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Sample records for plasma osmolality values

  1. Changes in plasma osmolality in food poisoning

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    Čanović Predrag

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Changes in plasma osmolality may occur during acute intestinal infections due to dehydration (loss of water and/or electrolytes. Depending on whether the water and electrolyte deficit is primary, or a proportional loss of water and electrolytes, dehydration can be classified into three categories: hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic. Material and methods. Thirty (30 patients with food poisoning were included in this research. All patients were hospitalized because of frequent vomiting, with resultant dehydration. A diagnosis of food poisoning was made based on the clinical picture, short incubation period and positive epidemiological history. Plasma osmolality was measured by a freezing point depression with an osmometer, while effective plasma osmolality was determined by using the following formula: EPO (eff. plasma osmolality = 2 x serum sodium concentration + serum glucose level. Apart from plasma osmolality, other parameters were also measured in patients' sera: sodium, chloride, potassium, urea, glucose and hematocrit. In order to follow-up the changes in these parameters, they were also measured after treatment of the gastrointestinal disorder. Statistical analysis was performed using the equality of mean values for 2 basic groups. Results. The statistical results showed that the values of total and effective plasma osmolality (TPO and EPO among patients with gastrointestinal disorders were not significantly higher than values after the alimentary infection. Discussion. Such results suggest that food poisoning is associated with disorders of water and electrolyte metabolism, that is isotonic type of dehydration. .

  2. Plasma osmolality reference values in African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), and red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys).

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    Beaufrère, Hugues; Acierno, Mark; Mitchell, Mark; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Bryant, Heather; Tully, Thomas N

    2011-06-01

    Birds are routinely presented to veterinarians for dehydration. Success with these cases ultimately depends on providing replacement fluids and re-establishing fluid homeostasis. Few studies have been done to determine reference ranges for plasma osmolality in birds. The goals of this study were to determine reference values for plasma osmolality in 3 species of parrots and to provide recommendations on fluid selection for replacement therapy in these species. Blood samples were collected from 21 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis), 21 Congo African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus erithacus), and 9 red-fronted macaws (Ara rubrogenys), and were placed into lithium heparin containers. Plasma osmolality was measured in duplicate with a freezing point depression osmometer. Summary statistics were computed from the average values. Reference ranges, calculated by using the robust method, were 288-324, 308-345, and 223-369 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. The mean +/- SD values were 306 +/- 7, 327 +/- 7, and 304 +/- 18 mOsm/kg in African grey parrots, Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, and red-fronted macaws, respectively. Comparisons with osmolality values in mammals and values previously reported for psittacine bird species suggest that plasma osmolality is slightly higher in parrots than in mammals, species-specific differences exist, and differences between reported values occur. Overall, fluids with an osmolarity close to 300-320 mOsm/L, such as Normosol-R, Plasmalyte-R, Plasmalyte-A, and NaCl 0.9%, can be recommended in parrots for fluid replacement therapy when isotonic fluids are required.

  3. Regulation of plasma osmolality: thirst and vasopressin.

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    Toto, K H

    1994-12-01

    Sudden changes in plasma osmolality may have lethal consequences, because of abrupt changes in the volume of cells in the central nervous system. Acute osmotic disequilibrium can result in brain shrinkage or brain swelling. This article explores how the integrated responses of vasopressin and thirst maintain osmotic equilibrium through regulation of body water balance. These two mechanisms provide almost insurmountable barriers to excessive dilution or concentration of body fluids.

  4. Infinite dilution conductimetry of plasma and urine: correlation with osmolality.

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    Genain, C; Tellier, P; Syrota, A; Pocidalo, J J; Hans, M

    1978-08-15

    The infinite dilution conductivity (IDC) of plasma and urine allows a measurement of the electrolyte content in small samples (5 to 15 microliter). The method was compared to the corrected osmolality (II'p) measured by the freezing-point depression. A linear correlation existed between II'p and the IDC: for plasma: II'p = 13.10 sigma o,p + 37.00 (n = 46 and r = 0.9949) for urine: II'u = 12.75 sigma o,u + 16.56 (n = 85 and r = 0.9504). The measurement of the IDC does not depend on protein concentration and can be used instead of the osmometer methods to determine the total plasma and urine electrolyte content.

  5. Leucocytosis, Thrombocytosis, and Plasma Osmolality During Rest and Exercise: A Hypothesis

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    McKenzie, M. A.; Greenleaf, John E.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism for inducing leucocytosis (increase in white blood cells) and thrombocytosis (increase in platelets) during exercise is unclear. Because plasma osmolality (Osm) may influence T-cell proliferation, Osm and the number of leucocytes (WBC) and platelets in blood were measured periodically during a 90 min rest period, and were compared with those during upright sitting ergometer exercise in six unt.rained, healthy men who cycled for 70 min at 71% of their maximal oxygen uptake (V prime O(sub 2(sub max)). There were 6 experiments in which the subjects drank different fluid formula-t4ilons (10 ml/kg) of various ionic and osmotic concentrations intermittently during 60 min of the rest period and during the exercise period. Osmolality, and WBC and platelet counts increased significantly (pthrombocytosis. There were low but significant correlations between individual values of total WBC and total Osm during exercise (r(sub 0.001(2),284) = 0.39) and during rest plus exercise (r(sub 0.001(2),499) = 0.43). With combined data from the six experiments, mean Osm correlated highly and significantly with both mean WBC (r(sub 0.001(2),6) = 0.95, p thrombocytosis, or hyperosmolality. The high correlations between plasma Osm and WBC or platelet counts suggest changes in osmolality may contribute to the mechanism of leucocytosis and thrombocytosis induced by exercise.

  6. Leucocytosis, Thrombocytosis, and Plasma Osmolality During Rest and Exercise: A Hypothesis

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    McKenzie, M. A.; Greenleaf, John E.; Looft-Wilson, R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The mechanism for inducing leucocytosis (increase in white blood cells) and thrombocytosis (increase in platelets) during exercise is unclear. Because plasma osmolality (Osm) may influence T-cell proliferation, Osm and the number of leucocytes (WBC) and platelets in blood were measured periodically during a 90 min rest period, and were compared with those during upright sitting ergometer exercise in six unt.rained, healthy men who cycled for 70 min at 71% of their maximal oxygen uptake (V prime O(sub 2(sub max)). There were 6 experiments in which the subjects drank different fluid formula-t4ilons (10 ml/kg) of various ionic and osmotic concentrations intermittently during 60 min of the rest period and during the exercise period. Osmolality, and WBC and platelet counts increased significantly (pexercise, but the additional 60 min of exercise did not significantly change the leucocytosis or thrombocytosis. There were low but significant correlations between individual values of total WBC and total Osm during exercise (r(sub 0.001(2),284) = 0.39) and during rest plus exercise (r(sub 0.001(2),499) = 0.43). With combined data from the six experiments, mean Osm correlated highly and significantly with both mean WBC (r(sub 0.001(2),6) = 0.95, p exercise phase. These data indicate that increases in leucocytes, thrombocytes, and osmolality occur primarily within the first 10 min of high-intensity exercise, but neither hypovolemia nor hyperthermia during exercise contributed to the leucocytosis, thrombocytosis, or hyperosmolality. The high correlations between plasma Osm and WBC or platelet counts suggest changes in osmolality may contribute to the mechanism of leucocytosis and thrombocytosis induced by exercise.

  7. Plasma osmolality predicts mortality in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction.

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    Kaya, HakkI; Yücel, Oğuzhan; Ege, Meltem Refiker; Zorlu, Ali; Yücel, Hasan; Güneş, Hakan; Ekmekçi, Ahmet; Yılmaz, Mehmet Birhan

    2017-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a fatal disease. Plasma osmolality with individual impacts of sodium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and glucose has not been studied prognostically in patients with HF. This study aims to investigate the impact of serum osmolality on clinical endpoints in HF patients. A total of 509 patients (383 males, 126 females) with HF with reduced ejection fraction in three HF centres were retrospectively analysed between January 2007 and December 2013. Follow-up data were completed for 496 patients. Plasma osmolality was calculated as (2 × Na) + (BUN/2.8) + (Glucose/18). Quartiles of plasma osmolality were produced, and the possible relationship between plasma osmolality and cardiovascular mortality was investigated. The mean follow-up was 25 ± 22 months. The mean age was 56.5 ± 17.3 years with a mean EF of 26 ± 8%. The mean levels of plasma osmolality were as follows in the quartiles: 1st % = 280 ± 6, 2nd % = 288 ± 1, 3rd % = 293 ± 2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 292.72-293.3), and 4th % = 301 ± 5 mOsm/kg. The EF and B-type natriuretic peptide levels were similar in the four quartiles. Univariate and multivariate analyses in the Cox proportional hazard model revealed a significantly higher rate of mortality in the patients with hypo-osmolality. The Kaplan-Meier plot showed graded mortality curves with the 1st quartile having the worst prognosis, followed by the 4th quartile and the 2nd quartile, while the 3rd quartile was shown to have the best prognosis. Our study results suggest that normal plasma osmolality is between 275 and 295 mOsm/kg. However, being close to the upper limit of normal range (292-293 mOsm/kg) seems to be the optimal plasma osmolality level in terms of cardiovascular prognosis in patients with HF.

  8. Plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of perch Perca fluviatilis in response to different salinities and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Emil Aputsiaq Flindt; Svendsen, Morten Bo Søndergaard; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2017-01-01

    The present study determined the blood plasma osmolality and oxygen consumption of the perch Perca fluviatilis at different salinities (0, 10 and 15) and temperatures (5, 10 and 20° C). Blood plasma osmolality increased with salinity at all temperatures. Standard metabolic rate (SMR) increased...... beneficial during cold periods (winter). It is suggested, therefore, that the seasonal migrations of P. fluviatilis between brackish and fresh water is to select an environment that is optimal for metabolism and aerobic scope....

  9. Effects of cigarette smoking on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function.

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    Ergun, Dilek Duzgun; Karis, Denizhan; Alkan, Fatma Ates; Cakmak, Gulfidan; Yenigun, Mustafa; Ercan, Meltem

    2016-10-05

    Cigarette smoking deteriorates human health via vascular disorders, cancer and especially respiratory diseases. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of cigarette smoking on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function in individuals without diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients diagnosed without COPD utilizing respiratory function test were enrolled in the study with three groups, ex-smokers (n = 21), current-smokers (n = 35) and never-smokers (n = 43). Hemorheologic parameters and plasma osmolality were measured in hemorheology laboratory. SPSS 17.0 was used for statistical analysis. Blood and plasma viscosity, fibrinogen and hematocrit levels, mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration were significantly elevated in ex-smokers and current-smokers compared to never-smokers. The standardized red blood cell deformability and oxygen delivery index and lung function were statistically lower in current-smokers than never-smokers. Pulmonary blood flow rate was statistically lower in current-smokers and ex-smokers than never-smokers. Plasma osmolality was statistically significantly higher in ex-smokers and current-smokers than never-smokers. Our findings clearly show that cigarette smoking has severe effects on hemorheologic parameters, plasma osmolality and lung function even in individuals without COPD. Blood and plasma viscosity with plasma osmolality might be useful markers to detect early hemorheologic-hemodynamic alterations in cigarette smokers.

  10. Plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin, and renin activity during graded exercise in man

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    Convertino, V. A.; Keil, L. C.; Bernauer, E. M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1981-01-01

    The influence of work intensity on plasma volume, osmolality, vasopressin and renin activity and the interrelationships between these responses are investigated. Plasma volume, renin activity and osmotic, sodium and arginine vasopressin concentrations were measured in venous blood samples taken from 15 healthy male subjects before and after six minutes of bicycle ergometer exercise at 100, 175 and 225 W. Plasma volume is found to decrease significantly with increasing work intensity, while increases in Na(+) concentration, osmolality and vasopressin are only observed to be significant when the work intensity exceeds 40% maximal aerobic capacity and plasma resin activity increased linearly at all work levels. In addition, significant correlations are observed between plasma volume and osmolality and sodium changes, and between vasopressin and osmolality and sodium content changes. Data thus support the hypotheses that (1) vasopressin may be the primary controlling endocrine for fluid and electrolyte levels following exercise; (2) an exercise intensity greater than 40% maximal aerobic capacity is required to stimulate vasopressin release through changes in plasma osmolality; and (3) the stimulation of the renin-angiotensin system is a more general stress response.

  11. Effect of Rehydration Fluid Osmolality on Plasma Volume and Vasopressin in Resting Dehydrated Men

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    Geelen, Ghislaine; Greenleaf, J. E.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Elevated plasma vasopressin concentration [PVP], which may act as a dipsogen, decreases promptly following the ingestion of fluids in many mammals including humans. The purpose for this study was to determine whether fluids of varied electrolyte and carbohydrate composition and osmolality (Osm] would modify post-drinking decreases in [PVP] which could be attributed to interaction with plasma volume (PV)- or fluid-electrolyte interactive hormones. Five men (23-41 yr, 78.0 +/- SD 8.2 kg), water deprived for 24 h, drank six fluids (12 ml/kg, at 16.5C in 4.0-6.2 min): water (30 m0sm/kg), NaCl (70 mOsm/kg), NaCl + NaCitrate (270 mOsm/kg), NaCl + 9.7% glucose (650 mOsm/kg), and two commercial drinks containing various ionic and carbohydrate contents (380 and 390 mOsm/kg). Blood (20 ml/sample) was drawn at -5 min before and at +3, +9, +15, +30, and +70 min after drinking. Heart rate, blood pressures, and plasma renin activity, {Na+], [K+], [Osm], aldosterone, atrial natriuretic peptide, and epinephrine concentrations were unchanged after drinking. Post-drinking [PVP] decreased from 1.7 - 3.7 pg/ml within 3 min with all fluids independently of their composition, [Osm], or delta PV; with maximal depression to 0.1-0.7 pg/ml (pplasma (Osm] but 1.8-7.6% increases (pplasma norepinephrine concentrations [PNE] at 15 min correlated -0.70 (P<0.10) suggesting that about half the variability in [PVP I I depression was associated with [PNE]. Thus, part of the mechanism for post-drinking [PVP] depression may involve a drinking stimulated norepinephrine (neural) factor.

  12. Osmolality Test

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    ... drug therapies such as mannitol, used to treat cerebral edema . It is also ordered to help monitor the ... stable "therapeutic" osmotic gap and the relief of cerebral edema . Serum osmolality may be increased with: Dehydration Diabetes ...

  13. [Osmolality of frequently consumed beverages].

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    Dini, Elizabeth; De Abreu, Jorge; López, Emeris

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the osmolality of beverages frequently consumed by children and adolescents due to the scarce information available in our country. The samples were grouped as follows: milks; refreshments; beverages based on fruits, vegetables, cereals, and tubers; sport drinks; energizing drinks; oral rehydrating solutions; reconstituted drinks and infusions. A vapor pressure digital osmometer was used, five samples of each beverage from different lots were analyzed. Four osmolality determinations were made on each sample and the average of such values was calculated. When the variation coefficient of the osmolality measurements of the five samples was higher than 10%, five additional samples were analyzed. As many samples as possible were used with breast milk in the time period of the study. Osmolality averages, standard deviation, and the osmolality confidence intervals (95% reliability) were calculated. The osmolality (mmol/kg) of breast milk and that of cow milk were between 273 and 389; refreshments, white, black and flavored colas, and malts ranged between 479-811; and soda and light drinks: 44-62; fresh fruit and commercial drinks (coconut, peach, apple, orange, pear, pineapple, grape, plum, tamarind): 257-1152 and light juices: 274; sports beverages: 367; energizing drinks: 740; drinks based on vegetables and cereals: 213-516; oral rehydrating solutions: 236-397; reconstituted drinks: 145; infusions: 25. Beverages with adequate osmolality levels for children were: milks, light refreshments, soda, fresh and light juices, oral rehydrating, soy, and reconstituted drinks and infusions.

  14. Osmolality of nonionic contrast media.

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    Miklautz, H; Fichte, K; Wegscheider, K

    1989-01-01

    Solutions of different low osmolar contrast media (CM) obviously show clinically relevant differences in the osmolality despite equal iodine concentrations and similar molecular structure. To obtain precise and comparable data, the osmolality of five batches (usually) each of contrast media, iopamidol, iohexol, iopromide, and ioxaglate-all preparations commercially available-were measured by means of the vapor pressure method. The osmolality of the solutions of sodium meglumine ioxaglate with the same iodine concentration is lower than that of the nonionic CM examined. Iopromide showed the lowest osmolality and iohexol the highest value of the nonionic preparations. The differences are statistically significant as a rule. They are attributed to a varying association and hydration of the CM molecules in the solution.

  15. Effects of Na+/K+ Ratio of Groundwaters on the Gill Ion-Transport Enzyme Activity, Plasma Osmolality and Growth of Cynoglossus semilaevis Juveniles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Huizan; PAN Luqing; HU Fawen; LIU Hongyu

    2008-01-01

    The effects of environmental Na+/K+ ratio on the gill ion-transport enzyme activity,plasma osmolality and growth ofCynoglossus semi/aevis juveniles were investigated.The results showed that,plasma osmolality was similar among flounder adaptedto different Na+/K+ ratios of saline groundwaters (P>0.05),while the growth,gill Na+,K+-ATPase and HCO,3'--ATPase activities wereaffected by Na+/K+ ratio significantly (P<0.05).The gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity reached its maximum on day 3,then decreasedgradually from day 3 to day 9 and remained constant from day 9 to day 15.The peak values of gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity weredetected on day 3 for all Na+/K+ ratios of saline groundwaters,then the enzyme activities descended,and on day 9 the enzyme activi-ties achieved steady state,and the gill HCO,3--ATPase activity increased rapidly and achieved steady state after one day.Duringsteady state,the gill Na+,K+-ATPase and HCO,3--ATPase activity of Na+/K+ ratios 20 and 40 treatments were significantly higherthan those in the control group (Na+/K+ ratio 27.5),while there were no significant differences between the Na+/K+ ratio 30 treatmentand the control group; the gill Na+,K+-ATPase activity of Na+/K+ ratio 20 and 40 treatments were significantly higher than that forratio 30 treatment,but there were no significant differences of gill HCO3-ATPase activity among these treatments.At the end of the15-day experiment,the weight gain (%) and specific growth rate (SGR) of flounders maintained in seawater were significantly higherthan those in groundwaters; significant differences also occurred among the treatments; Na+/K+ ratio 30 treatment had the highestvalues (33.7% and 1.94 respectively),which were significantly higher than those under Na+/K+ ratios 20 and 40 treatments.There-fore,for the saline groundwater used in this experiment,it is suggested that the Na+/K+ ratio be adjusted to approximately 30,I.e.,asclose to that of natural seawater as possible in the culture of flounder.

  16. Effects of osmolality on sperm morphology, motility and flagellar wave parameters in Northern pike (Esox lucius L.).

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    Alavi, S M Hadi; Rodina, Marek; Viveiros, Ana T M; Cosson, Jacky; Gela, David; Boryshpolets, Sergei; Linhart, Otomar

    2009-07-01

    Northern pike (Esox lucius L.) spermatozoa are uniflagellated cells differentiated into a head without acrosome, a midpiece and a flagellar tail region flanked by a fin structure. Total, flagellar, head and midpiece lengths of spermatozoa were measured and show mean values of 34.5, 32.0, 1.32, 1.17 microm, respectively, with anterior and posterior widths of the midpiece measuring 0.8 and 0.6 microm, respectively. The osmolality of seminal plasma ranged from 228 to 350 mOsmol kg(-1) (average: 283.88+/-33.05). After triggering of sperm motility in very low osmolality medium (distilled water), blebs appeared along the flagellum. At later periods in the motility phase, the tip of the flagellum became curled into a loop shape which resulted in a shortening of the flagellum and a restriction of wave development to the proximal part (close to head). Spermatozoa velocity and percentage of motile spermatozoa decreased rapidly as a function of time postactivation and depended on the osmolality of activation media (Ppike is inhibited due to high osmolality in the seminal plasma. Osmolality of activation medium affects the percentage of motile sperm and spermatozoa velocity due to changes in flagellar wave parameters.

  17. SPORT DRINKS WITH DIFFERENT OSMOLALITY

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    J. Kozonova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article the assortment sport drinks’ extending possibility is represented. The juice component compositions for sport drinks with different osmolality were designed. The feasibility of adding into the drink calcium lactate as a source of quick body energy renovation and as calcium deficiency’s reducer were proved.

  18. A retrospective analysis of glycol and toxic alcohol ingestion: utility of anion and osmolal gaps

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    Krasowski Matthew D

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients ingesting ethylene glycol, isopropanol, methanol, and propylene glycol ('toxic alcohols' often present with non-specific signs and symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of toxic alcohols has traditionally been by gas chromatography (GC, a technique not commonly performed on-site in hospital clinical laboratories. The objectives of this retrospective study were: 1 to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the osmolal gap in screening for toxic alcohol ingestion and 2 to determine the common reasons other than toxic alcohol ingestion for elevated osmolal gaps. Methods Electronic medical records from an academic tertiary care medical center were searched to identify all patients in the time period from January 1, 1996 to September 1, 2010 who had serum/plasma ethanol, glucose, sodium, blood urea nitrogen, and osmolality measured simultaneously, and also all patients who had GC analysis for toxic alcohols. Detailed chart review was performed on all patients with osmolal gap of 9 or greater. Results In the study period, 20,669 patients had determination of serum/plasma ethanol and osmolal gap upon presentation to the hospitals. There were 341 patients with an osmolal gap greater than 14 (including correction for estimated contribution of ethanol on initial presentation to the medical center. Seventy-seven patients tested positive by GC for one or more toxic alcohols; all had elevated anion gap or osmolal gap or both. Other than toxic alcohols, the most common causes for an elevated osmolal gap were recent heavy ethanol consumption with suspected alcoholic ketoacidosis, renal failure, shock, and recent administration of mannitol. Only 9 patients with osmolal gap greater than 50 and no patients with osmolal gap greater than 100 were found to be negative for toxic alcohols. Conclusions Our study concurs with other investigations that show that osmolal gap can be a useful diagnostic test in conjunction with clinical history and physical

  19. Dynamic control of osmolality and ionic composition of the xylem sap in two mangrove species.

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    López-Portillo, Jorge; Ewers, Frank W; Méndez-Alonzo, Rodrigo; Paredes López, Claudia L; Angeles, Guillermo; Alarcón Jiménez, Ana Luisa; Lara-Domínguez, Ana Laura; Torres Barrera, María Del Carmen

    2014-06-01

    • Premise of the study: Xylem sap osmolality and salinity is a critical unresolved issue in plant function with impacts on transport efficiency, pressure gradients, and living cell turgor pressure, especially for halophytes such as mangrove trees.• Methods: We collected successive xylem vessel sap samples from stems and shoots of Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa using vacuum and pressure extraction and measured their osmolality. Following a series of extractions with the pressure chamber, we depressurized the shoot and pressurized again after various equilibration periods (minutes to hours) to test for dynamic control of osmolality. Transpiration and final sap osmolality were measured in shoots perfused with deionized water or different seawater dilutions.• Key results: For both species, the sap osmolality values of consecutive samples collected by vacuum extraction were stable and matched those of the initial samples extracted with the pressure chamber. Further extraction of samples with the pressure chamber decreased sap osmolality, suggesting reverse osmosis occurred. However, sap osmolalities increased when longer equilibration periods after sap extraction were allowed. Analysis of expressed sap with HPLC indicated a 1:1 relation between measured osmolality and the osmolality of the inorganic ions in the sap (mainly Na(+), K(+), and Cl(-)), suggesting no contamination by organic compounds. In stems perfused with deionized water, the sap osmolality increased to mimic the native sap osmolality.• Conclusions: Xylem sap osmolality and ionic contents are dynamically adjusted by mangroves and may help modulate turgor pressure, hydraulic conductivity, and water potential, thus being important for mangrove physiology, survival, and distribution. © 2014 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  20. Comparison of osmolality and refractometric readings of Hispaniolan Amazon parrot (Amazona ventralis) urine.

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    Brock, A Paige; Grunkemeyer, Vanessa L; Fry, Michael M; Hall, James S; Bartges, Joseph W

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osmolality and specific gravity of urine samples from clinically normal adult parrots and to determine a formula to convert urine specific gravity (USG) measured on a reference scale to a more accurate USG value for an avian species, urine samples were collected opportunistically from a colony of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Samples were analyzed by using a veterinary refractometer, and specific gravity was measured on both canine and feline scales. Osmolality was measured by vapor pressure osmometry. Specific gravity and osmolality measurements were highly correlated (r = 0.96). The linear relationship between refractivity measurements on a reference scale and osmolality was determined. An equation was calculated to allow specific gravity results from a medical refractometer to be converted to specific gravity values of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots: USGHAp = 0.201 +0.798(USGref). Use of the reference-canine scale to approximate the osmolality of parrot urine leads to an overestimation of the true osmolality of the sample. In addition, this error increases as the concentration of urine increases. Compared with the human-canine scale, the feline scale provides a closer approximation to urine osmolality of Hispaniolan Amazon parrots but still results in overestimation of osmolality.

  1. Vapor pressure and freezing point osmolality measurements applied to a volatile screen.

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    Draviam, E J; Custer, E M; Schoen, I

    1984-12-01

    This is a report of a rapid and precise screening procedure, developed for the determination of ethanol in serum using osmolality measurements. The osmolality of the patient is determined by freezing point method (freezing point osmometry) and dew point (water vapor pressure osmometry) method. The difference between freezing point osmolality and vapor pressure osmolality (delta osm) is due to the presence of volatiles in the serum, because the volatiles are not measured by vapor pressure osmometry. The amount of ethanol (mg/dL) in serum is estimated by multiplying delta osm by a factor of 4.2. As a comparison method, ethanol also is measured by a spectrophotometric alcohol dehydrogenase method. In addition, a significant difference between an osmometric alcohol assayed value and enzymatic spectrophotometric measurement indicates the presence of volatiles, other than ethanol. In addition to ethanol there is a linear relationship between osmolality and isopropanol or methanol when added in vitro to serum.

  2. Microdrop preparation factors influence culture-media osmolality, which can impair mouse embryo preimplantation development.

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    Swain, J E; Cabrera, L; Xu, X; Smith, G D

    2012-02-01

    Because media osmolality can impact embryo development, the effect of conditions during microdrop preparation on osmolality was examined. Various sizes of microdrops were prepared under different laboratory conditions. Drops were pipetted directly onto a dish and covered by oil (standard method) or pipetted on the dish, overlaid with oil before removing the underlying media and replaced with fresh media (wash-drop method). Drops were made at 23°C or on a heated stage (37°C) and with or without airflow. Osmolality was assessed at 5 min and 24h. The biological impact of osmolality change was demonstrated by culturing 1-cell mouse embryos in media with varying osmolality. Reduced drop volume, increased temperature and standard method were associated with a significant increase in osmolality at both 5 min and 24h (P-values media with elevated osmolality (>310mOsm/kg; P<0.05). Procedures in the IVF laboratory can alter osmolality and impact embryo development.

  3. Twenty-Four-Hour Urine Osmolality as a Physiological Index of Adequate Water Intake

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    Erica T. Perrier

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available While associations exist between water, hydration, and disease risk, research quantifying the dose-response effect of water on health is limited. Thus, the water intake necessary to maintain optimal hydration from a physiological and health standpoint remains unclear. The aim of this analysis was to derive a 24 h urine osmolality (UOsm threshold that would provide an index of “optimal hydration,” sufficient to compensate water losses and also be biologically significant relative to the risk of disease. Ninety-five adults (31.5 ± 4.3 years, 23.2 ± 2.7 kg·m−2 collected 24 h urine, provided morning blood samples, and completed food and fluid intake diaries over 3 consecutive weekdays. A UOsm threshold was derived using 3 approaches, taking into account European dietary reference values for water; total fluid intake, and urine volumes associated with reduced risk for lithiasis and chronic kidney disease and plasma vasopressin concentration. The aggregate of these approaches suggest that a 24 h urine osmolality ≤500 mOsm·kg−1 may be a simple indicator of optimal hydration, representing a total daily fluid intake adequate to compensate for daily losses, ensure urinary output sufficient to reduce the risk of urolithiasis and renal function decline, and avoid elevated plasma vasopressin concentrations mediating the increased antidiuretic effort.

  4. Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth A Wibroe

    Full Text Available Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF from patients with IIH.We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referred on suspicion of IIH from 2011-2013. Subjects included as patients fulfilled Friedman and Jacobson's diagnostic criteria for IIH. Individuals in whom intracranial hypertension was refuted were included as controls. Lumbar puncture with ICP measurement was performed at inclusion and repeated for patients after three months of treatment. Osmolality was measured with a Vapor Pressure Osmometer.We collected 90 CSF samples from 38 newly diagnosed patients and 28 controls. At baseline 27 IIH-samples and at 3 months follow-up 35 IIH-samples were collected from patients. We found no significant differences in osmolality between 1 patients at baseline and controls (p = 0. 86, 2 patients at baseline and after 3 months treatment (p = 0.97, and 3 patients with normalized pressure after 3 months and their baseline values (p = 0.79. Osmolality in individuals with normal ICP from 6-25 cmH2O (n = 41 did not differ significantly from patients with moderately elevated ICP from 26-45 cmH2O (n = 21 (p = 0.86 and patients with high ICP from 46-70 cmH2O (n = 4 (p = 0.32, respectively. There was no correlation between osmolality and ICP, BMI, age and body height, respectively. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg (± 1 SE, 95% confidence interval 267-272 for both patients and controls.CSF osmolality was normal in patients with IIH, and there was no relation to treatment, ICP, BMI, age and body height. Mean CSF osmolality was 270 mmol/kg and constitutes a reference for future studies. Changes in CSF osmolality are not responsible for development of IIH. Other underlying pathophysiological mechanisms must be searched.

  5. Effect of osmolality on erythrocyte rheology and perfusion of an artificial microvascular network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhart, Walter H; Piety, Nathaniel Z; Goede, Jeroen S; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2015-03-01

    Plasma sodium concentration is normally held within a narrow range. It may however vary greatly under pathophysiological conditions. Changes in osmolality lead to either swelling or shrinkage of red blood cells (RBCs). Here we investigated the influence of suspension osmolality on biophysical properties of RBCs and their ability to perfuse an artificial microvascular network (AMVN). Blood was drawn from healthy volunteers. RBC deformability was measured by osmotic gradient ektacytometry over a continuous range of osmolalities. Packed RBCs were suspended in NaCl solutions (0.45, 0.6, 0.9, 1.2, and 1.5 g/dL), resulting in supernatant osmolalities of 179 ± 4, 213 ± 1, 283 ± 2, 354 ± 3, and 423 ± 5 mOsm/kg H2O. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were determined using centrifuged microhematocrit. RBC suspensions at constant cell numbers were used to measure viscosity at shear rates ranging from 0.11 to 69.5s(-1) and the perfusion rate of the AMVN. MCV was inversely and MCHC directly proportional to osmolality. RBC deformability was maximized at isosmotic conditions (290 mOsm/kg H2O) and markedly decreased by either hypo- or hyperosmolality. The optimum osmolality for RBC suspension viscosity was shifted toward hyperosmolality, while lower osmolalities increased suspension viscosity exponentially. However, the AMVN perfusion rate was maximized at 290 mOsm/kg H2O and changed by less than 10% over a wide range of osmolalities. These findings contribute to the basic understanding of blood flow in health and disease and may have significant implications for the management of osmotic homeostasis in clinical practice.

  6. Osmolality of antisense oligonucleotide parenteral formulations: Implications on counterion dissociation and recommended osmometry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Marc; Dibble, Andrew

    2016-12-30

    The intrinsic osmolality of aqueous solutions of sodium salt antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) has been studied to inform formulation practices, understand the molecular basis underlying the difference between theoretical and empirical results, and determine suitable measurement methods. It was found that regardless of nucleotide sequence, ASO concentration of ∼140mg/mL has isotonic osmolality of ∼290mOsm/kg water (SI unit: mmol osmotically-active particles/kg water), such that lower concentration formulations require excipients for tonicity adjustment. The range of osmolality values at a given active ingredient concentration can be ascribed to drug substance lot-to-lot purity differences impacting total oligonucleotide content (i.e., including oligonucleotide-related impurities). Empirical osmolality measurements were found to be ∼70% of theoretical values, which corresponds to an osmotic coefficient value of ∼0.7, thus inferring incomplete counterion dissociation. When comparing theoretical (ideal) osmolality of multiple sequences with various nucleotide compositions and chemistries at the same w/v concentration, the "average osmolar mass" (molar mass of the oligonucleotide, including the sodium counterions, divided by the ideal Van't Hoff factor, i(id)) appears to be the strongest factor governing theoretical osmolality values. Other factors examined were the sequence length, backbone chemistry, 2' sugar chemistry, and nucleotide composition. A head-to-head comparison between two osmolality techniques showed that vapor pressure osmometry is generally more suitable than freezing point osmometry for oligonucleotide solutions greater than ∼150mg/mL due to viscosity effects, but the two techniques are comparable otherwise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of lactase and formula reconstitution on milk osmolality.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Malone, A J

    2012-02-03

    These experiments investigated the reaction rate of lactase on milk lactose by measuring milk osmolality; and explored the effect of formula reconstitution on milk osmolality. The investigations measured milk osmolality with the Fiske Os, freezing-point osmometer. Lactase (Lactaid) incubated with pure lactose solutions established the validity of the method. Lactase was incubated for 24 hours with four reconstituted milk formulas (Milumil, and Cow and Gate Nutrilon Plus, Farley\\'s First Milk, SMA Gold). Milk osmolality increased most rapidly in the first 4 hours after the addition of lactase. The lactase enzyme completed over 90% of the reaction within 12 hours. The milk osmolalities ranged from 487 to 591 mosm\\/kg after 24 hours with 2-4 drops of lactase in 240 ml of formula. A clinical guideline osmolality of 400 mosm\\/kg was reached in 240 ml of formula at 1 to 12 hours depending on the dose of lactase. High milk osmolalities due to prolonged enzyme incubation, or high lactase doses could be reduced to around 400 mosm\\/kg by dilution of 240 ml of formula with an extra 60 ml of water. The initial osmolality of formula after reconstitution by paediatric nurses varied widely and usually exceeded the manufacturer\\'s quoted osmolality. This initial osmolality was a further influence on the final osmolality reached after the addition of lactase. It is concluded that the recommended incubation time for Lactaid of 24 hours is unnecessary as lactase exerts the majority of its effect in less than 12 hours. Adjustment of Lactaid dose and incubation times will maintain milk formula osmolality within standard guidelines. Dilution with extra water will correct inadvertent high enzyme doses and prolonged incubation times. The normal method of reconstituting milk formulas from powder may be unreliable as the manufacturer\\'s quoted osmolality was not reproduced when milk formulas were reconstituted by paediatric nurses.

  8. No diagnostic value of plasma clusterin in Alzheimer's disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edina Silajdžić

    Full Text Available There is an urgent need for biomarkers to enable early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. It has recently been shown that a variant within the clusterin gene is associated with increased risk of AD and plasma levels of clusterin have been found to be associated with the risk of AD. We, therefore, investigated the diagnostic value of clusterin by quantifying clusterin using an ELISA in plasma from 171 controls, 127 patients with AD, 82 patients with other dementias and 30 patients with depression. We observed similar plasma clusterin levels in controls, AD patients and patients with other dementias, suggesting that plasma clusterin levels have no diagnostic value for AD. There was a slight, but significant, increase in plasma clusterin in patients with depression compared to all other groups tested, which may warrant further investigation.

  9. Is specific gravity a good estimate of urine osmolality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Sethi; Eva, Goldwater; Christopher, Shutty; Flynn, Ethan; Henner, David

    2010-01-01

    Urine specific gravity (USG) is often used by clinicians to estimate urine osmolality. USG is measured either by refractometry or by reagent strip. We studied the correlation of USG obtained by either method with a concurrently obtained osmolality. Using our laboratory's records, we retrospectively gathered data on 504 urine specimens on patients on whom a simultaneously drawn USG and an osmolality were available. Out of these, 253 USG's were measured by automated refractometry and 251 USG's were measured by reagent strip. Urinalysis data on these subjects were used to determine the correlation between USG and osmolality, adjusting for other variables that may impact the relationship. The other variables considered were pH, protein, glucose, ketones, nitrates, bilirubin, urobilinogen, hemoglobin, and leukocyte esterase. The relationships were analyzed by linear regression. This study demonstrated that USG obtained by both reagent strip and refractometry had a correlation of approximately 0.75 with urine osmolality. The variables affecting the correlation included pH, ketones, bilirubin, urobilinogen, glucose, and protein for the reagent strip and ketones, bilirubin, and hemoglobin for the refractometry method. At a pH of 7 and with an USG of 1.010 predicted osmolality is approximately 300  mosm/kg/H(2)O for either method. For an increase in SG of 0.010, predicted osmolality increases by 182  mosm/kg/H(2) O for the reagent strip and 203  mosm/kg/H(2)O for refractometry. Pathological urines had significantly poorer correlation between USG and osmolality than "clean" urines. In pathological urines, direct measurement of urine osmolality should be used. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Serum osmolality in the coelacanth, Latimeria chalumnae: urea retention and ion regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickford, G E; Grant, F B

    1967-02-03

    Samples of blood (hemolyzed) were obtained from the renal vein, the hepatic portal vein, and the heart of a freshly thawed specimen of Latimeria chalumnae. The coelacanth uses high concentrations of urea to maintain its serum osmolality at approximately that of sea water. The mean value for the total osmolality was 1181 milliosmoles per liter. The mean values (milliequivalents per liter) were: for sodium, 181; for potassium, 51.3; for calcium, 6.9; for magnesium, 28.7; for chloride, 199; and for bicarbonate, 4.7. The mean urea concentration was 355 millimoles per liter, and the mean nonprotein nitrogen was 1343 milligrams percent. Heart blood showed significantly lower values for osmolality (921 milliosmoles per liter) and nonprotein nitrogen (1030 mg percent) and was probably less severely contaminated with products of protein breakdown. Fluid from the anterior chamber of the eye showed values of 952 milliosmole/liter; the urea value for this fluid was 303 mmole/liter, and the magnesium was 7.3 meq/liter. The magnesium value for the aqueous humor was used to correct the abnormally high concentrations in the hemolyzed serum. The high level of serum potassium also was attributed to hemolysis.

  11. An evaluation of the osmole gap as a screening test for toxic alcohol poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu-Laban Riyad B

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The osmole gap is used routinely as a screening test for the presence of exogenous osmotically active substances, such as the toxic alcohols ethylene glycol and methanol, particularly when the ability to measure serum concentrations of the substances is not available. The objectives of this study were: 1 to measure the diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap for screening for ethylene glycol and methanol exposure, and 2 to identify whether a recently proposed modification of the ethanol coefficient affects the diagnostic accuracy. Methods Electronic laboratory records from two tertiary-care hospitals were searched to identify all patients for whom a serum ethylene glycol and methanol measurement was ordered between January 1, 1996 and March 31, 2002. Cases were eligible for analysis if serum sodium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, ethanol, ethylene glycol, methanol, and osmolality were measured simultaneously. Serum molarity was calculated using the Smithline and Gardner equation and ethanol coefficients of 1 and 1.25 mOsm/mM. The diagnostic accuracy of the osmole gap was evaluated for identifying patients with toxic alcohol levels above the recommended threshold for antidotal therapy and hemodialysis using receiver-operator characteristic curves, likelihood ratios, and positive and negative predictive values. Results One hundred and thirty-one patients were included in the analysis, 20 of whom had ethylene glycol or methanol serum concentrations above the threshold for antidotal therapy. The use of an ethanol coefficient of 1.25 mOsm/mM yielded higher specificities and positive predictive values, without affecting sensitivity and negative predictive values. Employing an osmole gap threshold of 10 for the identification of patients requiring antidotal therapy resulted in a sensitivity of 0.9 and 0.85, and a specificity of 0.22 and 0. 5, with equations 1 and 2 respectively. The sensitivity increased to 1 for both equations for the

  12. Osmolality and respiratory regulation in humans: respiratory compensation for hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis is absent after infusion of hypertonic saline in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Vibeke; Brudin, Lars; Rundgren, Mats; Irestedt, Lars

    2014-10-01

    Several animal studies show that changes in plasma osmolality may influence ventilation. Respiratory depression caused by increased plasma osmolality is interpreted as inhibition of water-dependent thermoregulation because conservation of body fluid predominates at the cost of increased core temperature. Respiratory alkalosis, on the other hand, is associated with a decrease in plasma osmolality and strong ion difference (SID) during human pregnancy. We investigated the hypothesis that osmolality would influence ventilation, so that increased osmolality will decrease ventilation and decreased osmolality will stimulate ventilation in both men and women. Our study participants were healthy volunteers of both sexes (ASA physical status I). Ten men (mean 28 years; range 20-40) and 9 women (mean 33 years; range 22-43) were included. All women participated in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Hyperosmolality was induced by IV infusion of hypertonic saline 3%, and hypoosmolality by drinking tap water. Arterial blood samples were collected for analysis of electrolytes, osmolality, and blood gases. Sensitivity to CO2 was determined by rebreathing tests performed before and after the fluid-loading procedures. Infusion of hypertonic saline caused hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis with decreased SID in all subjects. Analysis of pooled data showed absence of respiratory compensation. Baseline arterial PCO2 (PaCO2) mean (SD) 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg remained unaltered, with lowest PaCO2 37.8 (2.9) mm Hg after 100 minutes, P = 0.70, causing a decrease in pH from mean (SD) 7.42 (0.02) to 7.38 (0.02), P acidosis was also observed during water loading. Pooled results show that PaCO2 decreased from 38.2 (3.3) mm Hg at baseline to 35.7 (2.8) mm Hg after 80 minutes of drinking water, P = 0.002, and pH remained unaltered: pH 7.43 (0.02) at baseline to pH 7.42 (0.02), P = 0.14, mean difference (confidence interval) = pH -0.007 (-0.017 to 0.003). Our results indicate

  13. Plasma folic acid cutoff value, derived from its relationship with homocyst(e)ine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D A; Welten, H T; Reijngoud, D J; van Doormaal, J J; Muskiet, F A

    1998-01-01

    We established the cutoff value for plasma folic acid, using plasma homocyst(e)ine as the functional marker. To do this, we investigated the relationship of the plasma folic acid of 103 apparently healthy adults with their fasting plasma homocyst(e)ine and with their plasma homocyst(e)ine 6 h after

  14. Estradiol and osmolality: Behavioral responses and central pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Kathleen S

    2015-12-01

    Regulation of appropriate osmolality of body fluid is critical for survival, yet there are sex differences in compensatory responses to osmotic challenges. Few studies have focused on the role of sex hormones such as estradiol in behavioral responses to increases or decreases in systemic osmolality, and even fewer studies have investigated whether central actions of estrogens contribute to these responses. This overview integrates findings from a series of ongoing and completed experiments conducted in my laboratory to assess estradiol effects on water and NaCl intake in response to osmotic challenges, and on activity in central pathways that mediate such responses.

  15. Osmolality of preterm formulas supplemented with nonprotein energy supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Dias, M Pitta-Grós; Virella, D; Moreira, A C; Serelha, M

    2008-02-01

    Addition of energy supplements to preterm formulas is an optional strategy to increase the energy intake in infants requiring fluid restriction, in conditions like bronchopulmonary dysplasia. This strategy may lead to an undesirable increase in osmolality of feeds, the maximum recommended safe limit being 400 mOsm/kg. The aim of the study was to measure the changes in osmolality of several commercialized preterm formulas after addition of glucose polymers and medium-chain triglycerides. Osmolality was measured by the freezing point depression method. Six powdered formulas with concentrations of 14 g/100 ml and 16 g/100 ml, and five ready-to-feed liquid formulas were analyzed. All formulas, were supplemented with 10% (low supplementation) or 20% (high supplementation) of additional calories, respectively, in the form of glucose polymers and medium chain triglycerides, maintaining a 1:1 glucose:lipid calorie ratio. Inter-analysis and intra-analysis coefficients of variation of the measurements were always supplemented formulas varied between 268.5 and 315.3 mOsm/kg, increasing by 3-5% in low supplemented formulas, and by 6-10% in high supplemented formulas. None of the formulas analyzed exceeded 352.8 mOsm/kg. The supplementation of preterm formulas with nonprotein energy supplements with up to 20% additional calories did not exceed the maximum recommended osmolality for neonatal feedings.

  16. Urine Osmolality in Treatment-naïve HIV-positive Subjects in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-09-14

    Sep 14, 2017 ... water. However, urine osmolality has been shown to. 1Division of Nephrology, .... Osmolality was determined by the freezing point depression method using the Precision Osmette ..... associated with a salt-losing syndrome.

  17. Near-fatal persistent anion- and osmolal-gap acidosis due to massive gamma-butyrolactone/ethanol intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heytens, Luc; Neels, Hugo; Van Regenmortel, Niels; van den Brink, Wim; Henckes, Manu; Schouwers, Sofie; Dockx, Greet; Crunelle, Cleo L

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of an ethanol and massive gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) intoxication, the precursor of the recreational drug gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), resulting in life-threatening metabolic acidosis (pH 6.5) with a highly increased anion- and osmolal gap. Rapid analysis using gas chromatography revealed a GHB plasma concentration of 4400 mg/L, far above the upper limit concentration of 1000 mg/L found in adult fatalities attributed to GBL. Full recovery was established following supportive treatment including haemodialysis. This is the first report of a combined ethanol/GBL intoxication as a cause of high serum anion- and osmolal-gap metabolic acidosis. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  18. Revisiting linear plasma waves for finite value of the plasma parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grismayer, Thomas; Fahlen, Jay; Decyk, Viktor; Mori, Warren

    2010-11-01

    We investigate through theory and PIC simulations the Landau-damping of plasma waves with finite plasma parameter. We concentrate on the linear regime, γφB, where the waves are typically small and below the thermal noise. We simulate these condition using 1,2,3D electrostatic PIC codes (BEPS), noting that modern computers now allow us to simulate cases where (nλD^3 = [1e2;1e6]). We study these waves by using a subtraction technique in which two simulations are carried out. In the first, a small wave is initialized or driven, in the second no wave is excited. The results are subtracted to provide a clean signal that can be studied. As nλD^3 is decreased, the number of resonant electrons can be small for linear waves. We show how the damping changes as a result of having few resonant particles. We also find that for small nλD^3 fluctuations can cause the electrons to undergo collisions that eventually destroy the initial wave. A quantity of interest is the the life time of a particular mode which depends on the plasma parameter and the wave number. The life time is estimated and then compared with the numerical results. A surprising result is that even for large values of nλD^3 some non-Vlasov discreteness effects appear to be important.

  19. Validity of protein-osmolality versus protein-creatinine ratios in the estimation of quantitative proteinuria from random samples of urine in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgenstern, Bruce Z; Butani, Lavjay; Wollan, Peter; Wilson, David M; Larson, Timothy S

    2003-04-01

    Proteinuria is an important marker of kidney disease. Simple methods to determine the presence of proteinuria in a semiquantitative fashion require measurement of either a protein-creatinine or protein-osmolality ratio. Urine samples from 134 healthy infants and children and 150 children from the pediatric nephrology practice were analyzed to develop normative data for protein-osmolality ratios on random urine samples and compare protein-osmolality with protein-creatinine ratio as a predictor of 24-hour urine protein excretion. Children were grouped according to age. Three groups were established: infants (<2 years), younger children (2 to 8 years), and older children (9 to 18 years). An adult cohort was similarly analyzed. For healthy children older than 2 years, the optimal value discriminating normal from abnormal protein excretion was determined to be a protein-osmolality ratio of 0.15 mg x kg H2O/mOsm. L; for children between 2 and 8 years old, 0.14; and for children older than 8 years, 0.17 (P = not significant between age groups). The corresponding optimal cutoff value for protein-creatinine ratio for the entire group of children older than 2 years is 0.20. Area under the curve analysis of receiver operator characteristic curves showed protein-creatinine ratio was superior to protein-osmolality ratio for predicting abnormal amounts of proteinuria in children and adolescents (P < 0.0001). In adults, both ratios are equally accurate. Given the superiority of protein-creatinine ratio in children, it would be appropriate to screen urine samples for proteinuria using protein-creatinine ratio rather than protein-osmolality ratio.

  20. Diagnostic value of plasma aldosterone/potassium ratio in hypoaldosteronism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiah, C J; Wu, K D; Tsai, D M; Liao, S T; Siauw, C P; Lee, L S

    1995-05-01

    The diagnosis of hypoaldosteronism usually depends upon a combination of abnormal clinical and laboratory findings. The most common abnormality in hypoaldosteronism is hyperkalemia, which may be combined with sodium depletion. In the present study, 5 of 16 patients diagnosed with isolated hypoaldosteronism (IHA) had sodium depletion due to renal salt wasting, and four patients had normokalemia. Of these 16 IHA patients, 70% had subnormal baseline and stimulated plasma renin activity (PRA). Six patients diagnosed with type I pseudohypoaldosteronism (PHA) had normal or high PRA and plasma aldosterone concentrations (PAC). In 11 control subjects, supine PAC correlated positively with serum potassium (SK), and PAC stimulated by furosemide and ambulation correlated with the 24-hour urinary potassium excretion (UK). However, these correlations were not found in IHA and PHA patients. The ratio of UK/UNa+K and UNa/UK correlated with the stimulated PAC when the IHA and control subjects were taken as a whole. However, these electrolyte excretion parameters bore no relationship to the supine PAC. The stimulated PAC/SK ratio was used to discriminate the three groups; all IHA patients had a ratio below 3. The results indicate that stimulated PAC reflects the bioactivity of aldosterone on the collecting tubule, and the stimulated PAC/SK ratio is useful for the diagnosis of hypoaldosteronism and pseudohypoaldosteronism.

  1. Prognostic value of plasma C-reactive protein in the evaluation of paraquat poisoning patients简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong; Ning; Yu-Long; Bai; Hua; Lu; Kang-Lin; Mo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of plasma C-reactive protein(CRP) level in patients with paraquat poisoning.Methods: This study included 162 patients with paraquat poisoning. The data of plasma paraquat, CRP level and arterial blood gas were analyzed. Cox regression analysis was applied to evaluate the risk factors of prognosis. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and area under curve were used to calculate the predictive power of significant variable. Differences in patient survival were determined using the Kaplan–Meier method and a log-rank test.Results: Plasma CRP level was significantly increased in non-survival patients compared with survival patients(P < 0.05), and positively correlated with plasma paraquat level(P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that plasma CRP level was an independent prognostic marker of mortality within 30 days. The receiver operating characteristics curve analysis indicated that area under curve of plasma CRP level was0.867(95% CI: 0.81–0.93), and the cut-off value was 18 mg/L, and patients with CRP level over this value had a poor survival time compared with those with less than this value.Conclusions: These results suggest that plasma CRP level is distinct increased in patients with paraquat poisoning, and the plasma CRP level may be useful for the prediction of prognosis in paraquat poisoning.

  2. Morphology engineering - Osmolality and its effect on Aspergillus niger morphology and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krull Rainer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is a widely used strain in a broad range of industrial processes from food to pharmaceutical industry. One of the most intriguing and often uncontrollable characteristics of this filamentous organism is its complex morphology, ranging from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia depending on culture conditions. Optimal productivity correlates strongly with a specific morphological form, thus making high demands on process control. Results In about 50 2L stirred tank cultivations the influence of osmolality on A. niger morphology and productivity was investigated. The specific productivity of fructofuranosidase producing strain A. niger SKAn 1015 could be increased notably from 0.5 to 9 U mg-1 h-1 around eighteen fold, by increasing the culture broth osmolality by addition of sodium chloride. The specific productivity of glucoamylase producing strain A. niger AB1.13, could be elevated using the same procedure. An optimal producing osmolality was shown to exist well over the standard osmolality at about 3.2 osmol kg-1 depending on the strain. Fungal morphology of all cultivations was examined by microscope and characterized by digital image analysis. Particle shape parameters were combined to a dimensionless Morphology number, which enabled a comprehensive characterization of fungal morphology correlating closely with productivity. A novel method for determination of germination time in submerged cultivations by laser diffraction, introduced in this study, revealed a decelerated germination process with increasing osmolality. Conclusions Through the introduction of the versatile Morphology number, this study provides the means for a desirable characterization of fungal morphology and demonstrates its relation to productivity. Furthermore, osmolality as a fairly new parameter in process engineering is introduced and found to affect fungal morphology and productivity. Osmolality might

  3. Prognostic value of plasma C-reactive protein in the evaluation of paraquat poisoning patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong NingΔ; Yu-Long BaiΔ; Hua Lu; Kang-Lin Mo

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prognostic value of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) level in patients with paraquat poisoning. Methods: This study included 162 patients with paraquat poisoning. The data of plasma paraquat,CRP level and arterial blood gas were analyzed. Cox regression analysis was applied to evaluate the risk factors of prognosis. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and area under curve were used to calculate the predictive power of significant variable. Differences in patient survival were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and a log-rank test. Results:PlasmaCRP level was significantly increased in non-survival patients compared with survival patients (P Conclusions: These results suggest that plasmaCRP level is distinct increased in patients with paraquat poisoning, and the plasmaCRP level may be useful for the prediction of prognosis in paraquat poisoning.

  4. Simultaneous measurement of arginine vasopressin and oxytocin in plasma and neurohypophysis by radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landgraf, R. (Deutsche Hochschule fuer Koerperkultur, Leipzig (German Democratic Republic). Forschungsinstitut Koerperkultur und Sport)

    1981-12-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) were measured simultaneously in the same sample by specific and sensitive radioimmunoassays (RIAs). The antibodies used did not cross-react to a variety of analogs and related peptides. The extraction procedure using Vycor glass powder resulted in mean recoveries of 84.4% (AVP) and 64.6% (OXT). In both assays, the sensitivity was 1 to 2 pg/ml plasma. A preincubation procedure that depresses plasma levels of both AVP and OXT selectively, provided specific blank values for a given plasma sample. To confirm the validity of the RIAs, dehydration experiments were performed. In rats, the basal levels of plasma AVP and OXT (means: 2,63 pg/ml and 6.80 pg/ml, respectively) are increased significantly after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h of water deprivation. Relationships are presented between both neurohormones in the plasma and neurohypophyses of control and dehydrated animals. As shown in cows, a significant correlation exists between plasma AVP and plasma osmolality but not between plasma OXT and osmolality or plasma AVP and OXT. Basal levels as well as physiological changes in plasma and neurohypophyseal AVP and OXT can be measured by the RIAs described.

  5. Plasma globotriaosylsphingosine: diagnostic value and relation to clinical manifestations of Fabry disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rombach, S M; Dekker, N; Bouwman, M G; Linthorst, G E; Zwinderman, A H; Wijburg, F A; Kuiper, S; Vd Bergh Weerman, M A; Groener, J E M; Poorthuis, B J; Hollak, C E M; Aerts, J M F G

    2010-09-01

    Fabry disease is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder due to deficiency of alpha-Galactosidase A, causing accumulation of globotriaosylceramide and elevated plasma globotriaosylsphingosine (lysoGb3). The diagnostic value and clinical relevance of plasma lysoGb3 concentration was investigated. All male and adult female patients with classical Fabry disease could be discerned by an elevated plasma lysoGb3. In young pre-symptomatic Fabry heterozygotes, lysoGb3 levels can be normal. Individuals carrying the R112H and P60L mutations, without classical Fabry symptoms, showed no elevated plasma lysoGb3. Multiple regression analysis showed that there is no correlation of plasma lysoGb3 concentration with total disease severity score in Fabry males. However, plasma lysoGb3 concentration did correlate with white matter lesions (odds ratio: 6.1 per 100 nM lysoGb3 increase (95% CI: 1.4-25.9, p=0.015). In females, plasma lysoGb3 concentration correlated with overall disease severity. Furthermore, plasma lysoGb3 level was related to left ventricular mass (19.5+/-5.5 g increase per 10 nM lysoGb3 increase; p=0.001). In addition, it was assessed whether lifetime exposure to lysoGb3 correlates with disease manifestations. Male Fabry patients with a high lysoGb3 exposure (>10,000 U), were moderately or severely affected, only one mildly. Female patients with a low exposure (1000 U showed disease complications. Plasma lysoGb3 is useful for the diagnosis of Fabry disease. LysoGb3 is an independent risk factor for development of cerebrovascular white matter lesions in male patients and left ventricular hypertrophy in females. Disease severity correlates with exposure to plasma lysoGb3.

  6. Measurement of plasma histamine: description of an improved method and normal values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dyer, J.; Warren, K.; Merlin, S.; Metcalfe, D.D.; Kaliner, M.

    1982-08-01

    The single isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine was modified to increase its sensitivity and to facilitate measurement of plasma histamine levels. The modification involved extracting /sup 3/H-1-methylhistamine (generated by the enzyme N-methyltransferase acting on histamine in the presence of S-(methyl-/sup 3/H)-adenosyl-L-methionine) into chloroform and isolating the /sup 3/H-1-methylhistamine by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The TLC was developed in acetone:ammonium hydroxide (95:10), and the methylhistamine spot (Rf . 0.50) was identified with an o-phthalaldehyde spray, scraped from the plate, and assayed in a scintillation counter. The assay in plasma demonstrated a linear relationship from 200 to 5000 pg histamine/ml. Plasma always had higher readings than buffer, and dialysis of plasma returned these values to the same level as buffer, suggesting that the baseline elevations might be attributable to histamine. However, all histamine standard curves were run in dialyzed plasma to negate any additional influences plasma might exert on the assay. The arithmetic mean (+/- SEM) in normal plasma histamine was 318.4 +/- 25 pg/ml (n . 51), and the geometric mean was 280 +/- 35 pg/ml. Plasma histamine was significantly elevated by infusion of histamine at 0.05 to 1.0 micrograms/kg/min or by cold immersion of the hand of a cold-urticaria patient. Therefore this modified isotopic-enzymatic assay of histamine is extremely sensitive, capable of measuring fluctuations in plasma histamine levels within the normal range, and potentially useful in analysis of the role histamine plays in human physiology.

  7. Value of plasma ADMA in predicting cardiac structure and function of patients with chronic kidney diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建华

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore the predicting value of plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) in cardiac structure and function of patients with chronic kidney diseases(CKD). Methods A total of 100 CKD patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. According to staging of the

  8. Independent prognostic value of left ventricular mass, diastolic function, and fasting plasma glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Leósdóttir, Margrét

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the independent prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) mass, diastolic function, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for the prediction of incident cardiac events in a random population sample. DESIGN AND METHOD: 415 women and 999 men aged 56-79 years, included between 2002...

  9. Effect of seminal plasma and sperm of boars valued by freezability on seminal cryopreservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Henao Uribe

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sperm and seminal plasma (SP on the freezability of porcine semen. Semen of eight commercial males from two farms in the central-western region of Colombia (four boars in each farm was frozen and tested to select two males with high freezability (MHF and two with low freezability (MLF, according to the percentage of functionally competent sperm (FCS. Immediately after the collection was completed, the SP and sperm from the males selected were separated by centrifugation to combine the two types of plasma with the two types of sperm, incubate them for three hours and then freeze them. The variables evaluated were: sperm morphology, structural and functional integrity of plasmatic membrane, progressive and total motility, DNA fragmentation, acrosome integrity, capacitated sperm and FCS. The combination of sperm and plasma of MHF recorded the highest value (P<0.01 of acrosome integrity (24.3 ± 0.082 vs 6.076 ± 0.16 when compared to MLF plasma and cells. Membrane structural integrity was higher (P<0.01 with MHF (53.56 ± 0.0395 than with MLF plasma (47.49 ± 0.0419. The differences in porcine semen freezability depend on interactions between seminal plasma and sperm.

  10. Plasma levels of catecholamines and asymmetric dimethylarginine levels as predictive values of mortality among hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dziedzic Marcin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess plasma concentration of catecholamines and asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels and a possible relationship to predict the mortality rates among hemodialysis patients. The study population comprised 27 subjects, aged 65-70 years. Each patient underwent dialysis thrice a week. Furthermore, the median duration of hemodialysis was 3.5 years. Based on the conducted research, it can be concluded that the concentrations of adrenaline and the level of asymmetric dimethylarginine have predictive value of mortality among hemodialysis patients. Of note, lowering plasma asymmetric dimethylarginine concentration may represent therapeutic target for prevention of progressive renal damage.

  11. Osmolality of elemental and semi-elemental formulas supplemented with nonprotein energy supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-da-Silva, L; Pitta-Grós Dias, M; Virella, D; Serelha, M

    2008-12-01

    Elemental and semi-elemental formulas are used to feed infants with short bowel syndrome, who may not be able to tolerate feeds of more than 310 mOsm kg(-1). The present study aimed to measure the osmolality of elemental and semi-elemental formulas at different concentrations, with and without the addition of nonprotein energy supplements. The osmolality of one elemental and three semi-elemental formulas was measured by the freezing point depression method at concentrations of 10, 12, 14 and 16 g per 100 mL, with and without 10% or 20% of additional calories, in the form of glucose polymers and medium chain triglycerides. Inter-analysis and intra-analysis coefficients of variation of the measurements were less than 3.9%. The mean osmolalities of formulas reconstituted up to 12 g per 100 mL did not exceed 305.3 mOsm kg(-1), even with added energy supplements. The mean osmolalities of formulas at 14 and 16 g per 100 mL, with or without added energy supplements varied between 205.8 and 421.6 mOsm kg(-1). A comprehensive list of elemental and semi-elemental formulas at different concentrations, enriched or not with calories, is made available. This will enable professionals to customize feeds with the optimum composition, without exceeding the osmolality suggested for infants with short bowel syndrome.

  12. NFAT5 Contributes to Osmolality-Induced MCP-1 Expression in Mesothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Küper

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increased expression of the C-C chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 in mesothelial cells in response to high glucose concentrations and/or high osmolality plays a crucial role in the development of peritoneal fibrosis during continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD. Recent studies suggest that in kidney cells osmolality-induced MCP-1 upregulation is mediated by the osmosensitive transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T cells 5 (NFAT5. The present study addressed the question of whether activation of NFAT5 by hyperosmolality, as present in PD fluids, contributes to MCP-1 expression in the mesothelial cell line Met5A. Hyperosmolality, induced by addition of glucose, NaCl, or mannitol to the growth medium, increased NFAT5 activity and stimulated MCP-1 expression in Met5A cells. siRNA-mediated knockdown of NFAT5 attenuated osmolality-induced MCP-1 upregulation substantially. Hyperosmolality also induced activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB. Accordingly, pharmacological inhibition of NF-κB significantly decreased osmolality-induced MCP-1 expression. Taken together, these results indicate that high osmolalities activate the transcription factor NFAT5 in mesothelial cells. NFAT5 in turn upregulates MCP-1, likely in combination with NF-κB, and thus may participate in the development of peritoneal fibrosis during CAPD.

  13. Plasma renin activities, angiotensin II concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values in dogs with severe heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, H; Kitoh, K; Inoue, H; Ohba, Y; Suzuki, F; Sasaki, Y

    2000-04-01

    Relationships among plasma renin activities (PRA), plasma angiotensin II (ATII) concentrations, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) concentrations and cardiopulmonary function values were examined in dogs with ascitic pulmonary heartworm disease and acute- and chronic-vena caval syndrome (CS). PRA, plasma ATII concentration and plasma ANP concentration tended to be higher or were significantly higher in dogs with ascites, acute- and chronic-CS. PRA correlated significantly with plasma ATII concentration, WBC count, ALP activity, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, sodium, potassium, and chloride, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ATII concentration correlated significantly with WBC count, plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, sodium, and potassium, right ventricular endodiastolic pressure and right atrial pressure. Plasma ANP concentration did not correlate with PRA or ATII concentration, but correlated significantly only with pulmonary arterial pressure.

  14. Only a fraction of patients with ischaemic diseases or diabetes are treated to recommended target values for plasma lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggaard-Andersen, Niels; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that individuals in the general population with and without ischaemic cardiovascular disease, or with diabetes, are treated to recommended target values for plasma lipids.......We tested the hypothesis that individuals in the general population with and without ischaemic cardiovascular disease, or with diabetes, are treated to recommended target values for plasma lipids....

  15. Only a fraction of patients with ischaemic diseases or diabetes are treated to recommended target values for plasma lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siggaard-Andersen, Niels; Freiberg, Jacob J; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2012-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that individuals in the general population with and without ischaemic cardiovascular disease, or with diabetes, are treated to recommended target values for plasma lipids.......We tested the hypothesis that individuals in the general population with and without ischaemic cardiovascular disease, or with diabetes, are treated to recommended target values for plasma lipids....

  16. Bicarbonate concentration and osmolality are key determinants in the inhibition of CHO cell polysialylation under elevated pCO(2) or pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanghi, J A; Schmelzer, A E; Mendoza, T P; Knop, R H; Miller, W M

    1999-10-20

    Accumulation of CO(2) in animal cell cultures can be a significant problem during scale-up and production of recombinant glycoprotein biopharmaceuticals. By examining the cell-surface polysialic acid (PSA) content, we show that elevated CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)) can alter protein glycosylation. PSA is a high-molecular-weight polymer attached to several complex N-linked oligosaccharides on the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM), so that small changes in either core glycosylation or in polysialylation are amplified and easily measured. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that PSA levels on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells decrease with increasing pCO(2) in a dose-dependent manner, independent of any change in NCAM content. The results are highly pH-dependent, with a greater decrease in PSA at higher pH. By manipulating medium pH and pCO(2), we showed that decreases in PSA correlate well with bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3)(-)]). In fact, it was possible to offset a 60% decrease in PSA content at 120 mm Hg pCO(2) by decreasing the pH from 7.3 to 6.9, such that [HCO(3)(-)] was lowered to that of control (38 mm Hg pCO(2)). When the increase in osmolality associated with elevated [HCO(3)(-)] was offset by decreasing the basal medium [NaCl], elevated [HCO(3)(-)] still caused a decrease in PSA, although less extensive than without osmolality control. By increasing [NaCl], we show that hyperosmolality alone decreases PSA content, but to a lesser extent than for the same osmolality increase due to elevated [NaHCO(3)]. In conclusion, we demonstrate the importance of pH and pCO(2) interactions, and show that [HCO(3)(-)] and osmolality can account for the observed changes in PSA content over a wide range of pH and pCO(2) values.

  17. Total plasma protein in very preterm babies: prognostic value and comparison with illness severity scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Iacobelli

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the predictive value for severe adverse outcome of plasma protein measurements on day one of life in very preterm infants and to compare total plasma protein levels with the validated illness severity scores CRIB, CRIB-II, SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II, regarding their predictive ability for severe adverse outcome. METHODS: We analyzed a cohort of infants born at 24-31 weeks gestation, admitted to the tertiary intensive care unit of a university hospital over 10.5 years. The outcome measure was "severe adverse outcome" defined as death before discharge or severe neurological injury on cranial ultrasound. The adjusted odd ratio (aOR and 95% confidence interval (95% CI of severe adverse outcome for hypoproteinemia (total plasma protein level <40 g/L was calculated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Calibration (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit was performed and the predictive ability for severe adverse outcome was assessed for total plasma protein and compared with CRIB, CRIB-II, SNAP-II and SNAPPE-II, by calculating receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves and their associated area under the curve (AUC. RESULTS: 761 infants were studied: 14.4% died and 4.1% survived with severe cerebral ultrasound findings. The aOR of severe adverse outcome for hypoproteinemia was 6.1 (95% CI 3.8-9.9. The rank order for variables, as assessed by AUCs and 95% CIs, in predicting outcome was: total plasma protein [0.849 (0.821-0.873], SNAPPE-II [0.822 (0.792-0.848], CRIB [0.821 (0.792-0.848], SNAP-II [0.810 (0.780-0.837] and CRIB-II [0.803 (0.772-0.830]. Total plasma protein predicted severe adverse outcome significantly better than CRIB-II and SNAP-II (both p<0.05. Calibration for total plasma protein was very good. CONCLUSIONS: Early hypoproteinemia has prognostic value for severe adverse outcome in very preterm, sick infants. Total plasma protein has a predictive performance comparable with CRIB and SNAPPE-II and greater than

  18. Characteristics of spermatozoa of whole ejaculate and sperm-rich fraction of dog semen following exposure to media varying in osmolality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzezek, Rafał; Fraser, Leyland

    2009-07-01

    This study aimed to analyze the effects of different osmolalities on the characteristics of spermatozoa originating from whole ejaculates (WE; including the prostatic fluid) and the sperm-rich fractions (SRF). Ejaculates, collected from four mixed-breed dogs, were exposed for 10 min at room temperature to Tris-fructose-citrate (TFC) solution with osmolality ranging from 150 to 1100 mOsm. After treatment spermatozoa were evaluated by microscopic analysis of motility and fluorescent assessments of plasma membrane integrity (carboxyfluorescein diacetate and propidium iodide, CFDA/PI) and mitochondrial function (rhodamine 123, R123). Irrespective of the sperm source, there was a complete loss of motility when spermatozoa were exposed to TFC solution with 1100 mOsm. There were no marked differences in the sperm characteristics between media with 300 and 350 mOsm, regardless of the ejaculate collection procedure. However, a marked reduction in motility of spermatozoa retrieved either from the WE or SRF was observed after exposure to different anisosmotic conditions (150, 550 and 800 mOsm). In all dogs, spermatozoa from the WE exhibited greater osmotolerance in terms of plasma membrane integrity and mitochondrial function when exposed to anisosmotic conditions (150, 550, 800 and 1100 mOsm). There were inter-dog variations in response to various osmotic conditions. The findings of this study indicated that spermatozoa from the WE tolerated exposure to a wider range of osmolality than those from the SRF. It seemed that the presence of prostatic fluid of dog semen rendered the sperm membrane structures less susceptible to osmotic stress.

  19. Oral fluid therapy: sodium and potassium content and osmolality of some commercial "clear" soups, juices and beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendland, B E; Arbus, G S

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of nearly 90 commercial "clear" fluids, including soups, juices, fruit-flavoured drinks and ices, carbonated beverages and gelatins, showed a range of 0.1 to 251 mmol of sodium and 0.0 to 65 mmol of potassium per litre; the osmolality ranged from 246 to more than 2000 mOsm/kg of water. Knowledge of these values is useful in the home or hospital management of patients for whom control of fluid and electrolyte intake is indicated. The results of the analyses are presented in tabular form for use by physicians and nutritionists when counselling patients to ingest clear-type fluids for various illnesses. Examples are given using these data to show how clear-fluid therapy can be tailored in one such illness--gastroenteritis (infectious diarrhea). PMID:497946

  20. Blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values in healthy ostriches: the effect of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouda, J; Núñez-Ochoa, L; Avila-González, E; Doubek, J; Fuente-Martínez, B; Aguilar-Bobadilla, J

    2009-08-01

    The effect of age and sex on blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values was determined in venous blood samples from 45 clinically healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus) from 26 days to 6 years of age. Animals were divided by age into four groups and the group of adults was divided by sex into two subgroups. Blood samples were collected without sedation. There was a significant (Pvalues of base excess (BE), plasma HCO(3)(-), total CO(2) (TCO(2)), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and anion gap (AG). The highest plasma concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-) and value of AG were found in adult ostriches with a steady decrease to chicks. A significant (Psex difference in adult animals with higher blood pH, lower blood values of pCO(2), BE, plasma concentrations of HCO(3)(-), TCO(2) and K(+) was found in females. We concluded that blood acid-base values and plasma electrolyte concentrations in ostriches are affected by age and sex.

  1. Hematology and plasma biochemistry reference range values for free-ranging desert tortoises in Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Vanessa M; Jarchow, James L; Trueblood, Mark H

    2002-01-01

    Baseline values and ranges for 10 hematologic and 32 plasma chemistry parameters were analyzed for 36 free-ranging Sonoran desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizzi) collected in Yavapai and La Paz Counties (Arizona, USA) from 1990 to 1995. Tortoises were radio tagged from 1990 to 1994, and attempts were made to recapture them three times a year. Tortoises were weighed, measured, and chemically immobilized to collect blood for hematology and blood chemistry assessments. Tortoise biochemistry differed (P < 0.01) between sites and sexes and among seasons and years. Normal reference ranges for hematologic and plasma biochemistry parameters were determined. Seasonal and annual differences in hematology and blood chemistry were related to rainfall patterns, forage availability, and physiological condition.

  2. Normal values for plasma creatinine concentration related to maturity in normal term and preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompeter, R S; Al-Dahhan, J; Haycock, G B; Chik, G; Chantler, C

    1983-09-01

    Creatinine concentration was measured by a kinetic method in 475 plasma samples obtained from 260 term and preterm infants during the first 2 months post-natal age. In term infants plasma creatinine fell from 88 +/- 4.4 mumol/L (mean + SEM) at birth, to 60 +/- 1.9 mumol/L by the fourth day remaining stable thereafter; in preterm infants creatinine fell to 86 +/- 7 mumol/L by the fourth day. Analysis of pooled data from all infants of more than 4 days post natal age revealed a progressive fall in creatinine with increasing post conceptual age. The normal range of values varies with post conceptual age and was not influenced by gestational age at the time of birth.

  3. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; Arx, Von Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-Do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Juan, Sílvia Roig; Robert, Elisabeth M.R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied

  4. INFLUENCE OF VACUUM ARC PLASMA EVAPORATOR CATHODE GEOMETRY OF ON VALUE OF ADMISSIBLE ARC DISCHARGE CURRENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Ivanou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of main design parameters that determine a level of droplet formation intensity at the generating stage of plasma flow has been given in the paper. The paper considers the most widely used designs of water cooled consumable cathodes. Ti or Ti–Si and Fe–Cr alloys have been taken as a material for cathodes. The following calculated data: average ionic charge Zi for titanium plasma +1.6; for «titanium–silicon plasma» +1.2, an electronic discharge 1.6022 ⋅ 10–19 C, an ion velocity vi = 2 ⋅ 104 m/s, an effective volt energy equivalent of heat flow diverted in the cathode Uк = 12 V, temperature of erosion cathode surface Тп = 550 К; temperature of the cooled cathode surface То = 350 К have been accepted in order to determine dependence of a maximum admissible arc discharge current on cathode height. The calculations have been carried out for various values of the cathode heights hк (from 0.02 to 0.05 m. Diameter of a target cathode is equal to 0.08 m for a majority of technological plasma devices, therefore, the area of the erosion surface is S = 0.005 m2.A thickness selection for a consumable target cathode part in the vacuum arc plasma source has been justified in the paper. The thickness ensures formation of minimum drop phase in the plasma flow during arc cathode material evaporation. It has been shown that a maximum admissible current of an arc discharge is practically equal to the minimum current of stable arcing when thickness of the consumable cathode part is equal to 0.05 m. The admissible discharge current can be rather significant and ensure high productivity during coating process with formation of relatively low amount of droplet phase in the coating at small values of hк.

  5. Diagnostic accuracy of calculated serum osmolarity to predict dehydration in older people: adding value to pathology laboratory reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Lee; Abdelhamid, Asmaa; Ali, Adam; Bunn, Diane K; Jennings, Amy; John, W Garry; Kerry, Susan; Lindner, Gregor; Pfortmueller, Carmen A; Sjöstrand, Fredrik; Walsh, Neil P; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Potter, John F; Hunter, Paul R; Shepstone, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To assess which osmolarity equation best predicts directly measured serum/plasma osmolality and whether its use could add value to routine blood test results through screening for dehydration in older people. Design Diagnostic accuracy study. Participants Older people (≥65 years) in 5 cohorts: Dietary Strategies for Healthy Ageing in Europe (NU-AGE, living in the community), Dehydration Recognition In our Elders (DRIE, living in residential care), Fortes (admitted to acute medical care), Sjöstrand (emergency room) or Pfortmueller cohorts (hospitalised with liver cirrhosis). Reference standard for hydration status Directly measured serum/plasma osmolality: current dehydration (serum osmolality >300 mOsm/kg), impending/current dehydration (≥295 mOsm/kg). Index tests 39 osmolarity equations calculated using serum indices from the same blood draw as directly measured osmolality. Results Across 5 cohorts 595 older people were included, of whom 19% were dehydrated (directly measured osmolality >300 mOsm/kg). Of 39 osmolarity equations, 5 showed reasonable agreement with directly measured osmolality and 3 had good predictive accuracy in subgroups with diabetes and poor renal function. Two equations were characterised by narrower limits of agreement, low levels of differential bias and good diagnostic accuracy in receiver operating characteristic plots (areas under the curve >0.8). The best equation was osmolarity=1.86×(Na++ K+)+1.15×glucose+urea+14 (all measured in mmol/L). It appeared useful in people aged ≥65 years with and without diabetes, poor renal function, dehydration, in men and women, with a range of ages, health, cognitive and functional status. Conclusions Some commonly used osmolarity equations work poorly, and should not be used. Given costs and prevalence of dehydration in older people we suggest use of the best formula by pathology laboratories using a cutpoint of 295 mOsm/L (sensitivity 85%, specificity 59%), to report

  6. Plasma phosphorus and magnesium values during treatment of severe diabetic ketoacidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionescu-Tîrgovişte, C; Bruckner, I; Mihalache, N; Ionescu, C

    1981-01-01

    Plasma phosphorus and magnesium were determined in 76 diabetics, admitted with severe ketoacidosis (pH less than or equal to 7.20, total CO2 less than or equal to 10 mEq/l) before and 24 hours after beginning the treatment, which did not include supplementary phosphorus or magnesium. Phosphorus presented initially high values (1.76 + 0.69 mEq/l) which fell substantially 24 hours after beginning the treatment (0.87 +/- 0.26 mEq/l); magnesium values, initially low (0.76 +/- 0.19 mEq/l), fell still further within 24 hours of treatment (0.64 - 0.16 mEq/l). For phosphorus (and to a lesser extent for magnesium) calculation of the regression line indicated a direct positive relationship with both hydrogen ion concentrations (r = 0.67) and blood glucose (r = 0.73), the differences being statistically significant. The more rapid the decrease in glycemia and correction of acidemia and the greater the amount of glucose administered in the course of treatment, the more marked was the fall of plasma phosphorus and magnesium values.

  7. The relative prognostic value of plasma HIV RNA levels and CD4 lymphocyte counts in advanced HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cozzi-Lepri, A; Katzenstein, T L; Ullum, H

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that the plasma HIV RNA level is a better predictor of AIDS and death than the CD4 lymphocyte count. We assessed whether the prognostic value of plasma virus levels was different according to the CD4 count. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study of HIV-infected patients...

  8. Influence of vitamin-optimized plasma homocysteine cutoff values on the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Margaretha; Weijer, JM; Dijck-Brouwer, DAJ; van Doormaal, JJ; Muskiet, FAJ

    BACKGROUND: Hyperhomocysteinemia is a cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. We determined plasma homocysteine (Hcy) reference values at optimized vitamin status and investigated their influence on the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia in healthy adults. Results were compared with those obtained

  9. Plasma biochemistry values of recently wild-caught purple mouth moray eels (Gymnothorax vicinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erlacher-Reid, Claire; Hoffman, Walter E; Priede, Megan; Pulver, Robert; Tuttle, Allison D

    2011-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to establish plasma biochemistry parameters for healthy recently wild-caught purple mouth moray eels (Gymnothorax vicinus) to provide a baseline of data for improved medical care in an aquarium or zoologic setting and for wild health assessments. Thirty-one clinically healthy purple mouth moray eels of unknown age and sex were caught from the wild, and were anesthetized 50 days following capture for blood collection from the ventral coccygeal vein. The median plasma biochemistry values were as follows: hematocrit = 21%, creatinine kinase = 2,100 U/L, lactate dehydrogenase = 97 U/L, aspartate aminotransferase = 88 U/L, alanine aminotransferase = 51 U/L, alkaline phosphatase 3,939 U/L, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase = 1 U/L, amylase = 40 U/L, blood urea nitrogen = moray eels to aid in monitoring elevations to these values in an aquarium setting over time so adjustments to the dietary regime may be utilized to prevent or improve conditions such as lipid keratopathy.

  10. Radioimmunoassay of arginine vasopressin in Rhesus Monkey plasma. [/sup 125/I tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayward, J.N.; Pavasuthipaisit, K.; Perez-Lopez, F.R.; Sofroniew, M.V.

    1976-04-01

    Using a new antiserum and an enzymatic radioiodination of arginine vasopressin (AVP), we have developed a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay for plasma AVP in the monkey. The sensitivity of the assay is 0.5 ..mu..U/ml, the cross reaction with oxytocin (OT), minimal. We used this assay to study the effects that variations in blood osmolality have in regulating AVP secretion in unanesthetized, chair-restrained, chamber-isolated, adult female rhesus monkeys. Under water ad lib conditions, plasma AVP and osmolality were relatively constant, averaging 1.7 +- 0.6 (SD) ..mu..U/ml and 298 +- 3 mosmol/kg, respectively. Water loading decreased plasma AVP and osmolality to 0.6 +- 0.2 ..mu..U/ml and 282 +- 6 mosmol/kg, respectively. When fluid restriction increased osmolality, plasma AVP rose progressively to twice the baseline after 1 day, and to 6 times the baseline after 3 days. The rise in plasma AVP was linearly correlated with the rise in osmolality (r = 0.93; P less than 0.001). Intravenous infusions of hypertonic saline produced significant rises in plasma osmolality and plasma AVP. There was a dose-related rise in plasma AVP that declined later at the expected rate with the infusion of physiological amounts of synthetic AVP.

  11. Prognostic value of plasma levels of HIF-1a and PGC-1a in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Feng-Feng; Xu, Cheng; Pan, Xin; Cai, Lu; Lin, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Su; Biskup, Ewelina

    2016-11-22

    Cellular adaptive mechanisms are crucial for tumorigenesis and a common feature in solid tumor progression. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) facilitates the biological response to hypoxia, advancing angiogenesis and metastatic potential of the tumor. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivators 1α (PGC-1α) enhances mitochondrial biogenesis, favored by migratory/invasive cancer cells. We conducted a prospective, long-term follow up study to determine whether HIF-1α and PGC-1α can be implemented as predictive biomarker in breast cancer. HIF-1α and PGC-1α plasma concentrations were measured in patients and in healthy controls by enzyme linked immune sorbent assay. Breast cancer patients had significantly higher HIF-1α and PGC-1α levels, which correlated with clinicopathological features, overall with more aggressive cancer characteristics. Disease free and overall survival of breast cancer patients with high HIF-1α and PGC-1α were significantly poorer than in patients with low plasma levels. In multivariate analysis, high amount of PGC-1α showed independent prognostic value. Our data suggests that HIF-1α and PGC-1α may be promising, noninvasive, biomarkers with a high potential for future clinical implication to identify subgroups of patients with poorer prognosis and to indicate early, subclinical metastasis.

  12. Can we use plasma hyperosmolality as a predictor of mortality for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatlisu, Mustafa A; Kaya, Adnan; Keskin, Muhammed; Uzman, Osman; Borklu, Edibe B; Cinier, Goksel; Hayiroglu, Mert I; Tatlisu, Kiymet; Eren, Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of plasma osmolality with all-cause mortality in ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients treated with a primary percutaneous coronary intervention. This study included 3748 patients (mean age 58.3±11.8 years, men 81%) with STEMI treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention. The following formula was used to measure the plasma osmolality at admission: osmolality=1.86×sodium (mmol/l)+glucose (mg/dl)/18+BUN (mg/dl)/2.8+9. The patients were followed up for a mean period of 22±10 months. Patients with higher plasma osmolality had 3.7 times higher in-hospital (95% confidence interval: 2.7-5.1) and 3.2 times higher long-term (95% confidence interval: 2.5-4.1) all-cause mortality rates than patients with lower plasma osmolality. Plasma osmolality was found to be a predictor of both in-hospital and long-term all-cause mortality. Hence, plasma osmolality can be used to detect high-risk patients in STEMI.

  13. Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB-08196 fed-batch fermentation at elevated osmolality for enhancing acarbose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya-Jun; Liu, Li-Ling; Wang, Yuan-Shan; Xue, Ya-Ping; Zheng, Yu-Guo; Shen, Yin-Chu

    2012-01-01

    Acarbose, a potent α-glucosidase inhibitor, is as an oral anti-diabetic drug for treatment of the type two, noninsulin-dependent diabetes. Actinoplanes utahensis ZJB-08196, an osmosis-resistant actinomycete, had a broad osmolality optimum between 309 mOsm kg(-1) and 719 mOsm kg(-1). Utilizing this unique feature, an fed-batch culture process under preferential osmolality was constructed through intermittently feeding broths with feed medium consisting of 14.0 g l(-1) maltose, 6.0 g l(-1) glucose and 9.0 g l(-1) soybean meal, at 48 h, 72 h, 96 h and 120 h. This intermittent fed-batch culture produced a peak acarbose titer of 4878 mg l(-1), increased by 15.9% over the batch culture.

  14. Do Acartia tonsa (Dana) eggs regulate their volume and osmolality as salinity changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Benni Winding; Drillet, Guillaume; Pedersen, Morten Foldager;

    2012-01-01

    Subitaneous eggs from an euryhaline calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa were challenged by changes in salinity within the range from full strength salinity, down to zero and up to >70 psu. Egg volume changed immediately, increasing from 2.8 × 105 μm3 at full strength salinity (35 psu) to 3.8 × 105 μm3...... at 0 psu and back to its initial volume when gradually being returned to full strength salinity. Egg osmolality followed the molality of the surrounding water when challenged within a salinity range from 2 to 50 psu. Egg respiration was not affected when eggs kept at 35 psu was exposed to low salinity...... (2 psu). These results suggest that eggs are unable to regulate their volume or osmolality when challenged with changes in salinity. Gradual changes in salinity from 35 to 2 psu and back did not harm the eggs (embryos), since the hatching success remained unaffected by such changes in salinity...

  15. The Prognostic Value of Plasma YKL-40 in Patients With Chemotherapy-Resistant Ovarian Cancer Treated With Bevacizumab

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boisen, Mogens K; Madsen, Christine V; Dehlendorff, Christian

    2016-01-01

    with ovarian cancer treated with bevacizumab. METHODS: One hundred forty patients with chemotherapy-refractory epithelian ovarian cancer were treated with single-agent bevacizumab 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks in a prospective trial. Plasma YKL-40 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and during...... = 0.003). Increase in plasma YKL-40 during bevacizumab treatment, with correction for baseline plasma YKL-40, was a predictor of shorter PFS. Using normal versus elevated plasma YKL-40 as a cutoff did not provide the same discriminative value. CONCLUSIONS: Low plasma YKL-40 at baseline and during...... treatment is associated with improved outcomes in patients with chemotherapy-refractory advanced ovarian cancer treated with single-agent bevacizumab....

  16. Metabolic profile of normal glucose-tolerant subjects with elevated 1-h plasma glucose values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramodkumar, Thyparambil Aravindakshan; Priya, Miranda; Jebarani, Saravanan; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Pradeepa, Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the metabolic profiles of subjects with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) with and without elevated 1-h postglucose (1HrPG) values during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Methodology: The study group comprised 996 subjects without known diabetes seen at tertiary diabetes center between 2010 and 2014. NGT was defined as fasting plasma glucose <100 mg/dl (5.5 mmol/L) and 2-h plasma glucose <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/L) after an 82.5 g oral glucose (equivalent to 75 g of anhydrous glucose) OGTT. Anthropometric measurements and biochemical investigations were done using standardized methods. The prevalence rate of generalized and central obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome (MS) was determined among the NGT subjects stratified based on their 1HrPG values as <143 mg/dl, ≥143–<155 mg/dl, and ≥155 mg/dl, after adjusting for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, alcohol consumption, smoking, and family history of diabetes. Results: The mean age of the 996 NGT subjects was 48 ± 12 years and 53.5% were male. The mean glycated hemoglobin for subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl was 5.5%, for those with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl, 5.6% and for those with 1HrPG ≥155 mg/dl, 5.7%. NGT subjects with 1HrPG ≥143–<155 mg/dl and ≥155 mg/dl had significantly higher BMI, waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) ratio, triglyceride/HDL ratio, leukocyte count, and gamma glutamyl aminotransferase (P < 0.05) compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl. The odds ratio for MS for subjects with 1HrPG ≥143 mg/dl was 1.84 times higher compared to subjects with 1HrPG <143 mg/dl taken as the reference. Conclusion: NGT subjects with elevated 1HrPG values have a worse metabolic profile than those with normal 1HrPG during an OGTT. PMID:27730069

  17. Effect of Increased Plasma Osmolality on Cold-Induced Thirst Attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    Physiol 99:1972–1976. doi:10.1152/jappl- physiol.00329.2005 Costill DL, Fox EL (1969) Energetics of marathon running. Med Sci Sports 1(2):81–86 Edwards...human Xuid balance. In: Marriott BM, Carlson SJ (eds) Nutritional needs in cold and high altitude environments. National Academy Press, Washington DC, pp... Nutrition 9:480–491 Sobocinska J, Kozlowski S (1987) Osmotic thirst suppression in dogs exposed to low ambient temperature. Physiol Behav 40:171–175

  18. Hematocrit and plasma chemistry values in adult collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Fang-Tse; Lin, Pei-I; Chang, Geng-Ruei; Wang, Hsien-Chi; Hsu, Tien-Huan

    2012-07-01

    In this study, we report hematocrit and plasma chemistry values for adult captive collared scops owls (Otus lettia) and crested serpent eagles (Spilornis cheela hoya). In particular, we address the gender-specific differences within these values. We measured hematocrit (HCT) and plasma chemistry values for uric acid (UA), plasma urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), glucose (GLU), cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL), creatine (CRE), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), amylase (AMY), calcium (CA), ionic phosphorous (IP) and sodium (NA), potassium (K) and chloride ions (CL) in 37 adult captive collared scops owls and 39 adult captive crested serpent eagles. Significant differences between the sexes were found for UA, GLU and CPK in the collared scope owls. UA and GLU concentrations were significantly higher (Pscops owls and crested serpent eagles, making them a potentially useful complementary diagnostic tool for veterinary care of individuals for both species in captivity.

  19. A comparison of serum and plasma cytokine values using a multiplexed assay in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Margaret E; Messenger, Kristen M; Thomson, Andrea E; Griffith, Emily H; Paradise, Hayley; Vaden, Shelly; Lascelles, B D X

    2016-12-01

    Degenerative joint disease (DJD) is highly prevalent in cats, and pain contributes to morbidity. In humans, alterations of cytokine concentrations have been associated with joint deterioration and pain. Similar changes have not been investigated in cats. Cytokine concentrations can be measured using multiplex technology with small samples of serum or plasma, however, serum and plasma are not interchangeable for most bioassays. Correlations for cytokine concentrations between serum and plasma have not been evaluated in cats. To evaluate the levels of detection and agreement between serum and plasma samples in cats. Paired serum and plasma samples obtained from 38 cats. Blood was collected into anti-coagulant free and EDTA Vacutainer(®) tubes, serum or plasma extracted, and samples frozen at -80°C until testing. Duplicate samples were tested using a 19-plex feline cytokine/chemokine magnetic bead panel. Agreement between serum and plasma for many analytes was high, however correlation coefficients ranged from -0.01 to 0.97. Results from >50% of samples were below the lower limit of quantification for both serum and plasma for nine analytes, and for an additional three analytes for plasma only. While serum and plasma agreement was generally good, detection was improved using serum samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Osmolality - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have signs of any of the following: Low sodium ( hyponatremia ) or water loss Poisoning from harmful substances ... lung cancer Drinking too much water or fluid Low sodium level (hyponatremia) Underactive thyroid gland ( hypothyroidism ) Risks Veins ...

  1. O uso do pool de plasma caseiro interfere no valor da RNI? Does the use of in-house pooled plasma interfere in the INR value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique da Silva

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O tempo de protrombina (TP é o teste de escolha para monitorar o nível de anticoagulação em pacientes que fazem uso de anticoagulantes orais. Nestes, atualmente, a anticoagulação é monitorada pelo valor da relação normatizada internacional (RNI. OBJETIVO: A finalidade deste trabalho foi determinar se um pool de plasma caseiro, com cinco (P5 e 20 (P20 amostras, pode ser usado como controle normal do TP e se o uso deste pool interfere no resultado da RNI. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram 32 dias de experimentos. Os dois pools de plasma caseiro foram analisados em relação a um controle normal de plasma comercial (PC. Para cada dia de experimento, fez-se o TP de P5, P20 e PC e também se determinou o valor de RNI para P5, P20 e PC em pacientes que fazem uso de anticoagulante oral. As ferramentas estatísticas utilizadas foram média (X, análise de variância e teste de Tukey. RESULTADOS: A análise estatística demonstrou que os valores do TP e da RNI não são significativamente diferentes para PC, P5 e P20. CONCLUSÃO: O pool de plasma caseiro pode ser utilizado como controle normal do TP e o seu uso não interfere no valor da RNI.INTRODUCTION: The prothrombin time (PT test is commonly used to monitor anticoagulant levels in patients undergoing oral anticoagulant therapy. Currently, anticoagulation levels have been assessed through the international normalized ratio (INR value. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine if in-house preparations of polled plasma, containing five (P5 and 20 (P20 samples, respectively, may be used as normal control of PT and to assess its interference in INR values. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The experiment was performed in 32 days. Both polled plasma preparations were analyzed in comparison with a commercial control (PC. PT was performed for PC, P5 and P20 daily and the INR value for PC, P5 and P20 was assessed in patients undergoing oral anticoagulant therapy. The applied statistical

  2. The prognostic value of KRAS mutated plasma DNA in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Anneli Dowler; Garm Spindler, Karen-Lise; Pallisgaard, Niels

    2013-01-01

    DNA) in the blood allows for tumour specific analyses, including KRAS-mutations, and the aim of the study was to investigate the possible prognostic value of plasma mutated KRAS (pmKRAS) in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Patients with newly diagnosed, advanced NSCLC eligible......BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant diseases worldwide and associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. New agents targeting the epidermal growth factor system are emerging, but only a subgroup of the patients will benefit from the therapy. Cell free DNA (cf...... for chemotherapy were enrolled in a prospective biomarker trial. A pre-treatment blood sample was drawn and subsequently DNA was extracted and pmKRAS analysed. The patients received carboplatin (AUC5) i.v. day 1 and vinorelbine (30mg/m(2) i.v. day 1 and 60mg/m(2) p.o. day 8) for a maximum of six cycles. Response...

  3. DIRECT SMEAR VS CELL BLOCK (PLASMA- THROMBIN CLOT METHOD: DIAGNOSTIC VALUE IN SEROSAL CAVITIES FLUIDS CYTOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P MAHZOUNI

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. To improve testing sensitivity, most laboratories use two or more preparation methods but in our laboratories only one method is used which is "direct smear". In this study we tried to evaluate the diagnostic value of cell block as adjunct to direct smear in the cytologic investigation of serosal cavities fluids. Methods. In a clinical trial study 62 specimens of serosal cavity fluids were investigated in AL-Zahrapathology laboratory (Get. 1998 to Get. 1999. Cytologic slides from each specimens were prepared in two methods: direct smear and cell block (plasma- thrombin clot method. Smears and cell blocks were studied separately by the same cytopathologist. The diagnosis were categorized as positive, negative, suspicious or unsatisfactory. Also, the time required for studing of each slides were noted. Findings. The findings indicated that there are discrepancy between direct smear and cell block methods in the number of "suspicious" cases. Also there is significant difference between the mean time needed for studing of direct smear and cell block. Conclusion. It is recommended that the remainer of each specimen should be kept in refrigerator in order to prepare cell blocks in suspicious cases of direct smear. This method facilitates making a more definite diagnosis and reducing the number of suspicious cases.

  4. Determination of components of the plasma proteolytic enzyme systems gives information of prognostic value in patients with multiple trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aasen, A O; Kierulf, P; Vaage, J; Godal, H C; Aune, S

    1983-01-01

    Components of the plasma proteolytic enzyme systems were studied in 15 multiple trauma patients. There were 9 survivors and 6 fatal cases. All fatal cases had sepsis and/or post traumatic adult respiratory distress syndrome. Within the first day after trauma significantly reduced values were found for plasma prekallikrein (PKK), Hageman factor (HF) and Antithrombin III (AT III). In the survivors these parameters were normalized within the first five days after the injury. In the fatal cases, however, the same parameters remained reduced or declined during the observation period. The fatal cases also revealed a high frequency of positive ethanol gelation tests (EGT), elevated serum fibrin - fibrinogen degradation products (FDP) values and persisting low platelet counts. Analyses of plasma samples from both survivors and fatal cases, fractions by Sephadex G-150 gel filtration, demonstrated alpha 2-macroglobulin - plasma kallikrein complexes. These findings demonstrate activation of the kallikrein-kinin system as a part of pathological plasma proteolysis in multiple trauma patients. Persistent reductions of PKK, HF and AT III combined with positive EGT, elevated FDP values and reduced platelet counts indicate a poor prognosis.

  5. The clinical application value of glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c) plus fasting plasma glucose in diagnosing diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程多智

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate clinical application value of HbA1c plus fasting plasma glucose(FPG) in diagnosing diabetes mellitus(DM).Methods 681 patients with DM were enrolled in this study. The level of HbA1c by Bio-RAD-10 glycated hemoglobin analyzer,FPG by OLYMPUS

  6. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion: A Case of High Osmolal Gap Metabolic Acidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Courtney A; Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R

    2015-01-01

    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  7. Osmolality of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Patients with Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (IIH)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibroe, Elisabeth A; Yri, Hanne M; Jensen, Rigmor H

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder of increased intracranial fluid pressure (ICP) of unknown etiology. This study aims to investigate osmolality of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with IIH. METHODS: We prospectively collected CSF from individuals referred...... on suspicion of IIH from 2011-2013. Subjects included as patients fulfilled Friedman and Jacobson's diagnostic criteria for IIH. Individuals in whom intracranial hypertension was refuted were included as controls. Lumbar puncture with ICP measurement was performed at inclusion and repeated for patients after...

  8. Plasma biochemical reference values in clinically healthy captive bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps) and the effects of sex and season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamukai, Kenichi; Takami, Yoshinori; Akabane, Yoshihito; Kanazawa, Yuko; Une, Yumi

    2011-09-01

    Bearded dragons are one of the most popular pet lizard species, and biochemical reference values are useful for health management of these reptiles. The objectives of this study were to measure plasma biochemical values in healthy captive bearded dragons, determine reference values, and evaluate the effects of sex and season on the results. Blood samples were collected from 100 captive healthy bearded dragons in Tokyo during the summer and winter. Plasma biochemical measurements were performed using a dry-slide automated biochemical analyzer. The data were then compared based on sex and season using 2-way ANOVA. Globulin, cholesterol, and calcium concentrations of females were higher in both summer and winter compared with the values obtained for males. Both males and females had higher uric acid concentrations in winter than in summer. When compared with males, females had a higher chloride concentration in summer and a higher total protein concentration and aspartate aminotransferase activity in winter. Potassium concentration in males was lower in winter than in summer, whereas in females cholesterol concentration was lower in winter than in summer. Biochemical values that differed based on sex and season in bearded dragons were similar to those in other lizards. These differences reflect physiologic differences in reproductive status in females and seasonal changes in temperature and hydration status. Plasma biochemical values established for bearded dragons in this study will be useful in the diagnostic assessment of captive animals. ©2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  9. Prognostic value of plasma brain natriuretic peptide in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed E. Mansour

    2012-10-01

    Conclusions: Plasma BNP levels increased significantly with disease severity, progression of chronic respiratory failure, and secondary pulmonary hypertension in patients with stable COPD. These results suggest that plasma BNP can be a useful prognostic marker to monitor COPD progression and identify cases of secondary pulmonary hypertension in patients with stable COPD.

  10. Biological variations in plasma VEGF and VEGFR-1 may compromise their biomarker value in colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mads N.; Brunner, Nils; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2010-01-01

    Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) plays a prominent role in tumor angiogenesis and plasma VEGF concentration may carry prognostic information in colorectal cancer. The VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR-1) is a regulatory receptor which is shredded into plasma of patients with colorectal cancer. For ....... For both molecules, large biological variation and lack of standardization of assay procedures are major challenges....

  11. The human plasma-metabolome: Reference values in 800 French healthy volunteers; impact of cholesterol, gender and age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabado, Séverine; Al-Salameh, Abdallah; Croixmarie, Vincent; Masson, Perrine; Corruble, Emmanuelle; Fève, Bruno; Colle, Romain; Ripoll, Laurent; Walther, Bernard; Boursier-Neyret, Claire; Werner, Erwan; Becquemont, Laurent; Chanson, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomic approaches are increasingly used to identify new disease biomarkers, yet normal values of many plasma metabolites remain poorly defined. The aim of this study was to define the "normal" metabolome in healthy volunteers. We included 800 French volunteers aged between 18 and 86, equally distributed according to sex, free of any medication and considered healthy on the basis of their medical history, clinical examination and standard laboratory tests. We quantified 185 plasma metabolites, including amino acids, biogenic amines, acylcarnitines, phosphatidylcholines, sphingomyelins and hexose, using tandem mass spectrometry with the Biocrates AbsoluteIDQ p180 kit. Principal components analysis was applied to identify the main factors responsible for metabolome variability and orthogonal projection to latent structures analysis was employed to confirm the observed patterns and identify pattern-related metabolites. We established a plasma metabolite reference dataset for 144/185 metabolites. Total blood cholesterol, gender and age were identified as the principal factors explaining metabolome variability. High total blood cholesterol levels were associated with higher plasma sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines concentrations. Compared to women, men had higher concentrations of creatinine, branched-chain amino acids and lysophosphatidylcholines, and lower concentrations of sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines. Elderly healthy subjects had higher sphingomyelins and phosphatidylcholines plasma levels than young subjects. We established reference human metabolome values in a large and well-defined population of French healthy volunteers. This study provides an essential baseline for defining the "normal" metabolome and its main sources of variation.

  12. Gadolinium contrast media are more nephrotoxic than iodine media. The importance of osmolality in direct renal artery injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elmstaahl, Barbara; Leander, Peter; Almen, Torsten [Malmoe University Hospital, Lund University, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Malmoe (Sweden); Nyman, Ulf [Lasarettet Trelleborg, Department of Radiology, Trelleborg (Sweden); Chai, Chun-Ming [Malmoe University Hospital, Lund University, Department of Experimental Research, Malmoe (Sweden); Golman, Klaes [Biosciences, GE Health, Malmoe (Sweden); Bjoerk, Jonas [University Hospital, Lund University, Competence Center for Clinical Research, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    A study was undertaken of the role of osmotoxicity in gadolinium (Gd) and iodine contrast media (CM) nephrotoxicity in ischemic porcine kidneys. Test solutions: mannitol iso-osmotic to 0.5 M gadopentetate (1.96 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O), 0.5 M gadodiamide (0.78 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O) and 0.5 M iohexol (190 mg I/ml, 0.42 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O). Each solution was injected [3 ml/kg body weight (BW)] into the balloon-occluded (10 min) renal artery of eight left-sided nephrectomized pigs. The plasma half-life of a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) marker was used to compare their effects on GFR 1-3 h post-injection. The median half-lives of the GFR marker after injection of gadopentetate (1,730 min) and mannitol 1.96 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (2,782 min) did not differ statistically (P=0.28), but were significantly longer than after all other solutions (P<0.001). There was no significant difference (P=0.06) between gadodiamide (218 min) and mannitol 0.82 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (169 min), while there was (P=0.03) between iohexol (181 min) and mannitol 0.43 Osm/kg H{sub 2}O (148 min). The difference between gadodiamide and iohexol was significant (P=0.01). Reduction in GFR, as a marker of nephrotoxicity, induced by gadopentetate correlated with its high osmolality, while the effect of gadodiamide and iohexol may include chemotoxicity. Iohexol molecules were less nephrotoxic than the Gd-CM molecules and contain three-times the number of attenuating atoms per molecule. (orig.)

  13. Evaluation of Talbot's Safety Zone of Infusion Volume and Osmolality in Infusion Therapy for Decompensated Liver Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuasa,Shiro

    1985-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems with infusion therapy for correcting fluid and sodium imbalance in decompensated liver cirrhosis (DLC were investigated by establishing the safety zone of Talbot et al. for parenteral fluid therapy in 4 DLC patients infused with over 900 ml of fluid each day for at least 9 days. The safety zone was different in each case. The safe infusion volume decreased and the safe electrolyte concentration shifted to a lower osmolality when there was ascites with renal failure than ascites without renal failure. Infusion therapy was performed without deterioration of the water and sodium balance in those patients whose infusion volume and fluid osmolality were in the safety zone. In contrast, ascites retention increased and peripheral edema appeared in patients whose infusion volume and osmolality were out of the safety zone. Therefore, the safety zone should be determined repeatedly during infusion therapy.

  14. Boundary-value problem for a counterrotating electrical discharge in an axial magnetic field. [plasma centrifuge for isotope separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, S. H.; Wilhelm, H. E.

    1978-01-01

    An electrical discharge between two ring electrodes embedded in the mantle of a cylindrical chamber is considered, in which the plasma in the anode and cathode regions rotates in opposite directions under the influence of an external axial magnetic field. The associated boundary-value problem for the coupled partial differential equations describing the azimuthal velocity and radial current-density fields is solved in closed form. The velocity, current density, induced magnetic induction, and electric fields are presented for typical Hartmann numbers, magnetic Reynolds numbers, and geometry parameters. The discharge is shown to produce anodic and cathodic plasma sections rotating at speeds of the order 1,000,000 cm/sec for conventional magnetic field intensities. Possible application of the magnetoactive discharge as a plasma centrifuge for isotope separation is discussed.

  15. Optimized conditions for primary culture of pituitary cells from the Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua). The importance of osmolality, pCO₂, and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodne, Kjetil; von Krogh, Kristine; Weltzien, Finn-Arne; Sand, Olav; Haug, Trude M

    2012-09-01

    Protocols for primary cultures of teleost cells are commonly only moderately adjusted from similar protocols for mammalian cells, the main adjustment often being of temperature. Because aquatic habitats are in general colder than mammalian body temperatures and teleosts have gills in direct contact with water, pH and buffer capacity of blood and extracellular fluid are different in fish and mammals. Plasma osmolality is generally higher in marine teleosts than in mammals. Using Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) as a model, we have optimized these physiological parameters to maintain primary pituitary cells in culture for an extended period without loosing key properties. L-15 medium with adjusted osmolality, adapted to low pCO(2) (3.8mm Hg) and temperature (12°C), and with pH 7.85, maintained the cells in a physiologically sounder state than traditional culture medium, significantly improving cell viability compared to the initial protocol. In the optimized culture medium, resting membrane potential and response to releasing hormone were stable for at least two weeks, and the proportion of cells firing action potentials during spawning season was about seven times higher than in the original culture medium. The cells were moderately more viable when the modified medium was supplemented with newborn calf serum or artificial serum substitute. Compared to serum-free L-15 medium, expression of key genes (lhb, fshb, and gnrhr2a) was better maintained in medium containing SSR, whereas NCS tended to decrease the expression level. Although serum-free medium is adequate for many applications, serum supplement may be preferable for experiments dependent on membrane integrity.

  16. Evaluation of selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry for the measurement of ethanol, methanol and isopropanol in physiological fluids: effect of osmolality and sample volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowbottom, Lynn; Workman, Clive; Roberts, Norman B

    2009-09-01

    Selected-ion flow-tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) is particularly suited for the analysis of volatile low molecular weight compounds. We have evaluated this technique for the assay of different alcohols in aqueous solutions, including blood plasma, and in particular whether the osmolality or sample volume affected vapourisation. Solutions of three different alcohols (methanol, ethanol and isopropanol) ranging from 0.005 to 50 mmol/L were prepared in deionised water (0 milliosmol), phosphate-buffered saline (690 mOsm), isotonic saline (294 mOsm) and plasma (296 mOsm). The vapour above the sample (50 to 1000 microL) contained in air-tight tubes at 37 degrees C was aspirated into the instrument. The outputs for ethanol, methanol and isopropanol were linear over the concentration range and independent of the sample volume and relatively independent of the osmolar concentration. SIFT-MS can reliably and accurately measure common alcohols in the headspace above aqueous solutions, including serum/plasma. This novel application of SIFT-MS is easy to follow, requires no sample preparation and the wide dynamic range will facilitate measurement of alcohols present from normal metabolism as well as when taken in excess or in accidental poisoning.

  17. Prognostic value of pre-surgical plasma PAI-1 (plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) levels in breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; Ferroni, Patrizia; Savonarola, Annalisa; Martini, Francesca; Ciatti, Filippo; Laudisi, Anastasia; Sini, Valentina; Del Monte, Girolamo; Guadagni, Fiorella; Roselli, Mario

    2009-09-01

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) may have an independent prognostic value in breast cancer (BC). PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism may have significance for antigen expression. Thus, we analyzed the possible associations between PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism, plasma PAI-1 levels, and clinicopathological features of breast cancer (BC) patients. PAI-1 4G/5G polymorphism (both on germinal and tumor DNA) and plasma PAI-1 levels were investigated in 99 BC patients and 50 unrelated healthy women similar for age and menopausal status. No association was found between allele frequencies and clinicopathological features of BC or plasma antigen levels. Plasma PAI-1 levels were higher in BC compared to controls (p=0.002), particularly in patients with large tumors (p<0.001). 5-year follow-up was achieved in 79 patients: 30% had relapsing disease, 63% with positive compared to 37% with negative PAI-1 levels (p<0.05). 5-year relapse-free survival rate of positive PAI-1 was 46% vs., 77% of negative patients (p=0.02). We may conclude that plasma PAI-1 levels in BC patients could represent a useful prognostic variable for relapse, although PAI-1 polymorphism might not represent a genetic susceptibility factor.

  18. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  19. Plasma biochemistry values in emperor geese (Chen canagica) in Alaska: comparisons among age, sex, incubation, and molt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J Christian; Hoffman, David J; Schmutz, Joel A

    2009-06-01

    Reduced populations of emperor geese (Chen canagica), a Bering Sea endemic, provided the need to assess plasma biochemistry values as indicators of population health. A precursory step to such an investigation was to evaluate patterns of variability in plasma biochemistry values among age, sex, and reproductive period. Plasma from 63 emperor geese was collected on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska, USA. The geese sampled included 18 incubating adult females captured, in mid June, on their nests by using bow nets, and 30 adults and 15 goslings captured in corral traps in late July and early August, when the adults were molting their wing feathers and the goslings were 5-6 weeks old. Plasma was evaluated for 15 biochemical parameters, by comparing results among age, sex, and sampling period (incubation versus wing-feather molt). Ten of the 15 biochemical parameters assayed differed among adults during incubation, the adults during molt, and the goslings at molt, whereas sex differences were noted in few parameters.

  20. Prognostic value of plasma catecholamines, plasma renin activity, and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide at rest and during exercise in congestive heart failure: comparison with clinical evaluation, ejection fraction, and exercise capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, B K; Keller, N; Christiansen, E

    1995-01-01

    carried significant, independent prognostic information in a multivariate analysis: left ventricular ejection fraction (P = .03), plasma noradrenaline at rest (P = .009), New York Heart Association class III + IV (P = .005), increase in heart rate during exercise ... creatinine > 121 mumol/L (P = .004), and serum urea > 7.6 mmol/L (P = .007). Patients with congestive heart failure have a poor survival despite intensive medical treatment. Plasma catecholamines and plasma atrial natriuretic peptide are elevated at rest and rises further during exercise; the increase......Survival in congestive heart failure is related to plasma catecholamines and atrial natriuretic peptide at rest, but the prognostic importance of changes during exercise is unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of catecholamines and atrial natriuretic peptide at rest...

  1. The Predictive Value of Plasma Fibronectin Concentration on Fetal Growth Retardation at Earlier Stage of the Third Trimester

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Zehua; XIONG; Guirong; ZHU; Ying

    2001-01-01

    In order to evaluate the predictive value of maternal plasma fibronectin (FN) concentration at 24-34 weeks on fetal intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), a prospective double-blinded study was performed. The maternal plasma FN concentrations were measured by using a rate nephelometric procedure in the 130 initial normal nulliparous pregnant woman at 24-34 gestational weeks.The outcome of pregnancies and birth weight of their infants were followed up. IUGR was defined as that the birth weight was less than the 10th percentile for gestational age. The receiver operating characteristic curves and predictive values of FN predicting on outcome of pregnancy with IUGR were analyzed. The results showed that: (1) In a cohort of 130 initially normal nulliparous pregnant women, IUGR occurred in 14 cases during the follow-up; (2) The plasma FN levels in the women with IUGR (467.58± 104.43 mg/L) were significantly higher than in the normal control group (299. 44±105.55 mg/L, P<0. 01). However, there was no significant difference in the mean maternal age,gravidity, sampling gestational ages, delivering gestational ages between the two groups (P>0. 05);(3) The areas under ROC curve for predicting the outcome of pregnancy in IUGR was 0. 893; (4)At the cut point of 475 mg/L FN level, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and Kappa index for predicting the outcomes of pregnancy in IUGR were 57. 14 %,95. 69 %, 61.54 %, 94.87 %, 0. 5455 respectively. It was concluded that the maternal plasma FN might be used as an earlier predictor for screening of IUGR.

  2. Predictive value of plasma hCG measured 14 days after Day-2 single embryo transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løssl, Kristine; Oldenburg, Anna; Toftager, Mette

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prediction of pregnancy outcome after IVF is important for patients and clinicians. Early plasma hCG (p-hCG) levels are the best known predictor of pregnancy outcome, but no studies has been restricted to single embryo transfer (SET) of Day-2 embryos. The aim of the present study...

  3. THE POTENTIAL VALUE OF PHOTOTHERMAL IMAGING FOR THE TESTING OF PLASMA SPRAYED COATINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Almond, D.; Patel, P; Reiter, H.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements are presented which show that the photothermal technique may be used to evaluate plasma sprayed coatings. A photothermal image of a coating adhesion defect is shown and changes in photothermal signal with coating thickness are demonstrated. These measurements are compared directly with ultrasonic measurements of the same sample.

  4. Prognostic value of plasma erythropoietin on mortality in patients with chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Meer, P.; Voors, Adriaan; Lipsic, Erik; Smilde, Tom; van Gilst, W.H.; Van Veldhuisen, D.J.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to investigate the prognostic importance of plasma erythropoietin (EPO) levels in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. Background Anemia is common and is associated with an impaired survival in patients with CHF. Erythropoietin is a hematopoietic growth factor,

  5. The value of plasma vitamin B6 profiles in early onset epileptic encephalopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mathis, Déborah; Abela, Lucia; Albersen, Monique; Bürer, Céline; Crowther, Lisa; Beese, Karin; Hartmann, Hans; Bok, Levinus A; Struys, Eduard; Papuc, Sorina M; Rauch, Anita; Hersberger, Martin; Verhoeven-Duif, Nanda M; Plecko, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent decades have unravelled the molecular background of a number of inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) causing vitamin B6-dependent epilepsy. As these defects interfere with vitamin B6 metabolism by different mechanisms, the plasma vitamin B6 profile can give important clues for furthe

  6. 病毒性疫苗渗透压摩尔浓度的质量控制%Quality control of osmolality of viral vaccines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程鹏飞; 马雷钧; 陈英娇; 马相虎

    2013-01-01

    homogeneity test of variance and hypothesis test.Results There was no significant difference of mean osmolalities between measles and mumps combined vaccine and the control (t =1.66,P > 0.05).The mean osmolalities of measles vaccine,rubella vaccine,varicella vaccine,and influenza vaccine were significantly different from that of the control (Z > 1.96,P <0.001).The lot-to-lot stability of a single vaccine was good.None of the coefficients of variation were more than 3%,and the measurements ranged between 90% and 110% of the mean values.Conclusions There are some differences of the osmolalities among 6 viral vaccines,but lot-to-lot stability of a single vaccine is satisfactory.Therefore,corresponding criteria should be set for different vaccines.

  7. Effects of pH, temperature and osmolality on the level and composition of soluble N in feedstuffs for ruminants.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de L.H.; Spek, J.W.; Laar, van H.; Dijkstra, J.

    2009-01-01

    Solubility of N is an important parameter in many protein evaluation systems for ruminants. The influence of different rumen conditions, such as pH, osmolality and temperature of solvents, on solubility of N compounds in various animal feed ingredients was examined in two experiments. In the first e

  8. COMPARING ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND VITAMIN C VALUES BETWEEN UMBILICAL CORD AND MATERNAL BLOOD PLASMA AND THOSE IN NEWBORNS WITH HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bazmamoun MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveOxygen intoxication plays an important role in the pathogenesis of some fetal diseases such as encephalopathy, ischemia& hypoxia. Antioxidants can reduce oxidative damage in newborns. The object of this research was measuring total value of antioxidant and vitamin C in blood sample of pregnant women before delivery, and also in umbilical cord blood of their newborn, and repeating these measurements 48 hours after birth in newborns with hypoxia and controlling group.Materials & MethodsThe sample included 32 healthy pregnant women presented for delivery & also their newborns. The total values of antioxidant & vitamin C in plasma were measured by staining methods.ResultsThere was no statistical meaningful difference in total values of antioxidants & vitamin C in women's blood & their newborn's cord blood. Also totalvalues of antioxidant & vitamin C meaningfully increased in newborns with hypoxia after 48 hours.Conclusiontotal values of antioxidant & vitamin C in blood plasma of newborn, increase in oxidative damage as a defense mechanism.Key words:Antioxidants , Ascorbic Acid , Hypoxia , Umbilical cord blood.

  9. Osmolality and non-structural carbohydrate composition in the secondary phloem of trees across a latitudinal gradient in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eLintunen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% towards northern Europe and 38% towards southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased towards north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e. glucose and fructose high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased towards the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble

  10. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C.; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L.; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L.; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M. R.; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  11. Osmolality and Non-Structural Carbohydrate Composition in the Secondary Phloem of Trees across a Latitudinal Gradient in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintunen, Anna; Paljakka, Teemu; Jyske, Tuula; Peltoniemi, Mikko; Sterck, Frank; von Arx, Georg; Cochard, Hervé; Copini, Paul; Caldeira, Maria C; Delzon, Sylvain; Gebauer, Roman; Grönlund, Leila; Kiorapostolou, Natasa; Lechthaler, Silvia; Lobo-do-Vale, Raquel; Peters, Richard L; Petit, Giai; Prendin, Angela L; Salmon, Yann; Steppe, Kathy; Urban, Josef; Roig Juan, Sílvia; Robert, Elisabeth M R; Hölttä, Teemu

    2016-01-01

    Phloem osmolality and its components are involved in basic cell metabolism, cell growth, and in various physiological processes including the ability of living cells to withstand drought and frost. Osmolality and sugar composition responses to environmental stresses have been extensively studied for leaves, but less for the secondary phloem of plant stems and branches. Leaf osmotic concentration and the share of pinitol and raffinose among soluble sugars increase with increasing drought or cold stress, and osmotic concentration is adjusted with osmoregulation. We hypothesize that similar responses occur in the secondary phloem of branches. We collected living bark samples from branches of adult Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies, Betula pendula and Populus tremula trees across Europe, from boreal Northern Finland to Mediterranean Portugal. In all studied species, the observed variation in phloem osmolality was mainly driven by variation in phloem water content, while tissue solute content was rather constant across regions. Osmoregulation, in which osmolality is controlled by variable tissue solute content, was stronger for Betula and Populus in comparison to the evergreen conifers. Osmolality was lowest in mid-latitude region, and from there increased by 37% toward northern Europe and 38% toward southern Europe due to low phloem water content in these regions. The ratio of raffinose to all soluble sugars was negligible at mid-latitudes and increased toward north and south, reflecting its role in cold and drought tolerance. For pinitol, another sugar known for contributing to stress tolerance, no such latitudinal pattern was observed. The proportion of sucrose was remarkably low and that of hexoses (i.e., glucose and fructose) high at mid-latitudes. The ratio of starch to all non-structural carbohydrates increased toward the northern latitudes in agreement with the build-up of osmotically inactive C reservoir that can be converted into soluble sugars during winter

  12. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations in psittacine birds: reference values, factors of variation, and association with feather-damaging behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosset, Claire; Bougerol, Christian; Sanchez-Migallon Guzman, David

    2014-03-01

    Butyrylcholinesterase is a glycoprotein enzyme used in the diagnosis of toxicosis by cholinesterase-inhibitor agents like organophosphates and carbamates. In animals, butyrylcholinesterase concentrations have been shown to vary depending on numerous factors such as age, sex, diet, and season of sampling. To establish reference values of plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations in common psittacine species, plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations were measured in 1942 companion psittacine birds. The birds were classified by age, sex, season, health status, and the presence of feather-damaging behavior. A significant difference was observed among species, with eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus) having the lowest and African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) having the highest reference values. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase concentrations varied by age, health status, and season but not by sex. Concentrations were significantly higher during autumn and spring than during winter and summer, and significantly lower in healthy birds than in sick birds. No significant association between butyrylcholinesterase concentrations and feather-damaging behavior could be established except in lovebirds (Agapornis species). Further research is needed to better understand the effect of nutritional and hormonal factors on butyrylcholinesterase concentrations in psittacine birds and its possible effect on bird cognition.

  13. Prognostic Value of Plasma Intermedin Level in Patients With Non-ST-Segment Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengyang; Shi, Lin; Han, Yalei; Zhao, Yuntao; Qi, Yongfen; Wang, Bin

    2016-04-01

    Intermedin (IMD), an autocrine/paracrine biologically active peptide, plays a critical role in maintaining vascular homeostasis. Recent research has shown that high plasma levels of IMD are associated with poor outcomes for patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction. However, the prognostic utility of IMD levels in non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) has not yet been investigated. We hypothesized that the level of plasma IMD would have prognostic value in patients with NSTE-ACS. Plasma IMD was determined by radioimmunoassay in 132 NSTE-ACS patients on admission to hospital and 132 sex- and age-matched healthy-control subjects. Major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs), including death, heart failure, hospitalization, and acute myocardial infarction, were noted during follow-up. In total, 23 patients suffered MACEs during the follow-up period (mean 227 ± 118 days, range 2-421 days). Median IMD levels were higher in NSTE-ACS patients than control [320.0 (250.9/384.6) vs. 227.2 (179.7/286.9) pg/mL, P variables and NT-proBNP showed that the risk of MACEs increased by a factor of 12.96 (95% CI, 3.26-49.42; P <0.001) with high IMD levels (at the cut-off value). IMD has potential as a prognostic biomarker for predicting MACEs in patients with NSTE-ACS.

  14. Predictive Value of Nuclear Factor κB Activity and Plasma Cytokine Levels in Patients with Sepsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnalich, Francisco; Garcia-Palomero, Esther; López, Julia; Jiménez, Manuel; Madero, Rosario; Renart, Jaime; Vázquez, Juan José; Montiel, Carmen

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between fluctuating cytokine concentrations in plasma and the outcome of sepsis is complex. We postulated that early measurement of the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), a transcriptional regulatory protein involved in proinflammatory cytokine expression, may help to predict the outcome of sepsis. We determined NF-κB activation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of 34 patients with severe sepsis (23 survivors and 11 nonsurvivors) and serial concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin-6, interleukin-1, and tumor necrosis factor) and various endogenous antagonists in plasma. NF-κB activity was significantly higher in nonsurvivors and correlated strongly with the severity of illness (APACHE II score), although neither was related to the cytokine levels. Apart from NF-κB activity, the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist was the only cytokine tested whose level in plasma was of value in predicting mortality by logistic regression analysis. These results underscore the prognostic value of early measurement of NF-κB activity in patients with severe sepsis. PMID:10722586

  15. The relationship between seminal plasma aspartate aminotransferase activity, sperm osmotic resistance test value, and semen quality in boars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacyno Eugenia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between the activity of aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT in seminal plasma and the values of the osmotic resistance test (ORT of acrosomal membranes and semen traits was examined on 120 young hybrid Pietrain and Duroc boars. The following semen quality traits were determined: the volume of the ejaculate, the percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility, sperm concentration and the total number of spermatozoa in the ejaculate, percentage of spermatozoa with normal acrosome, the percentage of spermatozoa with major and minor morphological defects, ORT, and the activity of AspAT in seminal plasma. The activity of AspAT in seminal plasma was negatively correlated (p_0.01 with the spermatozoa concentration and total number per ejaculate, percentage of spermatozoa with progressive motility and percentage of spermatozoa with a normal acrosome, while positively with the percentage of spermatozoa with major (p≤0.001 and minor (p≤0.01 morphological defects. The ORT values negatively correlated with the percentage of spermatozoa with major (p≤0.05 and minor (p≤0.01 morphological defects, while positively (p≤0.001 with the percentage of spermatozoa with a normal acrosome.

  16. Variations in C-reactive protein, plasma free radicals and fibrinogen values in patients with osteoarthritis treated with Pycnogenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Errichi, S; Zulli, C; Errichi, B M; Vinciguerra, G; Ledda, A; Di Renzo, A; Stuard, S; Dugall, M; Pellegrini, L; Gizzi, G; Ippolito, E; Ricci, A; Cacchio, M; Cipollone, G; Ruffini, I; Fano, F; Hosoi, M; Rohdewald, P

    2008-01-01

    In a previous, double-blind, placebo-controlled study we evaluated the efficacy of a 3-month treatment with Pycnogenol for 156 patients with osteoarthritis of the knee. Pycnogenol significantly decreased joint pain and improved joint function as evaluated using the WOMAC score and walking performance of patients on a treadmill. In this study, we further investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Pycnogenol in a subset of the osteoarthritis patients presenting with elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) and plasma-free radicals. Elevated CRP levels have been suggested to be associated with disease progression in osteoarthritis. In our study, 29 subjects of the Pycnogenol group and 26 patients in the placebo group showed CRP levels higher than 3 mg/l at baseline. Comparison of blood specimens drawn at baseline and after 3-month treatment showed that Pycnogenol significantly decreased plasma free radicals to 70.1% of baseline values. Plasma CRP levels decreased from baseline 3.9 mg/l to 1.1 mg/l in the Pycnogenol group whereas the control group had initial values of 3.9 mg/l which decreased to 3.6 mg/l. The CRP decrease in the Pycnogenol was statistical significant as compared to the control group (P Pycnogenol. No significant changes for plasma free radicals, CRP and fibrinogen were found in the placebo-treated group. The decrease of systemic inflammatory markers suggests that Pycnogenol may exert anti-inflammatory activity in osteoarthritic joints and patients did not present with other ailments or infections. The nature of the anti-inflammatory effects of Pycnogenol with regard to CRP warrants further investigation.

  17. Prognostic value of plasma and urine glycosaminoglycan scores in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Gatto

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The prognosis of metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC vastly improved since the introduction of antiangiogenic targeted therapy. However, it is still unclear which biological processes underlie ccRCC aggressiveness and affect prognosis. Here, we checked whether a recently discovered systems biomarker based on plasmatic or urinary measurements of glycosaminoglycans aggregated into diagnostic scores correlated with ccRCC prognosis.Thirty-one patients with a diagnosis of ccRCC (23 metastatic were prospectively enrolled and their urine and plasma biomarker scores were correlated to progression-free survival (PFS and overall survival (OS as either a dichotomous (Low vs. High or a continuous variable in a multivariate survival analysis.The survival difference between High vs. Low-scored patients was significant in the case of urine scores (2-year PFS rate = 53.3% vs. 100%, p = 310-4 and 2-year OS rate = 73.3% vs. 100%, p = 0.0078 and in the case of OS for plasma scores (2-year PFS rate = 60% vs. 84%, p = 0.0591 and 2-year OS rate = 66.7% vs. 90%, p = 0.0206. In multivariate analysis, the urine biomarker score was an independent predictor of PFS (HR: 4.62, 95% CI: 1.66 to 12.83, p = 0.003 and OS (HR: 10.13, 95% CI: 1.80 to 57.04, p = 0.009.This is the first report on an association between plasma or urine GAG scores and the prognosis of ccRCC patients. Prospective trials validating the prognostic and predictive role of this novel systems biomarker are warranted.

  18. ESTIMATING RATIO OF PEAK TO UNIFORM VALUES OF VARIOUS PROFILES OF RELEVANCE TO PLASMA FOCUS PINCH COLUMNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHONG PERK LIN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In the Lee Model code for radiative plasma focus computation, both the density profile and the temperature profile (versus anode radius of the pinch column are approximated by step functions with uniform values across the column radius. This means that the computed density and temperatures will be lower than the physical situation where the density and temperature profiles will certainly have peak values higher than the uniform (with radius values of the step function. It has been shown that the density profile is side-peaked (somewhat shell-shaped or like the shape of a volcanic crater with the assumption of no reflected shock wave; whereas the temperature profile is centre-peaked somewhat like a Gaussian shape. The aim of this paper is to investigate the use of higher degree mathematical function, where the crater-shaped profile can be well represented, to pproximate the plasma focus density profile. Two different approximated functions will be discussed: namely Gaussian distribution function and Bézier function. From these profiles we obtain the likely ratio of the profiled peak temperature to the step function uniform temperature and the peak density to the step function uniform density. In this manner we are able to suggest correction factors to the temperature and density computed by the Lee Model code.

  19. Hematologic and plasma biochemistry values for endangered red knots (Calidris canutus rufa) at wintering and migratory sites in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Amico, Verónica L; Bertellotti, Marcelo; Baker, Allan J; González, Patricia M

    2010-04-01

    We obtained hematologic and plasma biochemistry values for adult, long-distance migrant Red Knots at their southernmost wintering site in Río Grande (Tierra del Fuego, Argentina) and at the first stopover site in San Antonio Oeste (Río Negro, Argentina). Lymphocytes (L) followed by heterophils (H) were the most abundant leukocytes. H/L ratio and glucose levels were significantly higher at Río Grande, possibly because of the stress of migration and molting. Packed cell volume results ranged widely, probably in response to increased oxygen demand for migration. Protein profiles and lipids were higher at the stopover site and attributable to birds storing reserves for subsequent flights.

  20. Terpenes increase the lipid dynamics in the Leishmania plasma membrane at concentrations similar to their IC50 values.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heverton Silva Camargos

    Full Text Available Although many terpenes have shown antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activity, the mechanism of action is not well established. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR spectroscopy of the spin-labeled 5-doxyl stearic acid revealed remarkable fluidity increases in the plasma membrane of terpene-treated Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. For an antiproliferative activity assay using 5×10(6 parasites/mL, the sesquiterpene nerolidol and the monoterpenes (+-limonene, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole inhibited the growth of the parasites with IC50 values of 0.008, 0.549, 0.678 and 4.697 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of these terpenes increased as the parasite concentration used in the cytotoxicity assay increased, and this behavior was examined using a theoretical treatment of the experimental data. Cytotoxicity tests with the same parasite concentration as in the EPR experiments revealed a correlation between the IC50 values of the terpenes and the concentrations at which they altered the membrane fluidity. In addition, the terpenes induced small amounts of cell lysis (4-9% at their respective IC50 values. For assays with high cell concentrations (2×10(9 parasites/mL, the incorporation of terpene into the cell membrane was very fast, and the IC50 values observed for 24 h and 5 min-incubation periods were not significantly different. Taken together, these results suggest that terpene cytotoxicity is associated with the attack on the plasma membrane of the parasite. The in vitro cytotoxicity of nerolidol was similar to that of miltefosine, and nerolidol has high hydrophobicity; thus, nerolidol might be used in drug delivery systems, such as lipid nanoparticles to treat leishmaniasis.

  1. Terpenes increase the lipid dynamics in the Leishmania plasma membrane at concentrations similar to their IC50 values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camargos, Heverton Silva; Moreira, Rodrigo Alves; Mendanha, Sebastião Antonio; Fernandes, Kelly Souza; Dorta, Miriam Leandro; Alonso, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Although many terpenes have shown antitumor, antibacterial, antifungal, and antiparasitic activity, the mechanism of action is not well established. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of the spin-labeled 5-doxyl stearic acid revealed remarkable fluidity increases in the plasma membrane of terpene-treated Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes. For an antiproliferative activity assay using 5×10(6) parasites/mL, the sesquiterpene nerolidol and the monoterpenes (+)-limonene, α-terpineol and 1,8-cineole inhibited the growth of the parasites with IC50 values of 0.008, 0.549, 0.678 and 4.697 mM, respectively. The IC50 values of these terpenes increased as the parasite concentration used in the cytotoxicity assay increased, and this behavior was examined using a theoretical treatment of the experimental data. Cytotoxicity tests with the same parasite concentration as in the EPR experiments revealed a correlation between the IC50 values of the terpenes and the concentrations at which they altered the membrane fluidity. In addition, the terpenes induced small amounts of cell lysis (4-9%) at their respective IC50 values. For assays with high cell concentrations (2×10(9) parasites/mL), the incorporation of terpene into the cell membrane was very fast, and the IC50 values observed for 24 h and 5 min-incubation periods were not significantly different. Taken together, these results suggest that terpene cytotoxicity is associated with the attack on the plasma membrane of the parasite. The in vitro cytotoxicity of nerolidol was similar to that of miltefosine, and nerolidol has high hydrophobicity; thus, nerolidol might be used in drug delivery systems, such as lipid nanoparticles to treat leishmaniasis.

  2. DIAGNOSTIC-VALUE OF PLASMA-LEVELS OF TUMOR-NECROSIS-FACTOR-ALPHA (TNF-ALPHA) AND INTERLEUKIN-6 (IL-6) IN NEWBORNS WITH SEPSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBONT, ESJM; MARTENS, A; VANRAAN, J; SAMSON, G; FETTER, WPF; OKKEN, A; DELEIJ, LHFM; KIMPEN, J

    The aim of this study was to examine if TNF alpha and IL-6 plasma levels could be of value in diagnosing neonatal sepsis. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels were determined in 15 newborn infants with confirmed sepsis (group I), 18 with suspected sepsis

  3. Characterization of hybridoma cell responses to elevated pCO(2) and osmolality: intracellular pH, cell size, apoptosis, and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deZengotita, Vivian M; Schmelzer, Albert E; Miller, William M

    2002-02-15

    CO(2) partial pressure (pCO(2)) in industrial cell culture reactors may reach 150-200 mm Hg, which can significantly inhibit cell growth and recombinant protein production. The inhibitory effects of elevated pCO(2) at constant pH are due to a combination of the increases in pCO(2) and [HCO(-) (3)], per se, and the associated increase in osmolality. To decouple the effects of pCO(2) and osmolality, low-salt basal media have been used to compensate for this associated increase in osmolality. Under control conditions (40 mm Hg-320 mOsm/kg), hybridoma cell growth and metabolism was similar in DMEM:F12 with 2% fetal bovine serum and serum-free HB GRO. In both media, pCO(2) and osmolality made dose-dependent contributions to the inhibition of hybridoma cell growth and synergized to more extensively inhibit growth when combined. Elevated osmolality was associated with increased apoptosis. In contrast, elevated pCO(2) did not increase apoptotic cell death. Specific antibody production also increased with osmolality although not with pCO(2). In an effort to understand the mechanisms through which elevated pCO(2) and osmolality affect hybridoma cells, glucose metabolism, glutamine metabolism, intracellular pH (pHi), and cell size were monitored in batch cultures. Elevated pCO(2) (with or without osmolality compensation) inhibited glycolysis in a dose-dependent fashion in both media. Osmolality had little effect on glycolysis. On the other hand, elevated pCO(2) alone had no effect on glutamine metabolism, whereas elevated osmolality increased glutamine uptake. Hybridoma mean pHi was approximately 0.2 pH units lower than control at 140 mm Hg pCO(2) (with or without osmolality compensation) but further increases in pCO(2) did not further decrease pHi. Osmolality had little effect on pHi. Cell size was smaller than control at elevated pCO(2) at 320 mOsm/kg, and greater than control in hyperosmotic conditions at 40 mm Hg.

  4. DIRECT SMEAR VS CELL BLOCK (PLASMA- THROMBIN CLOT) METHOD: DIAGNOSTIC VALUE IN SEROSAL CAVITIES FLUIDS CYTOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Mahzouni, P.; M SHARIFANI

    2000-01-01

    Introduction. To improve testing sensitivity, most laboratories use two or more preparation methods but in our laboratories only one method is used which is "direct smear". In this study we tried to evaluate the diagnostic value of cell block as adjunct to direct smear in the cytologic investigation of serosal cavities fluids. Methods. In a clinical trial study 62 specimens of serosal cavity fluids were investigated in AL-Zahrapathology laboratory (Get. 1998 to Get. 1999). Cytologic slid...

  5. Use of spin labels to evaluate effects of cold shock and osmolality on sperm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerstedt, R.H.; Keith, A.D.; Snipes, W.; Amann, R.P.; Arruda, D.; Griel, L.C. Jr.

    1978-05-01

    Spin labels were used to evaluate the effects of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C and osmolality on the integrity of sperm membranes. In vitro incubation of rabbit sperm with 0.5 mM BHT prior to artificial insemination did not alter the fertilizing ability of the sperm. Sperm from 6 species were ranked in terms of susceptibility to membrane damage caused by rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C. The integrity of bull and ram sperm membranes was destroyed by the rapid cooling; BHT protected membranes of these spermatozoa from cold-induced lysis. Boar sperm membranes were porous after rapid cooling and BHT did not prevent this membrane damage. Membranes of rabbit and rooster sperm were not damaged by rapid cooling to 0/sup 0/C. Stallion sperm could not be analyzed because their membranes were altered by addition of reagents necessary to use the technique. The responses of bull, ram and rabbit sperm membranes to hyper- and hypo-osmotic conditions were determined. Hypotonic treatment (less than 200 mOsm) resulted in a 50 percent expansion of the volume of the aqueous compartment of sperm while hypertonic (700 mOsm) conditions compressed the volume of the aqueous compartment to 25 to 30 percent of the volume measured at 300 mOsm. Bull sperm, but not rabbit or ram sperm, responded as ''perfect osmometers'' between 300 and 700 mOsm.

  6. ECG changes during cerebral angiography; A comparison of low osmolality contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitsumori, Michihide; Abe, Mitsuyuki (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine); Hayakawa, Katsumi (Kyoto City Hospital (Japan). Department of Radiology)

    334 electrocardiographic recordings obtained from 109 patients who underwent cerebral angiography with low osmolality contrast media (CM) were analysed. CM used in this study included meglumine sodium ioxaglate, iopamidol and iohexol. A tachycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 8.3 percent of the recordings, while a bradycardial effect greater than 10 percent was seen in 11.1 percent. Assessment was based on the type of CM used, age of the patients, usage of atropine sulfate as premedication, and the vessel injected. Patients who were under 19 years of age, and unpremedicated had a significantly higher incidence of bradycardia. On the other hand, there was no significant difference of the incidence of electrocardiographic abnormality between the 3 CM, and between the 2 injected vessel groups. The authors have also analysed the incidence of generalized adverse effect. There was no serious complication, however, 11.9 percent of the patients who under-went cerebral angiography with ioxaglate developed urticaria and this was significantly higher than in the other 2 CM groups. (author). 17 refs.; 9 tabs.

  7. The prognostic value of plasma soluble ST2 in hospitalized Chinese patients with heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rongcheng Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: sST2 has been shown to be a risk predictor in heart failure (HF. Our aim was to explore the characteristics and prognostic value of soluble ST2 (sST2 in hospitalized Chinese patients with HF. METHODS AND RESULTS: We consecutively enrolled 1528 hospitalized patients with HF. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis were used to assess the prognostic values of sST2. Adverse events were defined as all-cause death and cardiac transplantation. During a median follow-up of 19.1 months, 325 patients experienced adverse events. Compared with patients free of events, sST2 concentrations were significantly higher in patients with events (P55.6 ng/mL independently predicted events in comparison to the lowest quartile (≤25.2 ng/mL when adjusted by multivariable model. In ROC analysis, the area under the curve for sST2 was not different from that for NT-proBNP in short and longer term. Over time, sST2 also improved discrimination and reclassification of risk beyond NT-proBNP. CONCLUSIONS: sST2 is a strong independent risk predictor in Chinese patients hospitalized with HF and can significantly provide additional prognostic value to NT-proBNP in risk prediction.

  8. Taking alcohol with a (large) pinch of salt: Understanding the osmoles in "beer potomania" and "starvation potomania".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, T H

    2014-07-01

    Alcoholism is a major problem globally and beer drinking is on the rise. Many of the alcoholics sustain only on beer for days and do not get adequate solutes in the form of food. Similar situation can arise in cases of decreased food intake due to severe deliberate restriction or other factors like decreased appetite from cocaine. In these cases, salt free liquid intake may still be adequate. Such situations are conducive to the development of hyponatremia. Some of the solutes in diet, such as salt and protein, act as osmoles in urine. In these conditions, understanding the role played by solutes in diet and osmoles in urine is of vital importance for appropriate treatment of hyponatremia.

  9. Molt-associated changes in hematologic and plasma biochemical values and stress hormone levels in African penguins (Spheniscus demersus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaro, Lisa M; Meegan, Jenny; Sarran, Delphine; Romano, Tracy A; Bonato, Vinicius; Deng, Shibing; Dunn, J Lawrence

    2013-12-01

    Handling, including blood collection, has often been discouraged in molting penguins because it is considered an additional stress imposed on birds already experiencing major physiologic stress associated with molting. To evaluate the degree of physiologic stress posed by molting, we compared the hematologic and plasma biochemical values and hormone levels of molting and nonmolting African penguins, Spheniscus demersus. Five male and 5 female penguins randomly chosen were given complete physical examinations, were weighed, and blood samples were taken at 7 time points before, during, and after the molt. Data were analyzed by linear mixed-model analysis of variance. Throughout the study, behavior and appetite remained normal. Catecholamine levels were highly variable within and among subjects, whereas mean corticosterone levels were significantly different between baseline, molt, and postmolt values. Significant differences from baseline values were observed in many of the hematologic analytes; however, only decreases in hematocrit and red blood cell count values were considered clinically significant. Anemia due to experimentally induced blood loss as a possible cause of the significant hematologic changes was ruled out based on results of a follow-up control study during the nonmolt season, which showed no significant changes in hematocrit level or total red blood cell counts when using similar sampling protocols, which indicates that these changes were associated with molt.

  10. Critical role of quorum sensing-dependent glutamate metabolism in homeostatic osmolality and outer membrane vesiculation in Burkholderia glumae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yongsung; Goo, Eunhye; Kim, Jinwoo; Hwang, Ingyu

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic homeostasis in cooperative bacteria is achieved by modulating primary metabolism in a quorum sensing (QS)-dependent manner. A perturbed metabolism in QS mutants causes physiological stress in the rice bacterial pathogen Burkholderia glumae. Here, we show that increased bacterial osmolality in B. glumae is caused by unusually high cellular concentrations of glutamate and betaine generated by QS deficiencies. QS negatively controls glutamate uptake and the expression of genes involved in the glutamine synthetase and glutamine oxoglutarate aminotransferase cycles. Thus, cellular glutamate levels were significantly higher in the QS mutants than in the wild type, and they caused hyperosmotic cellular conditions. Under the hypotonic conditions of the periplasm in the QS mutants, outer membrane bulging and vesiculation were observed, although these changes were rescued by knocking out the gltI gene, which encodes a glutamate transporter. Outer membrane modifications were not detected in the wild type. These results suggest that QS-dependent glutamate metabolism is critical for homeostatic osmolality. We suggest that outer membrane bulging and vesiculation might be the outcome of a physiological adaptation to relieve hypotonic osmotic stress in QS mutants. Our findings reveal how QS functions to maintain bacterial osmolality in a cooperative population. PMID:28272446

  11. Clinical value of cancer cells joint detection in peripheral blood plasma of thyroid cancer patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaqiong Ni; Qinjiang Liu ; Youxin Tian

    2014-01-01

    Objective:We aimed to detect cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and polymorphic epithelial mucin 1 (MUC1) expression in peripheral blood of thyroid cancer patients, and investigate the clinical value of it as a diagnostic marker for circulating blood micrometastases. Methods:The flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect and analyze CK19 and MUC1-expressing cel s in peripheral blood of 491 thyroid cancer patients. Results:CK19 and MUC1 expression showed no statistical y significant dif-ference with gender and age in thyroid cancer patients (P>0.05), while had statistical y significant dif erence with tumor size, lymph node stage and distant metastasis (P<0.01). The expression of CK19 and MUC1 were positively correlated (r=0.628, P=0.00). Conclusion:CK19 is closely related to MUC1 expression, tumor size, extent of invasion and distant metastasis in peripheral blood of thyroid cancer patients. The circulating blood CK19 and MUC1 tests can help predict thyroid cancer micrometastases and prognosis.

  12. Comparison of low osmolality ionic (ioxaglate) versus nonionic (iopamidol) contrast media in cardiac angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisneski, J A; Gertz, E W; Dahlgren, M; Muslin, A

    1989-02-15

    A double-blind randomized study was performed in 60 patients to compare the electrocardiographic and hemodynamic changes induced during cardiac angiography by 2 contrast media with relatively low osmolality. Ioxaglate meglumine sodium, an ionic dimer contrast medium, was compared with iopamidol, a nonionic compound. Of the 30 patients who received ioxaglate, 13 (43%) experienced a mild to moderate adverse reaction to the contrast media, while only 2 of the 30 patients (7%) in the iopamidol group had similar side effects (p less than 0.005). Significant prolongations of the QT intervals occurred with the ioxaglate injections. The QT intervals increased from 402 +/- 46 to 442 +/- 59 ms (p less than 0.001) with the right coronary artery injection and similar changes were observed after the left coronary artery injection and left ventriculography. Significant ST-segment and T-wave amplitude changes also occurred in the ioxaglate group. With iopamidol injections, there were no significant changes in any of these parameters. After the left ventriculogram, there were similar decreases in the systolic arterial pressures in both groups (-14 +/- 10 mm Hg with ioxaglate and -21 +/- 9 mm Hg with iopamidol). The left ventricular end-diastolic pressures increased after the ventriculogram in both groups (5 +/- 5 vs 2 +/- 3 mm Hg with ioxaglate and iopamidol, respectively, 60 seconds after the injection). This report demonstrates that mild to moderate adverse reactions, QT-interval prolongations, ST and T-wave changes were significantly greater during coronary angiography with ioxaglate when compared with iopamidol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Extreme Variation of Nutritional Composition and Osmolality of Commercially Available Carbohydrate Energy Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xuguang; O'Kennedy, Niamh; Morton, James P

    2015-10-01

    The provision of exogenous carbohydrate (CHO) in the form of energy gels is regularly practiced among endurance and team sport athletes. However, in those instances where athletes ingest suboptimal fluid intake, consuming gels during exercise may lead to gastrointestinal (GI) problems when the nutritional composition of the gel is not aligned with promoting gastric emptying. Accordingly, the aim of the current study was to quantify the degree of diversity in nutritional composition of commercially available CHO gels intended for use in the global sports nutrition market. We surveyed 31 product ranges (incorporating 51 flavor variants) from 23 brands (Accelerade, CNP, High5, GU, Hammer, Maxim, Clif, USN, Mule, Multipower, Nectar, Carb- Boom, Power Bar, Lucozade, Shotz, TORQ, Dextro, Kinetica, SiS, Zipvit, Maxifuel, Gatorade and Squeezy). Gels differed markedly in serving size (50 ± 22 g: 29-120), energy density (2.34 ± 0.7 kcal/g: 0.83-3.40), energy content (105 ± 24 kcal: 78-204), CHO content (26 ± 6 g: 18-51) and free sugar content (9.3 ± 7.0 g: 0.6-26.8). Most notably, gels displayed extreme variation in osmolality (4424 ± 2883 mmol/kg: 303-10,135) thereby having obvious implications for both GI discomfort and the total fluid intake likely required to optimize CHO delivery and oxidation. The large diversity of nutritional composition of commercially available CHO gels illustrate that not all gels should be considered the same. Sports nutrition practitioners should therefore consider the aforementioned variables to make better-informed decisions regarding which gel product best suits the athlete's specific fueling and hydration requirements.

  14. Arterial enhancement at abdominal CT angiography: Low- versus high-osmolality contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouviere, O.; Berger, P.; Pangaud, C.; Lyonnet, D. [Hopital E. Herriot, Lyon (France). Dept. of Vascular and Genitourinary Radiology; Ecochard, R. [Hospices Civils de Lyon (France). Dept of Biostatistics; Fontaine, B. [Laboratoire Guerbet, Roissy (France)

    2000-09-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effects of contrast media pharmokinetic differences on aortic enhancement at abdominal CT angiography and to determine whether these effects are of clinical relevance. Material and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients referred for abdominal CT angiography were included in the study. All abdominal CT angiograms were performed with the same parameters (collimation 3 mm, pitch ratio 1.7, scan delay 30 s) after i.v. injection of 120 ml of contrast medium at 3 ml/s. After randomization, patients received either iobitridol 300 (low-osmolar, 300 mg I/ml), iobitridol 350 (low-osmolar, 350 mg I/ml) or ioxithalamate 350 (high-osmolar, 350 mg I/ml). The time attenuation curves obtained with the three contrast media were compared. Results: The time attenuation curve obtained with ioxithalamate 350 was not parallel to those obtained with iobitridol 300 and iobitridol 350. Mean peak enhancements obtained with iobitridol 350 and ioxithalamate 350 were not significantly different but iobitridol 350 provided higher mean peak enhancement than iobitridol 300. Mean delays of the peak enhancements were the same with the three contrast media. After peak enhancement, the decrease of aortic opacification under a selected threshold of 200 HU was significantly slower with iobitridol 350 than with iobitridol 300 and ioxithalamate 350, whereas iobitridol 300 and ioxithalamate 350 showed no significant differences. Conclusion: For a given iodine concentration, low-osmolality contrast media provide longer aortic opacification and may be recommended for CT angiography when long acquisition times are needed.

  15. Vanadate inhibition of hepatocytic autophagy. Calcium-modulated and osmolality-modulated antagonism by asparagine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosse, M; Berg, T O; O'Reilly, D S; Seglen, P O

    1995-05-15

    The phosphate analogue vanadate, at 10 mM, strongly (approximately 90%) inhibited the autophagic sequestration of endogenous lactate dehydrogenase in isolated rat hepatocytes. The effect of vanadate was markedly (approximately 80%) antagonized by asparagine (20 mM), and to a lesser extent by glutamine, glycine, and alanine. The antagonism was only observed in the presence of Ca2+ when an isotonic standard incubation medium was used, but by increasing the medium osmolality this Ca2+ requirement could be eliminated. Asparagine induced a cell swelling (17% at 20 mM) that might account for at least part of its vanadate antagonism, since hypotonic cell swelling by itself stimulated autophagy (with a maximal effect at approximately 200 mosM). Conversely, hypertonic media inhibited autophagy and were additive to vanadate. In a strongly hypotonic medium (less than 200 mosM), both asparagine and vanadate were inhibitory. However, since vanadate alone had no effect on cell volume, the vanadate-asparagine antagonism could not be exerted exclusively at the level of cell volume regulation. An additional mechanism might be a partial deamination of asparagine, generating ammonia, which was found to oppose the vanadate inhibition of autophagy while having no effect on cell volume. Other metabolizable amino acids, like alanine and glycine, were moderately vanadate-antagonistic while failing to induce cell swelling. These results are compatible with a vanadate-antagonistic effect of asparagine mediated partly through an unknown mechanism (possibly pH change) by its deamination product, ammonia, partly through cell swelling and a secondary Ca2+ influx that could compensate for a vanadate-induced depletion of intracellular calcium stores.

  16. Prognostic Value of Plasma Pentraxin-3 Levels in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease after Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentraxin-3 (PTX3 is an inflammatory marker thought to be more specific to cardiovascular inflammation than C-reactive protein (CRP. Our aim was to assess the prognostic value of PTX3 in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD after drug eluting stent (DES implantation. Plasma PTX3 levels were measured before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI and at 24 h post-PCI in 596 consecutive patients with stable CAD. Patients were followed up for a median of 3 years (range 1–5 for major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs. We found that the post-PCI plasma PTX3 levels were significantly higher at 24 h after PCI than pre-PCI, patients with MACEs had higher post-PCI PTX3 levels compared with MACEs-free patients, patients with higher post-PCI PTX3 levels (median > 4.384 ng/mL had a higher risk for MACEs than those with PTX3 < 4.384 ng/mL, and post-PCI PTX3, cTnI, multiple stents, and age but not high-sensitivity CRP (hsCRP were independently associated with the prevalence of MACEs after DES implantation. The present study shows that post-PCI PTX3 may be a more reliable inflammatory predictor of long-term MACEs in patients with stable CAD undergoing DES implantation than CRP. Measurement of post-PCI PTX3 levels could provide a rationale for risk stratification of patients with stable CAD after DES implantation.

  17. Measurement of osmolality and sodium concentration in heated-cup sweat collections for the investigation of cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, J M; Adams, A; Westwood, A; McCrae, W M

    1983-11-01

    A new system (Wescor) for sweat collection and analysis was examined with respect to its suitability for the investigation of children suspected to have cystic fibrosis. The effects of iontophoresis current, sweat collection time, sweat storage and analysis were examined, and as a result the technique was modified to allow collection and storage of sufficient sweat for sodium and potassium as well as osmolality assays in 10-20 minutes. The small electrodes and speed of the procedure make it practical for use with small children, with a reproducibility of 13-24% (coefficient of variation for whole procedure).

  18. Assessment of bone marrow plasma cell infiltrates in multiple myeloma: the added value of CD138 immunohistochemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quran, Samer Z; Yang, Lijun; Magill, James M; Braylan, Raul C; Douglas-Nikitin, Vonda K

    2007-12-01

    Assessment of bone marrow involvement by malignant plasma cells is an important element in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with multiple myeloma and other plasma cell dyscrasias. Microscope-based differential counts of bone marrow aspirates are used as the primary method to evaluate bone marrow plasma cell percentages. However, multiple myeloma is often a focal process, a fact that impacts the accuracy and reliability of the results of bone marrow plasma cell percentages obtained by differential counts of bone marrow aspirate smears. Moreover, the interobserver and intraobserver reproducibility of counting bone marrow plasma cells microscopically has not been adequately tested. CD138 allows excellent assessment of plasma cell numbers and distribution in bone marrow biopsies. We compared estimates of plasma cell percentages in bone marrow aspirates and in hematoxylin-eosin- and CD138-stained bone marrow biopsy sections (CD138 sections) in 79 bone marrows from patients with multiple myeloma. There was a notable discrepancy in bone marrow plasma cell percentages using the different methods of observation. In particular, there was a relatively poor concordance of plasma cell percentage estimation between aspirate smears and CD138 sections. Estimates of plasma cell percentage using CD138 sections demonstrated the highest interobserver concordance. This observation was supported by computer-assisted image analysis. In addition, CD138 expression highlighted patterns of plasma cell infiltration indicative of neoplasia even in the absence of plasmacytosis. We conclude that examination of CD138 sections should be considered for routine use in the estimation of plasma cell load in the bone marrow.

  19. Amygdala kindling elevates plasma vasopressin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, R S; Meeker, R B; Hayward, J N

    1991-01-01

    Acute and chronic effects of epilepsy on endocrine function are known to occur in humans with partial seizures of limbic origin and in animals with limbic kindled seizures. The amygdala, a component of the limbic system, has dense hypothalamic connections and amygdala stimulation in monkeys and cats result in vasopressin release. In the present study we sought to determine if amygdala stimulation in the rats results in an immediate acute release of vasopressin and to determine if acute or chronic changes occur in vasopressin release in the fully kindled animal. Plasma vasopressin, osmolality and hematocrit were measured in blood samples drawn from rats with implanted venous catheters before and after stimulation and at different stages of kindling. Low-frequency (15 Hz) electrical stimulation of the amygdala was followed by an immediate, 3-fold increase in plasma vasopressin concentration. Moreover, although the 60 Hz kindling stimulus did not result in a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin prior to kindling, after kindling to stage 5 seizures the 60 Hz kindling stimulus resulted in seizures and a significant immediate rise in plasma vasopressin. In addition, we found that kindling was followed by a significant, though modest, rise in the resting plasma vasopressin without an accompanying change in osmolality or hematocrit. We conclude that kindling results in a persistent alteration in the vasopressinergic neuroendocrine system.

  20. Relationship Between Ebola Virus Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction-Based Threshold Cycle Value and Virus Isolation From Human Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spengler, Jessica R; McElroy, Anita K; Harmon, Jessica R; Ströher, Ute; Nichol, Stuart T; Spiropoulou, Christina F

    2015-10-01

    We performed a longitudinal analysis of plasma samples obtained from 4 patients with Ebola virus (EBOV) disease (EVD) to determine the relationship between the real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)-based threshold cycle (Ct) value and the presence of infectious EBOV. EBOV was not isolated from plasma samples with a Ct value of >35.5 or >12 days after onset of symptoms. EBOV was not isolated from plasma samples in which anti-EBOV nucleoprotein immunoglobulin G was detected. These data demonstrate the utility of interpreting qRT-PCR results in the context of the course of EBOV infection and associated serological responses for patient-management decisions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  1. Prognostic value of plasma soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in Danish patients with recurrent epithelial ovarian cancer (REOC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begum, Farah Diba; Høgdall, Estrid V S; Riisbo, Rikke

    2006-01-01

    The level of the soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is elevated in tumour tissue from several types of cancer. This is the first study aiming to predict the prognosis for survival by the use of a pre-chemotherapeutic plasma suPAR value in 71 patients with recurrent epithelial...

  2. Effect of hydration on plasma vasopressin, renin, and aldosterone responses to head-up tilt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, M. H.; Geelen, G.; Keil, L. C.; Wade, C. A.; Hill, L. C.

    1986-01-01

    If plasma vasopressin (PVP), plasma renin (PRA), and plasma aldosterone (PA) responses to change in posture are mediated only by alterations in intrathoracic baroreceptor activity hydration status should have minimal influence on these responses. To test this hypothesis, six male subjects underwent 45 min of 70 deg head-up tilt (HUT) following 26 h dehydration, and again, 105 min later, following rehydration. Compared with preceding supine hydrated control values, PVP, PRA, and PA increased (p less than 0.001) during dehydrated HUT, but only PVP and PRA increased during rehydrated HUT (p less than 0.001). The dissociation during rehydrated HUT of PRA and PA may have been related more to the reduction (p less than 0.001) in plasma potassium concentration than to the accompanying decrease (p less than 0.001) in plasma osmolality and sodium concentration. Although increases in PVP and PRA during HUT were attenuated (p less than 0.01) following rehydration, this attenuation was associated with the absence of symptoms of overt hypotension following rehydration. However, since rehydration did not abolish the increases in PVP and PRA induced by HUT, it is concluded that the present observations support the concept of intrathoracic baroreceptor involvement in the regulation of vasopressin secretion and renin release.

  3. A novel osmolality-shift fermentation strategy for improving acarbose production and concurrently reducing byproduct component C formation by Actinoplanes sp. A56.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xin; Peng, Wei-Fu; Huang, Lin; Zhang, Bao; Li, Kun-Tai

    2014-12-01

    Component C (Acarviosy-1,4-Glc-1,1-Glc) was a highly structural acarbose analog, which could be largely formed during acarbose fermentation process, resulting in acarbose purification being highly difficult. By choosing osmolality level as the key fermentation parameter of acarbose-producing Actinoplanes sp. A56, this paper successfully established an effective and simplified osmolality-shift strategy to improve acarbose production and concurrently reduce component C formation. Firstly, the effects of various osmolality levels on acarbose fermentation were firstly investigated in a 50-l fermenter. It was found that 400-500 mOsm/kg of osmolality was favorable for acarbose biosynthesis, but would exert a negative influence on the metabolic activity of Actinoplanes sp. A56, resulting in an obviously negative increase of acarbose and a sharp formation of component C during the later stages of fermentation (144-168 h). Based on this fact, an osmolality-shift fermentation strategy (0-48 h: 250-300 mOsm/kg; 49-120 h: 450-500 mOsm/kg; 121-168 h: 250-300 mOsm/kg) was further carried out. Compared with the osmolality-stat (450-500 mOsm/kg) fermentation process, the final accumulation amount of component C was decreased from 498.2 ± 27.1 to 307.2 ± 9.5 mg/l, and the maximum acarbose yield was increased from 3,431.9 ± 107.7 to 4,132.8 ± 111.4 mg/l.

  4. [Value of detection of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shu-juan; Gao, Zhi-ying; Lu, Yan-ping; Li, Ya-li; You, Yan-qin; Zhang, Li-wen; Wang, Long-xia; Xu, Hong

    2012-11-01

    To investigate the value of detection of fetal cell-free fetal DNA (cff-DNA) in maternal plasma in the prenatal diagnosis of chromosomal abnormalities. The plasma from 3200 gravidas (singleton with 20.3 ± 3.8 gestational weeks) was collected from April 1(st) 2011 to May 30(th) 2012. They were divided into 3 groups: (1) To tally 1720 cases were included in the high-risk serological screening group, in which women were younger than 35 years and got high-risk results in serological screening; (2) To tally 1310 cases were included in the advanced age group, in which women's age was more than 35 years; (3) To tally 170 cases were included in the supplementary group, in which women were younger than 35 years and got low-risk results in serological screening, or women who didn't take serological screening tests. All the 3030 gravidas in group 1 and 2 didn't take invasive prenatal diagnosis because of fear of abortion or short of prenatal diagnosis. Cff-DNA were detected by next generation sequencing in Shenzhen BGI Genomics Center for clinical laboratory. Amniocentesis and karyotype analysis were provided to the positive cases and women with negative results were followed-up by telephone. (1) The 3200 cases took cff-DNA detection, and 31 cases got positive results, including 27 cases of trisomy 21 and 4 cases of trisomy 18. Sixteen cases of trisomy 21 and 1 case of trisomy 18 were in the high-risk serological screening group. 7 cases of trisomy 21 and 2 cases of trisomy 18 were in the advanced age group. Four cases of trisomy 21 and 1 case of trisomy 18 were in the supplementary group. (2) And the 84% (26/31) cff-DNA detecting positive cases received amniocentesis. In the 27 trisomy 21 positive cases, 23 received amniocentesis and got karyotype of 47XN, +21, with the diagnostic accordance rate of 100%. In the 4 cases who didn't take karyotype analysis, fetal anomaly (ventricular septal defect, dextrocardia and choroid plexus cyst) was found in 1 case before 20

  5. The prognostic value of clonal heterogeneity and quantitative assessment of plasma circulating clonal IG-VDJ sequences at diagnosis in patients with follicular lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkozy, Clémentine; Huet, Sarah; Carlton, Victoria E.H; Fabiani, Bettina; Delmer, Alain; Jardin, Fabrice; Delfau-Larue, Marie-Helene; Hacini, Maya; Ribrag, Vincent; Guidez, Stéphanie; Faham, Malek; Salles, Gilles

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) have enabled the quantitation of circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) encoding the clonal rearranged V(D)J immunoglobulin locus. We aimed to evaluate the clonal heterogeneity of follicular lymphoma (FL) in the tumour and the plasma at diagnosis and to assess the prognostic value of the ctDNA level. Plasma samples at diagnosis were available for 34 patients registered in the PRIMA trial (NCT00140582). One tumour clonotype or more could be detected for 29 (85%) and 25 (74%) patients, respectively, in the tumour or plasma samples. In 18 patients, several subclones were detected in the tumour (2 to 71 subclones/cases) and/or in the plasma (2 to 20 subclones/cases). In more than half of the cases, the distribution of subclones differed between the tumour and plasma samples, reflecting high clonal heterogeneity and diversity in lymphoma subclone dissemination. In multivariate analysis, a high level of ctDNA was the only independent factor associated with patients’ progression-free survival (HR 4, IC 95 (1.1-37), p=.039). In conclusion, an NGS-based immunosequencing method reveals the marked clonal heterogeneity of follicular lymphoma in patients with FL, and quantification of ctDNA at diagnosis represents a potential powerful prognostic biomarker that needs to be investigated in larger cohorts. PMID:28060738

  6. Clinical value of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide assay in pediatric pneumonia accompanied by heart failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    HU, DAN; LIU, YANG; TAO, HUIXIAN; GAO, JINPING

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is useful in differentiating cardiac from pulmonary causes of dyspnea in adults. To date, international guidelines have recommended measurements of circulating BNP as a biomarker for diagnostic and prognostic purposes, as well as therapeutic monitoring, in adults with cardiac diseases, particularly those suffering from acute and chronic heart failure (HF). The aim of the present study was to investigate the differential diagnostic and therapeutic analysis of BNP levels assayed in pediatric pneumonia accompanied by HF. The clinical data of 80 patients with pneumonia, aged 1–3 years, were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups: Simple pneumonia (46 cases) and pneumonia accompanied by HF (34 cases). All patients underwent two plasma BNP assays: The first one upon admission to the hospital and the second one prior to discharge. The plasma BNP levels of 20 healthy children were used as the negative control. Plasma BNP levels were measured using the Triage® BNP automated immunoassay systems and reagents. Statistical analysis showed that the plasma BNP levels of the patients upon admission were higher in the pneumonia accompanied by HF group compared with those in the simple pneumonia group (750±120 vs. 135±50 pg/ml; P<0.05). In addition, in the pneumonia accompanied by HF group, the plasma BNP levels of the patients were higher upon admission to the hospital than they were prior to discharge (750±120 vs. 115±45 pg/ml; P<0.05); therefore, plasma BNP may comprise a sensitive diagnostic and therapeutic evaluative marker for pediatric patients with pneumonia accompanied by HF. This finding could prove invaluable in the clinical diagnosis and treatment of the disease. PMID:26668612

  7. Prolactin 177, prolactin 188, and extracellular osmolality independently regulate the gene expression of ion transport effectors in gill of Mozambique tilapia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Mayu; Breves, Jason P; Moriyama, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Soichi; Kaneko, Toyoji; Lerner, Darren T; Grau, E Gordon; Seale, Andre P

    2015-11-15

    This study characterized the local effects of extracellular osmolality and prolactin (PRL) on branchial ionoregulatory function of a euryhaline teleost, Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). First, gill filaments were dissected from freshwater (FW)-acclimated tilapia and incubated in four different osmolalities, 280, 330, 380, and 450 mosmol/kg H2O. The mRNA expression of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase α1a (NKA α1a) and Na(+)/Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) showed higher expression with decreasing media osmolalities, while Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter 1a (NKCC1a) and PRL receptor 2 (PRLR2) mRNA levels were upregulated by increases in media osmolality. We then incubated gill filaments in media containing ovine PRL (oPRL) and native tilapia PRLs (tPRL177 and tPRL188). oPRL and the two native tPRLs showed concentration-dependent effects on NCC, NKAα1a, and PRLR1 expression; Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 3 (NHE3) expression was increased by 24 h of incubation with tPRLs. Immunohistochemical observation showed that oPRL and both tPRLs maintained a high density of NCC- and NKA-immunoreactive ionocytes in cultured filaments. Furthermore, we found that tPRL177 and tPRL188 differentially induce expression of these ion transporters, according to incubation time. Together, these results provide evidence that ionocytes of Mozambique tilapia may function as osmoreceptors, as well as directly respond to PRL to modulate branchial ionoregulatory functions.

  8. Predictive value of plasma copeptin level for the risk and mortality of heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jian-Jun; Lu, Ying; Kuai, Zheng-Ping; Yong, Yong-Hong

    2017-02-28

    Epidemiologic studies are inconsistent regarding the association between plasma copeptin level and heart failure (HF). The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to determine whether high level of copeptin is correlated with incidence of HF and mortality in patients with HF. We searched PUBMED and EMBASE databases for studies conducted from 1966 through May 2016 to identify studies reporting hazard ratio (HR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between plasma copeptin level and HF. A random-effects model was used to combine study-specific risk estimates. A total of 13 studies were included in the meta-analysis, with five studies on the incidence of HF and eight studies on the mortality of patients with HF. For incidence of HF, the summary HR indicated a borderline positive association of high plasma copeptin level with HF risk (HR, 1.60; 95% CI, 0.90-2.85). Furthermore, an increase of 1 standard deviation in log copeptin level was associated with a 17% increase in the risk of incident HF (HR, 1.17; 95% CI, 1.02-1.33). For all-cause mortality of patients with HF, we also found a significant association between elevated plasma copeptin level and increased mortality of HF (HR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.33-2.33). Our dose-response analysis indicated that an increment in copeptin level of 1 pmol/l was associated with a 3% increase in all-cause mortality (HR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05). In conclusion, our results suggest that elevated plasma copeptin level is associated with an increased risk of HF and all-cause mortality in patients with HF.

  9. 链脲佐菌素诱导糖尿病大鼠血、尿渗透压的变化%The changes of urinary osmolalities and plasma osmolalities in diabetic rats induced by STZ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白利萍; 杜娟; 魏丽晶

    2007-01-01

    目的 测定糖尿病(diabetes mellitus,DM)大鼠血、尿渗透压的改变并讨论其在糖尿病肾病(DN)早期诊断中的意义.方法 以链脲佐菌素(strap tozocin,STZ)诱导大鼠制成DM动物模型,分为糖尿病组(DM组)和正常对照组(Con组),在成模后3星期,用生化自动分析仪测定其血渗透压,采用冰点法测定尿渗透压,组间数据比较采用t检验.结果 0星期时DM组与Con组比较体重无差异,3星期时DM组体重明显低于Con组,尿量高于Con),相对肾重高于Con组,二组间CRE无明显变化.最大尿浓缩渗透压DM组低于Con组(P<0.05),血渗透压DM组高于Con组(P<0.05).结论 尿渗透压可作为DN早期诊断的辅助指标.

  10. The predictive value of plasma B-type natriuretic peptide levels on outcome in children with pulmonary hypertension undergoing congenital heart surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Baysal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: In children undergoing congenital heart surgery, plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels may have a role in development of low cardiac output syndrome that is defined as a combination of clinical findings and interventions to augment cardiac output in children with pulmonary hypertension. Methods: In a prospective observational study, fifty-one children undergoing congenital heart surgery with preoperative echocardiographic study showing pulmonary hypertension were enrolled. The plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels were collected before operation, 12, 24 and 48 h after operation. The patients enrolled into the study were divided into two groups depending on: (1 Development of LCOS which is defined as a combination of clinical findings or interventions to augment cardiac output postoperatively; (2 Determination of preoperative brain natriuretic peptide cut-off value by receiver operating curve analysis for low cardiac output syndrome. The secondary end points were: (1 duration of mechanical ventilation ≥72 h, (2 intensive care unit stay >7days, and (3 mortality. Results: The differences in preoperative and postoperative brain natriuretic peptide levels of patients with or without low cardiac output syndrome (n = 35, n = 16, respectively showed significant differences in repeated measurement time points (p = 0.0001. The preoperative brain natriuretic peptide cut-off value of 125.5 pg mL−1 was found to have the highest sensitivity of 88.9% and specificity of 96.9% in predicting low cardiac output syndrome in patients with pulmonary hypertension. A good correlation was found between preoperative plasma brain natriuretic peptide level and duration of mechanical ventilation (r = 0.67, p = 0.0001. Conclusions: In patients with pulmonary hypertension undergoing congenital heart surgery, 91% of patients with preoperative plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels above 125.5 pg mL−1 are at risk of developing low cardiac

  11. 去冷沉淀血浆与普通血浆临床应用价值的比较%Contrast of Clinical Value between Plasma Cryoprecipitate Reduced and Ordinary Frozen Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄文; 陈镇奇; 林昂; 黄蓝生; 张延玮

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨去冷沉淀血浆中部分有效成分的实际含量,为临床选择不同血浆输注提供实验室依据.方法 采集23袋(200 ml/袋)ACD-B血液保存液保存的血液,4 h内分离制备新鲜冰冻血浆,各袋均留2份标本;1份同新鲜冰冻血浆一起置-35℃保存,于第3天速融后检测总蛋白、白蛋白、纤维蛋白原、凝血因子Ⅴ、Ⅷ、Ⅹ含量;1份置4℃保存21 d后检测总蛋白、白蛋白、纤维蛋白原、凝血因子Ⅴ、Ⅷ、Ⅹ含量;新鲜冰冻血浆于第3天取出制备冷沉淀,留取去冷沉淀血浆标本1份检测总蛋白、白蛋白、纤维蛋白原、凝血因子Ⅴ、Ⅷ、Ⅹ含量.结果 去冷沉淀血浆中的血浆蛋白和凝血因子均低于普通血浆(P<0.001).结论 去冷沉淀血浆的使用价值有局限性,不能与普通血浆等同使用.%Objective To know about some of the actual amount of active ingredient in plasma cryoprecipitate reduced, so as to provide experimental evidence for different selection of plasma infusion.Method To collect 23 bags of whole blood(ACD-B,200 ml),and to separate and prepare fresh frozen plasma in 4 hours. Two samples were taken from each bag,one saved with the fresh frozen plasma in refrigerator of -35℃, thawed and checked total protein,albumin,fibrinogen, factor Ⅴ,factor Ⅷ, factor Ⅹ after3 days;the other one saved in refrigerator of 4℃, thawed and checked total protein,albumin,fibrinogen,factor Ⅴ,factor Ⅷ, factor Ⅹ after 21 days. The fresh frozen plasma separated and prepared of cryoprecipitate after 3 days,took samples of the plasma cryoprecipitate reduced to check total protein,albumin,fibrinogen,factor Ⅴ,factor Ⅷ,factor Ⅹ. Results Plasma proteins and coagulation factors in plasma cryoprecipitate reduced were lower than ordinary plasma(P<0.001). Conclusions The value of plasma cryoprecipitate reduced has limitations, can not be used equated with the ordinary plasma.

  12. Dynamic monitoring of plasma amino acids and carnitine during chemotherapy of patients with alimentary canal malignancies and its clinical value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang XY

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoyu Wang,1 Jiaqi Wang,2 Zhenghua Wang,1 Qingjun Wang,1 Hua Li1 1Second Ward of Oncology Department, 2Traditional Chinese Medicine Department, The First Affiliated Hospital of Liaoning Medical University, Jinzhou, People’s Republic of ChinaObjective: The aim of this study was to observe the plasma amino acid and carnitine characteristics in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies during chemotherapy and to identify markers for the early diagnosis and evaluation of adverse reactions and prognosis of the digestive tract malignant tumor patients.Methods: Blood samples of 30 patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies were collected at four time points: before chemotherapy, the first day after chemotherapy (+1 day, bone marrow depression period (+14 days, and hematopoietic recovery period (+21 days. The plasma amino acids and carnitine from those 30 patients were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. Simultaneously, the levels of 21 amino acids were detected in 30 healthy individuals, who were considered as control. Biochemical indexes were also detected at four time points, adverse reactions were recorded during the chemotherapy process, and patients were followed up for 1 year to observe time to progression (TTP and progression-free survival (PFS.Results: Compared to healthy people in the control group, patients with malignancies showed significantly increased levels of plasma amino acids such as Arg, Asp, Cit, Gly, Orn, Tyr, Val, and carnitine (such as C2. The levels of compounds such as C3, Asn, Leu, Lys, Pip, Pro, C0, C5:1 decreased significantly before chemotherapy. The levels of Cit, Cys, Lys, Pro, Tyr, Val, C0, and C2 decreased significantly on the second day of chemotherapy (+1 day, whereas the level of C3 increased significantly. During myelosuppression (+14 days, the levels of Asp, Cit, Met, and Orn were observed to still decrease significantly, whereas the

  13. The clinical value of enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique monitoring the plasma concentrations of cyclosporine A a%The clinical value of enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique monitoring the plasma concentrations of cyclosporine A aft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Luo; wu-Jun Xue; Pu-Xun Tian; Xiao-Ming Ding; Hang Yan; He-Li Xiang; Yang Li

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility and the clinical value of the enzyme-multiplied immunoassay technique (EMIT) monitoring of blood concentrations of cyclosporine A (CsA) in patients treated with CsA were investigated after kidney transplantation. The validation method was

  14. Osmolality-dependent relocation of penicillin-binding protein PBP2 to the division site in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Jason; Priyadarshini, Richa; Takacs, Constantin N; Costa, Teresa; Dye, Natalie A; Shapiro, Lucy; Vollmer, Waldemar; Jacobs-Wagner, Christine

    2012-06-01

    The synthesis of the peptidoglycan cell wall is carefully regulated in time and space. In nature, this essential process occurs in cells that live in fluctuating environments. Here we show that the spatial distributions of specific cell wall proteins in Caulobacter crescentus are sensitive to small external osmotic upshifts. The penicillin-binding protein PBP2, which is commonly branded as an essential cell elongation-specific transpeptidase, switches its localization from a dispersed, patchy pattern to an accumulation at the FtsZ ring location in response to osmotic upshifts as low as 40 mosmol/kg. This osmolality-dependent relocation to the division apparatus is initiated within less than a minute, while restoration to the patchy localization pattern is dependent on cell growth and takes 1 to 2 generations. Cell wall morphogenetic protein RodA and penicillin-binding protein PBP1a also change their spatial distribution by accumulating at the division site in response to external osmotic upshifts. Consistent with its ecological distribution, C. crescentus displays a narrow range of osmotolerance, with an upper limit of 225 mosmol/kg in minimal medium. Collectively, our findings reveal an unsuspected level of environmental regulation of cell wall protein behavior that is likely linked to an ecological adaptation.

  15. Diuresis and reduced urinary osmolality in rats produced by small-molecule UT-A-selective urea transport inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteva-Font, Cristina; Cil, Onur; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Su, Tao; Lee, Sujin; Anderson, Marc O; Verkman, A S

    2014-09-01

    Urea transport (UT) proteins of the UT-A class are expressed in epithelial cells in kidney tubules, where they are required for the formation of a concentrated urine by countercurrent multiplication. Here, using a recently developed high-throughput assay to identify UT-A inhibitors, a screen of 50,000 synthetic small molecules identified UT-A inhibitors of aryl-thiazole, γ-sultambenzosulfonamide, aminocarbonitrile butene, and 4-isoxazolamide chemical classes. Structure-activity analysis identified compounds that inhibited UT-A selectively by a noncompetitive mechanism with IC50 down to ∼1 μM. Molecular modeling identified putative inhibitor binding sites on rat UT-A. To test compound efficacy in rats, formulations and administration procedures were established to give therapeutic inhibitor concentrations in blood and urine. We found that intravenous administration of an indole thiazole or a γ-sultambenzosulfonamide at 20 mg/kg increased urine output by 3-5-fold and reduced urine osmolality by ∼2-fold compared to vehicle control rats, even under conditions of maximum antidiuresis produced by 1-deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP). The diuresis was reversible and showed urea > salt excretion. The results provide proof of concept for the diuretic action of UT-A-selective inhibitors. UT-A inhibitors are first in their class salt-sparing diuretics with potential clinical indications in volume-overload edemas and high-vasopressin-associated hyponatremias.

  16. Clinical Value of Combined Detection of CK-MB, MYO, cTnI and Plasma NT-proBNP in Diagnosis of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiubo; Ma, Ji; Xia, Ning; Sun, Li; Li, Baoan; Liu, Haiju

    2017-03-01

    Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a serious life-threatening and common heart disease that is based on coronary atherosclerosis. The aim is to study the changes in the level of kinase isoenzyme (CK-MB), myoglobin (MYO), cardiac troponin I (cTnI), and plasma N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and the four indicators of joint detection clinical value for diagnosis of AMI. Plasma NT-proBNP, CK-MB, MYO, and cTnI were detected by CLIA in 208 AMI patients (AMI group) and 115 non-AMI patients (control group). SPSS 19.0 software was used to analyze the data. The concentrations of CK-MB, MYO, cTnI, and NT-proBNP show significant differences between these two groups. In the AMI group, a significantly positive correlation was found between CK-MB and each of MYO and cTnI (r = 0.537, r = 0.226). Meanwhile, the sensitivity of combined detection has been improved up to 92.79%. Therefore, these results suggested that detecting CK-MB, MYO, cTnI, and plasma NT-proBNP levels together can significantly contribute to the early diagnosis of AMI. It can also provide diagnostic evidence to clinic and thus lower the mortality of AMI in acute phase.

  17. Taking alcohol with a (large) pinch of salt: Understanding the osmoles in “beer potomania” and “starvation potomania”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imam, T. H.

    2014-01-01

    Alcoholism is a major problem globally and beer drinking is on the rise. Many of the alcoholics sustain only on beer for days and do not get adequate solutes in the form of food. Similar situation can arise in cases of decreased food intake due to severe deliberate restriction or other factors like decreased appetite from cocaine. In these cases, salt free liquid intake may still be adequate. Such situations are conducive to the development of hyponatremia. Some of the solutes in diet, such as salt and protein, act as osmoles in urine. In these conditions, understanding the role played by solutes in diet and osmoles in urine is of vital importance for appropriate treatment of hyponatremia. PMID:25097331

  18. Treatment of electronic waste to recover metal values using thermal plasma coupled with acid leaching--a response surface modeling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, Swagat S; Nayak, Pradeep; Mukherjee, P S; Roy Chaudhury, G; Mishra, B K

    2012-03-01

    The global crisis of the hazardous electronic waste (E-waste) is on the rise due to increasing usage and disposal of electronic devices. A process was developed to treat E-waste in an environmentally benign process. The process consisted of thermal plasma treatment followed by recovery of metal values through mineral acid leaching. In the thermal process, the E-waste was melted to recover the metal values as a metallic mixture. The metallic mixture was subjected to acid leaching in presence of depolarizer. The leached liquor mainly contained copper as the other elements like Al and Fe were mostly in alloy form as per the XRD and phase diagram studies. Response surface model was used to optimize the conditions for leaching. More than 90% leaching efficiency at room temperature was observed for Cu, Ni and Co with HCl as the solvent, whereas Fe and Al showed less than 40% efficiency.

  19. Value of Indian Diabetes Risk Score among Medical Students and Its Correlation with Fasting Plasma Glucose, Blood Pressure and Lipid Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardhan, Anand; Prabha M R, Adhikari; Shashidhar M, Kotian; Shankar, Nithya; Gupta, Sandhya; Tripathy, Amruta

    2012-11-01

    The Indian Diabetes Risk Score is a tool which was devised by the Madras Diabetes Research Foundation to screen people for the risk of developing Diabetes mellitus; it comprises of the family history, the abdominal circumference, age and the physical activity. This study was aimed at finding out whether the Indian Diabetes Risk Score (MDRF) correlated with the blood sugar levels, the lipid profile and the blood pressure readings of medical students. Seventy five female and 75 male students who signed the informed consent were selected for the study. Their IDRS was calculated by using a validated questionnaire which involved the family history, the abdominal circumference, age and the details of the physical activity. All of them had their blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose and lipid profiles measured. There were 101 students with an IDRS of students with a moderate IDRS (30-50) and 7 who had a high IDRS of ≥60. The fasting plasma glucose was significantly correlated with the IDRS (P=0.001, r = 0.472), with a mean FPG of 84 ± 3.63mg/dl in the low risk groups, of 88 ± 4.93mg/dl in the moderate risk groups and of 94 ± 6.50mg/dl in the high risk groups. The total cholesterol value was r = 0.420 (P= 0.001), the total triglycerides value was r = 0.373 (P=0.001), the LDL cholesterol value was r = 0.578 (P=0.001) and the VLDL value was r = 0.566 (P=0.001), which positively correlated with the risk score and the HDL value r = -0.480 (P=0.001) correlated negatively with the risk score. There was no correlation between the IDRS and the blood pressure. Our study showed that nearly 40% of the medical students had a moderate to a high IDRS. The IDRS significantly correlated with the fasting plasma glucose and with all the components of the lipid profile. The IDRS did not correlate with the blood pressure readings.

  20. Effects of Meloxicam on Hematologic and Plasma Biochemical Analyte Values and Results of Histologic Examination of Kidney Biopsy Specimens of African Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesinos, Andres; Ardiaca, Maria; Juan-Sallés, Carles; Tesouro, Miguel A

    2015-03-01

    In this study we evaluated the effects of meloxicam administered at 0.5 mg/kg IM q12h for 14 days on hematologic and plasma biochemical values and on kidney tissue in 11 healthy African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). Before treatment with meloxicam, blood samples were collected and renal biopsy samples were obtained from the cranial portion of the left kidney from each of the birds. On day 14 of treatment, a second blood sample and biopsy from the middle portion of the left kidney were obtained from each bird. All birds remained clinically normal throughout the study period. No significant differences were found between hematologic and plasma biochemical values before and after 14 days of treatment with meloxicam, except for a slight increase in median beta globulin and corresponding total globulin concentrations, and a slight decrease in median phosphorus concentration. Renal lesions were absent in 9 of 10 representative posttreatment biopsy samples. On the basis of these results, meloxicam administered at the dosage used in this study protocol does not appear to cause renal disease in African grey parrots.

  1. Extreme Mountain Ultra-Marathon Leads to Acute but Transient Increase in Cerebral Water Diffusivity and Plasma Biomarkers Levels Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanchi, Davide; Viallon, Magalie; Le Goff, Caroline; Millet, Grégoire P.; Giardini, Guido; Croisille, Pierre; Haller, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Background: Pioneer studies demonstrate the impact of extreme sport load on the human brain, leading to threatening conditions for athlete's health such as cerebral edema. The investigation of brain water diffusivity, allowing the measurement of the intercellular water and the assessment of cerebral edema, can give a great contribution to the investigation of the effects of extreme sports on the brain. We therefore assessed the effect of supra-physiological effort (extreme distance and elevation changes) in mountain ultra-marathons (MUMs) athletes combining for the first time brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and blood parameters. Methods:This longitudinal study included 19 volunteers (44.2 ± 9.5 years) finishing a MUM (330 km, elevation + 24000 m). Quantitative measurements of brain diffusion-weighted images (DWI) were performed at 3 time-points: Before the race, upon arrival and after 48 h. Multiple blood biomarkers were simultaneously investigated. Data analyses included brain apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and physiological data comparisons between three time-points. Results:The whole brain ADC significantly increased from baseline to arrival (p = 0.005) and then significantly decreased at recovery (p = 0.005) to lower values than at baseline (p = 0.005). While sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride as well as hematocrit (HCT) changed over time, the serum osmolality remained constant. Significant correlations were found between whole brain ADC changes and osmolality (p = 0.01), cholesterol (p = 0.009), c-reactive protein (p = 0.04), sodium (p = 0.01), and chloride (p = 0.002) plasma level variations. Conclusions:These results suggest the relative increase of the inter-cellular volume upon arrival, and subsequently its reduction to lower values than at baseline, indicating that even after 48 h the brain has not fully recovered to its equilibrium state. Even though serum electrolytes may only indirectly indicate modifications at the brain level due

  2. Analysis of observed values of glucose, creatinine, bilirubin and ALT examinations in Blood(Serum,Plasma) in hospital population

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Heratkumar D.; Kapadia, Manisha P.; Modi, Kamal R.; Patel, Shaileshkumar M.; Saxena, Puneet

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Find reference range by Hoffman's method and compare it with published reference range in standard textbooks.Method: Observed values (results) of glucose (FBS, RBS and PP2BS), creatinine, bilirubin (total and direct) and ALT were collected from LIS of biochemistry section of New civil hospital surat laboratory services. Data were analysed using computarised hoffman's method as described by Alex K, Claudiu B and David WS2. Reference range derived by computarised hoffman's method we...

  3. High osmolality vitrification: a new method for the simple and temperature-permissive cryopreservation of mouse embryos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keiji Mochida

    Full Text Available Procedures for cryopreserving embryos vary considerably, each having its specific advantages and disadvantages in terms of technical feasibility, embryo survival yield, temperature permissibility and species- or strain-dependent applicability. Here we report a high osmolality vitrification (HOV method that is advantageous in these respects. Cryopreservation by vitrification is generally very simple, but, unlike slow freezing, embryos should be kept at a supercooling temperature (below -130°C to avoid cryodamage. We overcame this problem by using an HOV solution containing 42.5% (v/v ethylene glycol, 17.3% (w/v Ficoll and 1.0 M sucrose. This solution is more viscous than other cryopreservation solutions, but easy handling of embryos was assured by employing a less viscous equilibration solution before vitrification. Most (>80% embryos cryopreserved in this solution survived at -80°C for at least 30 days. Normal mice were recovered even after intercontinental transportation in a conventional dry-ice package for 2-3 days, indicating that special containers such as dry shippers with liquid nitrogen vapor are unnecessary. The HOV solution could also be employed for long-term storage in liquid nitrogen, as with other conventional cryoprotectants. Finally, we confirmed that this new vitrification method could be applied successfully to embryos of all six strains of mice we have tested so far. Thus, our HOV method provides an efficient and reliable strategy for the routine cryopreservation of mouse embryos in animal facilities and biomedical laboratories, and for easy and cheap transportation.

  4. Predictive Value of Clinical Findings and Plasma Biomarkers after Fourteen Days of Prednisone Treatment for Acute Graft-versus-host Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, George B; Tabellini, Laura; Storer, Barry E; Martin, Paul J; Lawler, Richard L; Rosinski, Steven L; Schoch, H Gary; Hansen, John A

    2017-08-01

    We examined the hypothesis that plasma biomarkers and concomitant clinical findings after initial glucocorticoid therapy can accurately predict failure of graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) treatment and mortality. We analyzed plasma samples and clinical data in 165 patients after 14 days of glucocorticoid therapy and used logistic regression and areas under receiver-operating characteristic curves (AUC) to evaluate associations with treatment failure and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Initial treatment of GVHD was unsuccessful in 49 patients (30%). For predicting GVHD treatment failure, the best clinical combination (total serum bilirubin and skin GVHD stage: AUC, .70) was competitive with the best biomarker combination (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 [TIM3] and [interleukin 1 receptor family encoded by the IL1RL1 gene, ST2]: AUC, .73). The combination of clinical features and biomarker results offered only a slight improvement (AUC, .75). For predicting NRM at 1 year, the best clinical predictor (total serum bilirubin: AUC, .81) was competitive with the best biomarker combination (TIM3 and soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 [sTNFR1]: AUC, .85). The combination offered no improvement (AUC, .85). Infection was the proximate cause of death in virtually all patients. We conclude that after 14 days of glucocorticoid therapy, clinical findings (serum bilirubin, skin GVHD) and plasma biomarkers (TIM3, ST2, sTNFR1) can predict failure of GVHD treatment and NRM. These biomarkers reflect counter-regulatory mechanisms and provide insight into the pathophysiology of GVHD reactions after glucocorticoid treatment. The best predictive models, however, exhibit inadequate positive predictive values for identifying high-risk GVHD cohorts for investigational trials, as only a minority of patients with high-risk GVHD would be identified and most patients would be falsely predicted to have adverse outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The American Society for Blood and Marrow

  5. Cutoff Values of Serum IgG4 and Histopathological IgG4+ Plasma Cells for Diagnosis of Patients with IgG4-Related Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasufumi Masaki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available IgG4-related disease is a new disease classification established in Japan in the 21st century. Patients with IgG4-related disease display hyper-IgG4-gammaglobulinemia, massive infiltration of IgG4+ plasma cells into tissue, and good response to glucocorticoids. Since IgG4 overexpression is also observed in other disorders, it is necessary to diagnose IgG4-related disease carefully and correctly. We therefore sought to determine cutoff values for serum IgG4 and IgG4/IgG and for IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cells in tissue diagnostic of IgG4-related disease. Patients and Methods. We retrospectively analyzed serum IgG4 concentrations and IgG4/IgG ratio and IgG4+/IgG+ plasma cell ratio in tissues of 132 patients with IgG4-related disease and 48 patients with other disorders. Result. Serum IgG4 >135  mg/dl demonstrated a sensitivity of 97.0% and a specificity of 79.6% in diagnosing IgG4-related disease, and serum IgG4/IgG ratios >8% had a sensitivity and specificity of 95.5% and 87.5%, respectively. IgG4+cell/IgG+ cell ratio in tissues >40% had a sensitivity and specificity of 94.4% and 85.7%, respectively. However, the number of IgG4+ cells was reduced in severely fibrotic parts of tissues. Conclusion. Although a recent unanimous consensus of all relevant researchers in Japan recently established the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-related disease, findings such as ours indicate that further discussion is needed.

  6. Reliability of a Cryoscopic Micro-Osmometer Using 15-µL Plasma Samples to Measure Hydration Status in Varied Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T.; Richter-Stretton, Gina L.; Madueno, Maria C.; Borges, Nattai R.; Fenning, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of plasma osmolality (P[subscript osm]) remains popular for assessing hydration status in exercise science. However, a controlled reliability assessment of micro-osmometry using small sample volumes to measure Posm remains to be performed. This study aimed to examine the reliability of a cryoscopic micro-osmometer requiring 15-µL…

  7. Reliability of a Cryoscopic Micro-Osmometer Using 15-µL Plasma Samples to Measure Hydration Status in Varied Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T.; Richter-Stretton, Gina L.; Madueno, Maria C.; Borges, Nattai R.; Fenning, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Measurement of plasma osmolality (P[subscript osm]) remains popular for assessing hydration status in exercise science. However, a controlled reliability assessment of micro-osmometry using small sample volumes to measure Posm remains to be performed. This study aimed to examine the reliability of a cryoscopic micro-osmometer requiring 15-µL…

  8. Metformin's Intrinsic Blood-to-Plasma Partition Ratio (B/P): Reconciling the Perceived High In Vivo B/P > 10 with the In Vitro Equilibrium Value of Unity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Ke, Alice B; Bowers, Gary D; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J

    2015-08-01

    Blood cells are considered an important distributional compartment for metformin based on the high blood-to-plasma partition ratio (B/P) in humans (>10 at Cmin). However, literature reports of metformin's intrinsic in vitro B/P values are lacking. At present, the extent and rate of metformin cellular partitioning was determined in incubations of fresh human and rat blood with [(14)C]metformin for up to 1 week at concentrations spanning steady-state plasma Cmin, Cmax, and a concentration associated with lactic acidosis. The results showed that metformin's intrinsic equilibrium B/P was ∼0.8-1.4 in blood, which is <10% of the reported clinical value. Kinetics of metformin partitioning into human blood cells and repartitioning back into plasma were slow (repartitioning half-life ∼32-39 hours). These data, along with in vivo rapid and efficient renal clearance of plasma metformin (plasma renal extraction ratio ∼90%-100%), explain why the clinical terminal half-life of metformin in plasma (6 hours) is 3- to 4-fold shorter than the half-life in whole blood (18 hours) and erythrocytes (23 hours). The rate constant for metformin repartitioning from blood cells to plasma (∼0.02 h(-1)) is far slower than the clinical renal elimination rate constant (0.3 h(-1)). Blood distributional rate constants were incorporated into a metformin physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model, which predicted the differential elimination half-life in plasma and blood. The present study demonstrates that the extent of cellular drug partitioning in blood observed in a dynamic in vivo system may be very different from the static in vitro values when repartitioning from blood cells is far slower than clearance of drug in plasma.

  9. Polysorbate 80 and low-osmolality water-soluble contrast medium enema in diagnosis and treatment of faecal obstruction in malignant phaeochromocytoma. Report of a case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratcliffe, J.F.

    Stercoral obstruction in a young woman with disseminated phaeochromocytoma was diagnosed and treated successfully using an enema of isosmolar iohexol (Omnipaque) and 1% polysorbate 80 (Tween 80) without complication. Surgical intervention was thus avoided. A low osmolality water-soluble contrast medium (iohexol 150 mg I/ml) with a wetting agent (1% Tween 80) was used because a barium suspension would have inspissated, exacerbating the constipation and a hyperosmolar contrast medium might have precipitated a hypertensive crisis and destablished her critical salt and water balance.

  10. Increased concentration of vasopressin in plasma of essential fatty acid-deficient rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Jensen, B.; Warberg, J.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of essential fatty acid deficiency (EFA-D) on the plasma concentration of arginine-vasopressin (AVP) and the urinary AVP excretion was investigated. Weanling rats were fed a fat-free diet (FF-rats). Control rats received the same diet in which 6% by wt. of sucrose was replaced by arachis...... oil. After 4-6 weeks of feeding, urine and plasma were analysed for AVP, osmolality, sodium and potassium. When compared to control rats FF-rats had decreased urine volume (6.0 ± 1.6 ml/24 hr versus 11.7 ± 3.2 ml/24 hr), increased urine osmolality (2409 ± 691 mOsm/kg versus 1260 ± 434 m...

  11. Clinical value of {sup 11}C-methionine PET/CT in patients with plasma cell malignancy: comparison with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamoto, Yuji; Kurihara, Kensuke; Nakatani, Koya; Togashi, Kaori [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Diagnostic Imaging and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nishizawa, Masatoshi; Yamashita, Kouhei; Kondo, Tadakazu; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Hematology and Oncology, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-05-15

    PET/CT using FDG has been widely used for the imaging of various malignant tumours, including plasma cell malignancy (PCM), but {sup 11}C-methionine (MET), as a radiolabelled amino acid tracer, may also be useful because PCM is able to activate protein synthesis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical value of PET/CT imaging using MET in PCM, including multiple myeloma, compared with that of FDG PET/CT. The study group comprised 20 patients with histologically proven PCM who underwent FDG PET/CT and MET PET/CT scans before (n = 6) or after (n = 14) treatment. Semiquantitative analysis was performed on a lesion basis. We also visually evaluated the scans qualitatively using a five-point scale (0, negative; 1, probably negative; 2, equivocal; 3, probably positive; 4, positive) on a lesion and a patient basis. The results were compared between the two scans. Active PCM was confirmed in 15 patients, including two patients with extramedullary lesions. Uptake of MET tended to be higher (maximum standardized uptake value 10.3 {+-} 5.6, mean {+-} SD) than that of FDG (3.4 {+-} 2.7, p < 0.001), and more lesions of grade 3 or 4 were depicted by MET (MET 156 lesions vs. FDG 58 lesions). On a patient basis, two patients were accurately diagnosed only by MET. In the remaining 18 patients, consistent results were obtained, but potential upgrade of staging or restaging was necessary in 6 of 11 positive patients because more abnormal lesions were demonstrated by MET. The patient-based sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of MET for restaging were 89 %, 100 % and 93 %, respectively, while those of FDG were 78 %, 100 % and 86 %, respectively. MET revealed an equal or greater number of lesions in PCM than FDG. MET may be especially useful when negative or inconclusive findings are obtained by FDG despite highly suspicious indications of recurrence. (orig.)

  12. Effect of CO Concentration on the α-Value of Plasma-Synthesized Co/C Catalyst in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Aluha

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A plasma-synthesized cobalt catalyst supported on carbon (Co/C was tested for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS in a 3-phase continuously-stirred tank slurry reactor (3-φ-CSTSR operated isothermally at 220 °C (493 K, and 2 MPa pressure. Initial syngas feed stream of H2:CO ratio = 2 with molar composition of 0.6 L/L (60 vol % H2 and 0.3 L/L (30 vol % CO, balanced in 0.1 L/L (10 vol % Ar was used, flowing at hourly space velocity (GHSV of 3600 cm3·h−1·g−1 of catalyst. Similarly, other syngas feed compositions of H2:CO ratio = 1.5 and 1.0 were used. Results showed ~40% CO conversion with early catalyst selectivity inclined towards formation of gasoline (C4–C12 and diesel (C13–C20 fractions. With prolonged time-on-stream (TOS, catalyst selectivity escalated towards the heavier molecular-weight fractions such as waxes (C21+. The catalyst’s α-value, which signifies the probability of the hydrocarbon chain growth was empirically determined to be in the range of 0.85–0.87 (at H2:CO ratio = 2, demonstrating prevalence of the hydrocarbon-chain propagation, with particular predisposition for wax production. The inhibiting CO effect towards FTS was noted at molar H2:CO ratio of 1.0 and 1.5, giving only ~10% and ~20% CO conversion respectively, although with a high α-value of 0.93 in both cases, which showed predominant production of the heavier molecular weight fractions.

  13. Early detection of severe sepsis in the emergency room: diagnostic value of plasma C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, and interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uusitalo-Seppälä, Raija; Koskinen, Pertti; Leino, Aila; Peuravuori, Heikki; Vahlberg, Tero; Rintala, Esa M

    2011-12-01

    To determine the diagnostic values of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) using an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay (ECLIA) method (Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) to identify severe sepsis in an emergency room (ER) setting. This was a single-centre prospective follow-up study of 539 consecutive adult patients admitted to the ER with suspected infection. Blood samples were taken concurrently with blood cultures at admission. Patients were divided into 5 groups on the basis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) criteria, documentation of bacterial infection, and organ dysfunction. Fifty-nine patients with no SIRS or bacterial infection, 68 patients with bacterial infection but no SIRS, 54 patients with SIRS but no bacterial infection, 309 patients with sepsis (SIRS and bacterial infection), and 49 patients with severe sepsis (sepsis and organ failure) were evaluated. In a logistic regression model, the odds ratio (OR) for PCT was 1.58 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.37-1.82, p sepsis, but the difference in AUC was not significant between PCT and IL-6. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for confounders, PCT and IL-6 remained significant independent predictors of severe sepsis. PCT and IL-6 proved superior to CRP in detecting patients with severe sepsis. The findings thus support the use of either PCT or IL-6 as an early tool to diagnose severe sepsis. The automatic ECLIA method allows even night-shift measurements.

  14. The value of decreased plasma gelsolin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis in diagnosis and disease activity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yl; Li, H; Li, W H; Meng, H X; Fan, Y Z; Li, W J; Ji, Y T; Zhao, H; Zhang, L; Jin, X M; Zhang, F M

    2013-12-01

    Plasma gelsolin, the extracellular gelsolin isoform, circulates in the blood of healthy individuals at a concentration of 200 ± 50 mg/l and plays important roles in the extracellular actin-scavenging system during tissue damage. Decreased plasma gelsolin levels have been observed in many inflammatory diseases. In the present study, the variation and potential clinical application of plasma gelsolin levels in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were analysed. Plasma samples and clinical data were collected from informed and consenting participants: 47 SLE patients, 60 RA patients and 50 age- and gender-matched healthy individuals. Semiquantitative western blotting was used for measuring plasma gelsolin levels. The plasma gelsolin levels in patients with SLE and RA were significantly decreased compared with healthy controls (145.3 ± 40.4 versus 182.7 ± 38.3 mg/l and 100.8 ± 36 versus 182.7 ± 38.3 mg/l, p clinical data showed a significant negative correlation between plasma gelsolin levels and SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI) scores (r = 0.659, p clinical characteristics were also observed in SLE and RA patients with normal and decreased plasma gelsolin levels.This study found significantly lower plasma gelsolin levels in patients with SLE and RA compared with healthy controls and documented a significant negative correlation between plasma gelsolin levels and SLEDAI, which suggested the potential clinical application of plasma gelsolin in SLE diagnosis and disease activity evaluation. The different clinical characteristics in SLE and RA patients with normal and decreased plasma gelsolin levels indicate differences in the basis of the diseases.

  15. A rapid analysis of plasma/serum ethylene and propylene glycol by headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehlers, Alexandra; Morris, Cory; Krasowski, Matthew D

    2013-12-01

    A rapid headspace-gas chromatography (HS-GC) method was developed for the analysis of ethylene glycol and propylene glycol in plasma and serum specimens using 1,3-propanediol as the internal standard. The method employed a single-step derivitization using phenylboronic acid, was linear to 200 mg/dL and had a lower limit of quantitation of 1 mg/dL suitable for clinical analyses. The analytical method described allows for laboratories with HS-GC instrumentation to analyze ethanol, methanol, isopropanol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol on a single instrument with rapid switch-over from alcohols to glycols analysis. In addition to the novel HS-GC method, a retrospective analysis of patient specimens containing ethylene glycol and propylene glycol was also described. A total of 36 patients ingested ethylene glycol, including 3 patients who presented with two separate admissions for ethylene glycol toxicity. Laboratory studies on presentation to hospital for these patients showed both osmolal and anion gap in 13 patients, osmolal but not anion gap in 13 patients, anion but not osmolal gap in 8 patients, and 1 patient with neither an osmolal nor anion gap. Acidosis on arterial blood gas was present in 13 cases. Only one fatality was seen; this was a patient with initial serum ethylene glycol concentration of 1282 mg/dL who died on third day of hospitalization. Propylene glycol was common in patients being managed for toxic ingestions, and was often attributed to iatrogenic administration of propylene glycol-containing medications such as activated charcoal and intravenous lorazepam. In six patients, propylene glycol contributed to an abnormally high osmolal gap. The common presence of propylene glycol in hospitalized patients emphasizes the importance of being able to identify both ethylene glycol and propylene glycol by chromatographic methods.

  16. Clinical outcomes after utilizing surviving sepsis campaign in children with septic shock and prognostic value of initial plasma NT-proBNP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rujipat Samransamruajkit

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The surviving sepsis campaign treatment guideline (SSC implementation is associated with improved outcome in adults with severe sepsis. The effect on outcome of pediatric sepsis is less clear. Purpose : To determine the clinical outcomes of SSC implementation and to investigate the prognostic value of initial plasma NT-proBNP and procalcitonin in children. Materials and Methods: Infants and children (aged 1month/0-15 years with severe sepsis or septic shock were prospectively enrolled and treated according to the guidelines. Initial blood drawn was saved for NT-pro-BNP, procalcitonin measurements and clinical data were also recorded. Results: A total of 47 subjects were recruited. Since the application of the SSC, our mortality rate had significantly decreased from 42-19% (P = 0.003 as compared to the data in the previous 3 years. Clinical factors that significantly increased the mortality rate were: Initial central venous oxygen saturation < 7 0% after fluid resuscitation [odds ratio (OR = 23.3; 95% confidence interval (CI 3.7-143; P = 0.001], and initial albumin level (≤ 3 g/dl, OR = 6.7; 95% CI 1.2-37.5, P = 0.03. There was asignificant difference between the initial NT-proBNP levels between survivors and non survivors, (6280.3 ± 9597 ng/L, P < 0.001, but not for procalcitonin (12.7 ± 24.8, 29.3 ± 46 μg/L, P = 0.1, respectively. An initial NT-proBNP level of more than 11,200 pg/ml predicted Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU mortality with a sensitivity of 85.7% and a specificity of 90%. Conclusions: A modified SSC for severe sepsis and septic shock significantly reduced the mortality rate in our PICU. High initial NT-ProBNP level was associated with mortality.

  17. The follow-up research on the value of the plasma homocystine after methionine loading test on the recurrent ischemic vascular event in cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘怀翔

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of the plasma homocystine(Hcy)after methionine loading test(MLT)on the recurrence of ischemic vascular event,including cerebral infarction,transient ischemic attack(TIA),acute coronary syndrome,other vascular embolism in cerebral infarction patients.Methods The fasting plasma homocystine(FHcy)and homocystine after MLT(PHcy)levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatog-

  18. Osmolality, temperature, and membrane lipid composition modulate the activity of betaine transporter BetP in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ozcan, Nuran; Ejsing, Christer S.; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2007-01-01

    to low temperatures. BetP from cold-adapted cells is less sensitive to osmotic stress. In order to become susceptible for chill activation, cold-adapted cells in addition needed a certain amount of osmotic stimulation, indicating that there is cross talk of these two types of stimuli at the level of Bet......P activity. We further correlated the change in BetP regulation properties in cells grown at different temperatures to changes in the lipid composition of the plasma membrane. For this purpose, the glycerophospholipidome of C. glutamicum grown at different temperatures was analyzed by mass spectrometry using...

  19. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years......) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk...... of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality....

  20. Determination of dextrose equivalent value and number average molecular weight of maltodextrin by osmometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Y; Sillick, M; Gregson, C M

    2009-01-01

    Dextrose equivalent (DE) value is the most common parameter used to characterize the molecular weight of maltodextrins. Its theoretical value is inversely proportional to number average molecular weight (M(n)), providing a theoretical basis for correlations with physical properties important to food manufacturing, such as: hygroscopicity, the glass transition temperature, and colligative properties. The use of freezing point osmometry to measure DE and M(n) was assessed. Measurements were made on a homologous series of malto-oligomers as well as a variety of commercially available maltodextrin products with DE values ranging from 5 to 18. Results on malto-oligomer samples confirmed that freezing point osmometry provided a linear response with number average molecular weight. However, noncarbohydrate species in some commercial maltodextrin products were found to be in high enough concentration to interfere appreciably with DE measurement. Energy dispersive spectroscopy showed that sodium and chloride were the major ions present in most commercial samples. Osmolality was successfully corrected using conductivity measurements to estimate ion concentrations. The conductivity correction factor appeared to be dependent on the concentration of maltodextrin. Equations were developed to calculate corrected values of DE and M(n) based on measurements of osmolality, conductivity, and maltodextrin concentration. This study builds upon previously reported results through the identification of the major interfering ions and provides an osmolality correction factor that successfully accounts for the influence of maltodextrin concentration on the conductivity measurement. The resulting technique was found to be rapid, robust, and required no reagents.

  1. The value of determination of homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids in plasma for the diagnosis and follow-up of neuroblastoma in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahr, M; Hunneman, D H

    1987-09-01

    The plasma levels of homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids were determined in 84 children with neuroblastoma prior to treatment to evaluate the usefulness of these parameters for the diagnosis of this disease. Elevated levels of one or both of these metabolites were observed in 50% of children with Stage I or II disease, in 88% of those with Stage III, in 93% of those with Stage IV and in 100% of children with Stage IV-S for a total of 88% of all patients. The clinical course of the disease can be followed readily by determination of these metabolites, successful therapy or surgery being accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the plasma levels and relapse by a corresponding increase. Determination of homovanillic and vanillylmandelic acids in plasma can obviate many of the problems associated with the collection of urine, especially in young children or ambulant patients, and thus facilitates a more frequent control with consequent advantages for the management of this disease.

  2. Clinical value of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and troponin I plasma levels in elderly patients with sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏琴

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical significance for assessment and prognosis of elder patients with sepsis by way of detecting plasma NT-proBNP and cTnI levels.Methods It was a prospective trial conducted.A total of145 elderly patients with sepsis were admitted to the emergency observation center and the emergency ward from January 2011 through January 2013.Of them,there were 84 patients with mild sepsis,45 patients with severe sepsis,and 16 patients with septic shock.Plasma levels

  3. The association of 83 Plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total cholesterol in men: applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heidema, A.G.; Thissen, U.; Boer, J.M.; Bouwman, F.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mariman, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch

  4. Low abdominal NIRS values and elevated plasma intestinal fatty acid-binding protein in a premature piglet model of necrotizing enterocolitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    To identify early markers of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), we hypothesized that continuous abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (A-NIRS) measurement of splanchnic tissue oxygen saturation and intermittent plasma intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (pI-FABP) measured every 6 hours can detect NEC...

  5. Prognostic value of single measurements of beta-2-microglobulin, immunoglobulin A in HIV disease after controlling for CD4 lymphocyte counts and plasma HIV RNA levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullum, H; Lepri, A Cozzi; Katzenstein, T L

    2000-01-01

    The interrelationships between the CD4 lymphocyte count, plasma viral load [human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA], beta-2-microglobulin (beta2-M) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) and the mortality risk was explored in 234 HIV-infected individuals (median CD4 count 230 cells/mm3, range 1-1,247). Produ...

  6. Urinary concentration does not exclusively rely on plasma vasopressin. A study between genders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graugaard-Jensen, Charlotte; Hvistendahl, Gitte M; Frøkiaer, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    inpatient study under standardized conditions for measurements of plasma vasopressin, oxytocin, sodium and osmolality. Urine was fractionally collected for measurements of electrolytes, aquaporin-2 and prostaglandin E2. ResultsPlasma vasopressin expressed a diurnal rhythm with a night-time increase in both......AimWe investigated the influence of gender on the diurnal regulation of urine production with special focus on vasopressin, oxytocin and prostaglandin E2. MethodsFifteen young women in mid-follicular phase and 22 young men (20-33years) were included. All participants underwent a 24-h circadian...

  7. Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals: an assessment of the early diagnostic value of serum amyloid A and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in equine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passamonti, F; Vardi, D M; Stefanetti, V; Marenzoni, M L; Prato, S; Cévese, P; Coletti, M; Pepe, M; Casagrande Proietti, P; Olea-Popelka, F

    2015-02-01

    Early diagnosis and prevention of Rhodococcus equi pneumonia in foals represent important goals for equine clinicians. Recent protocols for diagnosis and treatment of Rhodococcosis in foals typically rely on a multimodal approach based on sonographic evidence suggestive of pyogranulomas, sonographic abscess scores and laboratory findings including plasma fibrinogen concentrations, blood biochemistry testing and platelet and leukocyte counts. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of weekly testing of serum amyloid A (SAA) and plasma fibrinogen concentrations in foals to achieve early diagnosis of R. equi pneumonia prior to the onset of clinical signs. This testing was used to simulate a clinically practical screening procedure and compared with thoracic ultrasonography performed in parallel. The present study suggests that SAA does not represent a reliable early marker of Rhodococcosis when plasma concentrations are tested weekly. However, when clinical signs of R. equi pneumonia are present, SAA concentrations may allow clinicians to obtain 'real-time' indications concerning both the progress of infection and the effectiveness of therapy. This study raises the possibility that plasma fibrinogen monitoring starting at 1 week of age and repeated on a weekly basis, could serve as a screening test allowing clinicians to identify foals as suspected of R. equi infection. Future investigations regarding both physiological plasma fibrinogen concentrations in foals as well as fibrinogen kinetics in foals affected with R. equi pneumonia, including the establishment of appropriate reference intervals for the test method employed in this study, will be necessary in order to clarify this possibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hypervolemia and plasma vasopressin response during water immersion in men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Morse, J. T.; Barnes, P. R.; Silver, J.; Keil, L. C.

    1983-01-01

    Immersion studies were performed on seven mildly dehydrated male subjects to examine the effect of suppression of plasma vasopressin (PVP) on diuresis in water immersion. The water was kept at close to 34.5 C and the subjects remained in the water for 4 hr after sitting for 2 hr. Na and K levels in the serum and urine were analyzed, as were osmolality, red blood cell count, renin activity, total protein, albumin amounts, hematocrit, and hemoglobin. Plasma volume was monitored from samples drawn at specified intervals during immersion. The plasma volume increased significantly 30 min after immersion, but no PVP was observed. The dehydration induced elevated serum osmotic concentrations. It is concluded that the hydration condition before immersion and the volume of fluid intake during immersion affects the hemodilution during immersion.

  9. The Cloud Condensation Nuclei (CCN properties of 2-methyltetrols and C3–C6 polyols from osmolality and surface tension measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ekström

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A significant fraction of the organic material in aerosols is made of highly soluble compounds such as sugars (mono- and polysaccharides and polyols, including the 2-methyltetrols, methylerythritol and methyltreitol. The high solubility of these compounds has brought the question of their potentially high CCN efficiency. For the 2-methyltetrols, this would have important implications for cloud formation at global scale because they are thought to be produced by the atmospheric oxidation of isoprene. To investigate this question, the complete Köhler curves for C3–C6 polyols and the 2-methyltetrols have been determined experimentally from osmolality and surface tension measurements. Contrary to what expected, none of these compounds displayed a critical supersaturation lower than those of inorganic salts or organic acids. Their Raoult terms show that this limited CCN efficiency is due to their absence of dissociation in water, this in spite of slight surface-tension effects for the 2-methyltetrols. Thus, compounds such as sugars and polyols would not contribute more to cloud formation in the atmosphere than any other organic compounds studied so far. In particular, the presence of 2-methyltetrols in aerosols would not particularly enhance cloud formation in the atmosphere, contrary to what has been suggested.

  10. Prognostic Value of Plasma Epstein-Barr Virus DNA for Local and Regionally Advanced Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Cisplatin-Based Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy in Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hui; Tang, Lin-Quan; Guo, Shan-Shan; Chen, Qiu-Yan; Zhang, Lu; Liu, Li-Ting; Qian, Chao-Nan; Guo, Xiang; Xie, Dan; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Mai, Hai-Qiang

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of plasma Epstein-Barr Virus DNA (EBV DNA) for local and regionally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) era.In this observational study, 404 nonmetastatic local and regionally advanced NPC patients treated with IMRT and cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy were recruited. Blood samples were collected before treatment for examination of plasma EBV DNA levels. We evaluated the association of pretreatment plasma EBV DNA levels with progression-free survival rate (PFS), distant metastasis-free survival rate (DMFS), and overall survival rate (OS).Compared to patients with an EBV DNA level EBV DNA ≥ 4000  copies/mL had a lower rate of 3-year PFS (76%, 95% CI [68-84]) versus (93%, 95% CI [90-96], P EBV DNA levels (HR = 3.324, 95% CI, 1.80-6.138, P EBV DNA level was the only significant factor to predict DMFS (HR = 6.292, 95% CI, 2.647-14.956, P EBV DNA levels (HR = 3.753, 95% CI, 1.701-8.284, P EBV DNA levels still predicted a worse PFS, DMFS, and OS for the patients stage III or stage IVa-b, compared with those with low EBV DNA levels.Elevated plasma EBV DNA was still effective prognostic biomarker for local and regionally advanced NPC patients treated with IMRT and cisplatin-based concurrent chemotherapy. Future ramdomized clinical trials are needed to further evaluate whether plasma EBV DNA levels could be applied to guide concurrent chemotherapy regimen for local and regionally advanced NPC patients.

  11. Clinical Value of Plasma Soluble Urokinase-Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor Levels in Term Neonates with Infection or Sepsis: A Prospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Siahanidou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. suPAR, the soluble form of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor, has been identified as a biomarker of infection in adults but its properties in neonatal infection are not known. Methods. Plasma suPAR levels were determined by ELISA in 47 term neonates with infection (19 bacterial and 28 viral and in 18 healthy neonates as controls. Thirteen out of 47 infected neonates were septic. In all infected neonates, suPAR levels were repeated at 24 hours, 48 hours, 3–5 days, and 7–10 days following admission. Results. Plasma suPAR levels were significantly increased in infected neonates upon admission, whereas they were highest in septic neonates, in comparison with controls P<0.001 and correlated positively with serum CRP levels (P=0.001. At infection subsidence, suPAR concentrations decreased significantly in comparison with baseline (P<0.001 but remained higher than in controls (P=0.01. Receiver operating characteristic analysis resulted in significant areas under the curve for detecting either infected or septic neonates, but not for discriminating between bacterial and viral cause of infection. Conclusions. suPAR is a diagnostic biomarker of infection or sepsis in term neonates; however, it cannot discriminate bacterial from viral infections and also its utility for monitoring the response to treatment is questioned.

  12. Renal function and plasma levels of arginine vasotocin during free flight in pigeons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giladi, I; Goldstein, D L; Pinshow, B; Gerstberger, R

    1997-12-01

    We examined urinary water loss and plasma levels of arginine vasotocin (AVT) in free-flying, tippler pigeons trained to fly continuously for up to 5 h. First, we used [3H]polyethyleneglycol ([3H]PEG) as a glomerular filtration marker by implanting an osmotic minipump into each bird. In two flights (10 birds in winter at an ambient temperature of 13-15 degrees C and seven in summer at 23 degrees C), we measured pre-flight (hydrated, resting control birds) and post-flight [3H]PEG activity and osmolality in blood and ureteral urine. For comparison, we measured these variables in 10 birds in winter before and after controlled dehydration (24 h at 25 or 30 degrees C). Second, we measured plasma levels of AVT in 6-8 birds before and immediately after each of three different summer flights. Urine osmolality increased significantly by up to three times the control level in both post-flight and dehydrated pigeons; urine:plasma osmolality ratios did not exceed 2. Compared with controls, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was significantly lower after flight in summer, but did not change in either post-flight or dehydrated winter pigeons. In winter, mean post-flight urine flow rate (UFR) decreased significantly to less than half the control level, while in summer, post-flight UFR did not differ from control levels. In general, mean filtered water reabsorption (FrH2O) increased from 95 % in controls to 98 % in post-flight and dehydrated birds. Plasma levels of AVT increased after flight to between three and eight times the preflight levels. The data from this first study of kidney function during flight are consistent with previous studies of dehydration in birds and exercise in mammals in which both increased FrH2O and decreased GFR contribute to renal conservation of water.

  13. Level of Pregnancy-associated Plasma Protein-A,Cystatin C and Homocysteine in Pregnancy Induced Hypertension Patients and the Clinical Value%Medical Recapitulate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧丽; 张秀欣

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究妊娠相关蛋白A( PAPP-A)、胱抑素C( CysC)、血同型半胱氨酸( Hcy)在妊娠期高血压疾病患者体内水平和其临床价值。方法选择2013年9月至2014年10月青岛市胶州中心医院收治的80例妊娠期高血压疾病患者作为研究组,另选30例正常妊娠妇女作为对照组。对两组收缩压、舒张压、心率等常规指标进行对比分析。依照观察组疾病类型分为妊娠期高血压、子痫、轻度先兆子痫、重度先兆子痫4个亚组,比较各组PAPP-A、CysC、Hcy水平差异。结果研究组患者收缩压、舒张压、心率、血尿酸均显著高于对照组[(166±20) mmHg(1 mmHg =0.133 kPa)比(131±15) mmHg、(108±20) mmHg 比(85±10) mmHg、(101±8)次/min 比(85±6)次/min、(383±63)μmol/L 比(310±52)μmol/L],白蛋白水平显著低于对照组[(30±7) g/L比(42±4) g/L],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。研究组PAPP-A、CysC、Hcy水平显著高于对照组[(37.0±7.7)μmol/L比(28.7±5.5)μmol/L、(1.5±0.4) mg/L 比(0.8±0.3) mg/L、(24.7±1.7)μmol/L 比(9.9±0.8)μmol/L],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。妊娠期高血压组、轻度先兆子痫组、重度先兆子痫组、子痫组患者PAPP-A、CysC、Hcy水平均依次升高,4组比较差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论妊娠期高血压疾病患者血清中PAPP-A、CysC、Hcy水平均显著高于正常健康妊娠孕妇,病情越严重,其水平越高,对于妊娠期高血压疾病的临床诊治具有重要指导意义。%Objective To study the level of pregnancy associated protein A ( PAPP-A) ,serum cystatin C (Cys C),plasma homocysteine (Hcy) in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension and the clinical value. Methods Chosen from Sep.2013 to Oct.2014 in Qingdao Jiaozhou Central Hospital 80 cases of pregnancy

  14. The Value of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Asger

    parts of business ethics given prominence to especially one term, namely `value'. The question that interests me is the following: What does the articulation of ethics and morality in terms of values mean for ethics and morality as such. Or, to put the question in a more fashionably way: What...... is the value of value for morality and ethics?To make things a bit more precise, we can make use of the common distinction between ethics and morality, i.e. that morality is the immediate, collective and unconscious employment of morals, whereas ethics is the systematic, individual and conscious reflections...

  15. Modelling the cloud condensation nucleus activity of organic acids on the basis of surface tension and osmolality measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Varga

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study vapour pressure osmometry was used to determine water activity in the solutions of organic acids. The surface tension of the solutions was also monitored in parallel and then Köhler curves were calculated for nine organic acids (oxalic, malonic, succinic, glutaric, adipic, maleic, malic, citric and cis-pinonic. Surface tension depression is negligible for most of the organic acids in dilute (≤1 w/w% solutions. Therefore, these compounds affect equilibrium vapour pressure only in the beginning phase of droplet formation when the droplet solution is more concentrated but not necessarily at the critical size. An exception is cis-pinonic acid which remarkably depress surface tension also in dilute (0.1 w/w% solution and hence at the critical point. The surface tension of organic acid solutions is influenced by the solubility of the compound, the length of the carbon chain and also by the polar functional groups present in the molecule. Similarly to surface tension solubility plays an important role also in water activity: compounds with higher solubility (e.g. malonic, maleic and glutaric acid reduce water activity significantly in the early phase of droplet formation while less soluble acids (e.g. succinic and adipic acid are saturated in small droplets and the solution starts diluting only in bigger droplets. As a consequence, compounds with lower solubility have a minor effect on water activity in the early phase of droplet formation. To deduce the total effect Köhler curves were calculated and critical supersaturations (Sc were determined for the organic acids using measured surface tension and water activity. It was found that critical supersaturation grew with growing carbon number. Oxalic acid had the lowest critical supersaturation in the size range studied and it was comparable to the activation of ammonium sulphate. The Sc values obtained in this study were compared to data from CCNC

  16. Prognostic value of procalcitonin (PCT) and/or interleukin-6 (IL-6) plasma levels after multiple trauma for the development of multi organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) or sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasper, C; Kalmbach, M; Dikos, G D; Meller, R; Müller, C; Krettek, C; Hildebrand, F; Frink, M

    2010-01-01

    Despite recent advances in treatment of severe injured patients, e.g. due to damage control orthopaedics, multi organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and sepsis are major complications in daily practice. During one year 94 patients were prospectively collected. ISS 16, age 18-60 y, primary admission to our level-1 trauma center, survival > 48 hours after trauma. The development of MODS and sepsis were observed and different groups were formed (+/-). Demographic data revealed no significant differences between the subgroups. Comparing groups +MODS and -MODS significant differences on admission day were observed, when PCT showed first on day 2 after trauma differences. Regarding the development of sepsis PCT was advantageous to IL-6 showing significant higher plasma levels in group +sepsis from the first day after trauma. Serum levels of IL-6 and PCT could be useful in early identification of high risk patients to develop posttraumatic MODS. For sepsis PCT is the better prognostic factor.

  17. Low Abdominal NIRS Values and Elevated Plasma Intestinal Fatty Acid-Binding Protein in a Premature Piglet Model of Necrotizing Enterocolitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irving J Zamora

    Full Text Available To identify early markers of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, we hypothesized that continuous abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (A-NIRS measurement of splanchnic tissue oxygen saturation and intermittent plasma intestinal fatty-acid binding protein (pI-FABP measured every 6 hours can detect NEC prior to onset of clinical symptoms. Premature piglets received parenteral nutrition for 48-hours after delivery, followed by enteral feeds every three hours until death or euthanasia at 96-hours. Continuous A-NIRS, systemic oxygen saturation (SpO2, and heart rate were measured while monitoring for clinical signs of NEC. Blood samples obtained at 6-hour intervals were used to determine pI-FABP levels by ELISA. Piglets were classified as fulminant-NEC (f-NEC, non-fulminant-NEC (nf-NEC and No-NEC according to severity of clinical and histologic features. Of 38 piglets, 37% (n=14 developed nf-NEC, 18% (n=7 developed f-NEC and 45% (n=17 had No-NEC. There were significant differences in baseline heart rate (p=0.008, SpO2 (p0.25ng/mL identified animals with NEC (68% sensitivity and 90% specificity. NIRS is a real-time, non-invasive tool that can serve as a diagnostic modality for NEC. In premature piglets, low A-NIRS in the early neonatal period and increased variability during initial feeds are highly predictive of NEC, which is then confirmed by rising plasma I-FABP levels. These modalities may help identify neonates with NEC prior to clinical manifestations of disease.

  18. Adding value(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    , 1992). In response, behavioral economics (Camerer, 1999) has shown that agents have values other than optimization underpinning their decisions. Therefore, concerns arose regarding which values are guiding the agent but not about how such values became relevant for the agent. In this presentation, I......Most economic inquires revolve around agents making decisions. Getting the ‘best value’, it is assumed, drives such decisions: gaining most while risking least. This assumption has been debunked by showing that people does not always choose neither maximum benefit nor less risk (Kahneman & Tversky...... will explore the consequences of shifting to the latter perspective, i.e. looking for the generative framework of values. Here I argue that economic behavior should also be seen as a sense-making process, guided by values that are chosen/rejected along with fellow human beings, in specific socio...

  19. The Effect of Drinking on Plasma Vasopressin and Renin in Dehydrated Human Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelen, G.; Keil, L. C.; Kravik, S. E.; Wade, C. E.; Thrasher, T. N.; Barnes, P. R.; Pyka, G.; Nesvig, C.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Oropharyngeal mechanisms activated by drinking have been shown to induce a rapid decline in plasma vasopressin which preceeds postabsorptive changes in plasma composition in the dehydrated dog. The present study was undertaken to determine what factor(s) inhibit(s) vasopressin secretion after rehydration in water deprived human subjects. Hematocrit (Hct) and hemoglobin (Hb) were determined on the day of the experiment, together with electrolytes and osmolalities which were measured on freshly separated serum. Plasma was immediately frozen and further analyzed by radioimmunoassay for renin activity (PRA), vasopressin (AVP), and aldosterone. The data were analyzed using an analysis of variance for repeated measurements and significant differences between the dehydrated control period and various time points after the start of rehydration were determined using a multiple-range test. began and reached water replete levels 15 minutes after drinking in the absence of any detectable decline in serum sodium or osmolality, we conclude that 427 oropharyngeal factors, alone or combined with gastric distension account for the extremely rapid inhibition of AVP secretion after drinking in the water-deprived human, as has been shown to be the case in dogs. Our findings are also in agreement wiht the recent demonstration that at the onset of drinking in the dehydrated monkey, there is an abrupt fall in plasma AVP concentration associated with a considerable decrease in the firing rate of the supraoptic neurosecretory neurons.

  20. REGULATION OF INSTANTANEOUS POWER OUTPUT VALUE IN MAGNETRON WITH CONTINUOUS GENERATION MODE (M-105-, M-112-TYPES BEING PART OF PLASMA TECHNOLOGICAL UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Bordusov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations pertaining to the possibility of regulating instantaneous power output  in a magnetron of M-105 (M-112-type by changing the capacity value of a capacitor in structure diagram for doubling voltage of high-voltage power supply on the basis of a step-up transformer operating in the saturation regime.

  1. Elevated plasma fibrinogen level shows superior prognostic value than Epstein-Barr virus DNA load for stage IVA/B nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients in the intensity-modulated radiotherapy era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Mei; Chen, Chunyan; Huang, Ying; Mao, Minjie; Han, Fei; Liao, Junfang; Deng, Meiling; Duan, Zhijun; Zheng, Lie; Wu, Shaoxiong; Lu, Taixiang; Jian, Yutao

    2016-07-19

    Effective prognostic factors for patients with stage IVA/B nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) who are susceptible to distant metastases are limited. We aim to investigate the prognostic value of pretreatment plasma fibrinogen (FIB) level and Epstein-Barr virus DNA (EBV-DNA) load in these patients in the era of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The 5-year DSS, DFS and DMFS rates of the entire cohort were 72.7%, 66.8%, 80.0%, respectively. High FIB level was identified as a negative prognostic factor for survival: the 5-year DSS, DFS and DMFS rates for patients with high FIB (> 4.0 g/L) and normal FIB (≤ 4.0 g/L) were 60.3% vs. 76.0%, 56.0% vs. 69.9%, and 59.4% vs. 85.5%, respectively (all P level shows superior prognostic value than EBV-DNA load for stage IVA/B NPC patients in the era of IMRT. A total of 755 patients with newly-diagnosed stage IVA/B NPC treated with definitive IMRT between January 2007 and December 2011 were enrolled. Plasma FIB and EBV-DNA were measured before treatment. Disease-specific survival (DSS), disease-free survival (DFS) and distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method; differences were compared using the log-rank test.

  2. 血浆BNP对慢性阻塞性肺疾病有创机械通气撤机的指导价值%Guidance value of plasma BNP on invasive mechanical ventilation weaning of COPD patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马斌; 封凯旋; 赵钢

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the guiding value of plasma BNP level and changes before and after weaning in COPD patients received invasive mechanical ventilation .Methods 70 patients were selected in retro-spective review to measure plasma BNP level before and after SBT ( marked as BNP 0, BNP1 and BNP2, respective-ly), and plasma BNP level difference value (ΔBNP) before and after SBT, when they received invasive mechanical ventilation.Moreover, they were divided into the successful weaning group and the failing weaning group in accord -ance with weaning results .The ROC curve was drawn to analyze the predictive value of plasma BNP level on weaning results.Results In 70 patients, the successful weaning group had 52 patients, and the failing weaning group had 18 patients.AUC of the failing weaning group predicted by BNP 0, BNP1 and BNP2 was 0.6079, 0.8568 and 0.9081, respectively.AUC of the failing weaning group predicted by ΔBNP was 0.9466.Conclusion Plasma BNP level has a guiding value on predicting weaning results of COPD patients , and? BNP has the biggest value of predicting wea-ning results of COPD patients .%目的:探讨撤机前后血浆BNP水平及其变化对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(简称慢阻肺)患者有创机械通气撤机的指导价值。方法回顾性调查满足条件的70例患者,测定患者开始有创机械通气时,自主呼吸试验( SBT )前、后的血浆 BNP 水平,分别标为( BNP 0、BNP 1、BNP 2), SBT 前、后的血浆 BNP 水平差值(ΔBNP),并根据患者撤机结局分为撤机成功组与撤机失败组。绘制ROC曲线,分析血浆BNP水平对慢阻肺患者撤机结局的预测价值。结果70例患者中,成功撤机52例,撤机失败18例。 BNP 0、BNP 1、BNP 2预测慢阻肺患者撤机失败的AUC分别为0.6079、0.8568、0.9081,ΔBNP预测撤机失败的AUC为0.9466。结论血浆BNP水平对预测慢阻肺患者撤机结局有指导价值,其中ΔBNP预测慢阻肺患者撤机结局的价值最大。

  3. The various assays for measuring activity states of factor VIIa in plasma and therapeutic products: Diagnostic value and analytical usefulness in various pathophysiological states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiral, Jean; Dunois, Claire; Amiral, Cédric; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2016-12-29

    The key coagulation factor FVII, and its activated form FVIIa, present a major interest for their role at the initiation phase of blood coagulation, and because they can activate all blood coagulation cascade, through the extrinsic, but also the intrinsic pathway. Blood activation initiated through FVII is first presented, as it is understood nowadays. Measurement of FVII and FVIIa were of main interest for epidemiological studies, but FVIIa contribution to assay results was only deduced. The introduction of specific FVIIa assays, functional or immunoassays, allowed measuring directly FVIIa without any interference of non-activated FVII, or other coagulation factors or their activated forms. The various methods available, and their characteristics are presented, with a special focus on two assays developed by our group for FVIIa (a clotting one and a chromogenic one). The FVIIa clotting assay shows evident superiority for measuring its activity in plasma, in pathophysiological conditions. The normal range is products, or for following recoveries in treated patients, including hemophiliacs with inhibitors, patients with severe bleeding risk (liver diseases, surgery, trauma, …), and lastly for measurement of its activity in therapeutic products.

  4. Different prognostic values of plasma Epstein-Barr virus DNA and maximal standardized uptake value of 18F-FDG PET/CT for nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with recurrence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Shen

    Full Text Available To evaluate and compare the prognostic value of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV DNA and maximal standard uptake values (SUVmax of 18F-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (18F-FDG-PET in subgroups of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC patients with locoregional or distant recurrence.A total of 194 patients with recurrent NPC (locoregional recurrence: 107, distant recurrence: 87 were enrolled. Patients took evidence of recurrence performed with 18F-FDG-PET and an EBV DNA test before salvage treatment. Clinical parameters, the status of EBV DNA and the value of SUVmax were used for survival analysis using the Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards regression model.In the subgroup of patients with locoregional recurrence, patients with SUVmax<8.65 had significantly better overall survival (OS (P=0.005 compared with the patients with SUVmax ≥8.65. However, both elevated EBV DNA load (≥21,100 copies/ml and distant SUVmax (≥13.55 were significantly associated with worse OS compared with the patients with EBV DNA <21,100 copies/ml or distant SUVmax <13.55 for the subgroup with distant recurrence (P=0.015 and P=0.006, respectively. The predictive ability of EBV DNA was superior to that of SUVmax (P=0.062. Multivariate analysis showed that SUVmax was only an independent prognostic factor for OS in patients with locoregional recurrence (P=0.042, whereas EBV DNA independently predicted OS for the patients with distant recurrence (P=0.007. For those patients with undetectable EBV DNA, SUVmax<8.65 was still an independent favorable prognostic factor (P=0.038.SUVmax is a useful biomarker for predicting OS in nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients with locoregional recurrence or with undetectable EBV DNA. Both distant SUVmax and EBV DNA appear to be independent predictors of OS in patients with distant recurrence; however, the predictive ability of EBV DNA was superior to that of SUVmax.

  5. Correlation between Semen PH Value and Semen Parameters or Biochemical Analyses Results of Seminal Plasma%精液pH值与精液参数及精浆生化的相关性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈帅垒; 王祖龙

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨精液pH值与精液参数及精浆生化之间的相关性,明确精液pH值在精液质量检测中所具有的价值.方法 收集河南省中医院中西医结合生殖中心2009年1月-2011年3月资料完整的男性不育症患者精液分析及精浆生化记录616份,建立Excel数据库,采用SPSS 16.0统计软件,对精液pH值与精液参数及精浆生化进行相关性分析.结果 精液pH值和受试者精浆弹性蛋白酶、精液A级精子百分率、前向运动精子百分率及存活精子百分率呈正相关性(P<0.05);与精浆酸性磷酸酶、精浆锌呈负相关性(P<0.05);与年龄、精浆果糖、精浆α-糖苷酶、精液白细胞、精液量、液化时间、精子浓度、正常形态精子数量无明显相关性(P>0.05).结论 精液pH值和精液参数及精浆生化的多项数值均具有相关性,进一步研究精液pH值的影响,对于男性不育症患者的诊疗具有重要意义.%Objective To study the correlation between semen pH value and semen parameters and biochemical analyses results of seminal plasma, and evaluate the value of semen pH in the semen quality test. Methods The semen and biochemical analyses results of 616 male infertility patients in our hospital from January 2009 to March 2011 were collected and analyzed by u-sing SPSS statistical software to evaluate the correlation between semen pH value and semen parameters and biochemical analyses results of seminal plasma. Results The semen PH value was positively correlated to the seminal plasma elastase, rate of grade A sperm,rate of rapid progression motility sperm and sperm viability (P 0. 05) . Conclusion The semen PH value is closely correlated to the semen parameters and biochemical analyses results of seminal plasma. The further study on the influence of semen PH value should improve the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility patients.

  6. Plasma arginine vasopressin response to water load during labour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhi, S. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Child Health); Parshad, O. (West Indies Univ., Mona (Jamaica). Dept. of Physiology)

    1985-02-01

    To find out whether plasma vasopressin (Psub(AVP)) response to a water load during pregnancy is inappropriately high, as had been speculated, we measured Psub(AVP)by radioimmunoassay in 30 women at the time of delivery. Ten women had received infusion of aqueous glucose solution during labour for hydration (GW group); another ten received infusion of glucose solution as a vehicle for oxytocin (IOT group), and ten women did not receive any intrapartum intravenous fluid therapy (controls). Serum sodium and osmolality were also determined in all the subjects. Psub(AVP) levels were significantly lower in GW (0.70 +- 0.4 pg/ml) and OT groups (0.7 +- 0.6 pg/ml) (P < 0.05). Significant negative correlation was seen between the amount of glucose solution infused and levels of Psub(AVP) (r = -0.66; P < 0.01), while a significant positive correlation was seen between Psub(AVP) and serum sodium (r = 0.61; P < 0.01). These findings suggest that during labour, the physiological relationship between serum osmolality and Psub(AVP) in intact, and the infusion of a water load in the form of aqueous glucose solution is attended by an expected lowering of Psub(AVP). We infer that inappropriate ADH response is not the cause of water retention and hyponatremia often seen in women receiving aqueous glucose solution during labor.

  7. Diagnostic Value of Plasma Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Concentration for Chronic Urticaria%血浆TNF-α浓度对慢性荨麻疹的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷素珍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the changes of plasma necrosis factor-α concentration in patients with chronic urticaria and analyze its diagnostic value. Methods 86 patients with chronic urticaria and 86 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. Determining plasma tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentration with ELISA. Statistical analysis was taken. Results Plasma TNF-α concentration was significantly higher in patients than those of healthy controls (4.2 ±1.8 ng/ml vs 1.8 ±0.7)ng/ml, P2.8 ng/ml) that dignosed chronic urticaria with high sensitivity (83.1% ) and specificity (79. 1% ) respectively. Conclusion TNF-α may be involved in pathogenesis of chronic urticaria, and its concentration can effectively in diagnosis of chronic urticaria.%目的:揭示慢性荨麻疹患者血浆肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)浓度的变化,分析其对慢性荨麻疹的诊断价值.方法:选取门诊治疗的慢性荨麻疹患者及健康体检者各86例,ELISA检测血浆TNF-α浓度,对数据进行统计分析.结果:慢性荨麻疹患者血浆TNF-α浓度(4.2±1.8)ng/ml显著高于对照组(1.8±0.7)ng/ml(P2.8 ng/ml),对诊断慢性荨麻疹有较高的灵敏度(83.7%)和特异度(79.1%).结论:TNF-α可能参与慢性荨麻疹的发病机制,其浓度可有效诊断慢性荨麻疹.

  8. A Procedure-Spanning Analysis of Plasma Membrane Integrity for Assessment of Cell Viability in Sperm Cryopreservation of Zebrafish Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huiping; Daly, Jonathan; Carmichael, Carrie; Matthews, Jen; Varga, Zoltan M; Tiersch, Terrence

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate plasma membrane integrity and motility for zebrafish sperm quality assessment along the cryopreservation pathway-from sample collection through refrigerated storage, cryoprotectant equilibration, freezing, thawing, and fertilization. The objectives were to: (1) evaluate the effects of osmolality, extender, and refrigerated storage on sperm plasma membrane integrity and motility, and (2) compare cryopreservation of sperm from farm-raised and well-characterized research populations by evaluating motility and membrane integrity of fresh, post-equilibration (before freezing) and post-thaw sperm, and post-thaw fertility. Osmolality, extender, and storage time each influenced sperm motility and membrane integrity. Isotonic osmolality showed the best protection for motility and membrane integrity compared to hypotonic and hypertonic osmolalities. Of the four tested extenders, Hanks' balanced salt solution (HBSS) and Ca(2+)-free HBSS showed the best protection compared with NaCl and glucose, and sperm retained motility and membrane integrity for 24 h of refrigerated storage. Sperm cryopreservation of zebrafish from a farm population (n = 20) and an AB research line (n = 20) showed significant differences in post-thaw fertility (32% ± 18% vs. 73% ± 21%). No differences were found in post-thaw motility, although the farm-raised zebrafish possessed a larger body size, testis weight, and higher fresh motility. Correlation analysis of pooled data did not identify correlations among motility, flow cytometry analysis of membrane integrity and recognizable cells, and post-thaw sperm fertility (p ≥ 0.202). More research is needed to standardize the fertilization conditions especially sperm-to-egg ratio to avoid possible overabundance of sperm to obscure the differences.

  9. 血浆脂联素水平预测妊娠期糖尿病的前瞻性研究%Prospective study on the value of plasma level of adiponectin in predicting gestational diabetes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    芦雅苹; 谭燕; 黄泳华

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨血浆脂联素水平预测妊娠期糖尿病的应用价值.方法:选择妊娠期糖尿病高危因素孕妇,所有孕妇于孕14~18周进行常规体检测身高、体重、血压、血浆脂联素、空腹血糖及胰岛素、总胆固醇、甘油三脂.孕24 ~ 28周复查血浆脂联素、OGTT葡萄糖耐量及胰岛素,计算胰岛素抵抗指数,跟踪孕妇至分娩,根据糖耐量结果分为妊娠期糖尿病组与正常妊娠妇女组.总结妊娠期糖尿病发病情况,将妊娠期糖尿病孕早、中期血浆脂联素水平及其他检验指标进行比较.结果:GDM组14~18周及24 ~ 28周血清脂联素水平均明显低于NGT组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.001);孕14 ~ 18周血清脂联素与孕前体重指数、孕晚期体重指数、空腹血糖、空腹胰岛素、胰岛素抵抗指数、新生儿体重,存在显著负相关性.结论:脂联素水平是预测妊娠期糖尿病的敏感指标,孕14~ 18周脂联素水平已明显下降,即在临床上诊断妊娠期糖尿病前体内脂联素水平已有下降,脂联素水平可以早期预测妊娠期糖尿病.%Objective-. To investigate the value of plasma level of adiponectin in predicting gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), then to provide scientific evidence for early prediction of GDM. Methods: Pregnant women with high risk factors of GDM were enrolled into this study, body height, body weight, blood pressure, plasma adiponectin, fasting blood glucose and insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride were tested at 14 ~ 18 weeks of pregnancy. And plasma adiponectin, oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), blood insulin were tested again at 24 ~28 weeks of pregnancy, then the insulin resistance index was calculated. According to the result of OGTT, two groups were divided, including GDM group and normal glucose tolerance ( NGT) group to summary the incidence of GDM and compare all the test indexes at early and midtrimester pregnancy. Results: The plasma level of

  10. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  11. Clinical Correlates and Prognostic Value of Plasma Galectin-3 Levels in Degenerative Aortic Stenosis: A Single-Center Prospective Study of Patients Referred for Invasive Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Bobrowska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Galectin-3 (Gal-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin, has been implicated in myocardial fibrosis, development of left ventricular (LV dysfunction and transition from compensated LV hypertrophy to overt heart failure (HF, being a novel prognostic marker in HF. Risk stratification is crucial for the choice of the optimal therapy in degenerative aortic stenosis (AS, affecting elderly subjects with coexistent diseases. Our aim was to assess correlates and prognostic value of circulating Gal-3 in real-world patients with degenerative AS referred for invasive treatment. Gal-3 levels were measured at admission in 80 consecutive patients with symptomatic degenerative AS (mean age: 79 ± 8 years; aortic valve area (AVA index: 0.4 ± 0.1 cm2/m2. The therapeutic strategy was chosen following a dedicated multidisciplinary team-oriented approach, including surgical valve replacement (n = 11, transcatheter valve implantation (n = 19, balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV (n = 25 and optimal medical therapy (n = 25. Besides routine echocardiographic indices, valvulo-arterial impedance (Zva, an index of global LV afterload, was computed. There were 22 deaths over a median follow-up of 523 days. Baseline Gal-3 correlated negatively with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR (r = −0.61, p < 0.001 and was unrelated to age, symptomatic status, AVA index, LV ejection fraction, LV mass index or Zva. For the study group as a whole, Gal-3 tended to predict mortality (Gal-3 >17.8 vs. Gal-3 <17.8 ng/mL; hazard ratio (HR: 2.03 (95% confidence interval, 0.88–4.69, p = 0.09, which was abolished upon adjustment for eGFR (HR: 1.70 (0.61–4.73, p = 0.3. However, in post-BAV patients multivariate-adjusted pre-procedural Gal-3 was associated with worse survival (HR: 7.41 (1.52–36.1, p = 0.01 regardless of eGFR. In conclusion, the inverse eGFR–Gal-3 relationship underlies a weak association between Gal-3 and adverse outcome in patients with degenerative AS referred for

  12. Improvements in 230Th dating, 230Th and 234U half-life values, and U-Th isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Lawrence Edwards, R.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Polyak, Victor J.; Asmerom, Yemane; Woodhead, Jon; Hellstrom, John; Wang, Yongjin; Kong, Xinggong; Spötl, Christoph; Wang, Xianfeng; Calvin Alexander, E.

    2013-06-01

    We have developed techniques for measuring 234U and 230Th on Faraday cups with precisions of 1-3 epsilon units (1 ɛ-unit=1 part in 104) using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Using a Thermo-Scientific Neptune with desolvation nebulization, we obtained ionization/transmission efficiencies of 1-2% for both U and Th. We set up protocols to correct for tailing, prepared U and Th gravimetric standards, tested a Th mass fractionation correction procedure based on U isotopes, and identified natural calcite samples likely to be in U-Th isotopic secular equilibrium. The measured atomic ratios, 234U/238U=54.970 (±0.019)×10-6 and 230Th/238U=16.916 (±0.018)×10-6, for these calcite samples were identical within errors (quoted 2σ uncertainties calculated combining all sources of error). Half-life values calculated from these ratios are consistent with previous values, but have much smaller errors: 245,620±260 a for 234U and 75,584±110 a for 230Th (quoted 2σ uncertainties calculated using all sources of error). In calculating a 230Th age, some of the systematic errors included in estimating the full error in the half-lives effectively cancel. Removing these uncertainties (uncertainty in the 238U half-life value, uncertainty in our gravimetric uranium and thorium standards, and uncertainty in the absolute isotopic composition of the uranium standard), yields effective uncertainties for the purposes of 230Th dating of ±70 a for the 234U half-life value and ±30 a for the 230Th half-life value. Under ideal circumstances, with our methods, the 2σ uncertainty in age, including uncertainty in half-life values is ±10 a at 10 ka, ±100 a at 130 ka, ±300 a at 200 ka, ±1 ka at 300 ka, ±2 ka at 400 ka, ±6 ka at 500 ka, and ±12 ka at 600 ka. The isotopic composition of a sample with an age determined independent of the Sanbao Cave ages, the observed co-variation between stalagmite δ18O and Northern Hemisphere summer insolation is

  13. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A

    2014-01-01

    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  14. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)

    2004-05-31

    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  15. Formulação de dietas enterais artesanais e determinação da osmolalidade pelo método crioscópico Formulation of handmade enteral diets and determination of osmolality by cryoscopic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Simeone Henriques

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de elaborar formulações dietéticas nutricionalmente equilibradas, com controle da osmolalidade, de fácil preparo e de baixo custo financeiro. As dietas foram preparadas predominantemente com alimentos convencionais, acrescidos de maltodextrina, caseínato de cálcio e suplementos minerais, da seguinte forma: 1 leite mais frutas; 2 caldos de vegetais mais suplemento protéico; 3 mingaus de leite mais suplemento protéico; 4 fórmulas infantis adaptadas; 5 extratos de frutas concentrados. A fluidez foi observada passando-se as formulações por sondas com diâmetro interno de 2,1 mm e a estabilidade checada por um período mínimo de 3 horas. A osmolalidade foi determinada por crioscopia, medindo-se o descenso relativo da pressão de vapor das soluções. Formulações com osmolalidade entre 250 e 400 mOsm/kg e densidade calórica entre 0,60 e 1,08 Kcal/ml foram obtidas. Dietas de baixo custo, fácil preparo, nutricionalmente equilibradas e com definição da proporção de seus componentes foram viabilizadas.This study was conducted with the objective of elaborating dietetic formulations, nutritionally balanced, with osmolality control, easy preparation and low financial cost. The diets were prepared mainly with common foods, added by maltodextrin, calcium caseinate and mineral supplements, as follows: 1 milk plus fruits; 2 vegetable juices plus protein supplement; 3 milk porridge plus protein supplement; 4 infant adapted formula; 5 concentrated fruit extract. The flow was observed by getting the formulations through tubes with internal diameter of 2.1 mm and the stability was checked by stocking the solutions in a minimum period of 3 hours. The osmolality was determined by cryoscopy, measuring the relative depression of steam pressure of the solutions. Formulations with osmolality between 250 and 400 mOsm/kg and caloric density between 0.60 and 1.08 Kcal/ml were obtained. Low cost diets, easy

  16. The marker of cobalamin deficiency, plasma methylmalonic acid, correlates to plasma creatinine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, A M; Juul, S; Gerdes, Lars Ulrik

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between the two diagnostic tests, plasma methylmalonic acid and plasma cobalamins, and their association with plasma creatinine, age and sex. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of simultaneous laboratory measurements. SETTING: County of Aarhus, Denmark. SUBJECTS......: Records on 1689 patients who had their first plasma methylmalonic acid measurement during 1995 and 1996, and who had a simultaneous measurement of plasma cobalamins. Plasma creatinine values measured within a week of measurements of plasma methylmalonic acid and plasma cobalamins were available for 1255...... of the patients. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Predictors of variation in plasma methylmalonic acid; plasma cobalamins, plasma creatinine, age and sex. RESULTS: Plasma methylmalonic acid was positively correlated with plasma creatinine, even for plasma creatinine within the normal range. These associations remained...

  17. Public Values

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2015-01-01

    administration is approached in terms of processes guided or restricted by public values and as public value creating: public management and public policy-making are both concerned with establishing, following and realizing public values. To study public values a broad perspective is needed. The article suggest......This article provides the introduction to a symposium on contemporary public values research. It is argued that the contribution to this symposium represent a Public Values Perspective, distinct from other specific lines of research that also use public value as a core concept. Public...... a research agenda for this encompasing kind of public values research. Finally the contributions to the symposium are introduced....

  18. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  19. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D

    2013-01-01

    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  20. 血浆和肽素浓度对急性创伤性进展性出血性脑损伤的预测价值%Predictive value of plasma copeptin for acute traumatic progressive hemorrhagic brain injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田正丰; 沈永锋; 江力; 俞文华; 董晓巧; 谢国忠; 朱强; 车志豪; 杜权; 王昊; 杨定博

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the predictive value of plasma copeptin for acute traumatic progressive hemorrhagic brain injury (PHI). Methods A total of 112 craniocerebral trauma patients from January 2012 to January 2015 were enrolled as the trauma group, and 112 healthy people served as the control group at the same time. The levels of plasma copeptin, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), myelin basic protein (MBP), neuron specific enolase (NSE),S100B, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1), phosphorylated axonal neurofilament subunit H (pNF-H) and tau were detected and compared between the two groups. And the correlation between all above indices and Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores were analyzed by Pearson correlation. The ROC was used to analyze the predictive value of these biomarkers and GCS scores for PHI. Results The plasma copeptin [(355 ± 124) pmol/L vs. (86 ± 30) pmol/L], GFAP [(0.14 ± 0.05) pmol/L vs. (0.05 ± 0.03) pmol/L], MBP [(0.61 ± 0.22)μmol/L vs. (0.23 ± 0.17)μmol/L], NSE [(0.11 ± 0.04) nmol/L vs. (0.05 ± 0.03) nmol/L], S100B [(15.5 ± 6.9) pmol/L vs. (2.6 ± 0.9) pmol / L], UCH-L1 [(66 ± 28) pmol / L vs. (10 ± 3) pmol / L], pNF-H [(2.52 ± 0.71) pmol / L vs. (0.14 ± 0.11) pmol / L] and tau [(4.4 ± 1.6) pmol / L vs. (0.4 ± 0.3) pmol / L] concentrations in the trauma group were much higher than those in the control group ( t=22.308, 19.418, 18.531, 16.928, 20.221, 21.063, 39.625, 27.025; all P < 0.001). Pearson correlation showed that GCS scores were all negative related with plasma copeptin, GFAP, MBP, NSE, S100B, UCH-L1, pNF-H and tau concentrations (r = -0.519, -0.478, -0.455, -0.422, -0.431,-0.408, -0.423, -0.421, all P<0.001). The ROC presented that GCS scores, plasma copeptin, GFAP, MBP, NSE, S100B, UCH-L1, pNF-H and tau concentrations all had significant predictive value for PHI (all P<0.05), and the area under curve (AUC) of GFAP (Z=2.693, P=0.007), MBP (Z=2.551, P=0.011), NSE (Z=2.397, P=0.017), S100B (Z=2.446, P=0

  1. 氩离子凝固术治疗结直肠息肉的临床应用价值%Application value of curing colorectal polyps with the argon plasma coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰霞; 张鸣青; 王爱民

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the efficacy and the clinical value of argon plasma coagulation ( APC) in the treatment of colorectal polyps. Methods One hundred and sixty patients with 351 colorectal polyps were treated with APC ablation. 214 sessile and 65 semi-pedunculated polyps were only treated with APC, 72 pedunculated polyps were treated with polypectomy and polyp remnants were also treated with APC. Results All of the patients were healed. Symptomless emphysema under the local mucosal occurred in 2 patients. Transient mild abdominal pain occurred in 78 patients and relieved without treatment. Conclusion APC is an effective and safe method for treating colorectal polyp. It is easy to operate with fewer complications and can be the preferred method for the applanate and wide outsole polyps.%目的 探讨氩离子凝固术治疗结直肠息肉的疗效及临床应用价值.方法 对160例患者共351枚结直肠息肉行氩离子凝固术(APC)治疗,其中214枚扁平和65枚亚蒂息肉仅行APC治疗,72枚有蒂息肉电切治疗后用APC处理息肉残端.结果 本组病例全部临床治愈.2例患者出现无症状的局部黏膜下气肿,78例患者出现短暂腹痛,未行处理自行缓解.结论 APC是一种安全有效的结直肠息肉治疗方法,副反应少,操作简便,尤其是在扁平、广基息肉的治疗中可作为首选方法.

  2. Values Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    horizontal vs. vertical. • According to the theory of Planned Behavior ( Ajzen , 1988, 2002) attitude, subjective norms and perceived control...determines intention which may end in behavior . 7 Defining Human Values Cross-cultural theories on values emerged in the 80s developed by three main...attitudes with social structure. 4 Defining Human Values • According to Parsons (Parsons & Shils, 1951), values instigate behavior . • In line

  3. Fresh water acclimation elicits a decrease in plasma corticosteroids in the euryhaline Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Andrew N; Nunez, B Scott

    2015-10-01

    It is thought that the elasmobranch corticosteroid hormone 1α-hydroxycorticosterone (1α-B) functions as both a glucocorticoid (GC) and mineralocorticoid (MC). Classical antinatriuretic MC activities would run counter to the osmoregulatory strategy of euryhaline elasmobranchs acclimating to fresh water (FW). Therefore we hypothesize that FW acclimation will be accompanied by a decrease in plasma corticosteroids in these animals. However, events that activate the "fight-or-flight" response could mask changes associated with acclimation to lower salinities. To better define the MC role of corticosteroids in elasmobranchs, we designed a transfer system that allows the acclimation of Atlantic stingrays (Dasyatis sabina) from seawater (SW) to FW over 12h while minimizing other extraneous stressors. Blood and interrenal glands were sampled from one group of stingrays 24h after FW transfer, while another group was sampled two weeks after FW transfer. Two other groups served as mock-transfer controls in that they were treated and sampled in the same way, but remained in SW for the entire period. Plasma corticosteroids, osmolality, chloride, and urea were significantly lower in FW-acclimated stingrays (compared to mock-transfer stingrays) 24h after FW transfer. This pattern remained after two weeks in FW, with the exception that plasma corticosteroids returned to pre-acclimation levels. There were no significant differences between experimental groups in interrenal levels of mRNAs encoding key steroidogenic proteins (steroidogenic acute regulatory protein and cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme). Temporally decreased corticosteroid levels during FW acclimation are consistent with the unique strategy of euryhaline elasmobranchs, whereby lower plasma osmolality is maintained in FW vs. SW environments to reduce hydromineral gradients.

  4. Electron density and plasma dynamics of a colliding plasma experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiechula, J., E-mail: wiechula@physik.uni-frankfurt.de; Schönlein, A.; Iberler, M.; Hock, C.; Manegold, T.; Bohlender, B.; Jacoby, J. [Plasma Physics Group, Institute of Applied Physics, Goethe University, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    We present experimental results of two head-on colliding plasma sheaths accelerated by pulsed-power-driven coaxial plasma accelerators. The measurements have been performed in a small vacuum chamber with a neutral-gas prefill of ArH{sub 2} at gas pressures between 17 Pa and 400 Pa and load voltages between 4 kV and 9 kV. As the plasma sheaths collide, the electron density is significantly increased. The electron density reaches maximum values of ≈8 ⋅ 10{sup 15} cm{sup −3} for a single accelerated plasma and a maximum value of ≈2.6 ⋅ 10{sup 16} cm{sup −3} for the plasma collision. Overall a raise of the plasma density by a factor of 1.3 to 3.8 has been achieved. A scaling behavior has been derived from the values of the electron density which shows a disproportionately high increase of the electron density of the collisional case for higher applied voltages in comparison to a single accelerated plasma. Sequences of the plasma collision have been taken, using a fast framing camera to study the plasma dynamics. These sequences indicate a maximum collision velocity of 34 km/s.

  5. Urine and plasma propranolol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreasen, F; Jakobsen, P; Kornerup, H J; Pedersen, E B; Pedersen, O L

    1983-01-01

    Eight hypertensive patients who had been followed in an outpatient clinic during long-term therapy with propranolol (40 to 160 mg twice daily) were studied during a 24-hr stay in the ward. The usual oral dose was given and the total and free plasma concentrations were determined during the 24 hr and the urinary excretion of unchanged drug was measured. Average free plasma concentration of propranolol (y free) was calculated from: y free = Excreted propranolol (ng/24 hr)/Creatinine clearance (ml/24 hr). There was a significant relationship between log y free and average free plasma concentration (means free) determined from the directly measured plasma concentration curve: log y free = 0.0743 means free - 0.0466 (r = 0.98, P less than 0.001). In another group of propranolol-treated hypertensive patients there was a significant positive relationship between orosomucoid concentration and reciprocal of the free propranolol fraction in plasma. From this relationship the average total drug concentration (y total) was calculated from y free; there was a significant correlation with directly measured total plasma level: log y total = 0.0038 . means total + 1.0895 (r = 0.91, P less than 0.001). It is suggested that individually determined values of y free below 30 ng/ml and y total below 400 ng/ml (the concentration range studied) can be used to calculate the average mean 24-hr free and total plasma concentrations.

  6. Early kinetics of plasma cytomegalovirus DNA load in allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients in the era of highly sensitive real-time PCR assays: does it have any clinical value?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Estela; Muñoz-Cobo, Beatriz; Solano, Carlos; Amat, Paula; Navarro, David

    2014-02-01

    We report that in a population of allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients, determination of the viral doubling time (dt) of the cytomegalovirus (CMV) DNA plasma load predicted the eventual need for inception of preemptive antiviral therapy, whereas the level of the initial plasma CMV DNA load did not. The data thus indicated that determination of the dt of CMV DNA may be useful in the therapeutic management of CMV infection in this clinical setting.

  7. Effect of seawater immersion on plasma osmotic pressure and electrolyte balance following open chest trauma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李辉; 鹿尔驯; 虞积耀; 王大鹏; 马聪

    2002-01-01

    To explore the effect of seawater immersion on serum osmotic pressure and electrolytes balance following chest trauma in dogs. Methods: Twenty-five healthy adult dogs were used in the experiment. A canine model of right open pneumothorax was established by chest puncturing on all animals. Animals were divided into three groups: a control group (n = 10) with chest trauma without any immersion;a seawater group ( n = 10) immersed in seawater after chest trauma and a normal saline group ( n = 5 ) immersed in normal saline solution following chest trauma. Blood samples were taken at different time intervals to determine plasma osmotic pressure and electrolytes. The hemodynamic changes were also recorded. Results: Mortality in the seawater group was much higher than that of the control group and the normal saline group. The mean survival time in the seawater group lasted only 45 minutes, while in the control group and the normal saline group the average survival time was more than 4 hours (P < 0.01 ). One of the most important causes of death was hypernatremia and high osmolality. Severe electrolytes imbalance was observed in seawater group.Hypernatremia and high osmolality were the most significant factors of high mortality in the seawater group. Conclusions: Seawater immersion after chest trauma appears to be associated with severe electrolyte imbalance as well as high osmotic pressure, These may be the risk factors leading to fatal outcome.

  8. Plasma Antenna

    OpenAIRE

    N M Vijay

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental base of plasma antenna is the use of an ionized medium as a conductor. The plasma antenna is a radiofrequency antenna formed by a plasma columns, Filaments or sheets, which are excited by a surface wave. The relevance of this device is how rapidly it can be turned on and off, only applying an electrical pulse. Besides its wide carrier frequency, the great directivity and controllable antenna shape. Otherwise a disadvantage is that it needs energy to be ionized....

  9. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E

    2013-01-01

    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  10. The value of value congruence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jeffrey R; Cable, Daniel M

    2009-05-01

    Research on value congruence has attempted to explain why value congruence leads to positive outcomes, but few of these explanations have been tested empirically. In this article, the authors develop and test a theoretical model that integrates 4 key explanations of value congruence effects, which are framed in terms of communication, predictability, interpersonal attraction, and trust. These constructs are used to explain the process by which value congruence relates to job satisfaction, organizational identification, and intent to stay in the organization, after taking psychological need fulfillment into account. Data from a heterogeneous sample of employees from 4 organizations indicate that the relationships that link individual and organizational values to outcomes are explained primarily by the trust that employees place in the organization and its members, followed by communication, and, to a lesser extent, interpersonal attraction. Polynomial regression analyses reveal that the relationships emanating from individual and organizational values often deviated from the idealized value congruence relationship that underlies previous theory and research. The authors' results also show that individual and organizational values exhibited small but significant relationships with job satisfaction and organizational identification that bypassed the mediators in their model, indicating that additional explanations of value congruence effects should be pursued in future research. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  11. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  12. Value Representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  13. Plasma placental lactogen in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghuramulu, N

    1978-01-01

    Plasma placental lactogen (HPL) and urinary oestrogen levels were investigated in pregnant women belonging to low and high socio-economic groups. Plasma HPL levels increased progressively with increasing gestation in women of both the socio-economic groups. The mean values in the two groups were not statistically different at any period of gestation. No correlation was observed between the birth weight of the infant and the maternal plasma placental lactogen levels at term. A positive correlation was observed between urinary oestrogen excretion and plasma HPL concentration.

  14. Proton driven plasma wakefield generation in a parabolic plasma channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golian, Y.; Dorranian, D.

    2016-11-01

    An analytical model for the interaction of charged particle beams and plasma for a wakefield generation in a parabolic plasma channel is presented. In the suggested model, the plasma density profile has a minimum value on the propagation axis. A Gaussian proton beam is employed to excite the plasma wakefield in the channel. While previous works investigated on the simulation results and on the perturbation techniques in case of laser wakefield accelerations for a parabolic channel, we have carried out an analytical model and solved the accelerating field equation for proton beam in a parabolic plasma channel. The solution is expressed by Whittaker (hypergeometric) functions. Effects of plasma channel radius, proton bunch parameters and plasma parameters on the accelerating processes of proton driven plasma wakefield acceleration are studied. Results show that the higher accelerating fields could be generated in the PWFA scheme with modest reductions in the bunch size. Also, the modest increment in plasma channel radius is needed to obtain maximum accelerating gradient. In addition, the simulations of longitudinal and total radial wakefield in parabolic plasma channel are presented using LCODE. It is observed that the longitudinal wakefield generated by the bunch decreases with the distance behind the bunch while total radial wakefield increases with the distance behind the bunch.

  15. Influence of potassium ions and osmolality on the resting membrane potential of rabbit ventricular papillary muscle with estimation of the activity and the activity coefficient of internal potassium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, T; Fozzard, H A

    1975-11-01

    Resting membrane potentials of rabbit right ventricular papillary muscles were measured in modified Tyrode's solutions that were isotonic (1.0 X T), hypertonic (1.58 X T), or hypotonic (0.76 X T) at eight different concentrations of external potassium, [K]o, ranging from 0.78 to 100 mM. The amount of hyperpolarization produced by exposure to the hypertonic solutions was relatively constant with an average of 4.6 mv at all levels of [K]o except 0.78 and 1.56 mM. This potential change is much less than the 10.6 mv which would be predicted if the papillary muscles behaved as nearly perfect osmometers and the activity coefficient of intracellular potassium (K) remained constant. The amount of depolarization produced by exposure to the 0.76 X T hypotonic solutions averaged 6.8 mv at all levels of [K]o except 0.78 mM; this value is close to the predicted value of 6.9 mv. Variations in the activity and the activity coefficient of intracellular K were introduced to explain these discrepancies. We estimated that the activity of intracellular K in 1.58 X T hypertonic solution was increased 15-23% compared with that in isotonic solution. This change is much less than the 58% that would be predicted if the papillary muscle behaved as a nearly perfect osmometer. We also estimated that the activity of intracellular K in 0.76 X T hypotonic solution fell 22-26%, which is very close to the predicted value of 24%. The activity coefficient of intracellular K appeared to fall in 1.58 X T hypertonic solution to about 0.76 of its value in isotonic solution. This decline in the estimated activity coefficient of intracellular K could not be attributed to an increase in Coulombic attractive and repulsive forces as predicted by the Debye-Hückel equation for a univalent electrolyte.

  16. The association of 83 plasma proteins with CHD mortality, BMI, HDL-, and total-cholesterol in men: Applying multivariate statistics to identify proteins with prognostic value and biological relevance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geert Heidema, A.; Thissen, U.; Boer, J.M.A.; Bouwman, F.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Mariman, E.C.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we applied the multivariate statistical tool Partial Least Squares (PLS) to analyze the relative importance of 83 plasma proteins in relation to coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality and the intermediate end points body mass index, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol. From a Dutch

  17. COPD患者D-二聚体和纤维蛋白原检测的临床价值%The clinical value of D-Dimer and plasma fibrinogen in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洋; 龚建化; 黄河; 张家洪

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨COPD患者血浆D-二聚体和纤维蛋白原检测的临床意义.方法 分别检测122例按病情严重程度分期、分度的COPD患者和30例健康对照组血浆D-二聚体和纤维蛋白原含量,分析比较各组间血浆D-二聚体和纤维蛋白原含量的差异.结果 COPD患者血浆D-二聚体和纤维蛋白原含量明显高于健康对照组(P<0.05),且急性加重期明显高于稳定期(P<0.05).在75例急性加重期COPD患者中,轻、中、重、极重度患者其血浆D-二聚体和纤维蛋白原含量间相互比较(P<0.05).结论 COPD患者存在血液高凝状态,且随着病情的加重而加重,对其监测和预防性使用抗凝、溶栓剂是非常必要的.%Objective To investigate the clinical significance of the level of plasma D-dimer and plasma fibrinogen in patients with COPD. Methods According to severity stage, the plasma D-dimer and plasma fibrinogen level were measured in 122 patients with COPD. 30 healthy subjects were included as controls. All the measures of D-dimer and plasma fibrinogen were compared between the groups. Results The levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen in 122 patients were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05 ) , and the levels of D-dimer and fibrinogen in the acute exacerbation were significantly higher than those in the stable. In 75 patients with acute exacerbation of COPD patients, the levels of plasma D-dimer and fibrinogen in mild, moderate, severe and critical patients were compared, and the group differences were statistically significant (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion The patients with COPD are in a state of hy-percoagulability, and the levels of plasma D-dimer and fibrinogen are related to the severity of COPD attack. To monitor and preventively use anticoagulant, the use of thrombolytic agent is necessary.

  18. The Value of Value Sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sløk-Madsen, Stefan Kirkegaard; Christensen, Jesper

    The world over classrooms in business schools are being taught that corporate values can impact performance. The argument is typically that culture matter more than strategy plans and culture can be influenced and indeed changed by a shared corporate value set. While the claim seems intuitively a...... a unique contribution to the effects of investment in shared company values, and to whether agent rationality can be fundamentally changed by committed organizational efforts.......The world over classrooms in business schools are being taught that corporate values can impact performance. The argument is typically that culture matter more than strategy plans and culture can be influenced and indeed changed by a shared corporate value set. While the claim seems intuitively...... and anecdotally true surprisingly little hard evidence has been produced either for or against. This study attempts to rectify this. The study claims that for corporate values to matter they must at least align, and potentially alter, employee decision-making hence their concept of optimality and rational...

  19. Plasma fluoride and enamel fluorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angmar-Månsson, B; Ericsson, Y; Ekberg, O

    1976-11-24

    It is postulated that tissue fluid F concentrations are the primary determinants of flouride effects on bones and developing teeth and that these concentrations are dependent on, or mirrored by, blood plasma F. It has earlier been shown that the plasma F levels are dependent on the dietary F supply as well as on skeletal F concentration. Fasting and post-ingestion or postinjection plasma F levels have been determined in rats on F doses that cause different degrees of enamel fluorosis. The results indicate that temporary peak values rather than elevated fasting values are responsible for the occurrence of enamel fluorosis and that the peak values must approach about 10 muM in order to block enamel formation by the ameloblasts. The diagnostic and prognostic importance of plasma F determinations is discussed.

  20. 血浆内脂素对冠心病患者冠脉病变的预测价值%Evaluate the predictive value of plasma visfatin for the coronary lesion of the patients with coronary heart disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between the plasma visfalin level and the severity of coronary lesion. Methods The level of plasma visfalin from 50 patients with coronary arterial disease ( CAD, diagnosed by angiography) ,55 controls with abdominal obesity and 48 diabetes( DM) patients were detected and compared. Plasma visfatin was determined by an enzyme immu-noassay. The lesion severity of coronary arteries was assessed by Gensini coronary scoring system, and the correlation between plasma visfatin level and coronary lesion severity was evaluated. Results Plasma visfatin level of the CAD group was significantly increased compared to that of the control group and DM group[( 38. 21 ±7. 8) ng/ml vs (28. 31±6. 97 ) ng/ml vs (26. 74±3. 07) ng/ml,P < 0.05]. A significant positive correlation was found between coronary lesion severity score and Plasma visfalin level ( r = 0. 911, P < 0. 05 ) . Conclusion Plasma visfatin level may be relaled to the pathogenesis of CAD. Detection o f plasma visfatin might be helpful for early diagnosis of CAD. Patienls with higher Plasma visfalin level may have more severe coronary lesion.%目的 探讨血浆内脂素水平与冠心病冠脉病变程度的相关关系,为冠心病的早期诊断和评估冠脉病变程度提供辅助工具.方法 比较50例经冠脉造影确诊的冠心病患者(冠心病组)与55例门诊体检腹型肥胖患者(对照组)和48例2型糖尿病患者(糖尿病组)血浆内脂素水平;同时记录冠心病患者冠脉病变支数及Gensini冠脉病变积分,与血浆内脂素水平进行相关性分析.结果 冠心病组血浆内脂素水平为(38.21±7.8)ng/ml,对照组血浆内脂素水平为(28.31±6.97)ng/ml,糖尿病组血浆内脂素水平为(26.74±3.07)ng/m,差异有统计学意义(F=3.425,P<0.05);冠脉病变数目及Gensini冠脉病变积分均与血浆内脂素水平呈正相关(r值分别为0.864和0.911,均P<0.05).结论 血浆内脂素水平越高,冠脉病变程度越严重.

  1. Plasma Cleaning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  2. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D

    2003-01-01

    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  3. Value Analysis of Heparin Anticoagulant Plasma in the Emergency Biochemical Test%肝素抗凝血浆用于急诊生化检验的价值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳宝忠

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the feasibility of heparin anticoagulant plasma in the emergency biochemical test. Methods We select 40 cases of patients in our hospital from January to July in 2014 who need emergency biochemical test and collect from them 40 copies of blood specimens,each of which is divided evenly into routine plasma group and heparin anticoagulant plasma group.The two groups of specimens are tested under routine examination and theresults are compared. Results According to the results,it is of significant difference in testing K+、Na+、Clu but not in Cl-、Ca2+、Mg2+、Bun、ALT、Cr、AST between the two groups. Conclusion Heparin anticoagulant plasma is of more efficency in the emergency biochemical test and can be a substitute for routine plasma.%目的:探究肝素抗凝血浆用于急诊生化检验的可行性。方法选择我院于2014年1月~2014年7月期间收治的40例需急诊生化检验的患者,采集血液标本40份,每份标本分成两份,分别为常规血清组和肝素抗凝剂血浆组。按常规检测方法检测,并比较检验结果。结果检测结果显示,在K+、Na+、Clu等方面,组间差异显著;在Cl-、Ca2+、Mg2+、Bun、ALT、Cr、AST等方面,组间差异不显著。结论肝素抗凝血浆检测速度快,可代替常规血清进行生化检验项目检测。

  4. 不同体位血浆肾素和醛固酮及其比值诊断原发性醛固酮增多症的价值%Value of plasma renin, aldosterone and aldosterone to renin ratio in different positions to diagnosing primary aldosteronism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉杰; 李南方; 张菊红; 姚晓光; 李变

    2013-01-01

    Objective To discuss the values of plasma renin activity,plasma aldosterone concentration and aldosterone to renin ratio (ARR) in three positions (upright,sitting and supine positions) to diagnosing primary aldosteronism.Methods A total of 108 patients were detected plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone concentration in three positions by using radioimmunity assay,and received intravenous saline load test.The ROC curves of plasma renin activity,plasma aldosterone concentration and ARR were drawn respectively on the basis of the intravenous saline load test results as diagnostic standard for primary aldosteronism.Results The AUC values of plasma aldosterone concentration and ARR in supine position were the biggest,indicating a high diagnostic accuracy for primary aldosteronism.The optimum cut-off points of ARR and plasma aldosterone concentration in supine position were 118.3 hours and 53 ng/L,with the coincidences of 57.1 % and 41.1% with intravenous saline load test to diagnose primary aldosteronism.The sensitivity,specificity and Youden index of the combination of ARR ≥ 118.3 hours with plasma aldosterone concentration ≥53 ng/L in supine position were 47.6%,94.1% and 0.471,with the coincident rate of 85.7 %.Conclusion In the patients unable to undergo intravenous saline load test,ARR (≥118.3 hours) combined with plasma aldosterone concentration (≥ 53 ng/L in supine position could improve the diagnosis rate of primary aldosteronism.%目的 探讨立、坐、卧位血浆肾素、醛固酮及醛固酮/肾素比值(aldosterone to renin ratio,ARR)对原发性醛固酮增多症(primary aldosteronism,PA)的诊断价值.方法 采用放射免疫法检测108例高血压患者立、坐、卧位血浆肾素活性及醛固酮水平,并行静脉盐水负荷试验;以静脉盐水负荷试验为PA的诊断标准,分别绘制肾素、醛固酮及ARR的ROC曲线.结果 卧位醛固酮的AUC最大,卧位ARR的AUC最大,诊断PA的准确性较高;

  5. How to Patch Active Plasma and Collisionless Sheath: Pragmatical Guide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shneider, Mikhail N.; Kaganovich, Igor D.

    2002-11-01

    Most plasmas have very thin sheath compared with plasma dimension. This necessitates separate calculation of plasma and sheath. Bohm criterion provides boundary condition for calculation of plasma profiles. To calculate sheath properties a value of electric field at the plasma-sheath interface has to be specified in addition to Bohm criterion. The value of the boundary electric field and robust procedure to approximately patch plasma and collisionless sheath with a very good accuracy is reported. Additional information on the subject will be posted in http://www.pppl.gov/pub/report/2002/ http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/ Work supported by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory through a University Research Support Program.

  6. Hemograma, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade durante angiocardiografia pediátrica com ioxaglato Blood cell count, sodium, potassium, calcium, osmolality and viscosity, during pediatric angiocardiography with ioxaglate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Regis Silva Moura

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Os meios de contraste (MC introduzem alterações em alguns parâmetros sangüíneos, adquirindo, assim, mais importância na angiocardiografia pediátrica. MÉTODOS: Estudamos a presença e a severidade das mudanças no hematócrito, hemoglobina, leucócitos, sódio, potássio, cálcio, osmolalidade e viscosidade, em 35 crianças submetidas a angiocardiografia com ioxaglato, identificando, também, as variáveis independentes responsáveis por essas alterações. As amostras sangüíneas foram colhidas no início do procedimento (S1, no fim (S2 e 2h após (S3. RESULTADOS: Hematócrito: S1= 47,3±6,9%; S2= 40,7±7,4% (pPURPOSE: Children's blood changes during angiocardiography may not be only due to the contrast media (CM. METHODS: We studied the presence and severity of changes in those parameters in 35 pediatric patients undergoing angiocardiography with ioxaglate aiming to identify independent variables responsible for those changes. Blood samples were taken at the beginning of the procedure (S1, at the end (S2 and two hours later (S3. RESULTS: Hematocrit: S1= 47.3±6.9%; S2= 40.7± 7.4% (p<0.001, (related to the CM volume r=0.37, p<0.05. Hemoglobin: S1= 15±2.1g%; S2= 13.2±2.4g% (p<0.001, and S3= 12.7±2.5g% (NS. White blood cell count: S1= 7940±3040 leukocytes/mm³; S2= 6950± 2700/mm³ (NS; S3= 10830±4690 leukocytes/mm³, (p<0.001. Procedure duration (r=0.38, p<0.05 and 5% glucose fluid given between S2 and S3 (r=0.49, p<0.05 were isolated. Sodium: S1= 134.5±0.4mEq/L; S2= 130.7±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001 (due to 5% glucose fluid injected, r=0.61, p<0.01. Potassium: S1= 4.22±0.45mEq/L, S2= 3.83±0.4mEq/L (p<0.001. Calcium: S1= 9.13± 1.03mg%; S2= 8.4±0.91mg/dL. (related to the CM, r=0.43, p<0.01. Osmolality: S1= 293.3±12.5mOsm/kg; S2= 300.6±13.3mOsm/kg (p<0.001. Viscosity: S1= 3.36±0.81; S2= 3.09±0.74 (p<0.01; S3= 3.87±0.89, p<0.001. There was an indirect linear regression with the CM. CONCLUSION: There were profound

  7. 活化血浆凝固时间对评价血小板输注疗效价值的研究%Clinical Value of Activated Plasma Coagulation Time on Evaluation of Platelet Transfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈明艳; 邱群芳; 席雅娟; 彭友堂

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To study the value of activated plasma coagulation time ( APCT) on evaluation of platelet transfusion.Method:Patients with blood disease and blood platelets count (PLT) was less than 50× 109 L-1 in our hospital from January to December 2011 were selected,in which 34 hemorrhage patients were selected as the observation group , and 34 patients without hemorrhage were selected as the control group . PLT,APCT of two groups were detected ,platelet transfusion was adopted in patients whose PLT was less than 10×109L-1,detected APCT,PLT after anticoagulation,then calculated corrected count increment (CCI) and practical platelet recovery (PPR).Result:There were three patients adopted platelet transfusion ,difference of PLT≤20×109L-1 and PLT≤10×109L-1 in hemorrhage patients had no statistical significance (p>0.05), APCT had shortened compared to that before platelet transfusion ,difference was statistically signficant ( p<0. 01);in observation group platelet transfusion was effective in 29 patients,APCT was less than 80s after 24h, CCI of 2 patients and PPR of 5 patients met the invalid standard of platelet transfusion ,in addition,platelet transfusion of 5 patients was invalid,APCT was more than 80s after 24h ,only 2 patients’ CCI and PPR metthe invalid standard of platelet transfusion .Conclusion:ACT not only can show the number and quality chan-ges of blood platelet well , but also evaluate the efficacy of platelet transfusion more comprehensively .%目的:对用活化血浆凝固时间( APCT)评价血小板输注疗效的价值进行研究。方法:在2011年1月至12月于我院住院治疗的血小板计数(PLT)均<50×109L-1的血液病患者中,出血的患者34例为观察组,不出血34例为对照组。对两组患者静脉采血测PLT、APCT;再对观察组和对照组中PLT <10×109L-1的患者给予血小板输注,抗凝后测其APCT、PLT,并计算校正血小板增高指数(CCI)和实际血小板回收率

  8. Fair Value or Market Value?

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi; Lavinia Denisia Cuc; Robert Almaşi

    2014-01-01

    When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies reg...

  9. plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puač Nevena

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will present results for plasma sterilization of planktonic samples of two reference strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. We have used a plasma needle as a source of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma in all treatments. This device is already well characterized by OES, derivative probes and mass spectrometry. It was shown that power delivered to the plasma is bellow 2 W and that it produces the main radical oxygen and nitrogen species believed to be responsible for the sterilization process. Here we will only present results obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance which was used to detect the OH, H and NO species. Treatment time and power delivered to the plasma were found to have the strongest influence on sterilization. In all cases we have observed a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the concentration of bacteria and for the longest treatment time complete eradication. A more efficient sterilization was achieved in the case of gram negative bacteria.

  10. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M

    1997-01-01

    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  11. Plasma Dark Current in Self-Ionized Plasma Wakefield Accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oz, E.; Deng, S.; Katsouleas, T.; Muggli, P.; /Southern California U.; Iverson, R.; Johnson, D.K.; Krejcik, P.; O' Connell, C.; Siemann, R.H.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Clayton,; Huang, C.; Joshi, C.; Lu, W.; Marsh, K.A.; Mori, W.B.; Zhou, M.; /UCLA

    2006-01-30

    Evidence of particle trapping has been observed in a beam driven Plasma Wake Field Accelerator (PWFA) experiment, E164X, conducted at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center by a collaboration which includes USC, UCLA and SLAC. Such trapping produces plasma dark current when the wakefield amplitude is above a threshold value and may place a limit on the maximum acceleration gradient in a PWFA. Trapping and dark current are enhanced when in an ionizing plasma, that is self-ionized by the beam. Here we present experimental results.

  12. Plasma dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, F; Schekochihin, A A; Valentini, F

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the entire Universe and, through their dynamical interactions with matter, affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. How primordial cosmological seed fields arose and were further amplified to $\\mu$Gauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs, is a major theoretical puzzle still largely unconstrained by observations. Extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to collisional magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic-field growth and its sustainment through an efficient dynamo instability driven by chaotic motions is possible in such plasmas is not known. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a six-dimensional phase space necessary to answer this question have until recently remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic-field a...

  13. Valuing hope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, John; Walker, Simon; Hope, Tony

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that hope is of value in clinical ethics and that it can be important for clinicians to be sensitive to both the risks of false hope and the importance of retaining hope. However, this sensitivity requires an understanding of the complexity of hope and how it bears on different aspects of a well-functioning doctor-patient relationship. We discuss hopefulness and distinguish it, from three different kinds of hope, or 'hopes for', and then relate these distinctions back to differing accounts of autonomy. This analysis matters because it shows how an overly narrow view of the ethical obligations of a clinician to their patient, and autonomy, might lead to scenarios where patients regret the choices they make.

  14. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  15. Fair Value or Market Value?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Cosmin Gomoi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When taking into consideration the issue of defining the “fair value” concept, those less experimented in the area often fall in the “price trap”, which is considered as an equivalent of the fair value of financial structures. This valuation basis appears as a consequence of the trial to provide an “accurate image” by the financial statements and, also, as an opportunity for the premises offered by the activity continuing principle. The specialized literature generates ample controversies regarding the “fair value” concept and the “market value” concept. The paper aims to debate this issue, taking into account various opinions.

  16. The diagnostic value of plasma D-dimer and fibrinogen in lower limb deep venous thrombosis%血浆D-二聚体与纤维蛋白原在下肢深静脉血栓中的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭东

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨D-二聚体(DD)和纤维蛋白原(FIB)在下肢深静脉血栓形成(DVT)诊断中的临床意义。方法对52例疑似DVT患者进行血浆DD和FIB检测,并计算D-二聚体/纤维蛋白原比值(D/F值),根据彩色多普勒超声检查结果明确诊断,同时选取健康体检者50例作为对照组。结果 DVT组血浆DD、FIB及D/F值均明显高于健康对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01);DVT组与非DVT组比较,DVT组DD、FIB和D/F值明显高于非DVT组具有显著性差异(P<0.01),D/F值、DD、FIB对诊断DVT的敏感度分别为98%、94%、85%,D/F值在诊断DVT中较单独应用DD或FIB有较高的敏感度。结论检测血浆DD、FIB及D/F比值可提高DVT临床诊断的特异性,对下肢深静脉血栓的早期诊断具有重要的临床意义。%Objective To explore the diagnostic value of plasma D-dimer and fibrinogen in lower limb deep venous thrombosis(DVT). Methods 52 patients with suspected DVT were selected to be carried out the test on plasma DD and FIB :and calculated d-dimer/fibrinogen ratio(D/F values).According to color doppler ultrasonography examination results determined diagnosis. At the same time: 50 healthy subjects were in the control group. Results The plasma DD and FIB levels and D/F values in DVT group were significantly higher than that of the healthy control group:the differences were statistically significant(P < 0.01). The plasma DD and FIB levels and D/F values in DVT group were higher than those in non-DVT group:and there was significant difference(P<0.01). The sensitivity of D/F values:DD and FIB were respectively 98%,94%,85%.The D/F values had higher sensitivity than the DD or FIB increased in the diagnosis of DVT. Conclusion The testing of plasma DD:FIB and D/F values could improve the specificity in DVT diagnosis and had important clinical significance on the early diagnosis of DVT.

  17. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  18. Valuing vaccination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärnighausen, Till; Bloom, David E.; Cafiero-Fonseca, Elizabeth T.; O’Brien, Jennifer Carroll

    2014-01-01

    Vaccination has led to remarkable health gains over the last century. However, large coverage gaps remain, which will require significant financial resources and political will to address. In recent years, a compelling line of inquiry has established the economic benefits of health, at both the individual and aggregate levels. Most existing economic evaluations of particular health interventions fail to account for this new research, leading to potentially sizable undervaluation of those interventions. In line with this new research, we set forth a framework for conceptualizing the full benefits of vaccination, including avoided medical care costs, outcome-related productivity gains, behavior-related productivity gains, community health externalities, community economic externalities, and the value of risk reduction and pure health gains. We also review literature highlighting the magnitude of these sources of benefit for different vaccinations. Finally, we outline the steps that need to be taken to implement a broad-approach economic evaluation and discuss the implications of this work for research, policy, and resource allocation for vaccine development and delivery. PMID:25136129

  19. Neutrino oscillations in a turbulent plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, J. T. [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP, CEP 05508-090 Brazil and IPFN, Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Haas, F. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Paraná, Curitiba PR, CEP 81531-990 (Brazil)

    2013-07-15

    A new model for the joint neutrino flavor and plasma oscillations is introduced, in terms of the dynamics of the neutrino flavor polarization vector in a plasma background. Fundamental solutions are found for both time-invariant and time-dependent media, considering slow and fast variations of the electron plasma density. The model is shown to be described by a generalized Hamiltonian formalism. In the case of a broad spectrum of electron plasma waves, a statistical approach indicates the shift of both equilibrium value and frequency oscillation of flavor coherence, due to the existence of a turbulent plasma background.

  20. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  1. The Clinical Diagnostic Value of Testing Plasma Cardiotrophin-1 in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure%心肌营养素1血浆水平对慢性心力衰竭诊断的临床价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉峰; 牛丽丽; 胡保奎

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨检测心肌营养素1(CT-1)血浆水平对慢性心力衰竭(CHF)诊断的临床价值.方法 选择74例CHF患者作为病例组,按NYHA心功能分级分组:心功能Ⅱ级24例,心功能Ⅲ 28例,心功能Ⅳ 22例.25例健康体检者作为对照组.对所有的研究对象用酶标免疫分析方法测定血浆CT-1浓度,酶联免疫吸附法测定脑钠肽(BNP)血浆浓度,分析CT-1和BNP血浆浓度与CHF心功能的关系.结果 病例组血浆CT-1和BNP浓度明显高于对照组,病例组血浆CT-1和BNP浓度随着NYHA分级增高而逐级升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).CT-1和BNP血浆浓度与左心室射血分数呈负相关性(CT-1:r=-0.755;BNP:r=-0.684,均P<0.01).结论 血浆CT-1浓度可能是反映CHF严重程度的指标.联合测定CT-1和BNP血浆浓度对CHF的早期筛查诊断具有重要的临床价值.%Objective To investigate the clinical value of detection of plasma levels of cardiotrophin-1 ( CT-1 )for the diagnosis of chronic heart failure. Methods 74 cases of patients with chronic heart failure ( CHF )were recruited as the case group, according to the NYHA classification of cardie function, class Ⅱ 24 cases ; class Ⅲ 28 cases; class Ⅳ 22 cases; 25 healthy cases were selected as control group. All the research objects were tested plasma CT-1 concentration by enzyme immunoassay,plasma levels of BNP were determined by immune fluorescence. Results The plasma CT-1 and BNP concentrations of case group were significantly higher than those in the control group. The plasma CT-1 and BNP concentrationsincreased along with NYHA grade increase,the differences were significant( P <0.01 ). CT-1 and BNP plasma concentrations and left ventricular ejection fraction( LVEF)were negatively correlated( CT-1 :r = -0. 755; BNP:r = -0. 684,P <0. 01 ). Conclusion CT-1 plasma concentration may be an index to reflectCHF severity. Combined determination of CT-1 and BNP plasma concentrations has important clinical value in CHF

  2. Determination of heparin sodium anticoagulation plasma concentration of the electrolyte and the study on the normal reference value%肝素钠抗凝血浆测定电解质浓度及正常参考值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒲泽晏; 丁波; 李祥坤; 范婵

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较用间接电极法测定血清和肝素钠抗凝血浆电解质浓度的差别,探讨肝素钠抗凝血浆电解质浓度的正常参考值.方法 采用罗氏MUDULAR ISE900模块式电解质分析仪检测70例体检者血清和肝素钠抗凝血浆的电解质浓度.结果 血清与肝素抗凝血浆的K+、Na+、Cl-的测定结果差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),平均差值分别为0.24、1.42、0.94 mmol/L,相对偏差分别为5.60%、0.99%和0.89%.Na+和Cl-差别小,相对偏差小于1%,在临床上无实际意义;K+的差异已超过5%,且相对恒定.统计1 739例健康体检者肝素钠抗凝血浆电解质浓度,以x±2s为正常参考质范围,则K+:3.27~4.67 mmol/L,Na+:137.9~147.5 mmol/L,Cl-:99.2~110.8 mmol/L.结论 肝素钠是一种较理想的电解质抗凝剂,适合于电解质的测定,但是肝素钠抗凝血浆K+明显低于血清,不能沿用血清的正常参考值,建议各实验室建立自已的正常参考范围.%Objective To compare the; difference of serum and heparin sodium anticoagulation plasma electrolyte concentration by indirect electrode method,and to explore the normal reference values of heparin sodium anticoagulation plasma electrolyte con -cent ration .Methods Using the Roche MUDULAR ISE900 modular electrolyte analyzer to test 70 healthy persons electrolyte in serum and heparin sodium anticoagulant plasma . Results The difference of K,Na and Cl lenels were statistically significant (P< 0 .01),The average difference of the serum and plasma K,Na and Cl were 0 .24 mmol/L,1 .42 mmol/L and 0 .94 mmol/L respectively,and the relative deviation were 5 .6%,0 .99% and 0 .89%.The difference of Na and Cl was small and the relative deviation were less than l%,which no practical significance was in clinic ;while the difference of the K in serum and plasma has exceeded 5/o and constant relatively .We analyzed the concentration of plasma electrolyte in 1 739 healthy examination adults .The normal reference value was le±2s

  3. High-beta plasma blobs in the morningside plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Haerendel

    Full Text Available Equator-S frequently encountered, i.e. on 30% of the orbits between 1 March and 17 April 1998, strong variations of the magnetic field strength of typically 5–15-min duration outside about 9RE during the late-night/early-morning hours. Very high-plasma beta values were found, varying between 1 and 10 or more. Close conjunctions between Equator-S and Geotail revealed the spatial structure of these "plasma blobs" and their lifetime. They are typically 5–10° wide in longitude and have an antisymmetric plasma or magnetic pressure distribution with respect to the equator, while being altogether low-latitude phenomena 
    (≤ 15°. They drift slowly sunward, exchange plasma across the equator and have a lifetime of at least 15–30 min. While their spatial structure may be due to some sort of mirror instability, little is known about the origin of the high-beta plasma. It is speculated that the morningside boundary layer somewhat further tailward may be the source of this plasma. This would be consistent with the preference of the plasma blobs to occur during quiet conditions, although they are also found during substorm periods. The relation to auroral phenomena in the morningside oval is uncertain. The energy deposition may be mostly too weak to generate a visible signature. However, patchy aurora remains a candidate for more disturbed periods.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (plasma convection; plasma sheet; plasma waves and instabilities

  4. 基于体表参数的2h口服葡萄糖耐量试验各时间点血糖分析%Plasma Glucose Values at Different Time Points During 2 hOGTT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任秋霞; 胡志锋

    2014-01-01

    Objective Toanalyzetheolasmaglucosevaluesatvaryingtimeoointsof2horalglucosetolerancetest ( OGTT)and its relationshio to age,body mass index( BMI),waist circumference( WC),waist-hio ratio( WHoR),waist-heightratio(WHtR).Methods InMarch2013,inHuaianDistrict,bysimolerandomsamolingmethod,asurveywas carried out in 229 subjects(50 males,179 females,age >45 years old). According to BMI,the subjects were divided into grouos normal BMI( NBMI grouo,BMIreference value( WC of males≤85 cm,WC of females≤80 cm),waist≤reference value,and the glucose values at va-rying time ooints of 2 hOGTT were comoared between 2 grouos. According to WHoR,the subjects were divided into grouos WHR> reference value(WHoR of males≤0. 9,WHoR of females≤0. 85),WHoR≤reference value,the glucose values at varying time ooints of 2 hOGTT were comoared between 2 grouos. According to WHtR,the subjects were divided into grouosWHtR ≤reference value(reference value =0. 5),waist -height ratio >reference value,the glucose values at varying time ooints of 2 hOGTT were comoared between 2 grouos. Linear regression correlation was used to analyze the relationshio of age, BMI,WC,WHoR,WHtRtoglucosevaluesatvaryingtimeoointof2hOGTT.Results Takingglucosevaluesattimeooints of 2 hOGTT as deoendent variable and age as indeoendent variable,linear regression analysis showed that glucose values at hours 0. 5,1. 0,2. 0 after OGTT were correlated linearly with age(Preference value grouo than in WC≤reference value at hours 1. 0,2. 0 after OGTT(P0. 05). Taking glu-cose value at time ooints of 2 hOGTT as deoendent variable and WC as indeoendent variable,linear regression analysis showed that glucose values were correlated linearly with WC at hours 0. 5,1. 0 after OGTT(Preference value and WHoR≤reference value(P>0. 05),and glucose values were higher in female WHoR>reference grouo than in WHoR ≤reference value grouo(Preference value grouo than in WHtR ≤reference value grouo at hours 0. 5,1. 0 after OGTT(P45

  5. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.

    1982-10-01

    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  6. Plasma preparation and storage for African elephants (Loxodonta africana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knauf, Sascha; Blad-Stahl, Julia; Lawrenz, Arne; Schuerer, Ulrich; Wehrend, Axel

    2009-03-01

    The use of plasma as a life-saving tool for neonatal African elephants (Loxodonta africana) that failed passive transfer of immunoglobulins is proposed. The methodology of blood sampling, plasma extraction, and plasma storage is described. Values for cellular component sedimentation and biochemical parameters of extracted plasma that was collected from 2 female elephants is presented. The proposal for a central plasma bank for elephants in European zoos is suggested.

  7. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.; McMillen, Donald F.; Woloszko, Jean

    2005-06-01

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  8. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, Kenneth R; McMillen, Donald F; Woloszko, Jean [ArthroCare Corp., Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3523 (United States)

    2005-06-07

    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  9. Revisiting the plasma sheath - dust in plasma sheath

    CERN Document Server

    Das, G C; Bora, M P

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we have considered the formation of warm plasma sheath in the vicinity of a wall in a plasma with considerable presence of dust particles. As an example, we have used the parameters relevant in case of lunar plasma sheath, though the results obtained in this work could be applied to any other physical situation such as laboratory plasma. In the ion-acoustic time scale, we neglect the dust dynamics. The dust particles affect the sheath dynamics by affecting the Poisson equation which determines the plasma potential in the sheath region. We have assumed the current to a dust particle to be balanced throughout the analysis. This makes the grain potential dependent on plasma potential, which is then incorporated into the Poisson equation. The resultant numerical model becomes an initial value problem, which is described by a 1-D integro-differential equation, which is then solved self-consistently by incorporating the change in plasma potential caused by inclusion of the dust potential in the Poisso...

  10. Microinstabilities in stellarator plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, T.; Nasim, M.H.; Persson, M. [Department of Electromagnetics and Euratom/VR Association, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2003-07-01

    Linear stability and localization of ion temperature gradient modes in fully 3-dimensional stellarator plasmas is calculated in the electrostatic limit. A ballooning mode formalism with WKB assumption is applied to reduce the equations into ordinary differential equation along the field lines which are solved numerically for different plasma parameters. The results are correlated with the geometrical effects such as magnetic curvature, local magnetic shear and its integrated value along the field line and the effects of trapped electrons are also investigated. The eigenfunctions of the most unstable modes are found to be localized but the nodes in the amplitude of the eigenfunctions may be large depending upon the location on the magnetic surface. The results are compared and contrasted with calculations in tokamak geometry and the implications on future stellarator design is also discussed. (orig.)

  11. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A

    1985-01-01

    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  12. Collapse of nonlinear electron plasma waves in a plasma layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimalsky, V.; Koshevaya, S.; Rapoport, Yu; Kotsarenko, A.

    2016-10-01

    The excitation of nonlinear electron plasma waves in the plasma layer is investigated theoretically. This excitation is realized by means of initial oscillatory perturbations of the volume electron concentration or by initial oscillatory distributions of the longitudinal electron velocity. The amplitudes of the initial perturbations are small and the manifestation of the volume nonlinearity is absent. When the amplitudes of the initial perturbations exceed some thresholds, the values of the electron concentration near the plasma boundary increase catastrophically. The maxima of the electron concentration reach extremely high magnitudes, and sharp peaks in the electron concentration occur, which are localized both in the longitudinal and transverse directions. This effect is interpreted as wave collapse near the plasma boundary.

  13. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U

    2013-07-01

    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  14. Value of plasma exchange in the treatment of patients with severe liver disease in pregnancy%血浆置换在妊娠期重症肝病患者治疗中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏绪霞; 熊亮; 陆平兰; 易小猛; 吕海金; 刘剑戎; 李敏如; 安玉玲; 易慧敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨血浆置换在妊娠期重症肝病患者治疗中的作用及安全性。方法回顾性分析2009年3月至2013年11月在中山大学附属第三医院外科ICU接受诊治的28例妊娠期重症肝病患者临床资料。根据患者治疗方案分为治疗组与对照组,其中治疗组12例,年龄21~28岁,中位年龄25岁;对照组16例,年龄18~29岁,中位年龄24岁。所有患者均签署知情同意书,符合医学伦理学规定。入组患者均分娩后转入外科ICU,予以抗感染、抗病毒、护肝、利胆、补充人血白蛋白和丙种球蛋白、输注凝血物质等治疗。治疗组在上述治疗的基础上予以新鲜同型血浆置换治疗。比较两组临床检验指标和临床疗效,观察治疗组血浆置换后的不良反应情况。两组患者检验指标比较采用t检验,率的比较采用χ2检验。结果治疗组患者治疗后血TB、ALB、Scr、空腹血糖(FPG)、凝血酶原活动度(PTA)和动脉血乳酸(Lac)分别为(197±69)μmol/L、(30±7)g/L、(111±42)μmol/L、(5.7±2.4)mmol/L、(55±24)%、(2.3±0.6)mmol/L,对照组相应为(299±113)μmol/L、(24±6)g/L、(165±82)μmol/L、(3.7±1.7)mmol/L、(33±11)%(、4.4±1.5)mmol/L,治疗组较对照组明显改善(t=-3.453,2.389,-4.892,2.798,6.079,-3.339;P<0.05)。治疗组有效率为92%(11/12),明显高于对照组的56%(9/16)(χ2=4.215,P<0.05)。治疗组患者中1例输注血浆后出现一过性低血压,予小剂量血管活性药物调控,1h后血压恢复正常。结论血浆置换能改善妊娠期重症肝病患者的临床检验指标,提高临床疗效,是一种安全、有效的治疗方法。%Objective To investigate the therapeutic effect and safety of plasma exchange in the treatment of patients with severe liver disease in pregnancy. Methods Clinical data of 28 patients with severe liver disease in pregnancy in

  15. Efficient magnetic fields for supporting toroidal plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Landreman, Matt

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic field that supports tokamak and stellarator plasmas must be produced by coils well separated from the plasma. However the larger the separation, the more difficult it is to produce a given magnetic field in the plasma region, so plasma configurations should be chosen that can be supported as efficiently as possible by distant coils. The properties of curl-free magnetic fields allow magnetic field distributions to be ranked in order of their difficulty of production from a distance. Plasma shapes with low curvature and spectral width may be difficult to support, whereas plasma shapes with sharp edges may be efficiently supported by distant coils. Two measures of difficulty, which correctly identify such differences in difficulty, will be examined. These measures, which can be expressed as matrices, relate the externally-produced normal magnetic field on the plasma surface to the either the normal field or current on a distant control surface. A singular value decomposition (SVD) of either matrix y...

  16. Relationship between urinary concentrating ability, arginine vasopressin in plasma and blood pressure after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, E B; Danielsen, H; Nielsen, A H; Knudsen, F; Jensen, T; Kornerup, H J; Madsen, M

    1985-06-01

    Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and serum osmolality (Sosm) were determined in plasma before and after a 24-h period of water deprivation in 19 patients with post-renal-transplant hypertension (group I), 14 patients with normal blood pressure after renal transplantation (group II), and 16 healthy control subjects (group III). Urine was collected in four periods of 6 h each for measurement of urine volume (V), urine osmolality (Uosm) and tubular capacity for reabsorption of water (Tc water). AVP and Sosm increased significantly in all groups. The AVP levels were the same in groups I and II, but higher in group I than III both before and after water deprivation. In group II, AVP was higher than in group III only after water deprivation; V was significantly reduced in all groups. In groups I and II, V, Tc water and Uosm were the same. In group III, V was significantly lower than in groups I and II in the last three 6-h periods, and in group III, Tc water was higher in the first 6-h period than in groups I and II. There was a significant positive correlation between AVP and Sosm in all groups. In conclusion, renal water excretion cannot be reduced as rapidly and to the same degree in renal transplant recipients as in control subjects because of a decreased renal capacity for reabsorption of water. The higher AVP level in the transplant recipients may be a compensatory phenomenon for the decreased responsiveness of the renal collecting ducts in the transplanted kidneys. The sensitivity of the osmoreceptors to changes in osmotic stimuli was normal.

  17. 血浆EB病毒DNA载量检测在儿童EB病毒感染中的应用价值%The value of plasma Epstein-Barr vi rus DNA load detection in EB vi rus infection of children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡荣盛; 徐亚丽; 俞晓春; 薛静俊; 张超

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the value of plasma EBV DNA load detection in EBV infection of children . METHODS A total of 189 children with EB virus infection were selected using laboratory parameters control study (123 cases of EBV primary infection ,66 cases of EBV-recurrence infection ) and 153 cases of non-EBV-infected children (135 cases of EBV previous infection ,18 cases of non-EB virus infection) .The real-time quantitative PCR method was used for detection of plasma EBV DNA load and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA ) detection of EBV antibody spectrum .33 cases of primary EB virus-infected children were tracked and monitored for two weeks ,2 ,6 months for the change of plasma EBV NDA load and EBV antibody spectrum .RESULTS The plasma EBV DNA positive rate was 22 .2% in the EBV infection group ,and the plasma EBV DNA load was 3 .72 lgcopies/ml .The plasma EBV DNA positive rate in EBV primary infection group and recurrent infection group were 26 .8% and 13 .6% respectively ,and the difference was significant (P< 0 .05) .In diagnosis of children Epstein-Barr virus infection , the plasma EBV DNA sensitivity was 22 .2% , specificity was 100% ,and the diagnosis rate was 57 .0% ,the difference of plasma EBV DNA and EBV-CA IgM diagnostic coincidence rate was not significant .In Children′s EB virus primary infection diagnosis ,the plasma EBV DNA sensitivity was 26 .8% , specificity was 95 .7% ,and the diagnosis rate was 54 .4% ,the difference of plasma EBV DNA and EBV-CA IgM diagnostic coincidence rate was significant (P<0 .05) .The consistency of plasma EBV DNA and EBV-CA IgM test results was not good ,and the difference was statistically significant (P< 0 .05) .The plasma EBV DNA negative conversion ratio in 33 cases of acute EB virus-infected children was 84 .8% (2 weeks) ,93 .9% (2 months ) ,EBV antibody spectrum from primary infection to previous infection was 6 .1% for two months and 93 .9% for 6 months .CONCLUSION Plasma EBV DNA load detection can

  18. Detection limits of about 350 prominent lines of 65 elements observed in 50 and 27 MHz inductively coupled plasmas (ICP): effects of source characteristics, noise and spectral bandwidth-"Standard" values for the 50 MHz ICP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boumans, P. W. J. M.; Vrakking, J. J. A. M.

    This paper links up with a previous publication by the same authors [ Spectrochim. Acta41B, 1235 (1986)] dealing with the measurement of the effective line profiles of about 350 prominent lines at high spectral resolution and the determination of the physical widths of these lines. In the present work the line widths are used for a breakdown of the detection limits obtained with these lines using different ICPs and different spectrometers. This breakdown takes into account the separate effects of source characteristics, noise, and spectral bandwidth. The availability of the numerical values of the physical widths of a large number of lines permitted a more rigorous approach than in a previous work [ Spectrochim. Acta40B, 1437 (1985)]. The present approach was applied to detection limits obtained in this work with a 50 MHz ICP at high spectral resolution and to results reported by W INGEet al. [ Appl. Spectrosc.33, 206 (1979)] and WOHLERS [ ICP Information Newslett.10, 601 (1985)]for 27 MHz ICPs. The 50 MHz ICP was shown to have an advantage in source signal-to-background ratio (SBR) with respect to either of the two 27 MHz ICPs. This SBR advantage was a factor of 3-15 with respect to the "Winge ICP" and a factor of 2-6 with respect to the "Wohlers ICP". The approach was also used to convert detection limits measured in the 50 MHz ICP at high resolution into values for 15 pm spectral bandwidth and a relative standard deviation of the background signal equal to 1%. These values are recommended as standards of performance for the conventional argon ICP. The paper comprises a tabulation of the complete results for the 350 prominent lines and includes four sets of detection limits for these lines.

  19. Modeling electronegative plasma discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, A.J.; Lieberman, M.A. [Univ. of California, Berkley, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    Macroscopic analytic models for a three-component electronegative gas discharge are developed. Assuming the negative ions to be in Boltzmann equilibrium, a positive ion ambipolar diffusion equation is derived. The discharge consists of an electronegative core and electropositive edges. The electron density in the core is nearly uniform, allowing a parabolic approximation to the plasma profile to be employed. The resulting equilibrium equations are solved analytically and matched to a constant mobility transport model of an electropositive edge plasma. The solutions are compared to a simulation of a parallel-plane r.f. driven oxygen plasma for p = 50 mTorr and n{sub eo}= 2.4 x 10{sup 15} m{sup -3}. The ratio {alpha}{sub o} of central negative ion density to electron density, and the electron temperature T{sub e}, found in the simulation, are in reasonable agreement with the values calculated from the model. The model is extended to: (1) low pressures, where a variable mobility model is used in the electropositive edge region; and (2) high {alpha}{sub o} in which the edge region disappears. The inclusion of a second positive ion species, which can be very important in describing electronegative discharges used for materials processing, is a possible extension of the model.

  20. Characteristics of plasma properties in an ablative pulsed plasma thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenherr, Tony; Nees, Frank; Arakawa, Yoshihiro [Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, University of Tokyo, Bunkyo, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Komurasaki, Kimiya [Department of Advanced Energy, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8561 (Japan); Herdrich, Georg [Institute of Space Systems (IRS), University of Stuttgart, 70569 Stuttgart, Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    Pulsed plasma thrusters are electric space propulsion devices which create a highly transient plasma bulk in a short-time arc discharge that is expelled to create thrust. The transitional character and the dependency on the discharge properties are yet to be elucidated. In this study, optical emission spectroscopy and Mach-Zehnder interferometry are applied to investigate the plasma properties in variation of time, space, and discharge energy. Electron temperature, electron density, and Knudsen numbers are derived for the plasma bulk and discussed. Temperatures were found to be in the order of 1.7 to 3.1 eV, whereas electron densities showed maximum values of more than 10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. Both values showed strong dependency on the discharge voltage and were typically higher closer to the electrodes. Capacitance and time showed less influence. Knudsen numbers were derived to be in the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2}, thus, indicating a continuum flow behavior in the main plasma bulk.

  1. Plasma Dispersion Function for the Kappa Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, John J.

    2004-01-01

    The plasma dispersion function is computed for a homogeneous isotropic plasma in which the particle velocities are distributed according to a Kappa distribution. An ordinary differential equation is derived for the plasma dispersion function and it is shown that the solution can be written in terms of Gauss' hypergeometric function. Using the extensive theory of the hypergeometric function, various mathematical properties of the plasma dispersion function are derived including symmetry relations, series expansions, integral representations, and closed form expressions for integer and half-integer values of K.

  2. Plasma and Plasma Protein Product Transfusion: A Canadian Blood Services Centre for Innovation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Al-Habsi, Khalid S; Golder, Mia; Walsh, Geraldine M; Sheffield, William P

    2015-07-01

    Plasma obtained via whole blood donation processing or via apheresis technology can either be transfused directly to patients or pooled and fractionated into plasma protein products that are concentrates of 1 or more purified plasma protein. The evidence base supporting clinical efficacy in most of the indications for which plasma is transfused is weak, whereas high-quality evidence supports the efficacy of plasma protein products in at least some of the clinical settings in which they are used. Transfusable plasma utilization remains composed in part of applications that fall outside of clinical practice guidelines. Plasma contains all of the soluble coagulation factors and is frequently transfused in efforts to restore or reinforce patient hemostasis. The biochemical complexities of coagulation have in recent years been rationalized in newer cell-based models that supplement the cascade hypothesis. Efforts to normalize widely used clinical hemostasis screening test values by plasma transfusion are thought to be misplaced, but superior rapid tests have been slow to emerge. The advent of non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants has brought new challenges to clinical laboratories in plasma testing and to clinicians needing to reverse non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants urgently. Current plasma-related controversies include prophylactic plasma transfusion before invasive procedures, plasma vs prothrombin complex concentrates for urgent warfarin reversal, and the utility of increased ratios of plasma to red blood cell units transfused in massive transfusion protocols. The first recombinant plasma protein products to reach the clinic were recombinant hemophilia treatment products, and these donor-free equivalents to factors VIII and IX are now being supplemented with novel products whose circulatory half-lives have been increased by chemical modification or genetic fusion. Achieving optimal plasma utilization is an ongoing challenge in the interconnected

  3. Plasma Free Metanephrines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Plasma Free Metanephrines Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Plasma Metanephrines Formal name: Fractionated Plasma Free Metanephrines (Metanephrine ...

  4. Improved plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.

    1971-01-01

    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  5. Cholecystokinin Elevates Mouse Plasma Lipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lichun; Yang, Hong; Lin, Xinghua; Okoro, Emmanuel U.; Guo, Zhongmao

    2012-01-01

    Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR−/−) mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL) with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo) B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR−/− mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine. PMID:23300532

  6. Cholecystokinin elevates mouse plasma lipids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lichun Zhou

    Full Text Available Cholecystokinin (CCK is a peptide hormone that induces bile release into the intestinal lumen which in turn aids in fat digestion and absorption in the intestine. While excretion of bile acids and cholesterol into the feces eliminates cholesterol from the body, this report examined the effect of CCK on increasing plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in mice. Our data demonstrated that intravenous injection of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK at a dose of 50 ng/kg significantly increased plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels by 22 and 31%, respectively, in fasting low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout (LDLR(-/- mice. The same dose of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK induced 6 and 13% increases in plasma triglyceride and cholesterol, respectively, in wild-type mice. However, these particular before and after CCK treatment values did not achieve statistical significance. Oral feeding of olive oil further elevated plasma triglycerides, but did not alter plasma cholesterol levels in CCK-treated mice. The increased plasma cholesterol in CCK-treated mice was distributed in very-low, low and high density lipoproteins (VLDL, LDL and HDL with less of an increase in HDL. Correspondingly, the plasma apolipoprotein (apo B48, B100, apoE and apoAI levels were significantly higher in the CCK-treated mice than in untreated control mice. Ligation of the bile duct, blocking CCK receptors with proglumide or inhibition of Niemann-Pick C1 Like 1 transporter with ezetimibe reduced the hypercholesterolemic effect of [Thr28, Nle31]-CCK in LDLR(-/- mice. These findings suggest that CCK-increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides as a result of the reabsorption of biliary lipids from the intestine.

  7. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  8. Surface-wave plasma source with magnetic multicusp fields; Multicusp jiba tojikome hyomenha plasma gen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsuda, M.; Ono, K.; Tsuchihashi, M.; Hanazaki, M.; Komemura, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    A new-type microwave plasma source has been developed for materials processing. The plasma reactor employed a launcher of azimuthally symmetric surface waves at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and also magnetic multicusp fields around the reactor chamber walls. This configuration yielded high-density (Ne {>=} 10{sup 11}cm{sup -3}) plasmas sustained by surface waves even at low gas pressures below 10 m Torr, following easy plasma ignition by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) discharges. Electrical and optical diagnostics were made to obtain the plasma properties in Ar. It was shown that a transition from ECR excited to surface-wave excited plasmas occurs under conditions where the plasma electron density exceeds a critical value of Ne-1 times 10{sup 11}cm{sup -3}. 21 refs., 14 figs.

  9. Simulation of laser interaction with ablative plasma and hydrodynamic behavior of laser supported plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong Huifeng; Yuan Hong [Institute of Fluid Physics, Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics, P.O. Box 919-101, Mianyang, Sichuan 621900 (China); Tang Zhiping [CAS Key Laboratory for Mechanical Behavior and Design of Materials, Department of Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)

    2013-01-28

    When an intense laser beam irradiates on a solid target, ambient air ionizes and becomes plasma, while part of the target rises in temperature, melts, vaporizes, ionizes, and yet becomes plasma. A general Godunov finite difference scheme WENO (Weighted Essentially Non-Oscillatory Scheme) with fifth-order accuracy is used to simulate 2-dimensional axis symmetrical laser-supported plasma flow field in the process of laser ablation. The model of the calculation of ionization degree of plasma and the interaction between laser beam and plasma are considered in the simulation. The numerical simulations obtain the profiles of temperature, density, and velocity at different times which show the evolvement of the ablative plasma. The simulated results show that the laser energy is strongly absorbed by plasma on target surface and that the velocity of laser supported detonation (LSD) wave is half of the ideal LSD value derived from Chapman-Jouguet detonation theory.

  10. Plasma hyperosmolality improves tolerance to combined heat stress and central hypovolemia in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Daniel; Romero, Steven A; Ngo, Hai; Poh, Paula Y S; Crandall, Craig G

    2017-03-01

    Heat stress profoundly impairs tolerance to central hypovolemia in humans via a number of mechanisms including heat-induced hypovolemia. However, heat stress also elevates plasma osmolality; the effects of which on tolerance to central hypovolemia remain unknown. This study examined the effect of plasma hyperosmolality on tolerance to central hypovolemia in heat-stressed humans. With the use of a counterbalanced and crossover design, 12 subjects (1 female) received intravenous infusion of either 0.9% iso-osmotic (ISO) or 3.0% hyperosmotic (HYPER) saline. Subjects were subsequently heated until core temperature increased ~1.4°C, after which all subjects underwent progressive lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) to presyncope. Plasma hyperosmolality improved LBNP tolerance (ISO: 288 ± 193 vs. 382 ± 145 mmHg × min, P = 0.04). However, no differences in mean arterial pressure (P = 0.10), heart rate (P = 0.09), or muscle sympathetic nerve activity (P = 0.60, n = 6) were observed between conditions. When individual data were assessed, LBNP tolerance improved ≥25% in eight subjects but remained unchanged in the remaining four subjects. In subjects who exhibited improved LBNP tolerance, plasma hyperosmolality resulted in elevated mean arterial pressure (ISO: 62 ± 10 vs. 72 ± 9 mmHg, P < 0.01) and a greater increase in heart rate (ISO: +12 ± 24 vs. HYPER: +23 ± 17 beats/min, P = 0.05) before presyncope. No differences in these variables were observed between conditions in subjects that did not improve LBNP tolerance (all P ≥ 0.55). These results suggest that plasma hyperosmolality improves tolerance to central hypovolemia during heat stress in most, but not all, individuals. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  12. Predictive value of plasma, cervical secretions fFN combined with detec-tion of cervical length in preterm labour%血浆、宫颈分泌物fFN联合宫颈长度检测对早产的预测价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐娟

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨血浆胎儿纤维连接蛋白(fFN)、宫颈分泌物fFN联合宫颈长度检测对早产的预测价值。方法将138例具有先兆早产症状的孕妇采用数字表法分为两组,其中对照组67例采取血浆fFN联合宫颈长度检测,观察组71例采取宫颈分泌物fFN联合宫颈长度检测,比较两种检测方法对早产预测的敏感性和特异性。结果对照组中宫颈长度﹤3.0 cm且血浆fFN阳性者早产发生率为80.95%,血浆fFN阴性者早产发生率为9.10%,两组比较差异具有统计学意义(χ2=12.34,P<0.05),而宫颈长度≥3.0 cm共有35例,均无早产发生;观察组中宫颈长度﹤3.0 cm且宫颈分泌物fFN阳性者早产发生率为82.36%,而宫颈分泌物fFN阴性者早产发生率为0,两者比较差异具有统计学意义(χ2=13.10,P<0.05),而宫颈长度≥3.0 cm者33例,均无早产发生。结论血浆或宫颈分泌物fFN联合宫颈长度检测均能提高对早产的预测,但两种方法比较其敏感性和特异性无明显差异。%Objective To investigate the predictive value of plasma fFN ( fetal fibrinogen ) , cervical secretions fFN combined with detection of cervical length in preterm labour. Methods A total of 138 cases of pregnant women with threatened preterm labor symptoms were divided into two groups by using a random number table. The control group (n=67) took plasma fFN joint cervical length testing while the observation group (n=71) took cervical secretions fFN joint the detection of cervical length. To compare sensitivity and specificity of two methods for predicting preterm. Results The control group's preterm rate was 80.95% when detection of cervical length <3.0 cm and plasma fFN positive, and preterm birth rate of plasma fFN negative was 9.10%, The difference was statistically significant (χ2=12.34, P<0.05); The preterm birth of cervical length ≥ 3.0 cm and plasma fFN negative was 0%; The observation group's preterm

  13. The application methods of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) in the treatment of burns,and the evaluation of it value%富血小板血浆在烧伤治疗中的应用方法及价值评估

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 张科验

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the platelet-rich plasma (PRP) application methods and applications value in burn. Methods The 66 deep Ⅱ degree burns patients were randomly divided into PRP group and control group;the control group received medication plus local dressing exchange,the PRP group received medication plus local dressing exchange and PRP external use. Then two groups were compared in granulation tissue maturity,wound healing time,serum concentrations of VEGF,serum concentrations of TGF-β1. Assessing the value of PRP in the treatment of burns was taken. Results PRP could significantly shorten the healing time of wounds;in PRP group at 5 d and 10 d after treatment,the maturity of granulation tissue were significantly greater than in the control group;in PRP group the concentration of VEGF and TGF-β1 in serum at 5 d and 10 d after treatment was significantly higher in the control group. Conclusion PRP has very significant effect and application value in the treatment of burns.%目的 探讨富血小板血浆(plateletrich plasma,PRP)在烧伤治疗中的应用方法和应用价值.方法将深Ⅱ度烧伤患者66例随机分为PRP组和对照组, 对照组采用内科治疗加局部换药,PRP组采用内科治疗加局部换药,并涂布PRP. 比较两组肉芽成熟程度、创伤愈合所需时间、血清中VEGF浓度、血清中TGF-β1浓度,评估PRP在烧伤治疗中的应用价值. 结果 PRP可以显著地缩短创伤愈合时间;PRP组在治疗5 d和10 d后创伤处肉芽组织成熟度显著大于对照组,患者血清中的VEGF和TGF-β1浓度显著高于对照组. 结论 PRP在烧伤治疗中具有显著的疗效和应用价值.

  14. Plasma dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) is independent of sympathetic activity in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eldrup, E; Christensen, N J; Andreasen, J;

    1989-01-01

    To clarify the origin of plasma DOPA (3,4-Dihydroxyphenylalanine), the relationship between plasma DOPA and acute or chronic changes in sympathetic activity has been studied. Plasma DOPA and noradrenaline (NA) concentrations were measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography...... in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy compared to diabetics without neuropathy, whereas baseline plasma DOPA concentrations were similar in the three groups investigated: 6.55 (5.03-7.26, median [interquartile range], n = 8) nmol l-1 in diabetics with neuropathy, 7.41 (5.79-7.97, n = 8) nmol l-1...... in diabetics without neuropathy, and 6.85 (5.58-7.36, n = 8) nmol l-1 in controls. No relationship was obtained between baseline values of plasma NE and plasma DOPA. Plasma DOPA did not change in the upright position, whereas plasma NE increased significantly. Our results indicate that plasma DOPA...

  15. Dimension effects in plasma immersion ion implantation of cylindrical bore

    CERN Document Server

    Tian Xiu Bo; Tong Hong Hui; Chu, P K

    2002-01-01

    Plasma immersion ion implantation is a new technique pertaining to ion implantation. Different from the case of exterior surface treatment, plasma immersion ion implantation of interior surface possesses dimension effects. Consequently it is a challenge to implant the inner wall of a cylindrical bore due to this finite dimension.The ion energy cannot be linearly changed with applied voltage and there exists a saturation value due to overlap effect of plasma sheath. The plasma in the bore may rapidly be depleted, which is attributed to finite plasma volume and plasma-sheath con-flowing effect. For instance the plasma depletion time is about 0.55 mu s when a bore with a diameter of 20 cm is treated under conditions of applied voltage of 30 kV and plasma density of 2 x 10 sup 1 sup 5 ions/cm sup 3. Interior plasma-source hardware may be an effective solution

  16. International movement of plasma and plasma contracting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrugia, A

    2005-01-01

    Plasma fractionation is a global business characterised by technological stability, increasing consolidation and a high level of regulatory oversight. All these factors affect the ease with which plasma derivatives can be accessed in the world market. As domestic regulatory measures in the first world blood economies become increasingly resonant to the precautionary approach, the availability of plasma as a raw material, as well as its cost, become an increasingly significant component in the cost of the final product. This decreases the amount of plasma which fractionators are able to allocate for export activities. Also, regulatory standards in the country of manufacture will reflect priorities in that country which may not be similar to those in export markets, but which will affect entry to those markets. While many countries possess a fractionation capacity, the limiting factor in supply worldwide is the amount of plasma available, and nationalistic drivers for each country to have its own plant are inimical to product safety and supply. Rather, the provision of sufficient supplies of domestic plasma should be the focus of resource allocation, with a choice of an appropriate contract fractionator. However, contract fractionation too may be affected by domestic considerations unrelated to the needs of the country of plasma origin. This chapter will review the global plasma market and the influences on plasma and plasma product movement across national borders. Problems in ensuring adequate safety and supply will be identified, and some tentative approaches to the amelioration of current barriers to the provision of plasma derivatives will be outlined.

  17. Diagnostic value of plasma(1,3)-beta-D-glucan detection for invasive fungal infection%血浆(1,3)-β-D 葡聚糖检测对侵袭性真菌感染的诊断价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷潇娴; 王玉月; 张淑瑛; 史伟峰

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of plasma(1,3)-β-D-glucan detection(G test)in the diagnosis of invasive fun-gal infections(IFI).Methods The plasma samples were collected in 67 cases of IFI,61 cases of non-IFI and 48 healthy controls from January to September 2013.The level of(1,3)-D-glucan in plasma was detected by the kinetic turbidimetric assay and the opti-mal critical value of the G test was determined by receiver operating characteristic curve(ROC).Results The levels of(1,3)-β-D glucan in the IFI,non-IFI and healthy control groups showed the non-normal distribution.However,the median level of plasma(1, 3)-β-D glucan in the IFI group was 208.00pg/mL,which was significantly higher than 61.30 pg/mL(Z =-5.083,P <0.01)in the non-IFI group and 31.16 pg/mL(Z =-8.288,P <0.01)in the healthy control group.The area under ROC of the G test for diag-nosing IFI was 0.846 and the optimal critical value was 90.49pg/mL.The corresponding sensitivity,specificity,positive and nega-tive predictive values were 86.6%,77.1%,69.9% and 90.3%,respectively;at the same time,which of the fungal culture for diag-nosing IFI were 53.7%,94.5%,85.7% and 61.9% respectively.Conclusion Plasma(1,3)-β-D-glucan detection exhibits the high sensitivity and the better negative predictive value for the diagnosis of IFI.But the false positive results occur at times.It is sugges-ted that the G test can be dynamically conducted combined with the fungal culture for improving the efficiency of IFI diagnosis.%目的:探讨血浆(1,3)-β-D 葡聚糖检测(G 试验)对侵袭性真菌感染(IFI)的临床诊断价值。方法2013年1~9月收集 IFI 组67例、非 IFI 组61例及健康对照组48例血浆标本,应用动态浊度法检测血浆(1,3)-β-D 葡聚糖水平,通过受试者工作特征曲线(ROC)确定 G 试验最佳临界值。结果 IFI 组、非 IFI 组及健康对照组血浆(1,3)-β-D 葡聚糖水平皆为非正态分布。IFI 组的血浆(1,3

  18. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP.

  19. 联合测定空腹血糖和糖化血清蛋白在糖尿病诊断中的临床价值%The Clinical Value of Fasting Plasma Glucose Combined With Glycated Serum Protein in the Diagnosis of Diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张冬梅

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨联合测量空腹血糖与糖化血清蛋白在糖尿病诊断中的临床意义。方法采用普朗PUZS-300全自动生化分析仪测量24例糖尿病病患和24例正常体检人员的糖化血清蛋白、空腹血糖含量,分为观察组和对照组,使用统计学方法进行研究分析。结果糖尿病病患的糖化血清蛋白和空腹血糖显示正比关系,两者间的相关系数为:r=0.8134。结论将测量糖化血清蛋白和空腹血糖联合起来,可以当作判断糖尿病的敏感性指标,在临床研究上具有积极意义。%ObjectiveTo explore the clinical value of fasting plasma glucose combined with glycated serum protein in the diagnosis of diabetes. Methods24 diabetic patients and 24 normal medical examiners were selected as observation group and control group, measured glycated serum protein and fasting blood sugar using Prong PUZS-300 automatic biochemical analyzer, analyzed using statistical methods.Results Glycated serum protein and fasting plasma glucose in diabetic patients showed a proportional relationship, correlation coefficient r= 0.813 4.Conclusion The measurement of fasting glucose and glycated serum protein, can be used as sensitive indicators to determine diabetes, has positive signiifcance in clinical studies.

  20. 血浆NT-pro BNP和Big ET-1在冠心病的代谢变化及其临床价值%Study on Clinical Value of Changes of Plasma NT-proBNP and Big ET-1 in Patients with Coronary Heart Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑雄; 彭紫元; 张琼丽; 李延武; 屠洪; 李卓成

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨冠心病(CHD)患者血浆N末端脑钠肽原(NT-proBNP)与大内皮素-1(Big ET-1)水平的变化及其与心功能的关系.方法:采用酶联免疫吸附试验双抗体夹心法对136例CHD患者及55例健康对照者进行血浆NT-proBNP和Big ET-1测定,同时以彩色多普勒超声心电动仪测定CHD患者左心室舒张末期内径(LVEDD)、左心室收缩末期内径(LVESD)、左心室射血分数(LVEF),并与血浆NT-proBNP和Big ET-1水平进行相关性分析.结果:CHD患者血浆NT-proBNP和Big ET-1水平均明显高于健康对照者(P<0.01),且不同心功能患者之间的血浆NT-proBNP和Big ET-1含量亦存在显著性差异(P<0.01);CHD患者血浆NT-proBNP水平与LVEF、LVESD、LVEDD呈现良好的相关性(r分别为-0.63、+0.57和+0.61,P均<0.01),而血浆Big ET-1水平与LVEF、LVESD、LVEDD的变化亦密切相关(r分别为-0.51、+0.46和+0.49,P均<0.01);血浆NT-proBNP和Big ET-1水平呈正相关(r=+0.47,P<0.01).结论:NT-proBNP和Big ET-1可能参与了CHD及心功能损伤的病理生理过程,血浆NT-proBNP升高与Big ET-1的变化呈正相关.%Objective To investigate the changes of plasma levels of N-terminal irobrain natriuredc peptide( NT-proBNP ) and Big endotbelin-1 ( Big ET-1 ) and their relationship with cardiac function in patients with coonary heart disease (CHD ). Methods The levels of plasma NT-ptoBNP and Big ET-1 were measured by double antibedy enzyme linked immumescrbent assay in 136 patients with CHD and 55 healthy subjects. Lift ventricular ejection fracfion( LVEF ), left ventricular end systolic diameter ( LVESD ) and left ventricular end diastolic diameter ( LVEDD ) were determined by color Doppler ultra.sonograghy in CHD patients. And the relation between plaama levels of NT-proBNP and Big ET-1. as well as the values of LVEF , LVESD and LVEDD were studied in CHD patients. ResUlts Plasma levels of NT-proBNP and Big ET-1 were markedly increased in patients with CHD as compared with

  1. 评价空腹血糖与糖化血红蛋白测定在糖尿病诊断和监控中的价值%Evaluate the clinical application value of fasting plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin a1 c determination in the diagnosis and monitoring of dia-betes mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李林英

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Evaluate the clinical application value of fasting plasma glucose (FPG)and glycosylated hemoglobin a1 c (HbA1c)in the di-agnosis and monitoring of diabetes mellitus(DM). Methods:Taking 130 cases of patients with diabetes as diabetes group and 150 cases of healthy per-sons as control group. FPG was determined by glucose oxidase method,determination of HbA1c of high performance liquid chromatography,and com-pares its results.Results:FPG and HbA1c levels in diabetic group were significantly higher than those in the control group,the difference was statisti-cally significant (P < 0.05).Conclusions:Both FPG and HbA1c are closely related.They provide immediate and long-term plasma glucose for diabet-ic patients respectively.The combined detection of FPG and HbA1c in patients has an important significance in the early detection ,diagnosis and moni-toring of diabetes mellitus.%目的:评价空腹血糖(Fasting plasma glucose,FPG)与糖化血红蛋白(Glycosylated hemog lobin al c,HbA1c)在糖尿病(Diabetes mellitus,D M)诊断和监控中的临床应用价值。方法:将130例糖尿病患者作为糖尿病组,150例健康体检者作为对照组,通过葡萄糖氧化酶法测定 FPG,高效液相层析法测定 HbA1c,并对其结果进行比较。结果:糖尿病组 FPG 和 HbA1c 水平均明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论:FPG与 HbA1c 两者关系密切,分别为糖尿病患者提供即时和长期的血糖信息,联合检测患者 FPG 和 HbA1c 对糖尿病的早期发现、诊断和监控有重要意义。

  2. Determination of Plasma L-selectin and Tumor Necrosis Factor-αConcentrations in Patients with Chronic Bronchitis and Its Clinical Values%慢性支气管炎患者血浆L-selectin和TNF-α的检测及临床价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪清

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore plasma L-selectin and tumor necrosis factor-a levels in patients with chronic bronchitis and their clinical values were evaluated. Methods Ninety-eight patients and equal number of healthy controls were enrolled into this stud-y. Plasma L-selectin and tumor necrosis factor-a concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results Plasma L-selectin and TNF-α levels were markedly higher in patients with chronic bronchitis than those in healthy controls (all P<0.01) , and in acute exacerbation than in clinical recovery (all P<0.01). They were significantly associated with diverse variables of arterial blood gas (all P<0.01). Conclusion L-selectin and tumor necrosis factor-a are involved in the pathophysiological process of chronic bronchitis and their determination can be beneficial to evaluate severity and prognostication of chronic bronchitis.%目的:揭示慢性支气管炎患者血浆L-选择素(L-selectin)和肿瘤坏死因子-α(TNF-α)浓度的变化,探讨其临床价值.方法:收集慢性支气管炎患者和同期体检健康者各98例.ELISA检测血浆L-selectin和TNF-α浓度.结果:慢性支气管炎患者血浆L-selectin和TNF-α浓度均显著高于健康体检正常者(均P<0.01),急性发作期患者血浆L-selectin和TNF-α浓度均显著高于临床缓解期患者(均P<0.01),慢性支气管炎患者血浆L-selectin和TNF-α浓度与动脉血气指标显著相关(均P<0.01).结论:L-selectin和TNF-α参与慢性支气管炎的病理生理过程,指标测定有助于评估慢性支气管炎病情轻重及预后.

  3. Communication through Plasma Sheaths

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkevich, A O; Zakharov, V E

    2007-01-01

    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent.

  4. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I

    2013-01-01

    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  5. The Value of Plasma Brain Natriuretic Peptide in Differentiating Acute Dyspnea from Aged Patients with Heart Failure%血液脑钠肽对鉴别老年心衰所致急性呼吸困难的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧; 陈进军

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨脑钠肽(BNP)对鉴别老年心衰所致急性呼吸困难的价值.方法 荧光免疫法测定145例以呼吸困难为主诉急诊人院或门诊老年患者血浆脑钠肽浓度.结果 心源性呼吸困难患者血液BNP浓度明显高于肺源性患者;BNP对于诊断左心衰有很强的预测价值,而早期诊断肺心病右心衰的价值尚待探讨;BNP值>100ng/L诊断心衰的灵敏度为94.1%,准确度93.1%,特异性79.5%,阳性预测值为91.3%,阴性预测值为85.4%.结论 快速检测血液BNP,用来诊断心力衰竭特别是左心衰,敏感、简便、快捷,可作为老年患者急性呼吸困难病因鉴别的一个重要检查方法 .%Objective To investigate the value of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in differentiating acute dyspnea from aged pa-tients with heart failure. Methods The concentration of plasma BNP was measured with immunofluorescence assay in 145 aged patients with dyspnea who admitted to hospital by emergency or were out - patients. Results The BNP level in patients with dyspnea caused by heart failure was significantly higher than that of lung disease patients. BNP for the diagnosis of left heart failure had a very strong predic-tive value, while the early diagnosis of pulmonary heart disease and right heart failure has yet to be explored. BNP values > 100ng / L for differentiating of heart failure was the following: the sensitivity of diagnosis was 94.1%, accuracy 93. I%, specificity 79.5%, positive predictive value was 91.3%, and negative predictive value was 85.4%. Conclusion BNP assay was a convenient, rapid and sensitive method for differentiating diagnosis in aged patients with heart failure, especially with left heart failure. It can be used as an important dif-ferential method in elderly patients with acute dyspnea.

  6. Efficient magnetic fields for supporting toroidal plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landreman, Matt, E-mail: mattland@umd.edu [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    The magnetic field that supports tokamak and stellarator plasmas must be produced by coils well separated from the plasma. However, the larger the separation, the more difficult it is to produce a given magnetic field in the plasma region, so plasma configurations should be chosen that can be supported as efficiently as possible by distant coils. The efficiency of an externally generated magnetic field is a measure of the field's shaping component magnitude at the plasma compared to the magnitude near the coils; the efficiency of a plasma equilibrium can be measured using the efficiency of the required external shaping field. Counterintuitively, plasma shapes with low curvature and spectral width may have low efficiency, whereas plasma shapes with sharp edges may have high efficiency. Two precise measures of magnetic field efficiency, which correctly identify such differences in difficulty, will be examined. These measures, which can be expressed as matrices, relate the externally produced normal magnetic field on the plasma surface to the either the normal field or current on a distant control surface. A singular value decomposition (SVD) of either matrix yields an efficiency ordered basis for the magnetic field distributions. Calculations are carried out for both tokamak and stellarator cases. For axisymmetric surfaces with circular cross-section, the SVD is calculated analytically, and the range of poloidal and toroidal mode numbers that can be controlled to a given desired level is determined. If formulated properly, these efficiency measures are independent of the coordinates used to parameterize the surfaces.

  7. Collisionless plasmas in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Belmont, Gerard; Mottez, Fabrice; Pantellini, Filippo; Pelletier, Guy

    2013-01-01

    Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics examines the unique properties of media without collisions in plasma physics. Experts in this field, the authors present the first book to concentrate on collisionless conditions in plasmas, whether close or not to thermal equilibrium. Filling a void in scientific literature, Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics explains the possibilities of modeling such plasmas, using a fluid or a kinetic framework. It also addresses common misconceptions that even professionals may possess, on phenomena such as "collisionless (Landau) damping". Abundant illustrations

  8. Projects as value constellations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Markus

    Creating value has been outlined as very central to projects applying the organizational perspective to projects. It has been suggested that value is created in value constellations or project networks, where actors work together to create value. However, research on the value creation process...... in value constellations is scarce, and through an exploratory study of two project networks in a cultural setting we investigate how value is created in value constellations. We outline how each project may be a distinct type of value constellation, one project creates value for the partners of the network...... as a consortium, and the project creates value primarily for others as a facilitator....

  9. Plasma prostaglandin and diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurya OPS

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Estimation of prostaglandin El (PGE levels by bioassay technique (Ritcher Crossland was carried out in 15 normal persons, 15 diabetic patients without Retinopathy, and 30 diabetic patients with Retinopathy. Plasma PGE 1 values were higher in diabetic patients with or without retinopathy than in normal subjects Plasma PGE 1 levels were significantly higher in diabetic with retinopathy than in the control group (p < 0.001, whereas in diabetics without retinopathy the PGE levels did not show a statistically significant difference from controls In diabetic patients with retinopathy, the mean value of PGE 1 was higher in proliferative retinopathy than in background retinopathy, but on statistical analysis, it was not of much significane (P> 0.8.

  10. The Value of Reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molm, Linda D.; Schaefer, David R.; Collett, Jessica L.

    2007-01-01

    The value of reciprocity in social exchange potentially comprises both instrumental value (the value of the actual benefits received from exchange) and communicative or symbolic value (the expressive and uncertainty reduction value conveyed by features of the act of reciprocity itself). While all forms of exchange provide instrumental value, we…

  11. Colloidal Plasmas : Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C B Dwivedi

    2000-11-01

    Colloidal plasma is a distinct class of the impure plasmas with multispecies ionic composition. The distinction lies in the phase distribution of the impurity-ion species. The ability to tailor the electrostatic interactions between these colloidal particles provides a fertile ground for scientists to investigate the fundamental aspects of the Coulomb phase transition behavior. The present contribution will review the basic physics of the charging mechanism of the colloidal particles as well as the physics of the collective normal mode behavior of the general multi-ion species plasmas. Emphasis will be laid on the clarification of the prevailing confusing ideas about distinct qualities of the various acoustic modes, which are likely to exist in colloidal plasmas as well as in normal multi-ion species plasmas. Introductory ideas about the proposed physical models for the Coulomb phase transition in colloidal plasma will also be discussed.

  12. Plasma dopamine beta hydroxylase activity in affective disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, M; Dunner, D L; Mendlewicz, J; Frewin, D B; Lawlor, W; Fleiss, J L; Stallone, F; Fieve, R R

    1976-03-16

    Plasma dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) activity was measured in patients with affective disorders and in their relatives. The groups studied had wide distributions of values for plasma DBH activity. No significant difference of plasma DBH activity was found between unipolar and bipolar patients, nor between patients given lithium or placebo. Exercise on a treadmill at 40 degrees or 10 degrees C elicited a different pattern of response for plasma DBH activity in three patients as compared to control subjects. In familial studies we found the values of plasma DBH activity to be almost identical in monozygotic twin pairs and quite similar in dizygotic twin pairs. All pairs, however, were discordant for affective illness. There was also a marked similarity of plasma DBH activity in 15 pairs of the same sex sibs discordant for affective illness. These studies suggest that the resting level of plasma DBH activity is not related to affective illness but is genetically determined.

  13. Platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakas, M; Karkos, P D; Markou, K; Grigoriadis, N

    2016-12-01

    Platelet-rich plasma is a novel material that is being used more frequently in many surgical specialties. A literature review on the current and potential uses of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology was performed. There is limited evidence on the use of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology compared with other specialties: only 11 studies on various subspecialties (otology, rhinology and laryngology) were included in the final review. Based on the limited number of studies, we cannot draw safe conclusions about the value of platelet-rich plasma in otolaryngology. Nevertheless, the available literature suggests that platelet-rich plasma holds promise for future research and may have a number of clinical applications.

  14. 血浆D-二聚体及纤维蛋白原在非小细胞肺癌患者围术期监测中的应用价值%Value of plasma D-dimer,fibrinogen levels monitoring in non-small cell lung cancer patients in perioperative period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江吕泉; 高坤祥; 郑建; 陈建; 吴昊; 陈林松

    2013-01-01

    Objective Bleeding or thrombotic diseases are easily to be found in non - small cell lung cancer ( NSCLC ) patients, because the equilibrium of their coagulation system might be disturbed due to tumor burden or surgical injury. In the study, we studied the value of plasma D - dimer and fibrinogen levels monitoring in patients with non - small cell lung cancer before and after surgery. Methods The plasma D - dimer and fibrinogen levels were measured in 254 patients with non - small cell lung cancer and 52 patients with benign lung tumor, and then we followed up to record the D - dimer and fibrinogen levels change in postoperative patients. Results The plasma levels of D - dimer and fibrinogen in non - small cell lung cancer patients were found to be significantly higher than those in patients with benign lung tumor ( P < 0. 01). Significant differences in D - dimer and fibrinogen levels were found among different stages of non - small cell lung cancer ( P < 0. 01 ) , which suggested that coagulation and fibrinolysis dysfunction in patients with non - small cell lung cancer aggravated along with the progression of disease. The D - dimer and fibrinogen levels kept at a high level or rose suddenly after a transient decrease in 15 patients who had thrombotic diseases after operation. Conclusions Monitoring the plasma D - dimer and fibrinogen levels in patients with non - small cell lung cancer before and after operation helps find out those who have high risk of thrombotic diseases and preventing thrombtic disease after operation. It also helps us to strive for early prevention, early diagnosis,early treatment,nd to improve the prognosis of the patients.%目的 探讨血浆D-二聚体及纤维蛋白原(fibrinogen,FIB)在非小细胞肺癌患者手术前、后监测中的应用价值.方法 测定254例非小细胞肺癌患者和52例肺部良性肿瘤患者血浆D-二聚体及FIB水平,对其术后D-二聚体及FIB变化进行随访监测.结果 非小细胞肺癌组

  15. 糖化血红蛋白、糖化白蛋白及空腹血糖在糖尿病诊断中的价值%The diagnostic value of glycated hemoglobin,glycated albumin and fasting plasma glucose in diagnosis of diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玖飞; 王静

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the diagnostic value of glycated hemoglobin ( HbA1c) ,serum glycated albumin ( Glycated Al-bumin,GA) and fasting plasma glucose ( Fasting Plasma Glucose,FPG) to early diabetes ( Diabetes Mellitus ,DM) patients.Methods Patients who came to Taizhou Hospital of Zhejiang Provinceduring 2010~2013 and detected HbA1c,GA and FPG simultaneously were collected.The crowd were divided into diabetic group and non-diabetic group for the receiver operating characteristic curve ( Re-ceiver Operator Characteristic curve,ROC curves ) analysis.The cut-off value ,area under the curve( AUC) ,sensitivity and specifici-ty were calculated,the combined diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of HbA1c,GA and FPG were further analyzed.Results ①HbA1c,GA and FPG were higher in DM group than the non-DM group (HbA1c:9.14%vs.5.84%,P=0.000;GA:24.8mmol/L vs.13.8mmol/L,P=0.000;FPG:9.65mmol/L vs .5.77mmol/L,P=0.000).②The cut-off value ,AUC,sensitivity and speci-ficity of HbA1c in diagnosis of DM were 6.85%,0.911,84.2%,96.2%,respectively;The cut-off value ,AUC,sensitivity and spe-cificity of GA in diagnosis of DM were 17.5mmol/L,0.881,71.6%,93.6%,respectively;The cut-off value ,AUC,sensitivity and specificity of FPG in diagnosis of DM were 7.52mmol/L,0.836,70.2%,82.1%,respectively.③The combined sensitivity and spe-cificity of HbA1c,GA and FPG in diagnosing DM was 91.1%and 76.3%.Conclusions HbA1c,GA and FPG had diagnostic val-ue for DM individually,among the three,HbA1c had the maximum diagnostic performance.HbA1c,GA and FPG could be combined to improve the sensitivity in DM diagnosis,with important value in screening DM.%目的:评估糖化血红蛋白(HbA1c)、血清糖化白蛋白(Glycated Albumin,GA)及空腹血糖(Fasting Plasma Glucose, FPG)在糖尿病( Diabetes Mellitus,DM)患者早期诊断中的价值。方法收集2010~2013年浙江省台州医院同时检测HbA1c、GA及FPG的人群的相关数据,分为糖尿病组和非糖尿病组,

  16. Nonlinear plasma wave in magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, Sergei V. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region 141700 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G. [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kodama, Ryosuke [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-08-15

    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic “Four-Ray Star” pattern.

  17. Use value, exchange value, and resource scarcity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, D.I. [The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia). Centre for Resource and Environmental Studies

    1999-08-01

    The literature on natural resource scarcity indicators is reviewed. Scarcity indicators can be classified by what is being measured: value of the resource stock or value of extracted resource commodities; whose value is considered: social vs. private scarcity; and by the mode of valuation considered: exchange value and use value. Prices and rents are common measures of exchange value or indicators of ''exchange scarcity'' and unit costs can be seen as use value indicators or indicators of {sup u}se scarcity{sup .} The major aim of this paper is to demonstrate the links between productivity indicators such as unit costs and the classical concept of use value. The two classes of indicator relate to John Commons' discussions of scarcity and efficiency, and a marginal vs. a non-marginal approach to value and scarcity. The classical use value concept also has wider relevance for issues of valuation in energy, resource, and environmental policy. (author)

  18. Indigenous environmental values as human values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gratani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The claim that in natural resource management (NRM a change from anthropocentric values and ethics to eco-centric ones is necessary to achieve sustainability leads to the search for eco-centric models of relationship with the environment. Indigenous cultures can provide such models; hence, there is the need for multicultural societies to further include their values in NRM. In this article, we investigate the environmental values placed on a freshwater environment of the Wet Tropics by a community of indigenous Australians. We discuss their environmental values as human values, and so as beliefs that guide communities’ understanding of how the natural world should be viewed and treated by humans. This perspective represents a step forward in our understanding of indigenous environmental values, and a way to overcome the paradigm of indigenous values as valued biophysical attributes of the environment or processes happening in landscapes. Our results show that the participant community holds biospheric values. Restoring these values in the NRM of the Wet Tropics could contribute to sustainability and environmental justice in the area.

  19. Elements of plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Chiow San

    2016-01-01

    This book presents some fundamental aspects of plasma technology that are important for beginners interested to start research in the area of plasma technology . These include the properties of plasma, methods of plasma generation and basic plasma diagnostic techniques. It also discusses several low cost plasma devices, including pulsed plasma sources such as plasma focus, pulsed capillary discharge, vacuum spark and exploding wire; as well as low temperature plasmas such as glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge which the authors believe may have potential applications in industry. The treatments are experimental rather than theoretical, although some theoretical background is provided where appropriate. The principles of operation of these devices are also reviewed and discussed.

  20. 血浆醛固酮/肾素活性比值在原发性醛固酮增多症诊断中的价值%The Diagnosis Value of Plasma Aldosterone/renin Activity Ratio in Primary Aldosteronism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慧光; 任建伟; 陈彦民

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨血浆醛固酮/肾素活性比值(ARR)在原发性醛固酮增多症(PA)诊断中的临床价值.方法:选择我院收治的高血压患者460例,空腹采血后采用放射免疫法测定患者醛固酮和肾素水平,并计算血浆醛固酮/肾素活性比值.对其中疑诊为原发性醛固酮增多症的患者再行肾上腺薄层CT扫描,并行血液生化和血清钾检测.结果:460例患者中,ARR>25者56例,经肾上腺薄层CT扫描、血液生化和血清钾检测后确诊为原发性醛固酮增多症者48例.ARR应用于原发性醛固酮增多症的检出率为10.43%,诊断符合率为85.71%.48例患者中合并低血钾者18例,占37.5%.结论:血浆醛固酮/肾素活性比值在临床的应用可使高血压人群中原发性醛固酮增多症的检出率明显增加,具有重要的临床价值,应作为重度高血压和难治性高血压患者的常规检查项目.%Objective: To investigate the diagnosis value of plasma aldosterone/renin activity ratio (ARR) in primary aldosteronism.Methods: 460 patients with hypertension were collected, after fasting blood measured by radioimmunoassay in patients with aldosterone and renin levels, and calculate the plasma aldosterone/renin activity ratio.Checking the patients which was suspected with primary aldosteronism by CT scan of adrenal thin, blood biochemistry and serum potassium.Results: In 460 patients, there were 56 patients' ARR>25.The CT scan, adrenal thin layer blood biochemical and potassium diagnosed after detecting primary aldosteronism in 48 cases.Detection rate was 10.43%, diagnostic rate was 85.71%.18 patients combined hypokalemia in 48 patients (37.5%).Conclusion: Plasma aldosterone/renin activity ratio in the clinical application can significantly increase the detection rate in hypertensives with primary aldosteronism, it has important clinical value, should be severe hypertension and refractory hypertension in patients with routine examination project.

  1. The value of measuring plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients with acute coronary syndrome%急性冠脉综合征患者测定血浆氧化低密度脂蛋白和血清高敏C-反应蛋白的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏艳胜; 张晓

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein(ox-LDL)and serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein(hs-CRP)in patients with acute coronary syndrome(ACS).Methods Plasma ox-LDL and serum hs-CRP levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assav in 89 patients,who were divided into 4 groups:acute myocardial infarction,stable angina pectoris,unstable angina pectoris and control.Results The ox-LDL and hs-CRP levels were higher in the acute coronary syndrome patients than in the controls and stable angina peetoris(P<0.0 1).Significant positive corrlelation between ox-LDL and hs - CRP was fbund in patients with coronary artery disease(CAD)(r=0.801,P<0.01).but no eorrelation in the controls(r=0.084,P>0.05).No correlation was found between ox-LDL and Gensini score in the CAD group(r=-0.051,P>0.05).Logistic study revealed Dlasma ox-LDL and serum hs-CRP were positively correlated with ACS.Conclusion Plasma ox-LDL and serum hs-CRP can reflect the severity of atherosclerotic CAD,and have great value in assessing the severity of the lesions and plaque stability in ACS.%目的 探讨血浆氧化低密度脂蛋白(ox-LDL)及血清高敏C-反应蛋白(hs-CRP)水平与急性冠脉综合征(ACS)的关系.方法 根据临床诊断标准,将69名冠心病患者分为急性心肌梗死组、不稳定型心绞痛组和稳定型心绞痛组3组,另选取20例冠脉造影正常者为对照组,采用ELISA法测定患者血浆ox-LDL及血清hs-CRP.结果 急性心肌梗死组和不稳定型心绞痛组血浆ox-LDL及血清hs-CRP水平明显高于稳定性心绞痛和对照组(P<0.01);血浆ox-LDL和血清hs-CRP在对照组无相关性(r=0.084,P>0.05),在冠心病组呈高度正相关(r=0.801,P<0.01);在冠心病组,血浆ox-LDL与Gensini积分无相关性(r=-0.051,P>0.05);Logistic回归分析发现血浆ox-LDL及血清hs-CRP水平与ACS呈正相关.结论 血浆ox-LDL及血清hs-CRP水平不仅反映冠心病患者病变的严重程度,

  2. A model for transonic plasma flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guazzotto, Luca, E-mail: luca.guazzotto@rochester.edu [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Hameiri, Eliezer, E-mail: hameiri@cims.nyu.edu [Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, New York, New York 10012 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    A linear, two-dimensional model of a transonic plasma flow in equilibrium is constructed and given an explicit solution in the form of a complex Laplace integral. The solution indicates that the transonic state can be solved as an elliptic boundary value problem, as is done in the numerical code FLOW [Guazzotto et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 604 (2004)]. Moreover, the presence of a hyperbolic region does not necessarily imply the presence of a discontinuity or any other singularity of the solution.

  3. Physics of collapses in toroidal helical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan); Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Yagi, Masatoshi

    1998-12-31

    Theoretical model for the collapse events in toroidal helical plasmas with magnetic hill is presented. There exists a turbulent-turbulent transition at a critical pressure gradient, leading to a sudden increase of the anomalous transport. When the magnetic shear is low, the nonlinear excitation of the global mode is possible. This model explains an abrupt growth of the perturbations, i.e., the trigger phenomena. Achievable limit of the plasma beta value is discussed. (author)

  4. Reviews of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    2008-01-01

    "Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24," edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence

  5. Reviews of plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafranov, Vitalii Dmitrievich (ed.); Bakunin, Oleg G. (comps.) [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ' ' Kurchatovskij Inst.' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation). Nuclear Fusion Inst.; Rozhansky, V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical Univ. (Russian Federation)

    2008-07-01

    Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24, edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence (orig.)

  6. Charging of grains in sprite-plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serozhkin, Y.; Oryeshko, E.

    The presence of a charged dust component at a mesosphere substantially determines properties of this atmospheric layer and has manifold manifestations One of possible sources of free electrons for a charge of grains can be served the electrical discharges in a mesosphere sprites 1 As sprites take huge volume about 10000 cubic kilometer and happen approximately 1 time per one second their role in the charging of grains in a mesosphere necessarily should be taken into account In supported work is estimated the value of a charge which grains obtained in sprite-plasma The parameters of sprite-plasma velocity concentration of an electronic component duration of existence make possible a charge of submicron grains up to value at which in case of sufficient concentration of particles the sprite-plasmas can to be possessed of the dusty plasma properties 2 begin enumerate item V P Pasko U S Inan T F Bell Y N Taranenko Sprites produced by quasi-electrostatic heating ldots J Geophys Res Vol 102 No A3 pages 4529-4561 March 1 1997 item Yu Serozhkin Dusty sprite-plasma and conditions for its formation AIP Conference Proceedings New vistas in dusty plasmas Fourth International Conferences on the Physics of Dusty Plasmas Orleans France 13-17 June 2005 Vol 799 pages 383-386 end enumerate

  7. Plasma substance P levels in fibrositis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, W J; Chiu, B; Inman, R D

    1988-12-01

    The mechanism of pain in the fibrositis syndrome is unknown. We measured plasma levels of substance P in 32 patients with fibrositis and 26 sex and age matched controls using a radioimmunoassay. The mean plasma level of substance P in the patients with fibrositis was 371 +/- 91 pg/ml and in controls 397 +/- 84 pg/ml (p = NS). We conclude that determination of plasma levels of substance P in fibrositis is of no diagnostic value. This does not exclude the possible role of substance P as a neurotransmitter in the fibrositis syndrome.

  8. Microwave diagnostics of atmospheric plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David

    electrosurgical system was studied using an Intensified Charge-Coupled Device (ICCD) and the MEDD. The plasma density was measured and found to be in the range of (7.5-9.5) x 1015 cm-3 for applied powers of 15-60 Watts. The discharge can be classified as a glow discharge of alternating current with a contracted positive column. The discharge ignites every half-wave of the driving voltage when voltage increases above the breakdown threshold of about 300 Volts and is interrupted at the end of each half-wave when the voltage approaches zero. Additionally, it was shown that the plasma discharges on the target object during the positive half-wave of the voltage. The power distribution was also analyzed. It was found that 60-70% of the input power is delivered into the tissue and the remaining 30-40% is consumed by the plasma column between the electrosurgical probe and tissue. The application of the MEDD to a helium CAP revealed the temporal dynamics of the discharge. It was observed that streamer development associated with the measured plasma density peak is developing on the decaying part of the main inter-electrode discharge. The third part of the dissertation focuses on the simulation of a helium CAP. A one-dimensional model of a helium CAP was used to simulate twenty-one oxygen, helium, and nitrogen species. One hundred and forty reactions were successfully used. The predicted maximum and average densities of the species were tabulated. Graphs of the species densities were presented showing the change in densities with respect to the radius of the CAP. The plasma bullets can be seen via these graphs, with most species displaying maximum densities at a radius which is not the center of the CAP. This shows that the plasma bullets are a disk-like structure at the moment of time presented. Values of E/p were varied from 20 -- 30 volts/cm Torr. Based on experimental results of moments in time with which the maximum plasma density occurs, this data can be used to predict the actual E

  9. Estimation of Plasma Density by Surface Plasmons for Surface-Wave Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Zhao-Quan; LIU Ming-Hai; LAN Chao-Hui; CHEN Wei; LUO Zhi-Qing; HU Xi-Wei

    2008-01-01

    @@ An estimation method of plasma density based on surface plasmons theory for surface-wave plasmas is proposed. The number of standing-wave is obtained directly from the discharge image, and the propagation constant is calculated with the trim size of the apparatus in this method, then plasma density can be determined with the value of 9.1 × 1017 m-3. Plasma density is measured using a Langmuir probe, the value is 8.1 × 1017 m-3 which is very close to the predicted value of surface plasmons theory. Numerical simulation is used to check the number of standing-wave by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method also. All results are compatible both of theoretical analysis and experimental measurement.

  10. Uses of plasma in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Algora, M; Barbolla, L

    2007-12-01

    In Spain, fresh frozen plasma (FFP) currently recovered either by whole blood centrifugation or by apheresis is mainly considered as a source of plasma derivates rather than a product to be transfused. Upon this consideration, the amount of plasma transfused in the last two decades has remained stable, while the production of FFP has grown steadily during all these years. Thus, much more plasma has been derived to industry for manufacturing. Although, since 1993 a consensus conference established the clinical situation where plasma has demonstrated its efficacy, the true situation is that many indications seem not to be supported on a scientific evidence basis. Only a few studies have been performed in the last years to assess the appropriateness of these indications. We present the initial result of an ongoing survey addressed by the Madrid Blood Transfusion Centre. Based on the criteria of total amount of RBC transfused per year, large hospitals (more than 10,000 units of RBC) transfused an average of 23.87% of FFP, while medium hospitals (5000-10,000 units of RBC) used 19.5% and small ones (less than 5000) about 12.5%. It is important to point out that inside each group there were some important differences in ratio values for similar hospitals. This could indicate that much more is necessary to cope with indications. Although national figures of uses of FFP, whether in ratio or absolute terms, show a moderate consumption in comparison with published figures of other European countries, there can be no doubt that plasma overuses still seem to be present.

  11. Beam-Plasma Interaction in a 2D Complex Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyrkos, Stamatios; Kalman, G. J.; Rosenberg, M.

    2006-10-01

    In a complex (dusty) plasma, penetrating ion or electron beams may lead to beam-plasma instabilities. The instability displays interesting new properties when either the plasma or the beam, or both, are strongly interacting^1. Foremost amongst them is the possible generation of transverse instabilities. We consider the case when a 2D plasma is in the crystalline phase, forming a lattice, and the beam is moving in the lattice plane. Both the grains and the beam particles interact through a realistic Yukawa potential. The beam particles are assumed to be weakly coupled to each other and to the lattice^2. Using the full phonon spectrum for a 2D hexagonal Yukawa lattice^3, we determine and compare the transverse and longitudinal growth rates. The behavior of the growth rates depends on the direction of the beam and on the relationship between the beam speed v and the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds sL, sT. For beam speeds between the longitudinal and transverse sound speeds, the transverse instability could be more important, because it appears at lower k values. ^1 G. J. Kalman and M. Rosenberg, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 5963 (2003) ^2 M. Rosenberg, G. J. Kalman, S. Kyrkos and Z. Donko, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4613 (2006) ^3 T. Sullivan, G. J. Kalman, S. Kyrkos, P. Bakshi, M. Rosenberg and Z. Donko, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 39 4607 (2006)

  12. Probing properties of cold radiofrequency plasma with polymer probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormashenko, E.; Chaniel, G.; Multanen, V.

    2015-01-01

    The probe intended for the characterization of cold plasma is introduced. The probe allows the estimation of Debye length of cold plasma. The probe is based on the pronounced modification of surface properties (wettability) of polymer films by cold plasmas. The probe was tested with the cold radiofrequency inductive air plasma discharge. The Debye length and the concentration of charge carriers were estimated for various gas pressures. The reported results coincide reasonably with the corresponding values established by other methods. The probe makes possible measurement of characteristics of cold plasmas in closed chambers.

  13. Probing Properties of Cold Radiofrequency Plasma with Polymer Probe

    CERN Document Server

    Bormashenko, Edward; Multanen, Victor

    2014-01-01

    The probe intended for the characterization of cold plasma is introduced. The probe allows estimation of the Debye length of the cold plasma. The probe is based on the pronounced modification of surface properties (wettability) of polymer films by cold plasmas. The probe was tested with the cold radiofrequency inductive air plasma discharge. The Debye length and the concentration of charge carriers were estimated for various gas pressures. The reported results coincide reasonably with the corresponding values established by other methods. The probe makes possible measurement of characteristics of cold plasmas in closed chambers.

  14. ISTTOK plasma control with the tomography diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, H.; Caralho, P.J.; Duarte, P.; Pereira, T.; Coelho, R.; Silva, C. [Association Euratom/IST, Institute of Plasmas and Nuclear Fusion, Technology Graduate Institute, P-1049-001 Lisbon (Portugal)

    2011-07-01

    A real-time plasma position control system is mandatory to achieve long duration (up to 250 ms), Alternating Current (AC) discharges on the ISTTOK tokamak. Such a system has been used for some time supported only on magnetic field diagnostic data. However, this system does not function accurately when the plasma current is low, rendering it inoperative during the plasma current reversal. A tomography diagnostic with 3 pinhole cameras and 8 silicone photodiode channels per camera was installed and customized to supply alternative plasma position to be used for plasma position control. As no filtering is applied, most of the radiation detected is in the visible/near-UV range. This system (i) executes a tomographic reconstruction, (ii) determines the average emissivity position from it, (iii) calculates the shift from the required position and (iv) supplies the vertical field power supply unit with the desired current value, all in less than 100 {mu}s. The horizontal magnetic field power supply unit is expected to be included in the system and will have no impact in the process time. This paper presents the tomography diagnostic architecture together with results of its scientific exploitation in ISTTOK AC discharges, where it has proven to be capable of supplying an accurate plasma position during the current reversal. The use of the tomography diagnostic for plasma position overcomes some limitations of the magnetic diagnostics, but poses challenges of its own such as blindness to plasma current direction. (authors)

  15. Expression and clinical value analysis of plasma miR-205, miR-212 and miR-429 in ovarian cancer%卵巢癌患者血浆miR-205、miR-212及miR-429的水平分析及意义∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    穆鹏; 李联崑; 贾海清; 王晓彬

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the levels of plasma miR⁃205, miR⁃212 and miR⁃429 in ovarian cancer and analyze the re⁃lationship between the above indicators and clinical pathology parameters of ovarian cancer. Methods Plasma samples from 71 ovarian cancer patients before treatment were collected. The real⁃time quantitative RT⁃PCR ( qRT⁃PCR) was used to detect the levels of miR⁃205, miR⁃212 and miR⁃429, and the clinical pathology parameters of ovarian cancer ( age, clinical stage, degree of differentiation, histological type and lymph node metastasis) were collected. The clinical pathology parameters of patients with different levels of miR⁃205, miR⁃212 and miR⁃429 were compared. The receiver operating characteristic curve ( ROC) was employed to analyze the clinical value of plasma miR⁃205, miR⁃212 and miR⁃429 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer. Meanwhile, the plasma samples from 68 healthy volunteers (healthy control group) and 66 patients with benign ovarian tumor (benign group) were collected as control. Results There were higher levels of miR⁃205 and but lower miR⁃212 and miR⁃429 in ovarian cancer group versus other two groups with signifi⁃cant difference ( P all<0�05) . In ovarian cancer, the level of miR⁃205 was related with age, clinical stage, degree of differentiation and lymph node metastasis, and miR⁃212 was related with clinical stage and degree of differentiation, and miR⁃429 was related with clinical stage and lymph node metastasis ( P all<0�05) . The plasma level of miR⁃205 was negatively correlated with miR⁃212 and miR⁃429 ( r=-0�572、-0�325) , and miR⁃212 was positively correlated with miR⁃429 with statistically significance ( r=0�473,P<0�05) . The AUC, sensitivity and specificity of plasma miR⁃205, miR⁃212 and miR⁃429 in the diagnosis of ovarian cancer were 0�915, 92�1%and 86�2%, 0�944,87�3% and 91�0%, and 0�905, 88�5% and 83�6%. Conclusion There was higher

  16. 非小细胞肺癌血浆miR-223、miR-93和miR-218的表达及其临床意义%Expression and clinical value analysis of plasma miR-223, miR-93 and miR-218 in non-small lung cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡静清; 王宁; 张敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the levels of plasma miR⁃223, miR⁃93 and miR⁃218 in non⁃small lung cancer( NSCLC) and analysis the relationship between the 3 indicators and clinicopathological parameters of NSCLC. Methods Plasma samples from 85 NSCLC patients before treatment were collected as NSCLC group. The real⁃time quantitative RT⁃PCR( qRT⁃PCR) was used to detect the levels of miR⁃223, miR⁃93 and miR⁃218 and the clinicopathological parameters of NSCLC patients were collected. The clinicopatho⁃logical parameters of patients with different levels of miR⁃223, miR⁃93 and miR⁃218 were compared. The receiver operating characteris⁃tic curve( ROC) was employed to analysis the clinical value of plasma miR⁃223, miR⁃93 and miR⁃218 in the diagnosis of NSCLC. Meanwhile, the plasma samples from 90 healthy volunteers at the same time were selected as control( control group) . Results There were higher levels of miR⁃223 and miR⁃93 but lower miR⁃218 in NSCLC group compaired with control group with significant difference ( P<0�05) . The level of miR⁃223 was related with TNM stage and tumor size, and miR⁃93 was related with histological type and lymph node metastasis, and miR⁃218 was related with tumor size and degree of differentiation, showing with significant difference ( P all<0�05) . The plasma level of miR⁃223 was positively correlated with miR⁃93( r=0�411) , but miR⁃223 and miR⁃93 were negatively cor⁃related with miR⁃218(r=-0�361 and r=-0�451)with statistically significance(P<0�05). The AUC, sensitivity and specificity of plasma miR⁃223, miR⁃93 and miR⁃218 in the diagnosis of NSCLC were 0�926, 95�2% and 87�1%, 0�912, 88�4% and 92�5%, and 0�941, 92�7% and 84�4%, higher than 0�774, 75�1% and 66�2% of carcinoembryonic antigen( CEA) . The combined efficiency of miR⁃223, miR⁃93 and miR⁃218 in NSCLC was superior to that alone. Conclusion There are higher expression of miR⁃223 and

  17. Changes in Plasma Copeptin Levels during Hemodialysis: Are the Physiological Stimuli Active in Hemodialysis Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmée M Ettema

    Full Text Available Plasma levels of copeptin, a surrogate marker for the vasoconstrictor hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP, are increased in hemodialysis patients. Presently, it is unknown what drives copeptin levels in hemodialysis patients. We investigated whether the established physiological stimuli for copeptin release, i.e. plasma osmolality, blood volume and mean arterial pressure (MAP, are operational in hemodialysis patients.One hundred and eight prevalent, stable hemodialysis patients on a thrice-weekly dialysis schedule were studied during hemodialysis with constant ultrafiltration rate and dialysate conductivity in this observational study. Plasma levels of copeptin, sodium, MAP, and blood volume were measured before, during and after hemodialysis. Multivariate analysis was used to determine the association between copeptin (dependent variable and the physiological stimuli plasma sodium, MAP, excess weight as well as NT-pro-BNP immediately prior to dialysis and between copeptin and changes of plasma sodium, MAP and blood volume with correction for age, sex and diabetes during dialysis treatment.Patients were 63 ± 15.6 years old and 65% were male. Median dialysis vintage was 1.6 years (IQR 0.7-4.0. Twenty-three percent of the patients had diabetes and 82% had hypertension. Median predialysis copeptin levels were 141.5 pmol/L (IQR 91.0-244.8 pmol/L. Neither predialysis plasma sodium levels, nor NT-proBNP levels, nor MAP were associated with predialysis copeptin levels. During hemodialysis, copeptin levels rose significantly (p<0.01 to 163.0 pmol/L (96.0-296.0 pmol/L. Decreases in blood volume and MAP were associated with increases in copeptin levels during dialysis, whereas there was no significant association between the change in plasma sodium levels and the change in copeptin levels.Plasma copeptin levels are elevated predialysis and increase further during hemodialysis. Volume stimuli, i.e. decreases in MAP and blood volume, rather than osmotic

  18. The design of a plasma generator used in ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The process and condition of arc starting and discharge and heat balance rela-tionship in a plasma generator that takes water as propellant are analyzed. Two questions that must be paid attention to arise, when designing the plasma gen-erator. Water resistance in a plasma generator should be as big as possible, and inductive reactance of electric source should be equal to capacity reactance of plasma generator so that resonance is generated in electric circuit, voltage be-tween two electrodes in the plasma generator reaches the highest value, and arc starting and discharge also occur between electrodes in the plasma generator. When energy that electric source supplies is greater than or equal to the energy required when water becomes plasma, a mixture of plasma and steam ejects from the generator outlet. So it is necessary that cavity between electrodes in the plasma generator should be as big as possible, time that water stays in the plasma gen-erator should be long enough so that water obtains enough energy from the electric source, but resistance of water becomes small and arc starting is not easy to occur. Through manufacturing and experimentes on four kinds of plasma generators as well as the contrast between experimental results, the plasma generator model is established and the plasma generator is manufactured.

  19. The design of a plasma generator used in ships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG XinZhang; YANG JiaXiang; LAN Bo; XU ZuoMing; GAO Ying

    2008-01-01

    The process and condition of arc starting and discharge and heat balance rela-tionship in a plasma generator that takes water as propellant are analyzed.Two questions that must be paid attention to arise,when designing the plasma gen-erator.Water resistance in a plasma generator should be as big as possible,and inductive reactance of electric source should be equal to capacity reactance of plasma generator so that resonance is generated in electric circuit,voltage be-tween two electrodes in the plasma generator reaches the highest value,and arc starting and discharge also occur between electrodes in the plasma generator.When energy that electric source supplies is greater than or equal to the energy required when water becomes plasma,a mixture of plasma and steam ejects from the generator outlet.So it is necessary that cavity between electrodes in the plasma generator should be as big as possible,time that water stays in the plasma gen-erator should be long enough so that water obtains enough energy from the electric source,but resistance of water becomes small and arc starting is not easy to occur.Through manufacturing and experimentes on four kinds of plasma generators as well as the contrast between experimental results,the plasma generator model is established and the plasma generator is manufactured.

  20. Screening length in dusty plasma crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaev, V. S.; Timofeev, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Particles interaction and value of the screening length in dusty plasma systems are of great interest in dusty plasma area. Three inter-particle potentials (Debye potential, Gurevich potential and interaction potential in the weakly collisional regime) are used to solve equilibrium equations for two dusty particles suspended in a parabolic trap. The inter-particle distance dependence on screening length, trap parameter and particle charge is obtained. The functional form of inter-particle distance dependence on ion temperature is investigated and compared with experimental data at 200-300 K in order to test used potentials applicability to dusty plasma systems at room temperatures. The preference is given to the Yukawa-type potential including effective values of particle charge and screening length. The estimated effective value of the screening length is 5-15 times larger than the Debye length.

  1. Hot plasma dielectric tensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1996-01-01

    The hot plasma dielectric tensor is discussed in its various approximations. Collisionless cyclotron resonant damping and ion/electron Bernstein waves are discussed to exemplify the significance of a kinetic description of plasma waves.

  2. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2017-01-01

    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  3. Fair value accounting

    OpenAIRE

    Shamkuts, Volha, 1977-

    2010-01-01

    The thesis is devoted to fair value accounting. Fair value accounting implies that assets and liabilities get measured and reported in firm´s financial statements at their market value. The purpose of the thesis is to analyze the conceptual foundations of fair value accounting. The thesis is organized in the following way. First, origins and development of fair value accounting are discussed. Second, overview of fair value accounting is presented. The overview includes de...

  4. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  5. The Global Value Chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool......The conference paper aims to develop the global value chain concept by including corporate internal value adding activities and competition to the basic framework in order to turn the global value chain into a strategic management tool...

  6. "Super-acceleration" of ions in a stationary plasma discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardakov, Vladimir; Ivanov, Sergey; Kazantsev, Alexander; Strokin, Nikolay; Stupin, Aleksey

    2016-10-01

    We report on the detection of the acceleration effect of the bulk of ions in a stationary plasma E × B discharge to energies exceeding considerably the value equivalent to the discharge voltage. We determined the conditions necessary for the generation of high-energy ions, and ascertained the influence exerted on the value of the ion energies by pressure (flow rate) and the kind of plasma-producing gas, and by the value of discharge current. The possible acceleration mechanism is suggested.

  7. Spectroscopic studies of the parameters of plasma jets during their propagation in the background plasma on the PF-3 facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan’ko, S. A.; Ananyev, S. S.; Kalinin, Yu G.; Krauz, V. I.; Myalton, V. V.

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents measurement results of neon and helium plasma parameters in axial jets generated in plasma focus discharge. They were obtained in the course of experiments on laboratory modeling of astrophysical jets performed at the PF-3 facility. The plasma concentration was determined according to Stark broadening of spectral lines; the ionization temperature was determined by the average ion charge. The values of the concentration and temperature of jet plasma and background plasma at two distances from the pinch are also presented. In addition, an estimation was made of the heat content losses of the neon and helium jets during their movement through the surrounding medium.

  8. Ambipolar diffusion in complex plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losseva, T V; Popel, S I; Yu, M Y; Ma, J X

    2007-04-01

    A self-consistent model of the ambipolar diffusion of electrons and ions in complex (dusty) plasmas accounting for the local electric fields, the dust grain charging process, and the interaction of the plasma particles with the dust grains and neutrals is presented. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the interaction of the electrons and ions with the dust grains as well as with the neutrals are investigated. It is shown that increase of the dust density leads to a reduction of the diffusion scale length, and this effect is enhanced at higher electron densities. The dependence of the diffusion scale length on the neutral gas pressure is found to be given by a power law, where the absolute value of the power exponent decreases with increase of the dust density. The electric field gradient and its effects are shown to be significant and should thus be taken into account in studies of complex plasmas with not very small dust densities. The possibility of observing localized coherent dissipative nonlinear dust ion-acoustic structures in an asymmetrically discharged double plasma is discussed.

  9. Value-based pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Netseva-Porcheva Tatyana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the paper is to present the value-based pricing. Therefore, the comparison between two approaches of pricing is made - cost-based pricing and value-based pricing. The 'Price sensitively meter' is presented. The other topic of the paper is the perceived value - meaning of the perceived value, the components of perceived value, the determination of perceived value and the increasing of perceived value. In addition, the best company strategies in matrix 'value-cost' are outlined. .

  10. Microwave Argon Plasma Torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    an electron-ion pair in the discharge. Fig. 2. EEDF is non - Maxwellian and changes along the plasma column The electron–neutral collision...plasma radius. Even at atmospheric pressure the EEDF is non - Maxwellian and it is changing along the plasma column. ...18 31st ICPIG, July 14-19, 2013, Granada, Spain EEDF usually strongly differs from Maxwellian and chages along the plasma column (this is

  11. Introduction to Plasma Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-03-01

    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.

  12. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  13. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura

    2011-01-01

    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  14. Plasma in dentistry

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok

    2014-01-01

    This review describes the contemporary aspects of plasma application in dentistry. Previous studies on plasma applications were classified into two categories, surface treatment and direct applications, and were reviewed, respectively according to the approach. The current review discussed modification of dental implant surface, enhancing of adhesive qualities, enhancing of polymerization, surface coating and plasma cleaning under the topics of surface treatment. Microbicidal activities, deco...

  15. The Plasma Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplee, Curt

    2009-09-01

    Preface; 1. The fourth state of matter; 2. The music and dance of plasmas; 3. The Sun-Earth connection; 4. Bringing the Sun to Earth: the story of controlled thermonuclear fusion; 5. The cosmic plasma theater: galaxies, stars, and accretion disks; 6. Putting plasmas to work; Index.

  16. Value representations: a value based dialogue tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Rasmussen, Majken Kirkegaard

    2011-01-01

    Stereotypic presumptions about gender affect the design process, both in relation to how users are understood and how products are designed. As a way to decrease the influence of stereotypic presumptions in design process, we propose not to disregard the aspect of gender in the design process......, as the perspective brings valuable insights on different approaches to technology, but instead to view gender through a value lens. Contributing to this perspective, we have developed Value Representations as a design-oriented instrument for staging a reflective dialogue with users. Value Representations...

  17. Influence of microwave driver coupling design on plasma density at Testbench for Ion sources Plasma Studies, a 2.45 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance Plasma Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Megía-Macías, A.; Vizcaíno-de-Julián, A. [E.S.S. Bilbao, Edificio Cosimet, Landabarri 2, 48940-Leioa, Vizcaya (Spain); Cortázar, O. D., E-mail: dcortazar@essbilbao.org [E.S.S. Bilbao, Edificio Cosimet, Landabarri 2, 48940-Leioa, Vizcaya (Spain); Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, ETSII, C.J. Cela s/n, 13170 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-03-15

    A comparative study of two microwave driver systems (preliminary and optimized) for a 2.45 GHz hydrogen Electron Cyclotron Resonance plasma generator has been conducted. The influence on plasma behavior and parameters of stationary electric field distribution in vacuum, i.e., just before breakdown, along all the microwave excitation system is analyzed. 3D simulations of resonant stationary electric field distributions, 2D simulations of external magnetic field mapping, experimental measurements of incoming and reflected power, and electron temperature and density along the plasma chamber axis have been carried out. By using these tools, an optimized set of plasma chamber and microwave coupler has been designed paying special attention to the optimization of stationary electric field value in the center of the plasma chamber. This system shows a strong stability on plasma behavior allowing a wider range of operational parameters and even sustaining low density plasma formation without external magnetic field. In addition, the optimized system shows the capability to produce values of plasma density four times higher than the preliminary as a consequence of a deeper penetration of the magnetic resonance surface in relative high electric field zone by keeping plasma stability. The increment of the amount of resonance surface embedded in the plasma under high electric field is suggested as a key factor.

  18. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity and volume regulating factors in healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charkoudian, Nisha; Usselman, Charlotte W; Skow, Rachel J; Staab, Jeffery S; Julian, Colleen Glyde; Stickland, Michael K; Chari, Radha S; Khurana, Rshmi; Davidge, Sandra T; Davenport, Margie H; Steinback, Craig D

    2017-07-21

    Healthy, normotensive human pregnancies are associated with striking increases in both plasma volume and vascular sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). In non-pregnant humans, volume regulatory factors including plasma osmolality, vasopressin and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system have important modulatory effects on control of sympathetic outflow. We hypothesized that pregnancy would be associated with changes in the relationships between SNA (measured as muscle SNA) and volume regulating factors, including plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity and arginine vasopressin (AVP). We studied 46 healthy, normotensive young women (23 pregnant and 23 non-pregnant). We measured SNA, arterial pressure, plasma osmolality, plasma renin activity, AVP and other volume regulatory factors in resting, semi-recumbent posture. Pregnant women had significantly higher resting SNA (38 ± 12 vs. non-pregnant: 23 ± 6 bursts/minute), lower osmolality and higher plasma renin activity and aldosterone (all P pregnant] vs. 5.17 ± 2.03 [pregnant], P > 0.05). However, regression analysis detected a significant relationship between individual values for SNA and AVP in pregnant (r = 0.71, P pregnant women (r = 0.04). No relationships were found for other variables. These data suggest that the link between AVP release and resting SNA becomes stronger in pregnancy, which may contribute importantly to blood pressure regulation in healthy women during pregnancy. Copyright © 2017, American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology.

  19. Use of plasma: clinical indications and types of plasma components in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norda, R; Tynell, E

    2007-12-01

    The use of plasma in Sweden is relatively high compared to other countries in the European Union. An analysis of all transfusion recipients in Orebro county during the whole year 2000 was performed. There were 3159 transfusion recipients of whom 96% had a registered diagnosis and 50% had undergone a "true" operation. Seven hundred and eleven patients (23%) had received plasma. Significantly more operated than nonoperated and more men than women received plasma. The typical plasma recipient was a man undergoing cardiovascular surgery. In Sweden there are two main types of plasma components: fresh frozen (FFP) and nonfrozen liquid plasma stored for up to 14 days, both considered to be clinically equal for most indications. The quality of these components as well as stored thawed FFP has been studied. The major storage effect was cold-induced contact activation and thereby consumption of C1 esterase inhibitor (C1INH) by day 14 in 22%. The citrate content in plasma sustained the overall coagulation function over 14 days. Other studies have shown that the levels of FV and ADAMTS 13 after 14 days remain at 70% or more compared to those for FFP. Since it is immediately available, liquid, nonfrozen or thawed, plasma is of great value in emergencies. Quality criteria for plasma components need to be assessed against evidence based indications and published in guidelines.

  20. Clinical value of methylation of plasma adenomatous polyposis coli gene in the molecular diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma%腺瘤性结肠息肉病基因甲基化在肝细胞癌分子诊断中的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡瑜; 华东; 程之红; 吴玉玉; 谢其根; 王琼瑶; 余坚; 黄朝晖

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To establish a method of methylation-sensitive restriction enzymes-quantitative PCR (MSRE-Qpcr) for methylation analysis of adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene, and to further assess the clinical value of plasma methylation detection by using this method in diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: Hha I was used to digest genomic DNA, and the digestion efficiency was evaluated by using Qpcr technique. Then the optimized MSRE-Qpcr method was established. The methylation levels of APC in 45 liver tissues (20 surgically resected HCC specimens and the matched non-cancerous tissues, as well as 5 normal liver tissues) were detected by MSRE-Qpcr, and then further validated by using bisulfite sequencing PCR (BSP). The results of MSRE-Qpcr were compared with those of methylation-specific PCR (MSP) assay. MSRE-Qpcr method was used to detect the APC methylation status of plasma samples from 72 cases of HCC, 37 cases of benign liver diseases and 41 healthy volunteers. Results: The established MSRE-Qpcr method could detect as low as 1% methylated target sites in given DNA samples. The results of MSRE-Qpcr and MSP showed that APC gene was hypermethylated in HCC tissues. The result of MSRE-Qpcr was verified by BSP, and it was comparable with that of MSP (Kappa=0.955, P<0.000 1). Methylation level of plasma APC in patients with HCC was significant higher than those in patients with benign liver diseases and the healthy volunteers (P<0.000 1).Combined analysis of plasma APC methylation and serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) revealed an increased diagnostic efficacy for HCC. Conclusion: MSRE-Qpcr is a method for quantitative analysis of APC methylation level. Methylation analysis of plasma APC is a valuable method for the noninvasive diagnosis of HCC.%目的:建立甲基化敏感性限制性内切酶-定量PCR (methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme-quantitative PCR,MSRE-qPCR)方法,并应用该方法探讨血浆腺瘤性结肠息肉病(adenomatous polyposis

  1. Tracing Public Values Change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Rutgers, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    in several directions; b) job ads develop into platforms for organizational branding with an emphasis on HR-related values although national logos enter the scene (the Danish royal crown, the Dutch national emblem); c) New Public Management values do not crowd out other values, rather value intensity...

  2. Five Values of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  3. Five Values of Giftedness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besjes-de Bock, Karin M.; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes five values attributed to giftedness. The ascription of values to this phenomenon resembles values attached to gifts in gift-giving processes. Whereas gift-giving often includes expectations of reciprocity, each gift possesses a numerical, utility, social, personal, and intrinsic value. Developmental models of giftedness and…

  4. The Value of Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klamer, Arjo

    1997-01-01

    Culture manifests itself in everything human, including the ordinary business of everyday life. Culture and art have their own value, but economic values are also constrained. Art sponsorships and subsidies suggest a value that exceeds market price. So what is the real value of culture? Unlike the u

  5. Values and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Robert D., Ed.

    Every social studies teacher must consciously move to relate his course to the value dilemmas of youth and the value-laden issues of our time. A variety of writings by youth have been included to serve as source materials for classroom teachers and to provide significant insights into the values of youth. The section, Values in the Classroom:…

  6. Teaching Absolute Value Meaningfully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Angela

    2012-01-01

    What is the meaning of absolute value? And why do teachers teach students how to solve absolute value equations? Absolute value is a concept introduced in first-year algebra and then reinforced in later courses. Various authors have suggested instructional methods for teaching absolute value to high school students (Wei 2005; Stallings-Roberts…

  7. On value and culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Value stands for the significance of things,and concepts of value are ideas,opinions and attitudes about what kind of things are significant.Studies on the concept of value cannot be separated from culture.Every society has its own distinct culture and concept of value shared by its people.The relationship between concept of value and culture shows that the building of the concept of value must be based on culture.Developing culture,providing excellent products of culture and better humanitarian environment are the premise for people's possession of the correct concept of value.

  8. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  9. Value activity monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    de Alencar Silva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only promises (but not assurances) of value creation. Hence there is a need to extend current value modeling ontologies with a monitoring ontology. This ontology will enable business practitioners ...

  10. Dynamics of Exploding Plasma Within a Magnetized Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimonte, G; Dipeso, G; Hewett, D

    2002-02-01

    This memo describes several possible laboratory experiments on the dynamics of an exploding plasma in a background magnetized plasma. These are interesting scientifically and the results are applicable to energetic explosions in the earth's ionosphere (DOE Campaign 7 at LLNL). These proposed experiments are difficult and can only be performed in the new LAPD device at UCLA. The purpose of these experiments would be to test numerical simulations, theory and reduced models for systems performance codes. The experiments are designed to investigate the affect of the background plasma on (1) the maximum diamagnetic bubble radius given by Eq. 9; and (2) the Alfven wave radiation efficiency produced by the induced current J{sub A} (Eqs. 10-12) These experiments involve measuring the bubble radius using a fast gated optical imager as in Ref [1] and the Alfven wave profile and intensity as in Ref [2] for different values of the exploding plasma energy, background plasma density and temperature, and background magnetic field. These experiments extend the previously successful experiments [2] on Alfven wave coupling. We anticipate that the proposed experiments would require 1-2 weeks of time on the LAPD. We would perform PIC simulations in support of these experiments in order to validate the codes. Once validated, the PIC simulations would then be able to be extended to realistic ionospheric conditions with various size explosions and altitudes. In addition to the Alfven wave coupling, we are interested in the magnetic containment and transport of the exploding ''debris'' plasma to see if the shorting of the radial electric field in the magnetic bubble would allow the ions to propagate further. This has important implications in an ionospheric explosion because it defines the satellite damage region. In these experiments, we would field fast gated optical cameras to obtain images of the plasma expansion, which could then be correlated with magnetic

  11. Plasma Therapy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Diwan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Definition: Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is a collection of charged particles (electrons, ions, neutral atoms. Recent demonstration of plasma technology in treatment of living cells, tissue and organs are creating a new field at the intersection of plasma science and technology with biology and medicine known as plasma medicine. Plasma medicine is one of the newest fields of modem applied plasma chemistry. It appeared several years ago and comprises studies concerning the direct action of low-temperature, one atmosphere air plasma (cold plasma/nonthermal plasmalnonequilibrium on body tissues for various noninvasive therapeutic treatments or diagnostics purpose. The study of plasma holds promise for a myriad of applications ranging from lasers and electronics, hazardous decontamination, sterilization and disinfection of foods, soil, water, instruments, to medical uses in wound healing and treating certain types of tumors and cancers. Plasma represents a new state-of-the-art sterilization and disinfection treatment for certain oral and environmental pathogens, heat-sensitive materials, hard and soft surfaces, and may assist health care facilities in the management of various health concerns. The role that low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (LTAPP could play in the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms might prove to be a new, faster, more economical alternative.

  12. Sterilization of Turmeric by Atmospheric Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setareh, Salarieh; Davoud, Dorranian

    2013-11-01

    In this study atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma has been employed for sterilizing dry turmeric powders. A 6 kV, 6 kHz frequency generator was used to generate plasma with Ar, Ar/O2, He, and He/O2 gases between the 5 mm gap of two quartz covered electrodes. The complete sterilization time of samples due to plasma treatment was measured. The most important contaminant of turmeric is bacillus subtilis. The results show that the shortest sterilization time of 15 min is achieved by exposing the samples to Ar/O2 plasma. Survival curves of samples are exponential functions of time and the addition of oxygen to plasma leads to a significant increase of the absolute value of time constant of the curves. Magnitudes of protein and DNA in treated samples were increased to a similar value for all samples. Taste, color, and solubility of samples were not changed after the plasma treatment.

  13. Effect of plasma disruption on superconducting magnet in EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Junjun, E-mail: lijunjun73@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 230031 Hefei (China); Wang, Qiuliang [Institute of Electrical Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100190 Beijing (China); Li, Jiangang; Wu, Yu; Qian, Jing [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 230031 Hefei (China)

    2013-10-15

    For the safe operation of Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with higher plasma performance discharge in future, it is important to study the effect of plasma disruption on central solenoid (CS) coils. The outlet temperature rise of CS1-6 coils measured in experiment is analyzed. It is found that the outlet temperature rise of CS1-6 coils caused by plasma disruption cannot be observed in experimental data, because the effect of plasma disruption on outlet of CS coils is a small value, and the discretization error of experimental data is bigger than this value. In addition, the maximum temperature of CS coils during the plasma discharge is simulated by SAITOKPF code, and it appears that the maximum temperature of CS coils increases a little in the plasma disruption, but the temperature rise is a small quantity.

  14. Arc Plasma Torch Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R

    2013-01-01

    Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.

  15. Laminar Plasma Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Z; Barnes, C W; Barnes, D C; Wang, Zhehui; Pariev, Vladimir I.; Barnes, Cris W.; Barnes, Daniel C.

    2002-01-01

    A new kind of dynamo utilizing flowing laboratory plasmas has been identified. Conversion of plasma kinetic energy to magnetic energy is verified numerically by kinematic dynamo simulations for magnetic Reynolds numbers above 210. As opposed to intrinsically-turbulent liquid-sodium dynamos, the proposed plasma dynamos correspond to laminar flow topology. Modest plasma parameters, 1-20 eV temperatures, 10^{19}-10^{20} m^{-3} densities in 0.3-1.0 m scale-lengths driven by velocities on the order of the Alfven Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV), self-consistently satisfy the conditions needed for the magnetic field amplication. Growth rates for the plasma dynamos are obtained numerically with different geometry and magnetic Reynolds numbers. Magnetic-field-free coaxial plasma guns can be used to sustain the plasma flow and the dynamo.

  16. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode......, external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous...... plasma. In this study, we are presenting the surface modification"pf polymers by plasma polymerization using Softplasma™. Softplasma™ can be used for two major types of polymerization: polymerization of vinyl monomers, where plasma acts as initiator; chemical vapour deposition, where plasma acts...

  17. Absence of a difference in the neurosecretory activity of supraoptic nucleus vasopressin neurons of neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malidelis, Y.I.; Panayotacopoulou, M.T.; Heerikhuize, J.J. van; Unmehopa, U.A.; Kontostavlaki, D.P.; Swaab, D.F.

    2005-01-01

    Dysfunction in water intake and metabolism has frequently been reported in schizophrenia. The general population of schizophrenics under neuroleptic treatment secretes lower amounts of vasopressin than controls at comparable values of plasma osmolality. The purpose of the present study was to

  18. Plasmas for medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.

    2013-09-01

    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous

  19. Nonlinear Plasma Wave in Magnetized Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K; Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G; Kodama, Ryosuke

    2013-01-01

    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic "Four-Ray Star" pattern which has been observed in the image of the electron bunch in experiments [T. Hosokai, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 075004 (2006)].

  20. Changes in total plasma content of electrolytes and proteins with maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beaumont, W.; Strand, J. C.; Petrofsky, J. S.; Hipskind, S. G.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    To determine to what extent the increases in concentration of plasma proteins and electrolytes with short maximal work were a result of hemoconcentration, the changes in plasma volume and total content of the plasma constituents were simultaneously evaluated. The results obtained from six human subjects indicated that in comparison to preexercise values there was a net decrease in total content of plasma protein, sodium, and chloride in the first 2 min of the postexercise period, due primarily to a significant loss (13-15%) of plasma fluid. The total plasma potassium content was increased immediately after exercise but was significantly below the preexercise plasma content after 2 min of recovery.

  1. A control approach for plasma density in tokamak machines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boncagni, Luca, E-mail: luca.boncagni@enea.it [EURATOM – ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Center, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Pucci, Daniele; Piesco, F.; Zarfati, Emanuele [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale ' ' Antonio Ruberti' ' , Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy); Mazzitelli, G. [EURATOM – ENEA Fusion Association, Frascati Research Center, Division of Fusion Physics, Rome, Frascati (Italy); Monaco, S. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Informatica, Automatica e Gestionale ' ' Antonio Ruberti' ' , Sapienza Università di Roma (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: •We show a control approach for line plasma density in tokamak. •We show a control approach for pressure in a tokamak chamber. •We show experimental results using one valve. -- Abstract: In tokamak machines, chamber pre-fill is crucial to attain plasma breakdown, while plasma density control is instrumental for several tasks such as machine protection and achievement of desired plasma performances. This paper sets the principles of a new control strategy for attaining both chamber pre-fill and plasma density regulation. Assuming that the actuation mean is a piezoelectric valve driven by a varying voltage, the proposed control laws ensure convergence to reference values of chamber pressure during pre-fill, and of plasma density during plasma discharge. Experimental results at FTU are presented to discuss weaknesses and strengths of the proposed control strategy. The whole system has been implemented by using the MARTe framework [1].

  2. Studies of Wettability of Medical PVC by Remote Nitrogen Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Chen, Jierong

    2006-05-01

    The effects of remote nitrogen plasma and nitrogen plasma on medical PVC's surface modification are studied. The surface properties are characterized by the contact angle measurement, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Results show that the remote nitrogen plasma treatments modify the PVC surface in both morphology and composition and the treatment by the remote nitrogen plasma in PVC surface modification is more effective than that by the nitrogen plasma. Remote nitrogen plasma can modify the surface more uniformly. After the PVC surface is treated for 2 min by remote nitrogen plasma, the [w(O)+ w(N)]/w(C)] value increases from 0.13 to 0.51 and the water contact angle decreases from 89o to 18o.

  3. [Study of ignition characteristic of DC voltage plasma ignitor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; He, Li-Ming; Lan, Yu-Dan; Du, Hong-Liang

    2011-09-01

    The changing law between interelectrode current, discharge characteristic and jet characteristic of plasma ignitor under different inlet Ar pressure and working current was researched by adopting self-made plasma ignitor. Still, four channels CCD spectrometer was adopted to measure the spectrum characteristic at the exit of ignitor and electron temperature of plasma was calculated according to the spectrum characteristic. The results show that the interelectrode current gradually reduced with rising inlet Ar pressure; The jet length of plasma ignitor firstly increased then reduced with rising inlet Ar flowrate, and also increased with rising working current; The working current of plasma ignitor reduced with rising inlet Ar flowrate, and increased with rising source output current; the electron temperature of plasma ignitor jet increased with rising working current and reduced with rising Ar flowrate. The research results are of certain guidance meanings and reference values for the practical application of plasma ignition system in aeroengine.

  4. The plasma dispersion function the Hilbert transform of the Gaussian

    CERN Document Server

    Fried, Burton D

    1961-01-01

    The Plasma Dispersion Function: The Hilbert Transform of the Gaussian focuses on the reactions, transformations, and calculations involved in plasma dispersion function. The book first offers information on the properties of Z, including symmetry properties, values for special arguments, power series, asymptotic expansion, and differential equation characterization. The text then ponders on the applications to plasma physics. Numerical calculations on the function of Z are presented. The manuscript takes a look at table generation and accuracy wherein various methods are proposed in computin

  5. Wakes in Inertial Fusion Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Ian Norman

    is described by electrostatic Vlasov theory (for vparticle >> vth) and is due to the diffraction of the wave, while for cold plasmas the curvature is due to nonlinear radial oscillations of background electrons. Beams with multiple electrons exhibit correlation effects caused by electrons interacting through their wakes. Non-divergent beams are simulated, and a significant time-dependent increase in the stopping power is observed when the average electron spacing is 2c/ope or less. This increase is caused by beam-plasma-like instabilities including self-focusing and/or filamentation and the beam-plasma-like instability. The stopping power growth rate and peak value depend on the beam size and density. For long beams with dimensions of 10c/ope x 10c/ope x 80c/o pe and an inter-particle separation of 0.25c/ope (n b/n0 ≈ 4x 10-3), the peak stopping power averaged over the electrons is (1 +/- 3) x 103 times that of an uncorrelated electron. These results indicate that an enhanced energy-independent or weakly dependent correlated stopping may occur for Fast Ignition scenarios, even for interparticle spacings when discreteness effects are important. The dependence of correlation effects on beam electron separation in terms of c/ope also indicates that Fast Ignition may be possible with core densities below those designed using single-electron stopping powers. Target optimization to exploit correlated stopping in the target core may be possible once the effects of angular spread and energy spread are understood. Furthermore, this work begins to allow a connection from the discrete wakes effect to collective instabilities as the interparticle spacing is decreased relative to the size of the wake due to the use of denser beams, lower plasma densities, and the filamentation/self-focusing of the beam.

  6. Political Values or the Value of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoska, Emilija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.

  7. Plasma Waves as a Benchmark Problem

    CERN Document Server

    Kilian, Patrick; Schreiner, Cedric; Spanier, Felix

    2016-01-01

    A large number of wave modes exist in a magnetized plasma. Their properties are determined by the interaction of particles and waves. In a simulation code, the correct treatment of field quantities and particle behavior is essential to correctly reproduce the wave properties. Consequently, plasma waves provide test problems that cover a large fraction of the simulation code. The large number of possible wave modes and the freedom to choose parameters make the selection of test problems time consuming and comparison between different codes difficult. This paper therefore aims to provide a selection of test problems, based on different wave modes and with well defined parameter values, that is accessible to a large number of simulation codes to allow for easy benchmarking and cross validation. Example results are provided for a number of plasma models. For all plasma models and wave modes that are used in the test problems, a mathematical description is provided to clarify notation and avoid possible misunderst...

  8. Cyclotron resonance absorption in ionospheric plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villalon, E. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (USA) Geophysics Lab., Hanscom AFB, MA (USA))

    1991-04-01

    The mode conversion of ordinary polarized electromagnetic waves into electrostatic cyclotron waves in the inhomogeneous ionospheric plasma is investigated. Near resonance the warm plasma dispersion relation is a function of the angle {theta} between the geomagnetic field and the density gradient and of the wave frequency {omega}, where {Omega} {le} {omega} {le} 2{Omega} and {Omega} is the electron cyclotron frequency. The differential equations describing the electric field amplitudes near the plasma resonance are studied, including damping at the second gyroharmonic. For certain values of {omega} and {theta} (e.g., {theta} < 45{degree}, {omega} {approximately} 2{Omega}) the wave equations reduce to the parabolic cylinder equation. The energy transmission coefficients and power absorbed by the cyclotron waves are calculated. The vertical penetration of the plasma wave amplitudes is iestimated using a WKB analysis of the wave equation.

  9. Adding more value to added-value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marian, Livia

    regulation. The results of a qualitative concept test reveal positive attitudes towards the proposed production process. The discussions about fewer standards being sufficient or about options “in-between” conventional and organic standards indicate that the difference in production processes is noticed, yet...... it is probably valued less than expected. The added attributes need to be thoroughly considered when developing and marketing “organic plus” products, as their effect on other product characteristics (e.g. high prices) can detract from their added value....

  10. Plasma Biomedicine in Orthopedics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Satsohi

    2012-10-01

    Various effects of plasmas irradiation on cells, tissues, and biomaterials relevant for orthopedic applications have been examined. For direct application of plasmas to living cells or tissues, dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with helium flows into ambient air were used. For biomaterial processing, on the other hand, either helium DBDs mentioned above or low-pressure discharges generated in a chamber were used. In this presentation, plasma effects on cell proliferation and plasma treatment for artificial bones will be discussed. First, the conditions for enhanced cell proliferation in vitro by plasma applications have been examined. The discharge conditions for cell proliferation depend sensitively on cell types. Since cell proliferation can be enhanced even when the cells are cultured in a plasma pre-treated medium, long-life reactive species generated in the medium by plasma application or large molecules (such as proteins) in the medium modified by the plasma are likely to be the cause of cell proliferation. It has been found that there is strong correlation between (organic) hydroperoxide generation and cell proliferation. Second, effects of plasma-treated artificial bones made of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) have been examined in vitro and vivo. It has been found that plasma treatment increases hydrophilicity of the surfaces of microscopic inner pores, which directly or indirectly promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells introduced into the pores and therefore causes faster bone growth. The work has been performed in collaboration with Prof. H. Yoshikawa and his group members at the School of Medicine, Osaka University.

  11. Plasma detachment in linear devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, N.

    2017-03-01

    Plasma detachment research in linear devices, sometimes called divertor plasma simulators, is reviewed. Pioneering works exploring the concept of plasma detachment were conducted in linear devices. Linear devices have contributed greatly to the basic understanding of plasma detachment such as volume plasma recombination processes, detached plasma structure associated with particle and energy transport, and other related issues including enhancement of convective plasma transport, dynamic response of plasma detachment, plasma flow reversal, and magnetic field effect. The importance of plasma detachment research using linear devices will be highlighted aimed at the design of future DEMO.

  12. Advanced plasma diagnostics for plasma processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyshev, Mikhail Victorovich

    1999-10-01

    A new, non-intrusive, non-perturbing diagnostic method was developed that can be broadly applied to low pressure, weakly ionized plasmas and glow discharges-trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES). The method is based on a comparison of intensities of atomic emission from trace amounts of inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) that are added to the discharge to intensities calculated from the theoretical model. The model assumes a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), computes the population of emitting levels both from the ground state and the metastable states of rare gases, and from the best fit between theory and experiment determines electron temperature (Te). Subject to conditions, TRG-OES can also yield electron density or its upper or lower limit. From the comparison of the emission from levels excited predominantly by high energy electrons to that excited by low energy electrons, information about the EEDF can be obtained. The use of TRG-OES also allows a traditionally qualitative actinometry technique (determination of concentration of radical species in plasma through optical emission) to become a precise quantitative method by including Te and rare gases metastables effects. A combination of TRG-OES, advanced actinometry, and Langmuir probe measurements was applied to several different plasma reactors and regimes of operation. Te measurements and experiments to correct excitation cross section were conducted in a laboratory helical resonator. Two chamber configuration of a commercial (Lam Research) metal etcher were studied to determine the effects of plasma parameters on plasma-induced damage. Two different methods (RF inductive coupling and ultra-high frequency coupling) for generating a plasma in a prototype reactor were also studied. Pulsed plasmas, a potential candidate to eliminate the plasma-induced damage to microelectronics devices that occurs in manufacturing due to differential charging of the wafer, have

  13. 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance in severe renal failure determined by one plasma sample

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Nielsen, S L

    1989-01-01

    at zero-time was derived from injected dose and body surface area. This method might provide values 1.5 ml/min below or 0.8 ml/min above the established method of 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance, which would be acceptable for clinical purposes. It is concluded that exact plasma clearance of 51Cr-EDTA in severe......Two hundred and thirty-four measurements of standard 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance were made in 50 patients with severe chronic renal failure. Based on these data two calculation methods were attempted using one plasma sample drawn 24 h after injection of 51Cr-EDTA. One of the methods used the 'one...... sample clearance' formulas disregarding exact time of plasma sampling. This method might provide values 3.1 ml/min below or 2.9 ml/min above the established method of total 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance, and would thus provide insufficient agreement. In the other method an estimate of plasma activity...

  14. A Search for Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abruscato, Joseph

    1972-01-01

    Explains the place the values of truth, freedom, skepticism and dissent, originality, order, and communication play in science, and states implications of these values for science curricula and instructional practices. (AL)

  15. Value Set Authority Center

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The VSAC provides downloadable access to all official versions of vocabulary value sets contained in the 2014 Clinical Quality Measures (CQMs). Each value set...

  16. Extreme Value Theory and Value at Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana Fernandez

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Value at Risk (VaR is a measure of the maximum potential change in value of a portfolio of financial assets with a given probability over a given time horizon. VaR became a key measure of market risk since the Basle Committee stated that banks should be able to cover losses on their trading portfolios over a ten-day horizon, 99 percent of the time. A common practice is to compute VaR by assuming that changes in value of the portfolio are normally distributed, conditional on past in-formation. However, assets returns usually come from fat-tailed distri-butions. Therefore, computing VaR under the assumption of conditional normality can be an important source of error. We illustrate this point with Chilean and U.S. returns series by resorting to extreme value theory (EVT and GARCH-type models. In addition, we show that dynamic estimation of empirical quantiles can also give more accurate VaR estimates than quantiles of a standard normal.

  17. Cold Atmosphere Plasma in Cancer Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keidar, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Plasma is an ionized gas that is typically generated in high-temperature laboratory conditions. Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. Areas of potential application of cold atmospheric plasmas (CAP) include dentistry, drug delivery, dermatology, cosmetics, wound healing, cellular modifications, and cancer treatment. Various diagnostic tools have been developed for characterization of CAP including intensified charge-coupled device cameras, optical emission spectroscopy and electrical measurements of the discharge propertied. Recently a new method for temporally resolved measurements of absolute values of plasma density in the plasma column of small-size atmospheric plasma jet utilizing Rayleigh microwave scattering was proposed [1,2]. In this talk we overview state of the art of CAP diagnostics and understanding of the mechanism of plasma action of biological objects. The efficacy of cold plasma in a pre-clinical model of various cancer types (long, bladder, and skin) was recently demonstrated [3]. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies revealed that cold plasmas selectively kill cancer cells. We showed that: (a) cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in vitro without damaging normal cells. For instance a strong selective effect was observed; the resulting 60--70% of lung cancer cells were detached from the plate in the zone treated with plasma, whereas no detachment was observed in the treated zone for the normal lung cells under the same treatment conditions. (b) Significantly reduced tumor size in vivo. Cold plasma treatment led to tumor ablation with neighbouring tumors unaffected. These experiments were performed on more than 10 mice with the same outcome. We found that tumors of about 5mm in diameter were ablated after 2 min of single time plasma treatment. The two best known cold plasma effects, plasma-induced apoptosis and the decrease of cell migration

  18. Values in dialogic pedagogy

    OpenAIRE

    Eugene Matusov; Jay Lemke

    2015-01-01

    In November 2014 on the Dialogic Pedagogy Journal Facebook page, there was an interesting discussion of the issue of values in dialogic pedagogy[1]. The main issue can be characterized as the following. Should dialogic pedagogy teach values? Should it avoid teaching values? Is there some kind of a third approach? The participants of the Facebook discussions were focusing on teaching values in dialogic pedagogy and not about teaching aboutvalues. On the one hand, it seems to be impossible to a...

  19. Values Take Center Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    substantial goals is the prime ingredient of a purposeful life. Studies show that those who prize intrinsic values, such as meaningful work...experience greater happiness than those who esteem extrinsic values like wealth, even when the differences in wealth are large. The integration of values...managers must follow through and to see that behavior and rewards match the organization’s values. Remember, “What get measured gets done.” When

  20. EURRECA—Estimating Selenium Requirements for Deriving Dietary Reference Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hurst, R.; Collings, R.; Harvey, L.J.; King, M.; Hooper, L.; Bouwman, J.; Gurinovic, M.; Fairweather-Tait, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Current reference values for selenium, an essential micronutrient, are based on the intake of selenium that is required to achieve maximal glutathione peroxidase activity in plasma or erythrocytes. In order to assess the evidence of relevance to setting dietary reference values for selenium, the EUR

  1. Evidence for functional interaction of plasma membrane electron transport, voltage-dependent anion channel and volume-regulated anion channel in frog aorta

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashmi P Rao; J Prakasa Rao

    2010-12-01

    Frog aortic tissue exhibits plasma membrane electron transport (PMET) owing to its ability to reduce ferricyanide even in the presence of mitochondrial poisons, such as cyanide and azide. Exposure to hypotonic solution (108 mOsmol/kg H2O) enhanced the reduction of ferricyanide in excised aortic tissue of frog. Increment in ferricyanide reductase activity was also brought about by the presence of homocysteine (100 M dissolved in isotonic frog Ringer solution), a redox active compound and a potent modulator of PMET. Two plasma-membrane-bound channels, the volume regulated anion channel (VRAC) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), are involved in the response to hypotonic stress. The presence of VRAC and VDAC antagonists–tamoxifen, glibenclamide, fluoxetine and verapamil, and 4,4′-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2′-disulphonic acid (DIDS), respectively–inhibited this enhanced activity brought about by either hypotonic stress or homocysteine. The blockers do not affect the ferricyanide reductase activity under isotonic conditions. Taken together, these findings indicate a functional interaction of the three plasma membrane proteins, namely, ferricyanide reductase (PMET), VDAC and VRAC.

  2. Emergy and Nonmarket Value

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this study is to better understand the differences and similarities between emergy and nonmarket economic valuation, when both are applied to value the same policies or development alternatives. The emdollar value of a good or service often exceeds the market value...

  3. Value and Vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Eleanor Jo

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the value of public libraries and what it means to be valuable. Topics include shrinking library budgets; why there is public money for libraries; how to tell whether a service, product, or institution creates public value; political and legal support; administrative and operational feasibility; and enhancing public value. (LRW)

  4. The Value of Accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Peek (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFair value estimates of debt and equity securities play an increasingly important role in the economy. For example, International Financial Reporting Standards require companies to report many of their investments at fair value on the balance sheet or to use fair values in goodwill impai

  5. The Value of Accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Peek (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFair value estimates of debt and equity securities play an increasingly important role in the economy. For example, International Financial Reporting Standards require companies to report many of their investments at fair value on the balance sheet or to use fair values in goodwill impai

  6. The Value of Accounting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Peek (Erik)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractFair value estimates of debt and equity securities play an increasingly important role in the economy. For example, International Financial Reporting Standards require companies to report many of their investments at fair value on the balance sheet or to use fair values in goodwill

  7. Value Conditionality of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M M Yusupov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article considers theoretical approaches to the study of values and identity, and reveals the role of values in the formation of the ethnic, regional and Russian identity on the example of Chechnya and the North Caucasus, with the sociological indicators characterizing value orientations and self-identification.

  8. Value activity monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Alencar Silva, P.

    2013-01-01

    Current value modeling ontologies are grounded on the economic premise that profit sharing is a critical condition to be assessed during the configuration of a value constellation. Such a condition ought to be reinforced through a monitoring mechanism design, since a value model expresses only promi

  9. Pulsed plasma arc cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙; 白钢; 李振民; 张赋升; 杨思乾

    2004-01-01

    A prototype of Pulsed Plasma Arc Cladding system was developed, in which single power source supplies both transferred plasma arc (TPA) and non-transferred plasma arc (N-TPA). Both plasmas work in turn in a high frequency controlled by an IGBT connecting nozzle and workpiece. The working frequency of IGBT ranges from 50 ~ 7000Hz, in which the plasmas can work in turn smoothly. Higher than 500 Hz of working frequency is suggested for promotion of cladding quality and protection of IGBT. Drag phenomenon of TPA intensifies as the frequency goes up, which tends to increase the current proportion of TPA and suppress N-TPA. The occupation ratio of IGBT can be regulated from 5% ~ 95%, which balances the power supplies of both plasmas. An occupation ratio higher than 50% gives adequate proportion of arc current for N-TPA to preheat powder.

  10. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  11. Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Killian, T C; Gupta, P; Laha, S; Martinez, Y N; Mickelson, P G; Nagel, S B; Saenz, A D; Simien, C E; Killian, Thomas C.

    2005-01-01

    Ultracold neutral plasmas are formed by photoionizing laser-cooled atoms near the ionization threshold. Through the application of atomic physics techniques and diagnostics, these experiments stretch the boundaries of traditional neutral plasma physics. The electron temperature in these plasmas ranges from 1-1000 K and the ion temperature is around 1 K. The density can approach $10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$. Fundamental interest stems from the possibility of creating strongly-coupled plasmas, but recombination, collective modes, and thermalization in these systems have also been studied. Optical absorption images of a strontium plasma, using the Sr$^+$ ${^2S_{1/2}} -> {^2P_{1/2}}$ transition at 422 nm, depict the density profile of the plasma, and probe kinetics on a 50 ns time-scale. The Doppler-broadened ion absorption spectrum measures the ion velocity distribution, which gives an accurate measure of the ion dynamics in the first microsecond after photoionization.

  12. What is a plasma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-30

    This introduction will define the plasma fourth state of matter, where we find plasmas on earth and beyond, and why they are useful. There are applications to many consumer items, fusion energy, scientific devices, satellite communications, semiconductor processing, spacecraft propulsion, and more. Since 99% of our observable universe is ionized gas, plasma physics determines many important features of astrophysics, space physics, and magnetosphere physics in our solar system. We describe some plasma characteristics, examples in nature, some useful applications, how to create plasmas. A brief introduction to the theoretical framework includes the connection between kinetic and fluid descriptions, quasi neutrality, Debye shielding, ambipolar electric fields, some plasma waves. Hands-on demonstrations follow. More complete explanations will follow next week.

  13. Pulsed plasma electron sourcesa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Yarmolich, D.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Vekselman, V.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.

    2009-05-01

    There is a continuous interest in research of electron sources which can be used for generation of uniform electron beams produced at E ≤105 V/cm and duration ≤10-5 s. In this review, several types of plasma electron sources will be considered, namely, passive (metal ceramic, velvet and carbon fiber with and without CsI coating, and multicapillary and multislot cathodes) and active (ferroelectric and hollow anodes) plasma sources. The operation of passive sources is governed by the formation of flashover plasma whose parameters depend on the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating electric field. In the case of ferroelectric and hollow-anode plasma sources the plasma parameters are controlled by the driving pulse and discharge current, respectively. Using different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, spectroscopical, Thomson scattering and x-ray diagnostics, the parameters of the plasma and generated electron beam were characterized.

  14. Subcritical excitation of plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Yagi, M.; Fukuyama, A.

    1996-01-01

    Theory of current-diffusive interchange mode turbulence in plasmas is developed in the presence of collisional transport. Double-valued amplitude of stationary fluctuations is expressed in terms of the pressure gradient. The backward bifurcation is shown to appear near the linear stability boundary. The subcritical nature of the turbulence is explicitly illustrated. Critical pressure gradient at which the transition from collisional transport to the turbulent one is to occur is predicted. This provides a prototype of the transport theory for nonlinear-non-equilibrium systems. (author).

  15. Subcritical excitation of plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Nagoya (Japan); Itoh, Sanae; Yagi, Masatoshi; Fukuyama, Atsushi

    1996-09-01

    Theory of current-diffusive interchange mode turbulence in plasmas in the presence of collisional transport is developed. Amplitude of stationary fluctuations is expressed in terms of the double-valued function of the pressure gradient. The backward bifurcation is shown to appear near the linear stability boundary. The subcritical nature of the turbulence is explicitly illustrated. The critical pressure gradient at which the transition from collisional transport to the turbulent one is to occur is predicted. This work provides a prototype of the transport theory for nonlinear-nonequilibrium systems. (author)

  16. Oxygen plasma treatments of jute fibers in improving the mechanical properties of jute/HDPE composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sever, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Erden, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ege University, 35100, Izmir (Turkey); Guelec, H.A. [Department of Food Engineering, Yuzuncu Yil University, 65250, Van (Turkey); Seki, Y., E-mail: yoldas.seki@deu.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Dokuz Eylul University, 35160, Buca, Izmir (Turkey); Sarikanat, M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ege University, 35100, Izmir (Turkey)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} To improve mechanical properties of jute/HDPE composites, jute fabric was subjected to oxygen plasma treatment. {yields} LF and RF plasma systems at different plasma powers were used for treatment. {yields} In LF system, interlaminar shear strength, tensile and flexure strengths showed a tendency to increase at plasma powers of 30 and 60 W. - Abstract: The surfaces of jute fabrics have been oxygen plasma treated using low frequency (LF) and radio frequency (RF) plasma systems at different plasma powers (30, 60, and 90 W) for 15 min to improve the mechanical properties of jute fiber/HDPE (high density polyethylene) composites. The effect of oxygen plasma treatment on the functional groups of jute fibers was examined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. Effects of oxygen plasma treatments on the mechanical properties of jute fiber/HDPE composites were investigated by means of tensile, flexure, and short-beam shear tests. Surface morphology of the fractured surfaces of composites was observed by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). When RF plasma system was used, the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) values of the composites increased with increasing plasma power. Similarly, in LF plasma system, ILSS values showed a tendency to increase at plasma powers of 30 and 60 W. However, increasing of plasma power to 90 W decreased the ILSS value of jute/HDPE composite. Also, tensile and flexure strengths of the composites showed similar trends.

  17. Magnetic Flux Compression Experiments Using Plasma Armatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M. W.; Hawk, C. W.; Litchford, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    Magnetic flux compression reaction chambers offer considerable promise for controlling the plasma flow associated with various micronuclear/chemical pulse propulsion and power schemes, primarily because they avoid thermalization with wall structures and permit multicycle operation modes. The major physical effects of concern are the diffusion of magnetic flux into the rapidly expanding plasma cloud and the development of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities at the plasma surface, both of which can severely degrade reactor efficiency and lead to plasma-wall impact. A physical parameter of critical importance to these underlying magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes is the magnetic Reynolds number (R(sub m), the value of which depends upon the product of plasma electrical conductivity and velocity. Efficient flux compression requires R(sub m) less than 1, and a thorough understanding of MHD phenomena at high magnetic Reynolds numbers is essential to the reliable design and operation of practical reactors. As a means of improving this understanding, a simplified laboratory experiment has been constructed in which the plasma jet ejected from an ablative pulse plasma gun is used to investigate plasma armature interaction with magnetic fields. As a prelude to intensive study, exploratory experiments were carried out to quantify the magnetic Reynolds number characteristics of the plasma jet source. Jet velocity was deduced from time-of-flight measurements using optical probes, and electrical conductivity was measured using an inductive probing technique. Using air at 27-inHg vacuum, measured velocities approached 4.5 km/s and measured conductivities were in the range of 30 to 40 kS/m.

  18. Space plasma physics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.

    1993-01-01

    During the course of this grant, work was performed on a variety of topics and there were a number of significant accomplishments. A summary of these accomplishments is included. The topics studied include empirical model data base, data reduction for archiving, semikinetic modeling of low energy plasma in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere, O(+) outflows, equatorial plasma trough, and plasma wave ray-tracing studies. A list of publications and presentations which have resulted from this research is also included.

  19. Atmospheric Plasma Depainting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-19

    Plasma Carbon Dioxide Water Vapor 11 Atmospheric Plasma Depainting, ASETSDefense, Nov 19, 2014 Features and Benefits of APCR Technology Feature...Depainting, ASETSDefense, Nov 19, 2014 14 APC on Aluminum Removal to Primer RAM on Carbon Fiber Partial Topcoat Removal APC Topcoat RAM...60Hz Plasma Flux™ Power Supply VENT To Facility HEPA <= Filtration COTS Six-Axis Robot Aircraft part Particulate Collection System

  20. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  1. Extreme value distributions

    CERN Document Server

    Ahsanullah, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the book is to give a through account of the basic theory of extreme value distributions. The book cover a wide range of materials available to date. The central ideas and results of extreme value distributions are presented. The book rwill be useful o applied statisticians as well statisticians interrested to work in the area of extreme value distributions.vmonograph presents the central ideas and results of extreme value distributions.The monograph gives self-contained of theory and applications of extreme value distributions.

  2. Linguistic Valued Association Rules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-jiang; QIAN Zuo-ping

    2002-01-01

    Association rules discovering and prediction with data mining method are two topics in the field of information processing. In this paper, the records in database are divided into many linguistic values expressed with normal fuzzy numbers by fuzzy c-means algorithm, and a series of linguistic valued association rules are generated. Then the records in database are mapped onto the linguistic values according to largest subject principle, and the support and confidence definitions of linguistic valued association rules are also provided. The discovering and prediction methods of the linguistic valued association rules are discussed through a weather example last.

  3. Public Value Dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, lotte bøgh; Beck Jørgensen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Anne-Mette

    2012-01-01

    Further integration of the public value literature with other strands of literature within Public Administration necessitates a more specific classification of public values. This paper applies a typology linked to organizational design principles, because this is useful for empirical public...... administration studies. Based on an existing typology of modes of governance, we develop a classification and test it empirically, using survey data from a study of the values of 501 public managers. We distinguish between seven value dimensions (the public at large, rule abidance, societal interests, budget...... the integration between the public value literature and other parts of the Public Administration discipline....

  4. Plasma adiabatic lapse rate

    CERN Document Server

    Amendt, Peter; Wilks, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The plasma analog of an adiabatic lapse rate (or temperature variation with height) in atmospheric physics is obtained. A new source of plasma temperature gradient in a binary ion species mixture is found that is proportional to the concentration gradient and difference in average ionization states . Application to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions indicates a potentially strong effect in plastic (CH) ablators that is not modeled with mainline (single-fluid) simulations. An associated plasma thermodiffusion coefficient is derived, and charge-state diffusion in a single-species plasma is also predicted.

  5. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo

    2010-01-01

    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  6. Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Leslie Colin

    2003-01-01

    A short, self-sufficient introduction to the physics of plasma for beginners as well as researchers in a number of fields. The author looks at the dynamics and stability of magnetoplasma and discusses wave and transport in this medium. He also looks at such applications as fusion research using magnetic confinement of Deuterium plasma, solar physics with its plasma loops reaching high into the corona, sunspots and solar wind, engineering applications to metallurgy, MHD direct generation of electricity, and railguns, finally touching on the relatively new and difficult subject of dusty plasmas.

  7. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-01-01

    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  8. Solid expellant plasma generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  9. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G

    1984-01-01

    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  10. Plasma and particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špatenka, Petr; Vacková, Tat'ana; Nováček, Vojtěch; Jeníková, Zdenka

    2016-12-01

    Plasma has been proved as a standard industrial method for surface treatment of solid bulk materials. Recently plasma has also been used in connection with production, treatment and functionalization of powder and granulate materials. Functionalization was originally developed for hydrophylization of hydrophobic surfaces of particles made from various materials. An industrial scale device with a capacity of several hundreds of tons per year based on plasma treatment will be presented. As examples of the applications are given plasma treated polyethylene powder dispersed in the water; and very good adhesion of polymer powders to metals or glass, which is promising for development of new generation of thermoplastic composites.

  11. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values......, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....

  12. Hunters' motivations and values:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Bech-Larsen, Tino

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the values and motivations of South African biltong hunters. A hierarchical value map of associations between attributes, consequences and values resulted from laddering interviews with 34 hunters. The Means-End Chain approach proved useful in identifying: (a) personal values......, (b) wildlife value orientations, and (c) motivations associated with desired benefits and satisfactions. Values reflected socialization, achievement, stimulation, hedonism, universalism, and conformity. Materialism, attraction/interest, respect, environmentalism, and rational/scientific were...... the predominant wildlife value orientations. Motivations included male identity, escape, appreciation of nature, and bonding with family and friends. The study refuted perceptions that biltong hunters primarily hunt for the meat or for the sake of killing an animal....

  13. Baudrillard's Theory of Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zander, Pär Ola

    2014-01-01

    Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly) postmod......Jean Baudrillard outlined a theory of value in his early writings that built on, but also criticized, Marxist concepts of use value and exchange value. In this paper, I use a close reading to delineate the diachronic transition of Baudrillard's writings toward anti-Marxism and (allegedly...... theory. The paper concludes that Baudrillard's arguments for abandoning Marxism altogether are problematic and led him away from developing a more finished theory of value. This is unfortunate because it remains a project that may yield interesting insights even in contemporary social theory, not least...... in supporting reconciliation (e.g., between critical semiotics-influenced positions and Marxism)....

  14. RESISTIVE WALL MODES AND PLASMA ROTATION IN DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    REIMERDES,H; CHU,MS; GAROFALO,AM; JACKSON,GL; JENSEN,TH; LAHAYE,RJ; NAVRATIL,GA; OKABAYASHI,M; SCOVILLE,JT; STRAIT,EJ

    2003-07-01

    A271 RESISTIVE WALL MODES AND PLASMA ROTATION IN DIII-D. The stabilization of the resistive wall mode (RWM) by toroidal plasma rotation has been demonstrated in neutral beam heated DIII-D discharges for values of {beta} up to 70% above the no-wall stability limit. The stabilizing effect of plasma rotation is explained by assuming some dissipation, which is caused by the rapid plasma flow through a perturbed magnetic field. Sufficient plasma rotation is predicted to extend the operating regime of tokamaks from the conventional no-wall {beta} limit up to the ideal wall {beta} limit. While plasma rotation has a stabilizing effect on the RWM, a finite amplitude RWM also increases the drag on the plasma, which leads to a non-linear interaction between the RWM and the plasma rotation. A good understanding of the underlying dissipation mechanism is crucial for reliable predictions of the plasma rotation which will be required for wall-stabilization in a burning-plasma experiment. In order to measure the stabilizing effect of plasma rotation on the RWM the technique of active MHD spectroscopy, which was previously applied to MHD modes at frequencies above 10 kHz, is extended to frequencies of a few Hz.

  15. Experimental investigations of plasma bullets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mericam-Bourdet, N; Laroussi, M; Begum, A; Karakas, E, E-mail: mlarouss@odu.ed [Laser and Plasma Engineering Institute, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529 (United States)

    2009-03-07

    Recently several investigators reported on various means of generating cold plasma jets at atmospheric pressure. More interestingly, these jets turned out to be not continuous plasmas but trains of small high velocity plasma packets/bullets. However, until now little is known of the nature of these 'bullets'. Here we present experimental insights into the physical and chemical characteristics of bullets. We show that their time of initiation, their velocity and the distance they travel are directly dependent on the value of the applied voltage. We also show that these bullets can be controlled by the application of an external electric field. Using an intensified charge coupled device camera we report on their geometrical shape, which was revealed to be 'donut' shaped, therefore giving an indication that solitary surface ionization waves may be responsible for the creation of these bullets. In addition, using emission spectroscopy, we follow the evolution of various species along the trajectory of the bullets, in this way correlating the bullet propagation with the evolution of their chemical activity.

  16. Parallel plasma fluid turbulence calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leboeuf, J.N.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Drake, J.B.; Lynch, V.E.; Newman, D.E.; Sidikman, K.L.; Spong, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    The study of plasma turbulence and transport is a complex problem of critical importance for fusion-relevant plasmas. To this day, the fluid treatment of plasma dynamics is the best approach to realistic physics at the high resolution required for certain experimentally relevant calculations. Core and edge turbulence in a magnetic fusion device have been modeled using state-of-the-art, nonlinear, three-dimensional, initial-value fluid and gyrofluid codes. Parallel implementation of these models on diverse platforms--vector parallel (National Energy Research Supercomputer Center`s CRAY Y-MP C90), massively parallel (Intel Paragon XP/S 35), and serial parallel (clusters of high-performance workstations using the Parallel Virtual Machine protocol)--offers a variety of paths to high resolution and significant improvements in real-time efficiency, each with its own advantages. The largest and most efficient calculations have been performed at the 200 Mword memory limit on the C90 in dedicated mode, where an overlap of 12 to 13 out of a maximum of 16 processors has been achieved with a gyrofluid model of core fluctuations. The richness of the physics captured by these calculations is commensurate with the increased resolution and efficiency and is limited only by the ingenuity brought to the analysis of the massive amounts of data generated.

  17. Study on evaluating the prognostic value of the plasma cystatin C in patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal serum creatinine%血清胱抑素C水平对血肌酐正常急性心肌梗死患者的预后价值探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟; 周长钰; 尹力; 李立丰; 张承宗

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the short and long-term prognostic value of the plasma cystatin C ( Cys-C) concentrations in patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal serum creatinine ( Scr ). Methods According to the changing of Cys -C median level within 24 hours of chest pain symptom onset , 174 chosen patients with acute myocardial infarction and normal Scr (58-110 μmol/L)were classified into 2 groups:Group A( Cys-C≤1.018 mg/L)and Group B( Cys-C > 1. 018 mg/L). The cases of major adverse cardiac events ( MACE) were recorded during in-hospital and the follow-up periods of two years. Results During in-hospital patients with cardiovascular death and heart failure in group B (6. 9% and 25. 3% )were significantly more than those in group A (1. 1% and 12. 6% ) , P 1.018 mg/L).记录住院及随访两年期间的心脏不良事件(MACE)发生情况.结果 (1)B组患者住院期间的心血管死亡及心力衰竭发生率(6.9%和25.3%)明显高于A组(1.1%和12.6%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);随访两年期间B组患者的心血管死亡及心力衰竭发生率(12.6%和23%)均明显高于A组(3.4%和10.3%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组住院期间均无再次AMI发生.随访期间再次AMI事件无统计学差异.(2)Logistic回归分析显示,血清Cys-C水平是MACE发生的独立危险因素(OR=1.038,P=0.01).(3)ROC曲线分析,Cys-C预测MACE事件的敏感性及特异性高于肾功能指标Scr,其预测MACE临界值为0.996 mg/L.结论 心肌梗死急性期血清Cys-C水平可作为评价肾功能正常AMI患者预后的指标之一.

  18. Ultracold neutral plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, M.; Rolston, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    By photoionizing samples of laser-cooled atoms with laser light tuned just above the ionization limit, plasmas can be created with electron and ion temperatures below 10 K. These ultracold neutral plasmas have extended the temperature bounds of plasma physics by two orders of magnitude. Table-top experiments, using many of the tools from atomic physics, allow for the study of plasma phenomena in this new regime with independent control over the density and temperature of the plasma through the excitation process. Characteristic of these systems is an inhomogeneous density profile, inherited from the density distribution of the laser-cooled neutral atom sample. Most work has dealt with unconfined plasmas in vacuum, which expand outward at velocities of order 100 m/s, governed by electron pressure, and with lifetimes of order 100 μs, limited by stray electric fields. Using detection of charged particles and optical detection techniques, a wide variety of properties and phenomena have been observed, including expansion dynamics, collective excitations in both the electrons and ions, and collisional properties. Through three-body recombination collisions, the plasmas rapidly form Rydberg atoms, and clouds of cold Rydberg atoms have been observed to spontaneously avalanche ionize to form plasmas. Of particular interest is the possibility of the formation of strongly coupled plasmas, where Coulomb forces dominate thermal motion and correlations become important. The strongest impediment to strong coupling is disorder-induced heating, a process in which Coulomb energy from an initially disordered sample is converted into thermal energy. This restricts electrons to a weakly coupled regime and leaves the ions barely within the strongly coupled regime. This review will give an overview of the field of ultracold neutral plasmas, from its inception in 1999 to current work, including efforts to increase strong coupling and effects on plasma properties due to strong coupling.

  19. Value of plasma renin activity changes with different posture on identification of primary ;aldosteronism%不同体位肾素活性变化值对原发性醛固酮增多症鉴别诊断的价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王梦卉; 李南方; 张德莲; 周克明; 骆秦; 王国亮

    2016-01-01

    .Methods Three hundred and seven patients had received the estimation of PRA,aldosterone level on basal sitting posture and after 2 hours on upright,sitting and supine posture,and collection of other biochemistry measurements. PA group was defined according to aldosterone/renin acrivity ≥554 pmol/L · [μg/ ( L · h ) ]-1 and plasma aldosterone concentration≥277 pmol/L after saline infusion test, the rest were regarded as no⁃PA group. Related parameters were calculated to show the sensitivity and specificity,and so on.Results In PA group, the levels of PRA upright,sitting,supine [0.61μg/(L·h),0.62 μg/(L·h),0.31 μg/(L·h)] were lower than those of no⁃PA group[1.42μg/(L·h),1.18μg/(L·h),0.51μg/(L·h)],and the differences were statistically significant (F =11.465,12.052,10.296;P =0.001).The D⁃value[0.24μg/(L·h)] of PRA between PRA upright and PRA supine in PA group was lower than that [0.78μg/(L·h)] in no⁃PA group, and the difference was statistically significant (F =8.303,P =0.004).The sensitivity values of PRA upright <1.0μg/(L·h) or PRA upright⁃PRA supine<0.6 μg/(L·h) to diagnose PA were 64% and 70%, respectively;the specificity values were 62% and 68%;the negative predictive values were 91% and 93%, respectively.Using PRA upright<1. 0 μg/( L · h) and PRA upright⁃PRA supine <0. 6 μg/( L · h) as diagnostic criterion of PA,the sensitivity and specificity values were 45% and 88%,respectively.Conclusions There is a low efficacy to use the changes of PRA via posture alteration as a diagnostic standard,but it′s brief and safe to provide some referenced information to doctors on the identification of PA.

  20. A New Global Core Plasma Model of the Plasmasphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Comfort, R. H.; Craven, P. D.

    2014-01-01

    The Global Core Plasma Model (GCPM) is the first empirical model for thermal inner magnetospheric plasma designed to integrate previous models and observations into a continuous in value and gradient representation of typical total densities. New information about the plasmasphere, in particular, makes possible significant improvement. The IMAGE Mission Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) has obtained the first observations of total plasma densities along magnetic field lines in the plasmasphere and polar cap. Dynamics Explorer 1 Retarding Ion Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) has provided densities in temperatures in the plasmasphere for 5 ion species. These and other works enable a new more detailed empirical model of thermal in the inner magnetosphere that will be presented.

  1. Negative edge plasma currents in the SINP tokamak

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ramesh Narayanan; A N Sekar Iyengar

    2011-12-01

    A tokamak plasma discharge having an increase in duration accompanied with enhanced runaway electron flux has been experimentally studied in this paper. The discharges have been obtained by controlling the applied vertical magnetic field ($B^{\\text{appl}}_v$) to below a critical value. Such discharges have been observed to have ‘negative edge plasma currents’, detected using an internal Rogowskii coil (IRC). We have tried to correlate the runaway behaviour with the negative edge plasma currents and have explained that these observations are a result of beam plasma instabilities.

  2. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  3. Value oriented strategic marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milisavljević Momčilo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Changes in today's business environment require companies to orient to strategic marketing. The company accepting strategic marketing has a proactive approach and focus on continuous review and reappraisal of existing and seeking new strategic business areas. Difficulties in achieving target profit and growth require turning marketing from the dominant viewpoint of the tangible product to creating superior value and developing relationships with customers. Value orientation implies gaining competitive advantage through continuous research and understanding of what value represents to the consumers and discovering new ways to meet their required values. Strategic marketing investment requires that the investment in the creation of values should be regularly reviewed in order to ensure a focus on customers with high profit potential and environmental value. This increases customer satisfaction and retention and long-term return on investment of companies.

  4. The problem with value

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Doherty, John P.

    2015-01-01

    Neural correlates of value have been extensively reported in a diverse set of brain regions. However, in many cases it is difficult to determine whether a particular neural response pattern corresponds to a value-signal per se as opposed to an array of alternative non-value related processes, such as outcome-identity coding, informational coding, encoding of autonomic and skeletomotor consequences, alongside previously described “salience” or “attentional” effects. Here, I review a number of experimental manipulations that can be used to test for value, and I identify the challenges in ascertaining whether a particular neural response is or is not a value signal. Finally, I emphasize that some non-value related signals may be especially informative as a means of providing insight into the nature of the decision-making related computations that are being implemented in a particular brain region. PMID:24726573

  5. Value Adding Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Per Anker; Katchamart, Akarapong

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate how Facilities Management (FM) can add value and develop a management concept that can assist facilities managers in implementing value adding strategies and practices. Theory: The study is based on the management model for FM included in the European FM standards, recent...... theories on added value of FM and real estate and the related concept of Value Management from building projects. The study is related to the EuroFM research group on The Added Value of FM. Design/methodology/approach: The study outlines a preliminary theoretical based management concept, which...... is investigated, tested and discussed based on a case study of an international corporation. Findings: The study shows that the management model for FM creates a relevant starting point but also that stakeholder and relationship management is an essential aspect of Value Adding Management. The case study confirms...

  6. The value of space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panduro, Toke Emil

    are concerned with the value of different types of green space and how these values can be applied in urban planning policies related to climate adaption. The results presented in this thesis, ensure a “level playing field” in the assessment of the cost and benefits of different climate adaptation strategies...... and provide reliable estimates of the value of different types of green space....

  7. Globalization and Values

    OpenAIRE

    John WHALLEY

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses a central element in globalization debate little addressed by economists, namely the interactions at global, national, and community levels between globalization and societally based values. Social values refer to wider notions of collective identity: religious values, attitudes towards materialism, moral beliefs, and a sense of collective awareness and are a broader and more encompassing concept than social capital discussed in recent economics and sociology literature. ...

  8. Behavioural present value

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Piasecki

    2013-01-01

    Impact of chosen behavioural factors on imprecision of present value is discussed here. The formal model of behavioural present value is offered as a result of this discussion. Behavioural present value is described here by fuzzy set. These considerations were illustrated by means of extensive numerical case study. Finally there are shown that in proposed model the return rate is given, as a fuzzy probabilistic set.

  9. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.

    2012-06-01

    Plasma plumes, or plasma jets, belong to a large family of gas discharges whereby the discharge plasma is extended beyond the plasma generation region into the surrounding ambience, either by a field (e.g. electromagnetic, convective gas flow, or shock wave) or a gradient of a directionless physical quantity (e.g. particle density, pressure, or temperature). This physical extension of a plasma plume gives rise to a strong interaction with its surrounding environment, and the interaction alters the properties of both the plasma and the environment, often in a nonlinear and dynamic fashion. The plasma is therefore not confined by defined physical walls, thus extending opportunities for material treatment applications as well as bringing in new challenges in science and technology associated with complex open-boundary problems. Some of the most common examples may be found in dense plasmas with very high dissipation of externally supplied energy (e.g. in electrical, optical or thermal forms) and often in or close to thermal equilibrium. For these dense plasmas, their characteristics are determined predominantly by strong physical forces of different fields, such as electrical, magnetic, thermal, shock wave, and their nonlinear interactions [1]. Common to these dense plasma plumes are significant macroscopic plasma movement and considerable decomposition of solid materials (e.g. vaporization). Their applications are numerous and include detection of elemental traces, synthesis of high-temperature materials and welding, laser--plasma interactions, and relativistic jets in particle accelerators and in space [2]-[4]. Scientific challenges in the understanding of plasma jets are exciting and multidisciplinary, involving interweaving transitions of all four states of matter, and their technological applications are wide-ranging and growing rapidly. Using the Web of Science database, a search for journal papers on non-fusion plasma jets reveals that a long initial phase up

  10. [Acute plasma cell leukemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monsalbe, V; Domíngues, C; Roa, I; Busel, D; González, S

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Cell Leukemia is a very rare form of plasmocytic dyscrasia, whose clinical and pathological characteristics warrant its recognition as a distinct subentity. We report the case of a 60 years old man who presented a rapidly fatal acute plasma cell leukemia, with multiple osteolytic lesions, hipercalcemia, renal and cardiac failure.

  11. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takashi [Department of Engineering Physics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Polarization of radiation emitted from a plasma reflects the anisotropic properties of the plasma, especially the angular anisotropic distribution of electron velocities. Polarization has been observed on impurity ion lines from the WT-3 tokamak and the GAMMA-10 tandem mirror machines. The soft x-ray laser line from the neonlike germanium was also found polarized. (author)

  12. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Inoue, Takeru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Kawakami, Kazuki; Fujimoto, Takashi [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Engineering Physics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Polarization of radiation emitted from plasma reflects the anisotropic properties of the plasma, especially the angular isotropic distribution of electron velocities. Polarization has been observed on impurity ion lines from the WT-3 tokamak and GAMMA 10 tandem mirror device. (author)

  13. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.

    1986-01-01

    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  14. Plasma etching an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Manos, Dennis M

    1989-01-01

    Plasma etching plays an essential role in microelectronic circuit manufacturing. Suitable for researchers, process engineers, and graduate students, this book introduces the basic physics and chemistry of electrical discharges and relates them to plasma etching mechanisms. Throughout the volume the authors offer practical examples of process chemistry, equipment design, and production methods.

  15. Modelling of Complex Plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akdim, M.R. (Mohamed Reda)

    2003-01-01

    Nowadays plasmas are used for various applications such as the fabrication of silicon solar cells, integrated circuits, coatings and dental cleaning. In the case of a processing plasma, e.g. for the fabrication of amorphous silicon solar cells, a mixture of silane and hydrogen gas is injected in a r

  16. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nádia Aparecida; Netto, José Fillus

    2014-03-17

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.

  17. "Angular" plasma cell cheilitis

    OpenAIRE

    da Cunha Filho, Roberto Rheingantz; Tochetto, Lucas Baldissera; Tochetto, Bruno Baldissera; de Almeida Jr, Hiram Larangeira; Lorencette, Nadia Aparecida; Netto, Jose Fillus

    2014-01-01

    Plasma cell cheilitis is an extremely rare disease, characterized by erythematous-violaceous, ulcerated and asymptomatic plaques, which evolve slowly. The histological characteristics include dermal infiltrate composed of mature plasmocytes. We report a case of Plasma cell angular cheilitis in a 58-year-old male, localized in the lateral oral commissure.

  18. Introduction to Plasma Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kunze, H-J

    2009-01-01

    Based on lectures given at the Ruhr-University of Bochum for graduate students and postgraduates starting in plasma physics as well as from low- to high-density hot plasmas, this book introduces basic ideas and fundamental concepts and typical instrumentation from the X-ray to the infrared spectral regions

  19. Emerging sacred values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Sachdeva

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sacred values are different from secular values in that they are often associated with violations of the cost-benefit logic of rational choice models. Previous work on sacred values has been largely limited to religious or territorial conflicts deeply embedded in historical contexts. In this work we find that the Iranian nuclear program, a relatively recent development, is treated as sacred by some Iranians, leading to a greater disapproval of deals which involve monetary incentives to end the program. Our results suggest that depending on the prevalence of such values, incentive-focused negotiations may backfire.

  20. Business Value Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchenko, Artem; Duarte, Vasco

    Agile teams want to deliver maximum business value. That’s easy if the on-site Ccstomer assigns business value to each story. But how does the customer do that? How can you estimate business value? This workshop is run as a game, where teams have to make tough business decisions for their ”organizations”. Teams have to decide which orders to take and what to deliver first in order to earn more. The session gives the participants basic business value estimation techniques, but the main point is to make people live through the business situation and to help them feel the consequences of various choices.

  1. Innovations in plasma sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gershman, Daniel J.

    2016-04-01

    During the history of space exploration, ever improving instruments have continued to enable new measurements and discoveries. Focusing on plasma sensors, we examine the processes by which such new instrument innovations have occurred over the past decades. Due to risk intolerance prevalent in many NASA space missions, innovations in plasma instrumentation occur primarily when heritage systems fail to meet science requirements, functional requirements as part of its space platform, or design constraints. We will review such innovation triggers in the context of the design literature and with the help of two case studies, the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer on MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging and the Fast Plasma Investigation on Magnetosphere Multiscale. We will then discuss the anticipated needs for new plasma instrument innovations to enable the science program of the next decade.

  2. Wakes in inhomogeneous plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kompaneets, Roman; Nosenko, Vladimir; Morfill, Gregor E

    2014-01-01

    The Debye shielding of a charge immersed in a flowing plasma is an old classic problem in plasma physics. It has been given renewed attention in the last two decades in view of experiments with complex plasmas, where charged dust particles are often levitated in a region with strong ion flow. Efforts to describe the shielding of the dust particles in such conditions have been focused on the homogeneous plasma approximation, which ignores the substantial inhomogeneity of the levitation region. We address the role of the plasma inhomogeneity by rigorously calculating the point charge potential in the collisionless Bohm sheath. We demonstrate that the inhomogeneity can dramatically modify the wake, making it non-oscillatory and weaker.

  3. Basic plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Basudev

    2014-01-01

    Basic Plasma Physics is designed to serve as an introductory compact textbook for advanced undergraduate, postgraduate and research students taking plasma physics as one of their subject of study for the first time. It covers the current syllabus of plasma physics offered by the most universities and technical institutions. The book requires no background in plasma physics but only elementary knowledge of basic physics and mathematics. Emphasis has been given on the analytical approach. Topics are developed from first principle so that the students can learn through self-study. One chapter has been devoted to describe some practical aspects of plasma physics. Each chapter contains a good number of solved and unsolved problems and a variety of review questions, mostly taken from recent examination papers. Some classroom experiments described in the book will surely help students as well as instructors.

  4. Microphysics of cosmic plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bykov, Andrei; Cargill, Peter; Dendy, Richard; Wit, Thierry; Raymond, John

    2014-01-01

    This title presents a review of the detailed aspects of the physical processes that underlie the observed properties, structures and dynamics of cosmic plasmas. An assessment of the status of understanding of microscale processes in all astrophysical collisionless plasmas is provided. The topics discussed include  turbulence in astrophysical and solar system plasmas as a phenomenological description of their dynamic properties on all scales; observational, theoretical and modelling aspects of collisionless magnetic reconnection; the formation and dynamics of shock waves; and a review and assessment of microprocesses, such as the hierarchy of plasma instabilities, non-local and non-diffusive transport processes and ionisation and radiation processes.  In addition, some of the lessons that have been learned from the extensive existing knowledge of laboratory plasmas as applied to astrophysical problems are also covered.   This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers active in the areas of cosmi...

  5. SUPERFAST THERMALIZATION OF PLASMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.C.

    1962-06-12

    A method is given for the superfast thermalization of plasma by shock conversion of the kinetic energy stored in rotating plasma rings or plasmoids colliding at near supersonic speeds in a containment field to heat energy in the resultant confined plasma mass. The method includes means for generating rotating plasmoids at the opposite ends of a Pyrotron or Astron containment field. The plasmoids are magnetically accelerated towards each other into the opposite ends of time containment field. During acceleration of the plasmoids toward the center of the containment field, the intensity of the field is sequentially increased to adiabatically compress the plasmoids and increase the plasma energy. The plasmoids hence collide with a violent shock at the eenter of the containment field, causing the substantial kinetic energy stored in the plasmoids to be converted to heat in the resultant plasma mass. (AEC)

  6. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike

    2008-01-01

    as reactive splvent (as shown in Figure 1). 1] H. Biederman, in Plasma Polymer Films. (ed.) H. Biederman. Imperial College Press, Singapore, 13-24 ~OO~· '. , [2] R. d'Agostino et.a!. in Plasma Depd~itiqn, 'Treatment, and Etching ofPolymers. (ed.) R. d'Agostino, Academic Press, U.S. (1990). [3] F. F. Shi......In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode......, external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous...

  7. Gingival plasma cell granuloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phadnaik Mangesh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma cell granuloma is a rare reactive lesion composed of polyclonal plasma cells. It manifests primarily in the lungs, but may occur in various other anatomic locations like the oral cavity. Intraoral plasma cell granulomas involving the tongue, lip, oral mucosa and gingiva have been reported in the past. This case presents a 54-year-old female with chronic periodontitis and mandibular anterior gingival overgrowth treated by Phase I therapy (scaling and root planing and excisional biopsy. Histological examination revealed inflammatory cell infiltrate containing sheets of plasma cells. Immunohistochemistry for kappa and lambda light chains showed a polyclonal staining pattern confirming a diagnosis of plasma cell granuloma. This case highlights the need to biopsy for unusual lesions to rule out potential neoplasms.

  8. Helical plasma thruster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beklemishev, A. D., E-mail: bekl@bk.ru [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-15

    A new scheme of plasma thruster is proposed. It is based on axial acceleration of rotating magnetized plasmas in magnetic field with helical corrugation. The idea is that the propellant ionization zone can be placed into the local magnetic well, so that initially the ions are trapped. The E × B rotation is provided by an applied radial electric field that makes the setup similar to a magnetron discharge. Then, from the rotating plasma viewpoint, the magnetic wells of the helically corrugated field look like axially moving mirror traps. Specific shaping of the corrugation can allow continuous acceleration of trapped plasma ions along the magnetic field by diamagnetic forces. The accelerated propellant is expelled through the expanding field of magnetic nozzle. By features of the acceleration principle, the helical plasma thruster may operate at high energy densities but requires a rather high axial magnetic field, which places it in the same class as the VASIMR{sup ®} rocket engine.

  9. Diagnostics of Nanodusty Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Franko; Groth, Sebastian; Tadsen, Bejamin; Piel, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    The diagnostic of nanodusty plasmas, i.e. plasmas including nano-sized dust particles, is a challenging task. For both, the diagnostic of the nanodusty plasma itself, and the in-situ diagnostic of the nanoparticles, no standard diagnostic exist. Nanodust particle size and density can be estimated using light scattering techniques, namely kinetic Mie ellipsometry and extinction measurements. The charge of the nanoparticles can be estimated from the analysis of dust density waves (DDW). Parameters like the electron density, which give information about the plasma itself, may be deduced from the DDW analysis. We present detailed investigations on nanodust in a reactive Argon-Acetylene plasma created in an rf-driven parallel plate reactor at low pressure using the above mentioned portfolio of diagnostic. Funded by DFG under contract SFB TR-24/A2.

  10. Solar system plasma waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.

    1995-01-01

    An overview is given of spacecraft observations of plasma waves in the solar system. In situ measurements of plasma phenomena have now been obtained at all of the planets except Mercury and Pluto, and in the interplanetary medium at heliocentric radial distances ranging from 0.29 to 58 AU. To illustrate the range of phenomena involved, we discuss plasma waves in three regions of physical interest: (1) planetary radiation belts, (2) planetary auroral acceleration regions and (3) the solar wind. In each region we describe examples of plasma waves that are of some importance, either due to the role they play in determining the physical properties of the plasma, or to the unique mechanism involved in their generation.

  11. Thermodynamic and dynamical properties of dense ICF plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabdullin Maratbek T.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In present work, thermodynamic expressions were obtained through potentials that took into consideration long-range many-particle screening effects as well as short-range quantum-mechanical effects and radial distribution functions (RDFs. Stopping power of the projectile ions in dense, non-isothermal plasma was considered. One of the important values that describe the stopping power of the ions in plasma is the Coulomb logarithm. We investigated the stopping power of ions in inertial confinement fusion (ICF plasma and other energetic characteristics of fuel. Calculations of ions energy losses in the plasma for different values of the temperature and plasma density were carried out. A comparison of the calculated data of ion stopping power and energy deposition with experimental and theoretical results of other authors was also performed.

  12. Optical properties of hydroxyethyl cellulose film treated with nitrogen plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, K. H.

    2016-03-01

    Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) film has been prepared by casting technique. The prepared sample has been treated with nitrogen plasma at different exposure times. The optical absorption was recorded at room temperature in the wavelength range of 200-800 nm. Absorbance fitting procedure curves revealed a direct allowed transition with optical band gap, Eopt, of 4.9 eV for pristine film, and this value decreases to 4.30 eV for 20 min plasma treatment time. The band tail values (Ee) were found to be increased under plasma time treatment from 1.74 eV in case of the pristine film to 2.20 eV for 20 min. The dispersion of refractive index and complex dielectric constants under plasma treatment was also studied. Variation of color parameters under effect of the plasma treatment is analyzed in the framework of CIE L*U*V* color space.

  13. Magnetoacoustic waves in a partially ionized two-fluid plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Soler, Roberto; Ballester, Jose Luis

    2013-01-01

    Compressible disturbances propagate in a plasma in the form of magnetoacoustic waves driven by both gas pressure and magnetic forces. In partially ionized plasmas the dynamics of ionized and neutral species are coupled due to ion-neutral collisions. As a consequence, magnetoacoustic waves propagating through a partially ionized medium are affected by the ion-neutral coupling. The degree to which the behavior of the classic waves is modified depends on the physical properties of the various species and on the relative value of the wave frequency compared to the ion-neutral collision frequency. Here, we perform a comprehensive theoretical investigation of magnetoacoustic wave propagation in a partially ionized plasma using the two-fluid formalism. We consider an extensive range of values for the collision frequency, ionization ratio, and plasma $\\beta$, so that the results are applicable to a wide variety of astrophysical plasmas. We determine the modification of the wave frequencies and study the frictional da...

  14. VALUES AND VALORIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena ANGHEL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available I live with the feeling that, in the past few years, Romania has been a drifting ship. We do not know where is it going, nor the place it will arrive at. Like any individual endowed with reason, I wonder why chaos took over this society and, if I would have the power to change anything, what would be the solution to less troubled waters. I think we lost our way because we forgot to always refer to the values that should guide us ... or because we refer too often to non-values. I think we could find our way and stop wandering if we will rely our evolution on values, if we will teach our children from a young age what values and non-values are and if we could run our existence in the spirit of a real value horizon. People live together, not just coexist, as so deeply professor Gheorghe Mihai highlighted1. Coexistence is specific to herds, packs, hordes; but human community means collaboration, cooperation, consensualisation, which implies a consciousness towards values. "What is missing now to the human society is a behavior that relates to a code of virtue"2. Moral values are the support for the legal values. Unfortunately, today, it seems to me that values are inverted and that the belief in the perfectibility of the individual (and therefore the perfectibility of law is increasingly being questioned. Contemporary society is characterized by lack of motivation, lack of a strategy and the absence of any ideals. In this context, I believe that the individual today feels the necessity of some value referrences more acutely, whilst the society needs a law deeply based on moral values. As morality itself contributes to the valorization of the law, I think that moral appeal is more necessary today than yesterday, as a remedy for the individual and, consequently, the law to overcome their crisis. For all these reasons and also because I share the view that "the concrete law is not viable without values and these values are always expressed in the

  15. Electronegative Plasma Instabilities in Industrial Pulsed Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pribyl, Patrick; Hansen, Anders; Gekelman, Walter

    2016-10-01

    Electronegative gases that are important for industrial etch processes have a series of instabilities that occur at process relevant conditions. These have been studied since the 1990s, but are becoming a much more important today as plasma reactors are being pushed to produce ever finer features, and tight control of the etch process is becoming crucial. The experiments are being done in a plasma etch tool that closely simulates a working industrial device. ICP coils in different configurations are driven by a pulsed RF generators operating at 2-5 MHz. A computer controlled automated probe drive can access a volume above the substrate. The probe can be a Langmuir probe, a ``Bdot'' probe, or an emissive probe the latter used for more accurate determination of plasma potential. A microwave interferometer is available to measure line-averaged electron density. The negative ion instability is triggered depending upon the gas mix (Ar,SF6) , pressure and RF power. The instability can be ``burned through'' by rapidly pulsing the RF power. In this study we present measurements of plasma current and density distribution over the wafer before, after and during the rapid onset of the instability. Work suported by NSF-GOALI Award and done at the BAPSF.

  16. Insight into hydrogenation of graphene: Effect of hydrogen plasma chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felten, A.; Nittler, L.; Pireaux, J.-J. [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur, Namur (Belgium); McManus, D. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom); Rice, C.; Casiraghi, C. [School of Chemistry and Photon Science Institute, University of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-03

    Plasma hydrogenation of graphene has been proposed as a tool to modify the properties of graphene. However, hydrogen plasma is a complex system and controlled hydrogenation of graphene suffers from a lack of understanding of the plasma chemistry. Here, we correlate the modifications induced on monolayer graphene studied by Raman spectroscopy with the hydrogen ions energy distributions obtained by mass spectrometry. We measure the energy distribution of H{sup +}, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 3}{sup +} ions for different plasma conditions showing that their energy strongly depends on the sample position, pressure, and plasma power and can reach values as high as 45 eV. Based on these measurements, we speculate that under specific plasma parameters, protons should possess enough energy to penetrate the graphene sheet. Therefore, a graphene membrane could become, under certain conditions, transparent to both protons and electrons.

  17. OPERATION MODES AND CHARACTERISTICS OF PLASMA DIPOLE ANTENNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Nikolaevich Bogachev

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Existence modes of  surface electromagnetic wave on a plasma cylinder, operating modes and characteristics of the plasma antenna were studied in this paper. Solutions of the dispersion equation of surface wave were obtained for a plasma cylinder with finite radius for different plasma density values. Operation modes of the plasma asymmetric dipole antenna with finite length and radius were researched by numerical simulation. The electric field distributions of  the plasma antenna in near antenna field and the radiation pattern were obtained. These characteristics were compared to characteristics of the similar metal antenna. Numerical models verification was carried out by comparing of the counted and measured metal antenna radiation patterns.

  18. Instabilities, turbulence and transport in a magnetized plasma; Instabilites, turbulence et transport dans un plasma magnetise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbet, X

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce the main processes that occur in a magnetized plasma. During the last 2 decades, the understanding of turbulence has made great progress but analytical formulas and simulations are far to produce reliable predictions. The values of transport coefficients in a tokamak plasma exceed by far those predicted by the theory of collisional transport. This phenomenon is called abnormal transport and might be due to plasma fluctuations. An estimation of turbulent fluxes derived from the levels of fluctuations, is proposed. A flow description of plasma allows the understanding of most micro-instabilities. The ballooning representation deals with instabilities in a toric geometry. 3 factors play an important role to stabilize plasmas: density pinch, magnetic shear and speed shear. The flow model of plasma gives an erroneous value for the stability threshold, this is due to a bad description of the resonant interaction between wave and particle. As for dynamics, flow models can be improved by adding dissipative terms so that the linear response nears the kinetic response. The kinetic approach is more accurate but is complex because of the great number of dimensions involved. (A.C.)

  19. Values in dialogic pedagogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Matusov

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In November 2014 on the Dialogic Pedagogy Journal Facebook page, there was an interesting discussion of the issue of values in dialogic pedagogy[1]. The main issue can be characterized as the following. Should dialogic pedagogy teach values? Should it avoid teaching values? Is there some kind of a third approach? The participants of the Facebook discussions were focusing on teaching values in dialogic pedagogy and not about teaching aboutvalues. On the one hand, it seems to be impossible to avoid teaching values. However, on the other hand, shaping students in some preset molding is apparently non-dialogic and uncritical (Matusov, 2009. In the former case, successful teaching is defined by how well and deeply the students accept and commit to the taught values. In the latter case, successful dialogic teaching may be defined by students’ critical examination of their own values against alternative values in a critical dialogue. Below, Eugene Matusov and Jay Lemke, active participants of this Facebook dialogue, provide their reflection on this important issue and encourage readers to join their reflective dialogue.[1] See in a public Facebook domain: https://www.facebook.com/DialogicPedagogyJournal/posts/894734337204533, https://www.facebook.com/DialogicPedagogyJournal/posts/896916850319615

  20. Social Life of Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe case of the Danish “cartoon war” was a premonition of things to come: accelerated social construction of inequalities and their accelerated symbolic communication, translation and negotiation. New uses of values in organizing and managing inequalities emerge. Values lead active

  1. Value Chain Engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæhrens, Brian Vejrum; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2015-01-01

    This workbook is recommended for the attention of students of and managers in Danish small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Danish SMEs are currently facing a number of key challenges related to their position in global value chains. This book provides an insight into value chain management t...

  2. Looking for Core Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Margie

    2010-01-01

    People who view themselves as leaders, not just managers or teachers, are innovators who focus on clarifying core values and aligning all aspects of the organization with these values to grow their vision. A vision for an organization can't be just one person's idea. Visions grow by involving people in activities that help them name and create…

  3. High coking value pitch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  4. Laws of Network Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M.C. Larrosa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The valuation of a social network is an issue that has been addressed based on simplifying approaches. Various value laws have been stipulated, which are largely atheoretical but have been effectively used to estimate the potential economic value of social network-based firms. This review highlights the various contributions used in the recent literature on networks valuation laws.

  5. Dance: Verities, Values, Visions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorman, Joyce, Ed.; Harris, Dorothy, Ed.

    The Binational Dance Conference was organized into three focal themes--verities, values, and visions in dance--to emphasize the known and accepted worth and value of dance, and to stimulate through knowledge and idea exchange, imaginative directions for dance in the future of both the United States and Canada. This thematic structure is also the…

  6. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  7. Wildlife value orientations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamborg, Christian; Jensen, Frank Søndergaard

    2016-01-01

    This article examined value orientations toward wildlife among the adult general Danish public in relation to age, sex, past and present residence, education, and income, using a U.S. survey instrument on Wildlife Value Orientations (WVO). The study used an Internet-based questionnaire sent...

  8. Work Values across Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  9. Value and Momentum Everywhere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asness, Clifford S.; Moskowitz, Tobias S; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We study the returns to value and momentum strategies jointly across eight diverse markets and asset classes. Finding consistent value and momentum premia in every asset class, we further find strong common factor structure among their returns. Value and momentum are more positively correlated ac...... is a partial source of these patterns, which are identifiable only when examining value and momentum simultaneously across markets. Our findings present a challenge to existing behavioral, institutional, and rational asset pricing theories that largely focus on U.S. equities.......We study the returns to value and momentum strategies jointly across eight diverse markets and asset classes. Finding consistent value and momentum premia in every asset class, we further find strong common factor structure among their returns. Value and momentum are more positively correlated...... across asset classes than passive exposures to the asset classes themselves. However, value and momentum are negatively correlated both within and across asset classes. Our results indicate the presence of common global risks that we characterize with a three factor model. Global funding liquidity risk...

  10. Sustaining NCTE Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Shirley Wilson

    2011-01-01

    NCTE's core values, posted on the website (http://www.ncte.org), are writing, literature, diversity, integrated language arts, knowledgeable and caring teachers, advocacy, and public education ("NCTE Core Values"). In this article, the author focuses only on writing, diversity, and advocacy, considering just a few ways in which the organization…

  11. Social Life of Values

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractThe case of the Danish “cartoon war” was a premonition of things to come: accelerated social construction of inequalities and their accelerated symbolic communication, translation and negotiation. New uses of values in organizing and managing inequalities emerge. Values lead active socia

  12. Rosenak "Teaching Jewish Values"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnick, David

    2014-01-01

    Rosenak's "Teaching Jewish Values" (1986) is perhaps his most accessible book about Jewish education. After diagnosing the "diseases" of Jewish education, he endorses "teaching Jewish values" as the curricular strategy most likely to succeed given the chasm which divides traditional Jewish subject matter and the…

  13. Work Values across Generations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Jo-Ida C.; Leuty, Melanie E.

    2012-01-01

    Mainstream publication discussions of differences in generational cohorts in the workplace suggest that individuals of more recent generations, such as Generation X and Y, have different work values than do individuals of the Silent and Baby Boom generations. Although extant research suggests that age may influence work values, few of the…

  14. The Prediction Value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, M.; Kurz, S.; Lindner, I.; Napel, S.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the prediction value (PV) as a measure of players’ informational importance in probabilistic TU games. The latter combine a standard TU game and a probability distribution over the set of coalitions. Player i’s prediction value equals the difference between the conditional expectations

  15. Value of care - National

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Value of care displays – national data. This data set includes national-level data for the value of care displays associated with an episode of care for heart...

  16. The value of health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background: A major problem in cost-effectiveness studies is where to draw the line between interventions which are cost-effective and those who are not. Lacking a notion about the value of a QALY, all ultimate values to the cost-effectiveness ratio are essentially arbitrary. Methods: This paper pre

  17. The value of health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, Wim; van den Brink, Henriëtte Maassen

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A major problem in cost-effectiveness studies is where to draw the line between interventions which are cost-effective and those who are not. Lacking a notion about the value of a QALY, all ultimate values to the cost-effectiveness ratio are essentially arbitrary.\

  18. The value of health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, W.; Maassen van den Brink, H.

    2008-01-01

    Background A major problem in cost-effectiveness studies is where to draw the line between interventions which are cost-effective and those who are not. Lacking a notion about the value of a QALY, all ultimate values to the cost-effectiveness ratio are essentially arbitrary. Methods This paper prese

  19. Streaming instability in negative ion plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajith; Mathew, Vincent

    2017-09-01

    The streaming instability in an unmagnetized negative ion plasma has been studied by computational and theoretical methods. A one dimensional electrostatic Particle In Cell Simulation and fluid dynamical description of negative ion plasma showed that, if the positive ions are having a relative streaming velocity, four different wave modes corresponding to Langmuir wave, fast and slow ion waves and ion acoustic waves are produced. Below a critical wave number, instead of two distinct fast and slow ion waves, we observed a coupled wave mode. The value of the critical wave number is strongly determined by the ion streaming velocity. The thermal velocities of electrons and ions influence the growth rate of instability.

  20. Time of relaxation in dusty plasma model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofeev, A. V.

    2015-11-01

    Dust particles in plasma may have different values of average kinetic energy for vertical and horizontal motion. The partial equilibrium of the subsystems and the relaxation processes leading to this asymmetry are under consideration. A method for the relaxation time estimation in nonideal dusty plasma is suggested. The characteristic relaxation times of vertical and horizontal motion of dust particles in gas discharge are estimated by analytical approach and by analysis of simulation results. These relaxation times for vertical and horizontal subsystems appear to be different. A single hierarchy of relaxation times is proposed.