correlation between the physical parameters of the i-nc-Si absorber layer grown by 27.12 MHz plasma with the nc-Si solar cell parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Debajyoti; Mondal, Praloy

    2017-09-01

    Growth of highly conducting nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si) thin films of optimum crystalline volume fraction, involving dominant crystallographic preferred orientation with simultaneous low fraction of microstructures at a low substrate temperature and high growth rate, is a challenging task for its promising utilization in nc-Si solar cells. Utilizing enhanced electron density and superior ion flux densities of the high frequency (∼27.12 MHz) SiH4 plasma, improved nc-Si films have been produced by simple optimization of H2-dilution, controlling the ion damage and enhancing supply of atomic-hydrogen onto the growing surface. Single junction nc-Si p-i-n solar cells have been prepared with i-nc-Si absorber layer and optimized. The physical parameters of the absorber layer have been systematically correlated to variations of the solar cell parameters. The preferred alignment of crystallites, its contribution to the low recombination losses for conduction of charge carriers along the vertical direction, its spectroscopic correlation with the dominant growth of ultra-nanocrystalline silicon (unc-Si) component and corresponding longer wavelength absorption, especially in the neighborhood of i/n-interface region recognize scientific and technological key issues that pave the ground for imminent advancement of multi-junction silicon solar cells.

  19. Specific features of the radial distributions of plasma parameters in the initial segment of a supersonic jet generated by a pulsed capillary discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashchina, A. S.; Efimov, A. V.; Chinnov, V. F.; Ageev, A. G.

    2017-07-01

    Results are presented from spectroscopic studies of the initial segment of a supersonic plasma jet generated by a pulsed capillary discharge with an ablative carbon-containing polymer wall. Specific features of the spatial distributions of the electron density and intensities of spectral components caused, in particular, by the high electron temperature in the central zone, much exceeding the normal temperature, as well as by the high nonisobaricity of the initial segment of the supersonic jet, are revealed. Measurements of the radiative properties of the hot jet core (the intensity and profile of the Hα and Hβ Balmer lines and the relative intensities of C II lines) with high temporal (1-50 μs) and spatial (30-50 μm) resolutions made it possible to determine general features of the pressure and temperature distributions near the central shock. The presence of molecular components exhibiting their emission properties at the periphery of the plasma jet allowed the authors to estimate the parameters of the plasma in the jet region where "detached" shock waves form.

  20. Investigation of SOL parameters and divertor particle flux from electric probe measurements in KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, J.G., E-mail: jgbak@nfri.re.kr [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, H.S. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Bae, M.K. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Juhn, J.W.; Seo, D.C.; Bang, E.N. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shim, S.B. [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Chung, K.S. [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H.J. [Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of); Hong, S.H. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-08-15

    The upstream scrape-off layer (SOL) profiles and downstream particle fluxes are measured with a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe assembly (FRLPA) at the outboard mid-plane and a fixed edge Langmuir probe array (ELPA) at divertor region, respectively in the KSTAR. It is found that the SOL has a two-layer structure in the outboard wall-limited (OWL) ohmic and L-mode: a near SOL (∼5 mm zone) with a narrow feature and a far SOL with a broader profile. The near SOL width evaluated from the SOL profiles in the OWL plasmas is comparable to the scaling for the L-mode divertor plasmas in the JET and AUG. In the SOL profiles and the divertor particle flux profile during the ELMy H-modes, the characteristic e-folding lengths of electron temperature, plasma density and particle flux during an ELM phase are about two times larger than ones at the inter ELM.

  1. Ultrasonic motion analysis system - measurement of temporal and spatial gait parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huitema, RB; Hof, AL; Postema, K

    2002-01-01

    The duration of stance and swing phase and step and stride length are important parameters in human gait. In this technical note a low-cost ultrasonic motion analysis system is described that is capable of measuring these temporal and spatial parameters while subjects walk on the floor. By using the

  2. Data management software concept for WEST plasma measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zienkiewicz, P.; Kasprowicz, G.; Byszuk, A.; Wojeński, A.; Kolasinski, P.; Cieszewski, R.; Czarski, T.; Chernyshova, M.; Pozniak, K.; Zabolotny, W.; Juszczyk, B.; Mazon, D.; Malard, P.

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the concept of data management software for the multichannel readout system for the GEM detector used in WEST Plasma experiment. The proposed system consists of three separate communication channels: fast data channel, diagnostics channel, slow data channel. Fast data channel is provided by the FPGA with integrated ARM cores providing direct readout data from Analog Front Ends through 10GbE with short, guaranteed intervals. Slow data channel is provided by multiple, fast CPUs after data processing with detailed readout data with use of GNU/Linux OS and appropriate software. Diagnostic channel provides detailed feedback for control purposes.

  3. Principles of fuel ion ratio measurements in fusion plasmas by collective Thomson scattering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stejner Pedersen, Morten; Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    ratio. Measurements of the fuel ion ratio will be important for plasma control and machine protection in future experiments with burning fusion plasmas. Here we examine the theoretical basis for fuel ion ratio measurements by CTS. We show that the sensitivity to plasma composition is enhanced......For certain scattering geometries collective Thomson scattering (CTS) measurements are sensitive to the composition of magnetically confined fusion plasmas. CTS therefore holds the potential to become a new diagnostic for measurements of the fuel ion ratio—i.e. the tritium to deuterium density...... by the signatures of ion cyclotron motion and ion Bernstein waves which appear for scattering geometries with resolved wave vectors near perpendicular to the magnetic field. We investigate the origin and properties of these features in CTS spectra and give estimates of their relative importance for fuel ion ratio...

  4. Accuracy of plasma turbidity measurement for determining fat intolerance during total parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordenström, J; Thörne, A; Lindholm, M

    1990-06-01

    The accuracy of plasma turbidity measurements in predicting ability to metabolise intravenous fat emulsions during total parenteral nutrition was studied in 35 adult surgical patients. Plasma turbidity, expressed as a light scattering index (LSI), was determined by nephelometry and compared with measured triglyceride (TG) concentrations. A poor coefficient of correlation was found between LSI and TG (r = 0.52). The sensitivity and specificity of LSI in predicting TG concentration were 19% and 96% respectively. This indicates that the measurement of LSI is more useful in ruling out hypertriglyceridaemia than in detecting it. Consequently, clinical tolerance of intravenous fat emulsion cannot be monitored by measuring plasma turbidity. In order to avoid metabolic complications which may occasionally occur during intravenous nutritional therapy including fat emulsion, determination of plasma TG levels at timed intervals are recommended.

  5. Plasma concentration of parasite DNA as a measure of disease severity in falciparum malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Imwong, M.; Woodrow, C.; Hendriksen, I.C.E.; Veenemans, J.; Verhoef, J.C.M.

    2015-01-01

    In endemic areas malaria parasitemia is common in apparently healthy children and severe malaria is commonly misdiagnosed in patients with incidental parasitemia. We assessed the performance of plasma P. falciparum DNA concentration measurement in distinguishing uncomplicated from severe malaria in

  6. THE UNCERTAINTIES OF ENVIRONMENT'S PARAMETERS MEASUREMENTS AS TOLLS OF THE MEASUREMENTS QUALITY IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Badida

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Identification of the noise measuring uncertainties by declared measured values is unconditionally necessary and required by legislative. Uncertainty of the measurements expresses all errors that accrue during the measuring. B y indication of uncertainties the measure documents that the objective value is with certain probability found in the interval that is bounded by the measurement uncertainty. The paper deals with the methodology of the uncertainty calculation by noise measurements in living and working environments. metal processing industry and building materials industry.

  7. Extraction of thermal parameters of microbolometer infrared detectors using electrical measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karunasiri, R. P. G.; Xu, Gu; Chen, G. X.; Sridhar, U.

    1998-10-01

    The performance of microbolometer infrared sensors is typically characterized by its thermal time constant, heat capacitance, and thermal conductance. Therefore, the determination of these parameters accurately and efficiently is of considerable interest for the design and operation of microbolometer infrared sensors. Usually, the thermal time constant is obtained by measuring the frequency response of microbolometers under infrared excitation and the thermal conductance and capacity are extracted using electrical measurement. In this paper, a technique is described to extract all three parameters using a single electrical measurement. In the measurement, we have employed a Wheatstone Bridge consisting of a bolometer and three reference resistors. The resistance of the bolometer changes as a result of self-heating under an external bias which in turn generates an output voltage across the Bridge. The time dependence of the output voltage was used to extract thermal parameters of the bolometer. We believe this technique is useful in determining the thermal parameters of microbolometer based sensors.

  8. [Association between systemic inflammation and autoimmunity parameters and plasma lipid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chao; Liu, Wen-ling; Sun, Yi-hong; Ding, Rong-jing; Hu, Da-yi

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the association between inflammation status/autoimmune antibodies and plasma lipid in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 402 RA patients were admitted into our hospital during January 2008 to March 2009 and 225 RA patients who met the inclusion criteria were selected to perform a full lipid profile examination including total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), anti-keratin antibody (AKA), anti-perinuclear factor autoantibody (APF) and complement (C) were also evaluated. Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) was calculate by the formula Log (TG/HDL-C). (1) There were 12.9%, 10.2% and 14.2% patients with elevated TC, LDL-C and TC respectively, patients with reduced HDL-C accounted for 43.6%. (2) C(3) was higher in elevated TC group than normal TC group (P elevated LDL-C group than in normal LDL-C group (P anti-CCP were positively correlated with LDL-C (R(2) = 0.129, P antibodies. Moreover, ESR and C(4) were predictors of increased AIP in this cohort.

  9. Optimization of plasma parameters for the production of silicon nano-crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Chaabane, N; Vach, H; Cabarrocas, P R I

    2003-01-01

    We use silane-hydrogen plasmas to synthesize silicon nano-crystals in the gas phase and thermophoresis to collect them onto a cooled substrate. To distinguish between nano-crystals formed in the plasma and those grown on the substrate, as a result of surface and subsurface reactions, we have simultaneously deposited films on a conventional substrate heated at 250 deg. C and on a second substrate cooled down to 90 deg. C. A series of samples deposited at various discharge pressures, in the range of 400 mTorr to 1.2 Torr, have been characterized by Raman spectroscopy and ellipsometry. At low pressure (400-500 mTorr), the films are amorphous on the cold substrate and micro-crystalline on the hot one. As pressure increases, gas phase reactions lead to the formation of nano-crystalline particles which are attracted by the cold substrate due to thermophoresis. Consequently, we obtain nano-crystalline silicon thin films on the cold substrate and amorphous thin films on the heated one in the pressure range of 600-900...

  10. Digital Holography for in Situ Real-Time Measurement of Plasma-Facing-Component Erosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ThomasJr., C. E. [Third Dimension Technologies, LLC, Knoxville, TN; Granstedt, E. M. [Tri-Alpha Energy; Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Combs, Stephen Kirk [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Hillis, Donald Lee [ORNL; Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

    2014-01-01

    In situ, real time measurement of net plasma-facing-component (PFC) erosion/deposition in a real plasma device is challenging due to the need for good spatial and temporal resolution, sufficient sensitivity, and immunity to fringe-jump errors. Design of a high-sensitivity, potentially high-speed, dual-wavelength CO2 laser digital holography system (nominally immune to fringe jumps) for PFC erosion measurement is discussed.

  11. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma def...

  12. Effect of Measurement vs. Counting Errors on Parameters' Covariance in Neutron Tomography Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odyniec, Michał [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Blair, Jerome J. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2013-06-13

    We present here a method that estimates the relative effect of the counting uncertainty and of the instrument uncertainty on that of the parameters in a parametric model for neutron time of flight. The final result, obtained independently of calculation of the parameter values from measured data, presents explicitly the ratio of the two uncertainties in terms of the choice, settings, and placement of the detector and the oscilloscope. Consequently, the method can serve as a tool in planning a measurement setup.

  13. Measurement of reflected second harmonics and nonlinearity parameter using a transducer with complex structure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Qingyu; LU Rongrong; ZHANG Dong; GONG Xiufen; LIU Xiaozhou

    2003-01-01

    Measurement of nonlinearity parameter using the second-harmonic reflective model is studied. A new kind of compound transducer is designed and fabricated for this purpose. With this transducer and the finite amplitude insert-substitution method, an experimental system to measure the nonlinearity parameter using reflective model is developed. B/A values of some liquids and biological tissues are obtained and results coincide well with those presented in the literatures.

  14. Measurement of Water Quality Parameters for Before and After Maintenance Service in Water Filter System

    OpenAIRE

    Shaharudin Nuraida; Suradi Nurfarhana; Mohd Kamil Nor Amani Filzah

    2017-01-01

    An adequate supply of safe drinking water is one of major ways to obtain healthy life. Water filter system is one way to improve the water quality. However, to maintain the performance of the system, it need to undergo the maintenance service. This study evaluate the requirement of maintenance service in water filter system. Water quality was measured before and after maintenance service. Parameters measured were pH, turbidity, residual chlorine, nitrate and heavy metals and these parameters ...

  15. A Method for Measurement of Dynamic Sheath Behavior in Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation and Deposition Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Hongchen; MA Guojia; PENG Liping; FENG Jianji; ZHANG Huafang; MA Tengcai

    2008-01-01

    A method to measure temporal and spatial evolution of sheath in plasma immersion ion implantation (PⅢ) process is presented.A long Langrnuir probe (φ 5 mm×φ 78 mm) with low bias is used to detect the sheath propagation and backup with time.The aubstrate made of Al cylinder (φ20 mm×φ150 mm) is immersed in nitrogen and argon plasma induced by magnetron self-sustained discharge.The maximum sheath sizes,at different plasma densities under different discharge currents,are measured and compared.

  16. K-alpha conversion efficiency measurments for x-ray scattering in inertial confinement fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kritcher, A L; Neumayer, P; Urry, M K; Robey, H; Niemann, C; Landen, O L; Morse, E; Glenzer, S H

    2006-11-21

    The conversion efficiency of ultra short-pulse laser radiation to K-{alpha} x-rays has been measured for various chlorine-containing targets to be used as x-ray scattering probes of dense plasmas. The spectral and temporal properties of these sources will allow spectrally-resolved x-ray scattering probing with picosecond temporal resolution required for measuring the plasma conditions in inertial confinement fusion experiments. Simulations of x-ray scattering spectra from these plasmas show that fuel capsule density, capsule ablator density, and shock timing information may be inferred.

  17. Investigation on influence parameters in measurements of the optomechanical hole plate using an optical coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morace, Renate Erica; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation on influence parameters in optical coordinate measurements of the optomechanical hole plate. Special attention was paid to the background of the object, which strongly influences the measurement result. Furthermore, it is seen that...

  18. Investigation on influence parameters in measurements of the optomechanical hole plate using an optical coordinate measuring machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morace, Renate Erica; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo;

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the results of an experimental investigation on influence parameters in optical coordinate measurements of the optomechanical hole plate. Special attention was paid to the background of the object, which strongly influences the measurement result. Furthermore, it is seen...

  19. Evaluation of Perfusion and Thermal Parameters of Skin Tissue Using Cold Provocation and Thermographic Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strąkowska Maria

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Measurement of the perfusion coefficient and thermal parameters of skin tissue using dynamic thermography is presented in this paper. A novel approach based on cold provocation and thermal modelling of skin tissue is presented. The measurement was performed on a person’s forearm using a special cooling device equipped with the Peltier module. The proposed method first cools the skin, and then measures the changes of its temperature matching the measurement results with a heat transfer model to estimate the skin perfusion and other thermal parameters. In order to assess correctness of the proposed approach, the uncertainty analysis was performed.

  20. The quantitative check-measure of the bend strain parameters of the rotating components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文华; 乔中涛

    2002-01-01

    Based on the principle of the electric-magnetic check-measure, this paper puts forward a new technology and method that use the magnetic marks to check and measure the dynamic physical parameters such as angle speed, bending strain,stress and bending moment. The principles of the check-measure and the dealing and exchanging technology about signals have been demonstrated and the rotating components have been made up. The timely and quantitative check-measure of the dynamic physical parameters during the component in working has been realized by using computer control.