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Sample records for plasma oscillator strengths

  1. FOREWORD: 4th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leckrone, David S.; Sugar, Jack

    1993-01-01

    In 1983 the Atomic Spectroscopy Group at the University of Lund organized a conference at Lund the purpose of which was to establish a dialogue between scientists whose research made use of basic atomic data, and scientists whose research produced such data. The data in question include complete descriptions of atomic and ionic spectra, accurate transition wavelengths and relative intensities, energy levels, lifetimes, oscillator strengths, line shapes, and nuclear effects (hyperfine structure and isotope shifts). The "consumers" in urgent need of new or improved atomic data included astrophysicsts, laboratory plasma physicists, and spectrochemists. The synergism between these specialists and the theoretical and experimental atomic physicists resulted in a highly successful meeting, attended by approximately 70 people. The rapid advances foreseen at that time in all of these areas of observational, experimental and theoretical science stimulated planning for a second conference on this subject in 1986 at the University of Toledo, and subsequently a third meeting was held at the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences in Amsterdam in 1989. Again attendance at the latter two meetings totaled approximately 70 researchers. The participants in Amsterdam agreed to re-convene at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) in Gaithersburg, Maryland, in 1992, maintaining the frequency of these conferences at one every three years. The present Topical Issue of Physica Scripta consists of 31 invited reviews given at the Gaithersburg meeting. Extended abstracts of 63 poster papers from the meeting are being published in NIST Special Publication SP850. Approximately 170 scientists attended the Gaithersburg conference, representing a substantial growth in the size of meetings in this series. One session of the conference was devoted to an informal workshop, at which any participant could give a brief oral statement about his or her most immediate data need

  2. Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garstang, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oscillator strengths have been calculated for most of the spectral lines of TcI which are of interest in the study of stars of spectral type S. Oscillator strengths have been computed for the corresponding transitions in MnI as a partial check of the technetium calculations

  3. PLASMA DIAGNOSTIC POTENTIAL OF 2p4f IN N{sup +}—ACCURATE WAVELENGTHS AND OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Xiaozhi [School of Physics Science and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Li, Jiguang; Wang, Jianguo [Data Center for High Energy Density Physics, Institute of Applied Physics and Computational Mathematics, P.O. Box 8009, Beijing 100088 (China); Jönsson, Per, E-mail: Li_Jiguang@iapcm.ac.cn [Materials Science and Applied Mathematics, Malmö University, SE-20506 Malmö (Sweden)

    2015-03-10

    Radiative emission lines from nitrogen and its ions are often observed in nebula spectra, where the N{sup 2+} abundance can be inferred from lines of the 2p4f configuration. In addition, intensity ratios between lines of the 2p3p-2p3s and 2p4f-2p3d transition arrays can serve as temperature diagnostics. To aid abundance determinations and plasma diagnostics, wavelengths and oscillator strengths were calculated with high precision for electric dipole (E1) transitions from levels in the 2p4f configuration of N{sup +}. Electron correlation and relativistic effects, including the Breit interaction, were systematically taken into account within the framework of the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. Except for the 2p4f-2p4d transitions with quite large wavelengths and the two-electron-one-photon 2p4f-2s2p {sup 3} transitions, the uncertainties of the present calculations were controlled to within 3% and 5% for wavelengths and oscillator strengths, respectively. We also compared our results with other theoretical and experimental values when available. Discrepancies were found between our calculations and previous calculations due to the neglect of relativistic effects in the latter.

  4. Oscillations in quasineutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenier, E.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the limit, as the vacuum electric permittivity goes to zero, of a plasma physics system, deduced from the Vlasov-Poisson system for special initial data (distribution functions which are analytic in the space variable, with compact support in velocity), a limit also called open-quotes quasineutral regimeclose quotes of the plasma, and the related oscillations of the electric field, with high frequency in time. 20 refs

  5. Pair creation and plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prozorkevich, A. V.; Vinnik, D. V.; Schmidt, S. M.; Hecht, M. B.; Roberts, C. D.

    2000-01-01

    We describe aspects of particle creation in strong fields using a quantum kinetic equation with a relaxation-time approximation to the collision term. The strong electric background field is determined by solving Maxwell's equation in tandem with the Vlasov equation. Plasma oscillations appear as a result of feedback between the background field and the field generated by the particles produced. The plasma frequency depends on the strength of the initial background fields and the collision frequency, and is sensitive to the necessary momentum-dependence of dressed-parton masses

  6. FOREWORD: The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchang-Brillet, Wad Lydia; Wyart, Jean-François; Zeippen, Claude

    1996-01-01

    The 5th International Colloquium on Atomic Spectra and Oscillator Strengths for Astrophysical and Laboratory Plasmas was held in Meudon, France, from August 28 to 31 1995. It was the fifth in a series started by the Atomic Spectroscopic Group at the University of Lund, Sweden, in 1983. Then followed the meetings in Toledo, USA, Amsterdam, The Nether- lands and Gaithersburg, USA, with a three year period. The original title of the series ended with "... for Astrophysics and Fusion Research" and became more general with the 4th colloquium in Gaithersburg. The purpose of the present meeting was, in line with tradition, to bring together "producers" and "users" of atomic data so as to ensure optimal coordination. Atomic physicists who study the structure of atoms and their radiative and collisional properties were invited to explain the development of their work, emphasizing the possibilities of producing precise transition wavelengths and relative line intensities. Astrophysicists and laboratory plasma physicists were invited to review their present research interests and the context in which atomic data are needed. The number of participants was about 70 for the first three meetings, then exploded to 170 at Gaithersburg. About 140 participants, coming from 13 countries, attended the colloquium in Meudon. This large gathering was partly due to a number of participants from Eastern Europe larger than in the past, and it certainly showed a steady interest for interdisciplinary exchanges between different communities of scientists. This volume includes all the invited papers given at the conference and, in the appendix, practical information on access to some databases. All invited speakers presented their talks aiming at good communication between scientists from different backgrounds. A separate bound volume containing extended abstracts of the poster papers has been published by the Publications de l'Observatoire de Paris, (Meudon 1996), under the responsibility of

  7. Measured oscillator strengths in singly ionized molybdenum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo-García, R.; Aragón, C.; Aguilera, J. A.; Ortiz, M.

    2015-11-01

    In this article, 112 oscillator strengths from Mo II have been measured, 79 of which for the first time. The radiative parameters have been obtained by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The plasma is produced from a fused glass sample prepared from molybdenum oxide with a Mo atomic concentration of 0.1%. The plasma evolved in air at atmospheric pressure, and measurements were carried out with the following plasma parameters: an electron density of (2.5+/- 0.1)\\cdot {10}17 cm-3 and an electron temperature of 14,400+/- 200 K. In these conditions, a local thermodynamic equilibrium environment and an optically thin plasma were confirmed for the measurements. The relative intensities were placed on an absolute scale by combining branching fractions with the measured lifetimes and by comparing well-known lines using the plasma temperature. Comparisons were made to previously obtained experimental and theoretical values wherever possible.

  8. Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Pecseli, Hans L

    2012-01-01

    The result of more than 15 years of lectures in plasma sciences presented at universities in Denmark, Norway, and the United States, Waves and Oscillations in Plasmas addresses central issues in modern plasma sciences. The book covers fluid models as well as kinetic plasma models, including a detailed discussion of, for instance, collisionless Landau damping. Offering a clear separation of linear and nonlinear models, the book can be tailored for readers of varying levels of expertise.Designed to provide basic training in linear as well as nonlinear plasma dynamics, and practical in areas as d

  9. High-frequency plasma oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhiezer, A I; Fainberg, Y B; Sitenko, A G; Stepanov, K; Kurilko, V; Gorbatenko, M; Kirochkin, U [Academy of Sciences of the Ukrainian SSR (USSR)

    1958-07-01

    It is well known that the electrical conductivity of a plasma, the ion-electron equilibration time, and the time required to heat the electron component of the plasma all increase greatly with increasing temperature. Consequently, the usual method of Joule heating a plasma may be difficult to apply in the region of high temperatures (> 10{sup 6}K), especially if the plasma current alone, without any additional measures, is used to generate magnetic fields for the confinement of the plasma. Therefore, it is of interest to study methods of plasma heating that do not directly use Joule heat, especially methods by which energy is directly supplied to the ion component during the time between collisions. Some of these methods make use of ionic resonance as well as other resonance phenomena which can occur in plasma in an external magnetic field. This paper deals with certain aspects of the theory of high-frequency plasma oscillations.

  10. Large quantum dots with small oscillator strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stobbe, Søren; Schlereth, T.W.; Höfling, S.

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of excitons confined in large InGaAs quantum dots by recording the spontaneous emission decay rate while systematically varying the distance between the quantum dots and a semiconductor-air interface. The size of the quantum dots...... is measured by in-plane transmission electron microscopy and we find average in-plane diameters of 40 nm. We have calculated the oscillator strength of excitons of that size assuming a quantum-dot confinement given by a parabolic in-plane potential and a hard-wall vertical potential and predict a very large...... intermixing inside the quantum dots....

  11. On neutral plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Morrison, P.J.

    1993-06-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can possess positive or negative free energy

  12. On neutral plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, B.A.; Texas Univ., Austin; Morrison, P.J.; Texas Univ., Austin

    1994-01-01

    We examine the conditions for the existence of spectrally stable neutral modes in a Vlasov-Poisson plasma and show that for stable equilibria of systems that have unbounded spatial domain, the only possible neutral modes are those with phase velocities that correspond to stationary inflection points of the equilibrium distribution function. It is seen that these neutral modes can posses positive or negative free energy. (orig.)

  13. Electron plasma oscillations in the Venus foreshock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. K.; Strangeway, R. J.; Russell, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma waves are observed in the solar wind upstream of the Venus bow shock by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter. These wave signatures occur during periods when the interplanetary magnetic field through the spacecraft position intersects the bow shock, thereby placing the spacecraft in the foreshock region. The electron foreshock boundary is clearly evident in the data as a sharp onset in wave activity and a peak in intensity. Wave intensity is seen to drop rapidly with increasing penetration into the foreshock. The peak wave electric field strength at the electron foreshock boundary is found to be similar to terrestrial observations. A normalized wave spectrum was constructed using measurements of the electron plasma frequency and the spectrum was found to be centered about this value. These results, along with polarization studies showing the wave electric field to be field aligned, are consistent with the interpretation of the waves as electron plasma oscillations.

  14. Electron plasma oscillations in the Venus foreshock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, G.K.; Strangeway, R.J.; Russell, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma waves are observed in the solar wind upstream of the Venus bow shock by the Pioneer Venus Orbiter. These wave signatures occur during periods when the interplanetary magnetic field through the spacecraft position intersects the bow shock, thereby placing the spacecraft in the foreshock region. The electron foreshock boundary is clearly evident in the data as a sharp onset in wave activity and a peak in intensity. Wave intensity is seen to drop rapidly with increasing penetration into the foreshock. The peak wave electric field strength at the electron foreshock boundary is found to be similar to terrestrial observations. A normalized wave spectrum was constructed using measurements of the electron plasma frequency and the spectrum was found to be centered about this value. These results, along with polarization studies showing the wave electric field to be field aligned, are consistent with the interpretation of the waves as electron plasma oscillations

  15. Precision measurement of relative oscillator strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackwell, D.E.; Ibbetson, P.A.; Petford, A.D.; Shallis, M.J.

    1979-01-01

    The accuracy of the Oxford method of comparing oscillator strengths has been improved by a factor of 10 to 0.5 per cent (0.002 dex) for low excitation lines. The improvements made to the apparatus are briefly described and its new performance discussed. A test for LTE in the furnace is also described. Relative oscillator strengths for 60 lines of Fe I with excitation potentials between 0.00 and 0.12 eV are given. Those with lambda > 320 nm have an accuracy of 0.5 per cent, and those with lambda < 320 nm have an accuracy of 1.0 per cent. Absolute values with an accuracy of 2.5 per cent for all lines are given. (author)

  16. Moderately acurate oscillator strengths from NBS intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    An earlier paper explored the calibration of NBS Monograph 145 intensity measurements for the purpose of obtaining useful oscillator strengths. In the present work we investigate the question of a single 'temperature' for the copper arc light sources. Statistical arguments support rejection of the null hypothesis of a single temperature. Evidence is found for a mild correction to the intensity scale, but there is no indication that the intensities drift with wave length. We reinforce earlier findings that very useful gf-values can be derived from Monograph 145 intensities for any spectrum in which there are enough accurate measurements for a calibration. For the present, it seems that such calibrations must be made individually for each spectrum, and the predictions should not be extrapolated beyond the calibration domains. A table lists interpolation coefficients for Fe I, Co I, Ni I, Ti I, Zr II, Y II, Nd II and U II. An improved formula is given to transform the Corliss-Tech Fe I oscillator strengths to the Oxford system. (author)

  17. Determination of absolute oscillator strengths for doubly-ionized vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goly, A.

    1978-01-01

    Oscillator strengths of thirty V III lines in the wavelength region from 2300A to 2600A were determined by the emission method using a modified wallstabilized cascade are operating at atmospheric pressure in helium with traces of VOCl 3 -vapour. The plasma radiation was analyzed by using a high dispersion grating spectrograph (0.7 A/mm) and Kodak IIaO-plates. Conventional techniques of intensity measurement were employed. Under the physical conditions created the helium plasma was found more or less distant from LTE, but for singly- and doubly-ionized vanadium according to Drawin's criteria, a Boltzmann distribution of level population can be assumed (and has been proved for VII). Measuring a set of intensities of V II lines (with different energies of upper levels) and using gf-values, obtained previously in an argon-vanadium plasma in LTE, excitation temperatures were determined from slopes of Boltzmann plots. (orig.) 891 WL [de

  18. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with the experimental results compiled in the NIST Data Base. Many new ... Keywords. Relativistic fine-structure levels; oscillator strengths; lifetimes. ... have calculated oscillator strengths and lifetimes using the Briet–Pauli R-Matrix ..... [2] The Opacity Project Team, The Opacity Project (Institute of Physics Publishing,. Bristol ...

  19. Scattering of electromagnetic waves into plasma oscillations via plasma particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, A.T.; Dawson, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    A plasma subjected to an intense electromagnetic wave can exhibit a large number of parametric instabilities. An interesting example which has received little attention is the decay of the electromagnetic wave into a plasma oscillation with the excess energy and momentum being carried off by electrons. This process has been simulated on a one-and-two-halves dimensional electromagnetic code. The incident electromagnetic wave had a frequency near the plasma frequency so that decay into a plasma oscillation and a backscattered electromagnetic wave was excluded. As expected, the threshold for this instability was very large , so it is unlikely that this instability is competitive in most laser plasmas. Nevertheless, the physical mechanism involved provides a means for absorption of laser light and acceleration of particles in a plasma containing large amplitude plasma oscillations

  20. Improved Ultraviolet and Infrared Oscillator Strengths for OH+

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, James N.; Bittner, Dror M.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2018-03-01

    Molecular ions are key reaction intermediates in the interstellar medium. OH+ plays a central role in the formation of more complex chemical species and for estimating the cosmic ray ionization rate in astrophysical environments. Here, we use a recent analysis of a laboratory spectrum in conjunction with ab initio methods to calculate infrared and ultraviolet oscillator strengths. These new oscillator strengths include branch dependent intensity corrections, arising from the Herman–Wallis effect, that have not been included before. We estimate 10% total uncertainty in the UV and 6% total uncertainty in the IR for the oscillator strengths.

  1. Downshift of electron plasma oscillations in the electron foreshock region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuselier, S.A.; Gurnett, D.A.; Fitzenreiter, R.J.; NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD)

    1985-01-01

    Electron plasma oscillations in the earth's electron foreshock region are observed to shift above and below the local electron plasma frequency. As plasma oscillations shift downward from the plasma frequency, their bandwidth increases and their wavelength decreases. Observations of plasma oscillations well below the plasma frequency are correlated with times when ISEE 1 is far downstream of the electron foreshock boundary. Although wavelengths of plasma oscillations below the plasma frequency satisfy k x lambda-De approximately 1 the Doppler shift due to the motion of the solar wind is not sufficient to produce the observed frequency shifts. A beam-plasma interaction with beam velocities on the order of the electron thermal velocity is suggested as an explanation for plasma oscillations above and below the plasma frequency. Frequency, bandwidth, and wavelength changes predicted from the beam-plasma interaction are in good agreement with the observed characteristics of plasma oscillations in the foreshock region. 28 references

  2. Downshift of electron plasma oscillations in the electron foreshock region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuselier, S.A.

    1984-01-01

    Electron plasma oscillations in the Earth's electron foreshock region are observed to shift above and below the local electron plasma frequency. As plasma oscillations shift from the plasma frequency, their bandwidth increases and their wavelength decreases. Observations of plasma oscillations well below the plasma frequency are correlated with times when ISEE-I is far downstream of the electron foreshock boundary. Although wavelengths of plasma oscillations below the plasma frequency satisfy klambda/sub De/ approx. = 1, the Doppler shift due to the motion of the solar wind is not sufficient to produce the observed frequency shifts. A beam-plasma interaction with beam velocities on the order of the electron thermal velocity is suggested as an explanation for plasma oscillations above and below the plasma frequency. Frequency, bandwidth, and wavelength changes predicted from the beam-plasma interaction are in good agreement with the observed characteristics of plasma oscillations in the foreshock region

  3. Waves and oscillations in plasma crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piel, A; Homann, A; Klindworth, M; Melzer, A; Zafiu, C; Nosenko, V; Goree, J

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the properties of plasma crystals and clusters is given with emphasis on oscillations of particles in the plasma trap, instabilities associated with the solid-liquid phase transition and the propagation of waves. It is demonstrated how laser manipulation can be used to stimulate particle motion and waves. From characteristic resonance frequencies and from wave dispersion the particle charge and shielding length parameters, which determine the interparticle forces, can be quantitatively measured

  4. Catalogue of oscillator strengths for Ti II lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savanov, I.S.; Huovelin, J.; Tuominen, I.

    1990-01-01

    We have revised the published values of oscillator strengths for ionized titanium. The zero point of gf-values has been established using the lifetime measurements of excited states of atoms. The data on the adopted oscillator strengths for 419 Ti II lines are compiled. Using the adopted gf-values and the analysis by Biemont for the titanium in the solar atmosphere determined from the Ti II lines and the HOLMU model, we obtained the abundance log A(Ti) = 4.96 ± 0.05

  5. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have done relativistic calculations for the evaluation of energy levels, oscillator strengths, transition probabilities and lifetimes for Cr VIII ion. Use has been made of configuration interaction technique by including Briet–Pauli approximation. The energies of various levels from the ground state to excited levels of 3s3p6, ...

  6. NLTE masking and the Kiev Fe I oscillator strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutten, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    This contribution serves to advertise the empirical solar-spectrum determinations of the oscillator strengths of 860 Fe I lines by Gurtovenko and Kostik (1981), by showing that these Kiev data contain just the lines needed in cool-star abundance analyses, and by explaining why they are so good. (Auth.)

  7. Membrane oscillations in the channel of a stationary plasma motor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugrova, A.I.; Lipatov, A.S.; Morozov, A.I.; Kharchevnikov, V.K.

    1999-01-01

    Results of measuring the ion flux density in the channel of the stationary plasma drive are presented. Two plane easters move both along and transverse to the plasma flux. During the experiment, the strong low-frequency oscillations (∼ 35 kHz) are observed in the channel of the stationary plasma drive. It is found that membrane oscillations are accompanied by oscillations of the electron temperature. These membrane oscillations affect the divergence of the output plasma jet and the erosion of the output part of the channel of the stationary plasma drive [ru

  8. Oscillator strengths for highly ionized atomic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.F.

    1979-01-01

    Evidence has been found recently that the cascade process may be more important in the analysis of beam-foil decay curves than anticipated. In order to assist the analysis of such data the multiconfiguration Hartree--Fock program (MCHF77) has been applied to the theoretical study of several transitions which are part of a cascade process for resonance transitions ]3p 2 , 3s 3d] 1 D - ]3p 3d, 3s 4f] 1 F and ]3s 3d] 3 D - ]3p 3d, 3s 4f] 3 F in the Mg sequence. For higher members of the sequence, MCHF77 was modified to include the relativistic effects which shift the energy of a configuration as a whole, and intermediate coupling calculations were performed. The 4s 4p 1 P - ]4p 2 , 4s 4d] 1 D transitions in the Zn I sequence were also examined. A strong interaction exists between 4p 2 and 4s 4d 1 D and it has been shown that much of the earlier experimental material concerning the 1 D terms are in error. Comparison with a few recent experimental investigations shows good agreement. Relatively few levels have been identified in Fe XIV. Because of the importance of the iron ions both in astrophysics and tokamak plasma research, a line list has been produced for levels with three electrons in the M shell. gf-values for allowed transitions and intercombination lines are tabulated. A list of publications is included

  9. Oscillator strengths and radiative rates for transitions in neutral sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, N.C.; Hibbert, A.

    2008-01-01

    We present accurate oscillator strengths and radiative rates for 2173 E1 transitions among the 120 levels belonging to 3s 2 3p 4 , 3s3p 5 , and 3s 2 3p 3 ( 4 S o , 2 D o , 2 P o )nl configurations where nl=4s,5s,6s,4p,5p,6p,3d,4d,4f,5f. A configuration interaction approach is employed through the standard CIV3 program. The 114 LS states included in the present calculation generate 250 fine-structure levels belonging to the above configurations below 100,000 cm -1 . However, results of only 120 fine-structure levels are presented due to the absence of experimental energy values for the remaining levels. Tabulations of oscillator strengths and radiative rates, and their comparison with other calculations, are presented in the first two tables. In a separate table the oscillator strengths and transition probabilities, in length and velocity gauges, are presented for 2173 E1 transitions, and are arranged in ascending order of wavelength

  10. Electron plasma oscillations at arbitrary Debye lengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehnert, B.

    1990-12-01

    A solution is presented for electron plasma oscillation in a thermalized homogeneous plasma, at arbitrary ratios between the Debye length λ D and the perturbation wave length λ. The limit λ D D >> λ corresponds to the free-streaming limit of strong kinetic phase-mixing due to large particle excursions. A strong large Debye distance (LDD) effect already appears when λ D > approx λ. The initial amplitude of the fluid-like contribution to the macroscopic density perturbation then becomes small as compared to the contribution from the free-streaming part. As a consequence, only a small fraction of the density perturbation remains after a limited number of kinetic damping times of the free-streaming part. The analysis further shows that a representation in terms of normal model of the form exp(-iωt) leads to amplitude factors of these modes which are related to each other and which depend on the combined free-streaming and fluid behaviour of the plasma. Consequently, these modes are coupled and cannot be treated as being independent of each other. (au)

  11. Three-dimensional analysis of nonlinear plasma oscillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miano, G.

    1990-01-01

    In an underdense plasma a large-amplitude plasma oscillation may be produced by the beating of two external and colinear electromagnetic waves with a frequency difference approximately equal to the plasma frequency - plasma beat wave (PBW) resonant mechanism. The plasma oscillations are driven by the ponderomotive force arising from the beating of the two imposed electromagnetic waves. In this paper two pump electromagnetic waves with arbitrary transverse profiles have been considered. The plasma is described by using the three dimensinal weakly relativistic fluid equations. The nonlinear plasma oscillation dynamics is studied by using the eulerian description, the averaging and the multiple time scale methods. Unlike the linear theory a strong cross field coupling between longitudinal ans transverse electric field components of the plasma oscillation comes out, resulting in a nonlinear phase change and energy transfer between the two components. Unlike the one-dimensional nonlinear theory, the nonlinear frequency shift is caused by relativistic effects as well as by convective effects and electromagnetic field generated from the three dimensional plasma oscillation. The large amplitude plasma oscillation dynamics produced by a bunched relativistic electron beam with arbitrary transverse profile - plasma wave field (PWF) - or by a high power single frequency short electromagnetic pulse with arbitrary transverse profile - electromagnetic plasma wake field (EPWF) - may be described by means of the present theory. (orig.)

  12. Oscillator strengths for highly ionized atomic systems. Final report, May 1, 1977-December 31, 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, C.F.

    1979-12-01

    Oscillator strengths (or f-values) for resonance transitions in highly ionized atoms have assumed importance in fusion plasma research. Beam-foil spectroscopy has been able to deduce some of these values but present experimental limitations restrict its applicability. A theoretical study of trends along an isoelectronic sequence has provided an alternative approach. The Multi-configuration Hartree-Fock method (MCHF) is a general theoretical method for determining wavefunctions for atomic states from which oscillator strengths can be computed. A first-order theory has been shown to yield reliable f-values provided the ionization energy is predicted with reasonable accuracy and the transition matrix element is not sensitive to cancellation effects. General computer programs have been developed for this method and extended to include the dominant relativistic effects

  13. Weighted oscillator strengths and lifetimes for the S VII spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, F.O.; Cavalcanti, G.H.; Trigueiros, A.G.; Jupen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The weighted oscillator strengths (gf) and the lifetimes presented in this work were carried out in a multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock relativistic approach. In this calculation, the electrostatic parameters were optimized by a least-squares procedure, in order to improve the adjustment to experimental energy levels. This method produces gf-values that are in better agreement with intensity observations and lifetime values that are closer to the experimental ones. In this work, we presented all the experimentally known electric dipole S VII spectral lines

  14. Plasma-filled rippled wall rectangular backward wave oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Performance of the backward wave oscillator (BWO) is greatly enhanced with the introduction of plasma. Linear theory of the dispersion relation and the growth rate have been derived and analysed numerically for plasma-filled rippled wall rectangular waveguide driven by sheet electron beam. To see the effect of plasma ...

  15. Relativistic configuration interaction treatment of generalized oscillator strength for krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huangchun; Qu Yizhi; Liu Chunhua

    2007-01-01

    A fully relativistic configuration interaction method is developed to investigate the transition energies and general oscillator strengths of the lower lying states of krypton, for both optically allowed and optically forbidden transitions. The calculated results are in agreement with the recent experimental measurements. The calculated transition energies for the 5s and 5s' transitions are 9.970 and 10.717 eV, which agree with the experimental data of 10.033 and 10.643 eV. The calculated oscillator strengths are 0.211 and 0.170, comparable with the experimental results 0.214(±0.012) and 0.194 (±0.012), respectively. The momentum transfer positions (K 2 in a.u.) of the minimum and maximum GOSs in the 4s 2 4p 6 →4s 2 4p 5 (5s + 5s') transitions are 1.105 and 2.225, comparable with the measurements results 1.24 and 2.97. (authors)

  16. Relativistic Configuration Interaction Treatment of Generalized Oscillator Strength for Krypton

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Huang-Chun; QU Yi-Zhi; LIU Chun-Hua

    2007-01-01

    A fully relativistic configuration interaction method is developed to investigate the transition energies and general oscillator strengths of the lower lying states of krypton, for both optically allowed and optically forbidden transitions. The calculated results are in agreement with the recent experimental measurements. The calculated transition energies for the 5s and 5s' transitions are 9.970 and 10.717eV, which agree with the experimental data of 10.033 and 10.643 eV. The calculated oscillator strengths are 0.211 and 0.170, comparable with the experimental results 0.214(±0.012) and 0.194 (±0.012), respectively. The momentum transfer positions ( K2 in a.u.) of the minimum and maximum GOSs in the 4s24p6 → 4s24p5 (5s + 5s') transitions are 1.105 and 2.225, comparable with the measurements results 1.24 and 2.97 [Phys. Rev. A 67 (2003) 062708].

  17. Initial value problem for plasma oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J.; Spies, G.O.

    1991-01-01

    The solution of the initial value problem for the linearized one-dimensional electron Vlasov--Poisson equations in a field-free homogeneous equilibrium is examined for small and for large ratios κ of Debye length and wavelength, assuming initial perturbing distribution functions varying on the same velocity scale as the equilibrium. Previously known approximations of the initial evolution (which, unlike the time-asymptotic one, does not depend on analyticity assumptions) are extended to longer times, and to arbitrary stable or unstable equilibria: In the quasifluid regime (small κ), the electric field, within an additive error O(κ 2 ), and independently of the initial data, performs an oscillation near the plasma frequency that corresponds to an eigenmode if it is unstable or marginal, but to an approximate eigenmode arising from the continuous spectrum otherwise. If other unstable or marginal modes are present, these influence only the time-asymptotic behavior because their amplitudes are O(κ 2 ) initially. In the ballistic regime (large κ), there are no instabilities and the perturbing density, now within an error O(κ -2 ), is the Fourier transform of the initial perturbing distribution function, thus following an arbitrary decay law that is independent of the equilibrium. The errors are shown to be time-independent, implying that either approximation is relevant at least until the perturbing density has essentially damped out. Hence the dominating damping mechanism (in the stable case) is Landau damping if κ much-lt 1, but ballistic particle mixing if κ much-gt 1

  18. Mixed-Mode Oscillations in Complex-Plasma Instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikikian, Maxime; Cavarroc, Marjorie; Coueedel, Lenaiec; Tessier, Yves; Boufendi, Laiefa

    2008-01-01

    Instabilities in dusty plasmas are frequent phenomena. We show that some instabilities can be described by mixed-mode oscillations often encountered in chemical systems or neuronal dynamics and studied through dynamical system theories. The time evolution of these instabilities is studied through the change in the associated waveform. Frequency and interspike interval are analyzed and compared to results obtained in other scientific fields concerned by mixed-mode oscillations

  19. Oscillating plasma bubbles. IV. Grids, geometry, and gradients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenzel, R. L. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095-1547 (United States); Urrutia, J. M. [Urrutia Scientific, Van Nuys, California 91406 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Plasma bubbles are created in an ambient plasma. The bubble is formed inside a cavity bounded by a negatively biased grid. Ions are injected through the grid and neutralized by electrons from either the background plasma or an internal electron emitter. The external electron supply is controlled by the grid bias relative to the external plasma potential. When the electron flux is restricted to the ion flux, the sheath of the bubble becomes unstable and causes the plasma potential to oscillate near the ion plasma frequency. The exact frequency depends on the net space charge density in the bubble sheath. The frequency increases with density and grid voltage, provided the grid forms a parallel equipotential surface. The present investigation shows that when the Debye length becomes smaller than the grid openings the electron flux cannot be controlled by the grid voltage. The frequency dependence on grid voltage and density is modified creating frequency and amplitude jumps. Low frequency sheath oscillations modulate the high frequency normal oscillations. Harmonics and subharmonics are excited by electrons in an ion-rich sheath. When the plasma parameters vary over the bubble surface, the sheath may oscillate at different frequencies. A cavity with two isolated grids has been used to investigate anisotropies of the energetic electron flux in a discharge plasma. The frequency dependence on grid voltage is entirely different when the grid controls the energetic electrons or the bulk electrons. These observations are important to several fields of basic plasma physics, such as sheaths, sheath instabilities, diagnostic probes, current, and space charge neutralization of ion beams.

  20. Global plasma oscillations in electron internal transport barriers in TCV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udintsev, V S; Sauter, O; Asp, E; Fable, E; Goodman, T P; Turri, G; Graves, J P; Zucca, C [Association Euratom-Confederation Suisse, EPFL/SB/CRPP, Station 13, CH-1015, Lausanne (Switzerland); Scarabosio, A [Max-Planck Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, IPP-EURATOM Association, Garching (Germany); Zhuang, G [Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2008-12-15

    In the Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) (Hofmann F et al1994 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 36 B277), global plasma oscillations have been discovered in fully non-inductively driven plasmas featuring electron internal transport barriers (ITB) with strong ECRH/ECCD. These oscillations are linked to the destabilization and stabilization of MHD modes near the foot of the ITB and can lead to large oscillations of the total plasma current and line-averaged density, among others. They are intrinsically related to the fact that ITBs have large pressure gradients in a region of low magnetic shear. Therefore, the ideal MHD limit is relatively low and infernal modes can be unstable. Depending on the proximity to the ideal limit, small crashes or resistive modes can appear which affect the time evolution of the discharge. Being near marginal stability, the modes can self-stabilize due to the modification of the pressure gradient and local q-profile. The plasma recovers good confinement, reverses shear and the ITB builds up, until a new MHD mode is destabilized. TCV results show that this cycling behaviour can be controlled by modifying the current density or the pressure profiles, either with Ohmic current density perturbation or by modifying the ECH/ECCD power. It is demonstrated that many observations such as q {>=} 2 sawteeth, beta collapses, minor disruptions and oscillation regimes in ITBs can be assigned to the same physics origin: the proximity to the infernal mode stability limit.

  1. Global plasma oscillations in electron internal transport barriers in TCV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udintsev, V. S.; Sauter, O.; Asp, E.; Fable, E.; Goodman, T. P.; Turri, G.; Graves, J. P.; Scarabosio, A.; Zhuang, G.; Zucca, C.; TCV Team

    2008-12-01

    In the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) (Hofmann F et al1994 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 36 B277), global plasma oscillations have been discovered in fully non-inductively driven plasmas featuring electron internal transport barriers (ITB) with strong ECRH/ECCD. These oscillations are linked to the destabilization and stabilization of MHD modes near the foot of the ITB and can lead to large oscillations of the total plasma current and line-averaged density, among others. They are intrinsically related to the fact that ITBs have large pressure gradients in a region of low magnetic shear. Therefore, the ideal MHD limit is relatively low and infernal modes can be unstable. Depending on the proximity to the ideal limit, small crashes or resistive modes can appear which affect the time evolution of the discharge. Being near marginal stability, the modes can self-stabilize due to the modification of the pressure gradient and local q-profile. The plasma recovers good confinement, reverses shear and the ITB builds up, until a new MHD mode is destabilized. TCV results show that this cycling behaviour can be controlled by modifying the current density or the pressure profiles, either with Ohmic current density perturbation or by modifying the ECH/ECCD power. It is demonstrated that many observations such as q >= 2 sawteeth, beta collapses, minor disruptions and oscillation regimes in ITBs can be assigned to the same physics origin: the proximity to the infernal mode stability limit.

  2. A physical model of Mirnov oscillations and plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cross, R.C.

    1983-07-01

    A physical model is proposed which accounts for the general behaviour of Mirnov oscillations and plasma disruptions in tokamak devices. The model also accounts for the stability of those devices which operate with edge safety factors less than 1.5. The model is based on the propagation of localized torsional Alfven and ion acoustic wavepackets. These packets remain phase coherent for considerable distances and are guided along helical field lines in toroidal plasmas, leading to the formation of standing waves on those field lines which close on themselves after one or more toroidal revolutions. Standing waves are driven resonantly on the rational surfaces by fluctuations in the poloidal field, causing localized heating and hence filamentation of the plasma current. This model indicates that Mirnov oscillations are produced by standing acoustic waves, while plasma disruptions occur as a result of the formation of MHD unstable current filaments

  3. Sawtooth oscillations as MHD relaxation process in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Zensho; Inoue, Nobuyuki; Ogawa, Yuichi

    1992-01-01

    The sawtooth oscillation in a tokamak plasma is a spontaneous relaxation process accompanying global instabilities which behave to reduce the internal magnetic energy. This phenomenon has a similarity to the MHD relaxation processes in Reversed Field Pinch (RFP) and Ultra Low Q (ULQ) plasmas. The self-stabilizing effect of instabilities with m (poloidal mode number) = 1 results in an increase in the central safety factor q(0). Nonlinear dynamics of m = 1 instabilities has been discussed both for global and local modes. The latter appears when a pitch minimum exists in the plasma, and is relevant to the compound sawtooth oscillation. The MHD relaxation is a restructuring process of the plasma current profile that is competitive with the resistive diffusion. (author)

  4. Latitudinal oscillations of plasma within the Io torus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cummings, W. D.; Dessler, A. J.; Hill, T. W.

    1980-01-01

    The equilibrium latitude and the period of oscillations about this equilibrium latitude are calculated for a plasma in a centrifugally dominated tilted dipole magnetic field representing Jupiter's inner magnetosphere. It is found that for a hot plasma the equilibrium latitude in the magnetic equator, for a cold plasma it is the centrifugal equator, and for a warm plasma it is somewhere in between. An illustrative model is adopted in which atoms are sputtered from the Jupiter-facing hemisphere of Io and escape Io's gravity to be subsequently ionized some distance from Io. Finally, it is shown that ionization generally does not occur at the equilibrium altitude, and that the resulting latitudinal oscillations provide an explanation for the irregularities in electron concentration within the torus, as reported by the radioastronomy experiment aboard Voyager I.

  5. Studies of hydromagnetic waves and oscillations in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawley, M.L.

    1980-10-01

    Small amplitude magnetoacoustic oscillations in a partially ionized, non-uniform, current carrying plasma column of finite beta are considered. The linearized magnetohydrodynamic equations are used to develop a theory describing both free and forced magnetoacoustic oscillations. The results of numerical calculations are given for the specific case of diffuse pinch equilibrium configurations. In an experimental study the amplitude of the oscillating axial magnetic flux is determined for several frequencies in the vicinity of the first magnetoacoustic resonance. Accurate determination of the plasma density profile is shown to be possible. Finite-amplitude effects on the propagation of axisymmetric hydromagnetic waves are examined. A nonlinear theory is developed which describes the second-order perturbation that accompanies the primary wave. The influence of Hall currents and the presence of neutral atoms on the second-order fields is treated. In an investigation on the propagation of torsional waves the observed second-order fields are shown to exhibit good quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations for moderate primary wave amplitudes. The re-ionization of the plasma by a torsional wave is investigated. A theoretical description is given of the nonlinear excitation of magnetoacoustic oscillations by means of an oscillating axial current

  6. ON ESTIMATING INTERSTELLAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON ABUNDANCES WITH CALCULATED OSCILLATOR STRENGTHS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Xiaofeng; Bernstein, Lawrence; Cami, Jan; Salama, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Vibronic bands of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the UV/visible range are often used to estimate the abundances of PAHs in the interstellar medium by comparing laboratory-measured spectra with astronomical observations. We investigate the errors introduced by associating theoretical electronic oscillator strengths with individual vibronic bands when estimating the abundances of interstellar PAHs. The vibronic oscillator strengths of the 0-0 bands of nine PAHs with two to seven benzene rings, spanning in the 2800-6700 A spectral range, have been calculated using the Franck-Condon approximation and compared to their electronic oscillator strengths. It is found that the use of calculated electronic oscillator strengths rather than the more physically relevant vibronic oscillator strengths underestimates interstellar abundances of the nine PAHs under study, on average by a factor of about 2.4. It is recommended that vibronic oscillator strengths should be systematically used to analyze the vibronic spectra of specific PAHs and to estimate their abundances in the interstellar medium. An empirical correcting factor is suggested for the cases where the vibronic oscillator strengths are unknown for more realistic estimation of interstellar PAH abundances.

  7. Relaxation oscillations and transport barrier dynamics in tokamak edge plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkadda, Sadruddin; Beyer, Peter; Fuhr-Chaudier, Guillaume; Garbet, Xavier; Ghendrih, Philippe; Sarazin, Yanick

    2004-01-01

    Oscillations of turbulent transport of particles and energy in magnetically confined plasmas can be easily observed in simulations of a variety of turbulence models. These oscillations typically involve a mechanism of energy exchange between fluctuations and a poloidal shear flow. This kind of ''predator-prey'' mechanism is found to be not relevant for transport barrier relaxations. In RBM simulations of resistive ballooning turbulence with transport barrier, relaxation oscillations of the latter are observed even in the case of frozen poloidal shear flow. These relaxations are due to a transitory growth of a mode localized at the barrier center. A one-dimensional model for the evolution of such a mode in the presence of a shear flow describes a transitory growth of an initial perturbation. Oscillations in the case of a finite steady-state shear flow are possible due to the coupling of the mode to the dynamics of the pressure profile. (author)

  8. Linear theory of plasma filled backward wave oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An analytical and numerical study of backward wave oscillator (BWO) in linear regime is presented to get an insight into the excitation of electromagnetic waves as a result of the interaction of the relativistic electron beam with a slow wave structure. The effect of background plasma on the BWO instability is also presented.

  9. Coupled Langmuir oscillations in 2-dimensional quantum plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present a hydrodynamic model to study the coupled quantum electron plasma oscillations (QEPO) for two dimensional (2D) degenerate plasmas, which incorporates all the essential quantum ingredients such as the statistical degeneracy pressure, electron-exchange, and electron quantum diffraction effect. Effects of diverse physical aspects like the electronic band-dispersion effect, the electron exchange-correlations and the quantum Bohm-potential as well as other important plasma parameters such as the coupling parameter (plasma separation) and the plasma electron number-densities on the linear response of the coupled system are investigated. By studying three different 2D plasma coupling types, namely, graphene-graphene, graphene-metalfilm, and metalfilm-metalfilm coupling configurations, it is remarked that the collective quantum effects can influence the coupled modes quite differently, depending on the type of the plasma configuration. It is also found that the slow and fast QEPO frequency modes respond very differently to the change in plasma parameters. Current findings can help in understanding of the coupled density oscillations in multilayer graphene, graphene-based heterojunctions, or nanofabricated integrated circuits

  10. Atomic structure calculation of energy levels and oscillator strengths in Ti ion, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Keishi

    1983-10-01

    Energy levels and oscillator strengths are calculated for 3s-3p and 3p-3d transition arrays in Ti X, isoelectronic to Al I. The energy levels are obtained by the Slater-Condon theory of atomic structure, including explicitly the strong configuration interactions. The results are presented both in numerical tables and in diagrams. In the tables, the observed data are included for comparison, where available. The calculated weighted oscillator strengths (gf-value) are also displayed in figures, where the weighted oscillator strengths are plotted as a function of wavelength. (author)

  11. Spectrum of resonant plasma oscillations in long Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holst, T.

    1996-01-01

    An analysis is presented for the amplitude of the plasma oscillations in the zero-voltage state of a long and narrow Josephson tunnel junction. The calculation is valid for arbitrary normalized junction length and arbitrary bias current. The spectrum of the plasma resonance is found numerically as solutions to an analytical equation. The low-frequency part of the spectrum contains a single resonance, which is known to exist also in the limit of a short and narrow junction. Above a certain cutoff frequency, a series of high-frequency standing wave plasma resonances is excited, a special feature of long Josephson junctions. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  12. Parametric excitation of nonlinear longitudinal oscillations in a magnetoactive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demchenko, V.V.

    1977-01-01

    Parametric excitation by HF field of nonlinear longitudinal electron oscillations in the region of hybrid resonances of a cold nonrelativistic plasma has been investigated. It is shown that the inhomogeneity of a pumping field and that of the equilibrium plasma density result in the parametric instability. Expressions are derived for the increments of instable oscillations and the widths of the instability regions are determined. The increments of instable oscillations in the order of magnitude due to the inhomogeneities of the pumping field (γsub(E)) or of the plasma density (γsub(N)) are egual to γsub(E) approximately k(zetasub(0)) ωsub(pe), γsub(N) approximately (zetasub(0))/Lωsub(pe), where (zetasub(0))=(e)Esub(0)/msub(e)ωsub(0)sup(2) is the amplitude of displacement of an electron from the equilibrium state, k, ω 0 , E 0 are the wave number, frequency and amplitude of the pumping field, L is the characteristic size of the inhomogeneity of the plasma density, ωsub(pe) is the electron plasma frequency

  13. Generalized oscillator strength and its first derivative for helium in the optical limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.U.; Cherepkov, N.A.; Radojevic, V.; Zivanovic, D.

    1976-01-01

    Generalized oscillator strengths and their first derivatives for zero momentum transfer (i.e. in the optical limit) are calculated for the helium atom in the framework of the random phase approximation with exchange. (author)

  14. Electronegative nonlinear oscillating modes in plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panguetna, Chérif Souleman; Tabi, Conrad Bertrand; Kofané, Timoléon Crépin

    2018-02-01

    The emergence of nonlinear modulated waves is addressed in an unmagnetized electronegative plasma made of Boltzmann electrons, Boltzmann negative ions and cold mobile positive ions. The reductive perturbation method is used to reduce the dynamics of the whole system to a cubic nonlinear Schrödinger equation, whose the nonlinear and dispersion coefficients, P and Q, are function of the negative ion parameters, namely the negative ion concentration ratio (α) and the electron-to-negative ion temperature ratio (σn). It is observed that these parameters importantly affect the formation of modulated ion-acoustic waves, either as exact solutions or via the activation of modulational instability. Especially, the theory of modulational instability is used to show the correlation between the parametric analysis and the formation of modulated solitons, obtained here as bright envelopes and kink-wave solitons.

  15. Spatial dependence of plasma oscillations in Josephson tunnel junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Thorsten; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev

    1991-01-01

    of an applied magnetic field. Numerical simulations of the governing partial-differential sine-Gordon equation were performed and compared to the experimental results and a perturbation analysis. The theoretical results support the experiments and allow us to interpret the observed crossover as due...... field threading the tunneling barrier. We compare measurements where the plasma frequency was tuned either by applying a magnetic field or by raising the temperature. A crossover from short- to long-junction behavior of the functional dependence of the plasma oscillations was observed in the case...

  16. Self-sustained oscillations in the divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Kukushkin, A.S.; Pistunovich, V.I.; Pozharov, V.A.

    1985-01-01

    A simple analytical model of the edge plasma with high recycling, which relays on the presence of a small parameter - the ratio of the particle flows crossing the magnetic field to those impinging onto the divertor target, is proposed. A concept of the one-dimensional steady state (OSS) is introduced as the zero approximation in the small parameter. The mean number density N-tilde of the particles - ions plus neutrals - in the magnetic flux tube is choosen as the most representative and convenient parameter of the problem. The OSS are shown to be ambiguous in some N-tilde range for sufficiently high values of the energy flow entering the scrape-off layer from the bulk plasma. An equation, that describes a quasi-steady variations in OSS, is derived and a mechanism of exciting the self-sustained oscillations is developed. Results of simulation of the edge plasma oscillations are found to be in a good agreement with this mechanism, which could be responsible for the H-mode oscillations observed in the divertor experiments

  17. Canard and mixed mode oscillations in an excitable glow discharge plasma in the presence of inhomogeneous magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, Pankaj Kumar, E-mail: pankaj.shaw@saha.ac.in; Sekar Iyengar, A. N., E-mail: ansekar.iyengar@saha.ac.in [Plasma Physics Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF, Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700064 (India); Nurujjaman, Md., E-mail: jaman-nonlinear@yahoo.co.in [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Sikkim, Ravangla, Sikkim 737139 (India)

    2015-12-15

    We report on the experimental observation of canard orbit and mixed mode oscillations (MMOs) in an excitable glow discharge plasma induced by an external magnetic field perturbation using a bar magnet. At a small value of magnetic field, small amplitude quasiperiodic oscillations were excited, and with the increase in the magnetic field, large amplitude oscillations were excited. Analyzing the experimental results, it seems that the magnetic field could be playing the role of noise for such nonlinear phenomena. It is observed that the noise level increases with the increase in magnetic field strength. The experimental results have also been corroborated by a numerical simulation using a FitzHugh-Nagumo like macroscopic model derived from the basic plasma equations and phenomenology, where the noise has been included to represent the internal plasma noise. This macroscopic model shows MMO in the vicinity of the canard point when an external noise is added.

  18. Electronic oscillations in a hot plasma due the non-Maxwellian velocity distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, L.A.V.; Nakamura, Y.

    1977-01-01

    In a completely ionized hot plasma, with a non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution, it is shown that, depending on the electron temperature, oscillations may occur at the elctron plasma and gyro frequencies. For three different electron velocity distributions, it is shown the oscillations dependency on the temperature. This situation occurs in the ionospheric plasma when artificially heated by HF radio waves. If the distribution is Maxwellian, the oscillation only occur near the electron plasma frequency [pt

  19. Experimental high power plasma-filled backward wave oscillator results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minami, K.; Lou, W.R.; Destler, W.W.; Kehs, R.A.; Granatstein, V.L.; Carmel, Y.

    1988-01-01

    Previous results have indicated that a background gas can be used to increase the output microwave power of relativistic backward wave oscillators (BWOs) two or three times the vacuum case. In their experiments, two methods of plasma production are investigated in detail: the use of the electron beam to ionize a background gas, and the use of a plasma gun to inject a background plasma into the slow-wave structure of a BWO. It is found in the first case that there was a resonant increase in microwave power at a particular pressure of the background gas by a factor of ten. In the second case, power also increased compared with power production in vacuum. Detailed results are presented and the relative merits of the two approaches is discussed and compared with theoretical expectations

  20. Classical plasma dynamics of Mie-oscillations in atomic clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kull, H.-J.; El-Khawaldeh, A.

    2018-04-01

    Mie plasmons are of basic importance for the absorption of laser light by atomic clusters. In this work we first review the classical Rayleigh-theory of a dielectric sphere in an external electric field and Thomson’s plum-pudding model applied to atomic clusters. Both approaches allow for elementary discussions of Mie oscillations, however, they also indicate deficiencies in describing the damping mechanisms by electrons crossing the cluster surface. Nonlinear oscillator models have been widely studied to gain an understanding of damping and absorption by outer ionization of the cluster. In the present work, we attempt to address the issue of plasmon relaxation in atomic clusters in more detail based on classical particle simulations. In particular, we wish to study the role of thermal motion on plasmon relaxation, thereby extending nonlinear models of collective single-electron motion. Our simulations are particularly adopted to the regime of classical kinetics in weakly coupled plasmas and to cluster sizes extending the Debye-screening length. It will be illustrated how surface scattering leads to the relaxation of Mie oscillations in the presence of thermal motion and of electron spill-out at the cluster surface. This work is intended to give, from a classical perspective, further insight into recent work on plasmon relaxation in quantum plasmas [1].

  1. Argon line broadening by neutral atoms and application to the measurement of oscillator strengths of AI resonance lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallee, O.; Ranson, P.; Chapelle, J.

    1977-01-01

    AI line broadening was studied from collisions between neutral argon atoms (3p 5 4p-3p 5 4s transitions) in a weakly ionised plasma jet (neutral atoms temperature T 0 approximately 4000K, electrons temperature Tsub(e) approximately 6000K, electronic density Nsub(e) 15 cm -3 , ionisation rate α -4 , and pressure range from 1 to 3 kg/cm 2 ). A satisfactory description of Van der Waals broadened lines is obtained by means of a Lennard-Jones potential. Measurement of line widths whose corresponding transitions occur on resonant levels, gives with relatively good accuracy the oscillator strength of the argon resonance lines [fr

  2. Generalized oscillator strengths for some higher valence-shell excitations of krypton atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The valence-shell excitations of krypton atom have been investigated by fast electron impact with an angle-resolved electron-energy-loss spectrometer. The generalized oscillator strengths for some higher mixed valence-shell excitations in 4d, 4f, 5p, 5d, 6s, 6p, 7s ← 4p of krypton atom have been determined. Their profiles are discussed, and the generalized oscillator strengths for the electric monopole and quadrupole excitations in 5p ← 4p are compared with the calculations of Amusia et al. (Phys. Rev. A 67 022703 (2003)). The differences between the experimental results and theoretical calculations show that more studies are needed.

  3. Structural control of metamaterial oscillator strength and electric field enhancement at terahertz frequencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiser, G. R.; Seren, H. R.; Strikwerda, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    The design of artificial nonlinear materials requires control over internal resonant charge densities and local electric field distributions. We present a MM design with a structurally controllable oscillator strength and local electric field enhancement at terahertz frequencies. The MM consists...... of a split ring resonator (SRR) array stacked above an array of closed conducting rings. An in-plane, lateral shift of a half unit cell between the SRR and closed ring arrays results in an increase of the MM oscillator strength by a factor of 4 and a 40% change in the amplitude of the resonant electric field...

  4. Collision strengths and oscillator strengths for excitation to the n = 3 and 4 levels of neon-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Sampson, D.H.; Clark, R.E.H.; Mann, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Collision strengths are given for the 88 possible fine-structure transitions between the ground level and the n = 3 and 4 levels in 20 neon-like ions with nuclear charge number Z in the range 18 ≤Z≤74. The results are given for the nine impact-electron energies in threshold units X = 1.0, 1.2, 1.5, 1.9, 2.5, 4.0, 6.0, 10.0, and 15.0. In addition, electric dipole oscillator strengths obtained by various methods are given. copyright 1987 Academic Press, Inc

  5. Oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for the intercombination transitions in Fe XXII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glass, R.

    1979-01-01

    Oscillator strengths and transition probabilities are evaluated for the intercombination transitions between the 2s 2 2p, 2s 2p 2 and 2p 3 states of Fe XXII using configuration interaction wavefunctions. The fine-structure splittings have also been calculated. Some significant differences with previous calculations are obtained

  6. Performance of SOPPA-based methods in the calculation of vertical excitation energies and oscillator strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Pitzner-Frydendahl, Henrik Frank; Buse, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    methods, the original SOPPA method as well as SOPPA(CCSD) and RPA(D) in the calculation of vertical electronic excitation energies and oscillator strengths is investigated for a large benchmark set of 28 medium-size molecules with 139 singlet and 71 triplet excited states. The results are compared...

  7. Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, F.; Stobbe, Søren; Schneider, C.

    2010-01-01

    We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled InAs quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...

  8. Quantum efficiency and oscillator strength of site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, F.; Schneider, C.; Stobbe, Søren

    2010-01-01

    We report on time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy to determine the oscillator strength (OS) and the quantum efficiency (QE) of site-controlled In(Ga)As quantum dots nucleating on patterned nanoholes. These two quantities are determined by measurements on site-controlled quantum dot (SCQD...

  9. The Bethe Sum Rule and Basis Set Selection in the Calculation of Generalized Oscillator Strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cabrera-Trujillo, Remigio; Sabin, John R.; Oddershede, Jens

    1999-01-01

    Fulfillment of the Bethe sum rule may be construed as a measure of basis set quality for atomic and molecular properties involving the generalized oscillator strength distribution. It is first shown that, in the case of a complete basis, the Bethe sum rule is fulfilled exactly in the random phase...

  10. Generalized oscillator strengths for some higher valence-shell excitations of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Lin-Fan; Yuan, Hui; Jiang, Wei-Chun; Zhang, Fang-Xin; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Cheng, Hua-Dong; Xu, Ke-Zun

    2007-01-01

    The valence shell excitations of argon were investigated by an angle-resolved fast-electron energy-loss spectrometer at an incident electron energy of 2500 eV, and the transition multipolarities for the excitations of 3p→3d, 4d, 5s, and 5p were elucidated with the help of the calculated intermediate coupling coefficients using the COWAN code. The generalized oscillator strengths for the excitations to 3p 5 (3d,3d ' ), 3p 5 (5p,5p ' ), and 3p 5 (5s,4d) were measured, and the profiles of these generalized oscillator strength were analyzed. Furthermore, although the present experimental positions of the maxima for the electric-monopole and electric-quadrupole excitations in 3p→5p are in agreement with the theoretical calculations [Amusia et al., Phys. Rev. A 67, 022703 (2003)], the generalized oscillator strength profiles show obvious differences. In addition, the experimental generalized oscillator strength ratios for the electric-octupole transitions in 3p→3d are different from the theoretical prediction calculated by the COWAN code

  11. Absolute photoabsorption cross-sections (oscillator strengths) for hydrogen chloride, hydrogen bromide and hydrogen iodide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brion, C.E.; Dyck, M.; Cooper, G.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Absolute photoabsorption cross-sections (oscillator strengths) for the free molecules HCl, HBr and HI have been measured in the valence and selected in- ner shell regions. The experimental technique used for these studies is dipole (e,e) spectroscopy [1-3] which is not affected by line saturation effects (i.e. bandwidth interactions) which can complicate direct photoabsorption methods using the Beer- Lambert law. The dipole (e,e) method is also not subject to the effects of higher order radiation. In the dipole (e,e) method relative intensities obtained in fast (3 keV) for- ward scattered electron energy loss spectra are converted to relative dipole oscillator strengths (i.e. photoabsorption spectra) using the known Bethe-Born factors for the instrument as a function of photon energy (i.e. energy loss). The target pressure is constant at 10 - 5 torr, but it is not necessary to know the absolute target density. The absolute oscillator strength scale for HCl is determined from Bethe-Born converted, wide range dipole (e,e) spectra using the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule. For HBr and HI the absolute oscillator strength scales have been established using the S(-2) Sum Rule and literature values of the static dipole polarizability

  12. Generalized oscillator strengths for the valence-shell excitations of argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Linfan; Cheng Huadong; Yuan Zhensheng; Liu Xiaojing; Sun Jianmin; Xu Kezun

    2006-01-01

    The generalized oscillator strengths for the valence-shell excitations to 3p 5 (4s,4s ' ) and 3p 5 (4p,4p ' ) of argon were measured by an angle-resolved fast-electron energy-loss spectrometer at an incident electron energy of 2500 eV. The transition multipolarities for these excitations were elucidated with the help of the calculated intermediate coupling coefficients using the COWAN code. The generalized oscillator strength profiles for the electric dipole excitations to 3p 5 (4s,4s ' ), the electric quadrupole and monopole excitations to 3p 5 (4p,4p ' ) were analyzed and their positions of the extrema were determined. Furthermore, the generalized oscillator strength of the electric quadrupole excitation in 3p→4p was determined and its profile is in general agreement with the theoretical calculations. However, the generalized oscillator strength profile of the electric monopole excitation in 3p→4p is different from the theoretical calculations

  13. Chaotic behavior of current-carrying plasmas in external periodic oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Tanaka, Masayoshi; Komori, Akio; Kawai, Yoshinobu

    1989-01-01

    A set of cascading bifurcations and a chaotic state in the presence of an external periodic oscillation are experimentally investigated in a current-carrying plasma. The measured bifurcation sequence leading to chaos, which is controlled by changing plasma densities and the frequencies of external oscillations, is in qualitative agreement with a theory which describes anharmonic systems in periodic fields. (author).

  14. Energy levels, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and transition probabilities in Si-like ions of La XLIII, Er LIV, Tm LV, and Yb LVI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhan-Bin, E-mail: chenzb008@qq.com [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China); Ma, Kun [School of Information Engineering, Huangshan University, Huangshan 245041 (China); Wang, Hong-Jian [Chongqing Key Laboratory for Design and Control of Manufacturing Equipment, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 40067 (China); Wang, Kai, E-mail: wangkai@hbu.edu.cn [Hebei Key Lab of Optic-electronic Information and Materials, The College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Liu, Xiao-Bin [Department of Physics, Tianshui Normal University, Tianshui 741001 (China); Zeng, Jiao-Long [College of Science, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Detailed calculations using the multi-configuration Dirac–Fock (MCDF) method are carried out for the lowest 64 fine-structure levels of the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2}, 3s{sup 2}3p3d, 3s3p{sup 3}, 3s3p{sup 2}3d, 3s{sup 2}3d{sup 2}, and 3p{sup 4} configurations in Si-like ions of La XLIII, Er LIV, Tm LV, and Yb LVI. Energies, oscillator strengths, wavelengths, line strengths, and radiative electric dipole transition rates are given for all ions. A parallel calculation using the many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) method is also carried out to assess the present energy levels accuracy. Comparisons are performed between these two sets of energy levels, as well as with other available results, showing that they are in good agreement with each other within 0.5%. These high accuracy results can be used to the modeling and the interpretation of astrophysical objects and fusion plasmas. - Highlights: • Energy levels and E1 transition rates of Si-like ions are presented. • Breit interaction and Quantum Electrodynamics effects are discussed. • Present results should be useful in the astrophysical application and plasma modeling.

  15. The energy levels and oscillator strength of a complex atom--Au50+ in a self-consistent potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Rong; Zou Yu; Fang Quanyu

    1998-01-01

    The effects of free electrons in a plasma on a complex atom are discussed, here the authors are interested in the target ion--Au 50+ in inertia confined fusion (ICF). The results are compared with those in the case of hydrogenic ions. Accurate numerical solutions have been obtained for Schroedinger's equation through Debye screened Hartree-Fock-Slater self-consistent potential. Solutions have been computed for 28 eigenstates, 1s through n =3D 7, l =3D 6, yielding the energy eigenvalues for a wide range of Debye screening length Λ. As in the case of hydrogenic ions, under screening, all energy levels are shifted away from their unscreened values toward the continuum, that is, the ionization limits are shifted downward. Conclusions have been made that when Λ>5a 0 , that is, in the weak screening cases, Debye screening has little effect on oscillator strength, average orbital radius, transition matrix elements, etc., of Au 50+ . For each (n,l) eigenstate, there is a finite value of screening length Λ 0 (n,l), for which the energy becomes zero. When Λ is sufficiently small, level crossing appears at high n states. Optical oscillator strength for Au 50+ has also been calculated, the results are compared with those under unscreened potential

  16. The influence of core-valence electron correlations on the convergence of energy levels and oscillator strengths of ions with an open 3d shell using Fe VIII as an example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Jiaolong; Jin Fengtao; Zhao Gang; Yuan Jianmin

    2003-01-01

    Accurate atomic data, such as fine structure energy levels and oscillator strengths of different ionization stages of iron ions, are important for astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. However, some important existing oscillator strengths for ions with an open 3d shell found in the literature might not be accurate enough for practical applications. As an example, the present paper checks the convergence behaviour of the energy levels and oscillator strengths of Fe VIII by systematically increasing the 3p n -3d n (n = 1, 2, 3 and 6) core-valence electron correlations using the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock method. The results show that one should at least include up to 3p 3 -3d 3 core-valence electron correlations to obtain converged results. Large differences are found between the present oscillator strengths and other theoretical results in the literature for some strong transitions

  17. Oscillation of the current sheet velocity in plasma focus discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melzacki, K.; Nardi, V.

    1994-01-01

    The oscillation of the propagation speed of the plasma focus current sheet has been recorded with schlieren photography. The sheet stuttering in the propagation during the implosion phase has a frequency of about 60 MHz. The effect could be recorded due to application of long exposure time (60 ns) technique. It is not detectable in the subnanosecond pictures. The pictures are taken in black schlieren. The probing range of the electron density gradient, with integration along the path of the 1 J, Q-switched ruby laser beam, has been selected by the size of the stop and aperture within 3 x 10 18 cm -3 and 3 x 10 20 cm -3 . Raising the sensitivity threshold to 2 x 10 19 cm -3 (refraction angle of 4 mrad) has helped to clear the pictures by limiting their image to high gradients of density only. With this technique (and other diagnostic methods) the dynamics of 6 kJ, 16 kV plasma focus discharges in deuterium at 5 torr, with a 10% decrease of the magnetic insulation at the breech has been investigated. The average implosion velocity of the current sheath obtained with this effect, 5 x 10 6 cm/s, is consistent with those measured by the smear effect, and the electric probe. The electron density gradient has been determined at several instants; at the pinch time it is (3 ± 1.5) x 10 20 cm -4 . The data are discussed on the basis of several pictures

  18. Damping of electron center-of-mass oscillation in ultracold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Witte, Craig; Roberts, Jacob L.

    2016-01-01

    Applying a short electric field pulse to an ultracold plasma induces an electron plasma oscillation. This manifests itself as an oscillation of the electron center of mass around the ion center of mass in the ultracold plasma. In general, the oscillation can damp due to either collisionless or collisional mechanisms, or a combination of the both. To investigate the nature of oscillation damping in ultracold plasmas, we developed a molecular dynamics model of the ultracold plasma electrons. Through this model, we found that depending on the neutrality of the ultracold plasma and the size of an applied DC electric field, there are some parameter ranges where the damping is primarily collisional and some primarily collisionless. We conducted experiments to compare the measured damping rate with theory predictions and found them to be in good agreement. Extension of our measurements to different parameter ranges should enable studies for strong-coupling influence on electron-ion collision rates.

  19. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities in Ni XVI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, N.C.; Msezane, A.Z.

    2001-01-01

    Fine-structure energy levels relative to the ground state, oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for transitions among the lowest 40 fine-structure levels belonging to the configurations 3s 2 3p, 3s3p 2 , 3s 2 3d, 3p 3 and 3s3p3d of Ni XVI are calculated using a large scale CI in program CIV3 of Hibbert. Relativistic effects are included through the Breit-Pauli approximation via spin-orbit, spin-other-orbit, spin-spin, Darwin and mass correction terms. The existing discrepancies between the calculated and measured values for many of the relative energy positions are resolved in the present calculation which yields excellent agreement with measurement. Also, many of our oscillator strengths for allowed and intercombination transitions are in very good agreement with the recommended data by the National Institute of Standard and Technology (NIST). (orig.)

  20. Prediction of the oscillator strengths for the electric dipole transitions in Th II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembczynski, Jerzy [Institute of Control and Information Engineering, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Poznan University of Technology, Piotrowo 3A, 60-965 Poznan (Poland); Ruczkowski, Jaroslaw; Elantkowska, Magdalena [Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Metrology, Faculty of Technical Physics, Poznan University of Technology, Nieszawska 13B, 60-965 Poznan (Poland)

    2014-07-01

    In order to parametrize the oscillator strength, the matrix of angular coefficients of the possible transitions in multiconfiguration system were calculated. In the odd and even configuration systems, the fine structure eigenvectors for both parities were obtained, using our semiempirical method, which taken into account also the second order effects, resulting from the excitations from electronic closed shells to open shells and from open shells to empty shell. The correctness of the fine structure wave functions was verified by the comparison of calculated and experimental hyperfine structure constants for Th II available in the literature. The least square fit to experimental values for some transitions allow to obtain the values of radial parameters and predict the oscillator strengths values for all possible transitions from the levels under consideration. These calculations are necessary for the design of the nuclear frequency standard based on the thorium ion.

  1. Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Strength Analysis of a Novel Dot-matrix Oscillating Wave Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Meng; Xiao, Chengsi; Sun, Jinwei; Shao, Zhuxiao; Zheng, Qiuhong

    2017-12-01

    The paper analyzes hydrodynamic characteristics and the strength of a novel dot-matrix oscillating wave energy converter, which is in accordance with nowadays’ research tendency: high power, high efficiency, high reliability and low cost. Based on three-dimensional potential flow theory, the paper establishes motion control equations of the wave energy converter unit and calculates wave loads and motions. On this basis, a three-dimensional finite element model of the device is built to check its strength. Through the analysis, it can be confirmed that the WEC is feasible and the research results could be a reference for wave energy’s exploration and utilization.

  2. Lifetime measurements and oscillator strengths in singly ionized scandium and the solar abundance of scandium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan Rhodin, A.; Belmonte, M. T.; Engström, L.; Lundberg, H.; Nilsson, H.; Hartman, H.; Pickering, J. C.; Clear, C.; Quinet, P.; Fivet, V.; Palmeri, P.

    2017-12-01

    The lifetimes of 17 even-parity levels (3d5s, 3d4d, 3d6s and 4p2) in the region 57 743-77 837 cm-1 of singly ionized scandium (Sc II) were measured by two-step time-resolved laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. Oscillator strengths of 57 lines from these highly excited upper levels were derived using a hollow cathode discharge lamp and a Fourier transform spectrometer. In addition, Hartree-Fock calculations where both the main relativistic and core-polarization effects were taken into account were carried out for both low- and high-excitation levels. There is a good agreement for most of the lines between our calculated branching fractions and the measurements of Lawler & Dakin in the region 9000-45 000 cm-1 for low excitation levels and with our measurements for high excitation levels in the region 23 500-63 100 cm-1. This, in turn, allowed us to combine the calculated branching fractions with the available experimental lifetimes to determine semi-empirical oscillator strengths for a set of 380 E1 transitions in Sc II. These oscillator strengths include the weak lines that were used previously to derive the solar abundance of scandium. The solar abundance of scandium is now estimated to logε⊙ = 3.04 ± 0.13 using these semi-empirical oscillator strengths to shift the values determined by Scott et al. The new estimated abundance value is in agreement with the meteoritic value (logεmet = 3.05 ± 0.02) of Lodders, Palme & Gail.

  3. Laboratory oscillator strengths of Sc i in the near-infrared region for astrophysical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, A.; Nilsson, H.; Hartman, H.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Atomic data is crucial for astrophysical investigations. To understand the formation and evolution of stars, we need to analyse their observed spectra. Analysing a spectrum of a star requires information about the properties of atomic lines, such as wavelengths and oscillator strengths. However, atomic data of some elements are scarce, particularly in the infrared region, and this paper is part of an effort to improve the situation on near-IR atomic data. Aims: This paper investigates the spectrum of neutral scandium, Sc I, from laboratory measurements and improves the atomic data of Sc I lines in the infrared region covering lines in R, I, J, and K bands. Especially, we focus on measuring oscillator strengths for Sc I lines connecting the levels with 4p and 4s configurations. Methods: We combined experimental branching fractions with radiative lifetimes from the literature to derive oscillator strengths (f-values). Intensity-calibrated spectra with high spectral resolution were recorded with Fourier transform spectrometer from a hollow cathode discharge lamp. The spectra were used to derive accurate oscillator strengths and wavelengths for Sc I lines, with emphasis on the infrared region. Results: This project provides the first set of experimental Sc I lines in the near-infrared region for accurate spectral analysis of astronomical objects. We derived 63 log(gf) values for the lines between 5300 Å and 24 300 Å. The uncertainties in the f-values vary from 5% to 20%. The small uncertainties in our values allow for an increased accuracy in astrophysical abundance determinations.

  4. Spectro web: oscillator strength measurements of atomic absorption lines in the sun and procyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lobel, A

    2008-01-01

    We update the online SpectroWeb database of spectral standard reference stars with 1178 oscillator strength values of atomic absorption lines observed in the optical spectrum of the Sun and Procyon (α CMi A). The updated line oscillator strengths are measured with best fits to the disk-integrated KPNO-FTS spectrum of the Sun observed between 4000 A and 6800 A using state-of-the-art detailed spectral synthesis calculations. A subset of 660 line oscillator strengths is validated with synthetic spectrum calculations of Procyon observed with ESO-UVES between 4700 A and 6800 A. The new log(gf)-values in SpectroWeb are improvements upon the values offered in the online Vienna Atomic Line Database (VALD). We find for neutral iron-group elements, such as Fe I, Ni I, Cr I, and Ti I, a statistically significant over-estimation of the VALD log((gf)-values for weak absorption lines with normalized central line depths below 15 %. For abundant lighter elements (e.g. Mg I and Ca I) this trend is statistically not significantly detectable, with the exception of Si I for which the log(gf)-values of 60 weak and medium-strong lines are substantially decreased to best fit the observed spectra. The newly measured log(gf)-values are available in the SpectroWeb database at http://spectra.freeshell.org, which interactively displays the observed and computed stellar spectra, together with corresponding atomic line data.

  5. Bond strength of plasma sprayed ceramic coatings on phosphate steels

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, P.; Mastný, L.; Sýkora, V.; Pala, Zdeněk; Brožek, Vlastimil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2015), s. 411-414 ISSN 0543-5846 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : phosphating * plasma spraying * ceramic coatings * corrosion * bond strength Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.959, year: 2014

  6. Plasma oscillations and sound waves in collision-dominated two-component plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.P.; Sjoegren, L.

    1982-01-01

    Charge, mass, and electron density fluctuation spectra of strongly correlated, fully ionized two-component plasmas within the framework of the Mori--Zwanzig memory function formalism are analyzed. All dynamical correlation functions are expressed in terms of the memory functions of the ion and electron velocity autocorrelation functions by a generalized effective field approximation which preserves the exact initial values (i.e., static correlations). The theory reduces correctly to the mean field (or collisionless Vlasov) results in the weak coupling limit, and yields charge density fluctuation spectra in good agreement with available computer simulation data, as well as reasonable estimates of the transport coefficients. The collisional damping and frequency shift of the plasma oscillation mode are sizeable, even in the long wavelength limit. The theory also predicts the propagation of well-defined sound waves in dense plasmas in thermal equilibrium

  7. Influence of magnetic arc oscillation and current pulsing on microstructure and high temperature tensile strength of alloy 718 TIG weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivaprasad, K.; Ganesh Sundara Raman, S.; Mastanaiah, P.; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to study the effect of magnetic arc oscillation and current pulsing on the microstructure and high temperature tensile strength of alloy 718 tungsten inert gas weldments. The magnetic arc oscillation technique resulted in refined Laves phase with lesser interconnectivity. The full benefits of current pulsing in breaking the dendrites could not be realized in the present study due to relatively higher heat input used in the welding process. In the direct aged condition weldments prepared using magnetic arc oscillation technique exhibited higher tensile strength due to the presence of refined and lesser-interconnected Laves particles. In the solution treated and aged condition, magnetic arc oscillated weldments exhibited lower tensile strength compared with the weldments made without arc oscillation due to the presence of large amounts of finer δ needles

  8. Superexponentially damped Vlasov plasma oscillations in the Fourier transformed velocity space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, Zdeněk; Nocera, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 52, supplement D (2002), s. 65-69 ISSN 0011-4626. [Symposium on Plasma Physics and Technology/20th./. Prague, 10.06.2002-13.06.2002] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : Vlasov plasma, oscillator Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.311, year: 2002

  9. Electron eigen-oscillations and ballistic modes of a stable plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jungwirth, K.

    1976-01-01

    The relation between plasma responses to singular and regular initial perturbations is established. Time scaling is introduced to separate time intervals for which eigen-oscillations (Landau solution) are dominant from such where ballistic modes prevail. The enhanced role is demonstrated of the ballistic modes for an initially perturbed field-free plasma including the phenomenon of plasma wave echoes. (author)

  10. Plexcitons: The Role of Oscillator Strengths and Spectral Widths in Determining Strong Coupling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Reshmi [School; Thomas, Anoop [School; Pullanchery, Saranya [School; Joseph, Linta [School; Somasundaran, Sanoop Mambully [School; Swathi, Rotti Srinivasamurthy [School; Gray, Stephen K. [Center; Thomas, K. George [School

    2018-01-05

    Strong coupling interactions between plasmon and exciton-based excitations have been proposed to be useful in the design of optoelectronic systems. However, the role of various optical parameters dictating the plasmon-exciton (plexciton) interactions is less understood. Herein, we propose an inequality for achieving strong coupling between plasmons and excitons through appropriate variation of their oscillator strengths and spectral widths. These aspects are found to be consistent with experiments on two sets of free-standing plexcitonic systems obtained by (i) linking fluorescein isothiocyanate on Ag nanoparticles of varying sizes through silane coupling and (ii) electrostatic binding of cyanine dyes on polystyrenesulfonate-coated Au nanorods of varying aspect ratios. Being covalently linked on Ag nanoparticles, fluorescein isothiocyanate remains in monomeric state, and its high oscillator strength and narrow spectral width enable us to approach the strong coupling limit. In contrast, in the presence of polystyrenesulfonate, monomeric forms of cyanine dyes exist in equilibrium with their aggregates: Coupling is not observed for monomers and H-aggregates whose optical parameters are unfavorable. The large aggregation number, narrow spectral width, and extremely high oscillator strength of J-aggregates of cyanines permit effective delocalization of excitons along the linear assembly of chromophores, which in turn leads to efficient coupling with the plasmons. Further, the results obtained from experiments and theoretical models are jointly employed to describe the plexcitonic states, estimate the coupling strengths, and rationalize the dispersion curves. The experimental results and the theoretical analysis presented here portray a way forward to the rational design of plexcitonic systems attaining the strong coupling limits.

  11. ELMy-H mode as limit cycle and chaotic oscillations in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae; Itoh, Kimitaka; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1991-06-01

    A model of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in tokamaks is presented. A limit cycle solution is found in time-dependent Ginzburg Landau type model equation of L/H transition, which has a hysteresis curve between the plasma gradient and flux. The oscillation of edge density appears near the L/H transition boundary. Spatial structure of the intermediate state (mesophase) is obtained in the edge region. Chaotic oscillation is predicted due to random neutrals and external oscillations. (author)

  12. Observation of a new plasma regime with stationary electron temperature oscillations on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J.F.; Giruzzi, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Segui, J.L.; Garbet, X.

    2003-01-01

    This document is a copy of the slides presented on the 9. joint US-European Transport Task Force meeting. The first part is devoted to the experimental observations of a new tokamak plasma regime with stationary electron temperature oscillations. The oscillations appear on ECE spontaneously, sometimes associated with a transition to the LHEP regime. The second part presents an interpretation of these oscillations by analogy with a predator-prey system. (A.L.B.)

  13. Heliocentric radial variation of plasma oscillations associated with type III radio bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurnett, D.A.; Anderson, R.R.; Scarf, F.L.; Kurth, W.S.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is presented of all of the electron plasma oscillation events found to date in association with low-frequency type III solar radio bursts using approximately 9 years of observations from the Imp 6 and 8, Helios 1 and 2, and Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft. Plasma oscillation events associated with type III radio bursts show a pronounced increase in both the intensity and the frequency of occurrence with decreasing heliocentric radial distance. This radial dependence explains why intense electron plasma oscillations are seldom observed in association with type III radio bursts at the orbit of the earth. Possible interpretations of the observed radial variation in the plasma oscillation intensity are considered

  14. THz Backward-wave oscillators for plasma diagnostic in nuclear fusion

    OpenAIRE

    Paoloni, Claudio; Yue, Lingna; Tang, Xiaopin; Zhang, Fuzhi; Popovic, Branko; Himes, Logan; Barchfeld, Robert; Gamzina, Diana; Mineo, Mauro; Letizia, Rosa; Luhmann Jr., Neville C.

    2015-01-01

    Summary form only given. The understanding of plasma turbulence in nuclear fusion is related to the availability of powerful THz sources and the possibility to map wider plasma regions. A novel approach to realize compact THz sources to be implemented in the plasma diagnostic at NSTX experiment (Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, USA) is reported.Two novel 0.346 THz Backward-Wave Oscillators (BWOs) have been designed and are presently in the fabrication phase. One BWO is based on the Double...

  15. Oscillator-strength distributions for oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, methyl chloride, and carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Person, J.C.; Nicole, P.P.

    1979-01-01

    New measurements of photoabsorption give oscillator-strength values for the following gases and energy regions: O 2 , 7.34 to 11.79 eV; CO 2 , 7.34 to 11.77 eV; H 2 O, 6.62 to 11.80 eV; CH 3 CL, 6.14 to 11.25 eV; and CCl 4 , 6.14 to 11.49 eV. Comparisons are made with some values from the literature

  16. Oscillator strengths and lifetimes for low-lying terms in the Al isoelectronic sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hjort-Jensen, M.; Aashamar, K.

    1988-11-01

    Using the Multiconfiguration Optimized Potential Model, calculations of oscillator strengths in the length, and velocity formulation for a large number of transitions in the Aluminium isoelectronic sequence from Si II through K VII, have been performed. The results have been used to determine the lifetimes of 14 low-lying excited terms along the sequence. Comparison is made with experiment and with other theory where results are available. The agreement between the obtained values and other theoretical results is generally good, although deviations do occur near level crossings. Some significant discrepancies between theory and experiment persist concerning lifetimes for S IV

  17. Weighted oscillator strengths and lifetimes for the S IX and S X spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, F.O.; Cavalcanti, G.H.; Trigueiros, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    The weighted oscillator strengths (gf) and the lifetimes presented in this work were carried out in a multi configuration Hartree-Fock relativistic (HFR) approach. In this calculation, the electrostatic parameters were optimized by a least-squares procedure, in order to improve the adjustment to experimental energy levels. This method produces gf-values that are in better agreement with intensity observations and lifetime values that are closer to the experimental ones. In this work, we presented all the experimentally known electric dipole S IX and S X spectral lines

  18. Evaluation of oscillator strength in colloidal CdSe/CdS dots-in-rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisanello, Ferruccio [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, CNRS UMR8552, Ecole Normale Superieure, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR/INFM, Scuola superiore ISUFI, Universita del Salento, 16 Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Lemenager, Godefroy; Spinicelli, Piernicola; Amo, Alberto; Giacobino, Elisabeth; Bramati, Alberto [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, CNRS UMR8552, Ecole Normale Superieure, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Martiradonna, Luigi [Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnolgy, Via Barsanti 1, Arnesano, 73010 Lecce (Italy); Fiore, Angela [National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR/INFM, Scuola superiore ISUFI, Universita del Salento, 16 Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Cingolani, Roberto; De Vittorio, Massimo [National Nanotechnology Laboratory of CNR/INFM, Scuola superiore ISUFI, Universita del Salento, 16 Via Arnesano, 73100 Lecce (Italy); Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia (IIT), Center for Bio-Molecular Nanotechnolgy, Via Barsanti 1, Arnesano, 73010 Lecce (Italy)

    2010-11-15

    The oscillator strength in CdSe/CdS colloidal dot-in-rods is evaluated and assessed to be of {proportional_to}1.5. On the basis of this finding, the possibility to reach the strong coupling regime with photonic crystals nanocavities is discussed. In spite that carefully choosing the cavity parameters the strong coupling regime could be analytically achieved at room temperature, theoretical considerations show that the typical Rabi doublet cannot be resolved. The work draws also a viable strategy toward the observation of the strong coupling at cryogenic temperatures. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  19. Plasma and oscillations with contributions in memoriam including a complete bibliography of his works

    CERN Document Server

    Suits, C Guy

    1961-01-01

    The Collected Works of Irving Langmuir, Volume 5: Plasma and Oscillations is an 11-chapter text covers the extensive research study of Langmuir in the field of gas discharges. This book specifically tackles oscillations in ionized gases. The opening chapters describe the plasma-boundary phenomena and the use of a probe to separate the primary electron beam from the scattered electrons. The succeeding chapters deal with the collisions between electrons and gas molecules, oscillations in ionized gases, and the interaction of electron and positive ion space charges in cathode sheaths. These t

  20. Regulation of glycolytic oscillations by mitochondrial and plasma membrane H+-ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Folke; Andersen, Ann Zahle; Lunding, Anita

    2009-01-01

    ,3'-diethyloxacarbocyanine iodide. The responses of glycolytic and membrane potential oscillations to a number of inhibitors of glycolysis, mitochondrial electron flow, and mitochondrial and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase were investigated. Furthermore, the glycolytic flux was determined as the rate of production of ethanol....../ATP antiporter and the mitochondrial F(0)F(1)-ATPase. The results further suggest that ATP hydrolysis, through the action of the mitochondrial F(0)F(1)-ATPase and plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase, are important in regulating these oscillations. We conclude that it is glycolysis that drives the oscillations...

  1. Self-organization and oscillation of negatively charged dust particles in a 2-dimensional dusty plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Y.L. [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Huang, F., E-mail: huangfeng@cau.edu.cn [College of Science, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China); Chen, Z.Y., E-mail: chenzy@mail.buct.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); State Key Laboratory of Laser Propulsion & Application, Beijing 101416 (China); Liu, Y.H. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Ludong University, Yantai 264025 (China); Yu, M.Y. [Institute for Fusion Theory and Simulation, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Institute for Theoretical Physics I, Ruhr University, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2016-02-22

    Negatively charged dust particles immersed in 2-dimensional dusty plasma system are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the confinement potential and attraction interaction potential on dust particle self-organization are studied in detail and two typical dust particle distributions are obtained when the system reaches equilibrium. The average radial velocity (ARV), average radial force (ARF) and radial mean square displacement are employed to analyze the dust particles' dynamics. Both ARVs and ARFs exhibit oscillation behaviors when the simulation system reaches equilibrium state. The relationships between the oscillation and confinement potential and attraction potential are studied in this paper. The simulation results are qualitatively similar to experimental results. - Highlights: • Self-organization and oscillation of a 2-dimensional dusty plasma is investigated. • Effect of the confinement potential on dust self-organization and oscillation is given. • Effect of the attraction potential on dust self-organization and oscillation is studied.

  2. Self-organization and oscillation of negatively charged dust particles in a 2-dimensional dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Y.L.; Huang, F.; Chen, Z.Y.; Liu, Y.H.; Yu, M.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Negatively charged dust particles immersed in 2-dimensional dusty plasma system are investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. The effects of the confinement potential and attraction interaction potential on dust particle self-organization are studied in detail and two typical dust particle distributions are obtained when the system reaches equilibrium. The average radial velocity (ARV), average radial force (ARF) and radial mean square displacement are employed to analyze the dust particles' dynamics. Both ARVs and ARFs exhibit oscillation behaviors when the simulation system reaches equilibrium state. The relationships between the oscillation and confinement potential and attraction potential are studied in this paper. The simulation results are qualitatively similar to experimental results. - Highlights: • Self-organization and oscillation of a 2-dimensional dusty plasma is investigated. • Effect of the confinement potential on dust self-organization and oscillation is given. • Effect of the attraction potential on dust self-organization and oscillation is studied.

  3. Plasma CVD reactor with two-microwave oscillators for diamond film synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagatsu, M.; Miyake, M.; Maeda, J.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we present the experimental results of a new type of microwave plasma CVD system, where two of 1.5 kW microwave sources were used for enlarging the plasma discharge and the diamond film growth. One of the microwave oscillators was used to produce the microwave plasma as in the conventional microwave plasma CVD device, while the second one was used to enlarge the plasma by introducing microwave from the launcher mounted at the substrate stage. We demonstrated the enlargement of plasma discharge area from 60 mm to 100 mm in diameter by using the two-microwave oscillators system. Characteristics of diamond films deposited using H 2 /CH 4 plasmas were also investigated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Raman spectroscopy

  4. Uses of dipole oscillator strength sum rules in second order perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struensee, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    Certain moments of the dipole oscillator strength distribution of atoms and molecules can be calculated from theory (using sum rules) or deduced from experiment. The present work describes the use of these moments to construct effective distributions which lead to bounds and estimates of physical properties of interest. Asymptotic analysis is then used to obtain the high energy behavior of the oscillator strength density and a previously unknown sum rule for atoms and molecules. A new type of effective distribution, which incorporates the information concerning the asymptotic behavior and the new sum rule, is suggested. This new type of distribution is used to calculate the logarithmic mean excitation energies for the ground states of atomic hydrogen, atomic helium and the negative hydrogen ion. The calculations for atomic helium and the negative hydrogen ion require the evaluation of certain ground state expectation values. These have been calculated using high accuracy wavefunctions containing the nonconventional terms shown by Fock to be necessary for a correct analytic expansion when both electrons are near the nucleus

  5. Oscillator strengths for transitions among Fe III levels belonging to the three lowest configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deb, N C; Hibbert, A

    2008-01-01

    Accurate oscillator strengths and Einstein A-coefficients for some El and E2 transitions among 3d 6 , 3d 5 4s and 3d 5 4p levels of FeIII are presented and compared with other available results. The present results comprise by far the largest configuration interaction calculation for this astrophysically important ion, and include relativistic effects through the Breit-Pauli operator. The core-valence effects from a large number of 3d 6 and 3d 5 cores are carefully treated by optimising 4d, 4f, 5s, 5p, 5d, 5f and 6p orbitals either as a correction or as a correlation orbital while 1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p and 3d Hartree-Fock functions are used. The 4s and 4p functions are optimised as spectroscopic orbitals. Fine-tuning of the ab initio energies was done through adjusting by a small amount some diagonal elements of the Hamiltonian matrix. It is found that for many of the relatively strong dipole transitions, our calculated oscillator strengths agree with available calculations, while for the weaker transitions our results often disagree with the previously determined results. We also present gA values for five E2 transitions for the multiplets 3d 6 5 DJ → 3d 5 ( 6 S)4s 5 S 2. The present results for these transitions show a 30-40% increase over the results previously published.

  6. Oscillator strength of partially ionized high-Z atom on Hartree-Fock Slater model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, S.; Nishikawa, T.; Takabe, H.; Mima, K.

    1991-01-01

    The Hartree-Fock Slater (HFS) model has been solved for the partially ionized gold ions generated when an intense laser light is irradiated on a gold foil target. The resultant energy levels are compared with those obtained by a simple screened hydrogenic model with l-splitting effect (SHML). It is shown that the energy levels are poorly model by SHML as the ionization level becomes higher. The resultant wave functions are used to evaluate oscillator strength of important line radiations and compared with those obtained by a simple model using hydrogenic wave functions. Its demonstrated that oscillator strength of the 4p-4d and 4d-4f lines are well modeled by the simple method, while the 4-5 transitions such as 4f-5g, 4d-5f, 4p-5d, and 4f-5p forming the so-called N-band emission are poorly modeled and HFS results less strong line emissions. (author)

  7. An alternative method for determination of oscillator strengths: The example of Sc II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruczkowski, J.; Elantkowska, M.; Dembczyński, J.

    2014-01-01

    We describe our method for determining oscillator strengths and hyperfine structure splittings that is an alternative to the commonly used, purely theoretical calculations, or to the semi-empirical approach combined with theoretically calculated transition integrals. We have developed our own computer programs that allow us to determine all attributes of the structure of complex atoms starting from the measured frequencies emitted by the atoms. As an example, we present the results of the calculation of the structure, electric dipole transitions, and hyperfine splittings of Sc II. The angular coefficients of the transition matrix in pure SL coupling were found from straightforward Racah algebra. The transition matrix was transformed into the actual intermediate coupling by the fine structure eigenvectors obtained from the semi-empirical approach. The transition integrals were treated as free parameters in the least squares fit to experimental gf values. For most transitions, the experimental and the calculated gf-values are consistent with the accuracy claimed in the NIST compilation. - Highlights: • The method of simultaneous determination of all the attributes of atomic structure. • The semi-empirical method of parameterization of oscillator strengths. • Illustration of the method application for the example of Sc II data

  8. The consequences of improperly describing oscillator strengths beyond the electric dipole approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lestrange, Patrick J.; Egidi, Franco; Li, Xiaosong, E-mail: xsli@uw.edu [Department of Chemistry, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-21

    The interaction between a quantum mechanical system and plane wave light is usually modeled within the electric dipole approximation. This assumes that the intensity of the incident field is constant over the length of the system and transition probabilities are described in terms of the electric dipole transition moment. For short wavelength spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption, the electric dipole approximation often breaks down. Higher order multipoles are then included to describe transition probabilities. The square of the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole are often included, but this results in an origin-dependent expression for the oscillator strength. The oscillator strength can be made origin-independent if all terms through the same order in the wave vector are retained. We will show the consequences and potential pitfalls of using either of these two expressions. It is shown that the origin-dependent expression may violate the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule and the origin-independent expression can result in negative transition probabilities.

  9. The consequences of improperly describing oscillator strengths beyond the electric dipole approximation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestrange, Patrick J; Egidi, Franco; Li, Xiaosong

    2015-12-21

    The interaction between a quantum mechanical system and plane wave light is usually modeled within the electric dipole approximation. This assumes that the intensity of the incident field is constant over the length of the system and transition probabilities are described in terms of the electric dipole transition moment. For short wavelength spectroscopies, such as X-ray absorption, the electric dipole approximation often breaks down. Higher order multipoles are then included to describe transition probabilities. The square of the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole are often included, but this results in an origin-dependent expression for the oscillator strength. The oscillator strength can be made origin-independent if all terms through the same order in the wave vector are retained. We will show the consequences and potential pitfalls of using either of these two expressions. It is shown that the origin-dependent expression may violate the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn sum rule and the origin-independent expression can result in negative transition probabilities.

  10. Power loss of an oscillating electric dipole in a quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaderipoor, L. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, 3716146611 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mehramiz, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini Int' l University, Qazvin 34149-16818 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    A system of linearized quantum plasma equations (quantum hydrodynamic model) has been used for investigating the dispersion equation for electrostatic waves in the plasma. Furthermore, dispersion relations and their modifications due to quantum effects are used for calculating the power loss of an oscillating electric dipole. Finally, the results are compared in quantum and classical regimes.

  11. Investigation of steady plasma actuation effect on aerodynamic coefficients of oscillating airfoil at low Reynolds number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Mahboubidoust

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, numerical study of two dimensional laminar incompressible flow around an oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is proceeded using the open source code OpenFOAM. Oscillatory motion types including pitching and flapping are considered. Reynolds number for these motions is assumed to be 12000 and effects of these motions and also different unsteady parameters such as amplitude and reduced frequency on aerodynamic coefficients are studied. For flow control on airfoil, dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator is used in two different positions on airfoil and its effect is compared for the two types of considered oscillating motions. It is observed that in pitching motion, imposing plasma leads to an improvement in aerodynamic coefficients, but it does not have any positive effect on flapping motion. Also, for the amplitudes and frequencies investigated in this paper, the trailing edge plasma had a more desirable effect than other positions. Keywords: Airfoil, Flapping, Oscillating, Plasma, Pitching

  12. Ion-sound oscillations in strongly non-isotherm weakly ionized nonuniform hydrogen plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leleko, Ya.F.; Stepanov, K.N.

    2010-01-01

    A stationary distribution of strongly non-isotherm weakly ionized hydrogen plasma parameters is obtained in the hydrodynamic approximation in a quasi neutrality region in the transient layer between the plasma and dielectric taking the ionization, charge exchange, diffusion, viscosity, and a self-consistent field potential distribution. The ion-sound oscillation frequency and the collisional damping decrement as functions of the wave vector in the plasma with the obtained parameters are found in the local approximation.

  13. Oscillations and Stability of Plasma in an External High-Frequency Electric Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliev, Ju.M.; Gorbunov, L.M.; Silin, V.P.; Uotson, H.

    1966-01-01

    A theory is developed for the oscillations and stability of plasma in a strong external HF electric field. The kinetic equation with self-congruent reciprocity is linearized for weak deviations from the ground state. Since the latter depends on an external HF field, the linearized equation obtained has coefficients with a periodic time dependence. From this equation and also from Maxwell's equations there is derived a dispersion equation for plasma oscillations that represents the zero value of the infinite order determinant, and that is solved both for external field frequencies considerably exceeding the electron Langmuir frequency and for frequencies that are less. The external HF field changes the oscillation branches in a plasma without an external field, and also leads to a new low-frequency oscillation branch. Movement of particles in the HF field gives spatial dispersion. If the frequency of the field exceeds the election Langmuir frequency, the plasma oscillations are stable. At frequencies less than this level there occurs a build-up of low-frequency oscillations. Here the maximum of the build-up occurs when the external field frequencies approach the electron Langmuir frequency and is equal to the product of the Langmuir frequency and the one-third power of the electron-ion mass ratio. Away from the resonance, -the increment of build-up has the same order of magnitude as the ion Langmuir frequency. An external magnetic field increases the number of possible natural plasma oscillations and thereby increases the possibility of resonance with the external HF field. Allowance for the thermal motion of the particles enables one to determine the attenuation of the oscillations in question. Expressions for the decrements are derived. The effect of the external HF field on a plasma in which there are beams is also discussed. An HF field has a destabilizing effect on a system of this kind, since on the one hand there can be a build-up of fresh, low

  14. Oscillator strengths and branching fractions of 4d75p-4d75s Rh II transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouazza, Safa

    2017-01-01

    This work reports semi-empirical determination of oscillator strengths, transition probabilities and branching fractions for Rh II 4d75p-4d75s transitions in a wide wavelength range. The angular coefficients of the transition matrix, beforehand obtained in pure SL coupling with help of Racah algebra are transformed into intermediate coupling using eigenvector amplitudes of these two configuration levels determined for this purpose; The transition integral was treated as free parameter in the least squares fit to experimental oscillator strength (gf) values found in literature. The extracted value: 5s|r1|4d75p> =2.7426 ± 0.0007 is slightly smaller than that computed by means of ab-initio method. Subsequently to oscillator strength evaluations, transition probabilities and branching fractions were deduced and compared to those obtained experimentally or through another approach like pseudo-relativistic Hartree-Fock model including core-polarization effects.

  15. Effect of electric field on the oscillator strength and cross-section for intersubband transition in a semiconductor quantum ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, S; Das, N R

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we study the oscillator strength and cross-section for intersubband optical transition in an n-type semiconductor quantum ring of cylindrical symmetry in the presence of an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the ring. The analysis is done considering Kane-type band non-parabolicity of the semiconductor and assuming that the polarization of the incident radiation is along the axis of the ring. The results show that the oscillator strength decreases and the transition energy increases with the electric field. The assumption of a parabolic band leads to an overestimation of the oscillator strength. The effects of the electric field, band non-parabolicity and relaxation time on absorption cross-section for intersubband transition in a semiconductor quantum ring are also shown. (paper)

  16. ELMy-H mode as limit cycle and chaotic oscillations in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh Sanae, I.; Itoh, Kimitaka; Fukuyama, Atsushi; Miura, Yukitoshi.

    1991-05-01

    A model of Edge Localized Modes (ELMs) in tokamak plasmas is presented. A limit cycle solution is found in the transport equation (time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau type), which a has hysteresis curve between the gradient and flux. Periodic oscillation of the particle outflux and L/H intermediate state are predicted near the L/H transition boundary. A mesophase in spatial structure appears near edge. Chaotic oscillation is also predicted. (author)

  17. Generalized oscillator strengths for 5s, 5s', and 5p excitations of krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Wenbin; Zhu Linfan; Yuan Zhensheng; Sun Jianmin; Cheng Huadong; Xu Kezun; Zhong Zhiping; Liu Xiaojing

    2003-01-01

    The absolute generalized oscillator strengths (GOSs) for 5s, 5s ' , 5p [5/2] 3,2 , 5p [3/2] 1,2 , and 5p [1/2] 0 transitions of krypton have been determined in a large K 2 region at a high electron-impact energy of 2500 eV. The positions of the minima and maxima of these GOSs have been determined. The present results show that the angular resolution and pressure effect have great influence on the position and the amplitude of the minimum for the GOS of 5s+5s ' transitions. When these effects are considered, the measured minimum position for the GOS of 5s+5s ' transitions is in excellent agreement with the calculation of Chen and Msezane [J. Phys. B 33, 5397 (2000)

  18. Oscillator strengths, first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for local ADC(2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schütz, Martin, E-mail: martin.schuetz@chemie.uni-regensburg.de [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, University of Regensburg, Universitätsstraße 31, D-93040 Regensburg (Germany)

    2015-06-07

    We describe theory and implementation of oscillator strengths, orbital-relaxed first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for the local algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme through second order. The formalism is derived via time-dependent linear response theory based on a second-order unitary coupled cluster model. The implementation presented here is a modification of our previously developed algorithms for Laplace transform based local time-dependent coupled cluster linear response (CC2LR); the local approximations thus are state specific and adaptive. The symmetry of the Jacobian leads to considerable simplifications relative to the local CC2LR method; as a result, a gradient evaluation is about four times less expensive. Test calculations show that in geometry optimizations, usually very similar geometries are obtained as with the local CC2LR method (provided that a second-order method is applicable). As an exemplary application, we performed geometry optimizations on the low-lying singlet states of chlorophyllide a.

  19. Oscillator strengths, first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for local ADC(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Martin

    2015-06-07

    We describe theory and implementation of oscillator strengths, orbital-relaxed first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for the local algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme through second order. The formalism is derived via time-dependent linear response theory based on a second-order unitary coupled cluster model. The implementation presented here is a modification of our previously developed algorithms for Laplace transform based local time-dependent coupled cluster linear response (CC2LR); the local approximations thus are state specific and adaptive. The symmetry of the Jacobian leads to considerable simplifications relative to the local CC2LR method; as a result, a gradient evaluation is about four times less expensive. Test calculations show that in geometry optimizations, usually very similar geometries are obtained as with the local CC2LR method (provided that a second-order method is applicable). As an exemplary application, we performed geometry optimizations on the low-lying singlet states of chlorophyllide a.

  20. Oscillator strengths, first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for local ADC(2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schütz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We describe theory and implementation of oscillator strengths, orbital-relaxed first-order properties, and nuclear gradients for the local algebraic diagrammatic construction scheme through second order. The formalism is derived via time-dependent linear response theory based on a second-order unitary coupled cluster model. The implementation presented here is a modification of our previously developed algorithms for Laplace transform based local time-dependent coupled cluster linear response (CC2LR); the local approximations thus are state specific and adaptive. The symmetry of the Jacobian leads to considerable simplifications relative to the local CC2LR method; as a result, a gradient evaluation is about four times less expensive. Test calculations show that in geometry optimizations, usually very similar geometries are obtained as with the local CC2LR method (provided that a second-order method is applicable). As an exemplary application, we performed geometry optimizations on the low-lying singlet states of chlorophyllide a

  1. Double Differential Cross Sections and Generalized Oscillator Strength Distributions of Ammonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Karin; Nogami, Keisuke; Hino, Yuta; Sakai, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    The absolute double differential cross section (DDCS), the generalized oscillator strength distribution (GOSD), and the ionization efficiency of ammonia (NH 3 ) were investigated from the threshold to 40 eV under the condition of 200 and 400 eV incident electron energies and 6 and 8 degree scattering angles using electron energy-loss spectroscopy and electron- ion coincidence techniques. To determine the absolute values, we used a mixture of helium (He) and NH 3 and normalized the measured relative DDCS spectrum by the differential cross section for 2 1 P excitation of He. Our results are in close agreement with previous dipole (e, e) spectroscopy, although the incident electron energy is lower. The ionization efficiency curve obtained from coincidence measurements indicated the existence of doubly excited states that cause neutral dissociation.

  2. Some remarks on stochastic collective oscillations in ECRIS plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanivsky, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    It is proposed that the thermal fluctuations in plasmas in general and in ECRIS plasmas in particular create rather strong stochastic electrical fields affecting both confinement and heating of an ECRIS plasma. The amplitude, range and characteristic frequency of the stochastic fields as well as the perpendicular diffusion coefficient and the upper density limit for the mirror confinement are determined on the level of the approximate evaluations. Some aspects of the ECRIS plasma's peculiarities due to the stochastic electrical fields are discussed. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs

  3. Breathing oscillations in enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, S. F.; Wang, C. X. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Tang, D. L.; Qiu, X. M. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041 (China); Fu, R. K. Y. [Plasma Technology Limited, Festival Walk Tower, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Chu, Paul K. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2013-05-28

    Breathing oscillations in the discharge of an enlarged cylindrical-anode-layer Hall plasma accelerator are investigated by three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. Different from the traditional breathing mode in a circular Hall plasma accelerator, the bulk plasma oscillation here is trigged by the potential barrier generated by the concentrated ion beam and substantial enough to compete with the anode voltage. The electric field near the anode is suppressed by the potential barrier thereby decreasing the electron density by {approx}36%. The discharge is restored to the normal level after the concentrated beam explodes and then it completes one cycle of electro-driven breathing oscillation. The breathing mode identified by the PIC simulation has a frequency range of {approx}156 kHz-{approx}250 kHz and does not vary monotonically with the discharge voltage.

  4. Self-excited nonlinear plasma series resonance oscillations in geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donko, Z.; Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.; Luggenhoelscher, D.

    2009-01-01

    At low pressures, nonlinear self-excited plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations are known to drastically enhance electron heating in geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges by nonlinear electron resonance heating (NERH). Here we demonstrate via particle-in-cell simulations that high-frequency PSR oscillations can also be excited in geometrically symmetric discharges if the driving voltage waveform makes the discharge electrically asymmetric. This can be achieved by a dual-frequency (f+2f) excitation, when PSR oscillations and NERH are turned on and off depending on the electrical discharge asymmetry, controlled by the phase difference of the driving frequencies

  5. Linear Vlasov plasma oscillations in the Fourier transformed velocity space

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, Zdeněk; Nocera, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 296, - (2002), s. 117-124 ISSN 0375-9601 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : linear Vlasov plasma Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.483, year: 2002

  6. The Downshift of Electron Plasma Oscillations in the Electron Foreshock Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-10-10

    Ii D-Ai50 52 THE DOWNSHIFT OF ELECTRON PLASMA OSCILLATIONS IN THE i/1. ELECTRON FORESHOCK R.. (U) I0MM UNIV 10MM CITY DEPT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY 5...OSCILLATIONS 0 IN THE ELECTRON FORESHOCK REGION In by S. A. Fuselierl, D. A. Gurnett 1 , Ace NTI 0. and R. J. Fitzenreiter 2 DTI I ,3WERSflY o. 06UNDED ISAI...geleasel Ditibto Unlimited 02 1 16 U. of Iowa 84-21 THE DOWNSHIFT OF ELECTRON PLASMA OSCILLATIONSJ / IN THE ELECTRON FORESHOCK REGION t - by Z I S. A

  7. Conversion of localized lower hybrid oscillations and fast magnetosonic waves at a plasma density cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J.O.

    2004-01-01

    Analytic expressions are presented for conversion of localized lower hybrid oscillations and magnetosonic waves by scattering off a small scale density cavity. The governing equations are solved in slab geometry with wave vectors perpendicular to both the ambient magnetic field and the density gradient associated with density cavity using a scale length separation method. The theory predicts strong excitation of localized lower hybrid oscillations for a set of frequencies between the lower hybrid frequency of the ambient plasma and the minimum lower hybrid frequency inside the cavity. The theory is relevant for the lower hybrid solitary structures observed in space plasmas

  8. Transformation instability of oscillations in inhomogeneous beam-plasma system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitsenko, A.B.

    1985-01-01

    Wave transformation is studied in a plasma system which was weak-inhomogeneous along beam velocity, in absence of external magnetic field. For the case of small density beam formulae are obtained which have set a coupling between the charge density beam wave amplitudes and the Langmuir wave on both sides of transformation point. It is shown that in collisionless plasma the wave production is a cause of the absorption of the charge density beam waves. Transformation mechanism of the absolute instability in the weak-inhomogeneous beam-plasma system is revealed

  9. Radio emission from quasars and BL Lac objects by coherent plasma oscillation and stimulated Compton scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgate, S.A.; Petschek, A.G.

    1978-01-01

    The full radiation spectrum of quasars and BL Lac objects is interpreted as due to a dependent combination of a soft plasma oscillation source at 2ν/sub P/ and bremsstrahlung. Previous work of the plasma oscillation radiation is extended into the radio part of the spectrum and it is shown how the high brightness temperature observations of BL Lac objects [kT/sub b/ (100 MHz) approximate = 3 x 10 5 mc 2 ] are a reasonable consequence of a lower external plasma density and ejection as required for the observed lack of emission lines. Two extreme cases are considered, the one where the plasma oscillations are suddenly extinguished and only stimulated Compton scattering remains and a second case of a constant source of plasma oscillations but a graded surface density. The first case gives 1/100 of the required brightness temperature and the second gives 100 times too large a brightness temperature and also a x 10 too large a radius. It is believed reasonable to invoke a combination of both processes to explain the observed radio spectrum. This model circumvents the self-Compton x-ray flux difficulty of incoherent synchrotron emission

  10. Oscillator strengths and transition probabilities from the Breit–Pauli R-matrix method: Ne IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahar, Sultana N., E-mail: nahar@astronomy.ohio-state.edu

    2014-09-15

    The atomic parameters–oscillator strengths, line strengths, radiative decay rates (A), and lifetimes–for fine structure transitions of electric dipole (E1) type for the astrophysically abundant ion Ne IV are presented. The results include 868 fine structure levels with n≤ 10, l≤ 9, and 1/2≤J≤ 19/2 of even and odd parities, and the corresponding 83,767 E1 transitions. The calculations were carried out using the relativistic Breit–Pauli R-matrix method in the close coupling approximation. The transitions have been identified spectroscopically using an algorithm based on quantum defect analysis and other criteria. The calculated energies agree with the 103 observed and identified energies to within 3% or better for most of the levels. Some larger differences are also noted. The A-values show good to fair agreement with the very limited number of available transitions in the table compiled by NIST, but show very good agreement with the latest published multi-configuration Hartree–Fock calculations. The present transitions should be useful for diagnostics as well as for precise and complete spectral modeling in the soft X-ray to infra-red regions of astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. -- Highlights: •The first application of BPRM method for accurate E1 transitions in Ne IV is reported. •Amount of atomic data (n going up to 10) is complete for most practical applications. •The calculated energies are in very good agreement with most observed levels. •Very good agreement of A-values and lifetimes with other relativistic calculations. •The results should provide precise nebular abundances, chemical evolution etc.

  11. Plasma Channel Diagnostic Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2010-01-01

    A technique has been developed for measuring the properties of discharge-based plasma channels by monitoring the centroid location of a laser beam exiting the channel as a function of input alignment offset between the laser and the channel. The centroid position of low-intensity ( 14 Wcm -2 ) laser pulses focused at the input of a hydrogen-filled capillary discharge waveguide was scanned and the exit positions recorded to determine the channel shape and depth with an accuracy of a few %. In addition, accurate alignment of the laser beam through the plasma channel can be provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel depth is scanned either by scanning the plasma density or the discharge timing. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique will be crucial for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  12. Accurate Alignment of Plasma Channels Based on Laser Centroid Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonsalves, Anthony; Nakamura, Kei; Lin, Chen; Osterhoff, Jens; Shiraishi, Satomi; Schroeder, Carl; Geddes, Cameron; Toth, Csaba; Esarey, Eric; Leemans, Wim

    2011-01-01

    A technique has been developed to accurately align a laser beam through a plasma channel by minimizing the shift in laser centroid and angle at the channel outptut. If only the shift in centroid or angle is measured, then accurate alignment is provided by minimizing laser centroid motion at the channel exit as the channel properties are scanned. The improvement in alignment accuracy provided by this technique is important for minimizing electron beam pointing errors in laser plasma accelerators.

  13. Precise measurement of coupling strength and high temperature quantum effect in a nonlinearly coupled qubit-oscillator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li; Zhao, Nan

    2018-04-01

    We study the coherence dynamics of a qubit coupled to a harmonic oscillator with both linear and quadratic interactions. As long as the linear coupling strength is much smaller than the oscillator frequency, the long time behavior of the coherence is dominated by the quadratic coupling strength g 2. The coherence decays and revives at a period , with the width of coherence peak decreasing as the temperature increases, hence providing a way to measure g 2 precisely without cooling. Unlike the case of linear coupling, here the coherence dynamics never reduces to the classical limit in which the oscillator is classical. Finally, the validity of linear coupling approximation is discussed and the coherence under Hahn-echo is evaluated.

  14. Electron screening and kinetic-energy oscillations in a strongly coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Y.C.; Simien, C.E.; Laha, S.; Gupta, P.; Martinez, Y.N.; Mickelson, P.G.; Nagel, S.B.; Killian, T.C.

    2004-01-01

    We study equilibration of strongly coupled ions in an ultracold neutral plasma produced by photoionizing laser-cooled and trapped atoms. By varying the electron temperature, we show that electron screening modifies the equilibrium ion temperature. Even with few electrons in a Debye sphere, the screening is well described by a model using a Yukawa ion-ion potential. We also observe damped oscillations of the ion kinetic energy that are a unique feature of equilibration of a strongly coupled plasma

  15. Experiment on a large-diameter plasma-filled backward-wave oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, K.; Minami, K.; Kurashina, K.I.; Kim, W.; Watanabe, T.; Ishii, K.; Sugito, S.

    1995-01-01

    A large-diameter plasma-filled backward-wave oscillator (BWO) is investigated experimentally. The parameters of slow wave structure are chosen so that the oscillation frequency is about 20GHz at 60keV beam energy. Plasma is produced by the beam and has favorable effects for beam propagation and Cerenkov oscillations. The output power of the BWO with plasma is observed to be three to six times that of vacuum BWO. The power level is several kilowatts and the efficiency is about 0.01%. For Cerenkov oscillations of a large-diameter BWO, the beam energy mainly determines the starting conditions for oscillation. The output power is strongly enhanced when the guiding magnetic field approaches the fundamental electron cyclotron resonance. This mechanism is closely related to the anomalous Doppler cyclotron resonance. The maximum power of 480kW with an efficiency of 5% is achieved even for a relatively low beam energy of 60keV. ((orig.))

  16. Study of aerosol sample interaction with dc plasma in the presence of oscillating magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiljkovic, M.M.; Pavlovic, M.S.; Savovic, J.; Kuzmanovic, M.; Marinkovic, M.

    2005-01-01

    Oscillating magnetic field was used to study the efficiency of the aerosol sample introduction into the dc plasma. At atmospheric plasmas, the effect of magnetic field is reduced to Lorentz forces on the current carrying plasma, which produces motion of the plasma. The motion velocity of dc plasma caused by oscillating magnetic field was correlated to spectral emission enhancement of analytes introduced as aerosols. Emission enhancement is the consequence of the reduced barrier to introduction of analyte species and aerosol particles into the hot plasma region. Two hypotheses described in the literature for the origin of the barrier are considered: (i) barrier induced by temperature field is based upon the thermophoretic forces on the aerosol particles when their radius is comparable to the molecular free path in the surrounding gas and (ii) barrier induced by radial electric field, recently described, that originates from gradients of charged particles in radial direction. Correlation between ionization energy of the analyte atoms with experimental emission enhancement obtained by the use of oscillating magnetic field indicates that mechanism (ii) based upon the radial electric field is predominant. The ultimate emission enhancement and possible analytical advantage is discussed

  17. On the non-linear dynamics of potential relaxation oscillations in bounded plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krssak, M.; Skalny, J.D.; Gyergyek, T.; Cercek, M.

    2007-01-01

    Plasma in a 1-dimensional diode is studied theoretically and the computer simulations are used for verification of the theoretical model. When collector in the diode is biased positively, a double-layer is created in the system and consequently, we are able to observe oscillations of the potential, density and other plasma parameters. When external periodic forcing is applied, spectra of these oscillations are changed and effects of synchronisation and periodic pulling can be observed. Both of these effects are of non-linear nature and a good explanation is found using the analogy with Van der Pol oscillators. Following [1] and [2] approximate analytical solutions are found and then compared with computer simulations obtained using a 1-dimensional particle-in-cell code XPDP1. (author)

  18. Regular and chaotic behaviors of plasma oscillations modeled by a modified Duffing equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enjieu Kadji, H.G.; Chabi Orou, J.B.; Woafo, P.; Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste

    2005-07-01

    The regular and chaotic behavior of plasma oscillations governed by a modified Duffing equation is studied. The plasma oscillations are described by a nonlinear differential equation of the form x + w 0 2 x + βx 2 + αx 3 = 0 which is similar to a Duffing equation. By focusing on the quadratic term, which is mainly the term modifying the Duffing equation, the harmonic balance method and the fourth order Runge-Kutta algorithm are used to derive regular and chaotic motions respectively. A strong chaotic behavior exhibited by the system in that event when the system is subjected to an external periodic forcing oscillation is reported as β varies. (author)

  19. Linear Plasma Oscillation Described by Superposition of Normal Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pécseli, Hans

    1974-01-01

    The existence of steady‐state solutions to the linearized ion and electron Vlasov equation is demonstrated for longitudinal waves in an initially stable plasma. The evolution of an arbitrary initial perturbation can be described by superposition of these solutions. Some common approximations...

  20. A study of the oscillator strengths and line strenghts of Agl and AuI Using the Coulomb approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Soltanolkotabi

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available   Single-valence electron atoms are an important class of atoms. Their oscillator strengths are their important properties. Knowing the oscillator strengths one can easity calculate the transition probabilities of the spectral lines and hence the lifetimes of energy levels of most atoms. The oscillator strengths of the spectral lines of most atoms are not knoen with sufficient accuracy due to the experimental difficulties. The results of most measurements are subject to large inaccuracies due to uncertainties in vapor pressure data. A quick and simple theoretical method for calculation of atomic oscillator strength seems to be the Coulomb approximation of Bates and Damagaard. This method reveals some interesting properties that are generally confirmed by experimental results. In this paper, we have studied oscillator strengths and line strengths of the different allowed transitions in AgI and AuI using the Coulomb approximation. The log (λfg curves(λ, f and g are the wavelength of transition, oscillator strength and statistical weight of upper level, respectively versus the reciprocal of the principal quantum number of upper level, 1/n, show a linear behavior only for large values of the principal quantum number of lower level. The effect of change of total angular momentum,Δ J, in the curvature and slope of the plotted curves has been also investigated. The deviation of the curves from straight lines, which indicates failure of the Coulomb approximation is due to the exchange forces. In addition, the n3fg curves   (n , the effective total quantum number of upper level have been plotted versus n for different allowed transitions in AgL and AuI. It has been found that f is proportional to 1/n and this proportionality is linear for large values of n . For some transitions, however, there is a significant deviation from the linear dependence for large values of n , which can be attributed to the signature of total angular momentum quantum

  1. Confinement and correlation effects in the Xe-C{sub 60} generalized oscillator strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amusia, M. Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, 91904 Jerusalem (Israel); A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Chernysheva, L. V. [A. F. Ioffe Physical-Technical Institute, 194021 St. Petersburg (Russian Federation); Dolmatov, V. K. [Department of Physics and Earth Science, University of North Alabama, Florence, Alabama 35632 (United States)

    2011-12-15

    The impact of both confinement and electron correlation on generalized oscillator strengths (GOS's) of endohedral atoms, A-C{sub 60}, is theoretically studied choosing the Xe-C{sub 60} 4d, 5s, and 5p fast electron impact ionization as the case study. Calculations are performed in the transferred to the atom energy region beyond the 4d threshold, {omega}=75-175 eV. The calculation methodology combines the plane-wave Born approximation, Hartree-Fock approximation, and random-phase approximation with exchange in the presence of the C{sub 60} confinement. The confinement is modeled by a spherical {delta}-function-like potential as well as by a square well potential to evaluate the effect of the finite thickness of the C{sub 60} cage on the Xe-C{sub 60} GOS's. Dramatic distortion of the 4d, 5p, and 5s GOS's by the confinement is demonstrated, compared to the free atom. Considerable contributions of multipolar transitions beyond dipole transitions in the calculated GOS's are revealed, in some instances. The vitality of accounting for electron correlation in calculation of the Xe-C{sub 60} 5s and 5p GOS's is shown.

  2. Density oscillations in laser produced plasma decelerated by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    during deceleration under the effect of external magnetic field. This has been verified with the help of figure 3, which shows the variation of x-ray intensity emitted from the plasma with laser intensity at 0.01 and 0.6 T magnetic field. Enhancement in the x-ray emission by 2–3 times in the presence of magnetic field has already ...

  3. Two-and-one-half-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the plasma sheet in the presence of oxygen ions: The plasma sheet oscillation and compressional Pc 5 waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Li; Liu Zhenxing; Cao Jinbin

    2002-01-01

    Two-and-one-half-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the multicomponent plasma sheet with the velocity curl term in the magnetic equation are represented. The simulation results can be summarized as follows: (1) There is an oscillation of the plasma sheet with the period on the order of 400 s (Pc 5 range); (2) the magnetic equator is a node of the magnetic field disturbance; (3) the magnetic energy integral varies antiphase with the internal energy integral; (4) disturbed waves have a propagating speed on the order of 10 km/s earthward; (5) the abundance of oxygen ions influences amplitude, period, and dissipation of the plasma sheet oscillation. It is suggested that the compressional Pc 5 waves, which are observed in the plasma sheet close to the magnetic equator, may be caused by the plasma sheet oscillation, or may be generated from the resonance of the plasma sheet oscillation with some Pc 5 perturbation waves coming from the outer magnetosphere

  4. Magnetic monopole plasma oscillations and the survival of Galactic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper explores the general nature of magnetic-monopole plasma oscillations as a theoretical possibility for the observed Galactic magnetic field in the presence of a high abundance of magnetic monopoles. The modification of the hydromagnetic induction equation by the monopole oscillations produces the half-velocity effect, in which the magnetic field is transported bodily with a velocity midway between the motion of the conducting fluid and the monopole plasma. Observational studies of the magnetic field in the Galaxy, and in other galaxies, exclude the half-velocity effect, indicating that the magnetic fields is not associated with monopole oscillations. In any case the phase mixing would destroy the oscillations in less than 100 Myr. The conclusion is that magnetic monopole oscillations do not play a significant role in the galactic magnetic fields. Hence the existence of galactic magnetic fields places a low limit on the monopole flux, so that their detection - if they exist at all - requires a collecting area at least as large as a football field. 47 references

  5. Plasma oscillations in a stationary external magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciulli, S [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna, Moscow (USSR); Micu, M [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

    1958-07-01

    The stationary distribution function as well as the small deviations from the stationary state of a gas discharge using the Boltzmann equation is studied as a basis for the calculations. The stationary problem which is discussed corresponds to plasma with cylindrical symmetry. It leads to a Maxwell velocity distribution and to a spatial distribution function which has the asymptotic form 1/r{sup 4}. The plasma perturbations are estimated by the deviations of the first order moments from their Maxwell values. A homogeneous system of differential equations is derived for the Fourier amplitudes of the magnetic field and their asymptotic form is studied. The dispersion relation is obtained by joining smoothly a solution regular at the origin with the regular asymptotic one.A number of idealizations and approximations have been made in the present analysis which limit the utility of the formulae obtained. For example, if the collision term is included in the Boltzmann equation additional quantities appear in the final results, i.e., viscosity, thermal and electrical conductivity, etc. Furthermore, the finite dimensions of linear discharge tubes or the toroidal form of some discharges strongly modify the present results. Taking into account these additional effects, exact solutions are to be obtained numerically for different values of the experimental parameters.

  6. Numerical investigation of aerodynamic flow actuation produced by surface plasma actuator on 2D oscillating airfoil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minh Khang Phan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulation of unsteady flow control over an oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is investigated. Flow actuation of a turbulent flow over the airfoil is provided by low current DC surface glow discharge plasma actuator which is analytically modeled as an ion pressure force produced in the cathode sheath region. The modeled plasma actuator has an induced pressure force of about 2 kPa under a typical experiment condition and is placed on the airfoil surface at 0% chord length and/or at 10% chord length. The plasma actuator at deep-stall angles (from 5° to 25° is able to slightly delay a dynamic stall and to weaken a pressure fluctuation in down-stroke motion. As a result, the wake region is reduced. The actuation effect varies with different plasma pulse frequencies, actuator locations and reduced frequencies. A lift coefficient can increase up to 70% by a selective operation of the plasma actuator with various plasma frequencies and locations as the angle of attack changes. Active flow control which is a key advantageous feature of the plasma actuator reveals that a dynamic stall phenomenon can be controlled by the surface plasma actuator with less power consumption if a careful control scheme of the plasma actuator is employed with the optimized plasma pulse frequency and actuator location corresponding to a dynamic change in reduced frequency.

  7. Electromagnetic fluctuation spectra of collective oscillations in magnetized Maxwellian plasmas for parallel wave vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafin, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-05-01

    The general electromagnetic fluctuation theory for magnetized plasmas is used to calculate the steady-state wave number spectra and total electromagnetic field strength of low-frequency collective weakly damped eigenmodes with parallel wavevectors in a Maxwellian electron-proton plasma. These result from the equilibrium of spontaneous emission and collisionless damping, and they represent the minimum electromagnetic fluctuations guaranteed in quiet thermal space plasmas, including the interstellar and interplanetary medium. Depending on the plasma beta, the ratio of |δB |/B0 can be as high as 10-12 .

  8. A fast parallel code for calculating energies and oscillator strengths of many-electron atoms at neutron star magnetic field strengths in adiabatic approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, D.; Klews, M.; Wunner, G.

    2009-02-01

    We have developed a new method for the fast computation of wavelengths and oscillator strengths for medium-Z atoms and ions, up to iron, at neutron star magnetic field strengths. The method is a parallelized Hartree-Fock approach in adiabatic approximation based on finite-element and B-spline techniques. It turns out that typically 15-20 finite elements are sufficient to calculate energies to within a relative accuracy of 10-5 in 4 or 5 iteration steps using B-splines of 6th order, with parallelization speed-ups of 20 on a 26-processor machine. Results have been obtained for the energies of the ground states and excited levels and for the transition strengths of astrophysically relevant atoms and ions in the range Z=2…26 in different ionization stages. Catalogue identifier: AECC_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AECC_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3845 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 27 989 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: MPI/Fortran 95 and Python Computer: Cluster of 1-26 HP Compaq dc5750 Operating system: Fedora 7 Has the code been vectorised or parallelized?: Yes RAM: 1 GByte Classification: 2.1 External routines: MPI/GFortran, LAPACK, PyLab/Matplotlib Nature of problem: Calculations of synthetic spectra [1] of strongly magnetized neutron stars are bedevilled by the lack of data for atoms in intense magnetic fields. While the behaviour of hydrogen and helium has been investigated in detail (see, e.g., [2]), complete and reliable data for heavier elements, in particular iron, are still missing. Since neutron stars are formed by the collapse of the iron cores of massive stars, it may be assumed that their atmospheres contain an iron plasma. Our objective is to fill the gap

  9. A comparison of sawtooth oscillations in bean and oval shaped plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, E A [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Waelbroeck, F L [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Luce, T C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Austin, M E [University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Ferron, J R [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Hyatt, A W [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Osborne, T H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Chu, M S [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Brennan, D P [Massachussets Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States); Gohil, P; Groebner, R J; Hsieh, C L [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Jayakumar, R J [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Lao, L L [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Lohr, J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Petty, C C; Politzer, P A; Prater, R [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Rhodes, T L [University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Scoville, J T; Strait, E J; Turnbull, A D; Wade, M R [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Wang, G [University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California (United States); Reimerdes, H [Columbia University, New York, New York (United States); Zhang, C [ASIPP (China)

    2006-08-15

    The effect of plasma shape on sawtooth oscillations in the DIII-D tokamak plasmas is investigated by comparing discharges with cross-sections shaped like a bean and an oval. The two shapes are designed so that the Mercier instability threshold is reached when the axial safety factor is below unity for the bean and above unity for the oval cross-sections. This allows the role of interchange modes to be differentiated from that of the kink-tearing mode. The differences in the nature of the sawtooth oscillations in the bean and oval discharges are found to be determined primarily by extreme differences in the electron heat transport during the reheat. In both cases, the axial safety factor is found to be near unity following the crash. (letter to the editor)

  10. Plasma self-oscillations in the temperature-limited current regime of a hot cathode discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnas Capeau, C.; Bachet, G.; Doveil, F.

    1995-01-01

    Experimental observations of self-oscillations occurring in the so-called ''temperature-limited current regime'' of a hot cathode discharge are presented. Their frequency and amplitude are strongly dependent on the discharge parameters. The scaling laws of their variation and an example of a period-doubling route to chaos are reported. A two probe experiment showing that the plasma behavior is closely related to the hot cathode sheath stability is also reported. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  11. Dipole term and first derivative at K=0 of the generalized oscillator strength of He by keV electron impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Backx, C.; Tol, R.R.; Wight, G.R.; Wiel, M.J. van der

    1975-01-01

    An approximate method is described for obtaining the derivative to K 2 of the generalized oscillator strength for keV electron scattering at zero momentum transfer, over a large range of energy losses. The measured data enable the reduction of the systematical uncertainty in the derivation of optical oscillator strengths to below 1%. Results are presented for He over the spectral range of 19 to 65 eV. The data for the derivation are in satisfactory agreement with earlier electron scattering results at lower impact energy and extend over a sufficient range to allow the application of a sum rule for this term of the generalized oscillator strength. (Auth.)

  12. Emission of SNF-oscillations by the plasma - periodic decelerating structure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, A.N.; Gestrina, G.N.; Kovpik, O.F.; Kornilov, E.A.; Moiseev, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    Emission of SHF-oscillations by a magnetoactive plasma inside a decelerating structure (annular waveguide), which is excited by an electron beam, has been studied. The electron beam is formed by a diode electron gun. Pulse duration was 400 μs, beam energy = 10 keV, current - up to 5 A. The beam 1.8 cm in diameter is injected into a glass interaction chamber. The chamber diameter is 20 cm, the length is 1 m. The interaction chamber and electron gun chamber were placed in a homogeneous magnetic field with intensity up to 2.5x10 5 axm -1 . The periodic deceleration structure was located in the interaction chamber coaxially with the electron beam. The structure total length was 40 cm. The working gas, argon, was fed into the structure through a needle injector. It is shown that the three-dimensional waves appearing in the plasma can be transformed by the structure to those emited without plasma density gradients and magnetic field. Conditions of effective separation of the energy of SHF-oscillations from the system: plasm-beam-narrow-slit decelerating structure are found. The above system can be used for amplification and generation of monochromatic oscillations in the millimeter waves range. Results of experimental studies are compared with theoretical calculations

  13. Beam-plasma generators of stochastic microwave oscillations using for plasma heating in fusion and plasma-chemistry devices and ionospheric investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitin, L A; Perevodchikov, V I; Shapiro, A L; Zavyalov, M A [All-Russian Electrotechnical Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation); Bliokh, Yu P; Fajnberg, Ya B [Kharkov Inst. of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The results of theoretical and experimental investigations of a generator of stochastic microwave power based on a beam-plasma inertial feedback amplifier is discussed with a view to using stochastic oscillations for plasma heating. The plasma heating efficiency in the region of low-frequency resonance in the geometry of the Tokamak is considered theoretically. It is shown that the temperature of heating is proportional to the power multiplied by the spectra width of the noiselike signal. The creation and heating of plasma by stochastic microwave power in an oversized waveguide without external magnetic field is discussed with a view to plasma-chemistry applications. It is shown that the efficiency of heating are defined by the time of phase instability of the stochastic power. (author). 3 figs., 13 refs.

  14. Simulation studies of plasma waves in the electron foreshock: The generation of downshifted oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dum, C.T.

    1990-01-01

    The generation of waves with frequencies downshifted from the plasma frequency, as observed in the electron foreshock, is analyzed by particle simulation. Wave excitation differs fundamentally from the familiar excitation of the plasma eigenmodes by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution. Beam modes are destabilized by resonant interaction with bulk electrons, provided the beamvelocity spread is very small. These modes are stabilized, starting with the higher frequencies, as the beam is broadened and slowed down by the interaction with the wave spectrum. Initially, a very cold beam is also capable of exciting frequencies considerably above the plasma frequency, but such oscillations are quickly stabilized. Low-frequency modes persist for a long time, until the bump in the electron distribution is completely ironed out. This diffusion process also is quite different from the familiar case of well-separated beam and bulk electrons. A quantitative analysis of these processes is carried out

  15. Simulation studies of plasma waves in the electron foreshock - The generation of downshifted oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dum, C. T.

    1990-01-01

    The generation of waves with frequencies downshifted from the plasma frequency, as observed in the electron foreshock, is analyzed by particle simulation. Wave excitation differs fundamentally from the familiar excitation of the plasma eigenmodes by a gentle bump-on-tail electron distribution. Beam modes are destabilized by resonant interaction with bulk electrons, provided the beam velocity spread is very small. These modes are stabilized, starting with the higher frequencies, as the beam is broadened and slowed down by the interaction with the wave spectrum. Initially a very cold beam is also capable of exciting frequencies considerably above the plasma frequency, but such oscillations are quickly stabilized. Low-frequency modes persist for a long time, until the bump in the electron distribution is completely 'ironed' out. This diffusion process also is quite different from the familiar case of well-separated beam and bulk electrons. A quantitative analysis of these processes is carried out.

  16. On the macroscopic oscillation and deformation of the plasma in SPICA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, M.; Kooijman, W.; Oomens, A.A.M.

    1976-10-01

    By using a set of pick-up coils positioned around the minor circumference of the discharge tube, the stability behaviour of the screw-pinch plasma in SPICA is studied. The data-processing system, AD-converters combined with a conputer, enables us to treat a large number of signals. The signals from the pick-up coils are transferred to the computer and are expanded into a Fourier series. The m = 1 cosine oscillation in the rise phase suggests a screw-pinch model in which a plasma core is surrounded by a current layer and a vacuum region. An m = 2 deformation is found to correlate with the decay rate of the plasma current

  17. Low Frequency Plasma Oscillations in a 6-kW Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Hofery, Richard R.

    2013-01-01

    The oscillations from 0-100 kHz in a 6-kW magnetically shielded thruster are experimen- tally characterized. Changes in plasma parameters that result from the magnetic shielding of Hall thrusters have the potential to significantly alter thruster transients. A detailed investigation of the resulting oscillations is necessary both for the purpose of determin- ing the underlying physical processes governing time-dependent behavior in magnetically shielded thrusters as well as for improving thruster models. In this investigation, a high speed camera and a translating ion saturation probe are employed to examine the spatial extent and nature of oscillations from 0-100 kHz in the H6MS thruster. Two modes are identified at 8 kHz and 75-90 kHz. The low frequency mode is azimuthally uniform across the thruster face while the high frequency oscillation is concentrated close to the thruster centerline with an m = 1 azimuthal dependence. These experimental results are discussed in the context of wave theory as well as published observations from an unshielded variant of the H6MS thruster.

  18. High-power broad-band tunable microwave oscillator, driven by REB in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzelev, M V; Loza, O T; Ponomarev, A V; Rukhadze, A A; Strel` kov, P S; Shkvarunets, A G; Ulyanov, D K [General Physics Inst. of Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The radiation spectra of a plasma relativistic broad-band microwave oscillator were measured. A hollow relativistic electron beam (REB) was injected into the plasma waveguide, consisting of annular plasma in a circular metal waveguide. The radiation spectra were measured by means of a calorimeter-spectrometer with a large cross section in the band of 3-39 GHz. The mean frequency was tunable in the band of 20-27 GHz, the spectrum width was 5-25 GHz with a power level of 40-85 MW. Calculations were carried out based on non-linear theory, taking into account electromagnetic noise amplification due to REB injection into the plasma waveguide. According to the theory the radiation regime should change from the single-particle regime to the collective regime when the plasma density and the gap between the annular plasma and REB are increased. Comparison of the experimental results with the non-linear theory explains some peculiarities of the measured spectrum. (author). 4 figs., 2 refs.

  19. Mean and oscillating plasma flows and turbulence interactions across the L-H confinement transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, G D; Angioni, C; Ryter, F; Sauter, P; Vicente, J

    2011-02-11

    A complex interaction between turbulence driven E × B zonal flow oscillations, i.e., geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs), the turbulence, and mean equilibrium flows is observed during the low to high (L-H) plasma confinement mode transition in the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak. Below the L-H threshold at low densities a limit-cycle oscillation forms with competition between the turbulence level and the GAM flow shearing. At higher densities the cycle is diminished, while in the H mode the cycle duration becomes too short to sustain the GAM, which is replaced by large amplitude broadband flow perturbations. Initially GAM amplitude increases as the H-mode transition is approached, but is then suppressed in the H mode by enhanced mean flow shear.

  20. Numerical study of overpopulation density for laser oscillation in recombining hydrogen plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, T.; Furukane, U.

    1983-06-01

    The dependence of overpopulation density (OD) on ground-level population density (n1) and electron temperature (Te) in a recombining hydrogen plasma is evaluated for line pairs with the principal quantum numbers (2,3), (3,4), and (4,5). The approach is based on the simultaneouss solution of the quasi-steady-state rate equation (including interatomic-collision terms) and the optical-escape-factor equation for the Lyman series with Doppler profile. Calculations are performed for optically thin and thick plasmas at a fixed atomic temperature of 0.15 eV, over a Te range from 0.1 to 1 eV and an electron-density (ne) range from 10 to the 11th to 10 to the 17th per cu cm. It is shown that peak OD occurs at an ne slightly below that at which population inversion is destroyed, that peak OD is inversely sensitive to Te, and that peak OD(2,3) is the highest of the three peak OD. Laser oscillation is determined to be possible for (2,3) at Te higher than for (3,4) and (4,5), if self-absorption is negligible. The OD remains constant as n1 increases, up to the point at which significant self-absorption occurs. No laser oscillation is expected at level (4,5), nor in optically thick plasma at any level, for the realistic cavity parameters and temperatures used in the calculations. 21 references.

  1. Phase-mixing of Langmuir oscillations in cold electron-positron-ion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maity, Chandan [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Space-time evolution of Langmuir oscillations in a cold homogeneous electron-positron-ion plasma has been analyzed by employing a straightforward perturbation expansion method, showing phase-mixing and, thus, wave-breaking of excited oscillations at arbitrary amplitudes. Within an assumption of infinitely massive ions, an approximate phase-mixing time is found to scale as ω{sub pe}t{sub mix}∼[(6/δ{sup 2})((2−α){sup 5/2}/(1−α))]{sup 1/3}, where “δ” and “α” (= n{sub 0i}/n{sub 0e}) are the amplitude of perturbation and the ratio of equilibrium ion density to equilibrium electron density, respectively, and ω{sub pe}∼√(4πn{sub 0e}e{sup 2}/m) is the electron plasma frequency. The results presented on phase-mixing of Langmuir modes in multispecies plasmas are expected to be relevant to laboratory and astrophysical environments.

  2. Plasma Electronics. Theoretical and Experimental Investigations of Plasma Nonlinearity in the Powerful Microwave Oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bliokh, Yu.P.

    2001-01-01

    During more than 50 years of Plasma Electronics development a great number of experimental and theoretical results have been achieved. These results allow understanding of physical processes which originate under charged particles beams interaction with a plasma. However, one essential aspect of such interaction remains insufficiently studied. The question is about a correlation between conditions of microwave excitation by a beam in plasma and plasma parameters. Each of these effects, namely the influence of plasma parameters on conditions of microwave excitation by a beam and plasma parameters variations under the influence of propagating microwave radiation are well known and investigated enough. However their common action under beam-plasma instability (BPI) development were not studied systematically, although the role of such reciprocal influence on character of these processes may be very large. The aim of this report is a review of recent theoretical and experimental investigations of such plasma nonlinearity in plasma-filled trawling-wave tubes. N.M.Zemlyansky and E.A.Kornilov have done experiments in Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology (KhPhTI). Development of the theoretical model was started in KhPhTI (Yu.P.Bliokh, Ya.B.Fainberg, M.G.Lyubarsky, and V.O.Podobinsky) and continues by author in Technion. The developed theory takes into account two main reasons of the plasma density redistribution: high frequency pressure (HFP) force which ''push out'' plasma from the regions with increased microwave amplitude, or microwave discharge, which appears in the region where amplitude is large enough. Displaced (under HFP action) or additionally originating (under (BPD) development) plasma propagates from the disturbance source in the form of slow plasma waves (for example, ion-sound or magneto-sound waves), and the BPI develops in the nonhomogeneous plasma. It changes both magnitude and longitudinal distribution of excited microwave amplitude. As a result

  3. Assessment of oscillator strengths with multiconfigurational short-range density functional theory for electronic excitations in organic molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegård, Erik Donovan

    2017-01-01

    considered the large collection of organic molecules whose excited states were investigated with a range of electronic structure methods by Thiel et al. As a by-product of our calculations of oscillator strengths, we also obtain electronic excitation energies, which enable us to compare the performance......We have in a series of recent papers investigated electronic excited states with a hybrid between a complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) wave function and density functional theory (DFT). This method has been dubbed the CAS short-range DFT method (CAS–srDFT). The previous papers...

  4. Effective oscillator strength distributions of spherically symmetric atoms for calculating polarizabilities and long-range atom–atom interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Jun, E-mail: phyjiang@yeah.net [Key Laboratory of Atomic and Molecular Physics and Functional Materials of Gansu Province, College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Northwest Normal University, Lanzhou 730070 (China); School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Cheng, Yongjun, E-mail: cyj83mail@gmail.com [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory, 0909 (Australia); Academy of Fundamental and Interdisciplinary Science, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Bromley, M.W.J., E-mail: brom@physics.uq.edu.au [School of Mathematics and Physics, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland 4075 (Australia)

    2015-01-15

    Effective oscillator strength distributions are systematically generated and tabulated for the alkali atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, the alkaline-earth ions, the rare gases and some miscellaneous atoms. These effective distributions are used to compute the dipole, quadrupole and octupole static polarizabilities, and are then applied to the calculation of the dynamic polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies. These polarizabilities can be used to determine the long-range C{sub 6}, C{sub 8} and C{sub 10} atom–atom interactions for the dimers formed from any of these atoms and ions, and we present tables covering all of these combinations.

  5. Effective oscillator strength distributions of spherically symmetric atoms for calculating polarizabilities and long-range atom–atom interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Jun; Mitroy, J.; Cheng, Yongjun; Bromley, M.W.J.

    2015-01-01

    Effective oscillator strength distributions are systematically generated and tabulated for the alkali atoms, the alkaline-earth atoms, the alkaline-earth ions, the rare gases and some miscellaneous atoms. These effective distributions are used to compute the dipole, quadrupole and octupole static polarizabilities, and are then applied to the calculation of the dynamic polarizabilities at imaginary frequencies. These polarizabilities can be used to determine the long-range C 6 , C 8 and C 10 atom–atom interactions for the dimers formed from any of these atoms and ions, and we present tables covering all of these combinations

  6. On the difference in oscillator strengths of inner shell excitations in noble gases and their alkali neighbors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amusia, M.Y.; Baltenkov, A.S.; Zhuravleva, G.I.

    1995-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the oscillator strength of resonant inner-shell excitation in a noble gas atom is considerably smaller than that in its alkali neighbor because in the latter case the effective charge acting upon excited electron is much bigger. With increase of the excitation's principal quantum number the difference between line intensities in noble gases and their alkali neighbors rapidly disappears. The calculations are performed in the Hartree-Fock approximation and with inclusion of rearrangement effects due to inner vacancy creation and its Auger decay. A paper has been submitted for publication

  7. Self-consistent removal of sawtooth oscillations from transient plasma data by generalized singular value decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erba, M.; Mattioli, M.; Segui, J.L.

    1997-10-01

    This paper addresses the problem of removing sawtooth oscillations from multichannel plasma data in a self-consistent way, thereby preserving transients that have a different physical origin. The technique which does this is called the Generalized Singular Value Decomposition (GSVD), and its properties are discussed. Using the GSVD, we analyze spatially resolved electron temperature measurements from the Tore Supra tokamak, made in transient regimes that are perturbed either by the laser blow-off injection of impurities or by pellet injection. Non-local transport issues are briefly discussed. (author)

  8. Oscillator strength and quantum-confined Stark effect of excitons in a thin PbS quantum disk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oukerroum, A.; El-Yadri, M.; El Aouami, A.; Feddi, E.; Dujardin, F.; Duque, C. A.; Sadoqi, M.; Long, G.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we report a study of the effect of a lateral electric field on a quantum-confined exciton in a thin PbS quantum disk. Our approach was performed in the framework of the effective mass theory and adiabatic approximation. The ground state energy and the stark shift were determined by using a variational method with an adequate trial wavefunction, by investigating a 2D oscillator strength under simultaneous consideration of the geometrical confinement and the electric field strength. Our results showed a strong dependence of the exciton binding and the Stark shift on the disk dimensions in both axial and longitudinal directions. On the other hand, our results also showed that the Stark shift’s dependence on the electric field is not purely quadratic but the linear contribution is also important and cannot be neglected, especially when the confinement gets weaker.

  9. Spatial distribution of electron plasma oscillations in the Earth`s foreshock at ISEE 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenstadt, E.W.; Moses, S.L.; Coroniti, F.V. [TRW, Redondo Beach, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    Electric field oscillations recorded by the 10-56 kHz channels of TRW`s plasma wave detector during parts of two of the ISEE 3 circumterrestrial orbits in 1983 have been used to make the first mapping of Earth`s electron plasma wave foreshock. By combining data from the two trajectory segments, each of which provided relatively meager spatial sampling outside the bow shock, but high variation of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) direction, a first-order pattern of occurrence of electron plasma waves, hence also backstreaming electrons, has been determined. The authors depict the pattern with an adaptation of the mapping program previously used for the Venus electron foreshock. As at Venus, plasma wave activity was concentrated most densely along the IMF line tangent to the bow shock. Their mappings with three additional ISEE 3 channels surrounding the local electron plasma frequency indicate a richer distribution of waves in the foreshock than the single electron frequency channel of Pioneer Venus Orbiter could detect around Venus. 14 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Analysis of hysteresis characteristics and low frequency oscillation in gas discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunaga, Yasushi; Kato, Tomokazu

    1997-01-01

    Hysteresis of gas discharge plasma and nonlinear oscillation of low frequency, caused by the trapped ion, are analyzed. Mainly, the hysteresis and emergence of multiple-steady states are discussed by a simple model of chemical-reaction system. It is shown that a function describing the energy balance has three different real roots. The condition for plural roots depends on the ratio of the bulk energy increase to the surface energy loss of plasma. The criterion contains the non-thermodynamic variables such as conductivity and surface quantities. Examination of stabilities of three-obtained solutions by using linear analysis of differential equations manifests that a root represents a saddle point and other two roots represent stable points. (author)

  11. Continuum contributions to dipole oscillator-strength sum rules for hydrogen in finite basis sets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oddershede, Jens; Ogilvie, John F.; Sauer, Stephan P. A.

    2017-01-01

    Calculations of the continuum contributions to dipole oscillator sum rules for hydrogen are performed using both exact and basis-set representations of the stick spectra of the continuum wave function. We show that the same results are obtained for the sum rules in both cases, but that the conver......Calculations of the continuum contributions to dipole oscillator sum rules for hydrogen are performed using both exact and basis-set representations of the stick spectra of the continuum wave function. We show that the same results are obtained for the sum rules in both cases......, but that the convergence towards the final results with increasing excitation energies included in the sum over states is slower in the basis-set cases when we use the best basis. We argue also that this conclusion most likely holds also for larger atoms or molecules....

  12. Axial motion of collector plasma in a relativistic backward wave oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Renzhen; Chen, Changhua; Deng, Yuqun; Cao, Yibing; Sun, Jun; Li, Jiawei [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi' an 710024 (China)

    2016-06-15

    In this paper, it is proposed that plasma formed at the collector may drift back to the cathode and cause pulse shortening of the relativistic backward wave oscillator. Theoretical analysis shows that the axial drift velocity of plasma ions can be up to 5 mm/ns due to the presence of space charge potential provided by an intense relativistic electron beam. Particle-in-cell simulations indicate that the plasma electrons are initially trapped around the collector surface. With the accumulation of the plasma ions, a large electrostatic field forms and drives the plasma electrons to overcome the space charge potential and enter the beam-wave interaction region along the magnetic field lines. As a result, the beam current modulation is disturbed and the output microwave power falls rapidly. The plasma ions move in the beam-wave interaction region with an average axial velocity of 5–8 mm/ns. After the plasma ions reach the diode region, the emitted current at the cathode rises due to the charge neutralizations by the ions. The impedance collapse leads to further decrease of the microwave power. In experiments, when the diode voltage and beam current were 850 kV and 9.2 kA, and the collector radius was 2.15 cm, the output microwave power was 2.4 GW with a pulse width of less than 20 ns. The ion drift velocity was estimated to be about 5 mm/ns. After an improved collector with 3.35 cm radius was adopted, the pulse width was prolonged to more than 30 ns.

  13. A anew determination of the B0anti B0 oscillation strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albrecht, H.; Ehrlichmann, H.; Hamacher, T.; Krueger, A.; Nau, A.; Nippe, A.; Reidenbach, M.; Schaefer, M.; Schroeder, H.; Schulz, H.D.; Sefkow, F.; Wurth, R.; Appuhn, R.D.; Hast, C.; Herrera, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Lange, A.; Lindner, A.; Mankel, R.; Schieber, M.; Siegmund, T.; Spaan, B.; Thurn, H.; Toepfer, D.; Walther, A.; Wegener, D.; Britton, D.I.; Charlesworth, C.E.K.; Edwards, K.W.; Kapitza, H.; Krieger, P.; Kutschke, R.; MacFarlane, D.B.; Orr, R.S.; Patel, P.M.; Prentice, J.D.; Seidel, S.C.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tzamariudaki, K.; Van de Water, R.G.; Yoon, T.S.; Ressling, D.; Schael, S.; Schubert, K.R.; Strahl, K.; Waldi, R.; Weseler, S.; Childers, R.; Darden, C.W.

    1992-01-01

    Using the ARGUS detector at the e + e - storage ring DORIS II at DESY, a study of B 0 anti B 0 oscillations has been performed using three different techniques. Besides the standard dilepton method, charge correlations between D * mesons and one or two leptons have also been investigated. The mixing parameter r is determined to be (20.6±7.0)%. (orig.)

  14. Response of a core coherent density oscillation on electron cyclotron resonance heating in Heliotron J plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, T.; Kobayashi, S.; Lu, X. X.; Kenmochi, N.; Ida, K.; Ohshima, S.; Yamamoto, S.; Kado, S.; Kokubu, D.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Minami, T.; Otani, Y.; Mizuuchi, T.

    2018-01-01

    We report properties of a coherent density oscillation observed in the core region and its response to electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECH) in Heliotron J plasma. The measurement was performed using a multi-channel beam emission spectroscopy system. The density oscillation is observed in a radial region between the core and the half radius. The poloidal mode number is found to be 1 (or 2). By modulating the ECH power with 100 Hz, repetition of formation and deformation of a strong electron temperature gradient, which is likely ascribed to be an electron internal transport barrier, is realized. Amplitude and rotation frequency of the coherent density oscillation sitting at the strong electron temperature gradient location are modulated by the ECH, while the poloidal mode structure remains almost unchanged. The change in the rotation velocity in the laboratory frame is derived. Assuming that the change of the rotation velocity is given by the background E × B velocity, a possible time evolution of the radial electric field was deduced.

  15. Mesoscopic chaos mediated by Drude electron-hole plasma in silicon optomechanical oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jiagui; Huang, Shu-Wei; Huang, Yongjun; Zhou, Hao; Yang, Jinghui; Liu, Jia-Ming; Yu, Mingbin; Lo, Guoqiang; Kwong, Dim-Lee; Duan, Shukai; Wei Wong, Chee

    2017-01-01

    Chaos has revolutionized the field of nonlinear science and stimulated foundational studies from neural networks, extreme event statistics, to physics of electron transport. Recent studies in cavity optomechanics provide a new platform to uncover quintessential architectures of chaos generation and the underlying physics. Here, we report the generation of dynamical chaos in silicon-based monolithic optomechanical oscillators, enabled by the strong and coupled nonlinearities of two-photon absorption induced Drude electron–hole plasma. Deterministic chaotic oscillation is achieved, and statistical and entropic characterization quantifies the chaos complexity at 60 fJ intracavity energies. The correlation dimension D2 is determined at 1.67 for the chaotic attractor, along with a maximal Lyapunov exponent rate of about 2.94 times the fundamental optomechanical oscillation for fast adjacent trajectory divergence. Nonlinear dynamical maps demonstrate the subharmonics, bifurcations and stable regimes, along with distinct transitional routes into chaos. This provides a CMOS-compatible and scalable architecture for understanding complex dynamics on the mesoscopic scale. PMID:28598426

  16. Synchronous oscillation prior to disruption caused by kink modes in HL-2A tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, M.; Hu, D.; Wang, X. G.; Shi, Z. B.; Xu, Y.; Chen, W.; Ding, X. T.; Zhong, W. L.; Dong, Y. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Zhang, Y. P.; Gao, J. M.; Li, J. X.; Yang, Z. C.; Li, Y. G.; Liu, Y.

    2015-08-01

    A class of evident MHD activities prior to major disruption has been observed during recent radiation induced disruptions of the HL-2A tokamak discharges. It can be named SOD, synchronous oscillations prior to disruption, characterized by synchronous oscillation of electron cyclotron emission (ECE), core soft x-ray, Mirnov coil, and {{D}α} radiation signals at the divertor plate. The SOD activity is mostly observed in a parametric regime where the poloidal beta is low enough before disruption, typically corresponding to those radiation-induced disruptions. It has been found that the m/n = 2/1 mode is dominant during the SODs, and consequently it is the drop of the mode frequency and the final mode locking that lead to thermal quench. The mode frequency before the mode locking corresponds to the toroidal rotation frequency of the edge plasma. It is also found that during SODs, the location of the q = 2 surface is moving outward, and most of the plasma current is enclosed within the surface. This demonstrates that the current channel lies inside the rational surface during SOD, and thus the resistive kink mode is unstable. Further analysis of the electron temperature perturbation structure shows that the plasma is indeed dominated by the resistive kink mode, with kink-like perturbation in the core plasma region. It suggests that it is the nonlinear growth of the m/n = 2/1 resistive kink mode and its higher order harmonics, rather than the spontaneous overlapping of multiple neighboring islands, that ultimately triggered the disruption.

  17. Distribution of radiation lifetime and oscillator strengths in atomic and ion spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabanova, L.N.; Gruzdev, P.F.; Verolajnen, Ya.F. (Leningradskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Fizicheskij Inst.)

    1984-04-01

    Analysis of present experimental and theoretical data on determination of radiation life time and forces of oscillators for disclosing general regularities inherent in radiation constants inside the atom, homologous atoms inside subgroups of atoms and ions of isoelectronic subsequences is conducted. Another purpose is to chose most reliable values of constants and to obtain extrapolation formulae for their determination on the base of the corresponding statistical processing data and revealed regularities. A hydrogen atom, isoelectronic series NaI-Ni18, isoelectronic series Ne, He, ZnI, CdI are considered. Systematics of radiation life time depending on the basic quantum number is presented. The force of oscillators f is considered on the example of an atomic system with one valent electron outside the locked shell - Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs. Distribution of force density of the oscillator df/dE is considered, here continuous spectrum near the threshold of ionization is regarded simultaneously with discrete spectrum. An interpolation formula for the number f for high members of atom series (n>=10) of alkaline metals is presented. Values of coefficients included in this formula are tabulated.

  18. Strength and leak testing of plasma activated bonded interfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, M.M.; Weichel, Steen; Reus, Roger De

    2002-01-01

    on detection of changes in membrane deflections. The detection limit for leak was 8E-13 mbar l/s. For comparison, strength and leak tests were also performed with regular fusion bonded wafers annealed at 1100 degreesC. The PAB was found to withstand post-processing steps such as RCA cleaning, 24 h in de......-ionised water (DIW), 24 h in 2.5% HF, 24 h in acetone and 60 s in a resist developer. By analysing the thin silicon oxide present on the surfaces to be bonded with optical methods, the influence of pre-cleaning and activation process parameters was investigated....

  19. Principal component analysis of the main factors of line intensity enhancements observed in oscillating direct current plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoiljkovic, Milovan M.; Pasti, Igor A.; Momcilovic, Milos D.; Savovic, Jelena J.; Pavlovic, Mirjana S.

    2010-01-01

    Enhancement of emission line intensities by induced oscillations of direct current (DC) arc plasma with continuous aerosol sample supply was investigated using multivariate statistics. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to evaluate enhancements of 34 atomic spectral lines belonging to 33 elements and 35 ionic spectral lines belonging to 23 elements. Correlation and classification of the elements were done not only by a single property such as the first ionization energy, but also by considering other relevant parameters. Special attention was paid to the influence of the oxide bond strength in an attempt to clarify/predict the enhancement effect. Energies of vaporization, atomization, and excitation were also considered in the analysis. In the case of atomic lines, the best correlation between the enhancements and first ionization energies was obtained as a negative correlation, with weak consistency in grouping of elements in score plots. Conversely, in the case of ionic lines, the best correlation of the enhancements with the sum of the first ionization energies and oxide bond energies was obtained as a positive correlation, with four distinctive groups of elements. The role of the gas-phase atom-oxide bond energy in the entire enhancement effect is underlined.

  20. Optical oscillator strengths of the valence-shell excitations of atoms and molecules determined by the dipole ( γ,γ) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long-Quan; Liu, Ya-Wei; Xu, Xin; Ni, Dong-Dong; Yang, Ke; Zhu, Lin-Fan

    2017-07-01

    The dipole (γ,γ) method, which is the inelastic X-ray scattering operated at a negligibly small momentum transfer, has been developed to determine the absolute optical oscillator strengths of the valence-shell excitations of atoms and molecules. This new method is free from the line saturation effect, and its Bethe-Born conversion factor varies much more slowly with the excitation energy than that of the dipole (e, e) method. Thus the dipole (γ,γ) method provides a reliable approach to obtain the benchmark optical oscillator strengths of the valence-shell excitations for gaseous atoms and molecules. In this paper, we give a review of the dipole (γ,γ) method and some recent measurements of absolute optical oscillator strengths of gaseous atoms and molecules. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  1. Application of the oscillator strength of 'hypersensitive' transitions to the investigation of complex equilibria of lanthanide ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukietynska, K.; Mondry, A.; Osmeda, E.

    1981-01-01

    Stability constants and thermodynamic parameters of Nd 3+ , Ho 3+ and Er 3+ complexes with acetates, propionates, glycolates, lactates and α-hydroxyisobutyrates were determined by a spectroscopic method based upon the measurements of the variation of oscillator strengths of 'hypersensitive' 4f-4f-transitions. The sets of βsub (n) values at 21 0 C are in a good agreement with those found potentiometrically. The stability constants of the complexes evaluated at 5 different temperatures were used for the calculation of ΔG, ΔH, ΔS values. The evaluated thermodynamic parameters are in a satisfactory agreement with those found calorimetrically. The thermodynamic parameters calculated from two independent 'hypersensitive' transitions of the Er 3+ ion are also consistent. (author)

  2. Reinterpretation of the recently measured absolute generalized oscillator strength for the Ar 3p-4p transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Msezane, A.Z.; Felfli, Z.; Chen, Z.; Amusia, M.Ya.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2002-01-01

    The recent experimental observation of the absolute generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for the Ar 3p-(4p,4p ' ) nondipole transition has been interpreted as a manifestation of quadrupole excitation [X. W. Fan and K. T. Leung, Phys. Rev. A 62, 062703 (2000)]. Contrary to the experimentalists' assignment, on the grounds of our random-phase-approximation with exchange (RPAE) calculation, we attribute the measured GOS to combined monopole, the dominant component, and quadrupole contributions. Our RPAE GOS's for the Ar dipole 3p-4s and 3p-3d,5s and the lowest nondipole transitions are compared with the measurements. The results could have significant implications for other similar transitions, previously interpreted as quadrupole excitation and for interpreting other discrete transitions

  3. [Bonding strength of resin and tooth enamel after teeth bleaching with cold plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-meng; Wang, Guo-min; Sun, Ke; Li, Ying-long; Pan, Jie

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the immediate bond strength and surface structure of resin and the tooth enamel which treated by cold plasma. In the study, 40 bovine incisors were divided into two equal parts. In this sense, all enamel adhesive samples were prepared and then randomly divided into 4 groups (n =20). group 1: acid + single bond 2+resin composite (control group); group 2:beyond bleaching+ acid+single bond 2+resin composite; group 3: treated by cold plasma for 5 minutes+ acid+single bond 2+resin composite; group 4: treated by cold plasma for 5 minutes+single bond 2+resin composite. Single bond 2 bonding system and Filtek Z250 resin were used in this experiment. The shear bond strength was tested by universal testing machine. The surface of the enamel in different processes was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Statistical analyses by the single factor analysis of variance and multiple pairwise comparisons were performed with SPSS 17.0 . The shear bond strength of group 4 (8.60 MPa) was significantly lower than that of the other three groups (Penamel treated by cold plasma had slight molten form, which was different from etched enamel surface.The fractured surface of group 3 was mix fracture, which was similar to the control group (group 1). Compared with the conventional clinic bleaching, immediate bond strength of resin-enamel that treated by cold plasma has not been affected.

  4. The calculation of oscillator strengths for the 5s21S0→5s5p1,3P1 transitions in Cd-like ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guangyuan

    1998-01-01

    The screened hydrogenic model is employed to calculate the oscillator strength of the 5s 2 1 S 0 -5s5p 1 P 1 resonance transition in Cd-like ions (Z = 48 -74). The expression for the oscillator strength of the 5s 2 1 S 0 -5s5p 3 P1 is given, with the introduction of the correctional coefficient K and the mixing angle in jj-coupling. The results are compared with that of other authors, and some discussions are also given

  5. Population inversion and threshold condition for laser oscillation in optically thin and thick recombining plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Toshiatsu; Furukane, Utaro.

    1982-03-01

    Overpopulation density δn sub(ij) which is defined as difference between the population densities per unit statistical weight of the upper and lower excited levels i and j is calculated as a function of the electron density n sub(e) for various electron temperatures T sub(e) in recombining hydrogen plasmas. The calculation is made for the line pairs with the principal quantum numbers, (2, 3), (3, 4) and (4, 5). Effect of the ground level population density n sub(l) on δn sub(ij) is calculated. In this calculation the atom-atom collision and the self-absorption of the resonance lines are taken account of. The n sub(l)-dependence of δn sub(ij) remains almost constant until the self-absorption becomes significant. When n sub(l) is zero, an optimum value of n sub(e) exists for δn sub(ij). The threshold condition for laser oscillation is discussed in relation to the calculated δn sub(ij). Laser oscillation is possible for the line pair (2, 3) at an electron density and temperature higher than for the other pairs (3, 4) and (4, 5) when the self-absorption is negligible. (author)

  6. Center-of-mass and breathing oscillations in small complex plasma disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.E.

    2005-01-01

    Center-of-mass and breathing oscillations of a complex (dusty) plasma disk are excited for n=3 and 5 microspheres (≅10 μm diameter) with neutral argon pressures P≅1-4 Pa. The mode frequencies and damping rates are determined directly from measured resonance curves. Millikan's coefficient for the Epstein drag force, the Debye length, and the particle charge is found by comparison with theory. The damping rates are the same for both modes and for n=3 and 5, as predicted. Millikan's coefficient is found to be δ=1.55±0.16, in agreement with δ=1.44 for diffuse reflection. A consistent value of the Debye length that decreases with pressure is measured. The average particle charge for n=3 particles is found to be more negative than that for n=5 particles for the same conditions, indicating that the effective ion collection area of the particles increases as their separation decreases

  7. Rotation and oscillation of nonlinear dipole vortex in the drift-unstable plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orito, Kohtaro; Hatori, Tadatsugu.

    1997-10-01

    The behaviors of the nonlinear dipole vortex in the drift unstable plasma are studied by numerical approaches. Model equations used in numerical simulation are derived from two-fluid model and are composed of two equations with respect to the electrostatic potential and the density perturbation. When the initial dipole vortex is inclined at some angle with respect to the direction of the drift velocity, the dipole vortex oscillates or rotates in the first stage. These phenomenon also happen in the stable system. In the second stage, one part of the dipole vortex grows and another decays because of the destabilization. The shrunk vortex rotates around the enlarged vortex. Consequently, a monopole vortex appears out of the dipole vortex. (author)

  8. Onset of the radial electric field oscillations in the neoclassical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, C.S.; Novakovskii, S.V.; Sagdeev, R.Z.; Galeev, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that the relaxation of the radial electric field in the tokomak plasmas towards its neoclassical value is accompanied by the fast oscillations of the order of the ion transient frequency V T /qR. This happens during the transition from the Pfirsch-Schluter collisional regime to the plateau regime at v c qR/V T ≤ c cr ≤ 1. The investigation has been performed with the help of the specially developed numerical code for solution of the nonsteady-state drift kinetic equation with the exact collisional term in the Hirshman-Sigmar-Clarke form. Comparison with the analytical results, corresponding to the regime of the very low collisions as well as with previous approximate models for the plateau regime will also be reported

  9. Self-excitation of microwave oscillations in plasma-assisted slow-wave oscillators by an electron beam with a movable focus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, Yu. P.; Nusinovich, G. S.; Shkvarunets, A. G.; Carmel, Y.

    2004-10-01

    Plasma-assisted slow-wave oscillators (pasotrons) operate without external magnetic fields, which makes these devices quite compact and lightweight. Beam focusing in pasotrons is provided by ions, which appear in the device due to the impact ionization of a neutral gas by beam electrons. Typically, the ionization time is on the order of the rise time of the beam current. This means that, during the rise of the current, beam focusing by ions becomes stronger. Correspondingly, a beam of electrons, which was initially diverging radially due to the self-electric field, starts to be focused by ions, and this focus moves towards the gun as the ion density increases. This feature makes the self-excitation of electromagnetic (em) oscillations in pasotrons quite different from practically all other microwave sources where em oscillations are excited by a stationary electron beam. The process of self-excitation of em oscillations has been studied both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that in pasotrons, during the beam current rise the amount of current entering the interaction space and the beam coupling to the em field vary. As a result, the self-excitation can proceed faster than in conventional microwave sources with similar operating parameters such as the operating frequency, cavity quality-factor and the beam current and voltage.

  10. Can the use of pulsed direct current induce oscillation in the applied pressure during spark plasma sintering?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salamon, David; Eriksson, Mirva; Nygren, Mats; Shen Zhijian

    2012-01-01

    The spark plasma sintering (SPS) process is known for its rapid densification of metals and ceramics. The mechanism behind this rapid densification has been discussed during the last few decades and is yet uncertain. During our SPS experiments we noticed oscillations in the applied pressure, related to a change in electric current. In this study, we investigated the effect of pulsed electrical current on the applied mechanical pressure and related changes in temperature. We eliminated the effect of sample shrinkage in the SPS setup and used a transparent quartz die allowing direct observation of the sample. We found that the use of pulsed direct electric current in our apparatus induces pressure oscillations with the amplitude depending on the current density. While sintering Ti samples we observed temperature oscillations resulting from pressure oscillations, which we attribute to magnetic forces generated within the SPS apparatus. The described current–pressure–temperature relations might increase understanding of the SPS process.

  11. Evidence of Mixed-mode oscillations and Farey arithmetic in double plasma system in presence of fireball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Vramori; Sarma, Bornali; Sarma, Arun

    2017-10-01

    Plasma fireballs are luminous glowing region formed around a positively biased electrode. The present work reports the observation of mix mode oscillation (MMO) in the dynamics of plasma oscillations that are excited in the presence of fireball in a double plasma device. Source voltage and applied electrode voltage are considered as the controlling parameters for the experiment. Many sequences of distinct multi peaked periodic states reflects the presence of MMO with the variation of control parameter. The sequences of states with two patterns are characterized well by Farey arithmetic, which provides rational approximations of irrational numbers. These states can be characterized by a firing number, the ratio of the number of small amplitude oscillations to the total number of oscillations per period. The dynamical transition in plasma fireball is also demonstrated by spectral analysis, recurrence quantification analysis (RQA) and by statistical measures viz., skewness and kurtosis. The mix mode phenomenon observed in the experiment is consistent with a model that describes the dynamics of ionization instabilities.

  12. Time-resolved Fourier-transform infrared emission spectroscopy of Ag in the (1300-3600)-cm(-1) region: Transitions involving f and g states and oscillator strengths

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Matulková, Irena; Cihelka, Jaroslav; Kubelík, Petr

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 2 (2010), 022502 ISSN 1050-2947 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400705; GA AV ČR KAN100500652 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : spectroscopy * transitions * oscillator strengths Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; The oretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.861, year: 2010

  13. Refractive index effects on the oscillator strength and radiative decay rate of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, Jyotirmayee; Nau, Werner M

    2004-01-01

    The photophysical properties of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) were determined in 15 solvents, two supramolecular hosts (cucurbit[7]uril and beta-cyclodextrin) as well as in the gas phase. The oscillator strength and radiative decay rate of DBO as a function of refractive index i.e. polarizability have been analyzed. The oscillator strength increases by a factor of 10 upon going from the gas phase to the most polarizable carbon disulfide, while the corresponding radiative decay rates increase by a factor of 40. There is a good empirical correlation between the oscillator strength of the weakly allowed n,pi* transition of DBO and the reciprocal bulk polarizability, which can be employed to assess the polarizability of unknown microheterogeneous environments. A satisfactory correlation between the radiative decay rate and the square of the refractive index is also found, as previously documented for chromophores with allowed transitions. However, the correlation improves significantly when the oscillator strength is included in the correlation, which demonstrates the importance of this factor in the Strickler-Berg equation for chromophores with forbidden or weakly allowed transitions, for which the oscillator strength may be strongly solvent dependent. The radiative decay rate of DBO in two supramolecular assemblies has been determined, confirming the very low polarizability inside the cucurbituril cavity, in between perfluorohexane and the gas phase. The fluorescence quantum yield of DBO in the gas phase has been remeasured (5.1 +/- 0.5%) and was found to fall one full order of magnitude below a previously reported value.

  14. Enhancement of hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber by radiofrequency Ar plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gogoi, D.; Choudhury, A.J.; Chutia, J.; Pal, A.R.; Dass, N.N.; Devi, D.; Patil, D.S.

    2011-01-01

    The hydrophobicity and tensile strength of muga silk fiber are investigated using radiofrequency (RF) Ar plasma treatment at various RF powers (10-30 W) and treatment times (5-20 min). The Ar plasma is characterized using self-compensated Langmuir and emissive probe. The ion energy is observed to play an important role in determining the tensile strength and hydrophobicity of the plasma treated fibers. The chemical compositions of the fibers are observed to be affected by the increase in RF power rather than treatment time. XPS study reveals that the ions that are impinging on the substrates are mainly responsible for the cleavage of peptide bond and side chain of amino acid groups at the surface of the fibers. The observed properties (tensile strength and hydrophobicity) of the treated fibers are found to be dependent on their variation in atomic concentration and functional composition at the surfaces. All the treated muga fibers exhibit almost similar thermal behavior as compared to the virgin one. At RF power of 10 W and treatment time range of 5-20 min, the treated fibers exhibit properties similar to that of the virgin one. Higher RF power (30 W) and the increase in treatment time deteriorate the properties of the fibers due to incorporation of more surface roughness caused by sufficiently high energetic ion bombardment. The properties of the plasma treated fibers are attempted to correlate with the XPS analysis and their surface morphologies.

  15. Design aspects of 13.56MHz, 1kW, CW-RF oscillator for plasma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Kadia, Bhavesh; Singh, Raj; Varia, Atul; Srinivas, Y S S; Kulkarni, S V

    2010-01-01

    RF produced plasma has many applications in plasma processing and also it is useful in studying the fundamental characteristics of the plasma. A 1KW RF Hartley oscillator is designed and tested at 13.56 MHz. This has been built at RF section of Institute for Plasma Research by using EIMAC (3CX1200A7) triode tube. The RF source is operated in the grounded cathode mode. Triode 3CX1200A7 is operated in class AB and the feedback is Cathode grounded. The tube has sufficient margin in terms of plate dissipation and Grid dissipation that makes it suitable to withstand momentarily load mismatch. To optimize the RF source along with HVDC power supply many mechanical and electrical aspects have been thought of to enhance the overall quality of the system. This source mainly has three sections (The RF section, HVDC Power supply and soft start Filament Power supply). The system is compact and is housed in a 80 cm x 60 cm x 1800 cm aluminum panel. This paper describes the specifications, design criteria, circuit used, operating parameters of 1KW Oscillator along with HVDC power supply with necessary interlocks, tests conducted and results obtained of this 1 KW grounded grid Hartley Oscillator on 50 ohm dummy load. This system has been tested for 8 hours of continuous operation without any appreciable deterioration of the RF output power.

  16. Relativistic model-potential oscillator strengths and transition probabilities for 4fsup(n)6s-4fsup(n)6p transitions in Eu(II), Tb(II), and Ho(II) in J1j coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migdalek, J.

    1984-01-01

    The lowest 4fsup(n)6s-4fsup(n)6p transitions are studied for the Eu(II) (n=7), Tb(II) (n=9), and Ho(II) (n=11) spectra, where the J 1 J coupling is an acceptable approximation. The relativistic radial integrals, required to evaluate the oscillator strengths and transition probabilities, are calculated with the model-potential method, which includes also core-polarization effects. The similarities observed in oscillator strengths for transitions with given ΔJ but different J values are discussed and explained. The computed oscillator strengths are compared with those obtained with the Coulomb approximation and it is found that the latter are only 11-12% lower. The core polarization influence on oscillator strengths is also investigated and the 19-21% decrease in oscillator strengths due to this effect is predicted. This result may, however, be overestimated because of some deficiencies in our procedure. (author)

  17. Configuration-interaction relativistic-many-body-perturbation-theory calculations of photoionization cross sections from quasicontinuum oscillator strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savukov, I. M.; Filin, D. V.

    2014-01-01

    Many applications are in need of accurate photoionization cross sections, especially in the case of complex atoms. Configuration-interaction relativistic-many-body-perturbation theory (CI-RMBPT) has been successful in predicting atomic energies, matrix elements between discrete states, and other properties, which is quite promising, but it has not been applied to photoionization problems owing to extra complications arising from continuum states. In this paper a method that will allow the conversion of discrete CI-(R)MPBT oscillator strengths (OS) to photoionization cross sections with minimal modifications of the codes is introduced and CI-RMBPT cross sections of Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe are calculated. A consistent agreement with experiment is found. RMBPT corrections are particularly significant for Ar, Kr, and Xe and improve agreement with experimental results compared to the particle-hole CI method. As a result, the demonstrated conversion method can be applied to CI-RMBPT photoionization calculations for a large number of multivalence atoms and ions

  18. Electric field strength and plasma delay in silicon surface barrier detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, I.; Inbe, T.; Kanazawa, S.; Kimura, I.

    1994-01-01

    The resistivity change of a silicon irradiated by high energy neutrons became an interest of study associated with the large scale accelerator projects . The increase of the resistivity of the silicon of a silicon surface barrier detector (SSBD) was studied as a function of neutron fluence. The plasma delay, which was an interesting but not favorite timing property of the SSBD, was reported being dependent on the resistivity of silicon . The neutron irradiation brings the change of timing property as well as the resistivity change on the SSBD. The resistivity dependence of the plasma delay should be studied for the purpose of high energy accelerator experiments. Some empirical formulae of the plasma delay were reported, however, there were no discussions on the physical meanings of the resistivity dependence of the plasma delay. The plasma delay in a SSBD is discussed in the light of electric field strength in the depletion layer of the SSBD. The explanation of the plasma delay is presented taking into account of the competing two electric forces. The resistivity of the silicon affects the plasma delay through the electric forces. 3 figs, 3 refs. (author)

  19. Electric field strength in a silicon surface barrier detector with the presence of a dielectric plasma column

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Ikuo

    1994-01-01

    The dynamic change of the electric field strength in a silicon surface barrier detector (SSBD) is studied. With the presence of a dielectric plasma column in the depletion layer of the SSBD, the electric field strength inside/outside the plasma column is suppressed/enhanced. As the length and the dielectric constant of the plasma column become shorter and smaller, the suppression and enhancement of the electric field strength become less. The electric field strength recovers the initial state, when the plasma column disappears. When the electrons and holes are inside/outside the dielectric plasma column, they have less/more electric potential than the one they have when there is no plasma column. During the movement of the electron/hole outside the plasma column to the positive/negative electrode, the enhanced electric field strength becomes smaller. Electron and hole pairs, which are the parts of the dielectric plasma column, arrive at positive and negative electrodes, having insufficient electric potential to induce the unit charge. This paper shows that the presence of a dielectric plasma column explains the main part of the residual defect in a SSBD. ((orig.))

  20. Electrical tuning of the oscillator strength in type II InAs/GaInSb quantum wells for active region of passively mode-locked interband cascade lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyksik, Mateusz; Motyka, Marcin; Kurka, Marcin; Ryczko, Krzysztof; Misiewicz, Jan; Schade, Anne; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven; Sęk, Grzegorz

    2017-11-01

    Two designs of active region for an interband cascade laser, based on double or triple GaInSb/InAs type II quantum wells (QWs), were compared with respect to passive mode-locked operation in the mid-infrared range around 4 µm. The layer structure and electron and hole wavefunctions under external electric field were engineered to allow controlling the optical transition oscillator strength and the resulting lifetimes. As a result, the investigated structures can mimic absorber-like and gain-like sections of a mode-locked device when properly polarized with opposite bias. A significantly larger oscillator strength tuning range for triple QWs was experimentally verified by Fourier-transform photoreflectance.

  1. Vii. New Kr IV - VII Oscillator Strengths and an Improved Spectral Analysis of the Hot, Hydrogen-deficient Do-type White Dwarf RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Quinet, P.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Richter, P.; Kruk, J. W.; Demleitner, M.

    2016-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high signal-to-noise (SN) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims. New Krivvii oscillator strengths for a large number of lines enable us to construct more detailed model atoms for our NLTEmodel-atmosphere calculations. This enables us to search for additional Kr lines in observed spectra and to improve Kr abundance determinations. Methods. We calculated Krivvii oscillator strengths to consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Kr lines that are exhibited in high-resolution and high SN ultraviolet (UV)observations of the hot white dwarf RE 0503.

  2. Effective inclusion of polarization effects in calculations of the oscillator strengths and transition energies in atoms and molecules using the equation-of-motion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glushkov, A.V.; Kol'tsova, N.Yu.

    1994-01-01

    Equations of motion were solved by a modified method in a quasi-particle representation of the density functional taking into account the most important polarization effects, including the so-called 2p-2h two-particle-two-hole interactions. Based on these calculations, spectroscopic data on energies and oscillator strengths of the helium atom (the test computation), carbon monoxide, nitrogen molecule, and ethylene are presented that refine some previously reported experimental and theoretical results. It is shown that in some cases the inclusion of polarization corrections introduced by 2p-2h effects is of basic importance because it provides up to ∼30% contribution to the energies and oscillator strengths. 23 refs., 5 tabs

  3. On the calculation of line strengths, oscillator strengths and lifetimes for very large principal quantum numbers in hydrogenic atoms and ions by the McLean–Watson formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hey, J D

    2014-01-01

    As a sequel to an earlier study (Hey 2009 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 42 125701), we consider further the application of the line strength formula derived by Watson (2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 L291) to transitions arising from states of very high principal quantum number in hydrogenic atoms and ions (Rydberg–Rydberg transitions, n > 1000). It is shown how apparent difficulties associated with the use of recurrence relations, derived (Hey 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 2641) by the ladder operator technique of Infeld and Hull (1951 Rev. Mod. Phys. 23 21), may be eliminated by a very simple numerical device, whereby this method may readily be applied up to n ≈ 10 000. Beyond this range, programming of the method may entail greater care and complexity. The use of the numerically efficient McLean–Watson formula for such cases is again illustrated by the determination of radiative lifetimes and comparison of present results with those from an asymptotic formula. The question of the influence on the results of the omission or inclusion of fine structure is considered by comparison with calculations based on the standard Condon–Shortley line strength formula. Interest in this work on the radial matrix elements for large n and n′ is related to measurements of radio recombination lines from tenuous space plasmas, e.g. Stepkin et al (2007 Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 374 852), Bell et al (2011 Astrophys. Space Sci. 333 377), to the calculation of electron impact broadening parameters for such spectra (Watson 2006 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39 1889) and comparison with other theoretical methods (Peach 2014 Adv. Space Res. in press), to the modelling of physical processes in H II regions (Roshi et al 2012 Astrophys. J. 749 49), and the evaluation bound–bound transitions from states of high n during primordial cosmological recombination (Grin and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 81 083005, Ali-Haïmoud and Hirata 2010 Phys. Rev. D 82 063521

  4. MgH Rydberg series: Transition energies from electron propagator theory and oscillator strengths from the molecular quantum defect orbital method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corzo, H. H.; Velasco, A. M.; Lavín, C.; Ortiz, J. V.

    2018-02-01

    Vertical excitation energies belonging to several Rydberg series of MgH have been inferred from 3+ electron-propagator calculations of the electron affinities of MgH+ and are in close agreement with experiment. Many electronically excited states with n > 3 are reported for the first time and new insight is given on the assignment of several Rydberg series. Valence and Rydberg excited states of MgH are distinguished respectively by high and low pole strengths corresponding to Dyson orbitals of electron attachment to the cation. By applying the Molecular Quantum Defect Orbital method, oscillator strengths for electronic transitions involving Rydberg states also have been determined.

  5. Oscillations of the positive column plasma due to ionization wave propagation and two-dimensional structure of striations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubovskii, Yu B; Kozakov, R V; Wilke, C; Behnke, J; Nekutchaev, V O

    2004-01-01

    Time and space resolved measurements of the plasma potential in axial and radial directions in S- and P-striations in neon are performed. The measurements in different radial positions were carried out with high spatial resolution by means of simultaneous displacement of electrodes relative to the stationary probe. The plasma potential was found to be a superposition of the potentials of ionization wave and plasma oscillations relative to the electrodes. A method of decomposition of the measured spatio-temporal structure of the potential in components associated with the plasma oscillations and ionization wave propagation is proposed. A biorthogonal decomposition of the spatio-temporal structure of the potential is performed. A comparison of the decomposition results obtained by the two methods is made. The experiments revealed a two-dimensional structure of the potential field in an ionization wave. Qualitative discussions of the reasons for the occurrence of this two-dimensional structure are presented based on the analysis of the kinetic equation and the equation for the potential

  6. Nonlinear theory for axisymmetric self-similar two-dimensional oscillations of electrons in cold plasma with constant proton background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osherovich, V. A.; Fainberg, J.

    2018-01-01

    We consider simultaneous oscillations of electrons moving both along the axis of symmetry and also in the direction perpendicular to the axis. We derive a system of three nonlinear ordinary differential equations which describe self-similar oscillations of cold electrons in a constant proton density background (np = n0 = constant). These three equations represent an exact class of solutions. For weak nonlinear conditions, the frequency spectra of electric field oscillations exhibit split frequency behavior at the Langmuir frequency ωp0 and its harmonics, as well as presence of difference frequencies at low spectral values. For strong nonlinear conditions, the spectra contain peaks at frequencies with values ωp0(n +m √{2 }) , where n and m are integer numbers (positive and negative). We predict that both spectral types (weak and strong) should be observed in plasmas where axial symmetry may exist. To illustrate possible applications of our theory, we present a spectrum of electric field oscillations observed in situ in the solar wind by the WAVES experiment on the Wind spacecraft during the passage of a type III solar radio burst.

  7. Internal oscillating current-sustained RF plasmas: Parameters, stability, and potential for surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Tsakadze, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    . Moreover, under certain conditions, the plasma becomes unstable due to spontaneous transitions between low-density (electrostatic, E) and high-density (electromagnetic, H) operating modes. Excellent uniformity of high-density plasmas makes the plasma reactor promising for various plasma processing...... applications and surface engineering. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  8. Handgrip strength, functionality and plasma levels of IL-6 in elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele S. Pereira

    Full Text Available AbstractIntroduction Aging is associated with a chronic low-grade inflammatory process characterized by an increased production of inflammatory mediators. These elevated levels are predictors for muscle function (sarcopenia and deterioration of physical performance in the elderly.Objective To investigate the correlation between sarcopenia, functional capacity, and interleukin-6 levels.Materials and methods This cross-sectional study assessed a convenience sample of elderly individuals (n = 130 using a handgrip dynamometer (JAMAR™, and the functional capacity test was performed by sitting and standing. Interleukin-6 levels were determined using high sensitivity ELISA kits. Spearman correlation coefficient was used to assess the correlation between these variables, at a significance level (α of 0.05.Results There was significant inverse correlation between strength and function (rS = -0.273, p = 0.002 such that elderly individuals with lower peak force took longer to perform the sit-to-stand test, in contrast with the relationship between plasma interleukin-6 levels and strength (rS = -0.043, p = 0.624 or functionality (rS = -0.060, p = 0.501.Conclusion The outcome measures analyzed could predict the decline in muscle strength and functional capacity, and may be indicative of sarcopenia in elderly individuals. There was no correlation between the interleukin-6 levels and the grip strength and functional capacity of the sample investigated.

  9. Measuring Plasma Formation Field Strength and Current Loss in Pulsed Power Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Patel, Sonal G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Falcon, Ross Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Cartwright, Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Kiefer, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Cuneo, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Maron, Yitzhak [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-11-01

    This LDRD investigated plasma formation, field strength, and current loss in pulsed power diodes. In particular the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) e-beam diode was studied on the RITS-6 accelerator. Magnetic fields of a few Tesla and electric fields of several MV/cm were measured using visible spectroscopy techniques. The magnetic field measurements were then used to determine the current distribution in the diode. This distribution showed that significant beam current extends radially beyond the few millimeter x-ray focal spot diameter. Additionally, shielding of the magnetic field due to dense electrode surface plasmas was observed, quantified, and found to be consistent with the calculated Spitzer resistivity. In addition to the work on RITS, measurements were also made on the Z-machine looking to quantify plasmas within the power flow regions. Measurements were taken in the post-hole convolute and final feed gap regions on Z. Dopants were applied to power flow surfaces and measured spectroscopically. These measurements gave species and density/temperature estimates. Preliminary B-field measurements in the load region were attempted as well. Finally, simulation work using the EMPHASIS, electromagnetic particle in cell code, was conducted using the Z MITL conditions. The purpose of these simulations was to investigate several surface plasma generations models under Z conditions for comparison with experimental data.

  10. Density Profiles, Energy, and Oscillation Strength of a Quantum Dot in Two Dimensions with a Harmonic Oscillator External Potential using an Orbital-free Energy Functional Based on Thomas–Fermi Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhufa Alfarisa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims i to determine the density profile and calculate the ground state energy of a quantum dot in two dimensions (2D with a harmonic oscillator potential using orbital-free density functional theory, and ii to understand the effect of the harmonic oscillator potential strength on the electron density profiles in the quantum dot. This study determines the total energy functional of the quantum dot that is a functional of the density that depends only on spatial variables. The total energy functional consists of three terms. The first term is the kinetic energy functional, which is the Thomas–Fermi approximation in this case. The second term is the external potential. The harmonic oscillator potential is used in this study. The last term is the electron–electron interactions described by the Coulomb interaction. The functional is formally solved to obtain the electron density as a function of spatial variables. This equation cannot be solved analytically, and thus a numerical method is used to determine the profile of the electron density. Using the electron density profiles, the ground state energy of the quantum dot in 2D can be calculated. The ground state energies obtained are 2.464, 22.26, 90.1957, 252.437, and 496.658 au for 2, 6, 12, 20, and 56 electrons, respectively. The highest electron density is localized close to the middle of the quantum dot. The density profiles decrease with the increasing distance, and the lowest density is at the edge of the quantum dot. Generally, increasing the harmonic oscillator potential strength reduces the density profiles around the center of the quantum dot.

  11. The effect of boron supplementation on lean body mass, plasma testosterone levels, and strength in male bodybuilders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrando, A. A.; Green, N. R.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of boron supplementation was investigated in 19 male bodybuilders ages 20-27 years. Ten were given a 2.5-mg boron supplement while 9 were given a placebo every day for 7 weeks. Plasma total and free testosterone, plasma boron, lean body mass, and strength measurements were determined on Days 1 and 49 of the study. Plasma boron values were significantly (p bodybuilding can increase total testosterone, lean body mass, and strength in lesser trained bodybuilders, and that boron supplementation had no effect on these measures.

  12. Principles of spectroscopic diagnostics of a plasma with oscillating electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oks, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Three types of main principles of spectroscopic diagnosis of the plasma with quasimonochromatic electric fields (QEF) are considered. Principles based on the effects intersectionally depending on the parameters of QEF and the plasma medium are considered. Occurrence of depressions or dips in the profiles of spectral lines is the most important effect among others. Principles based on the nonlinear theory of plasma and laser sattelites of spectral lines as well as laser-spectroscopic diagnosis of QEF in the plasma are considered

  13. Stabilization of sausage and kink instability modes of a plasma pinch by radial oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bud'ko, A.B.; Kravchenko, Y.P.; Liberman, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The growth of the global sausage (m=0) and kink (m=1) perturbations of a Z-pinch subject to radial oscillations is considered. It is demonstrated that the oscillations result in significant reduction of the growth rate of both kink and sausage instability modes with wavelengths long compared to the pinch radius. The analysis of stability is carried out in two ways. The first method is based on the averaging magnetohydrodynamic equations over the period of radial oscillations. The second one consists in the analysis of the growth of Fourier-components of perturbations. Numerical simulation demonstrates that even moderate radial oscillations cause reduction of the growth rate of long-wavelength sausage instabilities and complete stabilization of long kinks. This can be understood as a result of the effective gravitational field produced in the pinch by the oscillations. The effect in question can explain the anomalous stability of pinches with respect to the kink perturbations observed in experiments. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  14. The Effects of Double Oscillation Exercise Combined with Elastic Band Exercise on Scapular Stabilizing Muscle Strength and Thickness in Healthy Young Individuals: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieun Cho, Kyeongbong Lee, Minkyu Kim, Joohee Hahn, Wanhee Lee

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the effect of double oscillation exercise combined with elastic band exercise on the strength and thickness ratio of the scapular stabilizing muscles in healthy young individuals. A total of 30 subjects (17 male, 13 female were randomly assigned to an elastic band exercise group (EBG (n = 15 or an elastic band plus double oscillation exercise group (EB-DOG (n = 15. A total of 28 subjects completed the experiment and evaluation. Patients in the EBG performed the elastic band exercise for shoulder flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, horizontal abduction/adduction, and internal/external rotation for 30 minutes/session, five times/week, for four weeks. Patients in the EB-DOG performed the elastic band exercise for 15 minutes and the double oscillation exercise in three planes of motion (frontal, sagittal, and transverse, using a Bodyblade® for 15 minutes/session, five times/week, for four weeks. Shoulder muscle strength was assessed using a manual muscle test device during maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC, while the thicknesses of the scapular stabilizing muscles were assessed using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging both at rest and during MVIC. Both groups had significant effects on shoulder muscle strength, however, there was no significant difference between the two groups for change value of shoulder muscle strength (Bonferroni correction p < 0.005. Significant differences were observed in the group × time interactions for horizontal abduction, external rotation, and protraction. There was a statistically significant improvement in thickness ratio of LT and SA in the EB-DOG and no significant difference was founded in EBG (Bonferroni correction p < 0.006. In comparison between the two groups, EB-DOG showed a significant change in the thickness ratio of LT compared to EBG. In addition, significant differences were observed for the group × time interactions for the thickness ratio of the LT (F

  15. Stellar Laboratories . [VI. New Mo IV - VII Oscillator Strengths and the Molybdenum Abundance in the Hot White Dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Quinet, T.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Demleitner, M.; Kruk, J. W.

    2016-01-01

    For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high signal-to-noise (SN) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: To identify molybdenum lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503289 and, to determine their photospheric Mo abundances, reliable Mo iv-vii oscillator strengths are used. Methods: We newly calculated Mo iv-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions indetail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Mo lines exhibited in high-resolution and high SN UV observations of RE 0503289.Results. We identified 12 Mo v and nine Mo vi lines in the UV spectrum of RE 0503289 and measured a photospheric Mo abundance of 1.2 3.0 104(mass fraction, 22 500 56 400 times the solar abundance). In addition, from the As v and Sn iv resonance lines,we measured mass fractions of arsenic (0.51.3 105, about 300 1200 times solar) and tin (1.33.2 104, about 14 300 35 200 times solar). For G191B2B, upper limits were determined for the abundances of Mo (5.3 107, 100 times solar) and, in addition, for Kr (1.1106, 10 times solar) and Xe (1.7107, 10 times solar). The arsenic abundance was determined (2.35.9 107, about 21 53 times solar). A new, registered German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service, TOSS, has been constructed to provide weighted oscillator strengths and transition probabilities.Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Mo v-vi line profiles in the UV spectrum of the white dwarf RE 0503289 were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. For the first time, this allowed the photospheric Mo abundance in a white dwarf to be determined.

  16. Stellar Laboratories: New GeV and Ge VI Oscillator Strengths and their Validation in the Hot White Dwarf RE0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Biemont, E.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2013-01-01

    State-of-the-art spectral analysis of hot stars by means of non-LTE model-atmosphere techniques has arrived at a high level of sophistication. The analysis of high-resolution and high-S/N spectra, however, is strongly restricted by the lack of reliable atomic data for highly ionized species from intermediate-mass metals to trans-iron elements. Especially data for the latter has only been sparsely calculated. Many of their lines are identified in spectra of extremely hot, hydrogen-deficient post-AGB stars. A reliable determination of their abundances establishes crucial constraints for AGB nucleosynthesis simulations and, thus, for stellar evolutionary theory. Aims. In a previous analysis of the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289, spectral lines of highly ionized Ga, Ge, As, Se, Kr, Mo, Sn, Te, I, and Xe were identified. Individual abundance determinations are hampered by the lack of reliable oscillator strengths. Most of these identified lines stem from Ge V. In addition, we identified Ge VI lines for the first time. We calculated Ge V and Ge VI oscillator strengths in order to reproduce the observed spectrum. Methods. We newly calculated Ge V and Ge VI oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our non-LTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of the Ge IV-VI spectrum exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N FUV (FUSE) and UV (ORFEUS/BEFS, IUE) observations of RE 0503-289. Results. In the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289, we identify four Ge IV, 37 Ge V, and seven Ge VI lines. Most of these lines are identified for the first time in any star. We can reproduce almost all Ge IV, GeV, and Ge VI lines in the observed spectrum of RE 0503-289 (T(sub eff) = 70 kK, log g = 7.5) at log Ge = -3.8 +/- 0.3 (mass fraction, about 650 times solar). The Ge IV/V/VI ionization equilibrium, that is a very sensitive T(sub eff) indicator, is reproduced well. Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a

  17. Computational images of internal-transport-barrier oscillations in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizarro, J.P S. [Inst Super Tecn, Ctr Fusao Nucl, EURATOM Assoc, P-1049001 Lisbon (Portugal); Litaudon, X.L. [CEA Cadarache, Dept Rech Fus Controlee, EURATOM Assoc, F-13108 St Paul Les Durance (France); Tala, T.J.J. [Assoc Euratom Tekes, FIN-02044 Espoo (Finland); JET EFDA Contributors [Culham Sci Ctr, Abingdon OX14 3DB, Oxon (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    A well-known benchmarked code, where a Bohm-gyro-Bohm transport model is complemented with an empirical scaling for the dynamics of internal transport barriers (ITBs), is used to model the ITB oscillations that are often seen in advanced tokamak scenarios with a dominant fraction of bootstrap current. (authors)

  18. Modelling of Trapped Plasma Mode Oscillations in a p+ n – n+ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... frequency limits. The influence of the diode physical parameters and the effects of the package circuit parasitic on the diode performance are explored, and curves for practical design presented. The predicted RF performance shows good agreement with experimental measurement for a typical L-band TRAPATT oscillator ...

  19. Imbedded Nanocrystals of CsPbBr3 in Cs4 PbBr6 : Kinetics, Enhanced Oscillator Strength, and Application in Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Junwei; Huang, Wenxiao; Li, Peiyun; Onken, Drew R; Dun, Chaochao; Guo, Yang; Ucer, Kamil B; Lu, Chang; Wang, Hongzhi; Geyer, Scott M; Williams, Richard T; Carroll, David L

    2017-11-01

    Solution-grown films of CsPbBr 3 nanocrystals imbedded in Cs 4 PbBr 6 are incorporated as the recombination layer in light-emitting diode (LED) structures. The kinetics at high carrier density of pure (extended) CsPbBr 3 and the nanoinclusion composite are measured and analyzed, indicating second-order kinetics in extended and mainly first-order kinetics in the confined CsPbBr 3 , respectively. Analysis of absorption strength of this all-perovskite, all-inorganic imbedded nanocrystal composite relative to pure CsPbBr 3 indicates enhanced oscillator strength consistent with earlier published attribution of the sub-nanosecond exciton radiative lifetime in nanoprecipitates of CsPbBr 3 in melt-grown CsBr host crystals and CsPbBr 3 evaporated films. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Temperature dependence of bending strength for plasma sprayed zirconia coating; Plasuma yosha zirconia himaku no magetsuyosa no ondo izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, M.; Sakuma, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)] Mizutani, T. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)] Kishimoto, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] Saito, M. [Toshiba Corp. (Japan). Heavy Apparatus Engineering Lab.

    1998-02-01

    Plasma sprayed zirconia applying to the thermal barrier coating in gas turbine has been developing for protecting the hot parts such as blades and nozzles from high-temperature enviroments. In this paper, four point bending tests under various temperature conditions are conducted on plasma sprayed zirconia and its mechanical properties are examined. Results show that the bending strength at room temperature for plasma sprayed zirconia is much lower than that of sintered zirconia and is decreased with the increase in temperature. However, Weibull modulus at each temperature is relatively large and the dispersion of bending strength is very small in comparison with that of sintered zirconia. It is also clarified by the SEM observations of fracture surface that many defects such as debonding and microcrack are responsible for the lower bending strength. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Effect of plasma formation on electron pinching and microwave emission in a virtual cathode oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatsuzuka, M.; Nakayama, M.; Nobuhara, S.; Young, D.; Ishihara, O.

    1996-01-01

    Time and spatial evolutions of anode and cathode plasmas in a vircator diode were observed with a streak camera. A cathode plasma appeared immediately after the rise of a beam current and was followed by an anode plasma typically after about 30 ns. Both plasmas expanded with almost the same speed of order of 104 m/s. The anode plasma was confirmed as a hydrogen plasma with an optical filter for H β line and study of anode-temperature rise. Electron beam pinching immediately followed by microwave emission was observed at the beam current less than the critical current for diode pinching in the experiment and the simulation. The electron beam current in the diode region is well characterized by the electron space-charge-limited current in bipolar flow with the expanding plasmas between the anode-cathode gap. As a result, electron bombardment produced the anode plasma, which made the electron beam strongly pinched, resulting in virtual cathode formation and microwave emission. (author). 5 figs., 5 refs

  2. Effect of plasma formation on electron pinching and microwave emission in a virtual cathode oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yatsuzuka, M; Nakayama, M; Nobuhara, S [Himeji Institute of Technology (Japan); Young, D; Ishihara, O [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Time and spatial evolutions of anode and cathode plasmas in a vircator diode were observed with a streak camera. A cathode plasma appeared immediately after the rise of a beam current and was followed by an anode plasma typically after about 30 ns. Both plasmas expanded with almost the same speed of order of 104 m/s. The anode plasma was confirmed as a hydrogen plasma with an optical filter for H{sub {beta}} line and study of anode-temperature rise. Electron beam pinching immediately followed by microwave emission was observed at the beam current less than the critical current for diode pinching in the experiment and the simulation. The electron beam current in the diode region is well characterized by the electron space-charge-limited current in bipolar flow with the expanding plasmas between the anode-cathode gap. As a result, electron bombardment produced the anode plasma, which made the electron beam strongly pinched, resulting in virtual cathode formation and microwave emission. (author). 5 figs., 5 refs.

  3. Size-dependent oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of CdSe quantum dots controlled via the local density of states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leistikow, M.D.; Johansen, Jeppe; Kettelarij, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study experimentally time-resolved emission of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in an environment with a controlled local density of states LDOS. The decay rate is measured versus frequency and as a function of distance to a mirror. We observe a linear relation between the decay rate and the LDOS, ...... with the measured radiative rates. Our results are relevant for applications of CdSe quantum dots in spontaneous emission control and cavity quantum electrodynamics.......We study experimentally time-resolved emission of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in an environment with a controlled local density of states LDOS. The decay rate is measured versus frequency and as a function of distance to a mirror. We observe a linear relation between the decay rate and the LDOS......, allowing us to determine the size-dependent quantum efficiency and oscillator strength. We find that the quantum efficiency decreases with increasing emission energy mostly due to an increase in nonradiative decay. We manage to obtain the oscillator strength of the important class of CdSe quantum dots...

  4. Strength and fracture mechanism of iron reinforced tricalcium phosphate cermet fabricated by spark plasma sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Serhii; Horynová, Miroslava; Casas-Luna, Mariano; Diaz-de-la-Torre, Sebastian; Dvořák, Karel; Celko, Ladislav; Kaiser, Jozef; Montufar, Edgar B

    2018-05-01

    The present work studies the microstructure and mechanical performance of tricalcium phosphate (TCP) based cermet toughened by iron particles. A novelty arises by the employment of spark plasma sintering for fabrication of the cermet. Results showed partial transformation of initial alpha TCP matrix to beta phase and the absence of oxidation of iron particles, as well as a lack of chemical reaction between TCP and iron components during sintering. The values of compressive and tensile strength of TCP/Fe cermet were 3.2 and 2.5 times, respectively, greater than those of monolithic TCP. Fracture analysis revealed the simultaneous action of crack-bridging and crack-deflection microstructural toughening mechanisms under compression. In contrast, under tension the reinforcing mechanism was only crack-bridging, being the reason for smaller increment of strength. Elastic properties of the cermet better matched values reported for human cortical bone. Thereby the new TCP/Fe cermet has potential for eventual use as a material for bone fractures fixation under load-bearing conditions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanical strength and hydrophobicity of cotton fabric after SF6 plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamlangkla, K.; Paosawatyanyong, B.; Pavarajarn, V.; Hodak, Jose H.; Hodak, Satreerat K.

    2010-08-01

    Surface treatments to tailor fabric properties are in high demand by the modern garment industry. We studied the effect of radio-frequency inductively coupled SF plasma on the surface characteristics of cotton fabric. The duration of the treatment and the SF pressure were varied systematically. We measured the hydrophobicity of treated cotton as a function of storage time and washing cycles. We used the weight loss (%) along with the etching rate, the tensile strength, the morphology changes and the hydrophobicity of the fabric as observables after treatments with different plasma conditions. The weight loss remains below 1% but it significantly increases when the treatment time is longer than 5 min. Substantial changes in the surface morphology of the fiber are concomitant with the increased etching rate and increased weight loss with measurable consequences in their mechanical characteristics. The measured water absorption time reaches the maximum of 210 min when the SF pressure is higher than 0.3 Torr. The water contact angle ( 149°) and the absorption time (210 min) of cotton treated with extreme conditions appear to be durable as long as the fabric is not washed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals that the water absorption time of the fabric follows the same increasing trend as the fluorine/carbon ratio at the fabric surface and atom density of fluorine measured by Ar actinometer.

  6. Mechanical strength and hydrophobicity of cotton fabric after SF{sub 6} plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamlangkla, K. [Nanoscience and Nanotechnology Program, Center of Innovative Nanotechnology, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Paosawatyanyong, B. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, and ThEP Center, Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pavarajarn, V. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Hodak, Jose H. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok 10400 (Thailand); Hodak, Satreerat K., E-mail: Satreerat.H@Chula.ac.th [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, and ThEP Center, Commission on Higher Education, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2010-08-01

    Surface treatments to tailor fabric properties are in high demand by the modern garment industry. We studied the effect of radio-frequency inductively coupled SF{sub 6} plasma on the surface characteristics of cotton fabric. The duration of the treatment and the SF{sub 6} pressure were varied systematically. We measured the hydrophobicity of treated cotton as a function of storage time and washing cycles. We used the weight loss (%) along with the etching rate, the tensile strength, the morphology changes and the hydrophobicity of the fabric as observables after treatments with different plasma conditions. The weight loss remains below 1% but it significantly increases when the treatment time is longer than 5 min. Substantial changes in the surface morphology of the fiber are concomitant with the increased etching rate and increased weight loss with measurable consequences in their mechanical characteristics. The measured water absorption time reaches the maximum of 210 min when the SF{sub 6} pressure is higher than 0.3 Torr. The water contact angle (149 deg.) and the absorption time (210 min) of cotton treated with extreme conditions appear to be durable as long as the fabric is not washed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals that the water absorption time of the fabric follows the same increasing trend as the fluorine/carbon ratio at the fabric surface and atom density of fluorine measured by Ar actinometer.

  7. Mechanical strength and hydrophobicity of cotton fabric after SF6 plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamlangkla, K.; Paosawatyanyong, B.; Pavarajarn, V.; Hodak, Jose H.; Hodak, Satreerat K.

    2010-01-01

    Surface treatments to tailor fabric properties are in high demand by the modern garment industry. We studied the effect of radio-frequency inductively coupled SF 6 plasma on the surface characteristics of cotton fabric. The duration of the treatment and the SF 6 pressure were varied systematically. We measured the hydrophobicity of treated cotton as a function of storage time and washing cycles. We used the weight loss (%) along with the etching rate, the tensile strength, the morphology changes and the hydrophobicity of the fabric as observables after treatments with different plasma conditions. The weight loss remains below 1% but it significantly increases when the treatment time is longer than 5 min. Substantial changes in the surface morphology of the fiber are concomitant with the increased etching rate and increased weight loss with measurable consequences in their mechanical characteristics. The measured water absorption time reaches the maximum of 210 min when the SF 6 pressure is higher than 0.3 Torr. The water contact angle (149 deg.) and the absorption time (210 min) of cotton treated with extreme conditions appear to be durable as long as the fabric is not washed. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals that the water absorption time of the fabric follows the same increasing trend as the fluorine/carbon ratio at the fabric surface and atom density of fluorine measured by Ar actinometer.

  8. Effect of residual stresses on fatigue strength of plasma nitrided 4140 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghazadeh, J.; Amidi, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Almost every method that has been presented to determine residual stress has some limitation and complexities. The aim of this work is to present a new, yet simple method so called strain indentation for measuring the residual stresses particularly in thin layers. In this method in addition to the precision measurements, components of residual stress at different directions may be determined. AISI 4140 steel specimens nitrided at 350 d ig C , 450 d ig C and 550 d ig C for 5 hours in the mixture of 75% nitrogen- 25% hydrogen gas. The, components of residual stress in the radials axial and hoop directions in the nitrided layer were determined considering the elastic strain recovery after removal of residual stress inducer(i.e. the nitrided layer). Fatigue strength of the nitrided specimens was obtained by plotting the S-N curves and fractographic studies carried out on the fracture surface of the specimens. The effect of residual stress on the stress pattern was simulated. The calculated residual stress components were in the range of 40-210 Mpa and the radial components of residual stress were more than the other two directions. Maximum fatigue strength improvement of up to 110% was observed in the plasma nitrided specimens at 550 d ig C and also 40% improvement in fatigue strength was detected by increasing the nitriding temperature from 350 d ig C to 550 d ig C . This was due to 100% increase in residual stress. Fatigue crack growth velocity in the hoop direction was more than that of radial direction. This seems to be due to higher radial residual stress component compared with the hoop stress component in the sub layer

  9. Oscillating two-stream instability of laser wakefield-driven plasma ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    on electrons, driving the low-frequency mode, i.e., causing local density depression n (ω, k). This density perturbation in conjunction with the oscillating electron velocity v0 at (ω0, k0) produces nonlinear density perturbations nNL. 1,2 at (ω1,2, k1,2) that drive the sidebands. In §2, the local theory of OTSI of laser ...

  10. Investigation of steady plasma actuation effect on aerodynamic coefficients of oscillating airfoil at low Reynolds number

    OpenAIRE

    Arash Mahboubidoust; Abas Ramiar; Morteza Dardel

    2017-01-01

    In this work, numerical study of two dimensional laminar incompressible flow around an oscillating NACA0012 airfoil is proceeded using the open source code OpenFOAM. Oscillatory motion types including pitching and flapping are considered. Reynolds number for these motions is assumed to be 12000 and effects of these motions and also different unsteady parameters such as amplitude and reduced frequency on aerodynamic coefficients are studied. For flow control on airfoil, dielectric barrier disc...

  11. The current-voltage characteristic and potential oscillations of a double layer in a triple plasma device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carpenter, R.T.; Torven, S.

    1986-07-01

    The properties of a strong double layer in a current circuit with a capacitance and an inductance are investigated in a triple plasma device. The double layer gives rise to a region of negative differential resistance in the current-voltage characteristic of the device, and this gives non-linear oscillations in the current and the potential drop over the double layer (PhiDL). For a sufficiently large circuit inductance PhiDL reaches an amplitude given by the induced voltage (-LdI/dt) which is much larger than the circuit EMF due to the rapid current decrease when PhiDL increases. A variable potential minimum exists in the plasma on the low potential side of the double layer, and the depth of the minimum increases when PhiDL increases. An increasing fraction of the electrons incident at the double layer are then reflected, and this is found to be the main process giving rise to the negative differential resistance. A qualitative model for the variation of the minimum potential with PhiDL is also proposed. It is based on the condition that the minimum potential must adjust itself self-consistentely so that quasi-neutrality is maintained in the plasma region where the minimum is assumed. (authors)

  12. Oscillator and system development on the VULCAN glass laser system for the plasma beat-wave program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danson, C.N.

    1990-03-01

    This thesis describes the oscillator and system development on the VULCAN glass laser undertaken in support of the RAL Plasma Beat-wave experiments. This program seeks to evaluate advanced particle acceleration schemes for a new generation of machines for fundamental research in high energy physics. The experiments required two synchronised high power laser pulses of slightly different wavelength. These pulses were generated using two different laser media; Nd:YAG and Nd:YLF operating at 1.064 and 1.053 microns respectively. The first oscillator system developed operated with both lasing media housed in the same laser cavity. Problems with the stability of the optical output required the development of a second system which housed the two lasing media in separate cavities. The second aspect of the development work, described in this thesis, was the reconfiguration of the VULCAN glass laser system to amplify the two laser pulses to power levels of 0.5 TW per pulse. The first scheduled experiment required the two pulses to be propagated co-linearly. To amplify the pulses to the high output powers required two amplifying media to be used which preferentially amplify the two lasing wavelengths. For the later experiments the two laser pulses were amplified in separate amplifier chains which required the design of an efficient beam combiner. (author)

  13. Synchronous plasma membrane electrochemical potential oscillations during yeast colony development and aging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Palková, Z.; Váchová, Libuše; Gášková, D.; Kučerová, Helena

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2009), s. 228-235 ISSN 0968-7688 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/05/0294; GA ČR GA204/08/0718; GA MŠk(CZ) LC531 Grant - others:US(US) Howard Hughes Medical Institute International Research Award (#55005623) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : yeast colony population * transmembrane potential oscillations * cell energetics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.777, year: 2009

  14. High-strength bulk nano-crystalline silver prepared by selective leaching combined with spark plasma sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, I.; Vojtěch, D.; Michalcová, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 627, March (2015), s. 326-332 ISSN 0921-5093 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Nano-crystalline material * Selective leaching * Silver * Spark plasma sintering * Strength Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.647, year: 2015 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.msea.2015.01.014

  15. Excitation of VLF quasi-electrostatic oscillations in the ionospheric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    Full Text Available A numerical solution of the dispersion equation for electromagnetic waves in a hot magnetized collisionless plasma has shown that, in a current-free ionospheric plasma, the distortion of the electron distribution function reproducing the downward flow of a thermal electron component and the compensating upward flow of the suprathermal electrons, which are responsible for the resulting heat flux, can destabilize quasi-electrostatic ion sound waves. The numerical analysis, performed with ion densities and electron temperature taken from the data recorded by the Interkosmos-24 (IK-24, Aktivny satellite, is compared with a VLF spectrum registered at the same time on board. This spectrum shows a wide frequency band emission below the local ion plasma frequency. The direction of the electron heat flux inherent to the assumed model of VLF emission generation is discussed

  16. Excitation of VLF quasi-electrostatic oscillations in the ionospheric plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Lundin

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical solution of the dispersion equation for electromagnetic waves in a hot magnetized collisionless plasma has shown that, in a current-free ionospheric plasma, the distortion of the electron distribution function reproducing the downward flow of a thermal electron component and the compensating upward flow of the suprathermal electrons, which are responsible for the resulting heat flux, can destabilize quasi-electrostatic ion sound waves. The numerical analysis, performed with ion densities and electron temperature taken from the data recorded by the Interkosmos-24 (IK-24, Aktivny satellite, is compared with a VLF spectrum registered at the same time on board. This spectrum shows a wide frequency band emission below the local ion plasma frequency. The direction of the electron heat flux inherent to the assumed model of VLF emission generation is discussed

  17. Dirac-Fock calculation of oscillator strengths and lifetimes of levels for ions of potassium isoelectronic series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilitis, V.A.

    1989-01-01

    Oscillator forces, f, of 4s-4p, 4p-5s, 3d-4p and 3d-4f transitions for 13 terms of the potassium isoelectric line (from K to U 73+ ) are calculated by the Dirac-Fock method. Nonmonotonous change in values f along the isoelectric line is detected in some cases. Radiation life times of levels 4p 1/2 , 4p 3/2 and 5s 1/2 are also calculated. Similar values, which can be approximated by formula τ≅ 5x10 -8 Z ef -3 .3 , where Z ef - the effective charge, are obtained for life times of these levels. Values obtained for f and τ are compared with data of other authors

  18. Second order oscillations of a Vlasov-Poisson plasma in the Fourier transformed space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedlacek, Z.; Nocera, L.

    1991-05-01

    The Vlasov-Poisson system of equations in the Fourier-transformed velocity space is studied. At first some results of the linear theory are reformulated: in the new representation the Van Kampen eigenmodes and their adjoint are found to be ordinary functions with convenient piece-wise continuity properties. A transparent derivation is given of the free-streaming temporal echo in terms of the kinematics of wave packets in the Fourier-transformed velocity space. This analysis is further extended to include Coulomb interactions which allows to establish a connection between the echo theory, the second order oscillations of Best and the phenomenon of linear sidebands. The calculation of the time evolution of the global second order electric field is performed in detail in the case of a Maxwellian equilibrium distribution function. It is concluded that the phenomenon of linear sidebands may be properly explained in terms of the intrinsic features of the equilibrium distribution function. (author) 5 figs., 32 refs

  19. Surface modification of polyester fabrics by atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma for color strength and adhesion enhancement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Chunming, E-mail: zcm1229@126.com [College of Textiles and Clothing, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Sunvim Grp Co Ltd, Gaomi 261500 (China); Zhao, Meihua; Wang, Libing; Qu, Lijun [College of Textiles and Clothing, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Men, Yajing [Sunvim Grp Co Ltd, Gaomi 261500 (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • Air/He plasma gave hydrophilicity on polyester surface and decreased contact angle to 18°. • The roughness of polyester increased and pit-like structures appeared on the surface after plasma treatment. • XPS confirmed the generation of new functional groups on polyester fabric. • The improved pigment color yield and anti-bleeding performance were contributed by the alteration of pigment adhesion. • The air/He plasma was more effective than air plasma at the same treatment time. - Abstract: Surface properties of water-based pigmented inks for ink-jet printed polyester fabrics were modified with atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma to improve the color strength and pigment adhesion of the treated surfaces. The influence of various parameters, including the surface morphology, chemical compositions, surface energy and dynamic contact angles of the control and plasma treated samples was studied. Color strength and edge definition were used to evaluate the ink-jet printing performance of fabrics. The change in pigment adhesion to polyester fibers was analyzed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy). AFM (Atomic force microscope) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses indicated the increase in surface roughness and the oxygen-containing polar groups(C=O, C−OH and COOH) reinforced the fixation of pigments on the fiber surface. The result from this study suggested that the improved pigment color yield was clearly affected by alteration of pigment adhesion enhanced by plasma surface modification. Polyester fabrics exhibited better surface property and ink-jet printing performance after the air/He mixture plasma treatment comparing with those after air plasma treatment.

  20. Surface modification of polyester fabrics by atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma for color strength and adhesion enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Chunming; Zhao, Meihua; Wang, Libing; Qu, Lijun; Men, Yajing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Air/He plasma gave hydrophilicity on polyester surface and decreased contact angle to 18°. • The roughness of polyester increased and pit-like structures appeared on the surface after plasma treatment. • XPS confirmed the generation of new functional groups on polyester fabric. • The improved pigment color yield and anti-bleeding performance were contributed by the alteration of pigment adhesion. • The air/He plasma was more effective than air plasma at the same treatment time. - Abstract: Surface properties of water-based pigmented inks for ink-jet printed polyester fabrics were modified with atmospheric-pressure air/He plasma to improve the color strength and pigment adhesion of the treated surfaces. The influence of various parameters, including the surface morphology, chemical compositions, surface energy and dynamic contact angles of the control and plasma treated samples was studied. Color strength and edge definition were used to evaluate the ink-jet printing performance of fabrics. The change in pigment adhesion to polyester fibers was analyzed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy). AFM (Atomic force microscope) and XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) analyses indicated the increase in surface roughness and the oxygen-containing polar groups(C=O, C−OH and COOH) reinforced the fixation of pigments on the fiber surface. The result from this study suggested that the improved pigment color yield was clearly affected by alteration of pigment adhesion enhanced by plasma surface modification. Polyester fabrics exhibited better surface property and ink-jet printing performance after the air/He mixture plasma treatment comparing with those after air plasma treatment.

  1. Notes for lectures in China: distribution of the oscillator strength over the entire range of excitation energy for atoms, molecules, and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inokuti, M.

    1984-01-01

    Consider the intensity of absorption of a photon (i.e., the photoabsorption cross section) as a function of photon energy E. Apart from some intensity related to pure nuclear motion and spins, the (electronic) absorption begins at several eV (i.e., in the visible region or the near ultraviolet region). It becomes stronger at tens of eV's (i.e., in the far ultraviolet), and gradually diminishes at higher E. However, the intensity enhances again as E becomes comparable to an inner-shell binding energy. This repeats throughout the x-ray region until E greatly exceeds the K-shell binding energy. I shall discuss the gross variation of the absorption intensity with E. This intensity, suitably normalized, is the oscillator-strength distribution df/dE

  2. High Eu 4f low-energy oscillator strength in the isostructural rare-earth Zintl compounds EuIn2X2 (X = P,As)

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra

    2012-04-11

    The isostructral Zintl compounds EuIn2X2 (X = P,As) are investigated within density functional theory. We employ the local spin density approximation with onsite interaction (LSDA + U) for varying U from 0 eV to 7 eV to model the Coulomb repulsion of the Eu 4f electrons. The LSDA + U optical conductivity disagrees with the experimental spectrum, while the simple LSDA is successful. Contrary to the expectation, it is found that EuIn2X2 (X = P,As) has a large oscillator strength for the f → d transitions in the low-energy range (below 1.5 eV) in which effects of the joint density of states play a key role. The materials show a sizeable magneto-optical Kerr effect.

  3. Excitation energy of /sup 3/B/sub 1/ state of H/sub 2/O calculated from generalized oscillator strengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klump, K N; Lassettre, E N

    1975-01-01

    Generalized oscillator strengths have been determined for the 7.4 eV excitation in H/sub 2/O at initial electron kinetic energies from 300 to 600 eV and squared momentum changes (of the colliding electron) to 4.5 a.u. These data are employed, in an approximate formula developed by Lassettre and Dillon, to calculate the excitation energy of the lowest /sup 3/B/sub 1/ state of H/sub 2/O. The value obtained, 7.0 eV, is in good agreement with accurate quantum chemical calculations and with experiment. The estimated uncertainty, based on errors found for CO and He, is 0.1 eV. This is a plausible estimate, not an upper bound.

  4. Generalized oscillator strength for the argon 3p6-3p5 4s transition: Correlation and exchange effects on the characteristic minimum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Zhifan; Msezane, Alfred Z.; Amusia, M. Ya.

    1999-01-01

    We have investigated the generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for a transition of the type np→(n+1)s, where n is the principal quantum number of the outermost filled shell of the atomic ground state, using the random-phase approximation with exchange. We find that the influence of correlation and exchange effects on the position of the characteristic minimum in the GOS of Ar(n=3) is insignificant. Also, our first Born approximation predicts the position of the minimum accurately provided that accurate target wave functions are employed. Our results agree excellently with measurements and are expected to be applicable equally to the corresponding subshells of Ne(n=2), Kr(n=4), and Xe(n=5). (c) 1999 The American Physical Society

  5. Generalized oscillator strength for the argon 3p{sup 6}-3p{sup 5} 4s transition: Correlation and exchange effects on the characteristic minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhifan [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, and Department of Physics, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States); Msezane, Alfred Z. [Center for Theoretical Studies of Physical Systems, and Department of Physics, Clark Atlanta University, Atlanta, Georgia 30314 (United States); Amusia, M. Ya. [Racah Institute of Physics, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem 91904, (Israel)

    1999-12-01

    We have investigated the generalized oscillator strength (GOS) for a transition of the type np{yields}(n+1)s, where n is the principal quantum number of the outermost filled shell of the atomic ground state, using the random-phase approximation with exchange. We find that the influence of correlation and exchange effects on the position of the characteristic minimum in the GOS of Ar(n=3) is insignificant. Also, our first Born approximation predicts the position of the minimum accurately provided that accurate target wave functions are employed. Our results agree excellently with measurements and are expected to be applicable equally to the corresponding subshells of Ne(n=2), Kr(n=4), and Xe(n=5). (c) 1999 The American Physical Society.

  6. High Eu 4f low-energy oscillator strength in the isostructural rare-earth Zintl compounds EuIn2X2 (X = P,As)

    KAUST Repository

    Singh, Nirpendra; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo

    2012-01-01

    The isostructral Zintl compounds EuIn2X2 (X = P,As) are investigated within density functional theory. We employ the local spin density approximation with onsite interaction (LSDA + U) for varying U from 0 eV to 7 eV to model the Coulomb repulsion of the Eu 4f electrons. The LSDA + U optical conductivity disagrees with the experimental spectrum, while the simple LSDA is successful. Contrary to the expectation, it is found that EuIn2X2 (X = P,As) has a large oscillator strength for the f → d transitions in the low-energy range (below 1.5 eV) in which effects of the joint density of states play a key role. The materials show a sizeable magneto-optical Kerr effect.

  7. Absolute generalized oscillator strength for the Lyman--Birge--Hopfield band of N2 as determined by high energy electron impact spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, T.C.; Lee, J.S.; Wellenstein, H.F.; Bonham, R.A.

    1975-01-01

    The absolute generalized oscillator strength for the dipole forbidden quadrupole allowed Lyman--Birge--Hopfield band a 1 Pi/subg/ reverse arrow X 1 Σ + /subg/ in molecular nitrogen at an energy loss of 9.35 eV is observed by electron impact spectroscopy using 25 keV electrons over the momentum transfer range 0.04less than or equal toK 2 less than or equal to10 a.u. The results agree in the zero angle (zero momentum transfer) limit with the previous observations of Skerbele and Lassettre, but are in disagreement with previous theoretical and experimental results for K 2 >0.5. (auth)

  8. Contemporary problems of physics. Spectral distribution of oscillator strengths in atoms. Sovremennye problemy fiziki. Spektral'nye raspredeleniya sil ostsillyatorov vatomakh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fano, U; Kuper, D Zh

    1972-01-01

    A very detailed review is given of the latest achievements in experimental and theoretical research on the absorption spectra of atoms in the energy region from the lowest ionization threshold to several tens of keV (ultraviolet and x-ray region of the spectrum). The materials reviewed form a uniform point of view which facilitates the theoretical analysis of the data and make it possible to demonstrate the connection between various theoretical approaches. The first chapters examine the relationship between oscillator strengths and other atomic characteristics, and offer a brief review of contemporary experimental methods. Then the results of the experiments are carefully compared with calculations in mono-electron and multi-electron approaches, and the computations are analyzed in detail. The last chapters deal with two-electron transitions channel interactions. The book will be useful to senior students and scientists specializing in the area of spectroscopy. 253 references, 28 figures, 6 tables.

  9. Low-frequency, self-sustained oscillations in inductively coupled plasmas used for optical pumping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coffer, J.; Encalada, N.; Huang, M.; Camparo, J. [Physical Sciences Laboratories, The Aerospace Corporation 2310, E. El Segundo Blvd., El Segundo, California 90245 (United States)

    2014-10-28

    We have investigated very low frequency, on the order of one hertz, self-pulsing in alkali-metal inductively-coupled plasmas (i.e., rf-discharge lamps). This self-pulsing has the potential to significantly vary signal-to-noise ratios and (via the ac-Stark shift) resonant frequencies in optically pumped atomic clocks and magnetometers (e.g., the atomic clocks now flying on GPS and Galileo global navigation system satellites). The phenomenon arises from a nonlinear interaction between the atomic physics of radiation trapping and the plasma's electrical nature. To explain the effect, we have developed an evaporation/condensation theory (EC theory) of the self-pulsing phenomenon.

  10. Disintegration of fast magnetoacoustic oscillation spectra in non-uniform current-loaded plasma cylinder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girka, I.A.; Stepanov, K.N.

    1990-01-01

    Dispersion equation for fast plasma cylinder with longitudinal current including a weak azimuthal magnetic field β 0v is obtained and analyzed on the basis of perturbation theory. Simple asymptotic expressions for S w , S n and σ k are derived under different limiting cases (propagation of small-scale waves with high values of radial wave number, wave in the uniform cylinder, surface mode etc.). 10 refs.; 1 fig

  11. Influence of atmospheric pressure low-temperature plasma treatment on the shear bond strength between zirconia and resin cement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yuki; Okawa, Takahisa; Fukumoto, Takahiro; Tsurumi, Akiko; Tatsuta, Mitsuhiro; Fujii, Takamasa; Tanaka, Junko; Tanaka, Masahiro

    2016-10-01

    Zirconia exhibits excellent strength and high biocompatibility in technological applications and it is has therefore been investigated for clinical applications and research. Before setting prostheses, a crown prosthesis inner surface is sandblasted with alumina to remove contaminants and form small cavities. This alumina sandblasting causes stress-induced phase transition of zirconia. Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma has been applied in the dental industry, particularly for adhesives, as a surface treatment to activate the surface energy and remove contaminants. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment on the shear bond strength between zirconia and adhesive resin cement. The surface treatment method was classified into three groups: untreated (Cont group), alumina sandblast treatment (Sb group), and atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment (Ps group). Adhesive resin cement was applied to stainless steel and bonded to zirconia. Shear adhesion tests were performed after complete hardening of the cement. Multiple comparisons were performed using a one-way analysis of variance and the Bonferroni method. X-ray diffractometry was used to examine the change in zirconia crystal structure. Statistically significant differences were noted between the control and Sb groups and between the control and Ps groups. In contrast, no statistically significant differences were noted for the Ps and Sb bond strength. Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment did not affect the zirconia crystal structure. Atmospheric-pressure low-temperature plasma treatment improves the bonding strength of adhesive resin cement as effectively as alumina sandblasting, and does not alter the zirconia crystal structure. Copyright © 2016 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Plasma surface oxidation of 316L stainless steel for improving adhesion strength of silicone rubber coating to metal substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Latifi, Afrooz, E-mail: afroozlatifi@yahoo.com [Department of Biomaterials, Biomedical Engineering Faculty, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Imani, Mohammad [Novel Drug Delivery Systems Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/115, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khorasani, Mohammad Taghi [Biomaterials Dept., Iran Polymer and Petrochemical Institute, P.O. Box 14965/159, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Daliri Joupari, Morteza [Animal and Marine Biotechnology Dept., National Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, P.O. Box 14965/161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Stainless steel 316L was surface modified by plasma surface oxidation (PSO) and silicone rubber (SR) coating. • On the PSO substrates, concentration of oxide species was increased ca. 2.5 times comparing to non-PSO substrates. • The surface wettability was improved to 12.5°, in terms of water contact angle, after PSO. • Adhesion strength of SR coating on the PSO substrates was improved by more than two times comparing to non-PSO ones. • After pull-off test, the fractured area patterns for SR coating were dependent on the type of surface modifications received. - Abstract: Stainless steel 316L is one of the most widely used materials for fabricating of biomedical devices hence, improving its surface properties is still of great interest and challenging in biomaterial sciences. Plasma oxidation, in comparison to the conventional chemical or mechanical methods, is one of the most efficient methods recently used for surface treatment of biomaterials. Here, stainless steel specimens were surface oxidized by radio-frequency plasma irradiation operating at 34 MHz under pure oxygen atmosphere. Surface chemical composition of the samples was significantly changed after plasma oxidation by appearance of the chromium and iron oxides on the plasma-oxidized surface. A wettable surface, possessing high surface energy (83.19 mN m{sup −1}), was observed after plasma oxidation. Upon completion of the surface modification process, silicone rubber was spray coated on the plasma-treated stainless steel surface. Morphology of the silicone rubber coating was investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A uniform coating was formed on the oxidized surface with no delamination at polymer–metal interface. Pull-off tests showed the lowest adhesion strength of coating to substrate (0.12 MPa) for untreated specimens and the highest (0.89 MPa) for plasma-oxidized ones.

  13. Surface modification of cotton fabrics by gas plasmas for color strength and adhesion by inkjet ink printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pransilp, Porntapin; Pruettiphap, Meshaya; Bhanthumnavin, Worawan; Paosawatyanyong, Boonchoat; Kiatkamjornwong, Suda

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Both O_2 and N_2 plasma increased cotton surface wettability and higher K/S. • SF6 plasma gave hydrophobicity on cotton surface and increased contact angle to 138°. • Plasma treatment on cotton fabric produced surface roughness. • XPS confirmed the generation of new functional groups on cotton fabric. • Wettability and surface roughness controlled K/S and good ink adhesion. - Abstract: Surface properties of cotton fabric were modified by three types of gas plasma pretreatment, namely, oxygen (O_2), nitrogen (N_2) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF_6), to improve ink absorption of water-based pigmented inkjet inks and color reproduction of the treated surfaces. Effects of gas plasma exposure parameters of power, exposure time and gas pressure on surface physical and chemical properties of the treated fabrics were investigated. XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) was used to identify changes in functional groups on the fabric surface while AFM (atomic force microscopy) and SEM (scanning electron microscopy) were used to reveal surface topography of the fabric. Color spectroscopic technique was used to investigate changes in color strength caused by different absorptions of the printed fabrics. The O_2 plasma treatments produced new functional groups, −O−C−O/C=O and O−C=O while N_2 plasma treatments produced additionally new functional groups, C−N and O=C−NH, onto the fabric surface which increased hydrophilic properties and surface energy of the fabric. For cotton fabric treated with SF_6 plasma, the fluorine functionalization was additionally found on the surface. Color strength values (K/S) increased when compared with those of the untreated fabrics. SF_6 plasma-treated fabrics were hydrophobic and caused less ink absorption. Fabric surface roughness caused by plasma etching increased fabric surface areas, captured more ink, and enhanced a larger ink color gamut and ink adhesion. Cotton fabrics exhibited higher

  14. Wavelet analysis of low frequency plasma oscillations in the magnetosheath of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, A.; Echer, E.; Bolzam, M. J. A.; Fraenz, M.

    2017-09-01

    Wavelet analysis was employed to identify the major frequencies present in the Martian magnetosheath. The Morlet wavelet transform was selected and applied to the density and temperature data, obtained from the Analyzer of Space Plasmas and Energetic Atoms experiment (ASPERA-3), onboard the Mars Express (MEX). From a preliminary study of 836 magnetosheath crossings, observed in the years of 2005 and 2006, we have found 2357 periods with enhanced power between 5 and 60 mHz for the electron density data. The principal frequencies observed were in the range 5-20 mHz, where we found about 60 % of the frequencies identified. For electron temperature data, we have found about 57.5% of the periods with enhanced power were in the same range as for the density. This is an ongoing work which is part of a PhD Thesis which aims to study all the electron density and temperature data in the Mars magnetosheath during the MEX interval (2004-2015).

  15. ULF hydromagnetic oscillations with the discrete spectrum as eigenmodes of MHD-resonator in the near-Earth part of the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mazur

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A new concept is proposed for the emergence of ULF geomagnetic oscillations with a discrete spectrum of frequencies (0.8, 1.3, 1.9, 2.6 ...mHz registered in the magnetosphere's midnight-morning sector. The concept relies on the assumption that these oscillations are MHD-resonator eigenmodes in the near-Earth plasma sheet. This magnetospheric area is where conditions are met for fast magnetosonic waves to be confined. The confinement is a result of the velocity values of fast magnetosonic waves in the near-Earth plasma sheet which differ greatly from those in the magnetotail lobes, leading to turning points forming in the tailward direction for the waves under study. To compute the eigenfrequency spectrum of such a resonator, we used a model magnetosphere with parabolic geometry. The fundamental harmonics of this resonator's eigenfrequencies are shown to be capable of being clustered into groups with average frequencies matching, with good accuracy, the frequencies of the observed oscillations. A possible explanation for the stability of the observed oscillation frequencies is that such a resonator might only form when the magnetosphere is in a certain unperturbed state.

  16. ULF hydromagnetic oscillations with the discrete spectrum as eigenmodes of MHD-resonator in the near-Earth part of the plasma sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Mazur

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available A new concept is proposed for the emergence of ULF geomagnetic oscillations with a discrete spectrum of frequencies (0.8, 1.3, 1.9, 2.6 ...mHz registered in the magnetosphere's midnight-morning sector. The concept relies on the assumption that these oscillations are MHD-resonator eigenmodes in the near-Earth plasma sheet. This magnetospheric area is where conditions are met for fast magnetosonic waves to be confined. The confinement is a result of the velocity values of fast magnetosonic waves in the near-Earth plasma sheet which differ greatly from those in the magnetotail lobes, leading to turning points forming in the tailward direction for the waves under study. To compute the eigenfrequency spectrum of such a resonator, we used a model magnetosphere with parabolic geometry. The fundamental harmonics of this resonator's eigenfrequencies are shown to be capable of being clustered into groups with average frequencies matching, with good accuracy, the frequencies of the observed oscillations. A possible explanation for the stability of the observed oscillation frequencies is that such a resonator might only form when the magnetosphere is in a certain unperturbed state.

  17. The effect of externally applied oscillating electric fields on the l=1 and l=2 diocotron modes in non-neutral plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    A high-frequency oscillating electric field can change the properties of diocotron modes in non-neutral plasmas. The effect depends crucially on the azimuthal mode number, m, of the applied field. For m=0,±1 there is no effect, and for applied standing waves there is also no effect. But if the applied field has the form of a traveling wave with |m|≥2, the frequency of stable diocotron modes can be modified and for |m|≥3, the l=2 instability of hollow density profiles can be stabilized. The analytic results are verified with a nonlinear fluid simulation of an infinitely long non-neutral plasma

  18. Computed oscillator strengths and energy levels for Fe III, Fe IV, Fe V, and Fe VI with calculated wavelengths and wavelengths derived from established data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fawcett, B.C.

    1989-01-01

    Calculated weighted oscillator strengths are tabulated for spectral lines of Fe III, Fe IV, Fe V, and Fe VI. The lines belong to transition arrays 3d 6 -3d 5 4p and 3d 5 4s-3d 5 4p in Fe III, 3d 5 -3d 4 4p and 3d 4 4s-3d 4 4p in Fe IV, 3d 4 -3d 3 4p and 3d 3 4s-3d 3 4p in Fe V, and 3d 3 -3d 2 4p and 3d 2 4s-3d 2 4p in Fe VI. For the calculations, Slater parameters are optimized on the basis of minimizing the discrepancies between observed and computed wavelengths. Configuration interaction was included among the 3d n , 3d n-1 4s, 3d n-2 4s 2 , 3d n-1 4d, and 3d n-1 5s even configurations and among the 3d n-1 4p, 3d n-2 4s4p, and 3d n-1 5p odd configurations, with 3p 5 3d n+1 added for Fe VI. Calculated wavelengths are compared with observational data, and the compositions of energy levels are listed. This completes a series of similar computations for these complex configurations covering Fe I to Fe VI

  19. Quadrupole and monopole generalized oscillator strength for 2p-3p, 2p-4p transition of neon atomic in the velocity formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomis, L; Diedhiou, I; Tall, M S; Diallo, S; Diatta, C S; Niassy, B

    2007-01-01

    The quadrupole and monopole generalized oscillator strengths (GOS) as a function of momentum transfer are calculated for the 2p-3p and 2p-4p transitions of the neon atom using the analytical Hartree-Fock (HF) wavefunctions for the ground-state and the wavefunctions for the excited states which are obtained numerically from the modified HF Slater equation. Calculations are carried out by using the HF method and random phase approximation with exchange in the velocity formulation. The positions and the number of the extrema in the GOS have received particular attention in the evaluation. Our calculated monopole GOS of 2p-3p transition in velocity form reveals one maximum located between the experimental and theoretical results of other authors. The disagreement between our first maximum of the quadrupole GOS 2p-3p transition with the experimental and other theoretical ones is unimportant. The extrema of the monopole and quadrupole GOS of 2p-4p transition are given in this paper. The results of velocity form study also show that the electron correlation effects are important around the maxima and are found to influence the positions of the extrema insignificantly

  20. Microstructure and mechanical strength of near- and sub-micrometre grain size copper prepared by spark plasma sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, K. N.; Godfrey, A.; Hansen, Niels

    2017-01-01

    Spark plasma sintering (SPS) has been used to prepare fully dense samples of copper in a fully recrystallized condition with grain sizes in the near- and sub-micrometre regime. Two synthesis routes have been investigated to achieve grain size control: (i) SPS at different temperatures from 800...... transmission electron microscope, and on electron back-scatter diffraction studies, confirms the samples are in a nearly fully recrystallized condition, with grains that are dislocation-free, and have a random texture, with a high fraction of high angle boundaries. The mechanical strength of the samples has...

  1. Evaluation of bond strength of isothermally aged plasma sprayed thermal barrier coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Jin; Lee, Dong Hoon; Koo, Jae Mean; Song, Sung Jin; Seok, Chang Sung [Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mun Young [Korea Plant Service and Engineering Co., Ltd., Seongnam (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-07-15

    In this study, disk type of thermal barrier coating system for gas turbine blade was isothermally aged in the furnace changing exposure time and temperature. For each aging condition, bond tests for three samples were conducted for evaluating degradation of adhesive or cohesive strength of thermal barrier coating system. For as-sprayed condition, the location of fracture in the bond test was in the middle of epoxy which have bond strength of 57 MPa. As specimens are degraded by thermal aging, bond strength gradually decreased and the location of failure was also changed from within top coat at the earlier stage of thermal aging to the interface between top coat and TGO at the later stage due to the delamination in the coating.

  2. Generalized oscillator strength for the transition Aapprox. /sup 1/B/sup 2u/Xapprox. A/sub 1g/ in benzene at initial kinetic energies 400 eV and 500 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klump, K N; Lassettre, E N

    1977-10-01

    Generalized oscillator strengths, f, for the transition A/sup 1/B/sub 2u/ reverse arrow X/sup 1/A/sub 1g/ in benzene, determined by electron impact methods, are reported as a function of the momentum change. At scattering angles down to 2.5/sup 0/ helium was used as the comparison gas. Determinations are also reported at theta = 0/sup 0/ using mercury as the comparison gas. The oscillator strength curve has both a minimum and a maximum due to the superposition of electric dipole and octupole transitions. The band envelope is studied and is shown to remain unchanged in shape but is shifted by h nu/sub 6/ approximately 0.065 eV with increasing angle due to the shift from electric dipole to octupole scattering.

  3. The influence of electrical resistivity, magnetic field strength, boundary conditions, and injection conditions on the behavior of the magnetically injected plasma in the PBFA-II opening switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watrous, J.J.; Frese, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Plasma Opening Switch used on PBFA-II uses a source plasma which is injected into the inter-electrode gap along the field lines of a modest-strength applied poloidal magnetic field. The distribution of this plasma within the gap plays an important role in the behavior of the switch. Knowledge of this distribution is critical for performing relevant switch calculations and for interpreting experimental data. In the work reported here, the influence on that distribution of the plasma electrical resistivity, the applied magnetic field strength, and the boundary and injection conditions have been investigated with the 2 1/2-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics simulation code, MACH2. The injected plasma has density in the 10 14 cm -3 range and temperature in the several eV range. In this parameter regime, the classical collision time scale is on the order of 10 ns, which, when compared to the 100 ns time scale of the inflowing plasma, means that the plasma is classically collisionless. However, mechanisms other than classical collisions are likely to contribute to electrical resistivity. The authors have investigated the effect of an anomalous resistivity which scales with the plasma frequency, varying the scaling from the electron plasma frequency to the ion plasma frequency. They will compare these results with results based on the assumption of an ideal plasma, and discuss other anomalous resistivity models

  4. Absolute photoabsorption oscillator strengths by electron energy loss methods: the valence and S 2p and 2s inner shells of sulphur dioxide in the discrete and continuum regions (3.5-260 eV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, R.; Cooper, G.; Burton, G.R.; Brion, C.E.; Avaldi, L.

    1999-01-01

    Absolute photoabsorption oscillator strengths (cross-sections) for the valence shell discrete and continuum regions of sulphur dioxide from 3.5 to 51 eV have been measured using high resolution (∼0.05 eV FWHM) dipole (e,e) spectroscopy. A wide-range spectrum, covering both the valence shell and the S 2p and 2s inner shells, has also been obtained from 5 to 260 eV at low resolution (∼1 eV FWHM), and this has been used to determine the absolute oscillator strength scale using valence shell TRK (i.e., S(0)) sum-rule normalization. The present measurements have been undertaken in order to investigate the recently discovered significant quantitative errors in our previously published low resolution dipole (e,e) work on sulphur dioxide (Cooper et al., Chem. Phys. 150 (1991) 237; 150 (1991) 251). These earlier measurements were also in poor agreement with other previously published direct photoabsorption measurements. We now report new absolute photoabsorption oscillator strengths using both high and low resolution dipole (e,e) spectroscopies. These new measurements cover a wider energy range and are much more consistent with the previously published direct photoabsorption measurements. The accuracy of our new measurements is confirmed by an S(-2) dipole sum-rule analysis which gives a static dipole polarizability for sulphur dioxide in excellent agreement (within 3.5%) with previously reported polarizability values. Other dipole sums S(u) (u=-1,-3 to -6,-8,-10) and logarithmic dipole sums L(u) (u=-1 to -6) are also determined from the presently reported absolute oscillator strength distributions. (Copyright (c) 1999 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. The effect of nitrogen and oxygen plasma on the wear properties and adhesion strength of the diamond-like carbon film coated on PTFE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozeki, K.; Hirakuri, K.K.

    2008-01-01

    Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were deposited on polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) using a radiofrequency plasma chemical vapour deposition method. Prior to DLC coating, the PTFE substrates were modified with O 2 and N 2 plasma to enhance the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the substrate. The effect of the plasma pre-treatment on the chemical composition and the surface energy of the plasma pre-treated PTFE surface was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and static water contact angle measurement, respectively. A pull-out test and a ball-on-disc test were carried out to evaluate the adhesion strength and the wear properties of the DLC-coated PTFE. In the N 2 plasma pre-treatment, the XPS result indicated that defluorination and the nitrogen grafting occurred on the plasma pre-treated PTFE surface, and the water contact angle decreased with increasing the plasma pre-treatment time. In the O 2 plasma pre-treatment, no grafting of the oxygen occurred, and the water contact angle slightly increased with the treatment time. In the pull-out test, the adhesion strength of the DLC film to the PTFE substrate was improved with the plasma pre-treatment to the PTFE substrate, and N 2 plasma pre-treatment was more effective than the O 2 plasma pre-treatment. In the ball-on-disc test, the DLC film with the N 2 plasma pre-treatment showed good wear resistance, compared with that with O 2 plasma pre-treatment

  6. Conference on atomic processes in high temperature plasmas: a topical conference of the American Physical Society Division of Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    Abstracts are included for approximately 100 of the papers presented at the meeting. The following sessions were held at the conference: (1) electron ionization and excitation rates, (2) radiation from low density plasmas, (3) electron-ion cross sections and rates, (4) oscillator strengths and atomic structure, (5) spectroscopy and atomic structure, (6) astrophysical plasmas, (7) particle transport, (8) ion-atom cross sections and rates, (9) wall effects in laboratory plasmas, (10) spectroscopy and photoionization, and (11) radiation from high density plasmas

  7. The Study of Sawtooth Oscillation during ECRH of HL-2A-like Plasma using 1.5D BALDUR Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Promping, J.; Onjun, T.; Poolyarat, N.; Picha, R.

    2009-07-01

    Full text: One of the current issues in tokamak plasma is sawtooth oscillation, because each sawtooth crash results in a significant reduction of central temperature and density. Consequently, the nuclear fusion power will drop. This has a significant impact on the performance of future nuclear fusion power plants. In this work, behaviors of sawtooth oscillations during an electron-cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) in HL-2A tokamak experiment are studied. The simulation of plasma in HL-2A tokamak is carried out using the 1.5 D BALDUR integrated predictive modeling code, where the plasma core can be described by the combination of anomalous and neoclassical transport. This simulation used the Mixed Bohm/Gyro-Bohm (Mixed B/gB) model for the anomalous transport and the the NCLASS module for the neoclassical transport. For the anomamouse transport, we use Multimode (MMM95) model, while for the neoclassical transport, we use the NCLASS module for the neoclassical transport. In each simulation, a sawtooth crash is predicted by either Rogers-Zakharov sawtooth triggering model, Park-Monticello sawtooth triggering model, or Porcelli sawtooth triggering model. The effect of sawtooth crash is described by a modified Kadomtsev magnetic reconnection model

  8. Interface evolution and shear strength of Al/Ti bi-metals processed by a spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miriyev, Aslan, E-mail: aslan.miriyev@columbia.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University in the City of New York, 500 W. 120th St., Mudd 220, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Levy, Asaf; Kalabukhov, Sergey; Frage, Nachum [Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, P.O.B. 653, Beer Sheva 8410501 (Israel)

    2016-09-05

    Microstructural evolution of the Al/Ti bi-metal interface during heat treatment in a spark plasma sintering (SPS) apparatus was investigated under various conditions for the first time. A mechanism of interfacial layer growth was suggested based on the results of SEM, TEM and X-ray diffraction analysis. A continuous TiAl{sub 3} intermetallic layer was formed at the Al/Ti interface even after a processing time as short as about a minute. The TiAl{sub 3} layer grew mainly into the Ti part, while only a few individual grains grew into the Al part. Evolution of the interlayer was determined by Al diffusion through the (TiAl{sub 3}/TiAl{sub 3}) grain boundary. The activation energy of the process was 140 kJ/mol. The shear strength of the interface in the Al/Ti bi-metal was determined after various heat treatments. The shear strength of the bi-metal was limited by the properties of aluminum, with no effect of interlayer thickness or current mode and pulse pattern of the SPS treatment being detected. - Highlights: • Spark plasma sintering apparatus was used for heat treatment of Al/Ti bi-metals. • Microstructural evolution of Al/Ti interface during SPS treatment was investigated. • A continuous TiAl{sub 3} intermetallic layer was formed at the Al/Ti interface. • The bi-metal shear strength was limited by the properties of pure aluminum. • No effect of TiAl{sub 3} thickness or SPS current mode and pulse pattern was detected.

  9. Corrosion Behavior and Strength of Dissimilar Bonding Material between Ti and Mg Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pripanapong, Patchara; Kariya, Shota; Luangvaranunt, Tachai; Umeda, Junko; Tsutsumi, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Makoto; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Ti and solution treated Mg alloys such as AZ31B (ST), AZ61 (ST), AZ80 (ST) and AZ91 (ST) were successfully bonded at 475 °C by spark plasma sintering, which is a promising new method in welding field. The formation of Ti3Al intermetallic compound was found to be an important factor in controlling the bonding strength and galvanic corrosion resistance of dissimilar materials. The maximum bonding strength and bonding efficiency at 193 MPa and 96% were obtained from Ti/AZ91 (ST), in which a thick and uniform nano-level Ti3Al layer was observed. This sample also shows the highest galvanic corrosion resistance with a measured galvanic width and depth of 281 and 19 µm, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the matrix on Mg alloy side was controlled by its Al content. AZ91 (ST) exhibited the highest corrosion resistance considered from its corrode surface after corrosion test in Kroll’s etchant. The effect of Al content in Mg alloy on bonding strength and corrosion behavior of Ti/Mg alloy (ST) dissimilar materials is discussed in this work. PMID:28773788

  10. Plasma immersion ion implantation on 15-5PH stainless steel: influence on fatigue strength and wear resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, R.; Cioffi, M. O. H.; Voorwald, H. J. C.

    2017-05-01

    Surface improvement in steels is of great interest for applications in industry. The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the axial fatigue strength and wear resistance of 15-5 PH stainless steel. It is well know that electroplated coatings, which are used to improve abrasive wear and corrosion properties, affects negatively the fatigue strength. It is also important to consider requirements to reduce the use of coated materials with electroplated chromium and cadmium, that produce waste, which is harmful to health and environment. The HVOF (High velocity oxygen fuel) process provides hardness, wear strength and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to electroplated chromium. Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used to enhance the hardness, wear, fatigue and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. In the present research the fatigue life increased twice for 15-5 PH three hours PIII treated in comparison to base material. From the abrasive wear tests a lower pin mass reduction was observed, associated to the superficial treatments. The improvement of fatigue and mechanical performance is attributed to a combination of nitrides phase structure and compressive residual stresses during the PIII treatment.

  11. Plasma immersion ion implantation on 15-5PH stainless steel: influence on fatigue strength and wear resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonora, R; Cioffi, M O H; Voorwald, H J C

    2017-01-01

    Surface improvement in steels is of great interest for applications in industry. The aim of this investigation is to study the effect of nitrogen ion implantation on the axial fatigue strength and wear resistance of 15-5 PH stainless steel. It is well know that electroplated coatings, which are used to improve abrasive wear and corrosion properties, affects negatively the fatigue strength. It is also important to consider requirements to reduce the use of coated materials with electroplated chromium and cadmium, that produce waste, which is harmful to health and environment. The HVOF (High velocity oxygen fuel) process provides hardness, wear strength and higher fatigue resistance in comparison to electroplated chromium. Plasma immersion ion implantation has been used to enhance the hardness, wear, fatigue and corrosion properties of metals and alloys. In the present research the fatigue life increased twice for 15-5 PH three hours PIII treated in comparison to base material. From the abrasive wear tests a lower pin mass reduction was observed, associated to the superficial treatments. The improvement of fatigue and mechanical performance is attributed to a combination of nitrides phase structure and compressive residual stresses during the PIII treatment. (paper)

  12. Corrosion Behavior and Strength of Dissimilar Bonding Material between Ti and Mg Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patchara Pripanapong

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Ti and solution treated Mg alloys such as AZ31B (ST, AZ61 (ST, AZ80 (ST and AZ91 (ST were successfully bonded at 475 °C by spark plasma sintering, which is a promising new method in welding field. The formation of Ti3Al intermetallic compound was found to be an important factor in controlling the bonding strength and galvanic corrosion resistance of dissimilar materials. The maximum bonding strength and bonding efficiency at 193 MPa and 96% were obtained from Ti/AZ91 (ST, in which a thick and uniform nano-level Ti3Al layer was observed. This sample also shows the highest galvanic corrosion resistance with a measured galvanic width and depth of 281 and 19 µm, respectively. The corrosion resistance of the matrix on Mg alloy side was controlled by its Al content. AZ91 (ST exhibited the highest corrosion resistance considered from its corrode surface after corrosion test in Kroll’s etchant. The effect of Al content in Mg alloy on bonding strength and corrosion behavior of Ti/Mg alloy (ST dissimilar materials is discussed in this work.

  13. Plasma-sprayed CaTiSiO5 ceramic coating on Ti-6Al-4V with excellent bonding strength, stability and cellular bioactivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chengtie; Ramaswamy, Yogambha; Liu, Xuanyong; Wang, Guocheng; Zreiqat, Hala

    2008-01-01

    Novel Ca-Si-Ti-based sphene (CaTiSiO5) ceramics possess excellent chemical stability and cytocompatibility. The aim of this study was to prepare sphene coating on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) for orthopaedic applications using the plasma spray method. The phase composition, surface and interface microstructure, coating thickness, surface roughness and bonding strength of the plasma-sprayed sphene coating were analysed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy and the standard mechanical testing of the American Society for Testing and Materials, respectively. The results indicated that sphene coating was obtained with a uniform and dense microstructure at the interface of the Ti-6Al-4V surface and the thickness and surface roughness of the coating were approximately 150 and 10 μm, respectively. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed a significantly improved bonding strength and chemical stability compared with plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite (HAp) coating. Plasma-sprayed sphene coating supported human osteoblast-like cell (HOB) attachment and significantly enhanced HOB proliferation and differentiation compared with plasma-sprayed HAp coating and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V. Taken together, plasma-sprayed sphene coating on Ti-6Al-4V possessed excellent bonding strength, chemical stability and cellular bioactivity, indicating its potential application for orthopaedic implants. PMID:18664431

  14. Relative strength of second harmonic and 3/2 omega emissions from long-scale-length laser produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, B.K.; Kumbhare, S.R.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the planar slab targets of carbon, aluminum, and copper, using a 1.0641 μm laser, at laser intensities varying from 2 x 10/sup 12/ to 1 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/. The laser had a fluorescent linewidth of 4.5 A. Spectral profiles of parametrically modulated second harmonic as well as 3/2/ω/sub 0/ emissions have been measured for the long-scale-length plasmas so generated. Relative strengths of three emissions with respect to peak signal intensity and spectral energy content as a function of laser intensity are graphically reported. Results are discussed on the basis of two plasmon and parametric decay instabilities

  15. Effect of Bauxite addition on Adhesion Strength and Surface Roughness of Fly ash based Plasma Sprayed Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, S. K.; Samal, S.; Pattnaik, D.; Sahu, A.; Swain, B.; Thiyagarajan, T. K.; Mishra, S. C.

    2018-03-01

    The environment is being contaminated with advancement of new technology, day by day. One of the primary sources for this contamination is the industrial waste. Industrialization is the prime reason behind the prosperity of any country to meet the materialistic demand. To run the industries, a huge amount of (electric) power is needed and hence need for thermal power plants to serve the purpose. In present scenario, coal fired thermal power plants are set up which generates a huge quantity of Fly ash. Consumption of industrial waste (Fly ash), continually a major concern for human race. In recent years, fly ash is being utilized for various purposes i.e. making bricks, mine reclamation, production of cements etc. The presence of Silica and Alumina in fly ash makes it useful for thermal barrier applications also. The plasma spray technology has the advantage of being able to process any types of metal/ceramic mineral, low-grade-ore minerals etc. to make value-added products and also to deposit ceramics, metals and a combination of these to deposit composite coatings with desired microstructure and required properties on a range of substrate materials. The present work focuses on utilization of fly ash mixing with bauxite (ore mineral) for a high valued application. Fly ash with 10 and 20% bauxite addition is used to deposit plasma spray overlay coatings at different power levels (10-20kW) on aluminum and mild steel substrates. Adhesion strength and surface roughness of the coatings are evaluated. Phase composition analysis of the coatings were done using X-ray diffraction analysis. Surface morphology of the coatings was studied using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Maximum adhesion strength of 4.924 MPa is obtained for the composition fly ash and bauxite (10%), coated on mild steel at 16kW torch power level. The surface roughness (Ra) of the coatings is found to vary between 10.0102 to 17.2341 micron.

  16. Effect of nonthermal plasma treatment on surface chemistry of commercially-pure titanium and shear bond strength to autopolymerizing acrylic resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vechiato-Filho, Aljomar José, E-mail: aljomarvechiatoflo@gmail.com [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ. Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Aracatuba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Silva Vieira Marques, Isabella da [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Santos, Daniela Micheline dos [Department of Dental Materials and Prosthodontics, Aracatuba Dental School, Univ. Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Aracatuba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Oliveira Matos, Adaias [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rangel, Elidiane Cipriano; Cruz, Nilson Cristino da [Laboratory of Technological Plasmas (LaPTec), Engineering College, Univ. Estadual Paulista — UNESP, Sorocaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo [Department of Prosthodontics and Periodontology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Piracicaba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-03-01

    The effect of nonthermal plasma on the surface characteristics of commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti), and on the shear bond strength between an autopolymerizing acrylic resin and cp-Ti was investigated. A total of 96 discs of cp-Ti were distributed into four groups (n = 24): Po (no surface treatment), SB (sandblasting), Po + NTP and SB + NTP (methane plasma). Surface characterization was performed through surface energy, surface roughness, scanning microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction tests. Shear bond strength test was conducted immediately and after thermocycling. Surface treatment affected the surface energy and roughness of cp-Ti discs (P < .001). SEM–EDS showed the presence of the carbide thin film. XRD spectra revealed no crystalline phase changes. The SB + NTP group showed the highest bond strength values (6.76 ± 0.70 MPa). Thermocycling reduced the bond strength of the acrylic resin/cp-Ti interface (P < .05), except for Po group. NTP is an effective treatment option for improving the shear bond strength between both materials. - Highlights: • We tested the bond strength between two widely used materials in dentistry (acrylic and titanium). • We performed an innovative surface treatment with nonthermal plasma. • Increasing adhesion will avoid complications of full-arch implant-retained prostheses.

  17. A flowing plasma model to describe drift waves in a cylindrical helicon discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, L.; Hole, M. J.; Corr, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    A two-fluid model developed originally to describe wave oscillations in the vacuum arc centrifuge, a cylindrical, rapidly rotating, low temperature, and confined plasma column, is applied to interpret plasma oscillations in a RF generated linear magnetized plasma [WOMBAT (waves on magnetized beams and turbulence)], with similar density and field strength. Compared to typical centrifuge plasmas, WOMBAT plasmas have slower normalized rotation frequency, lower temperature, and lower axial velocity. Despite these differences, the two-fluid model provides a consistent description of the WOMBAT plasma configuration and yields qualitative agreement between measured and predicted wave oscillation frequencies with axial field strength. In addition, the radial profile of the density perturbation predicted by this model is consistent with the data. Parameter scans show that the dispersion curve is sensitive to the axial field strength and the electron temperature, and the dependence of oscillation frequency with electron temperature matches the experiment. These results consolidate earlier claims that the density and floating potential oscillations are a resistive drift mode, driven by the density gradient. To our knowledge, this is the first detailed physics model of flowing plasmas in the diffusion region away from the RF source. Possible extensions to the model, including temperature nonuniformity and magnetic field oscillations, are also discussed.

  18. Stellar laboratories . IX. New Se v, Sr iv-vii, Te vi, and I vi oscillator strengths and the Se, Sr, Te, and I abundances in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Quinet, P.; Knörzer, M.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-10-01

    Context. To analyze spectra of hot stars, advanced non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model-atmosphere techniques are mandatory. Reliable atomic data is crucial for the calculation of such model atmospheres. Aims: We aim to calculate new Sr iv-vii oscillator strengths to identify for the first time Sr spectral lines in hot white dwarf (WD) stars and to determine the photospheric Sr abundances. To measure the abundances of Se, Te, and I in hot WDs, we aim to compute new Se v, Te vi, and I vi oscillator strengths. Methods: To consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions of Se v, Sr iv - vii, Te vi, and I vi in our NLTE atmosphere models, we calculated oscillator strengths for these ions. Results: We newly identified four Se v, 23 Sr v, 1 Te vi, and three I vi lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of RE 0503-289. We measured a photospheric Sr abundance of 6.5+ 3.8-2.4× 10-4 (mass fraction, 9500-23 800 times solar). We determined the abundances of Se (1.6+ 0.9-0.6× 10-3, 8000-20 000), Te (2.5+ 1.5-0.9× 10-4, 11 000-28 000), and I (1.4+ 0.8-0.5× 10-5, 2700-6700). No Se, Sr, Te, and I line was found in the UV spectra of G191-B2B and we could determine only upper abundance limits of approximately 100 times solar. Conclusions: All identified Se v, Sr v, Te vi, and I vi lines in the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289 were simultaneously well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26666. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Full Tables A.15 to A.21 are only available via the German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service TOSS (http://dc.g-vo.org/TOSS).

  19. Stochastic heating of dust particles in complex plasmas as an energetic instability of a harmonic oscillator with random frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmolino, Ciro [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie dell' Ambiente e del Territorio-DiSTAT, Universita del Molise, Contrada Fonte Lappone, I-86090 Pesche (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    The paper describes the occurrence of stochastic heating of dust particles in dusty plasmas as an energy instability due to the correlations between dust grain charge and electric field fluctuations. The possibility that the mean energy (''temperature'') of dust particles can grow in time has been found both from the self-consistent kinetic description of dusty plasmas taking into account charge fluctuations [U. de Angelis, A. V. Ivlev, V. N. Tsytovich, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 052301 (2005)] and from a Fokker-Planck approach to systems with variable charge [A. V. Ivlev, S. K. Zhdanov, B. A. Klumov, and G. E. Morfill, Phys. Plasmas 12(9), 092104 (2005)]. Here, a different derivation is given by using the mathematical techniques of the so called multiplicative stochastic differential equations. Both cases of ''fast'' and ''slow'' fluctuations are discussed.

  20. Stellar Laboratories: 3. New Ba 5, Ba 6, and Ba 7 Oscillator Strengths and the Barium Abundance in the Hot White Dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, Jeffrey Walter

    2014-01-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims. Reliable Ba 5-7 oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. Methods. We newly calculated Ba v-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results. For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba vi and Ba vii lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The Ba vi/Ba vii ionization equilibrium is well reproduced with the previously determined effective temperature of 70 000 K and surface gravity of log g=7.5. The Ba abundance is 3.5 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-4) (mass fraction, about 23 000 times the solar value). In the FUSE spectrum of G191-B2B, we identified the strongest Ba vii line (at 993.41 Å) only, and determined a Ba abundance of 4.0 +/- 0.5 × 10(exp-6) (about 265 times solar). Conclusions. Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Ba vi-vii line profiles in two white dwarfs' (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) far-ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed to determine the photospheric Ba abundance of these two stars precisely.

  1. Limit cycle oscillations at the L-I-H transition in TJ-II plasmas: triggering, temporal ordering and radial propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, T.; Ascasíbar, E.; Blanco, E.; Cappa, A.; Castejón, F.; Hidalgo, C.; van Milligen, B. Ph.; Sánchez, E.

    2015-06-01

    The spatiotemporal evolution of the interaction between turbulence and flows has been studied close to the L-H transition threshold conditions in the edge of TJ-II plasmas. As in other devices the temporal dynamics of the interaction displays limit cycle oscillations (LCO) with a characteristic predator-prey relationship between flows and turbulence. At TJ-II, the turbulence-flow front is found to propagate radially outwards at the onset of the LCO and in some particular cases, after a short time interval without oscillations, a reversal in the front propagation velocity is observed. Associated to this velocity reversal, a change in the temporal ordering of the LCO is measured. However, the change in the temporal ordering is not related to an intrinsic change in the nature of the LCO. In all cases the turbulence increase leads the process and produces an increase in the E × B flow shear. Dedicated experiments have been carried out to investigate the physical mechanisms triggering the onset of the LCO. At TJ-II the LCO are preferentially observed close to the transition threshold conditions at specific magnetic configurations having a low order rational surface located at the inner side of the E × B flow shear location. The behaviour of different frequency modes has been analysed and interpreted in terms of a geodesic acoustic mode generated by the non-linear mode coupling of Alfvén eigenmodes that evolves towards a low frequency flow, plus a MHD mode linked to the low order rational surface, as precursors of the LCO.

  2. Influence of aramid fiber moisture regain during atmospheric plasma treatment on aging of treatment effects on surface wettability and bonding strength to epoxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Yu; Wang Chunxia; Qiu Yiping

    2007-01-01

    One of the main differences between a low-pressure plasma treatment and an atmospheric pressure plasma treatment is that in atmosphere, the substrate material may absorb significant amount of water which may potentially influence the plasma treatment effects. This paper investigates how the moisture absorbed by aramid fibers during the atmospheric pressure plasma treatment influences the aging behavior of the modified surfaces. Kevlar 49 fibers with different moisture regains (MR) (0.5, 3.5 and 5.5%, respectively) are treated with atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) with helium as the carrier gas and oxygen as the treatment gas. Surface wettability and chemical compositions, and interfacial shear strengths (IFSS) to epoxy for the aramid fibers in all groups are determined using water contact angle measurements, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and micro-bond pull out tests, respectively. Immediately after the plasma treatment, the treated fibers have substantially lower water contact angles, higher surface oxygen and nitrogen contents, and larger IFSS to epoxy than those of the control group. At the end of 30 day aging period, the fibers treated with 5.5% moisture regain had a lower water contact angle and more polar groups on the fiber surface, leading to 75% improvement of IFSS over the control fibers, while those for the 0.5 and 3.5% moisture regain groups were only 30%

  3. Stellar laboratories. VI. New Mo iv-vii oscillator strengths and the molybdenum abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Quinet, P.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Demleitner, M.; Kruk, J. W.

    2016-03-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: To identify molybdenum lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and, to determine their photospheric Mo abundances, reliable Mo iv-vii oscillator strengths are used. Methods: We newly calculated Mo iv-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Mo lines exhibited in high-resolution and high S/N UV observations of RE 0503-289. Results: We identified 12 Mo v and 9 Mo vi lines in the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289 and measured a photospheric Mo abundance of 1.2-3.0 × 10-4 (mass fraction, 22 500-56 400 times the solar abundance). In addition, from the As v and Sn iv resonance lines, we measured mass fractions of arsenic (0.5-1.3 × 10-5, about 300-1200 times solar) and tin (1.3-3.2 × 10-4, about 14 300-35 200 times solar). For G191-B2B, upper limits were determined for the abundances of Mo (5.3 × 10-7, 100 times solar) and, in addition, for Kr (1.1 × 10-6, 10 times solar) and Xe (1.7 × 10-7, 10 times solar). The arsenic abundance was determined (2.3-5.9 × 10-7, about 21-53 times solar). A new, registered German Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (GAVO) service, TOSS, has been constructed to provide weighted oscillator strengths and transition probabilities. Conclusions: Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Mo v-vi line profiles in the UV spectrum of the white dwarf RE 0503-289 were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. For the first time, this allowed the photospheric Mo

  4. Plasma satellites of X-ray lines of ions in a picosecond laser plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belyaev, V.S.; Vinogradov, V.I.; Kurilov, A.S.; Matafonov, A.P.; Lisitsa, V.S.; Gavrilenko, V. P.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Skobelev, I.Yu.; Magunov, A.I.; Pikuz, S.A. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of our measurements of the spectra for multicharged ions in a plasma produced by moderately intense (about 10 17 W cm -2 ) picosecond laser pulses. They suggest the existence of intense plasma oscillations with a frequency appreciably lower than the frequency of the laser radiation. The observed spectrum for the plasma satellites of the Lyman Ly α doublet of the hydrogenic F IX ion in a dense plasma was modeled theoretically. The resulting doublet profile was shown to have a complex structure that depends nontrivially both on the plasma density and on the frequency and amplitude of the plasma oscillations. The positions of the satellites and their separations allowed them to be associated with intense electrostatic oscillations with an amplitude of (4-6) x 10 8 V cm -1 and a frequency near (0.7-1) x 10 15 s -1 . Assuming the oscillation frequency to be determined by the strength of the magnetic field B generated in the plasma, we obtained an estimate of B that is in reasonable agreement with other measurements and estimates of this quantity. Our theoretical analysis allowed explanation of the emission spectra observed when flat fluoroplastic targets were heated by intense picosecond laser pulses

  5. Finite-temperature random-phase approximation for spectroscopic properties of neon plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, J.; Collins, L. A.; Fontes, C. J.; Csanak, G.

    2007-01-01

    A finite-temperature random-phase approximation (FTRPA) is applied to calculate oscillator strengths for excitations in hot and dense plasmas. Application of the FTRPA provides a convenient, self-consistent method with which to explore coupled-channel effects of excited electrons in a dense plasma. We present FTRPA calculations that include coupled-channel effects. The inclusion of these effects is shown to cause significant differences in the oscillator strength for a prototypical case of 1 P excitation in neon when compared with single-channel and with average-atom calculations. Trends as a function of temperature and density are also discussed

  6. Plasma enhanced modification of TMP fiber and its effect on tensile strength of wood fiber/PP composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangyeob Lee; Todd F. Shupe; Chung Y. Hse

    2009-01-01

    Plasma-assisted surface treatment on thermomechanical pulp (TMP) fiber and polypropylene (PP) film was investigated to obtain interfacial adhesion at the wood fiber and PP interface. A metal plate between electrodes prevented thermal damage to the TMP fiber handsheets and PP film. Oxygen-plasma treatment provided better surface activation on the TMP fiber and...

  7. Oscillator monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeill, G.A.

    1981-01-01

    Present high-speed data acquisition systems in nuclear diagnostics use high-frequency oscillators to provide timing references for signals recorded on fast, traveling-wave oscilloscopes. An oscillator's sinusoidal wave shape is superimposed on the recorded signal with each cycle representing a fixed time increment. During data analysis the sinusoid is stripped from the signal, leaving a clean signal shape with known timing. Since all signal/time relationships are totally dependant upon working oscillators, these critical devices must have remote verification of proper operation. This manual presents the newly-developed oscillator monitor which will provide the required verification

  8. Atoms in dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    This paper covers some aspects of the theory of atomic processes in dense plasmas. Because the topic is very broad, a few general rules which give useful guidance about the typical behavior of dense plasmas have been selected. These rules are illustrated by semiclassical estimates, scaling laws and appeals to more elaborate calculations. Included in the paper are several previously unpublished results including a new mechanism for electron-ion heat exchange (section II), and an approximate expression for oscillator-strengths of highly charged ions (section V). However the main emphasis is not upon practical formulas but rather on questions of fundamental theory, the structural ingredients which must be used in building a model for plasma events. What are the density effects and how does one represent them? Which are most important? How does one identify an incorrect theory? The general rules help to answer these questions. 106 references, 23 figures, 2 tables

  9. Chromospheric oscillations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lites, B.W.; Rutten, R.J.; Thomas, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    We show results from SO/Sacramento Peak data to discuss three issues: (i)--the spatial occurrence of chromospheric 3--min oscillations; (ii)--the validity of Ca II H&K line-center Doppler Shift measurements; (iii)--the signi ?cance of oscillation power and phase at frequencies above 10 mHz.

  10. Inverted oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuce, C [Physics Department, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Kilic, A [Physics Department, Anadolu University, Eskisehir (Turkey); Coruh, A [Physics Department, Sakarya University, Sakarya (Turkey)

    2006-07-15

    The inverted harmonic oscillator problem is investigated quantum mechanically. The exact wavefunction for the confined inverted oscillator is obtained and it is shown that the associated energy eigenvalues are discrete, and the energy is given as a linear function of the quantum number n.

  11. PLASMA POLYMER FILMS AS ADHESION PROMOTING PRIMERS FOR ALUMINUM. PART II: STRENGTH AND DURABILITY OF LAP JOINTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plasma polymerized hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) films (~800 A in thickness) were deposited onto 6111-T4 aluminum substrates in radio frequency and microwave powered reactors and used as primers for structural adhesive bonding. Processing variables such as substrate pre-treatment,...

  12. Strengthening mechanisms in a high-strength bulk nanostructured Cu–Zn–Al alloy processed via cryomilling and spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, Haiming; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.

    2013-01-01

    A bulk nanostructured alloy with the nominal composition Cu–30Zn–0.8Al wt.% (commercial designation brass 260) was fabricated by cryomilling of brass powders and subsequent spark plasma sintering (SPS) of the cryomilled powders, yielding a compressive yield strength of 950 MPa, which is significantly higher than the yield strength of commercial brass 260 alloys (∼200–400 MPa). Transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed that cryomilling results in an average grain diameter of 26 nm and a high density of deformation twins. Nearly fully dense bulk samples were obtained after SPS of cryomilled powders, with average grain diameter 110 nm. After SPS, 10 vol.% of twins is retained with average twin thickness 30 nm. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography studies demonstrate that the distribution of Al is highly inhomogeneous in the sintered bulk samples, and Al-containing precipitates including Al(Cu,Zn)–O–N, Al–O–N and Al–N are distributed in the matrix. The precipitates have an average diameter of 1.7 nm and a volume fraction of 0.39%. Quantitative calculations were performed for different strengthening contributions in the sintered bulk samples, including grain boundary, twin boundary, precipitate, dislocation and solid-solution strengthening. Results from the analyses demonstrate that precipitate and grain boundary strengthening are the dominant strengthening mechanisms, and the calculated overall yield strength is in reasonable agreement with the experimentally determined compressive yield strength

  13. Stellar laboratories . VIII. New Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths and the Al, Zr, and Xe abundances in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Gamrath, S.; Quinet, P.; Löbling, L.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Kruk, J. W.; Demleitner, M.

    2017-03-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: To search for zirconium and xenon lines in the ultraviolet (UV) spectra of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289, new Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths were calculated. This allows, for the first time, determination of the Zr abundance in white dwarf (WD) stars and improvement of the Xe abundance determinations. Methods: We calculated Zr iv-vii, Xe iv-v, and Xe vii oscillator strengths to consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions of Zr and Xe in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of their lines exhibited in UV observations of the hot WDs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: We identified one new Zr iv, 14 new Zr v, and ten new Zr vi lines in the spectrum of RE 0503-289. Zr was detected for the first time in a WD. We measured a Zr abundance of -3.5 ± 0.2 (logarithmic mass fraction, approx. 11 500 times solar). We identified five new Xe vi lines and determined a Xe abundance of -3.9 ± 0.2 (approx. 7500 times solar). We determined a preliminary photospheric Al abundance of -4.3 ± 0.2 (solar) in RE 0503-289. In the spectra of G191-B2B, no Zr line was identified. The strongest Zr iv line (1598.948 Å) in our model gave an upper limit of -5.6 ± 0.3 (approx. 100 times solar). No Xe line was identified in the UV spectrum of G191-B2B and we confirmed the previously determined upper limit of -6.8 ± 0.3 (ten times solar). Conclusions: Precise measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for advanced NLTE stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Zr iv-vi and Xe vi-vii line profiles in the UV spectrum of RE 0503-289 were simultaneously well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. Based on observations

  14. Stellar laboratories. III. New Ba v, Ba vi, and Ba vii oscillator strengths and the barium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2014-06-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: Reliable Ba v-vii oscillator strengths are used to identify Ba lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ba abundances. Methods: We newly calculated Ba v-vii oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Ba lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: For the first time, we identified highly ionized Ba in the spectra of hot white dwarfs. We detected Ba vi and Ba vii lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The Ba vi/Ba vii ionization equilibrium is well reproduced with the previously determined effective temperature of 70 000 K and surface gravity of log g = 7.5. The Ba abundance is 3.5 ± 0.5 × 10-4 (mass fraction, about 23 000 times the solar value). In the FUSE spectrum of G191-B2B, we identified the strongest Ba vii line (at 993.41 Å) only, and determined a Ba abundance of 4.0 ± 0.5 × 10-6 (about 265 times solar). Conclusions: Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Ba vi-vii line profiles in two white dwarfs' (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) far-ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed to determine the photospheric Ba abundance of these two stars precisely. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for

  15. Stellar laboratories. II. New Zn iv and Zn v oscillator strengths and their validation in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2014-04-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. In a recent analysis of the ultraviolet (UV) spectrum of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B, 21 Zn iv lines were newly identified. Because of the lack of Zn iv data, transition probabilities of the isoelectronic Ge vi were adapted for a first, coarse determination of the photospheric Zn abundance. Aims: Reliable Zn iv and Zn v oscillator strengths are used to improve the Zn abundance determination and to identify more Zn lines in the spectra of G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289. Methods: We performed new calculations of Zn iv and Zn v oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of the Zn iv - v spectrum exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: In the UV spectrum of G191-B2B, we identify 31 Zn iv and 16 Zn v lines. Most of these are identified for the first time in any star. We can reproduce well almost all of them at log Zn = -5.52 ± 0.2 (mass fraction, about 1.7 times solar). In particular, the Zn iv / Zn v ionization equilibrium, which is a very sensitive Teff indicator, is well reproduced with the previously determined and log g = 7.60 ± 0.05. In the spectrum of RE 0503-289, we identified 128 Zn v lines for the first time and determined log Zn = -3.57 ± 0.2 (155 times solar). Conclusions: Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a pre-requisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. Observed Zn iv and Zn v line profiles in two white dwarf (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. This allowed us to

  16. Stellar laboratories. IV. New Ga iv, Ga v, and Ga vi oscillator strengths and the gallium abundance in the hot white dwarfs G191-B2B and RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Werner, K.; Quinet, P.; Kruk, J. W.

    2015-05-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high-signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, advanced non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These atmospheres are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that are used to calculate them. Aims: Reliable Ga iv-vi oscillator strengths are used to identify Ga lines in the spectra of the DA-type white dwarf G191-B2B and the DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289 and to determine their photospheric Ga abundances. Methods: We newly calculated Ga iv-vi oscillator strengths to consider their radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for analyzing of Ga lines exhibited in high-resolution and high-S/N UV observations of G191-B2B and RE 0503-289. Results: We unambiguously detected 20 isolated and 6 blended (with lines of other species) Ga v lines in the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) spectrum of RE 0503-289. The identification of Ga iv and Ga vi lines is uncertain because they are weak and partly blended by other lines. The determined Ga abundance is 3.5 ± 0.5 × 10-5 (mass fraction, about 625 times the solar value). The Ga iv/Ga v ionization equilibrium, which is a very sensitive indicator for the effective temperature, is well reproduced in RE 0503-289. We identified the strongest Ga iv lines (at 1258.801, 1338.129 Å) in the HST/STIS spectrum of G191-B2B and measured a Ga abundance of 2.0 ± 0.5 × 10-6 (about 22 times solar). Conclusions: Reliable measurements and calculations of atomic data are a prerequisite for stellar-atmosphere modeling. The observed Ga iv-v line profiles in two white dwarf (G191-B2B and RE 0503-289) ultraviolet spectra were well reproduced with our newly calculated oscillator strengths. For the first time, this allowed us to determine the photospheric Ga abundance in white dwarfs. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space

  17. Drift Instabilities and Electron Cyclotron Oscillations for Arbitrary Plasma Pressure; Instabilites de Derive et Oscillations Cyclotroniques des Electrons pour des Pressions de Plasma Arbitraires; Drejfovaya neustojchivost' i ehlektronno-tsiklotronnye kolebaniya pri proizvol'nom davlenii plazmy; Inestabilidades de Deriva y Oscilaciones Ciclotronicas de los Electrones en un Plasma de Presion Arbitraria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krall, N. A.; Pearlstein, L. D. [General Atomic Division, General Dynamics Corporation, San Diego, CA (United States)

    1966-04-15

    excited these modes can radiate only if coupled to transverse waves; in zero-{beta} this coupling occurs at a surface or at a local inhomogeneity. Since a prominent effect of finite {beta} is to couple longitudinal and transverse waves, the spectrum and coupling of electron cyclotron oscillations is calculated for arbitrary {beta}. (author) [French] La plupart des instabilites de derive connues (instabilites en cannelures, instabilites universelles, etc.) ont ete calculees a la limite ou {beta} = (pression de plasma)/(pression magnetique) = 0. A cette limite, le champ electrique perturbe est de nature electrostatique, et l'equation de Vlasov est remarquablement simplifiee. L'autre valeur limite de {beta} en-deca de laquelle l'approximation electrostatique est valable depend du mode particulier considere et dans beaucoup d'experiences faites a l'heure actuelle, {beta} tombe en dehors de cet intervalle. Lesauteursetudientdeuxinstabilitesdederiveabasse frequence bien connues pour des valeurs arbitraires de {beta}; ils etablissent le regime pour {beta} = 0 et deduisent des criteres de stabilite pour des valeurs de {beta} plus elevees. De plus, ils etudient l'influence de valeurs finies de {beta} sur le rayonnement dont les frequences sont des harmoniques de la frequence cyclotronique des electrons. La premiere de ces instabilites est l'instabilite en cannelures a rayon de Larmor fini provoquee par la courbure de type miroir du champ magnetique. L'importante contribution defavorable de l'ordre le plus bas, inversement proportionnelle a R{sup 2}, s'annule pour tous les ordres de {beta}. Les termes predominants ne dependent plus de R et sont inclus dans le probleme de valeur propre; les auteurs deduisent des criteres de stabilite pour differents intervalles de valeur de {beta}. La seconde instabilite est l'instabilite universelle E (pertube) = E (exp ik{sub Up-Tack }r{sub Up-Tack })(exp ik{sub II}r{sub II}) dans un champ .magnetique uniforme B = B{sub 0}i{sub II}, la courbure de

  18. Stellar laboratories. VII. New Kr iv - vii oscillator strengths and an improved spectral analysis of the hot, hydrogen-deficient DO-type white dwarf RE 0503-289

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, T.; Quinet, P.; Hoyer, D.; Werner, K.; Richter, P.; Kruk, J. W.; Demleitner, M.

    2016-05-01

    Context. For the spectral analysis of high-resolution and high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of hot stars, state-of-the-art non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) model atmospheres are mandatory. These are strongly dependent on the reliability of the atomic data that is used for their calculation. Aims: New Kr iv-vii oscillator strengths for a large number of lines enable us to construct more detailed model atoms for our NLTE model-atmosphere calculations. This enables us to search for additional Kr lines in observed spectra and to improve Kr abundance determinations. Methods: We calculated Kr iv-vii oscillator strengths to consider radiative and collisional bound-bound transitions in detail in our NLTE stellar-atmosphere models for the analysis of Kr lines that are exhibited in high-resolution and high S/N ultraviolet (UV) observations of the hot white dwarf RE 0503-289. Results: We reanalyzed the effective temperature and surface gravity and determined Teff = 70000 ± 2000 K and log (g/ cm s-2) = 7.5 ± 0.1. We newly identified ten Kr v lines and one Kr vi line in the spectrum of RE 0503-289. We measured a Kr abundance of -3.3 ± 0.3 (logarithmic mass fraction). We discovered that the interstellar absorption toward RE 0503-289 has a multi-velocity structure within a radial-velocity interval of -40 km s-1Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26666. Based on observations made with the NASA-CNES-CSA Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme IDs 165.H-0588 and 167.D-0407. Based on observations obtained at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy.Tables A.9-A.12 are only available via the German

  19. Effects of tempering temperature on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of high-strength low-alloy D6AC plasma arc welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Chun-Ming, E-mail: chunming@ntut.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taipei University of Technology, Taipei 10608, Taiwan (China); Lu, Chi-Hao [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10673, Taiwan (China)

    2016-10-31

    This study prepared high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) D6AC weldments using a plasma arc welding (PAW) process. The PAW weldments were then tempered at temperatures of 300 °C, 450 °C, and 600 °C for 1000 min. Microstructural characteristics of the weld in as-welded HSLA-D6AC, tempered D6AC, and tensile-tested D6AC were observed via optical microscopy (OM). We also investigated the hardness, tensile strength, and V-notched tensile strength (NTS) of the tempered specimens using a Vickers hardness tester and a universal testing machine. The fracture surfaces of the specimens were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Our results show that the mechanical properties and microstructural features of the HSLA weldments are strongly dependent on tempering temperature. An increase in tempering temperature led to a decrease in the hardness and tensile strength of the weldments but led to an increase in ductility. These effects can be attributed to the transformation of the microstructure and its effect on fracture characteristics. The specimens tempered at 300 °C and 450 °C failed in a ductile-brittle manner due to the presence of inter-lath austenite in the microstructure. After tempering at a higher temperature of 600 °C, martensite embrittlement did not occur, such that specimens failure was predominantly in a ductile manner. In the NTS specimens, an increase in tempering temperature led to a reduction in tensile strength due to notch embrittlement and the effects of grain boundary thickening and sliding. Our findings provide a valuable reference for the application of HSLA-D6AC steel in engineering and other fields.

  20. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IMTECH),. Chandigarh. Praveen Kumar is pursuing his PhD in chemical dynamics at. Panjab University,. Chandigarh. Keywords. Chemical oscillations, autoca-. talYSis, Lotka-Volterra model, bistability, hysteresis, Briggs-. Rauscher reaction.

  1. Chemical Oscillations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the law of mass-action that every simple reaction approaches ... from thermodynamic equilibrium. Such oscillating systems cor- respond to thermodynamically open systems. .... experimentally observable, and the third is always unstable.

  2. Structure and strength of aluminum with sub-micrometer/micrometer grain size prepared by spark plasma sintering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, G.M.; Godfrey, A.; Hansen, Niels

    2013-01-01

    A spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique has been applied to prepare fully dense Al samples from Al powder. By applying a sintering temperature of 600°C and a loading pressure of 50MPa, fully recrystallized samples of nearly 100% density with average grain sizes of 5.2μm, 1.3μm and 0.8μm have bee...... strengthening. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd....

  3. Influence of flavor oscillations on neutrino beam instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendonça, J. T., E-mail: titomend@ist.utl.pt [Instituto de Física, Universidade de São Paulo, 05508-090 São Paulo SP (Brazil); Haas, F. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre RS (Brazil); Bret, A. [ETSI Industriales, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, 13071 Ciudad Real, Spain and Instituto de Investigaciones Energeticas y Aplicaciones Industriales, Campus Universitario de Ciudad Real, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2014-09-15

    We consider the collective neutrino plasma interactions and study the electron plasma instabilities produced by a nearly mono-energetic neutrino beam in a plasma. We describe the mutual interaction between neutrino flavor oscillations and electron plasma waves. We show that the neutrino flavor oscillations are not only perturbed by electron plasmas waves but also contribute to the dispersion relation and the growth rates of neutrino beam instabilities.

  4. Nonlinear oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayfeh, Ali Hasan

    1995-01-01

    Nonlinear Oscillations is a self-contained and thorough treatment of the vigorous research that has occurred in nonlinear mechanics since 1970. The book begins with fundamental concepts and techniques of analysis and progresses through recent developments and provides an overview that abstracts and introduces main nonlinear phenomena. It treats systems having a single degree of freedom, introducing basic concepts and analytical methods, and extends concepts and methods to systems having degrees of freedom. Most of this material cannot be found in any other text. Nonlinear Oscillations uses sim

  5. Plasma Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, D. H. E.

    This chapter explores several aspects of the linear electrostatic normal modes of oscillation for a single-species non-neutral plasma in a Penning trap. Linearized fluid equations of motion are developed, assuming the plasma is cold but collisionless, which allow derivation of the cold plasma dielectric tensor and the electrostatic wave equation. Upper hybrid and magnetized plasma waves in an infinite uniform plasma are described. The effect of the plasma surface in a bounded plasma system is considered, and the properties of surface plasma waves are characterized. The normal modes of a cylindrical plasma column are discussed, and finally, modes of spheroidal plasmas, and finite temperature effects on the modes, are briefly described.

  6. Chemotaxis and Actin Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Hsu, Hsin-Fang; Negrete, Jose; Beta, Carsten; Pumir, Alain; Gholami, Azam; Tarantola, Marco; Westendorf, Christian; Zykov, Vladimir

    Recently, self-oscillations of the cytoskeletal actin have been observed in Dictyostelium, a model system for studying chemotaxis. Here we report experimental results on the self-oscillation mechanism and the role of regulatory proteins and myosin II. We stimulate cells rapidly and periodically by using photo un-caging of the chemoattractant in a micro-fluidic device and measured the cellular responses. We found that the response amplitude grows with stimulation strength only in a very narrow region of stimulation, after which the response amplitude reaches a plateau. Moreover, the frequency-response is not constant but rather varies with the strength of external stimuli. To understand the underlying mechanism, we analyzed the polymerization and de-polymerization time in the single cell level. Despite of the large cell-to-cell variability, we found that the polymerization time is independent of external stimuli and the de-polymerization time is prolonged as the stimulation strength increases. Our conclusions will be summarized and the role of noise in the signaling network will be discussed. German Science Foundation CRC 937.

  7. Coronal Waves and Oscillations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakariakov Valery M.

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Wave and oscillatory activity of the solar corona is confidently observed with modern imaging and spectral instruments in the visible light, EUV, X-ray and radio bands, and interpreted in terms of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD wave theory. The review reflects the current trends in the observational study of coronal waves and oscillations (standing kink, sausage and longitudinal modes, propagating slow waves and fast wave trains, the search for torsional waves, theoretical modelling of interaction of MHD waves with plasma structures, and implementation of the theoretical results for the mode identification. Also the use of MHD waves for remote diagnostics of coronal plasma - MHD coronal seismology - is discussed and the applicability of this method for the estimation of coronal magnetic field, transport coefficients, fine structuring and heating function is demonstrated.

  8. High-Strength Ultra-Fine-Grained Hypereutectic Al-Si-Fe-X (X = Cr, Mn) Alloys Prepared by Short-Term Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Průša, Filip; Bláhová, Markéta; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Kučera, Vojtěch; Bernatiková, Adriana; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Michalcová, Alena

    2016-11-30

    In this work, Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn (wt %) alloys were prepared by a combination of short-term mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was composed of homogeneously dispersed intermetallic particles forming composite-like structures. X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM + EDS analysis determined that the α-Al along with α-Al 15 (Fe,Cr)₃Si₂ or α-Al 15 (Fe,Mn)₃Si₂ phases were present, with dimensions below 130 nm. The highest hardness of 380 ± 7 HV5 was observed for the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloy, exceeding the hardness of the reference as-cast Al-12Si-1Cu-1 Mg-1Ni alloy (121 ± 2 HV5) by nearly a factor of three. Both of the prepared alloys showed exceptional thermal stability with the hardness remaining almost the same even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. Additionally, the compressive strengths of the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloys reached 869 MPa and 887 MPa, respectively, and had virtually the same values of 870 MPa and 865 MPa, respectively, even after 100 h of annealing. More importantly, the alloys showed an increase in ductility at 400 °C, reaching several tens of percent. Thus, both of the investigated alloys showed better mechanical properties, including superior hardness, compressive strength and thermal stability, as compared to the reference Al-10Si-1Cu-1Mg-1Ni alloy, which softened remarkably, reducing its hardness by almost 50% to 63 ± 8 HV5.

  9. High-Strength Ultra-Fine-Grained Hypereutectic Al-Si-Fe-X (X = Cr, Mn) Alloys Prepared by Short-Term Mechanical Alloying and Spark Plasma Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Průša, Filip; Bláhová, Markéta; Vojtěch, Dalibor; Kučera, Vojtěch; Bernatiková, Adriana; Kubatík, Tomáš František; Michalcová, Alena

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn (wt %) alloys were prepared by a combination of short-term mechanical alloying and spark plasma sintering. The microstructure was composed of homogeneously dispersed intermetallic particles forming composite-like structures. X-ray diffraction analysis and TEM + EDS analysis determined that the α-Al along with α-Al15(Fe,Cr)3Si2 or α-Al15(Fe,Mn)3Si2 phases were present, with dimensions below 130 nm. The highest hardness of 380 ± 7 HV5 was observed for the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloy, exceeding the hardness of the reference as-cast Al-12Si-1Cu-1 Mg-1Ni alloy (121 ± 2 HV5) by nearly a factor of three. Both of the prepared alloys showed exceptional thermal stability with the hardness remaining almost the same even after 100 h of annealing at 400 °C. Additionally, the compressive strengths of the Al-20Si-10Fe-6Cr and Al-20Si-10Fe-6Mn alloys reached 869 MPa and 887 MPa, respectively, and had virtually the same values of 870 MPa and 865 MPa, respectively, even after 100 h of annealing. More importantly, the alloys showed an increase in ductility at 400 °C, reaching several tens of percent. Thus, both of the investigated alloys showed better mechanical properties, including superior hardness, compressive strength and thermal stability, as compared to the reference Al-10Si-1Cu-1Mg-1Ni alloy, which softened remarkably, reducing its hardness by almost 50% to 63 ± 8 HV5. PMID:28774094

  10. Magnetic fields and uniformity of radio frequency power deposition in low-frequency inductively coupled plasmas with crossed internal oscillating currents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsakadze, Erekle; Ostrikov, K.N.; Tsakadze, Z.L.

    2004-01-01

    ) discharge modes using two miniature magnetic probes. It is shown that the radial uniformity and depth of the rf power deposition can be improved as compared with conventional sources of inductively coupled plasmas with external flat spiral ("pancake") antennas. Relatively deeper rf power deposition...... in the plasma source results in more uniform profiles of the optical emission intensity, which indicates on the improvement of the plasma uniformity over large chamber volumes. The results of the numerical modeling of the radial magnetic field profiles are found in a reasonable agreement with the experimental...

  11. Oscillator circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for oscillator circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listing

  12. One dimension harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen-Tannoudji, Claude; Diu, Bernard; Laloe, Franck.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of harmonic oscillator in classical and quantum physics, eigenvalues and eigenstates of hamiltonian operator are discussed. In complement are presented: study of some physical examples of harmonic oscillators; study of stationnary states in the /x> representation; Hermite polynomials; resolution of eigenvalue equation of harmonic oscillator by polynomial method; isotope harmonic oscillator with three dimensions; charged harmonic oscillator in uniform electric field; quasi classical coherent states of harmonic oscillator; eigenmodes of vibration of two coupled harmonic oscillators; vibration modus of a continuous physical system (application to radiation: photons); vibration modus of indefinite linear chain of coupled harmonic oscillators (phonons); one-dimensional harmonic oscillator in thermodynamic equilibrium at temperature T [fr

  13. Pacing control of sawtooth and ELM oscillations in tokamaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lauret, M.; Lennholm, M.; de Baar, M.R.; Heemels, W.P.M.H.

    2016-01-01

    In tokamak plasmas, the sawtooth oscillation (ST) and the edge-localized-mode (ELM) are characterized by a phase of a slow evolution of the plasma conditions, followed by a crash-like instability that resets the plasma conditions when certain criteria of the plasma conditions are satisfied.

  14. Power oscillation damping controller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    A power oscillation damping controller is provided for a power generation device such as a wind turbine device. The power oscillation damping controller receives an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in an electricity network and provides an oscillation damping control...

  15. Oscillations of void lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhiezer, A.I.; Davydov, L.N.; Spol'nik, Z.A.

    1976-01-01

    Oscillations of a nonideal crystal are studied, in which macroscopic defects (pores) form a hyperlattice. It is shown that alongside with acoustic and optical phonons (relative to the hyperlattice), in such a crystal oscillations of the third type are possible which are a hydridization of sound oscillations of atoms and surface oscillations of a pore. Oscillation spectra of all three types were obtained

  16. Effect of Omega-3 and Vitamins E + C Supplements on the Concentration of Serum B-Vitamins and Plasma Redox Aminothiol Antioxidant Status in Elderly Men after Strength Training for Three Months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stea, Tonje Holte; Stølevik, Solvor B; Berntsen, Sveinung; Ezzathkah Bastani, Nasser; Paulsen, Gøran; Lohne Seiler, Hilde; Hetlelid, Ken J; Blomhoff, Rune; Mansoor, Mohammad Azam

    2016-01-01

    Data on redox plasma aminothiol status in individuals on strength training are very limited. Therefore, we studied the effect of omega-3 and vitamins E + C supplementation on the concentration of B-vitamins and redox aminothiol status in elderly men after strength training for 3 months. Healthy men, age 60 ± 6 (mean ± SD) were randomly divided into 3 groups: group I received placebo (n = 17), group II consumed omega-3 (700 mg, n = 17), and group III consumed vitamins E + C (235 mg +1 g, n = 16) daily for 3 months. All participants completed a strength training program for the same period. The concentration of serum vitamin B12 decreased and the concentration of serum folate increased in group I after the intervention (p = 0.01, p = 0.009). The concentration of plasma 5-pyridoxal phosphate decreased in groups II and III (p = 0.03 and p = 0.01), whereas the concentration of serum uric acid decreased only in group II (p = 0.02). We detected an increase in the concentration of reduced form of aminothiols in all groups (p vitamins E + C supplementation affect the concentrations of serum B-vitamins and redox plasma aminothiol status in healthy elderly men on strength training. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Magnetic fields and uniformity of radio frequency power deposition in low-frequency inductively coupled plasmas with crossed internal oscillating currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsakadze, E.L.; Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, Z.L.; Vladimirov, S.V.; Xu, S.

    2004-01-01

    Radial and axial distributions of magnetic fields in a low-frequency (∼460 kHz) inductively coupled plasma source with two internal crossed planar rf current sheets are reported. The internal antenna configuration comprises two orthogonal sets of eight alternately reconnected parallel and equidistant copper litz wires in quartz enclosures and generates three magnetic (H z , H r , and H φ ) and two electric (E φ and E r ) field components at the fundamental frequency. The measurements have been performed in rarefied and dense plasmas generated in the electrostatic (E) and electromagnetic (H) discharge modes using two miniature magnetic probes. It is shown that the radial uniformity and depth of the rf power deposition can be improved as compared with conventional sources of inductively coupled plasmas with external flat spiral ('pancake') antennas. Relatively deeper rf power deposition in the plasma source results in more uniform profiles of the optical emission intensity, which indicates on the improvement of the plasma uniformity over large chamber volumes. The results of the numerical modeling of the radial magnetic field profiles are found in a reasonable agreement with the experimental data

  18. Dietary supplementation with essence of chicken enhances daily oscillations in plasma glucocorticoid levels and behavioral adaptation to the phase-shifted environmental light–dark cycle in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adila Dilixiati

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Maintenance of circadian rhythms is essential to many aspects of human health, including metabolism and neurological and psychiatric well-being. Chronic disruption of circadian clock function is implicated in increasing the risk of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular events and development of cancers. However, there are little approaches to reinforce the function of circadian clock for prevention of these diseases. Essence of Chicken (EC is a nutritional supplement that is traditionally made by extracting water soluble substances derived from cooking the whole chicken. In this study, we found that dietary supplementation with EC enhanced circadian oscillation of glucocorticoid secretion in mice, and this was accompanied by enhancement of circadian oscillation in the adrenal expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein that mediates the rate-limiting step of glucocorticoid synthesis. Furthermore, EC facilitated re-entrainment of behavioral rhythm in mice when phase of the light–dark cycle was suddenly advanced. These results suggest that intake of EC has enhancement effect on circadian clock function in mice, which may contribute to sustain health and also offer new preventive strategies against circadian-related diseases.

  19. Oscillatory processes in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallin, E.

    1980-01-01

    The oscillatory process play an important part in plasma evolution, In hot plasma in particular, the interactions between the oscillation modes are preponderant in relation to the binary collisions between particles. The nonlineary interactions between collective plasma oscillations can generate, in this case, a non-balanced steady state of plasma (steady turbulence). The paper elucidates some aspects of the oscillatory phenomena which contribute to the plasma state evolution, especially of hot plasma. A major part of the paper is devoted to the study of parametric instabilities in plasma and their role in increasing the temperature of plasma components (electrons, ions). Both parametric instabilities in plasma in the vicinity of thermodynamic balance and parametric processes is steady turbulent plasma are analysed - in relation to additional heating of hot plasma. An important result of the thesis refers to the drowing-up of a non-lineary interaction model between the oscillation modes in turbulent plasma, being responsible for the electromagnetic radiation in hot plasma. On the basis of the model suggested in the paper the existence of a low frequency radiative mode in hot plasma in a turbulent state, can be demonstrated. Its frequency could be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves be even lower than plasma frequency in the field of long waves. Such a radiative mode was detected experimentally in focussed plasma installations. (author)

  20. Oscillators - a simple introduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?......Oscillators are kernel components of electrical and electronic circuits. Discussion of history, mechanisms and design based on Barkhausens observation. Discussion of a Wien Bridge oscillator based on the question: Why does this circuit oscillate ?...

  1. Oscillators and Eigenvalues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    1997-01-01

    In order to obtain insight in the nature of nonlinear oscillators the eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian of the differential equations describing the oscillator are found and displayed as functions of time. A number of oscillators are studied including Dewey's oscillator (piecewise linear wit...... with negative resistance), Kennedy's Colpitts-oscillator (with and without chaos) and a new 4'th order oscillator with hyper-chaos....

  2. Measuring Relative Coupling Strength in Circadian Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, Christoph; Herzog, Erik D; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2018-02-01

    Modern imaging techniques allow the monitoring of circadian rhythms of single cells. Coupling between these single cellular circadian oscillators can generate coherent periodic signals on the tissue level that subsequently orchestrate physiological outputs. The strength of coupling in such systems of oscillators is often unclear. In particular, effects on coupling strength by varying cell densities, by knockouts, and by inhibitor applications are debated. In this study, we suggest to quantify the relative coupling strength via analyzing period, phase, and amplitude distributions in ensembles of individual circadian oscillators. Simulations of different oscillator networks show that period and phase distributions become narrower with increasing coupling strength. Moreover, amplitudes can increase due to resonance effects. Variances of periods and phases decay monotonically with coupling strength, and can serve therefore as measures of relative coupling strength. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by studying recently published experimental data from PERIOD2 expression in slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus during and after the application of tetrodotoxin (TTX). On analyzing the corresponding period, phase, and amplitude distributions, we can show that treatment with TTX can be associated with a reduced coupling strength in the system of coupled oscillators. Analysis of an oscillator network derived directly from the data confirms our conclusions. We suggest that our approach is also applicable to quantify coupling in fibroblast cultures and hepatocyte networks, and for social synchronization of circadian rhythmicity in rodents, flies, and bees.

  3. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G

    2013-01-01

    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  4. Plasma Wave Electronic Terahertz Technology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shur, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Plasma waves are oscillations of electron density in time and space. In deep submicron field effect transistors plasma wave frequencies lie in the terahertz range and can be tuned by applied gate bias...

  5. Simultaneous excitation of the snake-like oscillations and the m/n = 1/1 resistive interchange modes around the iota = 1 rational surface just after hydrogen pellet injections in LHD plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, T.; Ohdachi, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Sakamoto, R.; Narushima, Y.; Takemura, Y.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Sakakibara, S.; Du, X. D.; Motojima, G.; Tanaka, K.; Morisaki, T.; LHD Experiment Group

    2018-01-01

    Two types of oscillation phenomena are found just after hydrogen ice pellet injections in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Oscillation phenomena appear when the deposition profile of a hydrogen ice pellet is localized around the rotational transform ι = 1 rational surface. At first, damping oscillations (type-I) appear only in the soft X-ray (SX) emission. They are followed by the second type of oscillations (type-II) where the magnetic fluctuations and density fluctuations synchronized to the SX fluctuations are observed. Both oscillations have poloidal/toroidal mode number, m/n = 1/1. Since the type-II oscillations appear when the local pressure is large and/or the local magnetic Reynold's number is small, it is reasonable that type-II oscillations are caused by the resistive interchange modes. Because both types of oscillations appear simultaneously at slightly different locations and with slightly different frequencies, it is certain that type-I oscillations are different from type-II oscillations, which we believe is the MHD instability. It is possible that type-I oscillations are caused by the asymmetric concentration of the impurities. The type-I oscillations are similar to the impurity snake phenomena observed in tokamaks though type-I oscillations survive only several tens of milliseconds in LHD.

  6. Fusion reactor in which the hydrogen plasma is heated, confined, and stabilized by oscillating magnetic fields in the center of a spherical or toroidal reaction vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The two most difficult problems in the tests for controlled nuclear fusion are heating of the plasma to fusion temperature as well as the safe confinement in a magnetic field. According to the invention, low-resistance, low-inductive, iron-free AC compression coils are provided for dealing with these two problems the coils being arranged on the reactor vessel in such a way that both effective heating and a sufficient enclosure time are possible. It is of essential importance in this connection that the coils are fed with a relatively rectangular alternating current, which is variable with respect to frequency and power. (orig./GG) [de

  7. QCL seeded, ns-pulse, multi-line, CO2 laser oscillator for laser-produced-plasma extreme-UV source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Krzysztof Michał; Suganuma, Takashi; Kurosawa, Yoshiaki; Ohta, Takeshi; Kawasuji, Yasufumi; Nakarai, Hiroaki; Saitou, Takashi; Fujimoto, Junichi; Mizoguchi, Hakaru; Sumitani, Akira; Endo, Akira

    2017-01-01

    Successful merger of state-of-the-art, semiconductor quantum-cascade lasers (QCL), with the mature CO2 laser technology, resulted in a delivery of highly-desired qualities of CO2 laser output that were not available previously without much effort. These qualities, such as multi-line operation, excellent spectro-temporal stability and pulse waveform control, became available from a single device of moderate complexity. This paper describes the operation principle and the unique properties of the solid{state seeded CO2 laser, invented for an application in laser-produced-plasma (LPP), extreme-UV (EUV) light source.

  8. Dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, M.E.; Winske, D.; Keinigs, R.; Lemons, D.

    1996-01-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of dusty plasmas at the Laboratory. While dusty plasmas are found in space in galactic clouds, planetary rings, and cometary tails, and as contaminants in plasma enhanced fabrication of microelectronics, many of their properties are only partially understood. Our work has involved both theoretical analysis and self-consistent plasma simulations to understand basic properties of dusty plasmas related to equilibrium, stability, and transport. Such an understanding can improve the control and elimination of plasma dust in industrial applications and may be important in the study of planetary rings and comet dust tails. We have applied our techniques to the study of charging, dynamics, and coagulation of contaminants in plasma processing reactors for industrial etching and deposition processes and to instabilities in planetary rings and other space plasma environments. The work performed in this project has application to plasma kinetics, transport, and other classical elementary processes in plasmas as well as to plasma waves, oscillations, and instabilities

  9. X-Ray Flare Oscillations Track Plasma Sloshing along Star-disk Magnetic Tubes in the Orion Star-forming Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reale, Fabio; Lopez-Santiago, Javier; Flaccomio, Ettore; Petralia, Antonino; Sciortino, Salvatore

    2018-03-01

    Pulsing X-ray emission tracks the plasma “echo” traveling in an extremely long magnetic tube that flares in an Orion pre-main sequence (PMS) star. On the Sun, flares last from minutes to a few hours and the longest-lasting ones typically involve arcades of closed magnetic tubes. Long-lasting X-ray flares are observed in PMS stars. Large-amplitude (∼20%), long-period (∼3 hr) pulsations are detected in the light curve of day-long flares observed by the Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer on-board Chandra from PMS stars in the Orion cluster. Detailed hydrodynamic modeling of two flares observed on V772 Ori and OW Ori shows that these pulsations may track the sloshing of plasma along a single long magnetic tube, triggered by a sufficiently short (∼1 hr) heat pulse. These magnetic tubes are ≥20 solar radii long, enough to connect the star with the surrounding disk.

  10. Numerical investigation of edge plasma phenomena in an enhanced D-alpha discharge at Alcator C-Mod: Parallel heat flux and quasi-coherent edge oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, D. A.; D’Ippolito, D. A.; Myra, J. R.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L.; Zweben, S. J.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced-model scrape-off layer turbulence (SOLT) simulations of an enhanced D-alpha (EDA) H-mode shot observed in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak were conducted to compare with observed variations in the scrape-off-layer (SOL) width of the parallel heat flux profile. In particular, the role of the competition between sheath- and conduction-limited parallel heat fluxes in determining that width was studied for the turbulent SOL plasma that emerged from the simulations. The SOL width decreases with increasing input power and with increasing separatrix temperature in both the experiment and the simulation, consistent with the strong temperature dependence of the parallel heat flux in balance with the perpendicular transport by turbulence and blobs. The particularly strong temperature dependence observed in the case analyzed is attributed to the fact that these simulations produce SOL plasmas which are in the conduction-limited regime for the parallel heat flux. A persistent quasi-coherent (QC) mode dominates the SOLT simulations and bears considerable resemblance to the QC mode observed in C-Mod EDA operation. The SOLT QC mode consists of nonlinearly saturated wave-fronts located just inside the separatrix that are convected poloidally by the mean flow, continuously transporting particles and energy and intermittently emitting blobs into the SOL.

  11. About a possibility of increasing the adhesion strength between mineral glass and polymeric binder under radio-frequency induction plasma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miftakhov, I S; Trofimov, A V; Nagmutdinova, A I; Voznesensky, E F; Sharifullin, F S; Krasina, I V; Rakhmatullina, G R

    2017-01-01

    The paper investigated influences of radio-frequency induction plasma treatment on the surface of sheet mineral glasses for household purpose. Discussion for casting the most suitable treatment modes and theirs substantiation is shown. During the investigation the most productive plasma treatment modes for applied binders have been found. It is shown that the durability of adhesive joints between mineral glass and polymeric binder under low-temperature plasma treatment increase to 65%. (paper)

  12. Dipole plasma in molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotel'nikov, Yu.E.; Kochelaev, B.I.

    1976-01-01

    Collective oscillations in a system of electric dipoles of molecular crystals are investigated. It has been proved in the exciton approximation that in an elementary cell of a molecular crystal with one molecule there may exist energy fluctuations of the ''dipole'' plasma, analogous to plasma oscillations in the charged Fermi liquid

  13. Circuit oscillations in odor perception and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Leslie M

    2014-01-01

    Olfactory system neural oscillations as seen in the local field potential have been studied for many decades. Recent research has shown that there is a functional role for the most studied gamma oscillations (40-100Hz in rats and mice, and 20Hz in insects), without which fine odor discrimination is poor. When these oscillations are increased artificially, fine discrimination is increased, and when rats learn difficult and highly overlapping odor discriminations, gamma is increased in power. Because of the depth of study on this oscillation, it is possible to point to specific changes in neural firing patterns as represented by the increase in gamma oscillation amplitude. However, we know far less about the mechanisms governing beta oscillations (15-30Hz in rats and mice), which are best associated with associative learning of responses to odor stimuli. These oscillations engage every part of the olfactory system that has so far been tested, plus the hippocampus, and the beta oscillation frequency band is the one that is most reliably coherent with other regions during odor processing. Respiratory oscillations overlapping with the theta frequency band (2-12Hz) are associated with odor sniffing and normal breathing in rats. They also show coupling in some circumstances between olfactory areas and rare coupling between the hippocampus and olfactory bulb. The latter occur in specific learning conditions in which coherence strength is negatively or positively correlated with performance, depending on the task. There is still much to learn about the role of neural oscillations in learning and memory, but techniques that have been brought to bear on gamma oscillations (current source density, computational modeling, slice physiology, behavioral studies) should deliver much needed knowledge of these events. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lominadse, D.G.

    1975-01-01

    The book deals with fundamental physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities conditioned by the presence in plasma of direct or alternating electric currents passing in it perpendicularily to a magnetic field. A great variety of problems is considered connected with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium and electron plasma of metals and semiconductors. Parametric excitations of electron cyclotron oscillations of plasma in an alternating electric field are studied. Particular attention is paid to the investigation of plasma turbulence arising as a result of development of cyclotron instabilities. Experimental data are discussed and compared with theoretical results

  15. OSCILLATION OF NEWLY FORMED LOOPS AFTER MAGNETIC RECONNECTION IN THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Xiang, Yongyuan, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Fuxian Solar Observatory, Yunnan Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2016-03-10

    With the high spatial and temporal resolution Hα images from the New Vacuum Solar Telescope, we focus on two groups of loops with an X-shaped configuration in the dynamic chromosphere. We find that the anti-directed loops approach each other and reconnect continually. The connectivity of the loops is changed and new loops are formed and stack together. The stacked loops are sharply bent, implying that they are greatly impacted by the magnetic tension force. When another reconnection process takes place, one new loop is formed and stacks with the previously formed ones. Meanwhile, the stacked loops retract suddenly and move toward the balance position, performing an overshoot movement, which led to an oscillation with an average period of about 45 s. The oscillation of newly formed loops after magnetic reconnection in the chromosphere is observed for the first time. We suggest that the stability of the stacked loops is destroyed due to the attachment of the last new loop and then suddenly retract under the effect of magnetic tension. Because of the retraction, another lower loop is pushed outward and performs an oscillation with a period of about 25 s. The different oscillation periods may be due to their difference in three parameters, i.e., loop length, plasma density, and magnetic field strength.

  16. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Climate Prediction Center (CPC) Madden Julian Oscillation index (MJO) is a dataset that allows evaluation of the strength and phase of the MJO during the dataset...

  17. poincare surface analysis of two coupled quintic oscillators in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    We have investigated the chaotic dynamics of two coupled quintic oscillators in a single well potential as the energy of the oscillator increases, keeping the coupling strength constant. The degree of chaoticity does not increase monotonously with the energy as regular regions reappear within chaotic seas as the energy ...

  18. Poincare surface analysis of two coupled quintic oscillators in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We have investigated the chaotic dynamics of two coupled quintic oscillators in a single well potential as the energy of the oscillator increases, keeping the coupling strength constant. The degree of chaoticity does not increase monotonously with the energy as regular regions reappear within chaotic seas as the energy ...

  19. Nonlinear resonance in Duffing oscillator with fixed and integrative ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the nonlinear resonance, one of the fundamental phenomena in nonlinear oscillators, in a damped and periodically-driven Duffing oscillator with two types of time-delayed feedbacks, namely, fixed and integrative. Particularly, we analyse the effect of the time-delay parameter and the strength of the ...

  20. Oscillating heat pipes

    CERN Document Server

    Ma, Hongbin

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the fundamental fluid flow and heat transfer principles occurring in oscillating heat pipes and also provides updated developments and recent innovations in research and applications of heat pipes. Starting with fundamental presentation of heat pipes, the focus is on oscillating motions and its heat transfer enhancement in a two-phase heat transfer system. The book covers thermodynamic analysis, interfacial phenomenon, thin film evaporation,  theoretical models of oscillating motion and heat transfer of single phase and two-phase flows, primary  factors affecting oscillating motions and heat transfer,  neutron imaging study of oscillating motions in an oscillating heat pipes, and nanofluid’s effect on the heat transfer performance in oscillating heat pipes.  The importance of thermally-excited oscillating motion combined with phase change heat transfer to a wide variety of applications is emphasized. This book is an essential resource and learning tool for senior undergraduate, gradua...

  1. Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar, E-mail: pcdsr@iacs.res.in [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2015-09-28

    We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.

  2. Rayleigh-type parametric chemical oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shyamolina; Ray, Deb Shankar

    2015-09-28

    We consider a nonlinear chemical dynamical system of two phase space variables in a stable steady state. When the system is driven by a time-dependent sinusoidal forcing of a suitable scaling parameter at a frequency twice the output frequency and the strength of perturbation exceeds a threshold, the system undergoes sustained Rayleigh-type periodic oscillation, wellknown for parametric oscillation in pipe organs and distinct from the usual forced quasiperiodic oscillation of a damped nonlinear system where the system is oscillatory even in absence of any external forcing. Our theoretical analysis of the parametric chemical oscillation is corroborated by full numerical simulation of two well known models of chemical dynamics, chlorite-iodine-malonic acid and iodine-clock reactions.

  3. Condensate oscillations in a Penrose tiling lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Z.; Vignolo, P.

    2017-07-01

    We study the dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensate subject to a particular Penrose tiling lattice. In such a lattice, the potential energy at each site depends on the neighbour sites, accordingly to the model introduced by Sutherland [16]. The Bose-Einstein wavepacket, initially at rest at the lattice symmetry center, is released. We observe a very complex time-evolution that strongly depends on the symmetry center (two choices are possible), on the potential energy landscape dispersion, and on the interaction strength. The condensate-width oscillates at different frequencies and we can identify large-frequency reshaping oscillations and low-frequency rescaling oscillations. We discuss in which conditions these oscillations are spatially bounded, denoting a self-trapping dynamics.

  4. Suppression and revival of oscillation in indirectly coupled limit cycle oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.R.; Kamal, N.K.; Verma, U.K.; Suresh, K.; Thamilmaran, K.; Shrimali, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The phenomena of suppression and revival of oscillations are studied in indirectly coupled nonlinear oscillators. • The decay parameter and a feedback factor play a crucial role in emergent dynamical behavior of oscillators. • The critical curves for different dynamical regions are obtained analytically using linear stability analysis. • Electronic circuit experiments demonstrate these emergent dynamical states. - Abstract: We study the phenomena of suppression and revival of oscillations in a system of limit cycle oscillators coupled indirectly via a dynamic local environment. The dynamics of the environment is assumed to decay exponentially with time. We show that for appropriate coupling strength, the decay parameter of the environment plays a crucial role in the emergent dynamics such as amplitude death (AD) and oscillation death (OD). We also show that introducing a feedback factor in the diffusion term revives the oscillations in this system. The critical curves for the regions of different emergent states as a function of coupling strength, decay parameter of the environment and feedback factor in the coupling are obtained analytically using linear stability analysis. These results are found to be consistent with the numerics and are also observed experimentally.

  5. Automatic Oscillating Turret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-03-01

    Final Report: February 1978 ZAUTOMATIC OSCILLATING TURRET SYSTEM September 1980 * 6. PERFORMING 01G. REPORT NUMBER .J7. AUTHOR(S) S. CONTRACT OR GRANT...o....e.... *24 APPENDIX P-4 OSCILLATING BUMPER TURRET ...................... 25 A. DESCRIPTION 1. Turret Controls ...Other criteria requirements were: 1. Turret controls inside cab. 2. Automatic oscillation with fixed elevation to range from 20* below the horizontal to

  6. Neutrino oscillations in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikheyev, S.P.; Smirnov, A.Yu.

    1986-01-01

    In this paper we describe united formalism of ν-oscillations for different regimes, which is immediate generalization of vacuum oscillations theory. Adequate graphical representation of this formalism is given. We summarize main properties of ν-oscillations for different density distributions. (orig./BBOE)

  7. The colpitts oscillator family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik; Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.

    A tutorial study of the Colpitts oscillator family defined as all oscillators based on a nonlinear amplifier and a three- terminal linear resonance circuit with one coil and two capacitors. The original patents are investigated. The eigenvalues of the linearized Jacobian for oscillators based...

  8. A parametric study of strength reduction factors for elasto-plastic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A parametric study of strength reduction factors for elasto-plastic oscillators ... motion duration, earthquake magnitude, geological site conditions, and epicentral distance in case of (non-degrading) elasto-plastic oscillators. ... Sadhana | News.

  9. Transport in a toroidally confined pure electron plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooks, S.M.; ONeil, T.M.

    1996-01-01

    O close-quote Neil and Smith [T.M. O close-quote Neil and R.A. Smith, Phys. Plasmas 1, 8 (1994)] have argued that a pure electron plasma can be confined stably in a toroidal magnetic field configuration. This paper shows that the toroidal curvature of the magnetic field of necessity causes slow cross-field transport. The transport mechanism is similar to magnetic pumping and may be understood by considering a single flux tube of plasma. As the flux tube of plasma undergoes poloidal ExB drift rotation about the center of the plasma, the length of the flux tube and the magnetic field strength within the flux tube oscillate, and this produces corresponding oscillations in T parallel and T perpendicular . The collisional relaxation of T parallel toward T perpendicular produces a slow dissipation of electrostatic energy into heat and a consequent expansion (cross-field transport) of the plasma. In the limit where the cross section of the plasma is nearly circular the radial particle flux is given by Γ r =1/2ν perpendicular,parallel T(r/ρ 0 ) 2 n/(-e∂Φ/∂r), where ν perpendicular,parallel is the collisional equipartition rate, ρ 0 is the major radius at the center of the plasma, and r is the minor radius measured from the center of the plasma. The transport flux is first calculated using this simple physical picture and then is calculated by solving the drift-kinetic Boltzmann equation. This latter calculation is not limited to a plasma with a circular cross section. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  10. Cold plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franz, G.

    1990-01-01

    This textbook discusses the following topics: Phenomenological description of a direct current glow discharge; the plasma (temperature distribution and measurement, potential variation, electron energy distribution function, charge neutralization, wall potentials, plasma oscillations); Production of charge carriers (ions, electrons, ionization in the cathode zone, negative glowing zone, Faraday dark space, positive column, anode zone, hollow cathode discharges); RF-discharges (charge carrier production, RF-Shields, scattering mechanisms); Sputtering (ion-surface interaction, kinetics, sputtering yield and energy distribution, systems and conditions, film formation and stresses, contamination, bias techniques, multicomponent film deposition, cohesion, magnetrons, triode systems, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition); Dry etching (sputter etching, reactive etching, topography, process control, quantitative investigations); Etching mechanisms (etching of Si and SiO 2 with CF 4 , of III/V-compound-semiconductors, combination of isotrope and anisotrope etching methods, surface cleaning); ion beam systems (applications, etching); Dyclotron-resonance-systems (electron cyclotron resonance systems, whistler-sources and 'resonant inductive plasma etching'); Appendix (electron energy distribution functions, Bohm's transition zone, plasma oscillations, scattering cross sections and mean free path, metastable states, Child-Langmuir-Schottky equation, loss mechanisms, charge carrier distribution in the positive column, breakdown at high frequencies, motion in a magnetic field, skin depth of an electric field for a HF-discharge, whistler waves, dispersion relations for plane wave propagation). (orig.) With 138 figs

  11. Nature's Autonomous Oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, H. G.; Yee, J.-H.; Mayr, M.; Schnetzler, R.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinearity is required to produce autonomous oscillations without external time dependent source, and an example is the pendulum clock. The escapement mechanism of the clock imparts an impulse for each swing direction, which keeps the pendulum oscillating at the resonance frequency. Among nature's observed autonomous oscillators, examples are the quasi-biennial oscillation and bimonthly oscillation of the Earth atmosphere, and the 22-year solar oscillation. The oscillations have been simulated in numerical models without external time dependent source, and in Section 2 we summarize the results. Specifically, we shall discuss the nonlinearities that are involved in generating the oscillations, and the processes that produce the periodicities. In biology, insects have flight muscles, which function autonomously with wing frequencies that far exceed the animals' neural capacity; Stretch-activation of muscle contraction is the mechanism that produces the high frequency oscillation of insect flight, discussed in Section 3. The same mechanism is also invoked to explain the functioning of the cardiac muscle. In Section 4, we present a tutorial review of the cardio-vascular system, heart anatomy, and muscle cell physiology, leading up to Starling's Law of the Heart, which supports our notion that the human heart is also a nonlinear oscillator. In Section 5, we offer a broad perspective of the tenuous links between the fluid dynamical oscillators and the human heart physiology.

  12. The Structure and Mechanical Properties of High-Strength Bulk Ultrafine-Grained Cobalt Prepared Using High-Energy Ball Milling in Combination with Spark Plasma Sintering

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marek, I.; Vojtěch, D.; Michalcová, A.; Kubatík, Tomáš František

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 5 (2016), č. článku 391. ISSN 1996-1944 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : ultrafine-grained material * cobalt * ball milling * spark plasma sintering * mechanical properties Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 2.654, year: 2016 www.mdpi.com/1996-1944/9/5/391/pdf

  13. Strong shock wave and areal mass oscillations associated with impulsive loading of planar laser targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velikovich, A.L.; Schmitt, A.J.; Metzler, N.; Gardner, J.H.

    2003-01-01

    When a rippled surface of a planar target is irradiated with a short (subnanosecond) laser pulse, the shock wave launched into the target and the mass distribution of the shocked plasma will oscillate. These oscillations are found to be surprisingly strong compared, for example, to the case when the laser radiation is not turned off but rather keeps pushing the shock wave into the target. Being stronger than the areal mass oscillations due to ablative Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and feedout in planar targets, which have recently been observed at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) [Aglitskiy et al., Phys. Plasmas 9, 2264 (2002)], these oscillations should therefore be directly observable with the same diagnostic technique. Irradiation of a target with a short laser pulse represents a particular case of an impulsive loading, a fast release of finite energy in a thin layer near the surface of a target. Renewed interest to the impulsive loading in the area of direct-drive laser fusion is due to the recent proposals of using a short pulse prior to the drive pulse to make the target more resistant to laser imprint and Rayleigh-Taylor growth. Impulsive loading produces a shock wave that propagates into the target and is immediately followed by an expansion wave, which gradually reduces the shock strength. If the irradiated surface is rippled, then, while the shock wave propagates through the target, its modulation amplitude grows, exceeding the initial ripple amplitude by a factor of 2 or more. The oscillating areal mass reaches the peak values that exceed the initial mass modulation amplitude (density times ripple height) by a factor of 5-7 or more, and reverses its phase several times after the laser pulse is over. The oscillatory growth is more pronounced in fluids with higher shock compressibility and is probably related to the Vishniac's instability of a blast wave. Frequency of the oscillations is determined by the speed of sound in the shocked material, and

  14. The vertical oscillations of coupled magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Kewei; Lin Jiahuang; Kang Zi Yang; Liang, Samuel Yee Wei; Juan, Jeremias Wong Say

    2011-01-01

    The International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT) is a worldwide, annual competition for high school students. This paper is adapted from the winning solution to Problem 14, Magnetic Spring, as presented in the final round of the 23rd IYPT in Vienna, Austria. Two magnets were arranged on top of each other on a common axis. One was fixed, while the other could move vertically. Various parameters of interest were investigated, including the effective gravitational acceleration, the strength, size, mass and geometry of the magnets, and damping of the oscillations. Despite its simplicity, this setup yielded a number of interesting and unexpected relations. The first stage of the investigation was concerned only with the undamped oscillations of small amplitudes, and the period of small amplitude oscillations was found to be dependent only on the eighth root of important magnet properties such as its strength and mass. The second stage sought to investigate more general oscillations. A numerical model which took into account magnet size, magnet geometry and damping effects was developed to model the general oscillations. Air resistance and friction were found to be significant sources of damping, while eddy currents were negligible.

  15. Temperature oscillating regimes in Tore Supra diagnosed by MHD activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maget, P.; Imbeaux, F.; Giruzzi, G.; Udintsev, V.S.; Huysmans, G.T.A.; Segui, J.-L.; Goniche, M.; Moreau, Ph.; Sabot, R.; Garbet, X.

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes what we can learn on the regimes of spontaneous electron temperature oscillations discovered in Tore Supra from the analysis of MHD activity. Since the first observations of this oscillating behaviour of plasma equilibrium, and its interpretation as a predator-prey system involving lower hybrid waves power deposition and electron confinement, analysis of MHD modes has confirmed the reality of safety factor profile oscillations. This points towards the importance of rational values of the safety factor in the transition to transport barriers in reversed magnetic shear plasmas

  16. The effects of a muscle resistance program on the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha in pre-frail elderly women: a randomized crossover clinical trial--a study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustosa, Lygia P; Coelho, Fernanda M; Silva, Juscelio P; Pereira, Daniele S; Parentoni, Adriana N; Dias, João M D; Dias, Rosangela C; Pereira, Leani S M

    2010-07-28

    With the increase in the elderly population, a growing number of chronic degenerative diseases and a greater dependency on caregivers have been observed. Elderly persons in states of frailty remain more susceptible to significant health complications. There is evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma levels of inflammatory mediators and levels of functionality and muscle strength, suggesting that muscle-strengthening measures can aid in inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study will be verified the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load during a ten-week period in pre-frail elderly women with attention to the following outcomes: (1) plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), (2) functional capacity and (3) knee extensor muscle strength. The study design is a randomized crossover clinical trial evaluating 26 elderly women (regardless of their race and/or social condition) who are community residents, older than 65, and classified as pre-frail according to the criteria previously described by Fried et al. (2004). All subjects will be assessed using the Timed up and go and 10-Meter Walk Test functional tests. The plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-alpha will be assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) with high sensitivity kits (QuantikineHS, R&D Systems Minneapolis, MN, U.S.). Knee extensor muscle strength will be assessed using the Byodex System 3 Pro(R) isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180 degrees/s. The intervention will consist of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 50 to 70% of 1RM (maximal resistance) three times per week for ten weeks. The volunteers will be randomized into two groups: group E, the intervention group, and group C, the control group that did not initiate any new activities during the initial study period (ten weeks). After the initial period, group C will begin the intervention and group E will maintain everyday activities without

  17. The effects of a muscle resistance program on the functional capacity, knee extensor muscle strength and plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α in pre-frail elderly women: a randomized crossover clinical trial - a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias João MD

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the increase in the elderly population, a growing number of chronic degenerative diseases and a greater dependency on caregivers have been observed. Elderly persons in states of frailty remain more susceptible to significant health complications. There is evidence of an inverse relationship between plasma levels of inflammatory mediators and levels of functionality and muscle strength, suggesting that muscle-strengthening measures can aid in inflammatory conditions. The purpose of this study will be verified the effect of a muscle-strengthening program with load during a ten-week period in pre-frail elderly women with attention to the following outcomes: (1 plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, (2 functional capacity and (3 knee extensor muscle strength. Methods/Design The study design is a randomized crossover clinical trial evaluating 26 elderly women (regardless of their race and/or social condition who are community residents, older than 65, and classified as pre-frail according to the criteria previously described by Fried et al. (2004. All subjects will be assessed using the Timed up and go and 10-Meter Walk Test functional tests. The plasma levels of IL-6 and TNF-α will be assessed by ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with high sensitivity kits (Quantikine®HS, R&D Systems Minneapolis, MN, U.S.. Knee extensor muscle strength will be assessed using the Byodex System 3 Pro® isokinetic dynamometer at angular speeds of 60 and 180°/s. The intervention will consist of strengthening exercises of the lower extremities at 50 to 70% of 1RM (maximal resistance three times per week for ten weeks. The volunteers will be randomized into two groups: group E, the intervention group, and group C, the control group that did not initiate any new activities during the initial study period (ten weeks. After the initial period, group C will begin the intervention and group E will

  18. Dysrhythmias of the respiratory oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paydarfar, David; Buerkel, Daniel M.

    1995-03-01

    Breathing is regulated by a central neural oscillator that produces rhythmic output to the respiratory muscles. Pathological disturbances in rhythm (dysrhythmias) are observed in the breathing pattern of children and adults with neurological and cardiopulmonary diseases. The mechanisms responsible for genesis of respiratory dysrhythmias are poorly understood. The present studies take a novel approach to this problem. The basic postulate is that the rhythm of the respiratory oscillator can be altered by a variety of stimuli. When the oscillator recovers its rhythm after such perturbations, its phase may be reset relative to the original rhythm. The amount of phase resetting is dependent upon stimulus parameters and the level of respiratory drive. The long-range hypothesis is that respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli that impinge upon or arise within the respiratory oscillator with certain combinations of strength and timing relative to the respiratory cycle. Animal studies were performed in anesthetized or decerebrate preparations. Neural respiratory rhythmicity is represented by phrenic nerve activity, allowing use of open-loop experimental conditions which avoid negative chemical feedback associated with changes in ventilation. In animal experiments, respiratory dysrhythmias can be induced by stimuli having specific combinations of strength and timing. Newborn animals readily exhibit spontaneous dysrhythmias which become more prominent at lower respiratory drives. In human subjects, swallowing was studied as a physiological perturbation of respiratory rhythm, causing a pattern of phase resetting that is characterized topologically as type 0. Computational studies of the Bonhoeffer-van der Pol (BvP) equations, whose qualitative behavior is representative of many excitable systems, supports a unified interpretation of these experimental findings. Rhythmicity is observed when the BvP model exhibits recurrent periods of excitation alternating with

  19. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne

    2012-10-06

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  20. A memristor-based third-order oscillator: beyond oscillation

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the first third-order autonomous linear time variant circuit realization that enhances parametric oscillation through the usage of memristor in conventional oscillators. Although the output has sustained oscillation, the linear features of the conventional oscillators become time dependent. The poles oscillate in nonlinear behavior due to the oscillation of memristor resistance. The mathematical formulas as well as SPICE simulations are introduced for the memristor-based phase shift oscillator showing a great matching.

  1. Magneto-acoustic resonance in a non-uniform current carrying plasma column

    OpenAIRE

    Vaclavik, J.

    2017-01-01

    The forced radial magneto-acoustic oscillations in a plasma column with nonuniform mass density and temperature are investigated. It turns out that the oscillations have a resonant character similar to that of the magneto-acoustic oscillations in a uniform plasma column. The properties of the axial and azimuthal components of the oscillating magnetic field are discussed in detail

  2. Developments in plasma physics and controlled fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, W.B.

    1980-01-01

    Some developments in plasma physics over the past twenty years are considered from the theoretical physics standpoint under the headings; oscillations, waves and instabilities, plasma turbulence, basic kinetic theory, and developments in fusion. (UK)

  3. Phase locking between Josephson soliton oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, T.; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Grønbech-Jensen, N.

    1990-01-01

    We report observations of phase-locking phenomena between two Josephson soliton (fluxon) oscillators biased in self-resonant modes. The locking strength was measured as a function of bias conditions. A frequency tunability of the phase-locked oscillators up to 7% at 10 GHz was observed. Two coupled...... perturbed sine-Gordon equations were derived from an equivalent circuit consisting of inductively coupled, nonlinear, lossy transmission lines. These equations were solved numerically to find the locking regions. Good qualitative agreement was found between the experimental results and the calculations...

  4. Chaotic Motion of Nonlinearly Coupled Quintic Oscillators | Adeloye ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With a fixed energy, we investigate the motion of two nonlinearly coupled quintic oscillators for various values of the coupling strength with the aid of the Poincare surface of section. It is observed that chaotic motion sets in for coupling strength as low as 0.001. The degree of chaoticity generally increases as the coupling ...

  5. Oscillations of disks

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the current state of research on disk oscillation theory, focusing on relativistic disks and tidally deformed disks. Since the launch of the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) in 1996, many high-frequency quasiperiodic oscillations (HFQPOs) have been observed in X-ray binaries. Subsequently, similar quasi-periodic oscillations have been found in such relativistic objects as microquasars, ultra-luminous X-ray sources, and galactic nuclei. One of the most promising explanations of their origin is based on oscillations in relativistic disks, and a new field called discoseismology is currently developing. After reviewing observational aspects, the book presents the basic characteristics of disk oscillations, especially focusing on those in relativistic disks. Relativistic disks are essentially different from Newtonian disks in terms of several basic characteristics of their disk oscillations, including the radial distributions of epicyclic frequencies. In order to understand the basic processes...

  6. Oscillations in stellar atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.; Ringuelet, A.E.; Fontenla, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Atmospheric excitation and propagation of oscillations are analyzed for typical pulsating stars. The linear, plane-parallel approach for the pulsating atmosphere gives a local description of the phenomenon. From the local analysis of oscillations, the minimum frequencies are obtained for radially propagating waves. The comparison of the minimum frequencies obtained for a variety of stellar types is in good agreement with the observed periods of the oscillations. The role of the atmosphere in the globar stellar pulsations is thus emphasized. 7 refs

  7. Expansion of dense particle clouds in magnetically confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lengyel, L.L.

    1988-01-01

    A single-cell Lagrangian model has been developed for calculating the ionization and expansion dynamics of high-density clouds in magnetic fields or in magnetically confined plasmas. The model was tested by means of data from magnetospheric barium cloud experiments and approximately reproduced such global characteristics as expansion rate, stopping radius, stopping time, and magnetic cavity lifetime. Detailed calculations were performed for hydrogen clouds associated with the injection of frozen hydrogen pellets into tokamak plasmas. The dynamic characteristics of the cloud expansion, such as ionization radius, stopping time, lifetime, oscillation frequencies, and amplitudes, etc., are computed as functions of the magnetic field strength, the background plasma temperature, and the cloud mass. The results are analyzed and compared with experimental observations

  8. Detection of electric field around field-reversed configuration plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeyama, Taeko; Hiroi, Masanori; Nogi, Yasuyuki; Ohkuma, Yasunori

    2010-01-01

    Electric-field probes consisting of copper plates are developed to measure electric fields in a vacuum region around a plasma. The probes detect oscillating electric fields with a maximum strength of approximately 100 V/m through a discharge. Reproducible signals from the probes are obtained with an unstable phase dominated by a rotational instability. It is found that the azimuthal structure of the electric field can be explained by the sum of an n=2 mode charge distribution and a convex-surface electron distribution on the deformed separatrix at the unstable phase. The former distribution agrees with that anticipated from the diamagnetic drift motions of plasma when the rotational instability occurs. The latter distribution suggests that an electron-rich plasma covers the separatrix.

  9. Oscillating magnetic islands in a rotating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persson, M.; Bondeson, A.

    1990-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of tearing modes in the presence of sheared mass flow is studied as an initial value problem. It is shown that under certain conditions, when the mode is driven unstable primarily by the mass flow, the nonlinear evolution leads to a dynamic state in which the size and shape of the magnetic islands is oscillatory. 15 refs., 11 figs

  10. Mutual phase-locking of planar nano-oscillators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Xu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of phase-locking between Gunn effect-based planar nano-oscillators are studied using an ensemble Monte Carlo (EMC method. Directly connecting two oscillators in close proximity, e.g. with a channel distance of 200 nm, only results in incoherent oscillations. In order to achieve in-phase oscillations, additional considerations must be taken into account. Two coupling paths are shown to exist between oscillators. One coupling path results in synchronization and the other results in anti-phase locking. The coupling strength through these two paths can be adjusted by changing the connections between oscillators. When two identical oscillators are in the anti-phase locking regime, fundamental components of oscillations are cancelled. The resulting output consists of purely second harmonic oscillations with a frequency of about 0.66 THz. This type of second harmonic generation is desired for higher frequency applications since no additional filter system is required. This transient phase-locking process is further analyzed using Adler's theory. The locking range is extracted, and a criterion for the channel length difference required for realizing phased arrays is obtained. This work should aid in designing nano-oscillator arrays for high power applications and developing directional transmitters for wireless communications.

  11. Low-frequency oscillations at high density in JFT-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeno, Masaki; Katagiri, Masaki; Suzuki, Norio; Fujisawa, Noboru

    1977-12-01

    Low-frequency oscillations in a plasma were measured with magnetic probes and Si surface-barrier detectors, and behaviour of the high density plasmas was studied. The plasma current profile in the phase of decreasing density after the interruption of gas input is more peaked than during gas input. The introduction of hydrogen during a discharge results in a reduction of the impurities flux. The increase of density by fast gas input is limited with a negative voltage spike. Immediately before a negative voltage spike, oscillations of m=1,2 grow, leading to the spike. (auth.)

  12. The Oscillator Principle of Nature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Oscillators are found on all levels in Nature. The general oscillator concept is defined and investigated. Oscillators may synchronize into fractal patterns. Apparently oscillators are the basic principle in Nature. The concepts of zero and infinite are discussed. Electronic manmade oscillators...

  13. Oscillating systems with cointegrated phase processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Jacob; Rahbek, Anders; Ditlevsen, Susanne

    2017-01-01

    We present cointegration analysis as a method to infer the network structure of a linearly phase coupled oscillating system. By defining a class of oscillating systems with interacting phases, we derive a data generating process where we can specify the coupling structure of a network...... that resembles biological processes. In particular we study a network of Winfree oscillators, for which we present a statistical analysis of various simulated networks, where we conclude on the coupling structure: the direction of feedback in the phase processes and proportional coupling strength between...... individual components of the system. We show that we can correctly classify the network structure for such a system by cointegration analysis, for various types of coupling, including uni-/bi-directional and all-to-all coupling. Finally, we analyze a set of EEG recordings and discuss the current...

  14. On the Dirac oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, R. de Lima

    2007-01-01

    In the present work we obtain a new representation for the Dirac oscillator based on the Clifford algebra C 7. The symmetry breaking and the energy eigenvalues for our model of the Dirac oscillator are studied in the non-relativistic limit. (author)

  15. A Conspiracy of Oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss nonlinear mechanical systems containing several oscillators whose frequecies are all much higher than frequencies associated with the remaining degrees of freedom. In this situation a near constant of the motion, an adiabatic invariant, exists which is the sum of all the oscillator...... actions. The phenomenon is illustrated, and calculations of the small change of the adiabatic invariant is outlined....

  16. Synchronization of hyperchaotic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamasevicius, A.; Cenys, A.; Mykolaitis, G.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronization of chaotic oscillators is believed to have promising applications in secure communications. Hyperchaotic systems with multiple positive Lyapunov exponents (LEs) have an advantage over common chaotic systems with only one positive LE. Three different types of hyperchaotic electronic...... oscillators are investigated demonstrating synchronization by means of only one properly selected variable....

  17. The Effects of Magnetic-Field Geometry on Longitudinal Oscillations of Solar Prominences: Cross-Sectional Area Variation for Thin Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, M.; Diaz, A. J.; Oliver, R.; Terradas, J.; Karpen, J.

    2016-01-01

    Solar prominences are subject to both field-aligned (longitudinal) and transverse oscillatory motions, as evidenced by an increasing number of observations. Large-amplitude longitudinal motions provide valuable information on the geometry of the filament channel magnetic structure that supports the cool prominence plasma against gravity. Our pendulum model, in which the restoring force is the gravity projected along the dipped field lines of the magnetic structure, best explains these oscillations. However, several factors can influence the longitudinal oscillations, potentially invalidating the pendulum model. Aims. The aim of this work is to study the influence of large-scale variations in the magnetic field strength along the field lines, i.e., variations of the cross-sectional area along the flux tubes supporting prominence threads. Methods. We studied the normal modes of several flux tube configurations, using linear perturbation analysis, to assess the influence of different geometrical parameters on the oscillation properties. Results. We found that the influence of the symmetric and asymmetric expansion factors on longitudinal oscillations is small.Conclusions. We conclude that the longitudinal oscillations are not significantly influenced by variations of the cross-section of the flux tubes, validating the pendulum model in this context.

  18. On the theory of internal kink oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breizman, B.N.; Candy, J.; Berk, H.L.

    1997-12-01

    In this paper the authors derive a time evolution equation for internal kink oscillations which is valid for both stable and unstable plasma regimes, and incorporates the nonlinear response of an energetic particle population. A linear analysis reveals a parallel between (i) the time evolution of the spatial derivative of the internal kink radial displacement and (ii) the time evolution of the perturbed particle distribution function in the field of an electrostatic wave (Landau problem). They show that diamagnetic drift effects make the asymptotic decay of internal kink perturbations in a stable plasma algebraic rather than exponential. However, under certain conditions the stable root of the dispersion relation can dominate the response of the on-axis displacement for a significant period of time. The form of the evolution equation naturally allows one to include a nonlinear, fully toroidal treatment of energetic particles into the theory of internal kink oscillations

  19. Pattern recognition with simple oscillating circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoelzel, R W; Krischer, K

    2011-01-01

    Neural network devices that inherently possess parallel computing capabilities are generally difficult to construct because of the large number of neuron-neuron connections. However, there exists a theoretical approach (Hoppensteadt and Izhikevich 1999 Phys. Rev. Lett. 82 2983) that forgoes the individual connections and uses only a global coupling: systems of weakly coupled oscillators with a time-dependent global coupling are capable of performing pattern recognition in an associative manner similar to Hopfield networks. The information is stored in the phase shifts of the individual oscillators. However, to date, even the feasibility of controlling phase shifts with this kind of coupling has not yet been established experimentally. We present an experimental realization of this neural network device. It consists of eight sinusoidal electrical van der Pol oscillators that are globally coupled through a variable resistor with the electric potential as the coupling variable. We estimate an effective value of the phase coupling strength in our experiment. For that, we derive a general approach that allows one to compare different experimental realizations with each other as well as with phase equation models. We demonstrate that individual phase shifts of oscillators can be experimentally controlled by a weak global coupling. Furthermore, supplied with a distorted input image, the oscillating network can indeed recognize the correct image out of a set of predefined patterns. It can therefore be used as the processing unit of an associative memory device.

  20. Transition from amplitude to oscillation death in a network of oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandan, Mauparna; Hens, C. R.; Dana, Syamal K.; Pal, Pinaki

    2014-01-01

    We report a transition from a homogeneous steady state (HSS) to inhomogeneous steady states (IHSSs) in a network of globally coupled identical oscillators. We perturb a synchronized population of oscillators in the network with a few local negative or repulsive mean field links. The whole population splits into two clusters for a certain number of repulsive mean field links and a range of coupling strength. For further increase of the strength of interaction, these clusters collapse into a HSS followed by a transition to IHSSs where all the oscillators populate either of the two stable steady states. We analytically determine the origin of HSS and its transition to IHSS in relation to the number of repulsive mean-field links and the strength of interaction using a reductionism approach to the model network. We verify the results with numerical examples of the paradigmatic Landau-Stuart limit cycle system and the chaotic Rössler oscillator as dynamical nodes. During the transition from HSS to IHSSs, the network follows the Turing type symmetry breaking pitchfork or transcritical bifurcation depending upon the system dynamics

  1. Transition from amplitude to oscillation death in a network of oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nandan, Mauparna [Dr. B. C. Roy Engineering College, Durgapur 713206 (India); Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713209 (India); Hens, C. R.; Dana, Syamal K. [CSIR-Indian Institute of Chemical Biology, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Pal, Pinaki [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Durgapur 713209 (India)

    2014-12-01

    We report a transition from a homogeneous steady state (HSS) to inhomogeneous steady states (IHSSs) in a network of globally coupled identical oscillators. We perturb a synchronized population of oscillators in the network with a few local negative or repulsive mean field links. The whole population splits into two clusters for a certain number of repulsive mean field links and a range of coupling strength. For further increase of the strength of interaction, these clusters collapse into a HSS followed by a transition to IHSSs where all the oscillators populate either of the two stable steady states. We analytically determine the origin of HSS and its transition to IHSS in relation to the number of repulsive mean-field links and the strength of interaction using a reductionism approach to the model network. We verify the results with numerical examples of the paradigmatic Landau-Stuart limit cycle system and the chaotic Rössler oscillator as dynamical nodes. During the transition from HSS to IHSSs, the network follows the Turing type symmetry breaking pitchfork or transcritical bifurcation depending upon the system dynamics.

  2. Stabilization of sawtooty oscillation by island heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, W.; Monticello, D.A.; Chu, T.K.

    1986-10-01

    Using the compressible resistive MHD equations in a finite aspect ratio cylinder, it is found that the m = 1 mode (the sawtooth oscillation) can saturate when the pressure inside the magnetic island is higher than that of the original core plasma. The saturation condition is of the form Δβ/sub p/ ≥ 8 ε -1 /sub q = 1/ (1 - q 0 ) 2 . This saturation effect can be used to actively stabilize sawteeth by heating the island and/or by cooling the core plasma. This mechanism together with a stabilizing toroidal effect may also explain recent lower-hybrid-wave-driven tokamak experiments where the saturation of sawteeth has been observed

  3. Chaotic synchronization of two complex nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, Gamal M.; Mahmoud, Emad E.; Farghaly, Ahmed A.; Aly, Shaban A.

    2009-01-01

    Synchronization is an important phenomenon commonly observed in nature. It is also often artificially induced because it is desirable for a variety of applications in physics, applied sciences and engineering. In a recent paper [Mahmoud GM, Mohamed AA, Aly SA. Strange attractors and chaos control in periodically forced complex Duffing's oscillators. Physica A 2001;292:193-206], a system of periodically forced complex Duffing's oscillators was introduced and shown to display chaotic behavior and possess strange attractors. Such complex oscillators appear in many problems of physics and engineering, as, for example, nonlinear optics, deep-water wave theory, plasma physics and bimolecular dynamics. Their connection to solutions of the nonlinear Schroedinger equation has also been pointed out. In this paper, we study the remarkable phenomenon of chaotic synchronization on these oscillator systems, using active control and global synchronization techniques. We derive analytical expressions for control functions and show that the dynamics of error evolution is globally stable, by constructing appropriate Lyapunov functions. This means that, for a relatively large set initial conditions, the differences between the drive and response systems vanish exponentially and synchronization is achieved. Numerical results are obtained to test the validity of the analytical expressions and illustrate the efficiency of these techniques for inducing chaos synchronization in our nonlinear oscillators.

  4. Observation of Quasichanneling Oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wistisen, T. N.; Mikkelsen, R. E.; Uggerhoj, University I.; Wienands, University; Markiewicz, T. W.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we report on the first experimental observations of quasichanneling oscillations, recently seen in simulations and described theoretically. Although above-barrier particles penetrating a single crystal are generally seen as behaving almost as in an amorphous substance, distinct oscillation peaks nevertheless appear for particles in that category. The quasichanneling oscillations were observed at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory by aiming 20.35 GeV positrons and electrons at a thin silicon crystal bent to a radius of R = 0.15 m, exploiting the quasimosaic effect. For electrons, two relatively faint quasichanneling peaks were observed, while for positrons, seven quasichanneling peaks were clearly identified.

  5. LSND neutrino oscillation results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louis, W.C.

    1996-01-01

    In the past several years, a number of experiments have searched for neutrino oscillations, where a neutrino of one type (say bar ν μ ) spontaneously transforms into a neutrino of another type (say bar ν e ). For this phenomenon to occur, neutrinos must be massive and the apparent conservation law of lepton families must be violated. In 1995 the LSND experiment published data showing candidate events that are consistent with bar ν μ oscillations. Additional data are reported here which provide stronger evidence for neutrino oscillations

  6. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayser, Boris

    2014-01-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures

  7. Neutrino Oscillation Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kayser, Boris [Fermilab (United States)

    2014-07-01

    To complement the neutrino-physics lectures given at the 2011 International School on Astro Particle Physics devoted to Neutrino Physics and Astrophysics (ISAPP 2011; Varenna, Italy), at the 2011 European School of High Energy Physics (ESHEP 2011; Cheila Gradistei, Romania), and, in modified form, at other summer schools, we present here a written description of the physics of neutrino oscillation. This description is centered on a new way of deriving the oscillation probability. We also provide a brief guide to references relevant to topics other than neutrino oscillation that were covered in the lectures.

  8. Oscillator, neutron modulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agaisse, R.; Leguen, R.; Ombredane, D.

    1960-01-01

    The authors present a mechanical device and an electronic control circuit which have been designed to sinusoidally modulate the reactivity of the Proserpine atomic pile. The mechanical device comprises an oscillator and a mechanism assembly. The oscillator is made of cadmium blades which generate the reactivity oscillation. The mechanism assembly comprises a pulse generator for cycle splitting, a gearbox and an engine. The electronic device comprises or performs pulse detection, an on-off device, cycle pulse shaping, phase separation, a dephasing amplifier, electronic switches, counting scales, and control devices. All these elements are briefly presented

  9. Basin stability measure of different steady states in coupled oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Sarbendu; Bera, Bidesh K.; Majhi, Soumen; Hens, Chittaranjan; Ghosh, Dibakar

    2017-04-01

    In this report, we investigate the stabilization of saddle fixed points in coupled oscillators where individual oscillators exhibit the saddle fixed points. The coupled oscillators may have two structurally different types of suppressed states, namely amplitude death and oscillation death. The stabilization of saddle equilibrium point refers to the amplitude death state where oscillations are ceased and all the oscillators converge to the single stable steady state via inverse pitchfork bifurcation. Due to multistability features of oscillation death states, linear stability theory fails to analyze the stability of such states analytically, so we quantify all the states by basin stability measurement which is an universal nonlocal nonlinear concept and it interplays with the volume of basins of attractions. We also observe multi-clustered oscillation death states in a random network and measure them using basin stability framework. To explore such phenomena we choose a network of coupled Duffing-Holmes and Lorenz oscillators which are interacting through mean-field coupling. We investigate how basin stability for different steady states depends on mean-field density and coupling strength. We also analytically derive stability conditions for different steady states and confirm by rigorous bifurcation analysis.

  10. γ -Ray Generation from Plasma Wakefield Resonant Wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Bifeng; Wang, Jingwei; Kharin, Vasily; Zepf, Matt; Rykovanov, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    A flexible gamma-ray radiation source based on the resonant laser-plasma wakefield wiggler is proposed. The wiggler is achieved by inducing centroid oscillations of a short laser pulse in a plasma channel. Electrons (self-)injected in such a wakefield experience both oscillations due to the transverse electric fields and energy gain due to the longitudinal electric field. The oscillations are significantly enhanced when the laser pulse centroid oscillations are in resonance with the electron betatron oscillations, extending the radiation spectrum to the gamma-ray range. The polarization of the radiation can be easily controlled by adjusting the injection of the laser pulse into the plasma channel.

  11. The chimera state in colloidal phase oscillators with hydrodynamic interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Evelyn; Bruot, Nicolas; Cicuta, Pietro

    2017-12-01

    The chimera state is the incongruous situation where coherent and incoherent populations coexist in sets of identical oscillators. Using driven non-linear oscillators interacting purely through hydrodynamic forces at low Reynolds number, previously studied as a simple model of motile cilia supporting waves, we find concurrent incoherent and synchronised subsets in small arrays. The chimeras seen in simulation display a "breathing" aspect, reminiscent of uniformly interacting phase oscillators. In contrast to other systems where chimera has been observed, this system has a well-defined interaction metric, and we know that the emergent dynamics inherit the symmetry of the underlying Oseen tensor eigenmodes. The chimera state can thus be connected to a superposition of eigenstates, whilst considering the mean interaction strength within and across subsystems allows us to make a connection to more generic (and abstract) chimeras in populations of Kuramoto phase oscillators. From this work, we expect the chimera state to emerge in experimental observations of oscillators coupled through hydrodynamic forces.

  12. OSCILLATING FILAMENTS. I. OSCILLATION AND GEOMETRICAL FRAGMENTATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritschneder, Matthias; Heigl, Stefan; Burkert, Andreas, E-mail: gritschm@usm.uni-muenchen.de [University Observatory Munich, LMU Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany)

    2017-01-10

    We study the stability of filaments in equilibrium between gravity and internal as well as external pressure using the grid-based AMR code RAMSES. A homogeneous, straight cylinder below a critical line mass is marginally stable. However, if the cylinder is bent, such as with a slight sinusoidal perturbation, an otherwise stable configuration starts to oscillate, is triggered into fragmentation, and collapses. This previously unstudied behavior allows a filament to fragment at any given scale, as long as it has slight bends. We call this process “geometrical fragmentation.” In our realization, the spacing between the cores matches the wavelength of the sinusoidal perturbation, whereas up to now, filaments were thought to be only fragmenting on the characteristic scale set by the mass-to-line ratio. Using first principles, we derive the oscillation period as well as the collapse timescale analytically. To enable a direct comparison with observations, we study the line-of-sight velocity for different inclinations. We show that the overall oscillation pattern can hide the infall signature of cores.

  13. Stable amplitude chimera states in a network of locally coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, K.; Chandrasekar, V. K.; Senthilvelan, M.; Lakshmanan, M.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate the occurrence of collective dynamical states such as transient amplitude chimera, stable amplitude chimera, and imperfect breathing chimera states in a locally coupled network of Stuart-Landau oscillators. In an imperfect breathing chimera state, the synchronized group of oscillators exhibits oscillations with large amplitudes, while the desynchronized group of oscillators oscillates with small amplitudes, and this behavior of coexistence of synchronized and desynchronized oscillations fluctuates with time. Then, we analyze the stability of the amplitude chimera states under various circumstances, including variations in system parameters and coupling strength, and perturbations in the initial states of the oscillators. For an increase in the value of the system parameter, namely, the nonisochronicity parameter, the transient chimera state becomes a stable chimera state for a sufficiently large value of coupling strength. In addition, we also analyze the stability of these states by perturbing the initial states of the oscillators. We find that while a small perturbation allows one to perturb a large number of oscillators resulting in a stable amplitude chimera state, a large perturbation allows one to perturb a small number of oscillators to get a stable amplitude chimera state. We also find the stability of the transient and stable amplitude chimera states and traveling wave states for an appropriate number of oscillators using Floquet theory. In addition, we also find the stability of the incoherent oscillation death states.

  14. Self-similar oscillations of a Z pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felber, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    A new analytic, self-similar solution of the equations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics describes cylindrically symmetric plasmas conducting constant current. The solution indicates that an adiabatic Z pinch oscillates radially with a period typically of the order of a few acoustic transit times. A stability analysis, which shows the growth rate of the sausage instability to be a saturating function of wavenumber, suggests that the oscillations are observable

  15. Again on neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilenky, S.M.; Pontecorvo, B.

    1976-01-01

    The general case is treated of a weak interaction theory in which a term violating lepton charges is present. In such a scheme the particles with definite masses are Majorana neutrinos (2N if in the weak interaction participate N four-component neutrinos). Neutrino oscillations are discussed and it is shown that the minimum average intensity at the earth of solar neutrinos is 1/2N of the intensity expected when oscillations are absent

  16. Density-wave oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belblidia, L.A.; Bratianu, C.

    1979-01-01

    Boiling flow in a steam generator, a water-cooled reactor, and other multiphase processes can be subject to instabilities. It appears that the most predominant instabilities are the so-called density-wave oscillations. They can cause difficulties for three main reasons; they may induce burnout; they may cause mechanical vibrations of components; and they create system control problems. A comprehensive review is presented of experimental and theoretical studies concerning density-wave oscillations. (author)

  17. Oscillators and operational amplifiers

    OpenAIRE

    Lindberg, Erik

    2005-01-01

    A generalized approach to the design of oscillators using operational amplifiers as active elements is presented. A piecewise-linear model of the amplifier is used so that it make sense to investigate the eigenvalues of the Jacobian of the differential equations. The characteristic equation of the general circuit is derived. The dynamic nonlinear transfer characteristic of the amplifier is investigated. Examples of negative resistance oscillators are discussed.

  18. Chaotic solar oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blacher, S; Perdang, J [Institut d' Astrophysique, B-4200 Cointe-Ougree (Belgium)

    1981-09-01

    A numerical experiment on Hamiltonian oscillations demonstrates the existence of chaotic motions which satisfy the property of phase coherence. It is observed that the low-frequency end of the power spectrum of such motions is remarkably similar in structure to the low-frequency SCLERA spectra. Since the smallness of the observed solar amplitudes is not a sufficient mathematical ground for inefficiency of non-linear effects the possibility of chaos among solar oscillations cannot be discarded a priori.

  19. Case for neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramond, P.

    1982-01-01

    The building of a machine capable of producing an intense, well-calibrated beam of muon neutrinos is regarded by particle physicists with keen interest because of its ability of studying neutrino oscillations. The possibility of neutrino oscillations has long been recognized, but it was not made necessary on theoretical or experimental grounds; one knew that oscillations could be avoided if neutrinos were massless, and this was easily done by the conservation of lepton number. The idea of grand unification has led physicists to question the existence (at higher energies) of global conservation laws. The prime examples are baryon-number conservation, which prevents proton decay, and lepton-number conservation, which keeps neutrinos massless, and therefore free of oscillations. The detection of proton decay and neutrino oscillations would therefore be an indirect indication of the idea of Grand Unification, and therefore of paramount importance. Neutrino oscillations occur when neutrinos acquire mass in such a way that the neutrino mass eigenstates do not match the (neutrino) eigenstates produced by the weak interactions. We shall study the ways in which neutrinos can get mass, first at the level of the standard SU 2 x U 1 model, then at the level of its Grand Unification Generalizations

  20. Interaction between electromagnetic waves and plasma waves in motional plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S. Y.; Gao, M.; Tang, C. J.; Peng, X. D.

    2009-01-01

    The electromagnetic wave (EM wave) behavior and the electromagnetic instability caused by the interaction between an EM wave and a plasma wave in motional plasma are studied. The dispersion relation of EM waves and the dielectric tensor of motional plasma are derived by magnetohydrodynamics, and the wave phenomenon in motional plasma is displayed. As a result, the electromagnetic instability, which is excited by the interaction between the EM waves and the plasma waves, is revealed. The mechanism of the instability is the coupling between high frequency electromagnetic field and the transverse electron oscillation derived from the deflection of longitudinal electron oscillation due to self-magnetic field. The present research is useful with regard to the new type of plasma radiation source, ion-focusing accelerator, and plasma diagnostic technique.

  1. Runaway relativistic electron scattering on the plazma oscillations in tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasovitskij, V.B.; Razdorski, V.G.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamics of fast electrons in a tolamak plasma with the presence of the constant external electric field have been inveatigated. It is shown that the occurrence of the relativistic electrons ''tail'' of the distribution function is followed by an intensive plasma oscillation swinging under conditions of the anomalous Doppler effect and their large angle scattering in the momentum space. A part of scattered electrons is captured by tokamak inhomogeneous magnetic field and causes the occurrence of a new low frequency alfven instability under conditions of magnetic drift resonance followed by quasilinear diffusion of relativistic electrons along the small radius of the torus. The flux of runaway electrons scattered on plasma oscillations has been found. A nonlinear diffusion equation has been derived for the flux of captured electrons. The equation defines the carrying out of fast particles from the plasma filament center to its periphery depending on the external magnetic field and plasma parameters

  2. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  3. Optical properties of cluster plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishimoto, Yasuaki; Tajima, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment; Downer, M C

    1998-03-01

    It is shown that unlike a gas plasma or an electron plasma in a metal, an ionized clustered material (`cluster plasma`) permits propagation below the plasma cut-off of electromagnetic (EM) waves whose phase velocity is close to but below the speed of light. This results from the excitation of a plasma oscillation mode (and/or polarization mode) through the cluster surface which does not exist in usual gaseous plasma. The existence of this new optical mode, cluster mode, is confirmed via numerical simulation. (author)

  4. Automated Detection of Oscillating Regions in the Solar Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, J.; Marsh, M. S.; Kucera, T. A.; Young, C. A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently observed oscillations in the solar atmosphere have been interpreted and modeled as magnetohydrodynamic wave modes. This has allowed for the estimation of parameters that are otherwise hard to derive, such as the coronal magnetic-field strength. This work crucially relies on the initial detection of the oscillations, which is commonly done manually. The volume of Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) data will make manual detection inefficient for detecting all of the oscillating regions. An algorithm is presented that automates the detection of areas of the solar atmosphere that support spatially extended oscillations. The algorithm identifies areas in the solar atmosphere whose oscillation content is described by a single, dominant oscillation within a user-defined frequency range. The method is based on Bayesian spectral analysis of time series and image filtering. A Bayesian approach sidesteps the need for an a-priori noise estimate to calculate rejection criteria for the observed signal, and it also provides estimates of oscillation frequency, amplitude, and noise, and the error in all of these quantities, in a self-consistent way. The algorithm also introduces the notion of quality measures to those regions for which a positive detection is claimed, allowing for simple post-detection discrimination by the user. The algorithm is demonstrated on two Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) datasets, and comments regarding its suitability for oscillation detection in SDO are made.

  5. A collisional-radiative average atom model for hot plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsnyai, B.F.

    1996-01-01

    A collisional-radiative 'average atom' (AA) model is presented for the calculation of opacities of hot plasmas not in the condition of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). The electron impact and radiative rate constants are calculated using the dipole oscillator strengths of the average atom. A key element of the model is the photon escape probability which at present is calculated for a semi infinite slab. The Fermi statistics renders the rate equation for the AA level occupancies nonlinear, which requires iterations until the steady state. AA level occupancies are found. Detailed electronic configurations are built into the model after the self-consistent non-LTE AA state is found. The model shows a continuous transition from the non-LTE to the LTE state depending on the optical thickness of the plasma. 22 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab

  6. Echo phenomena in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, V.N.

    1983-01-01

    The mechanism of echo phenomenon in different plasma media: laboratory and cosmic plasma, metals and semiconductors is analyzed to get a more comprehensive idea on collective processes in a plasma and for practical applications in radiophysics and plasma diagnostics. The echo phenomenon permitted to confirm a reversible nature of the Landau damping, to prove the fact that the information on perturbation is conserved in a plasma (as non-damping oscillations of the distribution function) even after disappearing of the macroscopic field. The dependence of the diffusion coefficient on the velocity is measured, microturbulences in a plasma are investigated. New ways of the plasma wave conversion are suggested, as well as ''lightning'' of super-critical plasma layers and regions of plasma non-transparency. Prospective advantages of using echo for studying the mechanisms of charged particle interaction with the surface bounding a plasma are revealed

  7. Electromagnetic damping of neutron star oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, P.N.; Savedoff, M.P.; Van Horn, H.M.; Zweibel, E.G.; Hansen, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Nonradial pulsations of a neutron star with a strong dipole magnetic field cause emission of electromagnetic radiation. Here we compute the power radiated to vacuum by neutron star g-mode pulsations and by torsional oscillations of the neutron star crust. For the low-order quadrupole fluid g-modes we have considered, we find electromagnetic damping to be considerably more effective than gravitational radiation. For example, a 0.5 M/sub sun/ neutron star with a core temperature approx.10 7 K has a g 1 -mode period of 371 ms; for this mode were find the electromagnetic damping time to be tau/sub FM/approx.0.3 s, assuming the surface magnetic field strength of the neutron star to be B 0 approx.10 12 gauss. This is considerably less than the corresponding gravitational radiation time tau/sub GR/approx.3 x 10 17 yr. For dipole g-mode oscillations, there is no gravitational radiation, but electromagnetic damping and ohmic dissipation are efficient damping mechanisms. For dipole torsional oscillations, we find that electromagnetic damping again dominates, with tau/sub EM/approx.5 yr. Among the cases we have studied, quadrupole torsional oscillations appear to be dominated by gravitational radiation damping, with tau/sub GR/approx.10 4 yr, as compared with tau/sub EM/approx.2 x 10 7 yr

  8. Do muons oscillate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Morozov, A.Yu.; Okun, L.B.; Schepkin, M.G.

    1997-01-01

    We develop a theory of the EPR-like effects due to neutrino oscillations in the π→μν decays. Its experimental implications are space-time correlations of the neutrino and muon when they are both detected, while the pion decay point is not fixed. However, the more radical possibility of μ-oscillations in experiments where only muons are detected (as suggested in hep-ph/9509261), is ruled out. We start by discussing decays of monochromatic pions, and point out a few ''paradoxes''. Then we consider pion wave packets, solve the ''paradoxes'', and show that the formulas for μν correlations can be transformed into the usual expressions, describing neutrino oscillations, as soon as the pion decay point is fixed. (orig.)

  9. Oscillations in neutron stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine

    1999-01-01

    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l → 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II l+1 from II l and II l-1 to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n c , while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  10. Oscillations in neutron stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeye, Gudrun Kristine

    1999-07-01

    We have studied radial and nonradial oscillations in neutron stars, both in a general relativistic and non-relativistic frame, for several different equilibrium models. Different equations of state were combined, and our results show that it is possible to distinguish between the models based on their oscillation periods. We have particularly focused on the p-, f-, and g-modes. We find oscillation periods of II approx. 0.1 ms for the p-modes, II approx. 0.1 - 0.8 ms for the f-modes and II approx. 10 - 400 ms for the g-modes. For high-order (l (>{sub )} 4) f-modes we were also able to derive a formula that determines II{sub l+1} from II{sub l} and II{sub l-1} to an accuracy of 0.1%. Further, for the radial f-mode we find that the oscillation period goes to infinity as the maximum mass of the star is approached. Both p-, f-, and g-modes are sensitive to changes in the central baryon number density n{sub c}, while the g-modes are also sensitive to variations in the surface temperature. The g-modes are concentrated in the surface layer, while p- and f-modes can be found in all parts of the star. The effects of general relativity were studied, and we find that these are important at high central baryon number densities, especially for the p- and f-modes. General relativistic effects can therefore not be neglected when studying oscillations in neutron stars. We have further developed an improved Cowling approximation in the non-relativistic frame, which eliminates about half of the gap in the oscillation periods that results from use of the ordinary Cowling approximation. We suggest to develop an improved Cowling approximation also in the general relativistic frame. (Author)

  11. Oscillating acoustic streaming jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moudjed, Brahim; Botton, Valery; Henry, Daniel; Millet, Severine; Ben Hadid, Hamda; Garandet, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    The present paper provides the first experimental investigation of an oscillating acoustic streaming jet. The observations are performed in the far field of a 2 MHz circular plane ultrasound transducer introduced in a rectangular cavity filled with water. Measurements are made by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) in horizontal and vertical planes near the end of the cavity. Oscillations of the jet appear in this zone, for a sufficiently high Reynolds number, as an intermittent phenomenon on an otherwise straight jet fluctuating in intensity. The observed perturbation pattern is similar to that of former theoretical studies. This intermittently oscillatory behavior is the first step to the transition to turbulence. (authors)

  12. Oscillating Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-03-07

    In this chapter, we use the theory of summability of divergent series, presented earlier in Chap. 4, to derive the analogs of the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula for oscillating sums. These formulas will, in turn, be used to perform many remarkable deeds with ease. For instance, they can be used to derive analytic expressions for summable divergent series, obtain asymptotic expressions of oscillating series, and even accelerate the convergence of series by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, we will prove the notable fact that, as far as the foundational rules of summability calculus are concerned, summable divergent series behave exactly as if they were convergent.

  13. Brownian parametric oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbe, Christine; Jung, Peter; Hänggi, Peter

    1994-05-01

    We discuss the stochastic dynamics of dissipative, white-noise-driven Floquet oscillators, characterized by a time-periodic stiffness. Thus far, little attention has been paid to these exactly solvable nonstationary systems, although they carry a rich potential for several experimental applications. Here, we calculate and discuss the mean values and variances, as well as the correlation functions and the Floquet spectrum. As one main result, we find for certain parameter values that the fluctuations of the position coordinate are suppressed as compared to the equilibrium value of a harmonic oscillator (parametric squeezing).

  14. Friedel oscillations in graphene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawlor, J. A.; Power, S. R.; Ferreira, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Symmetry breaking perturbations in an electronically conducting medium are known to produce Friedel oscillations in various physical quantities of an otherwise pristine material. Here we show in a mathematically transparent fashion that Friedel oscillations in graphene have a strong sublattice...... asymmetry. As a result, the presence of impurities and/or defects may impact the distinct graphene sublattices very differently. Furthermore, such an asymmetry can be used to explain the recent observations that nitrogen atoms and dimers are not randomly distributed in graphene but prefer to occupy one...

  15. Proprioceptive evoked gamma oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnfred, S.M.; Hansen, Lars Kai; Parnas, J.

    2007-01-01

    A proprioceptive stimulus consisting of a weight change of a handheld load has recently been shown to elicit an evoked potential. Previously, somatosensory gamma oscillations have only been evoked by electrical stimuli. We conjectured that a natural proprioceptive stimulus also would be able...... to evoke gamma oscillations. EEG was recorded using 64 channels in 14 healthy subjects. In each of three runs a stimulus of 100 g load increment in each hand was presented in 120 trials. Data were wavelet transformed and runs collapsed. Inter-trial phase coherence (ITPC) was computed as the best measure...

  16. Oscillating Finite Sums

    KAUST Repository

    Alabdulmohsin, Ibrahim M.

    2018-01-01

    In this chapter, we use the theory of summability of divergent series, presented earlier in Chap. 4, to derive the analogs of the Euler-Maclaurin summation formula for oscillating sums. These formulas will, in turn, be used to perform many remarkable deeds with ease. For instance, they can be used to derive analytic expressions for summable divergent series, obtain asymptotic expressions of oscillating series, and even accelerate the convergence of series by several orders of magnitude. Moreover, we will prove the notable fact that, as far as the foundational rules of summability calculus are concerned, summable divergent series behave exactly as if they were convergent.

  17. Oscillators from nonlinear realizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozyrev, N.; Krivonos, S.

    2018-02-01

    We construct the systems of the harmonic and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators, which are invariant with respect to arbitrary noncompact Lie algebras. The equations of motion of these systems can be obtained with the help of the formalism of nonlinear realizations. We prove that it is always possible to choose time and the fields within this formalism in such a way that the equations of motion become linear and, therefore, reduce to ones of ordinary harmonic and Pais-Uhlenbeck oscillators. The first-order actions, that produce these equations, can also be provided. As particular examples of this construction, we discuss the so(2, 3) and G 2(2) algebras.

  18. Spherical ion oscillations in a positive polarity gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandara, R.; Khachan, J. [Plasma Physics, School of Physics, University of Sydney, Camperdown, New South Wales 2006 (Australia)

    2013-07-15

    A pulsed, positive polarity gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device has been investigated experimentally, using a differential emissive probe and potential traces as primary diagnostics. Large amplitude oscillations in the plasma current and plasma potential were observed within a microsecond of the discharge onset, which are indicative of coherent ion oscillations about a temporarily confined excess of recirculating electron space charge. The magnitude of the depth of the potential well in the established virtual cathode was determined using a differential emissive Langmuir probe, which correlated well to the potential well inferred from the ion oscillation frequency for both hydrogen and argon experiments. It was found that the timescale for ion oscillation dispersion is strongly dependent on the neutral gas density, and weakly dependent on the peak anode voltage. The cessation of the oscillations was found to be due to charge exchange processes converting ions to high velocity neutrals, causing the abrupt de-coherence of the oscillations through an avalanche dispersion in phase space.

  19. Spherical ion oscillations in a positive polarity gridded inertial-electrostatic confinement device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, R.; Khachan, J.

    2013-07-01

    A pulsed, positive polarity gridded inertial electrostatic confinement device has been investigated experimentally, using a differential emissive probe and potential traces as primary diagnostics. Large amplitude oscillations in the plasma current and plasma potential were observed within a microsecond of the discharge onset, which are indicative of coherent ion oscillations about a temporarily confined excess of recirculating electron space charge. The magnitude of the depth of the potential well in the established virtual cathode was determined using a differential emissive Langmuir probe, which correlated well to the potential well inferred from the ion oscillation frequency for both hydrogen and argon experiments. It was found that the timescale for ion oscillation dispersion is strongly dependent on the neutral gas density, and weakly dependent on the peak anode voltage. The cessation of the oscillations was found to be due to charge exchange processes converting ions to high velocity neutrals, causing the abrupt de-coherence of the oscillations through an avalanche dispersion in phase space.

  20. Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-27

    PNNL developed a new tool for oscillation analysis and baselining. This tool has been developed under a new DOE Grid Modernization Laboratory Consortium (GMLC) Project (GM0072 - “Suite of open-source applications and models for advanced synchrophasor analysis”) and it is based on the open platform for PMU analysis. The Oscillation Baselining and Analysis Tool (OBAT) performs the oscillation analysis and identifies modes of oscillations (frequency, damping, energy, and shape). The tool also does oscillation event baselining (fining correlation between oscillations characteristics and system operating conditions).

  1. Relativistic degenerate electron plasma in an intense magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delsante, A.E.; Frankel, N.E.

    1978-01-01

    The dielectric response function for a dense, ultra-degenerate relativistic electron plasma in an intense uniform magnetic field is presented. Dispersion relations for plasma oscillations parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field are obtained

  2. Dynamics of microbubble oscillators with delay coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, C. R.; Sah, S. M.; Rand, R. H.

    2010-10-01

    We investigate the stability of the in-phase mode in a system of two delay-coupled bubble oscillators. The bubble oscillator model is based on a 1956 paper by Keller and Kolodner. Delay coupling is due to the time it takes for a signal to travel from one bubble to another through the liquid medium that surrounds them. Using techniques from the theory of differential-delay equations as well as perturbation theory, we show that the equilibrium of the in-phase mode can be made unstable if the delay is long enough and if the coupling strength is large enough, resulting in a Hopf bifurcation. We then employ Lindstedt's method to compute the amplitude of the limit cycle as a function of the time delay. This work is motivated by medical applications involving noninvasive localized drug delivery via microbubbles.

  3. Neutrino oscillations in strong magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhachev, G.G.; Studenikin, A.I.

    1994-07-01

    Neutrino conversion processes between two neutrino species and the corresponding oscillations induced by strong magnetic fields are considered. The value of the critical strength of magnetic field B cr as a function of characteristics of neutrinos in vacuum (Δm 2 ν , mixing angle θ), effective particle density of matter n eff , neutrino (transition) magnetic moment μ-tilde and energy E is introduced. It is shown that the neutrino conversion and oscillations effects induced by magnetic fields B ≥ B cr are important and may result in the depletion of the initial type of ν's in the bunch. A possible increase of these effects in the case when neutrinos pass through a sudden decrease of density of matter (''cross-boundary effect'') and applications to neutrinos from neutron stars and supernova are discussed. (author). 25 refs

  4. How adaptation shapes spike rate oscillations in recurrent neuronal networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz eAugustin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Neural mass signals from in-vivo recordings often show oscillations with frequencies ranging from <1 Hz to 100 Hz. Fast rhythmic activity in the beta and gamma range can be generated by network based mechanisms such as recurrent synaptic excitation-inhibition loops. Slower oscillations might instead depend on neuronal adaptation currents whose timescales range from tens of milliseconds to seconds. Here we investigate how the dynamics of such adaptation currents contribute to spike rate oscillations and resonance properties in recurrent networks of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. Based on a network of sparsely coupled spiking model neurons with two types of adaptation current and conductance based synapses with heterogeneous strengths and delays we use a mean-field approach to analyze oscillatory network activity. For constant external input, we find that spike-triggered adaptation currents provide a mechanism to generate slow oscillations over a wide range of adaptation timescales as long as recurrent synaptic excitation is sufficiently strong. Faster rhythms occur when recurrent inhibition is slower than excitation and oscillation frequency increases with the strength of inhibition. Adaptation facilitates such network based oscillations for fast synaptic inhibition and leads to decreased frequencies. For oscillatory external input, adaptation currents amplify a narrow band of frequencies and cause phase advances for low frequencies in addition to phase delays at higher frequencies. Our results therefore identify the different key roles of neuronal adaptation dynamics for rhythmogenesis and selective signal propagation in recurrent networks.

  5. From excitability to oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D. E.; Neganova, A. Y.; Jacobsen, J. C. B.

    2013-01-01

    One consequence of cell-to-cell communication is the appearance of synchronized behavior, where many cells cooperate to generate new dynamical patterns. We present a simple functional model of vasomotion based on the concept of a two-mode oscillator with dual interactions: via relatively slow dif...

  6. Neutrino oscillation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camilleri, L.

    1996-01-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments (ν μ →ν e and ν μ →ν τ ) currently being performed at accelerators are reviewed. Future plans for short and long base-line experiments are summarized. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs

  7. A simple violin oscillator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    For acoustic tests the violin is driven laterally at the bridge by a small speaker of the type commonly found in pocket transistor radios. An audio oscillator excites the tone which is picked up by a sound level meter. Gross patterns of vibration modes are obtained by the Chladni method.

  8. Nonlinearity in oscillating bridges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Gazzola

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We first recall several historical oscillating bridges that, in some cases, led to collapses. Some of them are quite recent and show that, nowadays, oscillations in suspension bridges are not yet well understood. Next, we survey some attempts to model bridges with differential equations. Although these equations arise from quite different scientific communities, they display some common features. One of them, which we believe to be incorrect, is the acceptance of the linear Hooke law in elasticity. This law should be used only in presence of small deviations from equilibrium, a situation which does not occur in widely oscillating bridges. Then we discuss a couple of recent models whose solutions exhibit self-excited oscillations, the phenomenon visible in real bridges. This suggests a different point of view in modeling equations and gives a strong hint how to modify the existing models in order to obtain a reliable theory. The purpose of this paper is precisely to highlight the necessity of revisiting the classical models, to introduce reliable models, and to indicate the steps we believe necessary to reach this target.

  9. Integrated optoelectronic oscillator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jian; Hao, Tengfei; Li, Wei; Domenech, David; Baños, Rocio; Muñoz, Pascual; Zhu, Ninghua; Capmany, José; Li, Ming

    2018-04-30

    With the rapid development of the modern communication systems, radar and wireless services, microwave signal with high-frequency, high-spectral-purity and frequency tunability as well as microwave generator with light weight, compact size, power-efficient and low cost are increasingly demanded. Integrated microwave photonics (IMWP) is regarded as a prospective way to meet these demands by hybridizing the microwave circuits and the photonics circuits on chip. In this article, we propose and experimentally demonstrate an integrated optoelectronic oscillator (IOEO). All of the devices needed in the optoelectronic oscillation loop circuit are monolithically integrated on chip within size of 5×6cm 2 . By tuning the injection current to 44 mA, the output frequency of the proposed IOEO is located at 7.30 GHz with phase noise value of -91 dBc/Hz@1MHz. When the injection current is increased to 65 mA, the output frequency can be changed to 8.87 GHz with phase noise value of -92 dBc/Hz@1MHz. Both of the oscillation frequency can be slightly tuned within 20 MHz around the center oscillation frequency by tuning the injection current. The method about improving the performance of IOEO is carefully discussed at the end of in this article.

  10. The variational spiked oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguilera-Navarro, V.C.; Ullah, N.

    1992-08-01

    A variational analysis of the spiked harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian -d 2 / d x 2 + x 2 + δ/ x 5/2 , δ > 0, is reported in this work. A trial function satisfying Dirichlet boundary conditions is suggested. The results are excellent for a large range of values of the coupling parameter. (author)

  11. Neutrino oscillation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camilleri, L [European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    Neutrino oscillation experiments ({nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub e} and {nu}{sub {mu}}{yields}{nu}{sub {tau}}) currently being performed at accelerators are reviewed. Future plans for short and long base-line experiments are summarized. (author) 10 figs., 2 tabs., 29 refs.

  12. Cathode voltage and discharge current oscillations in HiPIMS

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klein, P.; Hnilica, J.; Hubička, Zdeněk; Čada, Martin; Šlapanská, M.; Zemánek, M.; Vašina, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 5 (2017), s. 1-12, č. článku 055015. ISSN 0963-0252 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-00863S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : HiPIMS * voltage and current oscillations * spokes Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 3.302, year: 2016

  13. Synchronization in chains of light-controlled oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avila, G M RamIrez; Guisset, J L; Deneubourg, J L

    2005-01-01

    Using light-controlled oscillators (LCOs) and a mathematical model of them introduced in [1], we have analyzed a population of LCOs arranged in chains with nonperiodic (linear configuration) and periodic (ring configuration) boundary conditions in which we have solved numerically the corresponding equations for a broad interval of coupling strength values and for chains between 2 and 25 LCOs. We have considered three different situations, viz. identical LCOs, identical LCOs with simplifications (LCOs considered as integrate-and-fire (IF) oscillators), and finally nonidentical LCOs. We study synchronization under two criteria: the first takes into account the simultaneity of flashing events (phase difference criterion), and the second considers period-locking as a criterion for synchronization. For each case, we have identified regions of synchronization in the plane coupling strength versus number of oscillators. We observe different behaviors depending on the values of these variables

  14. Dynamics of chaotic oscillations in mutually coupled microchip lasers

    CERN Document Server

    Uchida, A; Kinugawa, S; Yoshimori, S

    2003-01-01

    We have numerically and experimentally investigated the dynamics of mutually coupled microchip lasers. Chaotic oscillations are observed in the vicinity of the boundary of the injection-locking range when the coupling strength and the difference of the optical frequencies are varied. Synchronization of chaos is always achieved under the condition to generate chaos.

  15. Theoretical Investigation of Current Instabilities and Terahertz Oscillations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Fluid

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dyakonov, M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop further the theory of novel mechanisms for generation and detection of electromagnetic radiation in the terahertz range using the plasma oscillations of the two...

  16. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  17. Anharmonic oscillator and Bogoliubov transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pattnayak, G.C.; Torasia, S.; Rath, B.

    1990-01-01

    The anharmonic oscillator occupies a cornerstone in many problems in physics. It was observed that none of the authors have tested Bogoliubov transformation to study anharmonic oscillator. The groundstate energy of the anharmonic oscillator is studied using Bogoliubov transformation and the results presented. (author)

  18. Bimodal oscillations in nephron autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sosnovtseva, Olga; Pavlov, A.N.; Mosekilde, Erik

    2002-01-01

    The individual functional unit of the kidney (the nephron) displays oscillations in its pressure and flow regulation at two different time scales: fast oscillations associated with a myogenic dynamics of the afferent arteriole, and slower oscillations arising from a delay in the tubuloglomerular ...

  19. Investigations of sawtooth oscillations with the Greifswald EBIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schabinger, B.; Biedermann, C.; Gierke, S.; Marx, G.; Radtke, R.; Schweikhard, L.

    2013-03-01

    The former Berlin electron-beam ion-trap was moved to Greifswald. One of the first aims after the reinstallation was the continuation of experiments using mixed ensembles of low- and high-Z ions for further studies of the previously reported sawtooth-like oscillations of the trap plasma. First results of these studies for xenon/argon mixtures are presented.

  20. Observation and analysis of oscillations in linear accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeman, J.T.

    1991-11-01

    This report discusses the following on oscillation in linear accelerators: Betatron Oscillations; Betatron Oscillations at High Currents; Transverse Profile Oscillations; Transverse Profile Oscillations at High Currents.; Oscillation and Profile Transient Jitter; and Feedback on Transverse Oscillations

  1. Reactor oscillator - Proposal of the organisation for oscillator operation; Reaktorski oscilator - Predlog organizacije rada na oscilatoru

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lolic, B; Loloc, B [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Laboratorija za fiziku reaktora, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1961-12-15

    The organizational structure for operating the reactor with the reactor oscillator describes the duties of the reactor operators; staff responsible for operating the oscillator who are responsible for measurements, preparation of the samples and further treatment of the obtained results.

  2. Quenching oscillating behaviors in fractional coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhongkui; Xiao, Rui; Yang, Xiaoli; Xu, Wei

    2018-03-01

    Oscillation quenching has been widely studied during the past several decades in fields ranging from natural sciences to engineering, but investigations have so far been restricted to oscillators with an integer-order derivative. Here, we report the first study of amplitude death (AD) in fractional coupled Stuart-Landau oscillators with partial and/or complete conjugate couplings to explore oscillation quenching patterns and dynamics. It has been found that the fractional-order derivative impacts the AD state crucially. The area of the AD state increases along with the decrease of the fractional-order derivative. Furthermore, by introducing and adjusting a limiting feedback factor in coupling links, the AD state can be well tamed in fractional coupled oscillators. Hence, it provides one an effective approach to analyze and control the oscillating behaviors in fractional coupled oscillators.

  3. High energy plasma accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, T.

    1985-05-01

    Colinear intense laser beams ω 0 , kappa 0 and ω 1 , kappa 1 shone on a plasma with frequency separation equal to the electron plasma frequency ω/sub pe/ are capable of creating a coherent large longitudinal electric field E/sub L/ = mc ω/sub pe//e of the order of 1GeV/cm for a plasma density of 10 18 cm -3 through the laser beat excitation of plasma oscillations. Accompanying favorable and deleterious physical effects using this process for a high energy beat-wave accelerator are discussed: the longitudinal dephasing, pump depletion, the transverse laser diffraction, plasma turbulence effects, self-steepening, self-focusing, etc. The basic equation, the driven nonlinear Schroedinger equation, is derived to describe this system. Advanced accelerator concepts to overcome some of these problems are proposed, including the plasma fiber accelerator of various variations. An advanced laser architecture suitable for the beat-wave accelerator is suggested. Accelerator physics issues such as the luminosity are discussed. Applications of the present process to the current drive in a plasma and to the excitation of collective oscillations within nuclei are also discussed

  4. Pattern formation in arrays of chemical oscillators

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chemical oscillators; phase flip; oscillation death. PACS No. 05.45 .... array oscillate (with varying amplitudes and frequencies), while the others experience oscillation death .... Barring the boundary cells, one observes near phase flip and near ...

  5. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasone, M.; Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [Universita degli Studi di Salerno Via Ponte don Melillon, Dipt. di Matematica e Informatica, Fisciano SA (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno - Baronissi SA (Italy); Dell' Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F. [CNR-INFM Coherentia - Napoli (Italy); Blasone, M. [ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Torino (Italy)

    2009-03-15

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)

  6. Nonlinear (Anharmonic Casimir Oscillator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Razmi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We want to study the dynamics of a simple linear harmonic micro spring which is under the influence of the quantum Casimir force/pressure and thus behaves as a (an nonlinear (anharmonic Casimir oscillator. Generally, the equation of motion of this nonlinear micromechanical Casimir oscillator has no exact solvable (analytical solution and the turning point(s of the system has (have no fixed position(s; however, for particular values of the stiffness of the micro spring and at appropriately well-chosen distance scales and conditions, there is (are approximately sinusoidal solution(s for the problem (the variable turning points are collected in a very small interval of positions. This, as a simple and elementary plan, may be useful in controlling the Casimir stiction problem in micromechanical devices.

  7. Entanglement in neutrino oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasone, M.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Dell'Anno, F.; De Siena, S.; Illuminati, F.; Blasone, M.

    2009-01-01

    Flavor oscillations in elementary particle physics are related to multimode entanglement of single-particle states. We show that mode entanglement can be expressed in terms of flavor transition probabilities, and therefore that single-particle entangled states acquire a precise operational characterization in the context of particle mixing. We treat in detail the physically relevant cases of two- and three-flavor neutrino oscillations, including the effective measure of CP violation. We discuss experimental schemes for the transfer of the quantum information encoded in single-neutrino states to spatially delocalized two-flavor charged-lepton states, thus showing, at least in principle, that single-particle entangled states of neutrino mixing are legitimate physical resources for quantum information tasks. (authors)

  8. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  9. Discrete repulsive oscillator wavefunctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Carlos A; Rueda-Paz, Juvenal; Wolf, Kurt Bernardo

    2009-01-01

    For the study of infinite discrete systems on phase space, the three-dimensional Lorentz algebra and group, so(2,1) and SO(2,1), provide a discrete model of the repulsive oscillator. Its eigenfunctions are found in the principal irreducible representation series, where the compact generator-that we identify with the position operator-has the infinite discrete spectrum of the integers Z, while the spectrum of energies is a double continuum. The right- and left-moving wavefunctions are given by hypergeometric functions that form a Dirac basis for l 2 (Z). Under contraction, the discrete system limits to the well-known quantum repulsive oscillator. Numerical computations of finite approximations raise further questions on the use of Dirac bases for infinite discrete systems.

  10. Breathing-mode resonance of a complex plasma disk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheridan, T.E.; Buckey, C.R.; Cox, D.J.; Merrill, R.J.; Theisen, W.L.

    2004-01-01

    We have experimentally characterized the breathing mode oscillation of a strongly-coupled, dusty plasma disk. Steady-state oscillations are excited by sinusoidally modulating the plasma density, creating a single-frequency, in-plane driving force. Resonance curves agree well with damped harmonic oscillator theory. A response at the second harmonic is observed and found to increase with the square of the driving force, indicating a quadratic nonlinearity

  11. Neutrino Masses and Oscillations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit; Treille, Daniel

    2002-01-01

    This course will not cover its subject in the customary way. The emphasis will be on the simple theoretical concepts (helicity, handedness, chirality, Majorana masses) which are obscure in most of the literature, and on the quantum mechanics of oscillations, that ALL books get wrong. Which, hopefully, will not deter me from discussing some of the most interesting results from the labs and from the cosmos.

  12. Density oscillations within hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Barshay, S.

    1976-01-01

    In models of extended hadrons, in which small bits of matter carrying charge and effective mass exist confined within a medium, oscillations in the matter density may occur. A way of investigating this possibility experimentally in high-energy hadron-hadron elastic diffraction scattering is suggested, and the effect is illustrated by examining some existing data which might be relevant to the question [fr

  13. Neutrino Oscillations Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogli, Gianluigi

    2005-06-01

    We review the status of the neutrino oscillations physics, with a particular emphasis on the present knowledge of the neutrino mass-mixing parameters. We consider first the νμ → ντ flavor transitions of atmospheric neutrinos. It is found that standard oscillations provide the best description of the SK+K2K data, and that the associated mass-mixing parameters are determined at ±1σ (and NDF = 1) as: Δm2 = (2.6 ± 0.4) × 10-3 eV2 and sin 2 2θ = 1.00{ - 0.05}{ + 0.00} . Such indications, presently dominated by SK, could be strengthened by further K2K data. Then we point out that the recent data from the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory, together with other relevant measurements from solar and reactor neutrino experiments, in particular the KamLAND data, convincingly show that the flavor transitions of solar neutrinos are affected by Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein (MSW) effects. Finally, we perform an updated analysis of two-family active oscillations of solar and reactor neutrinos in the standard MSW case.

  14. Spin–orbit coupling induced magnetoresistance oscillation in a dc biased two-dimensional electron system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C M; Lei, X L

    2014-01-01

    We study dc-current effects on the magnetoresistance oscillation in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, using the balance-equation approach to nonlinear magnetotransport. In the weak current limit the magnetoresistance exhibits periodical Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation with changing Rashba coupling strength for a fixed magnetic field. At finite dc bias, the period of the oscillation halves when the interbranch contribution to resistivity dominates. With further increasing current density, the oscillatory resistivity exhibits phase inversion, i.e., magnetoresistivity minima (maxima) invert to maxima (minima) at certain values of the dc bias, which is due to the current-induced magnetoresistance oscillation. (paper)

  15. Global low-frequency modes in weakly ionized magnetized plasmas: effects of equilibrium plasma rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.; Pierre, Th.; Zagorodny, A.

    2004-01-01

    The linear and non-linear properties of global low-frequency oscillations in cylindrical weakly ionized magnetized plasmas are investigated analytically for the conditions of equilibrium plasma rotation. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental observations of rotating plasmas in laboratory devices, such as Mistral and Mirabelle in France, and KIWI in Germany. (authors)

  16. The near-Earth and interplanetary plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al'pert, Y.L.

    1983-01-01

    This monograph is an extensive revision and expansion of the original paper which first appeared in 1976 in the encyclopedia, Handbuch der Physik. It presents a detailed and comprehensive treatment of wave processes and of the motion of bodies through plasma around moving bodies such as artificial satellites, and with natural plasma waves and oscillations. Contents, abridged: General properties of the near-Earth and interplanetary plasma. Refractive indexes of cold magnetoplasma. Growth rates for the different oscillation branches. Nonlinear effects in a plasma. Group velocity, trajectories, and trapping of electromagnetic waves in a magnetoplasma. Indexes

  17. Coronal seismology waves and oscillations in stellar coronae

    CERN Document Server

    Stepanov, Alexander; Nakariakov, Valery M

    2012-01-01

    This concise and systematic account of the current state of this new branch of astrophysics presents the theoretical foundations of plasma astrophysics, magneto-hydrodynamics and coronal magnetic structures, taking into account the full range of available observation techniques -- from radio to gamma. The book discusses stellar loops during flare energy releases, MHD waves and oscillations, plasma instabilities and heating and charged particle acceleration. Current trends and developments in MHD seismology of solar and stellar coronal plasma systems are also covered, while recent p

  18. Investigation of Quasi-periodic Solar Oscillations in Sunspots Based on SOHO/MDI Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallunki, J.; Riehokainen, A.

    2012-10-01

    In this work we study quasi-periodic solar oscillations in sunspots, based on the variation of the amplitude of the magnetic field strength and the variation of the sunspot area. We investigate long-period oscillations between three minutes and ten hours. The magnetic field synoptic maps were obtained from the SOHO/MDI. Wavelet (Morlet), global wavelet spectrum (GWS) and fast Fourier transform (FFT) methods are used in the periodicity analysis at the 95 % significance level. Additionally, the quiet Sun area (QSA) signal and an instrumental effect are discussed. We find several oscillation periods in the sunspots above the 95 % significance level: 3 - 5, 10 - 23, 220 - 240, 340 and 470 minutes, and we also find common oscillation periods (10 - 23 minutes) between the sunspot area variation and that of the magnetic field strength. We discuss possible mechanisms for the obtained results, based on the existing models for sunspot oscillations.

  19. Optimal estimation of the optomechanical coupling strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernád, József Zsolt; Sanavio, Claudio; Xuereb, André

    2018-06-01

    We apply the formalism of quantum estimation theory to obtain information about the value of the nonlinear optomechanical coupling strength. In particular, we discuss the minimum mean-square error estimator and a quantum Cramér-Rao-type inequality for the estimation of the coupling strength. Our estimation strategy reveals some cases where quantum statistical inference is inconclusive and merely results in the reinforcement of prior expectations. We show that these situations also involve the highest expected information losses. We demonstrate that interaction times on the order of one time period of mechanical oscillations are the most suitable for our estimation scenario, and compare situations involving different photon and phonon excitations.

  20. Charge Analyzer Responsive Local Oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Thornton, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The first transatlantic radio transmission, demonstrated by Marconi in December of 1901, revealed the essential role of the ionosphere for radio communications. This ionized layer of the upper atmosphere controls the amount of radio power transmitted through, reflected off of, and absorbed by the atmospheric medium. Low-frequency radio signals can propagate long distances around the globe via repeated reflections off of the ionosphere and the Earth's surface. Higher frequency radio signals can punch through the ionosphere to be received at orbiting satellites. However, any turbulence in the ionosphere can distort these signals, compromising the performance or even availability of space-based communication and navigations systems. The physics associated with this distortion effect is analogous to the situation when underwater images are distorted by convecting air bubbles. In fact, these ionospheric features are often called 'plasma bubbles' since they exhibit some of the similar behavior as underwater air bubbles. These events, instigated by solar and geomagnetic storms, can cause communication and navigation outages that last for hours. To help understand and predict these outages, a world-wide community of space scientists and technologists are devoted to researching this topic. One aspect of this research is to develop instruments capable of measuring the ionospheric plasma bubbles. Figure 1 shows a photo of the Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillations (CARLO), a new instrument under development at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It is a frequency-domain ion spectrum analyzer designed to measure the distributions of ionospheric turbulence from 1 Hz to 10 kHz (i.e., spatial scales from a few kilometers down to a few centimeters). This frequency range is important since it focuses on turbulence scales that affect VHF/UHF satellite communications, GPS systems, and over-the-horizon radar systems. CARLO is based on the flight-proven Plasma Local

  1. Equation of motion approach for describing allowed transitions in Ne and Al3+ under classical and quantum plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Supriya K.; Mukherjee, Prasanta K.; Chaudhuri, Rajat K.; Chattopadhyay, Sudip

    2018-04-01

    The equation of motion coupled cluster methodology within relativistic framework has been applied to analyze the electron correlation effects on the low lying dipole allowed excited states of Ne and Al3+ under classical and quantum plasma environments. The effect of confinement due to classical plasma has been incorporated through screened Coulomb potential, while that of quantum plasma has been treated by exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential. The confined structural properties investigated are the depression of ionization potential, low lying excitation energies (dipole allowed), oscillator strengths, transition probabilities, and frequency dependent polarizabilities under systematic variation of the plasma-atom coupling strength determined through the screening parameter. Specific atomic systems are chosen for their astrophysical importance and availability of experimental data related to laboratory plasma with special reference to Al3+ ion. Here, we consider 1 s22 s22 p6(1S0)→1 s22 s22 p5 n s /n d (1P1) (n =3 ,4 ) dipole allowed transitions of Ne and Al3+. Results for the free (isolated) atomic systems agree well with those available in the literature. Spectroscopic properties under confinement show systematic and interesting pattern with respect to plasma screening parameter.

  2. Oscillator representation and generalized van der Waals Hamiltonians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinejkhan, M.

    1996-01-01

    The method called the oscillator representation is extended to calculate the energy spectrum of bound state described by axially symmetrical potentials in the parabolic system coordinates. In particular, the method is applied to calculate the energy of the ground and excited states of the hydrogen atom in the uniform electric field and van der Waals field. The method gives the perturbation formulas for the analytic spectrum of the hydrogen atom in the generalized van der Waals field and defined oscillator strengths for transitions from the ground state to the perturbed manifold n=10, m=0. 14 refs., 1 fig

  3. Quasioptical Josephson oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengler, M.J.; Pance, A.; Liu, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses the authors' work with large 2-dimensional arrays of Josephson junctions for submillimeter power generation. The basic design of the Quasioptical Josephson Oscillator (QJO) is presented. The reasons for each design decision are discussed. Superconducting devices have not yet been fabricated, but scale models and computer simulations have been done. A method for characterizing array rf coupling structures is described, and initial results with this method are presented. Microwave scale models of the radiation structure are built and a series of measurements are made with a network analyzer

  4. Modeling microtubule oscillations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jobs, E.; Wolf, D.E.; Flyvbjerg, H.

    1997-01-01

    Synchronization of molecular reactions in a macroscopic volume may cause the volume's physical properties to change dynamically and thus reveal much about the reactions. As an example, experimental time series for so-called microtubule oscillations are analyzed in terms of a minimal model...... for this complex polymerization-depolymerization cycle. The model reproduces well the qualitatively different time series that result from different experimental conditions, and illuminates the role and importance of individual processes in the cycle. Simple experiments are suggested that can further test...... and define the model and the polymer's reaction cycle....

  5. Oscillations in nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Hale, Jack K

    2015-01-01

    By focusing on ordinary differential equations that contain a small parameter, this concise graduate-level introduction to the theory of nonlinear oscillations provides a unified approach to obtaining periodic solutions to nonautonomous and autonomous differential equations. It also indicates key relationships with other related procedures and probes the consequences of the methods of averaging and integral manifolds.Part I of the text features introductory material, including discussions of matrices, linear systems of differential equations, and stability of solutions of nonlinear systems. Pa

  6. Neutrino oscillations at LAMPF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlini, R.; Choi, C.; Donohue, J.

    1985-01-01

    Work at Argonne continues on the construction of the neutrino oscillation experiment (E645). Construction of detector supports and active shield components were completed at the Provo plant of the principal contractor for the project (the Pittsburgh-Des Moines Corporation). Erection of the major experimental components was completed at the LAMPF experimental site in mid-March 1985. Work continues on the tunnel which will house the detector. Construction of detector components (scintillators and proportional drift tubes) is proceeding at Ohio State University and Louisiana State University. Consolidation of these components into the 20-ton neutrino detector is beginning at LAMPF

  7. Theory of oscillators

    CERN Document Server

    Andronov, Aleksandr Aleksandrovich; Vitt, Aleksandr Adolfovich

    1966-01-01

    Theory of Oscillators presents the applications and exposition of the qualitative theory of differential equations. This book discusses the idea of a discontinuous transition in a dynamic process. Organized into 11 chapters, this book begins with an overview of the simplest type of oscillatory system in which the motion is described by a linear differential equation. This text then examines the character of the motion of the representative point along the hyperbola. Other chapters consider examples of two basic types of non-linear non-conservative systems, namely, dissipative systems and self-

  8. Solar and stellar oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossat, E.

    1981-01-01

    We try to explain in simple words what a stellar oscillation is, what kind of restoring forces and excitation mechanisms can be responsible for its occurence, what kind of questions the theoretician asks to the observer and what kind of tools the latter is using to look for the answers. A selected review of the most striking results obtained in the last few years in solar seismology and the present status of their consequences on solar models is presented. A brief discussion on the expected extension towards stellar seismology will end the paper. A selected bibliography on theory as well as observations and recent papers is also included. (orig.)

  9. Coupled nonlinear oscillators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chandra, J; Scott, A C

    1983-01-01

    Topics discussed include transitions in weakly coupled nonlinear oscillators, singularly perturbed delay-differential equations, and chaos in simple laser systems. Papers are presented on truncated Navier-Stokes equations in a two-dimensional torus, on frequency locking in Josephson point contacts, and on soliton excitations in Josephson tunnel junctions. Attention is also given to the nonlinear coupling of radiation pulses to absorbing anharmonic molecular media, to aspects of interrupted coarse-graining in stimulated excitation, and to a statistical analysis of long-term dynamic irregularity in an exactly soluble quantum mechanical model.

  10. Neutrino oscillations in the Kerr-Newman spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ren Jun; Zhang Chengmin

    2010-01-01

    The mass neutrino oscillation in the Kerr-Newman (K-N) spacetime is studied in the plane θ = θ 0 , and general equations of the oscillation phases are given. The effect of the rotation and electric charge on the phase is presented. Then, we consider three special cases. (1) The neutrinos travel along the geodesics with angular momentum L = aE in the equatorial plane. (2) The neutrinos travel along the geodesics with L = 0 in the equatorial plane. (3) The neutrinos travel along the radial geodesics in the direction θ = 0. Finally, we calculate the proper oscillation length in the K-N spacetime. The effect of the gravitational field on the oscillation length is embodied in the gravitational red shift factor. When the neutrino travels out of the gravitational field, a blue shift of the oscillation length takes place. We discuss the variation of the oscillation length influenced by the gravitational field strength, the rotation a 2 and charge Q.

  11. Universal quantum entanglement between an oscillator and continuous fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao Haixing; Danilishin, Stefan; Chen Yanbei

    2010-01-01

    Quantum entanglement has been actively sought in optomechanical and electromechanical systems. The simplest system is a mechanical oscillator interacting with a coherent optical field, while the oscillator also suffers from thermal decoherence. With a rigorous functional analysis, we develop a mathematical framework for treating quantum entanglement that involves infinite degrees of freedom. We show that the quantum entanglement is always present between the oscillator and continuous optical field--even when the environmental temperature is high and the oscillator is highly classical. Such a universal entanglement is also shown to be able to survive more than one mechanical oscillation period if the characteristic frequency of the optomechanical interaction is larger than that of the thermal noise. In addition, we introduce effective optical modes that are ordered by the entanglement strength to better understand the entanglement structure, analogously to the energy spectrum of an atomic system. In particular, we derive the optical mode that is maximally entangled with the mechanical oscillator, which will be useful for future quantum computing and encoding information into mechanical degrees of freedom.

  12. Brain Oscillations, Hypnosis, and Hypnotizability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mark P; Adachi, Tomonori; Hakimian, Shahin

    2015-01-01

    This article summarizes the state-of-science knowledge regarding the associations between hypnosis and brain oscillations. Brain oscillations represent the combined electrical activity of neuronal assemblies, usually measured as specific frequencies representing slower (delta, theta, alpha) and faster (beta, gamma) oscillations. Hypnosis has been most closely linked to power in the theta band and changes in gamma activity. These oscillations are thought to play a critical role in both the recording and recall of declarative memory and emotional limbic circuits. The authors propose that this role may be the mechanistic link between theta (and perhaps gamma) oscillations and hypnosis, specifically, that the increases in theta oscillations and changes in gamma activity observed with hypnosis may underlie some hypnotic responses. If these hypotheses are supported, they have important implications for both understanding the effects of hypnosis and for enhancing response to hypnotic treatments.

  13. Bounded-oscillation Pushdown Automata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Ganty

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an underapproximation for context-free languages by filtering out runs of the underlying pushdown automaton depending on how the stack height evolves over time. In particular, we assign to each run a number quantifying the oscillating behavior of the stack along the run. We study languages accepted by pushdown automata restricted to k-oscillating runs. We relate oscillation on pushdown automata with a counterpart restriction on context-free grammars. We also provide a way to filter all but the k-oscillating runs from a given PDA by annotating stack symbols with information about the oscillation. Finally, we study closure properties of the defined class of languages and the complexity of the k-emptiness problem asking, given a pushdown automaton P and k >= 0, whether P has a k-oscillating run. We show that, when k is not part of the input, the k-emptiness problem is NLOGSPACE-complete.

  14. Effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung Yu, Dae [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kihong [Department of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    We study the effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into electrostatic oscillations in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas. Using the invariant imbedding method, we calculate precisely the electromagnetic field distribution and the mode conversion coefficient, which is defined to be the fraction of the incident wave power converted into electrostatic oscillations, for the configuration where a numerically generated random density variation is added to the background linear density profile. We repeat similar calculations for a large number of random configurations and take an average of the results. We obtain a peculiar nonmonotonic dependence of the mode conversion coefficient on the strength of randomness. As the disorder increases from zero, the maximum value of the mode conversion coefficient decreases initially, then increases to a maximum, and finally decreases towards zero. The range of the incident angle in which mode conversion occurs increases monotonically as the disorder increases. We present numerical results suggesting that the decrease of mode conversion mainly results from the increased reflection due to the Anderson localization effect originating from disorder, whereas the increase of mode conversion of the intermediate disorder regime comes from the appearance of many resonance points and the enhanced tunneling between the resonance points and the cutoff point. We also find a very large local enhancement of the magnetic field intensity for particular random configurations. In order to obtain high mode conversion efficiency, it is desirable to restrict the randomness close to the resonance region.

  15. Effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung Yu, Dae; Kim, Kihong

    2013-01-01

    We study the effects of a random spatial variation of the plasma density on the mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into electrostatic oscillations in cold, unmagnetized, and stratified plasmas. Using the invariant imbedding method, we calculate precisely the electromagnetic field distribution and the mode conversion coefficient, which is defined to be the fraction of the incident wave power converted into electrostatic oscillations, for the configuration where a numerically generated random density variation is added to the background linear density profile. We repeat similar calculations for a large number of random configurations and take an average of the results. We obtain a peculiar nonmonotonic dependence of the mode conversion coefficient on the strength of randomness. As the disorder increases from zero, the maximum value of the mode conversion coefficient decreases initially, then increases to a maximum, and finally decreases towards zero. The range of the incident angle in which mode conversion occurs increases monotonically as the disorder increases. We present numerical results suggesting that the decrease of mode conversion mainly results from the increased reflection due to the Anderson localization effect originating from disorder, whereas the increase of mode conversion of the intermediate disorder regime comes from the appearance of many resonance points and the enhanced tunneling between the resonance points and the cutoff point. We also find a very large local enhancement of the magnetic field intensity for particular random configurations. In order to obtain high mode conversion efficiency, it is desirable to restrict the randomness close to the resonance region

  16. Single ICCII Sinusoidal Oscillators Employing Grounded Capacitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. W. Horng

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Two inverting second-generation current conveyors (ICCII based sinusoidal oscillators are presented. The first sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and two resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be orthogonally controllable. The second sinusoidal oscillator is composed of one ICCII, two grounded capacitors and three resistors. The oscillation condition and oscillation frequency can be independently controllable through different resistors.

  17. Improvements of the ruby laser oscillator system for laser scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Toshihiko; Kumagai, Katsuaki; Kawakami, Tomohide; Matoba, Tohru; Funahashi, Akimasa

    1978-10-01

    A ruby laser oscillator system is used to measure electron temperatures of the Tokamak plasmas(JFT-2 and JFT-2a). Improvements have been made of the laser oscillator to obtain the correct values. Described are the improvements and the damages of a ruby rod and a KD*P crystal for Q-switching by laser beam. Improvement are the linear Xe lamp replaced by a helical Xe lamp and in the electrical circuit for Q-switching. The damage of an optical component by a laser beam should be clarified from the damage data; the cause is not found yet. (author)

  18. Oscillations in the wake of a flare blast wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tothova, D.; Innes, D. E.; Stenborg, G.

    2011-04-01

    Context. Oscillations of coronal loops in the Sun have been reported in both imaging and spectral observations at the onset of flares. Images reveal transverse oscillations, whereas spectra detect line-of-sight velocity or Doppler-shift oscillations. The Doppler-shift oscillations are commonly interpreted as longitudinal modes. Aims: Our aim is to investigate the relationship between loop dynamics and flows seen in TRACE 195 Å images and Doppler shifts observed by SUMER in Si iii 1113.2 Å and FeXIX 1118.1 Å at the time of a C.8-class limb flare and an associated CME. Methods: We carefully co-aligned the sequence of TRACE 195 Å images to structures seen in the SUMER Si iii, CaX, and FeXIX emission lines. Additionally, Hα observations of a lifting prominence associated with the flare and the coronal mass ejection (CME) are available in three bands around 6563.3 Å. They give constraints on the timing and geometry. Results: Large-scale Doppler-shift oscillations in FeXIX and transverse oscillations in intensity images were observed over a large region of the corona after the passage of a wide bright extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) disturbance, which suggests ionization, heating, and acceleration of hot plasma in the wake of a blast wave. The online movie associated to Fig. 2 is available at http://www.aanda.org and at http://www.mps.mpg.de/data/outgoing/tothova/movie.gif

  19. Stable And Oscillating Acoustic Levitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Garrett, Steven L.

    1988-01-01

    Sample stability or instability determined by levitating frequency. Degree of oscillation of acoustically levitated object along axis of levitation chamber controlled by varying frequency of acoustic driver for axis above or below frequency of corresponding chamber resonance. Stabilization/oscillation technique applied in normal Earth gravity, or in absence of gravity to bring object quickly to rest at nominal levitation position or make object oscillate in desired range about that position.

  20. Isotropic oscillator: spheroidal wave functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardoyan, L.G.; Pogosyan, G.S.; Ter-Antonyan, V.M.; Sisakyan, A.N.

    1985-01-01

    Solutions of the Schroedinger equation are found for an isotropic oscillator (10) in prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinates. It is shown that the obtained solutions turn into spherical and cylindrical bases of the isotropic oscillator at R→0 and R→ infinity (R is the dimensional parameter entering into the definition of prolate and oblate spheroidal coordinates). The explicit form is given for both prolate and oblate basis of the isotropic oscillator for the lowest quantum states

  1. Neutrino oscillations. Theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beshtoev, Kh.M.

    2001-01-01

    Theoretical schemes on neutrino oscillations are considered. The experimental data on neutrino oscillations obtained in the Super-Kamiokande (Japan) and SNO (Canada) experiments are given. Comparison of these data with the predictions obtained in the theoretical schemes is done. Conclusion is made that the experimental data confirm only the scheme with transitions (oscillations) between aromatic ν e -, ν μ -, ν τ - neutrinos with maximal angle mixings. (author)

  2. Autoresonant Excitation of Antiproton Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, Gorm B; Baquero-Ruiz, Marcelo; Bertsche, William; Bowe, Paul D; Butler, Eoin; Carpenter, P T; Cesar, Claudio L; Chapman, Steven; Charlton, Michael; Fajans, Joel; Friesen, Tim; Fujiwara, Makoto C; Gill, David R; Hangst, Jeffrey S; Hardy, Walter N; Hayden, Michael E; Humphries, Andrew J; Hurt, J L; Hydomako, Richard; Jonsell, Svante; Madsen, Niels; Menary, Scott; Nolan, Paul; Olchanski, Konstantin; Olin, Art; Povilus, Alexander; Pusa, Petteri; Robicheaux, Francis; Sarid, Eli; Silveira, Daniel M; So, Chukman; Storey, James W; Thompson, Robert I; van der Werf, Dirk P; Wurtele, Jonathan S; Yamazaki, Yasunori

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate controllable excitation of the center-of-mass longitudinal motion of a thermal antiproton plasma using a swept-frequency autoresonant drive. When the plasma is cold, dense, and highly collective in nature, we observe that the entire system behaves as a single-particle nonlinear oscillator, as predicted by a recent theory. In contrast, only a fraction of the antiprotons in a warm plasma can be similarly excited. Antihydrogen was produced and trapped by using this technique to drive antiprotons into a positron plasma, thereby initiating atomic recombination.

  3. Fretting friction and wear characteristics of magnetorheological fluid under different magnetic field strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, P.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, C.H.

    2017-01-01

    A magnetorheological fluid (MRF) performs differently under different magnetic field strength. This study examined the fretting friction and wear characteristics of MRFs under a range of magnetic field strengths and oscillation frequencies. The fretting friction and wear behaviors of MRF are investigated using a fretting friction and wear tester. The surfaces of specimen are examined by optical microscopy and 3D surface profilometer before and after the tests and wear surface profiles, the wear volume loss and wear coefficient for each magnetic field strength are evaluated. The results show that the friction and wear properties of MRF change according to the magnetic field strength and oscillation frequency. - Highlights: • Fretting friction and wear characteristics of MRF is examined. • The friction coefficients increased with increasing magnetic field strength. • The coefficient of friction decreased with increasing oscillation frequency. • Wear volume and coefficient become worse with increasing magnetic field strength.

  4. Synchronization of three electrochemical oscillators: From local to global coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yifan; Sebek, Michael; Mori, Fumito; Kiss, István Z.

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the formation of synchronization patterns in an oscillatory nickel electrodissolution system in a network obtained by superimposing local and global coupling with three electrodes. We explored the behavior through numerical simulations using kinetic ordinary differential equations, Kuramoto type phase models, and experiments, in which the local to global coupling could be tuned by cross resistances between the three nickel wires. At intermediate coupling strength with predominant global coupling, two of the three oscillators, whose natural frequencies are closer, can synchronize. By adding even a relatively small amount of local coupling (about 9%-25%), a spatially organized partially synchronized state can occur where one of the two synchronized elements is in the center. A formula was derived for predicting the critical coupling strength at which full synchronization will occur independent of the permutation of the natural frequencies of the oscillators over the network. The formula correctly predicts the variation of the critical coupling strength as a function of the global coupling fraction, e.g., with local coupling the critical coupling strength is about twice than that required with global coupling. The results show the importance of the topology of the network on the synchronization properties in a simple three-oscillator setup and could provide guidelines for decrypting coupling topology from identification of synchronization patterns.

  5. The Wien Bridge Oscillator Family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Erik

    2006-01-01

    A tutorial in which the Wien bridge family of oscillators is defined and investigated. Oscillators which do not fit into the Barkhausen criterion topology may be designed. A design procedure based on initial complex pole quality factor is reported. The dynamic transfer characteristic of the ampli......A tutorial in which the Wien bridge family of oscillators is defined and investigated. Oscillators which do not fit into the Barkhausen criterion topology may be designed. A design procedure based on initial complex pole quality factor is reported. The dynamic transfer characteristic...

  6. Unstable oscillators based hyperchaotic circuit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murali, K.; Tamasevicius, A.; G. Mykolaitis, A.

    1999-01-01

    A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations in the circ...... in the circuit. The performance of the circuit is investigated by means of numerical integration of appropriate differential equations, PSPICE simulations, and hardware experiment.......A simple 4th order hyperchaotic circuit with unstable oscillators is described. The circuit contains two negative impedance converters, two inductors, two capacitors, a linear resistor and a diode. The Lyapunov exponents are presented to confirm hyperchaotic nature of the oscillations...

  7. Heat exchanger with oscillating flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Inventor); Blosser, Max L. (Inventor); Camarda, Charles J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Various heat exchange apparatuses are described in which an oscillating flow of primary coolant is used to dissipate an incident heat flux. The oscillating flow may be imparted by a reciprocating piston, a double action twin reciprocating piston, fluidic oscillators or electromagnetic pumps. The oscillating fluid flows through at least one conduit in either an open loop or a closed loop. A secondary flow of coolant may be used to flow over the outer walls of at least one conduit to remove heat transferred from the primary coolant to the walls of the conduit.

  8. Transport analysis of oscillatory state for plasma dynamics in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toda, S.; Itoh, K.

    2012-11-01

    In helical plasmas, two kinds of the oscillation for the plasma quantities are experimentally observed. Firstly, the limit cycle phenomena in the temporal evolution of the electrostatic potential, namely the electric pulsation, have been observed in the core region. The temporally self-generated oscillation of the radial electric field is shown as a simulation result in the core region. The dependence of the transition point for the radial electric field on the source is examined. Secondly, the density limit oscillation in the helical device was reported. To realize the oscillation phenomena at the density limit, the temporal evolution of the density profile is newly included in a simulation when the radiative loss is calculated in the edge region. Two stationary plasma states, where the transport loss or radiative loss is dominant in the edge region, are obtained. The dynamics of the plasma quantity is found to show the transition from the transport-dominated state to the radiation-dominated state. (author)

  9. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  10. Coherent oscillations between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates: Josephson effects, π oscillations, and macroscopic quantum self-trapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghavan, S.; Smerzi, A.; Fantoni, S.; Shenoy, S.R.

    2001-03-01

    We discuss the coherent atomic oscillations between two weakly coupled Bose-Einstein condensates. The weak link is provided by a laser barrier in a (possibly asymmetric) double-well trap or by Raman coupling between two condensates in different hyperfine levels. The boson Josephson junction (BJJ) dynamics is described by the two-mode nonlinear Gross-Pitaevskii equation that is solved analytically in terms of elliptic functions. The BJJ, being a neutral, isolated system, allows the investigations of dynamical regimes for the phase difference across the junction and for the population imbalance that are not accessible with superconductor Josephson junctions (SJJ's). These include oscillations with either or both of the following properties: (i) the time-averaged value of the phase is equal to π (π-phase oscillations); (ii) the average population imbalance is nonzero, in states with macroscopic quantum self-trapping. The (nonsinusoidal) generalization of the SJJ ac and plasma oscillations and the Shapiro resonance can also be observed. We predict the collapse of experimental data (corresponding to different trap geometries and the total number of condensate atoms) onto a single universal curve for the inverse period of oscillations. Analogies with Josephson oscillations between two weakly coupled reservoirs of 3 He-B and the internal Josephson effect in 3 He-A are also discussed. (author)

  11. Reactor oscillator - I - III, Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lolic, B.

    1961-12-01

    Project 'Reactor oscillator' covers the following activities: designing reactor oscillators for reactors RA and RB with detailed engineering drawings; constructing and mounting of the oscillator; designing and constructing the appropriate electronic equipment for the oscillator; measurements at the RA and RB reactors needed for completing the oscillator construction

  12. Perturbation theory for arbitrary coupling strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahapatra, Bimal P.; Pradhan, Noubihary

    2018-03-01

    We present a new formulation of perturbation theory for quantum systems, designated here as: “mean field perturbation theory” (MFPT), which is free from power-series-expansion in any physical parameter, including the coupling strength. Its application is thereby extended to deal with interactions of arbitrary strength and to compute system-properties having non-analytic dependence on the coupling, thus overcoming the primary limitations of the “standard formulation of perturbation theory” (SFPT). MFPT is defined by developing perturbation about a chosen input Hamiltonian, which is exactly solvable but which acquires the nonlinearity and the analytic structure (in the coupling strength) of the original interaction through a self-consistent, feedback mechanism. We demonstrate Borel-summability of MFPT for the case of the quartic- and sextic-anharmonic oscillators and the quartic double-well oscillator (QDWO) by obtaining uniformly accurate results for the ground state of the above systems for arbitrary physical values of the coupling strength. The results obtained for the QDWO may be of particular significance since “renormalon”-free, unambiguous results are achieved for its spectrum in contrast to the well-known failure of SFPT in this case.

  13. Time domain oscillating poles: Stability redefined in Memristor based Wien-oscillators

    KAUST Repository

    Talukdar, Abdul Hafiz Ibne; Radwan, Ahmed G.; Salama, Khaled N.

    2012-01-01

    poles. The idea is verified using a Memristor based Wien oscillator. Sustained oscillations are observed without having the poles of the system fixed on the imaginary axis and the oscillating behavior of the system poles is reported. The oscillating

  14. Heterogeneity of time delays determines synchronization of coupled oscillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkoski, Spase; Spiegler, Andreas; Proix, Timothée; Aram, Parham; Temprado, Jean-Jacques; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2016-07-01

    Network couplings of oscillatory large-scale systems, such as the brain, have a space-time structure composed of connection strengths and signal transmission delays. We provide a theoretical framework, which allows treating the spatial distribution of time delays with regard to synchronization, by decomposing it into patterns and therefore reducing the stability analysis into the tractable problem of a finite set of delay-coupled differential equations. We analyze delay-structured networks of phase oscillators and we find that, depending on the heterogeneity of the delays, the oscillators group in phase-shifted, anti-phase, steady, and non-stationary clusters, and analytically compute their stability boundaries. These results find direct application in the study of brain oscillations.

  15. Control of coupled oscillator networks with application to microgrid technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skardal, Per Sebastian; Arenas, Alex

    2015-08-01

    The control of complex systems and network-coupled dynamical systems is a topic of vital theoretical importance in mathematics and physics with a wide range of applications in engineering and various other sciences. Motivated by recent research into smart grid technologies, we study the control of synchronization and consider the important case of networks of coupled phase oscillators with nonlinear interactions-a paradigmatic example that has guided our understanding of self-organization for decades. We develop a method for control based on identifying and stabilizing problematic oscillators, resulting in a stable spectrum of eigenvalues, and in turn a linearly stable synchronized state. The amount of control, that is, number of oscillators, required to stabilize the network is primarily dictated by the coupling strength, dynamical heterogeneity, and mean degree of the network, and depends little on the structural heterogeneity of the network itself.

  16. Controllability in tunable chains of coupled harmonic oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchmann, L. F.; Mølmer, K.; Petrosyan, D.

    2018-04-01

    We prove that temporal control of the strengths of springs connecting N harmonic oscillators in a chain provides complete access to all Gaussian states of N -1 collective modes. The proof relies on the construction of a suitable basis of cradle modes for the system. An iterative algorithm to reach any desired Gaussian state requires at most 3 N (N -1 )/2 operations. We illustrate this capability by engineering squeezed pseudo-phonon states—highly nonlocal, strongly correlated states that may result from various nonlinear processes. Tunable chains of coupled harmonic oscillators can be implemented by a number of current state-of-the-art experimental platforms, including cold atoms in lattice potentials, arrays of mechanical micro-oscillators, and coupled optical waveguides.

  17. Controllability in tunable chains of coupled harmonic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Lukas Filip; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David

    2018-01-01

    We prove that temporal control of the strengths of springs connecting N harmonic oscillators in a chain provides complete access to all Gaussian states of N −1 collective modes. The proof relies on the construction of a suitable basis of cradle modes for the system. An iterative algorithm to reach...... any desired Gaussian state requires at most 3 N ( N −1)/2 operations. We illustrate this capability by engineering squeezed pseudo-phonon states—highly nonlocal, strongly correlated states that may result from various nonlinear processes. Tunable chains of coupled harmonic oscillators can...... be implemented by a number of current state-of-the-art experimental platforms, including cold atoms in lattice potentials, arrays of mechanical micro-oscillators, and coupled optical waveguides....

  18. Control of coupled oscillator networks with application to microgrid technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Alex

    The control of complex systems and network-coupled dynamical systems is a topic of vital theoretical importance in mathematics and physics with a wide range of applications in engineering and various other sciences. Motivated by recent research into smart grid technologies, we study the control of synchronization and consider the important case of networks of coupled phase oscillators with nonlinear interactions-a paradigmatic example that has guided our understanding of self-organization for decades. We develop a method for control based on identifying and stabilizing problematic oscillators, resulting in a stable spectrum of eigenvalues, and in turn a linearly stable syn- chronized state. The amount of control, that is, number of oscillators, required to stabilize the network is primarily dictated by the coupling strength, dynamical heterogeneity, and mean degree of the network, and depends little on the structural heterogeneity of the network itself.

  19. Controllability in tunable chains of coupled harmonic oscillators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchmann, Lukas Filip; Mølmer, Klaus; Petrosyan, David

    2018-01-01

    any desired Gaussian state requires at most 3 N ( N −1)/2 operations. We illustrate this capability by engineering squeezed pseudo-phonon states—highly nonlocal, strongly correlated states that may result from various nonlinear processes. Tunable chains of coupled harmonic oscillators can......We prove that temporal control of the strengths of springs connecting N harmonic oscillators in a chain provides complete access to all Gaussian states of N −1 collective modes. The proof relies on the construction of a suitable basis of cradle modes for the system. An iterative algorithm to reach...... be implemented by a number of current state-of-the-art experimental platforms, including cold atoms in lattice potentials, arrays of mechanical micro-oscillators, and coupled optical waveguides....

  20. Patterns of interval correlations in neural oscillators with adaptation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilo eSchwalger

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Neural firing is often subject to negative feedback by adaptationcurrents. These currents can induce strong correlations among the timeintervals between spikes. Here we study analytically the intervalcorrelations of a broad class of noisy neural oscillators withspike-triggered adaptation of arbitrary strength and time scale. Ourweak-noise theory provides a general relation between the correlationsand the phase-response curve (PRC of the oscillator, provesanti-correlations between neighboring intervals for adapting neuronswith type I PRC and identifies a single order parameter thatdetermines the qualitative pattern of correlations. Monotonicallydecaying or oscillating correlation structures can be related toqualitatively different voltage traces after spiking, which can beexplained by the phase plane geometry. At high firing rates, thelong-term variability of the spike train associated with thecumulative interval correlations becomes small, independent of modeldetails. Our results are verified by comparison with stochasticsimulations of the exponential, leaky, and generalizedintegrate-and-fire models with adaptation.