Sample records for plasma meth half-life

  1. Variation in absorption and half-life of hydrocortisone influence plasma cortisol concentrations. (United States)

    Hindmarsh, Peter C; Charmandari, Evangelia


    Hydrocortisone therapy should be individualized in congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients to avoid over and under replacement. We have assessed how differences in absorption and half-life of cortisol influence glucocorticoid exposure. Forty-eight patients (21 M) aged between 6·1 and 20·3 years with CAH due to CYP21A2 deficiency were studied. Each patient underwent a 24-h plasma cortisol profile with the morning dose used to calculate absorption parameters along with an intravenous (IV) hydrocortisone (15 mg/m(2) body surface area) bolus assessment of half-life. Parameters derived were maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ), time of maximum plasma concentration (tmax ), time to attaining plasma cortisol concentration cortisol. Mean half-life was 76·5 ± 5·2 (range 40-225·3) min, Cmax 780·7 ± 61·6 nmol/l and tmax 66·7 (range 20-118) min. Time taken to a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l was 289 (range 140-540) min. Those with a fast half-life and slow tmax took longest to reach a plasma cortisol concentration less than 100 nmol/l (380 ± 34·6 min), compared to those with a slow half-life and fast tmax (298 ± 34·8 min) and those with a fast half-life and fast tmax (249·5 ± 14·4 min) (One-way anovaF = 4·52; P = 0·009). Both rate of absorption and half-life of cortisol in the circulation play important roles in determining overall exposure to oral glucocorticoid. Dose regimens need to incorporate estimates of these parameters into determining the optimum dosing schedule for individuals. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. PASylation of Murine Leptin Leads to Extended Plasma Half-Life and Enhanced in Vivo Efficacy. (United States)

    Morath, Volker; Bolze, Florian; Schlapschy, Martin; Schneider, Sarah; Sedlmayer, Ferdinand; Seyfarth, Katrin; Klingenspor, Martin; Skerra, Arne


    Leptin plays a central role in the control of energy homeostasis and appetite and, thus, has attracted attention for therapeutic approaches in spite of its limited pharmacological activity owing to the very short circulation in the body. To improve drug delivery and prolong plasma half-life, we have fused murine leptin with Pro/Ala/Ser (PAS) polypeptides of up to 600 residues, which adopt random coil conformation with expanded hydrodynamic volume in solution and, consequently, retard kidney filtration in a similar manner as polyethylene glycol (PEG). Relative to unmodified leptin, size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering revealed an approximately 21-fold increase in apparent size and a much larger molecular diameter of around 18 nm for PAS(600)-leptin. High receptor-binding activity for all PASylated leptin versions was confirmed in BIAcore measurements and cell-based dual-luciferase assays. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice revealed a much extended plasma half-life after ip injection, from 26 min for the unmodified leptin to 19.6 h for the PAS(600) fusion. In vivo activity was investigated after single ip injection of equimolar doses of each leptin version. Strongly increased and prolonged hypothalamic STAT3 phosphorylation was detected for PAS(600)-leptin. Also, a reduction in daily food intake by up to 60% as well as loss in body weight of >10% lasting for >5 days was observed, whereas unmodified leptin was merely effective for 1 day. Notably, application of a PASylated superactive mouse leptin antagonist (SMLA) led to the opposite effects. Thus, PASylated leptin not only provides a promising reagent to study its physiological role in vivo but also may offer a superior drug candidate for clinical therapy.

  3. Measurement of the 135Cs half-life with accelerator mass spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (United States)

    MacDonald, C. M.; Cornett, R. J.; Charles, C. R. J.; Zhao, X. L.; Kieser, W. E.


    The isotope 135Cs is quoted as having a half-life of 2.3 Myr. However, there are three published values ranging from 1.8 to 3 Myr. This research reviews previous measurements and reports a new measurement of the half-life using newly developed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) techniques along with β and γ radiometric analysis. The half-life was determined to be (1.6 ±0.6 ) ×106 yr by AMS and (1.3 ±0.2 ) ×106 yr by ICPMS with 95% confidence. The two values agree with each other but differ from the accepted value by ˜40 % .

  4. Plasma half-life and organ uptake ratio of radiolabeled glandular kallikrein in control and nephrectomized rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, K.; Iwata, T.; Kokubu, T.


    The purified rat urinary kallikrein was radiolabeled by lactoperoxidase method and by chloramine T method. Plasma half-life of radiolabeled kallikrein was 5.06 +/- 0.59 (n = 5) min in control rats and 5.24 +/- 0.42 (n = 5) min in nephrectomized rats. There was no difference between two groups. From autoradiogram, main metabolic organs of radiolabeled kallikrein were liver, kidney and spleen. Total uptake of radiolabeled kallikrein in ech organ was the highest in liver (73.2%). The uptake per g tissue of radiolabeled kallikrein in each organ was high in liver (33.0%), kidney (31.4%) and spleen (21.1%). These results suggest that the active kallikrein is metabolized mainly in the liver, and kidney is not so an important organ to metabolize or to eliminate the active kallikrein in plasma. In order to clarify the mode of existence of active kallikrein in plasma, the following experiment was done by using disc gel electrophoresis. Radioactive profile of radiolabeled kallikrein showed one peak (Rf = 1.0), but radiolabeled kallikrein mixed with rat plasma showed two peaks, that is small peak (Rf = 1.0), and main peak (RF = 0.5). The most of radiolabeled kallikrein was bound to plasma protein and only five per cent was in free form. Furthermore, the binding of radiolabeled kallikrein to plasma protein was interfered by the addition of active kallikrein. These results suggest the possibility of existence of kallikrein binding protein in plasma.

  5. Comparison of serum immunoglobulin G half-life in dairy calves fed colostrum, colostrum replacer or administered with intravenous bovine plasma. (United States)

    Murphy, Jacob M; Hagey, Jill V; Chigerwe, Munashe


    In calves, passive immunity of immunoglobulins can be acquired through ingestion of colostrum or colostrum replacers. Plasma can been used to supplement immunoglobulins in healthy or sick calves. Serum half-life of colostral derived immuglobulin G (IgG) is estimated to be 20 days. Half-life of IgG is important in determining response to antigens and timing of vaccination in calves. To date studies evaluating half-life of colostrum replacer or plasma derived IgG are lacking. The objectives of this study were to compare the serum half-life of IgG derived from colostrum, colostrum replacer and plasma in dairy calves reared up to 35 days of age. Thirty Jersey calves were randomly assigned to receive colostrum or colostrum replacer by oroesophageal tubing or plasma by intravenous administration. Serum samples were collected at 2, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days. Serum IgG concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. The results indicated that half-life for IgG in colostrum fed (28.5 days) or plasma transfused calves (27.3 days) was longer than colostrum replacer fed calves (19.1 days). Further studies are required to evaluate pathogen specific immunoglobulins in order to recommend vaccination timing in calves fed colostrum replacers.

  6. Perfluorooctane Sulfonate Plasma Half-Life Determination and Long-Term Tissue Distribution in Beef Cattle (Bos taurus). (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; Dearfield, Kerry L; Johnston, John J; Wagner, Sarah; Huwe, Janice K


    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is used in consumer products as a surfactant and is found in industrial and consumer waste, which ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). PFOS does not breakdown during WWTP processes and accumulates in the biosolids. Common practices include application of biosolids to pastures and croplands used for feed, and as a result, animals such as beef cattle are exposed to PFOS. To determine plasma and tissue depletion kinetics in cattle, 2 steers and 4 heifers were dosed with PFOS at 0.098 mg/kg body weight and 9.1 mg/kg, respectively. Plasma depletion half-lives for steers and heifers were 120 ± 4.1 and 106 ± 23.1 days, respectively. Specific tissue depletion half-lives ranged from 36 to 385 days for intraperitoneal fat, back fat, muscle, liver, bone, and kidney. These data indicate that PFOS in beef cattle has a sufficiently long depletion half-life to permit accumulation in edible tissues.

  7. In silico prediction of brain exposure: drug free fraction, unbound brain to plasma concentration ratio and equilibrium half-life (United States)

    Spreafico, Morena; Jacobson, Matthew P.


    The focus of CNS drug pharmacokinetics programs has recently shifted from determining the total concentrations in brain and blood to considering also unbound fractions and concentrations. Unfortunately, assessing unbound brain exposure experimentally requires demanding in vivo and in vitro studies. We propose a physical model, based on lipid binding and pH partitioning, to predict in silico the unbound volume of distribution in the brain. The model takes into account the partition of a drug into lipids, interstitial fluid and intracellular compartments of the brain. The results are in good agreement with the experimental data, suggesting that the contributions of lipid binding and pH partitioning are important in determining drug exposure in brain. The predicted values are used, together with predictions for plasma protein binding, as corrective terms in a second model to derive the unbound brain to plasma concentration ratio starting from experimental values of total concentration ratio. The calculated values of brain free fraction and passive permeability are also used to qualitatively determine the brain to plasma equilibration time in a model that shows promising results but is limited to a very small set of compounds. The models we propose are a step forward in understanding and predicting pharmacologically relevant exposure in brain starting from compounds’ chemical structure and neuropharmacokinetics, by using experimental total brain to plasma ratios, in silico calculated properties and simple physics-based approaches. The models can be used in central nervous system drug discovery programs for a fast and cheap assessment of unbound brain exposure. For existing compounds, the unbound ratios can be derived from experimental values of total brain to plasma ratios. For both existing and hypothetical compounds, the unbound volume of distribution due to lipid binding and pH partitioning can be calculated starting only from the chemical structure. PMID:23578025

  8. 长效人白细胞介素4拮抗剂的研究%Interleukin-4 antagonists with longer half-life in plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋西勇; 唱韶红; 刘波; 巩新; 吴军


    Objective To develop an interleukin-4(IL-4) antagonist named M5-IgG1Fc protein constructed by genetic engineering of antibody Fc fragment-cytokine mutein fusion protein which has a long half-life time in plasma.M5-IgG1 Fc protein binds to IL-4 receptor but cannot activate downstream signalling pathway , which provides a basis for drug develop-ment for allergic diseases .Methods The synthesized interleukin-4 mutant gene ( named M5 ) was cloned into the expres-sion vector pBV220 and transformed into E.coli DH5α.Chimeric gene M5-IgG1Fc obtained by overlap extension (SOE) method was transformed into glycoengineered Pichia pastoris GJK01 through expression vector pPICZαA .Then M5-IgGFc fusion protein was obtained by protein purification after being induced by methanol in 72 hours.The anti-IL-4 biologicial ac-tivity assay of M5 and M5-IgG1 Fc was performed with CTLL-2/IL-4R cells and detected with MTT colormetry .Finally,the half-life time of M5 and M5-IgG1 Fc protein in mice was compared by detecting the remaining amount in plasma with ELISA kit.Results The M5 protein expressed in E.coli and M5-IgG1 Fc fusion protein expressed in P.pastoris GJK01 both had IL-4 antagonistic bioactivity .The EC50 of both, which inhibited 5.6 ×10 -2 nmol/ml of IL-4, were 0.31 ±0.05 and 0.77 ± 0.03 nmol/ml,respectively.The maximum of M5 in plasma at 0.5 h was 5.8 ×10 -2 nmol/ml but the remaining amount was 2.8%of the maximum at 2 h.M5 protein could not be detected after administration at 8 h because of the detection line . The maximum of M5-IgG1 Fc fusion protein was 4.7 ×10 -2 nmol/ml,while fusion protein M5-IgG1 Fc decreased to 4.3%of its maximum at 120 h and could not be detected at 168 h.Conclusion M5 protein has IL-4 antagonistic bioactivity .M5-IgG1 Fc fusion protein expressed in glycoengineered P.pastoris GJK01 has IL-4 antagonistic bioactivity and long retention time in mice,which can be potentially used for treatment of allergic diseases .%目的

  9. Improvements in 230Th dating, 230Th and 234U half-life values, and U-Th isotopic measurements by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (United States)

    Cheng, Hai; Lawrence Edwards, R.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Polyak, Victor J.; Asmerom, Yemane; Woodhead, Jon; Hellstrom, John; Wang, Yongjin; Kong, Xinggong; Spötl, Christoph; Wang, Xianfeng; Calvin Alexander, E.


    We have developed techniques for measuring 234U and 230Th on Faraday cups with precisions of 1-3 epsilon units (1 ɛ-unit=1 part in 104) using multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Using a Thermo-Scientific Neptune with desolvation nebulization, we obtained ionization/transmission efficiencies of 1-2% for both U and Th. We set up protocols to correct for tailing, prepared U and Th gravimetric standards, tested a Th mass fractionation correction procedure based on U isotopes, and identified natural calcite samples likely to be in U-Th isotopic secular equilibrium. The measured atomic ratios, 234U/238U=54.970 (±0.019)×10-6 and 230Th/238U=16.916 (±0.018)×10-6, for these calcite samples were identical within errors (quoted 2σ uncertainties calculated combining all sources of error). Half-life values calculated from these ratios are consistent with previous values, but have much smaller errors: 245,620±260 a for 234U and 75,584±110 a for 230Th (quoted 2σ uncertainties calculated using all sources of error). In calculating a 230Th age, some of the systematic errors included in estimating the full error in the half-lives effectively cancel. Removing these uncertainties (uncertainty in the 238U half-life value, uncertainty in our gravimetric uranium and thorium standards, and uncertainty in the absolute isotopic composition of the uranium standard), yields effective uncertainties for the purposes of 230Th dating of ±70 a for the 234U half-life value and ±30 a for the 230Th half-life value. Under ideal circumstances, with our methods, the 2σ uncertainty in age, including uncertainty in half-life values is ±10 a at 10 ka, ±100 a at 130 ka, ±300 a at 200 ka, ±1 ka at 300 ka, ±2 ka at 400 ka, ±6 ka at 500 ka, and ±12 ka at 600 ka. The isotopic composition of a sample with an age determined independent of the Sanbao Cave ages, the observed co-variation between stalagmite δ18O and Northern Hemisphere summer insolation is

  10. Half Life Measurements in {sup 155}Gd

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmskog, S.G.


    In the literature there exists a definite difference for the half life of the 86.5 keV level in Gd depending on whether {sup 155}Eu or {sup 155}Tb sources have been used. Using a good energy resolution electron-electron coincidence spectrometer and a {sup 155}Eu source, a half life of 6.48 {+-} 0.26 nsec was obtained for the 86.5 keV level. This is in agreement with the values previously measured with {sup 155}Tb sources. The half life of the 105.4 keV level was measured to be 1.12 {+-} 0.05 nsec.

  11. Half-life of {sup 44}Ti

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Kutschera, W.; Castagnoli, G. [Instituto di Cosmogeofisica, Torino (Italy); Paul, M. [Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel)


    The measurement of the {sup 44}Ti half-life, started 3 years ago, is still continuing. The goal of this measurement is to determine the half-life of {sup 44}Ti, which is {approximately}52 y, to a precision of {approximately}5%. An accurate value of this half-life is of interest to cosmologists who need it to determine the production of heavy elements in supernova. Three sets of samples - a pure 200-nCi {sup 44}Ti sample, a pure 300-nCi {sup 60}Co source, and a mixed {sup 44}Ti-{sup 60}Co source of similar strength - were prepared and their spectra are being measured with Ge spectrometers at Argonne, Torino and Jerusalem. Each sample is counted for a period of 2 days, at approximate intervals of 4 months. The room background is also measured for the same length of time. We hope to start data analysis at the end of summer and obtain a value for the {sup 44}Ti half-life.

  12. Half-life of 51Mn (United States)

    Graves, Stephen A.; Ellison, Paul A.; Valdovinos, Hector F.; Barnhart, Todd E.; Nickles, Robert J.; Engle, Jonathan W.


    The half-life of 51Mn was measured by serial gamma spectrometry of the 511-keV annihilation photon following decay by β+ emission. Data were collected every 100 seconds for 100,000-230,000 seconds within each measurement (n =4 ). The 511-keV incidence rate was calculated from the 511-keV spectral peak area and count duration, corrected for detector dead time and radioactive decay. Least-squares regression analysis was used to determine the half-life of 51Mn while accounting for the presence of background contaminants, notably 55Co. The result was 45.59 ±0.07 min, which is the highest precision measurement to date and disagrees with the current Nuclear Data Sheets value by over 6 σ .

  13. Half-life of samarium-147

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, N; Nakanishi, T


    The alpha-decay half-life of sup 1 sup 4 sup 7 Sm has been reevaluated. Known amounts of natural Sm and an alpha-emitter standard ( sup 2 sup 1 sup 0 Po, sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U, or sup 2 sup 4 sup 1 Am) were mixed well to prepare thin sources for the simultaneous counting of sup 1 sup 4 sup 7 Sm and the alpha-emitter standard by means of an alpha-spectrometer using a silicon surface barrier detector. The alpha-disintegration rate of known amounts of sup 1 sup 4 sup 7 Sm was determined by reference to the alpha activity of the standard. The source preparation and counting were repeated to establish the reproducibility of the present half-life determination, and supplementary alpha spectrometry was carried out by a liquid-scintillation spectrometer. The arithmetic mean of the experimental half-life values was obtained to be (1.17 +- 0.02) x 10 sup 1 sup 1 y. This value is about 10% longer than the currently adopted value, (1.06 +- 0.02) x 10 sup 1 sup 1 y, and the possible factors for this difference are discussed...

  14. Re-measurement of the half-life of sup 7 sup 9 Se

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang Song Sheng; Diao Li Jun; Li Chun Shen; GouJingRu; Wu Shao Yon


    A new attempt has been made for the re-measurement of the half-life of sup 7 sup 9 Se. We made two major improvements over our earlier sup 7 sup 9 Se half-life determination (Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 123 (1997) 403). Firstly, the half-life of sup 7 sup 9 Se was measured relative to the precisely known half-life of sup 7 sup 5 Se, rather than an absolute measurement of sup 7 sup 9 Se/Se. Secondly, the Projectile X-ray Detection technique was used for the separation of sup 7 sup 9 Se from its isobar, sup 7 sup 9 Br, rather than measuring sup 8 sup 1 Br for the deduction of sup 7 sup 9 Br interference, and this technique was also used for separation of sup 7 sup 5 Se and its isobar, sup 7 sup 5 As. A detailed description of the sample preparations, experimental setup and measurements are given. The re-measured half-life of sup 7 sup 9 Se was (2.95+-0.38)x10 sup 5 a, about a factor of 3 lower than the previous value, 1.1x10 sup 6 a. The problems in the previous measurement are discussed.

  15. The half-life of 18F. (United States)

    García-Toraño, Eduardo; Medina, Virginia Peyrés; Ibarra, Miguel Roteta


    The half-life of the positron-emitter (18)F has been measured by following the decay rate with three systems: ionization chambers, Ge detectors and coincidence with fast scintillators. The decay rate was measured for periods of time up to 9 half-lives. The combination of the results obtained with the three measuring systems gives a value of T(1/2)=1.82871 (18)h, in good agreement with recommended data and with an estimated uncertainty lower than any other previously reported value. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Half-life of 31Si

    CERN Document Server

    D'Agostino, Giancarlo; Mana, Giovanni; Oddone, Massimo


    Half-life values are widely used in nuclear chemistry to model the exponential decay of the quantified radionuclides. The analysis of existing data reveals a general lack of information on the performed experiments and an almost complete absence of uncertainty budgets. This is the situation for 31Si, the radionuclide produced via neutron capture reaction recently used to quantify trace amounts of 30Si in a sample of the silicon material highly enriched in 28Si and used for the determination of the Avogadro constant. In order to improve the quality of the now recommended 157.36(26) min value, we carried out repeated observations of the 31Si decay rate via gamma-ray spectrometry measurements. This paper reports the result we obtained, including details of the experiment and the evaluation of the uncertainty.

  17. Stable isotope turnover and half-life in animal tissues: a literature synthesis. (United States)

    Vander Zanden, M Jake; Clayton, Murray K; Moody, Eric K; Solomon, Christopher T; Weidel, Brian C


    Stable isotopes of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur are used as ecological tracers for a variety of applications, such as studies of animal migrations, energy sources, and food web pathways. Yet uncertainty relating to the time period integrated by isotopic measurement of animal tissues can confound the interpretation of isotopic data. There have been a large number of experimental isotopic diet shift studies aimed at quantifying animal tissue isotopic turnover rate λ (%·day(-1), often expressed as isotopic half-life, ln(2)/λ, days). Yet no studies have evaluated or summarized the many individual half-life estimates in an effort to both seek broad-scale patterns and characterize the degree of variability. Here, we collect previously published half-life estimates, examine how half-life is related to body size, and test for tissue- and taxa-varying allometric relationships. Half-life generally increases with animal body mass, and is longer in muscle and blood compared to plasma and internal organs. Half-life was longest in ecotherms, followed by mammals, and finally birds. For ectotherms, different taxa-tissue combinations had similar allometric slopes that generally matched predictions of metabolic theory. Half-life for ectotherms can be approximated as: ln (half-life) = 0.22*ln (body mass) + group-specific intercept; n = 261, plife can be approximated using simple allometric relationships for some taxa and tissue types, there is also a high degree of unexplained variation in our models. Our study highlights several strong and general patterns, though accurate prediction of isotopic half-life from readily available variables such as animal body mass remains elusive.

  18. Calculation of half-life for 79Se decay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The half-life for 79Se decay is calculated by using the Logf1ut systematics method. Based on the data analysis and comparison with experimental data the 79Se half-life is recommended. The scheme for 79Se decay is also shown and the radiation data are calculated in the text.

  19. Association of lipoprotein(a), prostaglandin I(2)--synthesis stimulating plasma factor, biological half-life of prostaglandin I(2)and high-density lipoproteins in HIV-1 infection of different stages. (United States)

    Kritz, H; Efthimiou, Y; Stamatopoulos, J; Najemnik, C; Sinzinger, H


    Patients with human immunodeficiency virus show increased atheroembolism and premature arterial events (stroke, myocardial infarction), but no increased venous thromboembolism. This paper describes an association of elevated lipoprotein(a), a decreased prostaglandin I(2)(PGI(2)) synthesis stimulating plasma factor, diminished PGI(2)-stability in plasma and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and apolipoprotein A. It is unclear to what extent these biochemical findings represent an acute phase reaction only or a disturbance in the prostaglandin system. Definitely, they are resulting in severe hemostatic imbalance decreasing local PGI(2)-availability with a dramatic reduction in the cytoprotective capacity favouring the onset of premature arterial events seen in some of the patients. Copyright 2000 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  20. PEPlife: A Repository of the Half-life of Peptides (United States)

    Mathur, Deepika; Prakash, Satya; Anand, Priya; Kaur, Harpreet; Agrawal, Piyush; Mehta, Ayesha; Kumar, Rajesh; Singh, Sandeep; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.


    Short half-life is one of the key challenges in the field of therapeutic peptides. Various studies have reported enhancement in the stability of peptides using methods like chemical modifications, D-amino acid substitution, cyclization, replacement of labile aminos acids, etc. In order to study this scattered data, there is a pressing need for a repository dedicated to the half-life of peptides. To fill this lacuna, we have developed PEPlife (, a manually curated resource of experimentally determined half-life of peptides. PEPlife contains 2229 entries covering 1193 unique peptides. Each entry provides detailed information of the peptide, like its name, sequence, half-life, modifications, the experimental assay for determining half-life, biological nature and activity of the peptide. We also maintain SMILES and structures of peptides. We have incorporated web-based modules to offer user-friendly data searching and browsing in the database. PEPlife integrates numerous tools to perform various types of analysis such as BLAST, Smith-Waterman algorithm, GGSEARCH, Jalview and MUSTANG. PEPlife would augment the understanding of different factors that affect the half-life of peptides like modifications, sequence, length, route of delivery of the peptide, etc. We anticipate that PEPlife will be useful for the researchers working in the area of peptide-based therapeutics.

  1. Beta Decay Half-Life of 84Mo (United States)

    Stoker, J. B.; Mantica, P. F.; Bazin, D.; Bickley, A.; Becerril, A.; Crawford, H.; Cruse, K.; Estrade, A.; Mosby, M.; Guess, C. J.; Hitt, G. W.; Lorusso, G.; Matos, M.; Meharchand, R.; Minamisono, K.; Montes, F.; Pereira, J.; Perdikakis, G.; Pinter, J. S.; Schatz, H.; Vredevoogd, J.; Zegers, R. G. T.


    The β-decay half-life ^84Mo governs leakage out of the Zr-Nb cycle, a high temperature rp-process endpoint in x-ray binaries [1]. Treatment of the background and the poor statistics accumulated during the previous half-life measurement leave questions about statistical and systematic errors. We have remeasured the half-life of ^84Mo using a concerted setup of the NSCL β-Counting System [3] and 16 detectors from the Segmented Germanium Array [4]. We will report the half-life for ^84Mo, deduced using 40 times the previous sample size. The application of the NSCL RF Fragment Separator to remove unwanted isotopes, and hence reduce background for the half-life measurement, will also be discussed. [1] H. Schatz et al., Phys. Rep. 294, 167 1998 [2] P. Kienle et al., Prog. Part. Nuc. Phys. 46, 73 2001 [3] J. Prisciandaro et al., NIM A 505, 140 2003 [4] W. Mueller et al., NIM A 466, 492 2001 [5] D. Gorelov et al. PAC 2005, Knoxville, TN, May 16-20

  2. Determination of the {sup 151}Sm half-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Be, Marie-Martine; Cassette, Philippe [CEA, LIST, Gif sur Yvette (France). LNE-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel; Isnard, Helene [CEA-LANIE, Gif sur Yvette (France); and others


    New measurements have been undertaken to determine the half-life of {sup 151}Sm. A pure {sup 151}Sm solution was obtained after chemical separation from a samarium solution resulting from the dissolution of an irradiated samarium sample. The concentration of {sup 151}Sm in the solution was measured by mass spectrometry, combined with the isotope dilution technique. The activity of the solution was measured by liquid scintillation counting by six European laboratories as part of an international comparison. These combined results lead to a half-life of T{sub 1/2} = 94.6(6)a.

  3. Half-life predictions for decay modes of superheavy nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Goncalves, M. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rodriguez, O.; Guzman, F. [Instituto Superior de Ciencias e Tecnologia Nucleares (InSTEC), La Habana (Cuba); Barbosa, T.N.; Garcia, F.; Dimarco, A. [Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilheus, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Exatas e Tecnologicas


    We applied the Effective Liquid Drop Model (ELDM) to predict the alpha-decay, cluster emission and cold fission half-life-values of nuclei in the region of Superheavy Elements (SHE). The present calculations have been made in the region of the ZN-plane defined by 155 <=N <=220 and 110<=Z<=135. Shell effects are included via the Q-value of the corresponding decay case. We report the results of a systematic calculation of the half-life for the three nuclear decay modes in a region of the ZN-plane where superheavy elements are expected to be found. Results have shown that, among the decay modes investigated here, the alpha decay is the dominant one. i.e, the decay mode of smallest half-lives. Half-life predictions for alpha decay, cluster emission and cold fission for the isotopic family of the most recent SHE detected of Z=115 and for the isotopic family of the already consolidated SHE of Z=111 are presented. (author)

  4. Superior serum half life of albumin tagged TNF ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Nicole [Division of Molecular Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Roentgenring 11, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany); Schneider, Britta; Pfizenmaier, Klaus [Institute of Cell Biology and Immunology, University of Stuttgart, Allmandring 31, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Wajant, Harald, E-mail: [Division of Molecular Internal Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine II, University Hospital Wuerzburg, Roentgenring 11, 97070 Wuerzburg (Germany)


    Due to their immune stimulating and apoptosis inducing properties, ligands of the TNF family attract increasing interest as therapeutic proteins. A general limitation of in vivo applications of recombinant soluble TNF ligands is their notoriously rapid clearance from circulation. To improve the serum half life of the TNF family members TNF, TWEAK and TRAIL, we genetically fused soluble variants of these molecules to human serum albumin (HSA). The serum albumin-TNF ligand fusion proteins were found to be of similar bioactivity as the corresponding HSA-less counterparts. Upon intravenous injection (i.v.), serum half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins, as determined by ELISA, was around 15 h as compared to approximately 1 h for all of the recombinant control TNF ligands without HSA domain. Moreover, serum samples collected 6 or 24 h after i.v. injection still contained high TNF ligand bioactivity, demonstrating that there is only limited degradation/inactivation of circulating HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins in vivo. In a xenotransplantation model, significantly less of the HSA-TRAIL fusion protein compared to the respective control TRAIL protein was required to achieve inhibition of tumor growth indicating that the increased half life of HSA-TNF ligand fusion proteins translates into better therapeutic action in vivo. In conclusion, our data suggest that genetic fusion to serum albumin is a powerful and generally applicable mean to improve bioavailability and in vivo activity of TNF ligands.

  5. The half-life of {sup 18}F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Torano, Eduardo, E-mail: e.garciatorano@ciemat.e [Ciemat, Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Medina, Virginia Peyres; Roteta Ibarra, Miguel [Ciemat, Laboratorio de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain)


    The half-life of the positron-emitter {sup 18}F has been measured by following the decay rate with three systems: ionization chambers, Ge detectors and coincidence with fast scintillators. The decay rate was measured for periods of time up to 9 half-lives. The combination of the results obtained with the three measuring systems gives a value of T{sub 1/2}=1.82871 (18) h, in good agreement with recommended data and with an estimated uncertainty lower than any other previously reported value.

  6. Experimental determination of the {sup 233}U half-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomme, S.; Altzitzoglou, T.; Van Ammel, R.; Sibbens, G.; Eykens, R.; Richter, S.; Camps, J. [European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements, Geel (Belgium); Kossert, K.; Janben, H. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig (Germany); Garcia-Torano, E.; Duran, T. [CIEMAT, Lab. de Metrologia de Radiaciones Ionizantes, Madrid (Spain); Jaubert, F. [CEA Saclay, LNE-LNHB, Lab. National Henri Becquerel 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)


    The half-life of {sup 233}U was determined by a specific activity method, in the frame of an international collaboration project of four metrology institutes. A purified, highly enriched {sup 233}U solution was prepared with certified concentration of uranium isotopes. The isotopic composition of the uranium material was determined by thermal ionization mass spectrometry. The ingrowth of daughter nuclides was calculated and confirmed by {alpha}-particle and {gamma}-ray spectrometry measurements. Quantitative sources were prepared from aliquots of the {sup 233}U solution and their disintegration rate was determined by means of {alpha}-particle counting at a defined small solid angle, liquid-scintillation counting and 4{pi} counting in a pressurized proportional counter and in a CsI(Tl) sandwich spectrometer. A half-life value of 1.5867(14) * 10{sup 5} a was obtained, in which the relative standard uncertainty amounts to 0.09%. The result is lower than the currently recommended value of 1.592(2) * 10{sup 5} a and a new best estimate of T(1/2)({sup 233}U) = 1.5903(13) * 10{sup 5} a was calculated from a partially weighted mean of a set of published data. (authors)

  7. PEGylation of antibody fragments for half-life extension. (United States)

    Jevševar, Simona; Kusterle, Mateja; Kenig, Maja


    Antibody fragments (Fab's) represent important structure for creating new therapeutics. Compared to full antibodies Fab' fragments possess certain advantages, including higher mobility and tissue penetration, ability to bind antigen monovalently and lack of fragment crystallizable (Fc) region-mediated functions such as antibody-dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) or complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC). The main drawback for the use of Fab's in clinical applications is associated with their short half-life in vivo, which is a consequence of no longer having the Fc region. To exert meaningful clinical effects, the half-life of Fab's need to be extended, which has been achieved by postproduction chemical attachment of polyethylene glycol (PEG) chain to protein using PEGylation technology. The most suitable approach employs PEG-maleimide attachment to cysteines, either to the free hinge cysteine or to C-terminal cysteines involved in interchain disulfide linkage of the heavy and light chain. Hence, protocols for mono-PEGylation of Fab via free cysteine in the hinge region and di-PEGylation of Fab via interchain disulfide bridge are provided in this chapter.

  8. METHES: A Monte Carlo collision code for the simulation of electron transport in low temperature plasmas (United States)

    Rabie, M.; Franck, C. M.


    We present a freely available MATLAB code for the simulation of electron transport in arbitrary gas mixtures in the presence of uniform electric fields. For steady-state electron transport, the program provides the transport coefficients, reaction rates and the electron energy distribution function. The program uses established Monte Carlo techniques and is compatible with the electron scattering cross section files from the open-access Plasma Data Exchange Project LXCat. The code is written in object-oriented design, allowing the tracing and visualization of the spatiotemporal evolution of electron swarms and the temporal development of the mean energy and the electron number due to attachment and/or ionization processes. We benchmark our code with well-known model gases as well as the real gases argon, N2, O2, CF4, SF6 and mixtures of N2 and O2.

  9. Measurement of the half-life of 198Au in a non-metal: High-precision measurement shows no host-material dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, J R; Iacob, V E; Dibidad, A; Hardy, J C


    We have measured the half-life of the beta decay of 198Au to be 2.6948(9) d, with the nuclide sited in an insulating environment. Comparing this result with the half-life we measured previously with a metallic environment, we find the half-lives in both environments to be the same within 0.04%, thus contradicting a prediction that screening from a "plasma" of quasi-free electrons in a metal increases the half-life by as much as 7%.

  10. Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts (United States)

    ... That People Abuse » Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Meth (Crank, Ice) Facts Listen Methamphetamine—meth for short—is a white, bitter powder. Sometimes ... clear or white shiny rock (called a crystal). Meth powder can be eaten or snorted up the ...

  11. A Calorimetric Determination of the Half Life of Polonium-210 (Final Report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichelberger, J. F.; Jordan, K. C.; Orr, S. R.; Parks, J. R.


    Six determinations have been made of the half life of polonium with four different steady-state, resistance-bridge calorimeters and five different samples of polonium. These six values of the half life have been weighted and combined to give a grand-mean value of the half life of 138.4005 + - 0.0051 days.

  12. Changing Paradigm of Hemophilia Management: Extended Half-Life Factor Concentrates and Gene Therapy. (United States)

    Kumar, Riten; Dunn, Amy; Carcao, Manuel


    Management of hemophilia has evolved significantly in the last century-from recognition of the causative mechanism in the 1950s to commercially available clotting factor concentrates in the 1960s. Availability of lyophilized concentrates in the 1970s set the stage for home-based therapy, followed by introduction of virally attenuated plasma-derived, and then recombinant factor concentrates in the 1980s and 1990s, respectively. The subsequent years saw a paradigm shift in treatment goals from on-demand therapy to prophylactic factor replacement starting at an early age, to prevent hemarthrosis becoming the standard of care for patients with severe hemophilia. In the developed world, the increasing use of home-based prophylactic regimens has significantly improved the quality of life, and life expectancy of patients with severe hemophilia. Seminal developments in the past 5 years, including the commercial availability of extended half-life factor concentrates and the publication of successful results of gene therapy for patients with hemophilia B, promise to further revolutionize hemophilia care over the next few decades. In this review, we summarize the evolution of management for hemophilia, with a focus on extended half-life factor concentrates and gene therapy. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. Semi-empirical formula for spontaneous fission half life time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P., E-mail: [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Kannur University, Payyanur Campus 670 327 (India); Biju, R.K.; Sahadevan, Sabina [P G Department of Physics and Research Centre, Payyanur College, Payyanur 670 327 (India)


    A new semi-empirical formula is proposed for determining the spontaneous fission half lives, which works well for the mass region from {sup 232}Th to {sup 286}114. The computed spontaneous fission half life times are also compared with other semi-empirical formula predictions. The alpha decay half lives are systematically computed for heavy and super heavy region with proton numbers varying from 90<=Z<=122 using Coulomb and Proximity Potential Model. The comparison between computed alpha decay half lives and the present spontaneous fission semi-empirical formula predictions of even-even isotopes with Z=90-122 are studied. It is found that in super heavy region the isotopes {sup 270-274}Ds, {sup 272-278}112, {sup 272-282}114, {sup 274-292}116, {sup 276-298}118, {sup 276-308}120 and {sup 278-314}122 will survive fission and can be synthesized and identified via alpha decay.

  14. 63Ni, its half-life and standardization: revisited. (United States)

    Collé, R; Zimmerman, B E; Cassette, P; Laureano-Perez, L


    Recent liquid scintillation (LS) measurements at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and at the Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB) on a standardized (63)Ni solution that has been tracked for nearly 40 years have resulted in several important findings: (i) a (63)Ni half-life value of 101.2 +/- 1.5 a has been determined with the present decay data. This value is consistent with a previous specific activity determination and with an earlier value from decay measurements; and it appears to be more satisfactory than a recent data evaluator's recommended value of 98.7 a. (ii) All solution standards of (63)Ni as disseminated by NIST for the past 38(+) years are internally consistent with past and recent standardizations. (iii) Primary LS standardizations of (63)Ni by the triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method and by CIEMAT/NIST (3)H-standard efficiency tracing (CNET) appear to be comparable, although the latter methodology is believed to be inherently inferior. (iv) There is excellent measurement agreement between NIST and LNHB for (63)Ni primary standardizations.

  15. A Fab-Selective Immunoglobulin-Binding Domain from Streptococcal Protein G with Improved Half-Life Extension Properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Unverdorben

    Full Text Available Half-life extension strategies have gained increasing interest to improve the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of protein therapeutics. Recently, we established an immunoglobulin-binding domain (IgBD from streptococcal protein G (SpGC3 as module for half-life extension. SpGC3 is capable of binding to the Fc region as well as the CH1 domain of Fab arms under neutral and acidic conditions.Using site-directed mutagenesis, we generated a Fab-selective mutant (SpGC3Fab to avoid possible interference with the FcRn-mediated recycling process and improved its affinity for mouse and human IgG by site-directed mutagenesis and phage display selections. In mice, this affinity-improved mutant (SpGC3FabRR conferred prolonged plasma half-lives compared with SpGC3Fab when fused to small recombinant antibody fragments, such as single-chain Fv (scFv and bispecific single-chain diabody (scDb. Hence, the SpGC3FabRR domain seems to be a suitable fusion partner for the half-life extension of small recombinant therapeutics.The half-life extension properties of SpGC3 can be retained by restricting binding to the Fab fragment of serum immunoglobulins and can be improved by increasing binding activity. The modified SpGC3 module should be suitable to extend the half-life of therapeutic proteins and, thus to improve therapeutic activity.

  16. Effect of parent and daughter deformation on half-life time in exotic decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Santhosh; Antony Joseph


    Taking Coulomb and proximity potential as interacting barrier for post-scission region we calculated half-life time for different modes of exotic decay treating parent and fragments as spheres and these values are compared with experimental data. We studied the effect of deformation of parent and daughter on half-life time treating emitted cluster as spherical. When deformations are included half-life time values are found to decrease, though slightly. It is found that parent deformation alone will not produce appreciable change in half-life time since it affects relatively small pre-scission part of the barrier.

  17. Effect of parent and daughter deformation on half-life time in exotic decay

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P


    Taking Coulomb and proximity potential as interacting barrier for post-scission region we calculated half-life time for different modes of exotic decay treating parent and fragments as spheres and these values are compared with experimental data. We studied the effect of deformation of parent and daughter on half-life time treating emitted cluster as spherical. When deformations are included half-life time values are found to decrease, though slightly. It is found that parent deformation alone will not produce appreciable change in half-life time since it affects relatively small pre-scission part of the barrier. (author)

  18. Precision measurement of the half-life and the decay branches of Ga-62

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canchel, G; Blank, B; Chartier, N; Delalee, F; Dendooven, P; Dossat, C; Giovinazzo, J; Huikari, J; Lalleman, AS; Jimenez, MJL; Madec, [No Value; Pedroza, JL; Penttila, H


    In an experiment performed at the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaskyla, the beta-decay half-life of Ga-62 has been studied with high precision rising the IGISOL technique. A half-life of T-1/2 = 116.09(17) ms was nieasured. Using beta-gamma coincidences, the gamma intensity of the 9

  19. Static and dynamic half-life and lifetime molecular turnover of enzymes. (United States)

    Miyawaki, Osato; Kanazawa, Tsukasa; Maruyama, Chika; Dozen, Michiko


    The static half-life of an enzyme is the half-life of a free enzyme not working without substrate and the dynamic half-life is that of an active enzyme working with plenty amount of substrate. These two half-lives were measured and compared for glucoamylase (GA) and β-galactosidase (BG). The dynamic half-life was much longer than the static half-life by one to three orders of magnitude for both enzymes. For BG, the half-life of the enzyme physically entrapped in a membrane reactor was also measured. In this case also, the half-life of BG in the membrane reactor was much longer than the free enzyme without substrate. These results suggest the large difference in stabilities between the free enzyme and the enzyme-substrate complex. This may be related to the natural enzyme metabolism. According to the difference in half-life, the lifetime molecular turnover (LMT), which is the number of product molecules produced by a single molecule of enzyme until it loses its activity completely, was much higher by one to four orders of magnitude for the active enzyme than the free enzyme. The concept of LMT, proposed here, will be important in bioreactor operations with or without immobilization. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Estimation of the Biological Half-Life of Methylmercury Using a Population Toxicokinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongil Jo


    Full Text Available Methylmercury is well known for causing adverse health effects in the brain and nervous system. Estimating the elimination constant derived from the biological half-life of methylmercury in the blood or hair is an important part of calculating guidelines for methylmercury intake. Thus, this study was conducted to estimate the biological half-life of methylmercury in Korean adults. We used a one-compartment model with a direct relationship between methylmercury concentrations in the blood and daily dietary intake of methylmercury. We quantified the between-person variability of the methylmercury half-life in the population, and informative priors were used to estimate the parameters in the model. The population half-life of methylmercury was estimated to be 80.2 ± 8.6 days. The population mean of the methylmercury half-life was 81.6 ± 8.4 days for men and 78.9 ± 8.6 days for women. The standard deviation of the half-life was estimated at 25.0 ± 8.6 days. Using the direct relationship between methylmercury concentrations in blood and methylmercury intake, the biological half-life in this study was estimated to be longer than indicated by the earlier studies that have been used to set guideline values.

  1. Update of NIST half-life results corrected for ionization chamber source-holder instability. (United States)

    Unterweger, M P; Fitzgerald, R


    As reported at the ICRM 2011, it was discovered that the source holder used for calibrations in the NIST 4πγ ionization chamber (IC) was not stable. This has affected a large number of half-life measurement results previously reported and used in compilations of nuclear data. Corrections have been made on all of the half-life data based on the assumption that the changes to the ionization chamber response were gradual. The corrections are energy dependent and therefore radionuclide specific. This presentation will review our results and present the recommended changes in half-life values and/or uncertainties.

  2. Determination of (137)Cs half-life with an ionization chamber. (United States)

    Juget, Frédéric; Nedjadi, Youcef; Buchillier, Thierry; Bochud, François; Bailat, Claude


    The half-life of (137)Cs was measured with an ionization chamber by following the decay of 5 sources over a 30 years period between 1983 and 2013. The ratio between the ionization chamber current for the cesium sources and (226)Ra source was used for the half-life calculation. The value found for the (137)Cs half-life is 10,955.2±10.7 days, where the uncertainty evaluation combines type A and B for one standard deviation.

  3. Influence of sex and age on the biological half-life of cadmium in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, T. (Kochi Medical School, Nangoku-shi, Japan); Suzuki, S.


    The influence of age on the whole-body biological half-life of /sup 109/Cd was studied in male mice following ip injection. The influence of sex on whole-body and organ retention was ascertained after sc injection. The whole-body biological half-life of /sup 109/Cd of the older mice was more than twice that of the younger mice, and that of the female mice was longer than that of the males. These differences demonstrate a biological difference between males and females with respect to whole-body half-life of /sup 109/Cd. The effects of age and sex on the biological half-life of Cd in mice are assessed quantitatively.

  4. Half-life of Si-32 from tandem-accelerator mass spectrometry (United States)

    Elmore, D.; Anantaraman, N.; Fulbright, H. W.; Gove, H. E.; Nishiizumi, K.; Murrell, M. T.; Honda, M.; Hans, H. S.


    A newly developed mass-spectrometry technique employing a tandem Van de Graaff accelerator together with a special beam-transport system and heavy-ion detector has been used to determine the half-life of Si-32. The result obtained, 108 plus or minus 18 yr, disagrees with the accepted value of 330 plus or minus 40 yr. The implications of the new half-life of Si-32, which is used for dating studies, are discussed.

  5. Dependence of the half-life of 221Fr on the implantation environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olaizola, B.; Fraile, L.M.; Riisager, Karsten


    The possible dependence of the half-life of 221Fr on the solid-state environment has been investigated by the simultaneous measurement of implanted 221Fr ions in an insulator (Si) and a metallic substrate (Au) at the ISOLDE facility at CERN. Our results indicate that, if existing, the difference...... in half-life does not follow a systematic trend and it is well below 1%...

  6. Using gamma distribution to determine half-life of rotenone, applied in freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohan, Maheswaran, E-mail: [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland (New Zealand); Fairweather, Alastair; Grainger, Natasha [Science and Capability, Department of Conservation, Hamilton (New Zealand)


    Following the use of rotenone to eradicate invasive pest fish, a dynamic first-order kinetic model is usually used to determine the half-life and rate at which rotenone dissipated from the treated waterbody. In this study, we investigate the use of a stochastic gamma model for determining the half-life and rate at which rotenone dissipates from waterbodies. The first-order kinetic and gamma models produced similar values for the half-life (4.45 days and 5.33 days respectively) and days to complete dissipation (51.2 days and 52.48 days respectively). However, the gamma model fitted the data better and was more flexible than the first-order kinetic model, allowing us to use covariates and to predict a possible range for the half-life of rotenone. These benefits are particularly important when examining the influence that different environmental factors have on rotenone dissipation and when trying to predict the rate at which rotenone will dissipate during future operations. We therefore recommend that in future the gamma distribution model is used when calculating the half-life of rotenone in preference to the dynamic first-order kinetics model. - Highlights: • We investigated the use of the gamma model to calculate the half-life of rotenone. • Physical and environmental variables can be incorporated into the model. • A method for calculating the range around a mean half-life is presented. • The model is more flexible than the traditionally used first-order kinetic model.

  7. Designing of peptides with desired half-life in intestine-like environment

    KAUST Repository

    Sharma, Arun


    Background: In past, a number of peptides have been reported to possess highly diverse properties ranging from cell penetrating, tumor homing, anticancer, anti-hypertensive, antiviral to antimicrobials. Owing to their excellent specificity, low-toxicity, rich chemical diversity and availability from natural sources, FDA has successfully approved a number of peptide-based drugs and several are in various stages of drug development. Though peptides are proven good drug candidates, their usage is still hindered mainly because of their high susceptibility towards proteases degradation. We have developed an in silico method to predict the half-life of peptides in intestine-like environment and to design better peptides having optimized physicochemical properties and half-life.Results: In this study, we have used 10mer (HL10) and 16mer (HL16) peptides dataset to develop prediction models for peptide half-life in intestine-like environment. First, SVM based models were developed on HL10 dataset which achieved maximum correlation R/R2 of 0.57/0.32, 0.68/0.46, and 0.69/0.47 using amino acid, dipeptide and tripeptide composition, respectively. Secondly, models developed on HL16 dataset showed maximum R/R2 of 0.91/0.82, 0.90/0.39, and 0.90/0.31 using amino acid, dipeptide and tripeptide composition, respectively. Furthermore, models that were developed on selected features, achieved a correlation (R) of 0.70 and 0.98 on HL10 and HL16 dataset, respectively. Preliminary analysis suggests the role of charged residue and amino acid size in peptide half-life/stability. Based on above models, we have developed a web server named HLP (Half Life Prediction), for predicting and designing peptides with desired half-life. The web server provides three facilities; i) half-life prediction, ii) physicochemical properties calculation and iii) designing mutant peptides.Conclusion: In summary, this study describes a web server \\'HLP\\' that has been developed for assisting scientific

  8. Measurement of the half-life of sup 7 sup 9 Se with PX-AMS

    CERN Document Server

    He Ming; Jiang Shan; Diao Li Jun; Wu Shao Yon; Li Chun Shen


    The half-life of sup 7 sup 9 Se has been re-measured with projectile X-rays detection (PXD) in accelerator mass spectrometry after a new PXD system had been set up in China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE). The PXD technique has been used for separation of sup 7 sup 9 Se from its isobar, sup 7 sup 9 Br. The detection efficiency of sup 7 sup 9 Se K subalpha X-rays is obtained from that of sup 8 sup 0 Se after energy correction. The atom number of sup 7 sup 9 Se in each sample is deduced from the measured ratios of sup 7 sup 9 Se/Se. From the measured decay rates of each sample, the half-life is deduced to be (2.80+-0.36)x10 sup 5 a. In order to check the reliability of the result of sup 7 sup 9 Se half-life, the sup 7 sup 5 Se half-life is also measured with PX-AMS method. The measured half-life of sup 7 sup 5 Se is in good agreement with well-known literature value.

  9. Dual Constant Domain-Fab: A novel strategy to improve half-life and potency of a Met therapeutic antibody. (United States)

    Cignetto, Simona; Modica, Chiara; Chiriaco, Cristina; Fontani, Lara; Milla, Paola; Michieli, Paolo; Comoglio, Paolo M; Vigna, Elisa


    The kinase receptor encoded by the Met oncogene is a sensible target for cancer therapy. The chimeric monovalent Fab fragment of the DN30 monoclonal antibody (MvDN30) has an odd mechanism of action, based on cell surface removal of Met via activation of specific plasma membrane proteases. However, the short half-life of the Fab, due to its low molecular weight, is a severe limitation for the deployment in therapy. This issue was addressed by increasing the Fab molecular weight above the glomerular filtration threshold through the duplication of the constant domains, in tandem (DCD-1) or reciprocally swapped (DCD-2). The two newly engineered molecules showed biochemical properties comparable to the original MvDN30 in vitro, acting as full Met antagonists, impairing Met phosphorylation and activation of downstream signaling pathways. As a consequence, Met-mediated biological responses were inhibited, including anchorage-dependent and -independent cell growth. In vivo DCD-1 and DCD-2 showed a pharmacokinetic profile significantly improved over the original MvDN30, doubling the circulating half-life and reducing the clearance. In pre-clinical models of cancer, generated by injection of tumor cells or implant of patient-derived samples, systemic administration of the engineered molecules inhibited the growth of Met-addicted tumors.

  10. Determination of the half-life of 213Fr with high precision (United States)

    Fisichella, M.; Musumarra, A.; Farinon, F.; Nociforo, C.; Del Zoppo, A.; Figuera, P.; La Cognata, M.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Scuderi, V.; Torresi, D.; Strano, E.


    High-precision measurement of half-life and Qα value of neutral and highly charged α emitters is a major subject of investigation currently. In this framework, we recently pushed half-life measurements of neutral emitters to a precision of a few per mil. This result was achieved by using different techniques and apparatuses at Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare Laboratori Nazionali del Sud (INFN-LNS) and GSI Darmstadt. Here we report on 213Fr half-life determination [T1/2(213Fr) = 34.14±0.06 s] at INFN-LNS, detailing the measurement protocol used. Direct comparison with the accepted value in the literature shows a discrepancy of more than three sigma. We propose this new value as a reference, discussing previous experiments.

  11. 18F half-life measurement using a high-purity germanium detector. (United States)

    Han, Jubong; Lee, K B; Park, T S; Lee, J M; Oh, P J; Lee, S H; Kang, Y S; Ahn, J K


    The half-life of (18)F has been measured using HPGe detectors with a (137)Cs reference source. The counting ratio of 511 keV γ-rays from (18)F to 622 keV γ-rays from (137)Cs was fitted for the half-life with a weighted least-square method. Uncertainties due to the systematic effects arising from the measurement of a high activity (18)F source were studied in detail. The half-life of (18)F was found to be (109.72±0.19) min. The result is in a good agreement with the recommended value of (109.728±0.019) min evaluated at the Laborotaire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB).

  12. β-decay half-life of V50 calculated by the shell model (United States)

    Haaranen, M.; Srivastava, P. C.; Suhonen, J.; Zuber, K.


    In this work we survey the detectability of the β- channel of 2350V leading to the first excited 2+ state in 2450Cr. The electron-capture (EC) half-life corresponding to the transition of 2350V to the first excited 2+ state in 2250Ti had been measured earlier. Both of the mentioned transitions are 4th-forbidden non-unique. We have performed calculations of all the involved wave functions by using the nuclear shell model with the GXPF1A interaction in the full f-p shell. The computed half-life of the EC branch is in good agreement with the measured one. The predicted half-life for the β- branch is in the range ≈2×1019 yr whereas the present experimental lower limit is 1.5×1018 yr. We discuss also the experimental lay-out needed to detect the β--branch decay.

  13. Three-Laboratory Measurement of the {sup 44}Ti Half-Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, I.; Fischer, S.M.; Kutschera, W.; Paul, M. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Bonino, G.; Bonino, G.; Castagnoli, G.C.; Castagnoli, G.C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale dell`Universita, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy); Kutschera, W. [Institut fuer Radiumforschung und Kernphysik der Universitaet Wien, Boltzmanngasse 3, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel 91904] [University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States)


    We report on a measurement of the {sup 44}Ti half-life aimed at lowering existing systematic uncertainties in this value, which is important to astrophysics. The half-life was measured by following the decay of {sup 44}Ti relative to {sup 60}Co for about 5yr and the measurements were performed independently in three laboratories{emdash}Argonne, Jerusalem, and Torino. We suggest to combine our result, 59.0{plus_minus}0.6yr, with the one from the accompanying Letter by G{umlt o}rres {ital et al.,} 60.3{plus_minus}1.3yr, to obtain a current {open_quotes}best value{close_quotes} for the half-life of {sup 44}Ti of 59.2{plus_minus}0.6 yr (1{sigma} error). {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. $\\beta$-Decay Half-Life of the $rp$-Process Waiting Point Nuclide $^{84}$Mo

    CERN Document Server

    Stoker, J B; Bazin, D; Becerril, A; Berryman, J S; Crawford, H L; Estrade, A; Guess, C J; Hitt, G W; Lorusso, G; Matos, M; Minamisono, K; Montes, F; Pereira, J; Perdikakis, G; Schatz, H; Smith, K; Zegers, R G T


    A half-life of 2.2 $\\pm$ 0.2 s has been deduced for the ground-state $\\beta$ decay of $^{84}$Mo, more than 1$\\sigma$ shorter than the previously adopted value. $^{84}$Mo is an even-even N = Z nucleus lying on the proton dripline, created during explosive hydrogen burning in Type I X-ray bursts in the rapid proton capture ($rp$) process. The effect of the measured half-life on $rp$-process reaction flow is explored. Implications on theoretical treatments of nuclear deformation in $^{84}$Mo are also discussed.

  15. Fast renal trapping of porcine Luteinizing Hormone (pLH shown by 123I-scintigraphic imaging in rats explains its short circulatory half-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Locatelli Alain


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sugar moieties of gonadotropins play no primary role in receptor binding but they strongly affect their circulatory half-life and consequently their in vivo biopotencies. In order to relate more precisely hepatic trapping of these glycoproteic hormones with their circulatory half-life, we undertook a comparative study of the distribution and elimination of porcine LH (pLH and equine CG (eCG which exhibit respectively a short and a long half-life. This was done first by following half-lives of pLH in piglets with hepatic portal circulation shunted or not. It was expected that such a shunt would enhance the short half-life of pLH. Subsequently, scintigraphic imaging of both 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in intact rats to compare their routes and rates of distribution and elimination. Methods Native pLH or eCG was injected to normal piglets and pLH was tested in liver-shunted anæsthetized piglet. Blood samples were recovered sequentially over one hour time and the hormone concentrations were determined by a specific ELISA method. Scintigraphic imaging of 123I-pLH and 123I-eCG was performed in rats using a OPTI-CGR gamma camera. Results In liver-shunted piglets, the half-life of pLH was found to be as short as in intact piglets (5 min. In the rat, the half-life of pLH was also found to be very short (3–6 min and 123I-pLH was found to accumulate in high quantity in less than 10 min post injection at the level of kidneys but not in the liver. 123I-eCG didn't accumulate in any organ in the rats during the first hour, plasma concentrations of this gonadotropin being still elevated (80% at this time. Conclusion In both the porcine and rat species, the liver is not responsible for the rapid elimination of pLH from the circulation compared to eCG. Our scintigraphic experiments suggest that the very short circulatory half-life of LH is due to rapid renal trapping.

  16. Safety and Efficacy of BAY 94-9027, a Prolonged-Half-Life Factor VIII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reding, M T; Ng, H J; Poulsen, Lone Hvitfeldt


    BACKGROUND: BAY 94-9027 is a B-domain-deleted prolonged-half-life recombinant factor VIII (FVIII) conjugates in a site-specific manner with polyethylene glycol. OBJECTIVE: Assess efficacy and safety of BAY 94-9027 for prophylaxis and treatment of bleeds in patients with severe hemophilia A PATIEN...

  17. Study on Radiochemical Separation and Measurement of Half-life of ~(88)Kr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    88Kr is one of the important gaseous fission products for determining the burn up of nuclear fuel with a short half-life, high fission yield and high branch ratio of γ-ray. Due to the more uncertainty of evaluated data and rare experimented data,

  18. 89Rb半衰期测量%Half-life Measurement of 89 Rb

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭晓清; 袁大庆; 徐利军; 陈克胜; 吴永乐; 郑艳明; 姚顺和


    89 Rb is an important fission product used for monitoring possible release of fission products from fuel element .The half-life is one of important nuclear parameters . The half-life of 89 Rb was determined using reference source method with two sets of HPGe detectors by place-relay way .In reference source method ,the ratio of net full-energy peak areas from the measure nuclide and the reference source was used to avoid the count correction caused by dead time and pileup .For the very short half-life of 89 Rb , the half-life iterative method was used in data analysis and the translation method was used in data unification .Finally ,the measured half-life of 89 Rb is (14.41 ± 0.04) min .%89 Rb是重要的裂变产物核素,半衰期是其一项非常重要的核参数。本文采用参考源法,运用双HPGe探头距离接续测定了89 Rb的半衰期。参考源法利用待测源和参考源的γ射线全能峰之比消除了测量过程中死时间和脉冲堆积带来的计数修正影响。由于89 Rb半衰期较短,数据分析运用了半衰期迭代法,并用平移法归一探头测量数据,最终实验测得89 Rb半衰期为(14.41±0.04) min。

  19. RiboMeth-seq

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh, Nicolai; Birkedal, Ulf; Nielsen, Henrik


    RiboMeth-seq is a sequencing-based method for mapping and quantitation of one of the most abundant RNA modifications, ribose methylation. It is based on a simple chemical principle, namely the several orders of magnitude difference in nucleophilicity of a 2'-OH and a 2'-O-Me. Thus, the method...

  20. A half-life the divided life of Bruno Pontecorvo, physicist or spy

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Frank


    Bruno Pontecorvo dedicated his career to hunting for the Higgs boson of his day: the neutrino, a nearly massless particle considered essential to the process of nuclear fission. His work on the Manhattan project under Enrico Fermi confirmed his reputation as a brilliant physicist and helped usher in the nuclear age. He should have won a Nobel Prize, but late in the summer of 1950 he vanished. At the height of the Cold War, Pontecorvo had disappeared behind the Iron Curtain. In Half-Life, physicist and historian Frank Close offers a heretofore untold history of Pontecorvo’s life, based on unprecedented access to his friends, family, and colleagues. With all the elements of a Cold War thriller—classified atomic research, an infamous double agent, a kidnapping by Soviet operatives—Half-Life is a history of particle physics at perhaps its most powerful: when it created the bomb.

  1. Half-life extended factor VIII for the treatment of hemophilia A. (United States)

    Tiede, A


    Prophylactic infusion of factor VIII (FVIII) prevents joint bleeding and other hemorrhages in patients with hemophilia A. Conventional FVIII concentrates have a short half-life, with an average of about 12 h in adults, ranging in individual patients between 6 and 24 h, and even shorter in younger children. Therefore, effective prophylaxis requires frequent intravenous injection, usually three times per week or every other day. Several technologies are currently under investigation to extend the half-life of FVIII, including Fc fusion (Eloctate, Elocta, efmoroctocog alfa), addition of polyethylene glycol (turoctocog alfa pegol [N8-GP], BAY 94-9027, BAX 855), and a single-chain construct (CSL627). This review summarizes characteristics of products in clinical development and discusses their potential benefits.

  2. Half-life and inner penetrability in the cold fission of {sup 248}Cm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunhikrishnan, P.V. [Sree Narayana College, Department of Physics, Kannur (India); Santhosh, K.P. [Kannur University, School of Pure and Applied Physics, Payyanur (India); Joseph, Antony [University of Calicut, Department of Physics, Malappuram, Kerala (India)


    Using the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM) with the nuclear surface tension improved by Reisdorf, the various fragmentations in the cold fission of {sup 248}Cm are studied as a cluster decay process within a fission model. The computed half-life values are compared with the values reported by Sandulescu et al. using the double-folding M3Y nuclear-nuclear potential model and are in agreement with CPPM values. The diffuseness width used in the proximity potential is found to be sensitive to the half-life. The inner penetrability is computed based on the formalism of Poenaru et al. (J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 17, 443 (1991)) and found that in the cold fission the contribution of the inner part (overlap region) of the barrier is significant compared to cluster decays. The variation of the inner penetrability with fragment mass is studied which emphasizes the fact that cold fission is an extension of cluster decay. (orig.)

  3. Precision half-life measurement of the 4-fold forbidden β decay of V50 (United States)

    Dombrowski, H.; Neumaier, S.; Zuber, K.


    A sensitive search of the 4-fold forbidden nonunique decay of V50 has been performed. A total mass measuring time product of 186 kg d has been accumulated. A reliable half-life value with the highest precision so far of (2.29±0.25)×1017 years of the electron capture decay of V50 into the first excited state of Ti50 could be obtained. A photon emission line following the β decay into the first excited state of Cr50 could not be observed, resulting in a lower limit on the half-life of the β-decay branch of 1.7×1018 years. This is not in good agreement with a claimed observation of this decay branch published in 1989.

  4. Unified description of the proton, alpha, cluster decays and spontaneously fissions half- life

    CERN Document Server

    Mavrodiev, Strachimir Cht


    Some time ago the possibility of classical (without Gamow tunneling) universal description of radioactive nuclei decay was demonstrated. Such possibility is basis on the classical interpretation of Bohmian Psi-field reality in Bohmian-Chetaev mechanics and the hypothesis for the presence of dissipative forces, generated from the Gryzinski translational precession of the charged particles spin, in Langevin- Kramers diffusion mechanism. In this paper is present an unified model of proton, alpha decay, cluster radioactivity and spontaneous fission half-life as explicit function which depends on the total decay energy and kinetic energy, the number of protons and neutrons of daughter product, the number of protons and neutrons of mother nuclei and from a set) unknown digital parameters. The Half- lifes of the 573 nuclei taken from NuDat database together with the recent experimental data from Oganessian provide a basis for discovering the explicit form of the Kramers solution of Langevin type equation in a framew...

  5. Theoretical half-life for beta decay of {sup 96}Zr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, H; Mustonen, M T; Suhonen, J [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, PO Box 35, FIN-40351, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)


    Highly forbidden {beta}{sup -} decay of the 0{sup +} ground state of {sup 96}Zr is studied. Partial half-lives to the lowest 6{sup +}, 5{sup +} and 4{sup +} states of {sup 96}Nb have been computed using the proton-neutron quasiparticle random-phase approximation (pnQRPA) with realistic two-body interactions in a large single-particle space. We find that the decay is dominated by the unique fourth-forbidden transition to the 5{sup +} state with the half-life 2.4 x 10{sup 20} y. This half-life is an order of magnitude longer than the one measured for the double beta decay of {sup 96}Zr.

  6. Precise Half-Life Measurement of the Superallowed beta emitter 10C

    CERN Document Server

    Iacob, V E; Golovko, V; Goodwin, J; Nica, N; Park, H I; Trache, L; Tribble, R E


    The half-life of 10C has been measured to be 19.310(4)s, a result with 0.02% precision, which is a factor of three improvement over the best previous result. Since 10C is the lightest superallowed 0+ --> 0+ beta emitter, its ft value has the greatest weight in setting an upper limit on the possible presence of scalar currents.

  7. Discussions about whether radioactive half life can be changed by mechanic motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In this essay, some discussions and comments about the paper entitled "Can the decay rate of 32P be changed by mechanic motion?" (Ding et al., Science in China Series B:Chemistry (Chinese version), 2008, 38(11):1035-1037) are given. It was strongly suggested that its experimental methods, data calculations and conclusion should be reconsidered. After the data were recalculated, the new results supported that the chiral mechanic motion could induce the changes of radioactive half life.

  8. The half-life and exposure of cefuroxime varied in newborn infants after a Caesarean section

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, G.; Hyldig, N.; Joergensen, J.S.


    in normal adults and seemed to clear within 24 hours. The median area under the concentration–time curve was 65.0 hour μg/mL (range 31.7–162.4). Conclusion: We found that the cefuroxime half-life after a Caesarean section varied among infants and was longer than in normal adults but cleared within 24 hours....... Exposure to cefuroxime in newborn infants may influence the gut microbiota and should be investigated further....

  9. Measurement of the Two-Neutrino Double Beta Decay Half-life of $^{130}$Te with the CUORE-0 Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Alduino, C; Artusa, D R; Avignone, F T; Azzolini, O; Banks, T I; Bari, G; Beeman, J W; Bellini, F; Bersani, A; Biassoni, M; Branca, A; Brofferio, C; Bucci, C; Camacho, A; Caminata, A; Canonica, L; Cao, X G; Capelli, S; Cappelli, L; Carbone, L; Cardani, L; Carniti, P; Casali, N; Cassina, L; Chiesa, D; Chott, N; Clemenza, M; Copello, S; Cosmelli, C; Cremonesi, O; Creswick, R J; Cushman, J S; D'Addabbo, A; Dafinei, I; Davis, C J; Dell'Oro, S; Deninno, M M; Di Domizio, S; Di Vacri, M L; Drobizhev, A; Fang, D Q; Faverzani, M; Fernandes, G; Ferri, E; Ferroni, F; Fiorini, E; Franceschi, M A; Freedman, S J; Fujikawa, B K; Giachero, A; Gironi, L; Giuliani, A; Gladstone, L; Gorla, P; Gotti, C; Gutierrez, T D; Haller, E E; Han, K; Hansen, E; Heeger, K M; Hennings-Yeomans, R; Hickerson, K P; Huang, H Z; Kadel, R; Keppel, G; Kolomensky, Yu G; Leder, A; Ligi, C; Lim, K E; Liu, X; Ma, Y G; Maino, M; Marini, L; Martinez, M; Maruyama, R H; Mei, Y; Moggi, N; Morganti, S; Mosteiro, P J; Napolitano, T; Nones, C; Norman, E B; Nucciotti, A; O'Donnell, T; Orio, F; Ouellet, J L; Pagliarone, C E; Pallavicini, M; Palmieri, V; Pattavina, L; Pavan, M; Pessina, G; Pettinacci, V; Piperno, G; Pira, C; Pirro, S; Pozzi, S; Previtali, E; Rosenfeld, C; Rusconi, C; Sangiorgio, S; Santone, D; Scielzo, N D; Singh, V; Sisti, M; Smith, A R; Taffarello, L; Tenconi, M; Terranova, F; Tomei, C; Trentalange, S; Vignati, M; Wagaarachchi, S L; Wang, B S; Wang, H W; Wilson, J; Winslow, L A; Wise, T; Woodcraft, A; Zanotti, L; Zhang, G Q; Zhu, B X; Zimmermann, S; Zucchelli, S


    We report on the measurement of the two-neutrino double beta decay half-life of $^{130}$Te with the CUORE-0 detector. From an exposure of 33.4 kg$\\cdot$y of TeO$_2$, the half-life is determined to be $T_{1/2}^{2\

  10. A novel exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein, E2HSA, with an extended half-life and good glucoregulatory effect in healthy rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Wang, Lin; Meng, Zhiyun; Gan, Hui; Gu, Ruolan; Wu, Zhuona; Gao, Lei; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Sun, Wenzhong; Li, Jian; Zheng, Ying; Dou, Guifang, E-mail:


    Highlights: • E2HSA has an extended half-life and good plasma stability. • E2HSA could improve glucose-dependent insulin secretion. • E2HSA has excellent glucoregulatory effects in vivo. • E2HSA could potentially be used as a new long-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist for type 2 diabetes management. - Abstract: Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) has attracted considerable research interest in terms of the treatment of type 2 diabetes due to their multiple glucoregulatory functions. However, the short half-life, rapid inactivation by dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) and excretion, limits the therapeutic potential of the native incretin hormone. Therefore, efforts are being made to develop the long-acting incretin mimetics via modifying its structure. Here we report a novel recombinant exendin-4 human serum albumin fusion protein E2HSA with HSA molecule extends their circulatory half-life in vivo while still retaining exendin-4 biological activity and therapeutic properties. In vitro comparisons of E2HSA and exendin-4 showed similar insulinotropic activity on rat pancreatic islets and GLP-1R-dependent biological activity on RIN-m5F cells, although E2HSA was less potent than exendin-4. E2HSA had a terminal elimation half-life of approximate 54 h in healthy rhesus monkeys. Furthermore, E2HSA could reduce postprandial glucose excursion and control fasting glucose level, dose-dependent suppress food intake. Improvement in glucose-dependent insulin secretion and control serum glucose excursions were observed during hyperglycemic clamp test (18 h) and oral glucose tolerance test (42 h) respectively. Thus the improved physiological characterization of E2HSA make it a new potent anti-diabetic drug for type 2 diabetes therapy.

  11. Bis(6-meth-oxy-2-{[tris-(hydroxy-meth-yl)-meth-yl]-imino-meth-yl}phenolato)-copper(II) dihydrate. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiutang; Wei, Peihai; Dou, Jianmin; Li, Bin; Hu, Bo


    In the title compound, [Cu(C(12)H(16)NO(5))(2)]·2H(2)O, the Cu(II) ion adopts a trans-CuN(2)O(4) octa-hedral geometry arising from two N,O,O'-tridentate 6-meth-oxy-2-{[tris-(hydroxy-meth-yl)meth-yl]-imino-meth-yl}phenolate ligands. The Jahn-Teller distortion of the copper centre is unusally small. In the crystal structure, O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, some of which are bifurcated, link the component species.

  12. A novel method to determine the half-life of 32Si (United States)

    Schnabel, C.; Beer, J.; Clausen, H. B.


    A novel method using high-resolution 10Be concentrations to correct 32Si data from independently dated depth profiles is presented. It is demonstrated that by correcting 32Si deposition rates for temporal changes based on production rate fluctuations the derived half-life of 32Si agrees with half-life determinations based on physical measurements of artificial samples. Currently, the half-life of 32Si is not accurately known. Moreover, results from physical measurements of artificial samples yielded much shorter half-lives (100-172 yr) than results based on depth profiles. For depth profiles most results were between 250 and 300 yr (Clausen, 1973), with the exception of a relatively recent work on a varved lake sediment which resulted in 178 yr (Nijampurkar et al., 1998). Using high-resolution 10Be concentrations from the Dye3 ice-core each data point of the Northern hemisphere ice-core 32Si concentrations is corrected for temporal variations in deposition rate. This means that we assume that temporal variations in 32Si and 10Be deposition are identical instead of using the assumption of constant deposition rates that resulted in the long half-lives. In the case of the varved lake sediment, 32Si/Si ratios are corrected in the same way as 32Si concentrations for the ice cores. We present our results that half-lives of longer than 180 yr can be ruled out for 32Si and propose using 10Be and 32Si concentrations from the same samples of independently dated profiles as a new method to apply 32Si for dating purposes. Preliminary results have been presented at the QRA meeting in Glasgow 2006 {schnabel et al., 2006]. HB Clausen, Journal of Glaciology 12 (1973) 411. VN Nijampurkar et al., Earth and Planetary Science Letters 163 (1998) 191. C. Schnabel, J. Beer, HB Clausen, QRA annual discussion meeting Glasgow, 2006.

  13. Determination of the half-life of sup 1 sup 0 sup 5 sup m Rh

    CERN Document Server

    Kronenberg, A K; Weber, R; Esterlund, R A; Patzelt, P


    Following a fast chemical separation of Ru isotopes from a fission-product mixture, sup 1 sup 0 sup 5 sup m Rh was periodically extracted from its precursor (4.44-h sup 1 sup 0 sup 5 Ru) for measurements of its half-life. The new value for the T sub 1 sub / sub 2 of sup 1 sup 0 sup 5 sup m Rh of (43.0+-0.3) s resolves the long-standing conflict in the literature between the two earlier measured values of 45 and 30 s.

  14. The Half Life of the 53 keV Level in {sup 197}Pt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmskog, S.G.


    The half life of the recently proposed 53 keV level in {sup 197}Pt has been measured to 18.5 {+-} 1.5 nsec using the delayed coincidence technique. This level, which is identified with the f{sub 5/2} single particle state, decays directly to the p{sub 1/2} ground state in {sup 197}Pt. The reduced E2 transition probability for this 53 keV transition has been deduced and compared with the results obtained for the corresponding transitions in other Pt, Hg, and Pb isotopes and with the theoretical predictions by Sorensen and by Wahlborn and Martinson.

  15. Calculation of the Aluminosilicate Half-Life Formation Time in the 2H Evaporator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.F.


    The 2H Evaporator contains large quantities of aluminosilicate solids deposited on internal fixtures. The proposed cleaning operations will dissolve the solids in nitric acid. Operations will then neutralize the waste prior to transfer to a waste tank. Combining recent calculations of heat transfer for the 2H Evaporator cleaning operations and laboratory experiments for dissolution of solid samples from the pot, the authors estimated the re-formation rate for aluminosilicates during cooling. The results indicate a half-life formation of 17 hours when evaporator solution cools from 60 degrees C and 9 hours when cooled from 90 degrees C.

  16. Precise Half-Life Measurement of the Superallowed Beta+ Emitter 46V

    CERN Document Server

    Park, H I; Iacob, V E; Chen, L; Goodwin, J; Nica, N; Simmons, E; Trache, L; Tribble, R E


    The half-life of 46V has been measured to be 422.66(6) ms, which is a factor of two more precise than the best previous measurement. Our result is also consistent with the previous measurements, with no repeat of the disagreement recently encountered with Q_{EC} values measured for the same transition. The Ft value for the 46V superallowed transition, incorporating all world data, is determined to be 3074.1(26) s, a result consistent with the average Ft value of 3072.08(79) s established from the 13 best-known superallowed transitions.

  17. The evolution of drug-resistant malaria: the role of drug elimination half-life.


    Hastings, Ian M.; Watkins, William M; White, Nicholas J


    This paper seeks to define and quantify the influence of drug elimination half-life on the evolution of antimalarial drug resistance. There are assumed to be three general classes of susceptibility of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum to a drug: Res0, the original, susceptible wildtype; Res1, a group of intermediate levels of susceptibility that are more tolerant of the drug but still cleared by treatment; and Res2, which is completely resistant to the drug. Res1 and Res2 resistance ...

  18. Measurement of the half-life of sup 1 sup 7 sup 6 Lu

    CERN Document Server

    Nir-El, Y


    The half-life of sup 1 sup 7 sup 6 Lu was determined by measuring the disintegration rate of a solution of lutetium oxide, using a calibrated HPGe detector, and found to be (3.69+-0.02)x10 sup 1 sup 0 y. It is recommended that the current adopted value be calculated from the grouping of three published values since 1983, including our value, the weighted mean of which is (3.73+-0.01)x10 sup 1 sup 0 y.

  19. Gamma-spectrometric determination of the sup 8 sup 9 Sr isotope half-life

    CERN Document Server

    Popov, Y S; Markushin, M N; Kupriyanov, V N; Timofeev, G A


    Using the method of semiconductor [Ge(Li)-detector] gamma-spectroscopy by the results of measurements of 913 keV ( sup 8 sup 9 Sr) gamma-line intensity for 6000 h, using as internal reference the 661.7 keV ( sup 1 sup 3 sup 7 Cs) gamma-line, the value of sup 8 sup 9 Sr isotope half-life has been calculated, which proved to be 1208+-9 h or 50.34+-0.37 days. Error is provided for confidential probability P = 0.95

  20. Study of the dependence of 198Au half-life on source geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lindstrom, R M; Buncher, J B; Greene, G L; Jenkins, J H; Krause, D E; Mattes, J J; Yue, A; 10.1016/j.nima.2010.06.270


    We report the results of an experiment to determine whether the half-life of \\Au{198} depends on the shape of the source. This study was motivated by recent suggestions that nuclear decay rates may be affected by solar activity, perhaps arising from solar neutrinos. If this were the case then the $\\beta$-decay rates, or half-lives, of a thin foil sample and a spherical sample of gold of the same mass and activity could be different. We find for \\Au{198}, $(T_{1/2})_{\\rm foil}/(T_{1/2})_{\\rm sphere} = 0.999 \\pm 0.002$, where $T_{1/2}$ is the mean half-life. The maximum neutrino flux at the sample in our experiments was several times greater than the flux of solar neutrinos at the surface of the Earth. We show that this increase in flux leads to a significant improvement in the limits that can be inferred on a possible solar contribution to nuclear decays.

  1. Half-life determination for {sup 108}Ag and {sup 110}Ag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP, P.O. Box 11049, São Paulo, 05422-970 (Brazil)


    In this work, the half-life of the short-lived silver radionuclides {sup 108}Ag and {sup 110}Ag were measured by following the activity of samples after they were irradiated in the IEA-R1 reactor. The results were then fitted using a non-paralizable dead time correction to the regular exponential decay and the individual half-life values obtained were then analyzed using both the Normalized Residuals and the Rajeval techniques, in order to reach the most exact and precise final values. To check the validity of dead-time correction, a second correction method was also employed by means of counting a long-lived {sup 60}Co radioactive source together with the samples as a livetime chronometer. The final half-live values obtained using both dead-time correction methods were in good agreement, showing that the correction was properly assessed. The results obtained are partially compatible with the literature values, but with a lower uncertainty, and allow a discussion on the last ENSDF compilations' values.

  2. HALO--a Java framework for precise transcript half-life determination. (United States)

    Friedel, Caroline C; Kaufmann, Stefanie; Dölken, Lars; Zimmer, Ralf


    Recent improvements in experimental technologies now allow measurements of de novo transcription and/or RNA decay at whole transcriptome level and determination of precise transcript half-lives. Such transcript half-lives provide important insights into the regulation of biological processes and the relative contributions of RNA decay and de novo transcription to differential gene expression. In this article, we present HALO (Half-life Organizer), the first software for the precise determination of transcript half-lives from measurements of RNA de novo transcription or decay determined with microarrays or RNA-seq. In addition, methods for quality control, filtering and normalization are supplied. HALO provides a graphical user interface, command-line tools and a well-documented Java application programming interface (API). Thus, it can be used both by biologists to determine transcript half-lives fast and reliably with the provided user interfaces as well as software developers integrating transcript half-life analysis into other gene expression profiling pipelines. Source code, executables and documentation are available at

  3. High-Precision Half-life Measurements for the Superallowed β+ Emitter 14O

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laffoley A. T.


    Full Text Available The half-life of 14O, a superallowed Fermi β+ emitter, has been determined via simultaneous γ and β counting experiments at TRIUMF’s Isotope Separator and Accelerator facility. Following the implantation of 14O samples at the center of the 8π spectrometer, a γ counting measurement was performed by detecting the 2313 keV γ-rays emitted from the first excited state of the daughter 14N using 20 high-purity germanium (HPGe detectors. A simultaneous β counting experiment was performed using a fast plastic scintillator positioned directly behind the implantation site. The results, T½(γ = 70:632 ± 0:094 s and T½(β = 70:610 ± 0:030 s, are consistent with one another and, together with eight previous measurements, establish a new average for the 14O half-life of T½ = 70:619 ± 0:011 s with a reduced χ2 of 0.99.

  4. Protein HESylation for half-life extension: synthesis, characterization and pharmacokinetics of HESylated anakinra. (United States)

    Liebner, Robert; Mathaes, Roman; Meyer, Martin; Hey, Thomas; Winter, Gerhard; Besheer, Ahmed


    Half-life extension (HLE) is becoming an essential component of the industrial development of small-sized therapeutic peptides and proteins. HESylation(®) is a HLE technology based on coupling drug molecules to the biodegradable hydroxyethyl starch (HES). In this study, we report on the synthesis, characterization and pharmacokinetics of HESylated anakinra, where anakinra was conjugated to propionaldehyde-HES using reductive amination, leading to a monoHESylated protein. Characterization using size exclusion chromatography and dynamic light scattering confirmed conjugation and the increase in molecular size, while Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed that the secondary structure of the conjugate was not affected by coupling. Meanwhile, microcalorimetry and aggregation studies showed a significant increase in protein stability. Surface plasmon resonance and microscale thermophoresis showed that the conjugate retained its nanomolar affinity, and finally, the pharmacokinetics of the HESylated protein exhibited a 6.5-fold increase in the half-life, and a 45-fold increase in the AUC. These results indicate that HESylation(®) is a promising HLE technology.

  5. Determination of half-life and photon emission probabilities of (65)Zn. (United States)

    Luca, Aurelian; Amiot, Marie-Noëlle; Morel, Jean


    A (65) Zn radioactive solution standardized by an absolute measurement method at Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNHB), was sent to Bureau International des Poids et Mesures (BIPM), in order to include the results in their database. The activity value determined at BIPM was in good agreement with that stated by LNHB (the difference was 0.3%). Additional measurements of (65) Zn activity and half-life were also carried out, by using a 4pigamma ionization chamber; the half-life value proposed by this work: 244.15 (10) days, is consistent to others reported in the literature. The spectra analysis was performed by gamma-ray spectrometry with high-purity germanium detectors, with the aim to improve the accuracy of the photon emission probabilities values of this nuclide. The determined photon emission probabilities are 0.498 for the 1115 ke V gamma-ray, 0.347 and 0.0479 for the X-rays Cu-K(alpha) and Cu-K(beta); the associated uncertainties are 0.4%, 0.9% and 1.1%, respectively.

  6. Isolation of human anti-serum albumin Fab antibodies with an extended serum-half life. (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ju; Kim, Hye-Jin; Cha, Sang-Hoon


    The serum albumin (SA) has been exploited to generate long-acting biotherapeutics by taking advantage of the FcRn-mediated recycling mechanism in a direct or an indirect way. Since Fab fragments have been proven to be clinically safe for human usage, we assumed that human anti-SA Fab antibodies could have a great potential as a carrier molecule to extend the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins. We, herein, had attempted to isolate anti-SA Fab antibodies from HuDVFab-8L antibody library via a phage display technology, and identified eight discrete human Fab antibodies. One of the Fab antibodies, SL335, showed the strongest binding reactivity to human SA with nM range of affinity at both pH 6 and pH 7.4, and cross-reacted to SAs from various species including rat, mouse, canine and monkey. The in vivo pharmacokinetic assay using a rat model indicated that SL335 has approximately 10 fold longer serum half-life and 26 to 44-fold increase in AUC0 → ∞ compared to the negative control Fab molecule in both intravenous and subcutaneous administrations. Knowing that Fabs have proven to be safe in clinics for a long time, SL335 seems to have a great potential in generating long-acting protein drugs by tagging effector molecules with either chemical conjugation or genetic fusion.

  7. Estimating the biological half-life for radionuclides in homoeothermic vertebrates: a simplified allometric approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beresford, N.A. [Lancaster Environment Centre, NERC Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Lancaster (United Kingdom); Vives i Batlle, J. [Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Mol (Belgium)


    The application of allometric, or mass-dependent, relationships within radioecology has increased with the evolution of models to predict the exposure of organisms other than man. Allometry presents a method of addressing the lack of empirical data on radionuclide transfer and metabolism for the many radionuclide-species combinations which may need to be considered. However, sufficient data across a range of species with different masses are required to establish allometric relationships and this is not always available. Here, an alternative allometric approach to predict the biological half-life of radionuclides in homoeothermic vertebrates which does not require such data is derived. Biological half-life values are predicted for four radionuclides and compared to available data for a range of species. All predictions were within a factor of five of the observed values when the model was parameterised appropriate to the feeding strategy of each species. This is an encouraging level of agreement given that the allometric models are intended to provide broad approximations rather than exact values. However, reasons why some radionuclides deviate from what would be anticipated from Kleiber's law need to be determined to allow a more complete exploitation of the potential of allometric extrapolation within radioecological models. (orig.)

  8. Accurate measurements of {sup 129}I concentration by isotope dilution using MC-ICPMS for half-life determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isnard, Helene; Nonell, Anthony; Marie, Mylene [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies alternatives (CEA), Gif Sur Yvette (France). DEN, DPC, SEARS, LANIE; Chartier, Frederic [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique et aux Energies alternatives (CEA), Gif Sur Yvette (France). DEN, DPC


    Determining the {sup 129}I concentration, a long-lived radionuclide present in spent nuclear fuel, is a major issue for nuclear waste disposal purpose. {sup 129}I also has to be measured in numerous environmental, nuclear and biological samples. To be able to accurately determine the {sup 129}I concentration, an analytical method based on the use of a multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICPMS) combined with an isotope dilution technique using an {sup 127}I spike, was developed. First, the influence of different media (HNO{sub 3}, NaOH and TMAH) on natural {sup 127}I signal intensity and stability and on memory effects was studied. Then an analytical procedure was developed by taking into account the correction of blanks and interferences. Tellurium was chosen for instrumental mass bias correction, as no certified standards with suitable {sup 127}I/{sup 129}I ratio are available. Finally, the results, reproducibility and uncertainties obtained for the {sup 129}I concentration determined by isotope dilution with a {sup 127}I spike are presented and discussed. The final expanded relative uncertainty obtained for the iodine-129 concentration was lower than 0.7% (k = 1). This precise {sup 129}I determination in association with further activity measurements of this nuclide on the same sample will render it possible to determine a new value of the {sup 129}I half-life with a reduced uncertainty (0.76%, k = 1).

  9. Standard Operating Procedure for Using the NAFTA Guidance to Calculate Representative Half-life Values and Characterizing Pesticide Degradation (United States)

    Results of the degradation kinetics project and describes a general approach for calculating and selecting representative half-life values from soil and aquatic transformation studies for risk assessment and exposure modeling purposes.

  10. Precision measurement of the half-life of $^{109}$In in large and small lattice environments

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to undertake high precision measurements of the half-life of $^{109}$In in large and small lattice environments to study the effect of compression on the electron capture nuclear decay rate. Such studies are of general interest having implications in many areas ranging from astrophysics to geophysics. At present, very little data is available on the change of electron capture decay rate under compression and the available data seems to indicate that the observed increase of the electron capture decay rate under compression is much greater than the predictions of the best available density functional calculations as obtained from TB-LMTO or WIEN2K codes. The proposed experiment should generate more data thus clarifying the experimental situation.

  11. Development of a time-variable nuclear pulser for half life measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahn, Guilherme S.; Domienikan, Claudio; Carvalhaes, Roberto P. M.; Genezini, Frederico A. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP. P.O. Box 11049, Sao Paulo, 05422-970 (Brazil)


    In this work a time-variable pulser system with an exponentially-decaying pulse frequency is presented, which was developed using the low-cost, open-source Arduino microcontroler plataform. In this system, the microcontroller produces a TTL signal in the selected rate and a pulse shaper board adjusts it to be entered in an amplifier as a conventional pulser signal; both the decay constant and the initial pulse rate can be adjusted using a user-friendly control software, and the pulse amplitude can be adjusted using a potentiometer in the pulse shaper board. The pulser was tested using several combinations of initial pulse rate and decay constant, and the results show that the system is stable and reliable, and is suitable to be used in half-life measurements.

  12. Half-life of each dioxin and PCB congener in the human body

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogura, Isamura [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Tsukuba (Japan)


    It is well known that dioxin and PCB congeners accumulate in the human body. For assessing their toxicological risk, it is important to know the half-life of each congener in the human body. This study summarizes the overall half-lives of congeners in humans as reported in the literature, and compares them with the half-lives due to fecal and sebum excretions, as estimated by data on the concentrations of congeners in feces and sebum in the literature. In addition, the overall half-lives of congeners for the general Japanese population were estimated from the data on dietary intakes and concentrations in the human body reported by the municipalities.

  13. Liposomal Formulation of Bevasizuamb for Intravitreal Administration: Increased Half-Life, Decreased Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Zarei Ghanavati


    Full Text Available Intravitreal injection is the common method for treatment of the posterior segment eye diseases. The advantage of intravitreal injection is achieving the desired concentration of drug inside the eye and reduction of drug side effects. Unfortunately, repeated intravitreal injections can cause several ocular complications including; vitreous hemorrhage, endophthalmitis, retinal detachment and cataract. For this reason, it seems the usage of sustained release drug delivery systems is helpful. Bevacizumab (Avastin®, antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibody, is used for the treatment of different ocular diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, neovascular glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, etc. For reduction of drug side effects and improvement of drug half-life after intravitreal administration, we suggest preparation of liposomal bevacizumab as novel drug delivery system and comparison of this new formulation with conventional formulation in the market.

  14. Precise Half-Life Measurement of the Superallowed Beta+ Emitter 26Si

    CERN Document Server

    Iacob, V E; Banu, A; Chen, L; Golovko, V V; Goodwin, J; Horvat, V; Nica, N; Park, H I; Trache, L; Tribble, R E


    We have measured the half-life of the superallowed 0+ -to- 0+ beta+ emitter 26Si to be 2245.3(7) ms. We used pure sources of 26Si and employed a high-efficiency gas counter, which was sensitive to positrons from both this nuclide and its daughter 26mAl. The data were analyzed as a linked parent-daughter decay. To contribute meaningfully to any test of the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix, the ft value of a superallowed transition must be determined to a precision of 0.1% or better. With a precision of 0.03% the present result is more than sufficient to be compatable with that requirement. Only the branching ratio now remains to be measured precisely before a +/-0.1% ft value can be obtained for the superallowed transition from 26Si.

  15. Half-life measurement of neutron-rich isotope 237Th

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    60 MeV/u 18O ions were used to bombard natural uranium targets, and the heavy neutron-rich isotope 237Th was produced via multi-nucleon transfer reaction and dissipative fragmentation of the heavy target. A relatively fast radiochcmical procedure was used to separate thorium from the mixture of uranium and complex reaction products. The chemically separated thorium fractions were studied by the γ-ray spectroscopic method. The behaviors of the growth and decay of 853.7 and 865.0 keV γ rays of 237pa decay were observed. Thc half-life of 237Th was determined to be 4.69±0.60 min.

  16. The antitumor agent 3-bromopyruvate has a short half-life at physiological conditions. (United States)

    Glick, Matthew; Biddle, Perry; Jantzi, Josh; Weaver, Samantha; Schirch, Doug


    Clinical research is currently exploring the validity of the anti-tumor candidate 3-bromopyruvate (3-BP) as a novel treatment for several types of cancer. However, recent publications have overlooked rarely-cited earlier work about the instability of 3-BP and its decay to 3-hydroxypyruvate (3-HP) which have obvious implications for its mechanism of action against tumors, how it is administered, and for precautions when preparing solutions of 3-BP. This study found the first-order decay rate of 3-BP at physiological temperature and pH has a half-life of only 77 min. Lower buffer pH decreases the decay rate, while choice of buffer and concentration do not affect it. A method for preparing more stable solutions is also reported.

  17. ORIGEN-S Decay Data Library and Half-Life Uncertainties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, O.W.


    The results of an extensive update of the decay data of the ORIGEN-S library are presented in this report. The updated decay data were provided for both the ORIGEN-S and ORIGEN2 libraries in the same project. A complete edit of the decay data plus the available half-life uncertainties are included in Appendix A. A detailed description of the types of data contained in the library, the format of the library, and the data sources are also presented. Approximately 24% of the library nuclides are stable, 66% were updated from ENDF/B-VI, about 8% were updated from ENSDF, and the remaining 2% were not updated. Appendix B presents a listing of percentage changes in decay heat from the old to the updated library for all nuclides containing a difference exceeding 1% in any parameter.

  18. Precise half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S


    All existing "positive" results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, $^{130}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. Given the measured half-life values, nuclear matrix elements were calculated. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for the half-lives and nuclear matrix elements.

  19. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S


    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{136}$Xe, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. Given the measured half-life values, nuclear matrix elements were calculated using latest (more reliable and precise) values for phase space factor. Finally, previous results (PRC 81 (2010) 035501) were up-dated and results for $^{136}$Xe were added.

  20. Precise half-life measurements for $^{38}$Ca and $^{39}$Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, B; Demonchy, C-E; Borge, M J G; Matea, I; Munoz, F; Huikari, J; Dominguez-Reyes, R; Plaisir, C; Sturm, S; Canchel, G; Delahaye, P; Audirac, L; Fraile, L M; Serani, L; Lunney, D; Pedroza, J-L; Bey, A; Souin, J; Hui, Tran Trong; Delalee, F; Tengblad, O; Wenander, F


    The half-lives of Ca-38 and Ca-39 have been measured at ISOLDE of CERN. The REXTRAP facility was used to prepare ultra-clean samples of radioactive nuclei for precision decay spectroscopy. Ca-38 is one of the T-z = -1, 0(+). 0(+) beta-emitting nuclides used to determine the vector coupling constant of the weak interaction and the V-ud quark-mixing matrix element. The result obtained, T-1/2 = 443.8(19) ms, is four times more precise than the average of previous measurements. For Ca-39, a half-life of T-1/2 = 860.7(10) ms is obtained, a result in agreement with the average value from the literature.

  1. Alpha-decay half-life semiempirical relationships with self-improving parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M.; Mazilu, D. (Institutul Central de Fizica, Bucharest (Romania))


    From the alpha decay Q-values, the partial half-life T is estimated by using five semiempirical relationships. The parameters of these formulae have been obtained from a fit with a given set of experimental data on four groups of alpha emitters: even-even, even-odd, odd-even and odd-odd. For each nuclide only the strongest transition is considered and the data are automatically sorted into the four groups mentioned above. There are three options: one can use either the present set of parameter values, a new one given as input data, or new values computed by using a better set of experimental data (more accurate or more complete). For each group of nuclides, up to 8 (or 9) families of curves could be plotted, optionally, with the line printer.

  2. Q value and half-life of double-electron capture in Os-184

    CERN Document Server

    Smorra, C; Beyer, T; Blaum, K; Block, M; Düllmann, Ch E; Eberhardt, K; Eibach, M; Eliseev, S; Langanke, K; Martinez-Pinedo, G; Nagy, Sz; Nörtershäuser, W; Renisch, D; Shabaev, V M; Tupitsyn, I I; Zubova, N A


    Os-184 has been excluded as a promising candidate for the search of neutrinoless double-electron capture. High-precision mass measurements with the Penning-trap mass spectrometer TRIGA-TRAP resulted in a marginal resonant enhancement with = -8.89(58) keV excess energy to the 1322.152(22) keV 0+ excited state in W-184. State-of-the-art energy density functional calculations are applied for the evaluation of the nuclear matrix elements to the excited states predicting a strong suppression due to the large deformation of mother and daughter states. The half-life of the transition in Os-184 exceeds T_{1/2} > 1.3 10^{29} years for an effective neutrino mass of 1 eV.

  3. Clinical utility and patient perspectives on the use of extended half-life rFIXFc in the management of hemophilia B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguelino MG


    Full Text Available Maricel G Miguelino, Jerry S Powell Division of Hematology and Oncology, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA, USA Abstract: Hemophilia B is an X-linked genetic disease caused by mutation of the gene for coagulation protein factor IX (FIX, with an incidence of approximately once every 30,000 male births in all populations and ethnic groups. When severe, the disease leads to spontaneous life threatening bleeding episodes. When untreated, most patients die from bleeding complications before 25 years of age. Current therapy requires frequent intravenous infusions of therapeutic recombinant or plasma-derived protein concentrates containing FIX. Most patients administer the infusions at home every few days, and must limit their physical activities to avoid abnormal bleeding when the FIX activity levels are below normal. After completing the pivotal Phase III clinical trial, a new therapeutic FIX preparation that has been engineered for an extended half-life in circulation, received regulatory approval in March 2014 in Canada and the US. This new FIX represents a major therapeutic advance for patients with hemophilia B. The half-life is prolonged due to fusion of the native FIX molecule with the normal constant region of immunoglobulin G. This fusion molecule then follows the normal immunoglobulin recirculation pathways through endothelial cells, resulting in prolonged times in circulation. In the clinical trials, over 150 patients successfully used eftrenonacog alfa regularly for more than 1 year to prevent spontaneous bleeding, to successfully treat any bleeding episodes, and to provide effective coagulation for major surgery. All infusions were well tolerated and effective, with no inhibitors detected and no safety concerns. This promising therapy should allow patients to use fewer infusions to maintain appropriate FIX activity levels in all clinical settings. Keywords: factor IX, hemophilia B, prophylaxis, genetic

  4. Towards a Measurement of the Half-Life of {sup 60}Fe for Stellar and Early Solar System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostdiek, K.; Anderson, T.; Bauder, W.; Bowers, M.; Collon, P.; Dressler, R.; Greene, J.; Kutschera, W.; Lu, W.; Paul, M.


    Radioisotopes, produced in stars and ejected into the Interstellar Medium, are important for constraining stellar and early Solar System (ESS) models. In particular, the half-life of the radioisotope, Fe-60, can have an impact on calculations for the timing for ESS events, the distance to nearby Supernovae, and the brightness of individual, non-steady-state Fe gamma ray sources in the Galaxy. A half-life measurement has been undertaken at the University of Notre Dame and measurements of the Fe-60/Fe-56 concentration of our samples using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has begun. This result will be coupled with an activity measurement of the isomeric decay in Co-60, which is the decay product of Fe. Preliminary half-life estimates of (2.53 +/- 0.24) x 10(6) years seem to confirm the recent measurement by Rugel et al. (2009). (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Half-life of the electron-capture decay of 97Ru: Precision measurement shows no temperature dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Goodwin, J R; Iacob, V E; Hardy, J C; 10.1103/PhysRevC.80.045501


    We have measured the half-life of the electron-capture (ec) decay of 97Ru in a metallic environment, both at low temperature (19K), and also at room temperature. We find the half-lives at both temperatures to be the same within 0.1%. This demonstrates that a recent claim that the ec decay half-life for 7Be changes by $0.9% +/- 0.2% under similar circumstances certainly cannot be generalized to other ec decays. Our results for the half-life of 97Ru, 2.8370(14)d at room temperature and 2.8382(14)d at 19K, are consistent with, but much more precise than, previous room-temperature measurements. In addition, we have also measured the half-lives of the beta-emitters 103Ru and 105Rh at both temperatures, and found them also to be unchanged.

  6. Towards a measurement of the half-life of {sup 60}Fe for stellar and early Solar System models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostdiek, K.; Anderson, T. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bauder, W. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Bowers, M.; Collon, P. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Dressler, R. [Paul Scherrer Institute – Laboratory for Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Greene, J. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass Avenue, Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Kutschera, W. [Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator Laboratory, Waehringer Strasse 17, 1090 Vienna (Austria); Lu, W. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Paul, M. [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Robertson, D. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Schumann, D. [Paul Scherrer Institute – Laboratory for Radiochemistry and Environmental Chemistry, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Skulski, M. [University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Wallner, A. [The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)


    Radioisotopes, produced in stars and ejected into the Interstellar Medium, are important for constraining stellar and early Solar System (ESS) models. In particular, the half-life of the radioisotope, {sup 60}Fe, can have an impact on calculations for the timing for ESS events, the distance to nearby Supernovae, and the brightness of individual, non-steady-state {sup 60}Fe gamma ray sources in the Galaxy. A half-life measurement has been undertaken at the University of Notre Dame and measurements of the {sup 60}Fe/{sup 56}Fe concentration of our samples using Accelerator Mass Spectrometry has begun. This result will be coupled with an activity measurement of the isomeric decay in {sup 60}Co, which is the decay product of {sup 60}Fe. Preliminary half-life estimates of (2.53 ± 0.24) × 10{sup 6} years seem to confirm the recent measurement by Rugel et al. (2009).

  7. New evaluation of alpha decay half-life of {sup 190}Pt isotope for the Pt-Os dating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, O.A.P.; Medeiros, E.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Terranova, M.L. [Universita degli Studi di Roma Tor Vergata (Italy). Dipt. di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Rome (Italy)


    A semiempirical model based on the quantum mechanical tunnelling mechanism of alpha emission from nuclei has been used to evaluate the half-life of the Pt isotopes. For the important naturally occurring {sup 190}Pt isotope, the radiogenic parent in the {sup 190} Pt {yields} {sup 186}Os dating system, the model yielded a half-life value of (3.7{+-} 0.3) versus 10{sup 11} y. This is comparable to (3.2{+-}0.1) versus 10{sup 11} y which was obtained in the last direct counting experiment to measure the alpha activity of {sup 190}Pt (Tavares and Terranova, Rad. Measurem. 27 (1997) 19). A literature survey of available alpha decay half-life values for {sup 190}Pt isotope is also reported. The significant discrepancies found between data obtained by direct counting, indirect geological methods and different calculation models are analysed and discussed. (author)

  8. A shorter 146Sm half-life measured and implications for 146Sm-142Nd chronology in the solar system. (United States)

    Kinoshita, N; Paul, M; Kashiv, Y; Collon, P; Deibel, C M; DiGiovine, B; Greene, J P; Henderson, D J; Jiang, C L; Marley, S T; Nakanishi, T; Pardo, R C; Rehm, K E; Robertson, D; Scott, R; Schmitt, C; Tang, X D; Vondrasek, R; Yokoyama, A


    The extinct p-process nuclide (146)Sm serves as an astrophysical and geochemical chronometer through measurements of isotopic anomalies of its α-decay daughter (142)Nd. Based on analyses of (146)Sm/(147)Sm α-activity and atom ratios, we determined the half-life of (146)Sm to be 68 ± 7 (1σ) million years, which is shorter than the currently used value of 103 ± 5 million years. This half-life value implies a higher initial (146)Sm abundance in the early solar system, ((146)Sm/(144)Sm)(0) = 0.0094 ± 0.0005 (2σ), than previously estimated. Terrestrial, lunar, and martian planetary silicate mantle differentiation events dated with (146)Sm-(142)Nd converge to a shorter time span and in general to earlier times, due to the combined effect of the new (146)Sm half-life and ((146)Sm/(144)Sm)(0) values.

  9. Movement Complexity and Neuromechanical Factors Affect the Entropic Half-Life of Myoelectric Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma F. Hodson-Tole


    Full Text Available Appropriate neuromuscular functioning is essential for survival and features underpinning motor control are present in myoelectric signals recorded from skeletal muscles. One approach to quantify control processes related to function is to assess signal variability using measures such as Sample Entropy. Here we developed a theoretical framework to simulate the effect of variability in burst duration, activation duty cycle, and intensity on the Entropic Half-Life (EnHL in myoelectric signals. EnHLs were predicted to be <40 ms, and to vary with fluctuations in myoelectric signal amplitude and activation duty cycle. Comparison with myoelectic data from rats walking and running at a range of speeds and inclines confirmed the range of EnHLs, however, the direction of EnHL change in response to altered locomotor demand was not correctly predicted. The discrepancy reflected different associations between the ratio of the standard deviation and mean signal intensity (Ist:It¯ and duty factor in simulated and physiological data, likely reflecting additional information in the signals from the physiological data (e.g., quiescent phase content; variation in action potential shapes. EnHL could have significant value as a novel marker of neuromuscular responses to alterations in perceived locomotor task complexity and intensity.

  10. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence in Japanese school children. (United States)

    Kurosawa, Carmen Miwa; Ito, Takehiko; Takaki, Jiro; Wang, Bin-Ling; Wang, Da-Hong; Takigawa, Tomoko; Ogino, Keiki


    In the present study, we examined the dynamic of school-health-based parasite control and the related socio-economic influences. This is an ecological study based on data from 46 prefectures in Japan. The exponential decay of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was calculated by iterative least-squares method. Pearson's correlation and multiple linear regression model analysis were performed to assess the associations between the prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides in Japanese school children and socio-economic variables such as the prefecture income per capita, the percentage of primary industry, the population density per 1 km2, the diffusion rate of population under water supply, and the percentage of upper secondary school enrollment. The results indicated that the parasite carrier rate was higher in younger students. The half-life of Ascaris lumbricoides prevalence was approximately 3 years with significant variation among prefectures. Multiple regression analyses showed that the decrease of infection in elementary and lower secondary school children had a significant positive association with primary industry and a significant negative association with prefecture income per capita. The school-health-based parasite intervention differs by prefecture and has changed over time according to the respective prefectural stage of economic development.

  11. Kinetic modeling and half life study on bioremediation of crude oil dispersed by Corexit 9500

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zahed, Mohammad Ali [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Aziz, Hamidi Abdul, E-mail: [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Isa, Mohamed Hasnain [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia); Mohajeri, Leila; Mohajeri, Soraya [School of Civil Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed [Civil Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, 31750 Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia)


    Hydrocarbon pollution in marine ecosystems occurs mainly by accidental oil spills, deliberate discharge of ballast waters from oil tankers and bilge waste discharges; causing site pollution and serious adverse effects on aquatic environments as well as human health. A large number of petroleum hydrocarbons are biodegradable, thus bioremediation has become an important method for the restoration of oil polluted areas. In this research, a series of natural attenuation, crude oil (CO) and dispersed crude oil (DCO) bioremediation experiments of artificially crude oil contaminated seawater was carried out. Bacterial consortiums were identified as Acinetobacter, Alcaligenes, Bacillus, Pseudomonas and Vibrio. First order kinetics described the biodegradation of crude oil. Under abiotic conditions, oil removal was 19.9% while a maximum of 31.8% total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) removal was obtained in natural attenuation experiment. All DCO bioreactors demonstrated higher and faster removal than CO bioreactors. Half life times were 28, 32, 38 and 58 days for DCO and 31, 40, 50 and 75 days for CO with oil concentrations of 100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg/L, respectively. The effectiveness of Corexit 9500 dispersant was monitored in the 45 day study; the results indicated that it improved the crude oil biodegradation rate.

  12. High-precision half-life and branching-ratio measurements for superallowed Fermi β+ emitters at TRIUMF – ISAC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laffoley A. T.


    Full Text Available A program of high-precision half-life and branching-ratio measurements for superallowed Fermi β emitters is being carried out at TRIUMF’s Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC radioactive ion beam facility. Recent half-life measurements for the superallowed decays of 14O, 18Ne, and 26Alm, as well as branching-ratio measurements for 26Alm and 74Rb are reported. These results provide demanding tests of the Standard Model and the theoretical isospin symmetry breaking (ISB corrections in superallowed Fermi β decays.

  13. β-decay half-life of the rp-process waiting-point nuclide Mo84 (United States)

    Stoker, J. B.; Mantica, P. F.; Bazin, D.; Becerril, A.; Berryman, J. S.; Crawford, H. L.; Estrade, A.; Guess, C. J.; Hitt, G. W.; Lorusso, G.; Matos, M.; Minamisono, K.; Montes, F.; Pereira, J.; Perdikakis, G.; Schatz, H.; Smith, K.; Zegers, R. G. T.


    A half-life of 2.2 ± 0.2 s has been deduced for the ground-state β decay of Mo84, more than 1σ shorter than the previously adopted value. Mo84 is an even-even N=Z nucleus lying on the proton dripline, created during explosive hydrogen burning in type I x-ray bursts in the rapid proton capture (rp) process. The effect of the measured half-life on rp-process reaction flow is explored. Implications on theoretical treatments of nuclear deformation in Mo84 are also discussed.

  14. Measurement of the Double Beta Decay Half-life of 130Te with the NEMO-3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, R; Baker, J; Barabash, A S; Basharina-Freshville, A; Blondel, S; Bongrand, M; Broudin-Bay, G; Brudanin, V; Caffrey, A J; Chapon, A; Chauveau, E; Durand, D; Egorov, V; Flack, R; Garrido, X; Grozier, J; Guillon, B; Hubert, Ph; Jackson, C M; Jullian, S; Kauer, M; Klimenko, A; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kovalenko, V; Lalanne, D; Lamhamdi, T; Lang, K; Liptak, Z; Lutter, G; Mamedov, F; Marquet, Ch; Martin-Albo, J; Mauger, F; Mott, J; Nachab, A; Nemchenok, I; Nguyen, C H; Nova, F; Novella, P; Ohsumi, H; Pahlka, R B; Perrot, F; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J L; Richards, B; Ricol, J S; Saakyan, R; Sarazin, X; Shitov, Yu; Simard, L; Šimkovic, F; Smolnikov, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Štekl, I; Suhonen, J; Sutton, C S; Szklarz, G; Thomas, J; Timkin, V; Torre, S; Tretyak, V I; Umatov, V; Vála, L; Vanyushin, I; Vasiliev, V; Vorobel, V; Vylov, T; Zukauskas, A


    This Letter reports results from the NEMO-3 experiment based on an exposure of 1275 days with 661g of 130Te in the form of enriched and natural tellurium foils. With this data set the double beta decay rate of 130Te is found to be non-zero with a significance of 7.7 standard deviations and the half-life is measured to be T1/2 = (7.0 +/- 0.9(stat) +/- 1.1(syst)) x 10^{20} yr. This represents the most precise measurement of this half-life yet published and the first real-time observation of this decay.

  15. Estimation of biological half-life of tritium in coastal region of India. (United States)

    Singh, Vishwanath P; Pai, R K; Veerender, D D; Vishnu, M S; Vijayan, P; Managanvi, S S; Badiger, N M; Bhat, H R


    The present study estimates biological half-life (BHL) of tritium by analysing routine bioassay samples of radiation workers. During 2007-2009 year, 72,100 urine bioassay samples of the workers were analysed by liquid scintillation counting technique for internal dose monitoring for tritium. Two hundred and two subjects were taken for study with minimum 3 μCiL(-1) tritium uptake in their body fluid. The BHL of tritium of subjects ranges from 1 to 16 d with an average of 8.19 d. Human data indicate that the biological retention time ranges from 4 to 18 d with an average of 10 d. The seasonal variations of the BHL of tritium are 3.09 ± 1.48, 6.87 ± 0.58 and 5.73 ± 0.76 d (mean ± SD) for summer, winter and rainy seasons, respectively, for free water tritium in the coastal region of Karnataka, India, which shows that the BHL in summer is twice that of the winter season. Also three subjects showed the BHL of 101.73-121.09 d, which reveals that organically bound tritium is present with low tritium uptake also. The BHL of tritium for all age group of workers is observed independent of age and is shorter during April to May. The distribution of cumulative probability vs. BHL of tritium shows lognormal distribution with a geometric mean of 9.11 d and geometric standard deviation of 1.77 d. The study of the subjects is fit for two-compartment model and also an average BHL of tritium is found similar to earlier studies.

  16. Extending the Serum Half-Life of G-CSF via Fusion with the Domain III of Human Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuqiang Zhao


    Full Text Available Protein fusion technology is one of the most commonly used methods to extend the half-life of therapeutic proteins. In this study, in order to prolong the half-life of Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF, the domain III of human serum albumin (3DHSA was genetically fused to the N-terminal of G-CSF. The 3DHSA-G-CSF fusion gene was cloned into pPICZαA along with the open reading frame of the α-factor signal under the control of the AOX1 promoter. The recombinant expression vector was transformed into Pichia pastoris GS115, and the recombinant strains were screened by SDS-PAGE. As expected, the 3DHSA-G-CSF showed high binding affinity with HSA antibody and G-CSF antibody, and the natural N-terminal of 3DHSA was detected by N-terminal sequencing. The bioactivity and pharmacokinetic studies of 3DHSA-G-CSF were respectively determined using neutropenia model mice and human G-CSF ELISA kit. The results demonstrated that 3DHSA-G-CSF has the ability to increase the peripheral white blood cell (WBC counts of neutropenia model mice, and the half-life of 3DHSA-G-CSF is longer than that of native G-CSF. In conclusion, 3DHSA can be used to extend the half-life of G-CSF.

  17. Precise measurement of the 222Rn half-life: A probe to monitor the stability of radioactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Bellotti


    Full Text Available We give the results of a study on the 222Rn decay we performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several times per year the half-life of a short lifetime (days source instead of measuring over a long period the activity of a long lifetime (tens or hundreds of years source. In particular, we give a possible reason of the large periodical fluctuations in the count rate of the gamma rays due to radon inside a closed canister which has been described in literature and which has been attributed to a possible influence of a component in the solar irradiation affecting the nuclear decay rates. We then provide the result of four half-life measurements we performed underground at LNGS in the period from May 2014 to January 2015 with radon diffused into olive oil. Briefly, we did not measure any change of the 222Rn half-life with a 8⋅10−5 precision. Finally, we provide the most precise value for the 222Rn half-life: 3.82146(16stat(4syst days.

  18. Brief report : enzyme inducers reduce elimination half-life after a single dose of nevirapine in healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'homme, R.F.A.; Dijkema, T.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Burger, D.M.


    OBJECTIVE: Single-dose nevirapine (SD-NVP) to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV is associated with development of NVP resistance, probably because of its long half-life in combination with a low genetic barrier to resistance. The objective of this study was to find enzyme inducers t

  19. Screening and ranking of POPs for global half-life: QSAR approaches for prioritization based on molecular structure. (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Papa, Ester


    Persistence in the environment is an important criterion in prioritizing hazardous chemicals and in identifying new persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Degradation half-life in various compartments is among the more commonly used criteria for studying environmental persistence, but the limited availability of experimental data or reliable estimates is a serious problem. Available half-life data for degradation in air, water, sediment, and soil, for a set of 250 organic POP-type chemicals, were combined in a multivariate approach by principal component analysis to obtain a ranking of the studied organic pollutants according to their relative overall half-life. A global half-life index (GHLI) applicable for POP screening purposes is proposed. The reliability of this index was verified in comparison with multimedia model results. This global index was then modeled as a cumulative end-point using a QSAR approach based on few theoretical molecular descriptors, and a simple and robust regression model externally validated for its predictive ability was derived. The application of this model could allow a fast preliminary identification and prioritization of not yet known POPs, just from the knowledge of their molecular structure. This model can be applied a priori also in the chemical design of safer and alternative non-POP compounds.

  20. Effective Half-Life of Caesium-137 in Various Environmental Media at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paller, M. H.; Jannik, G. T.; Baker, R. A.


    During the operational history of the Savannah River Site (SRS), many different radionuclides have been released from site facilities into the SRS environment. However, only a relatively small number of pathways, most importantly 137Cs in fish and deer, have contributed significantly to doses and risks to the public. The “effective” half-lives (Te) of 137Cs (which include both physical decay and environmental dispersion) in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation and in fish and white-tailed deer from the SRS were estimated using long-term monitoring data. For 1974–2011, the Tes of 137Cs in Savannah River floodplain soil and vegetation were 17.0 years (95% CI = 14.2–19.9) and 13.4 years (95% CI = 10.8–16.0), respectively. These Tes were greater than in a previous study that used data collected only through 2005 as a likely result of changes in the flood regime of the Savannah River. Field analyses of 137Cs concentrations in deer collected during yearly controlled hunts at the SRS indicated an overall Te of 15.9 years (95% CI = 12.3–19.6) for 1965–2011; however, the Te for 1990–2011 was significantly shorter (11.8 years, 95% CI = 4.8–18.8) due to an increase in the rate of 137Cs removal. The shortest Tes were for fish in SRS streams and the Savannah River (3.5–9.0 years), where dilution and dispersal resulted in rapid 137Cs removal. Long-term data show that Tes are significantly shorter than the physical half-life of 137Cs in the SRS environment but that they can change over time. Therefore, it is desirable have a long period of record for calculating Tes and risky to extrapolate Tes beyond this period unless the processes governing 137Cs removal are clearly understood.

  1. Plasma proteomic profiling in HIV-1 infected methamphetamine abusers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwenael Pottiez

    Full Text Available We wanted to determine whether methamphetamine use affects a subset of plasma proteins in HIV-infected persons. Plasma samples from two visits were identified for subjects from four groups: HIV+, ongoing, persistent METH use; HIV+, short-term METH abstinent; HIV+, long term METH abstinence; HIV negative, no history of METH use. Among 390 proteins identified, 28 showed significant changes in expression in the HIV+/persistent METH+ group over the two visits, which were not attributable to HIV itself. These proteins were involved in complement, coagulation pathways and oxidative stress. Continuous METH use is an unstable condition, altering levels of a number of plasma proteins.

  2. 4-Meth-oxy-3-(meth-oxy-meth-yl)benzalde-hyde. (United States)

    Zhang, Jing-Chao; Sun, Jun; Zhang, Juan; Liu, Guang-Lin; Guo, Cheng


    In the title compound, C10H12O3, the dihedral angle between the benzene ring and the meth-oxy-methyl side chain is 9.7 (2)°. The O atom of the aldehyde group and the C atom of the meth-oxy group deviate from the plane of the ring by 0.039 (3) and 0.338 (4) Å, respectively. The only inter-molecular inter-actions are very weak C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  3. The functional half-life of an mRNA depends on the ribosome spacing in an early coding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Nissen, Søren; Mitarai, Namiko


    supported the model. We thus suggest that translation-rate-mediated differences in the spacing between ribosomes in this early coding region is a parameter that determines the mRNAs functional half-life. We present a model that is in accordance with many earlier observations and that allows a prediction...... codons. When comparing the ribosome spacing at various segments of the mRNA to its functional half-life, we found a clear correlation between the functional mRNA half-life and the ribosome spacing in the mRNA region approximately between codon 20 and codon 45. From this finding, we predicted that inserts......Bacterial mRNAs are translated by closely spaced ribosomes and degraded from the 5'-end, with half-lives of around 2 min at 37 °C in most cases. Ribosome-free or "naked" mRNA is known to be readily degraded, but the initial event that inactivates the mRNA functionally has not been fully described...

  4. Precise measurement of the 222Rn half-life: a probe to monitor the stability of radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Bellotti, E; Di Carlo, G; Laubenstein, M; Menegazzo, R


    We give the results of a study on the 222Rn decay we performed in the Gran Sasso Laboratory (LNGS) by detecting the gamma rays from the radon progeny. The motivation was to monitor the stability of radioactivity measuring several times per year the half-life of a short lifetime (days) source instead of measuring over a long period the activity of a long lifetime (tens or hundreds of years) source. In particular, we give the reason of the large periodical fluctuations in the count rate of the gamma rays due to radon inside a closed canister which has been described in literature and which has been attributed to a possible influence of a component in the solar irradiation affecting the nuclear decay rates. We then provide the result of four half-life measurements we performed underground at LNGS in the period from May 2014 to January 2015 with radon diffused into olive oil. Briefly, we did not measure any change of the 222Rn half-life with a 8*10^-5 precision. Finally, we provide the most precise value for the ...

  5. Activity measurement of 60Fe through the decay of 60mCo and confirmation of its half-life

    CERN Document Server

    Ostdiek, Karen; Bauder, William; Bowers, Matthew; Clark, Adam; Collon, Philippe; Dressler, Rugard; Greene, John; Kutschera, Walter; Lu, Wenting; Nelson, Austin; Paul, Michael; Robertson, Daniel; Schumann, Dorothea; Skulski, Michael


    The half-life of the neutron-rich nuclide, $^{60}\\text{Fe}$ has been in dispute in recent years. A measurement in 2009 published a value of $(2.62 \\pm 0.04)\\times10^{6}$ years, almost twice that of the previously accepted value from 1984 of $(1.49 \\pm 0.27)\\times10^{6}$ years. This longer half-life was confirmed in 2015 by a new measurement, resulting in a value of $(2.50 \\pm 0.12)\\times10^{6}$ years. All three half-life measurements used the grow-in of the $\\gamma$-ray lines in $^{60}\\text{Ni}$ from the decay of the ground state of $^{60\\text{g}}\\text{Co}$ (t$_{1/2}$=5.27 years) to determine the activity of a sample with a known number of $^{60}\\text{Fe}$ atoms. In contrast, the work presented here measured the $^{60}\\text{Fe}$ activity directly with the 58.6 keV $\\gamma$-ray line from the short-lived isomeric state of $^{60\\text{m}}\\text{Co}$ (t$_{1/2}$=10.5 minutes), thus being independent of any possible contamination from long-lived $^{60\\text{g}}\\text{Co}$. A fraction of the material from the 2015 exper...

  6. Role of ligand-dependent GR phosphorylation and half-life in determination of ligand-specific transcriptional activity. (United States)

    Avenant, Chanel; Ronacher, Katharina; Stubsrud, Elisabeth; Louw, Ann; Hapgood, Janet P


    A central question in glucocorticoid mechanism of action via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is what determines ligand-selective transcriptional responses. Using a panel of 12 GR ligands, we show that the extent of GR phosphorylation at S226 and S211, GR half-life and transcriptional response, occur in a ligand-selective manner. While GR phosphorylation at S226 was shown to inhibit maximal transcription efficacy, phosphorylation at S211 is required for maximal transactivation, but not for transrepression efficacy. Both ligand-selective GR phosphorylation and half-life correlated with efficacy for transactivation and transrepression. For both expressed and endogenous GR, in two different cell lines, agonists resulted in the greatest extent of phosphorylation and the greatest extent of GR downregulation, suggesting a link between these functions. However, using phosphorylation-deficient GR mutants we established that phosphorylation of the GR at S226 or S211 does not determine the rank order of ligand-selective GR transactivation. These results are consistent with a model whereby ligand-selective GR phosphorylation and half-life are a consequence of upstream events, such as ligand-specific GR conformations, which are maintained in the phosphorylation mutants.

  7. Innovative methodology for intercomparison of radionuclide calibrators using short half-life in situ prepared radioactive sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, P. A. [Centro de Investigação do Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, EPE, Porto, Portugal and Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto (Portugal); Santos, J. A. M., E-mail: [Centro de Investigação do Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, EPE, Porto (Portugal); Serviço de Física Médica do Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, EPE, Porto (Portugal); Serviço de Medicina Nuclear do Instituto Português de Oncologia do Porto Francisco Gentil, EPE, Porto (Portugal); Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas Abel Salazar, Universidade do Porto, Porto (Portugal)


    Purpose: An original radionuclide calibrator method for activity determination is presented. The method could be used for intercomparison surveys for short half-life radioactive sources used in Nuclear Medicine, such as{sup 99m}Tc or most positron emission tomography radiopharmaceuticals. Methods: By evaluation of the resulting net optical density (netOD) using a standardized scanning method of irradiated Gafchromic XRQA2 film, a comparison of the netOD measurement with a previously determined calibration curve can be made and the difference between the tested radionuclide calibrator and a radionuclide calibrator used as reference device can be calculated. To estimate the total expected measurement uncertainties, a careful analysis of the methodology, for the case of{sup 99m}Tc, was performed: reproducibility determination, scanning conditions, and possible fadeout effects. Since every factor of the activity measurement procedure can influence the final result, the method also evaluates correct syringe positioning inside the radionuclide calibrator. Results: As an alternative to using a calibrated source sent to the surveyed site, which requires a relatively long half-life of the nuclide, or sending a portable calibrated radionuclide calibrator, the proposed method uses a source preparedin situ. An indirect activity determination is achieved by the irradiation of a radiochromic film using {sup 99m}Tc under strictly controlled conditions, and cumulated activity calculation from the initial activity and total irradiation time. The irradiated Gafchromic film and the irradiator, without the source, can then be sent to a National Metrology Institute for evaluation of the results. Conclusions: The methodology described in this paper showed to have a good potential for accurate (3%) radionuclide calibrators intercomparison studies for{sup 99m}Tc between Nuclear Medicine centers without source transfer and can easily be adapted to other short half-life radionuclides.

  8. Phenobarbital administration every eight hours: improvement of seizure management in idiopathic epileptic dogs with decreased phenobarbital elimination half-life. (United States)

    Stabile, F; Barnett, C R; De Risio, L


    Estimated prevalence of canine idiopathic epilepsy is 0.6 per cent in the first-opinion canine population in the UK. Phenobarbital monotherapy has been reported to reduce/eradicate seizure activity in 60-93 per cent of idiopathic epileptic dogs (IEDs). The objective of this study was to evaluate safety and efficacy of the administration of phenobarbital orally every eight hours in IEDs with phenobarbital elimination half-life less than 20 hours. Medical records of 10 IEDs in which steady state trough serum phenobarbital levels were within the reference range and phenobarbital elimination half-life had become less than 20 hours following prolonged administration every 12 hours were reviewed. Side effects and seizure frequency when phenobarbital was administered every 12 hours or 8 hours were compared. In all dogs the side effects of the antiepileptic medication treatment improved. When phenobarbital was administered every eight hours, 9/10 dogs experienced improvement in seizure frequency and 8/10 dogs maintained seizure freedom for a period three times longer than the longest interictal interval period previously recorded. Reduction in the severity and number of clusters of seizures was recorded in one of the remaining two dogs. The administration of phenobarbital orally every eight hours in IEDs with decreased phenobarbital elimination half-life appears safe and can improve seizure management. The results of this study were presented in abstract form (poster) for the 28th symposium of the European Society of Veterinary Neurology - European College of Veterinary Neurology (ESVN), September 18-19, 2015, Amsterdam, Netherlands. British Veterinary Association.

  9. Determination of the 10Be half-life by multicollector ICP-MS and liquid scintillation counting (United States)

    Chmeleff, Jérôme; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm; Kossert, Karsten; Jakob, Dieter


    A new method was designed and used for determining the half-life of the isotope 10Be. The method is based on (1) accurate 10Be/ 9Be measurements of 9Be-spiked solutions of a 10Be-rich master solution using multicollector ICP mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) and (2) liquid scintillation counting (LSC) using the CIEMAT/NIST method for determining the activity concentrations of the solutions whose 10Be concentrations were determined by mass spectrometry. Important requirements for the success of this approach (a) was the previous coating of glass ampoules filled for counting experiments with 9Be, thereby reducing the risk of the adsorptive loss of 10Be; (b) the removal of Boron from solutions to be measured by MC-ICP-MS by cation chromatography without the introduction of mass fractionation and (c) the accurate determination of the mass bias of 10Be/ 9Be measurements by ICP-MS which are always affected by the space-charge effect. The mass bias factor was determined to be 1.1862 ± 0.071 for 10Be/ 9Be from careful fitting and error propagation of ratios of measured Li, B, Si, Cr, Fe, Cu, Sr, Nd, Hf, Tl and U standard solutions of known composition under the same measurement conditions. Employing this factor, an absolute 10Be/ 9Be ratio of 1.464 ± 0.014 was determined for a first dilution of the 10Be-rich master solution. This solution is now available as an absolute Be ratio standard in AMS measurements. Finally, a half-life of (1.386 ± 0.016) My (standard uncertainty) was calculated. This value is much more precise than previous estimates and was derived from a fully independent set of experiments. In a parallel, fully independent study using the same master solution, Korschinek et al. [35] have determined a half-life of (1.388 ± 0.018) My. The combined half-life and uncertainty amounts to (1.387 ± 0.012) My. We suggest the use of this value in nuclear studies and in studies that make use of cosmogenic 10Be in environmental and geologic samples.

  10. Diurnal lamotrigine plasma level fluctuations: clinical significance and indication of shorter half-life with chronic administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.A.; Dahl, M.; Tommerup, E.


    of complaints indicating toxicity requires determination of drug levels when the symptoms are present. Our findings indicate that the t(1/2) of LTG with chronic treatment is shorter than generally assumed, and suggest that a slow-release formulation could be helpful in achieving full seizure control in patients...

  11. Does information matter? The effect of the Meth Project on meth use among youths. (United States)

    Anderson, D Mark


    Are demand-side interventions effective at curbing drug use? To the extent demand-side programs are successful, their cost effectiveness can be appealing from a policy perspective. Established in 2005, the Montana Meth Project (MMP) employs a graphic advertising campaign to deter meth use among teens. Due to the MMP's apparent success, seven other states have adopted Meth Project campaigns. Using data from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveys (YRBS), this paper investigates whether the MMP reduced methamphetamine use among Montana's youth. When accounting for a preexisting downward trend in meth use, effects on meth use are statistically indistinguishable from zero. These results are robust to using related changes of meth use among individuals without exposure to the campaign as controls in a difference-in-difference framework. A complementary analysis of treatment admissions data from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) confirms the MMP has had no discernable impact on meth use.

  12. Shorter 146Sm half-life and revised 146Sm-142Nd ages of planetary mantle differentiation

    CERN Document Server

    Kinoshita, N; Kashiv, Y; Collon, P; Deibel, C M; DiGiovine, B; Greene, J P; Henderson, D J; Jiang, C L; Marley, S T; Nakanishi, T; Pardo, R C; Rehm, K E; Robertson, D; Scott, R; Schmitt, C; Tang, X D; Vondrasek, R; Yokoyama, A


    The extinct short-lived nuclide 146Sm, synthesized in stellar events by the p-process, serves as both an astrophysical and geochemical chronometer through measurements of isotopic anomalies of its alpha-decay daughter 142Nd. Evidence of live 146Sm, quantitatively established for the early Solar System, constrains the time between p-process nucleosynthesis and condensation of the first solid materials. Samarium-146 is used also to date silicate mantle differentiation events in a number of planetary bodies, including Earth. We performed a new measurement of the 146Sm half-life and our result, t = 68\\pm7 (1sigma) million year (Ma), is significantly shorter than the value currently used for 146Sm-142Nd chronology (103\\pm5 Ma). We show here that the shorter 146Sm half-life value implies a higher initial Solar System ratio, (146Sm/144Sm)_0 = 0.0094\\pm0.0005 (2sigma), than the recently derived value 0.0085\\pm0.0007, or that used in most studies 0.008\\pm0.001. Planetary differentiation processes dated by 146Sm-142Nd ...

  13. In vitro digestion kinetics of excipients for lipid-based drug delivery and introduction of a relative lipolysis half life. (United States)

    Arnold, Yvonne E; Imanidis, Georgios; Kuentz, Martin


    Lipid-based drug delivery systems are widely used for enhancing the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs in the gastro-intestinal tract. Following oral intake, lipid systems undergo digestion in the stomach as well as the intestine. Lipolysis is here a complex process at the oil/water interface, influenced by numerous factors. To study the digestibility of nine excipients often used in lipid-based drug delivery systems. In addition, we introduced a mathematical model to describe in vitro lipolysis kinetics. A relative lipolysis half life was defined using the reference excipient medium-chain triglycerides. Using pH-stat equipment, the NaOH consumption was determined in an in vitro lipolysis assay. We identified two classes of excipients. Some additives were partially hydrolysed, whereas other excipients displayed complete lipolysis. For the latter class, a simplified mathematical model provided a good first approximation of initial lipolysis kinetics. Digestion characterization of excipients is important for the development of lipid-based delivery systems. The applied kinetic model and the concept of a relative lipolysis half life seemed to be promising tools for comparing in vitro lipolysis results.

  14. Meth abuse and oral health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deviprasad Makonahally


    Full Text Available Methamphetamine abuse is spreading its roots in India due to its widespread appeal, ease of manufacture and low cost compared with other stimulant drugs. Methamphetamine-induced caries is a characteristic finding among methamphetamine abusers. Thus, it is important to understand the typical clinical manifestations inclusive of cervical and proximal caries, elicit proper case history and develop a comprehensive treatment plan to help patients in a complete rehabilitation. We present a series of cases of "meth" abuser for dental professionals to help ensure successful treatment and prevention of disease progression.

  15. Direct Deposition Effect on the Distribution of Radiocesium in Persimmon Trees and the Effective Half-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-7444 (Japan)


    Radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) concentrations in persimmon tree tissues collected at Chiba, about 220 km south from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (FDNPP), were measured to obtain half-life of radiocesium in the trees. Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is a deciduous tree and bears edible fruits in autumn. There were no leaves when the sampling area was received the radioactive fallout in March 2011 due to the FDNPP accident; the amount of {sup 137}Cs radioactivity in this area was ca. 13 kBq/m{sup 3} Both {sup 137}Cs and {sup 134}Cs were found in the newly emerged shoots of the persimmon trees collected at 26 April 2011 mainly due to foliar uptake. The concentrations were 1.1 kBq/kg-dry for {sup 137}Cs and 1.3 kBq/kg-dry for {sup 134}Cs. After that, continuous sampling of leaves, branches and fruits of the persimmon trees had been carried out for two years. Immediately after the collection, samples were transferred to our laboratory and weighed to obtain fresh weight. Leaf samples were usually separated into two portions; one portion was washed with tap water to remove dust from the surface and the other portion was not treated. For fruit samples, if it is possible, fruit flesh, peal and non-edible part were separated. All the samples were oven-dried at 80 deg. C for three days at least. Each dried sample was chopped into fine pieces, mixed well, and then transferred into plastic vessels separately. Radioactivity concentration was measured by a Ge-detecting system (Seiko EG and G Ortec) using 3000-40000 s counting intervals. By August 14, 2013, about 140 samples were collected from the trees; about 60 samples were leaves (both washed and untreated). Radiocesium concentrations in tree leaves decreased with time, and the effective half-life was about 190 d; the value was similar to those in branches (160 d for new branches, and 250 d for 1-2 y.o. branches) and fruits (250 d for fruit flesh and 230 d for peals). Thus we concluded that the half-life of radiocesium in

  16. The half-life of the 1437 keV 11/2 sup - state in sup 97 Mo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostova, L.G.; Andrejtscheff, W.; Kostov, L.K. (Bylgarska Akademiya na Naukite, Sofia (Bulgaria). Inst. za Yadrena Izsledvaniya i Yadrena Energetika); Funke, L.; Will, E. (Zentralinstitut fuer Kernforschung, Rossendorf (Germany)); Vdovin, A.I. (Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russia))


    Using the ({alpha}, n) reaction, the half-life of the first 11/2{sup -} level in {sup 97}Mo has been determined as T{sub 1/2}(1437.0 keV)=2.5{+-}0.3 ns by means of the pulsed beam method. The experimentally obtained B(M2) value between the h{sub 11/2} and g{sub 7/2} configurations in {sup 97}Mo has been satisfactorily described within the quasiparticle-phonon model using g{sub s}{sup eff}=0.6 g{sub s}{sup free} c{sub s}. Similar calculations and comparisons with experimental data have been performed also for {sup 95,99}Mo as well as for {sup 99}Ru and {sup 101}Pd. (orig.).

  17. The functional half-life of an mRNA depends on the ribosome spacing in an early coding region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Margit; Nissen, Søren; Mitarai, Namiko;


    . Here, we characterize a determinant of the functional stability of an mRNA, which is located in the early coding region. Using literature values for the mRNA half-lives of variant lacZ mRNAs in Escherichia coli, we modeled how the ribosome spacing is affected by the translation rate of the individual...... of slowly translated codons before codon 20 or after codon 45 should shorten or prolong, respectively, the functional mRNA half-life by altering the ribosome density in the important region. These predictions were tested on eight new lacZ variants, and their experimentally determined mRNA half-lives all...

  18. An Advance in Prescription Opioid Vaccines: Overdose Mortality Reduction and Extraordinary Alteration of Drug Half-Life. (United States)

    Kimishima, Atsushi; Wenthur, Cody J; Zhou, Bin; Janda, Kim D


    Prescription opioids (POs) such as oxycodone and hydrocodone are highly effective medications for pain management, yet they also present a substantial risk for abuse and addiction. The consumption of POs has been escalating worldwide, resulting in tens of thousands of deaths due to overdose each year. Pharmacokinetic strategies based upon vaccination present an attractive avenue to suppress PO abuse. Herein, the preparation of two active PO vaccines is described that were found to elicit high-affinity antiopioid antibodies through a structurally congruent drug-hapten design. Administration of these vaccines resulted in a significant blockade of opioid analgesic activity, along with an unprecedented increase in drug serum half-life and protection against lethal overdose.

  19. 209Tl half-life and gamma-ray measurements of radionuclides belonging to the (4 n + 1) decay chain (United States)

    Ardisson, G.; Barci, V.; El Samad, O.


    Gamma-ray spectra of radiochemically separated 221Fr, 213Bi and 209Tl sources were measured using coaxial and planar HPGe detectors. The energies and emission probabilities of eight new gamma-ray transitions were observed in the decay of 209Tl; a half-life of (2.161±0.007) min was measured. Twenty-two gamma-rays have been attributed to the β-decay of 213Bi, of which 17 are new with respect to previous studies. The 213Po level scheme was determined using γ-γ coincidence measurements: eight excited states are proposed of which six are new. Preliminary measurements of the α-decay of 221Fr revealed the existence of 18 gamma-ray transitions of which eight are reported for the first time.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry


    Full Text Available In this study, comparative potential effects of commercial activated carbon (CAC and plantain peel-derived biochar (PPBC of different particle sizes and dosage to stimulate petroleum hydrocarbon biodegradation in soil were investigated. Microcosms containing soil were spiked with weathered Bonny light crude oil (WBLCO (10% w/w and amended with different particle sizes (0.02, 0.07 and 0.48 mm and dosage (20, 30 and 40 g of CAC and PPBC, respectively. The bioremediation experiments were carried out for a period of 28 days under laboratory conditions. The results showed that there was a positive relationship between the rate of petroleum hydrocarbons reduction and presence of the CAC and PPBC in crude oil contaminated soil microcosms. The WBLCO biodegradation data fitted well to the first-order kinetic model. The model revealed that WBLCO contaminated-soil microcosms amended with CAC and PPBC had higher biodegradation rate constants (k as well as lower half-life times (t1/2 than unamended soil (natural attenuation remediation system. The rate constants increased while half-life times decreased with decreased particle size and increased dosage of amendment agents. ANOVA statistical analysis revealed that WBLCO biodegradation in soil was significantly (p = 0.05 influenced by the addition of CAC and biochar amendment agents, respectively. However, Tukey’s post hoc test (at p = 0.05 showed that there was no significant difference in the bioremediation efficiency of CAC and PPBC. Thus, amendment of soils with biochar has the potential to be an inexpensive, efficient, environmentally friendly and relatively novel strategy to mitigate organic compound-contaminated soil.

  1. Meth math: modeling temperature responses to methamphetamine. (United States)

    Molkov, Yaroslav I; Zaretskaia, Maria V; Zaretsky, Dmitry V


    Methamphetamine (Meth) can evoke extreme hyperthermia, which correlates with neurotoxicity and death in laboratory animals and humans. The objective of this study was to uncover the mechanisms of a complex dose dependence of temperature responses to Meth by mathematical modeling of the neuronal circuitry. On the basis of previous studies, we composed an artificial neural network with the core comprising three sequentially connected nodes: excitatory, medullary, and sympathetic preganglionic neuronal (SPN). Meth directly stimulated the excitatory node, an inhibitory drive targeted the medullary node, and, in high doses, an additional excitatory drive affected the SPN node. All model parameters (weights of connections, sensitivities, and time constants) were subject to fitting experimental time series of temperature responses to 1, 3, 5, and 10 mg/kg Meth. Modeling suggested that the temperature response to the lowest dose of Meth, which caused an immediate and short hyperthermia, involves neuronal excitation at a supramedullary level. The delay in response after the intermediate doses of Meth is a result of neuronal inhibition at the medullary level. Finally, the rapid and robust increase in body temperature induced by the highest dose of Meth involves activation of high-dose excitatory drive. The impairment in the inhibitory mechanism can provoke a life-threatening temperature rise and makes it a plausible cause of fatal hyperthermia in Meth users. We expect that studying putative neuronal sites of Meth action and the neuromediators involved in a detailed model of this system may lead to more effective strategies for prevention and treatment of hyperthermia induced by amphetamine-like stimulants.

  2. Poly(meth)acrylate-based coatings. (United States)

    Nollenberger, Kathrin; Albers, Jessica


    Poly(meth)acrylate coatings for pharmaceutical applications were introduced in 1955 with the launch of EUDRAGIT(®) L and EUDRAGIT(®) S, two types of anionic polymers. Since then, by introducing various monomers into their polymer chains and thus altering their properties, diverse forms with specific characteristics have become available. Today, poly(meth)acrylates function in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and/or release the drug in a time-controlled manner. This article reviews the properties of various poly(meth)acrylates and discusses formulation issues as well as application possibilities.

  3. The Meth Project and Teen Meth Use: New Estimates from the National and State Youth Risk Behavior Surveys. (United States)

    Anderson, D Mark; Elsea, David


    In this note, we use data from the national and state Youth Risk Behavior Surveys for the period 1999 through 2011 to estimate the relationship between the Meth Project, an anti-methamphetamine advertising campaign, and meth use among high school students. During this period, a total of eight states adopted anti-meth advertising campaigns. After accounting for pre-existing downward trends in meth use, we find little evidence that the campaign curbed meth use in the full sample. We do find, however, some evidence that the Meth Project may have decreased meth use among White high school students.

  4. Label-free Fab and Fc affinity/avidity profiling of the antibody complex half-life for polyclonal and monoclonal efficacy screening. (United States)

    Read, Thomas; Olkhov, Rouslan V; Williamson, E Diane; Shaw, Andrew M


    A unified approach to affinity screening for Fab and Fc interactions of an antibody for its antigen and FcγR receptor has been developed. An antigen array is used for the Fab affinity and cross-reactivity screening and protein A/G proxy is the FcγR receptor. The affinities are derived using a simple 1:1 binding model with a consistent error analysis. The association and dissociation kinetics are measured over optimised times for accurate determination. The Fab/Fc affinities are derived for ten antibodies: mAb-actin (mouse), pAb-BSA (sheep), pAb-collagen V (rabbit), pAb-CRP (goat), mAb-F1 (mouse), mAbs (mouse) 7.3, 12.3, 29.3, 36.3 and 46.3 raised against LcrV in Yersinia pestis. The rate of the dissociation of antigen-antibody complexes relates directly to their immunological function as does the Fc-FcγR complex and a new half-life plot has been defined with a Fab/Fc half-life range of 17-470 min. The upper half-life value points to surface avidity. Two antibodies that are protective as an immunotherapy define a Fab half-life >250 min and an Fc half-life >50 min as characteristics of ideal interactions which can form the basis of an antibody screen for immunotherapy.

  5. Measurement of the two neutrino double beta decay half-life of Zr-96 and search for associated neutrinoless processes with the NEMO-3 detector

    CERN Document Server

    Argyriades, J; Augier, C; Baker, J; Barabash, A S; Bongrand, M; Broudin-Bay, G; Brudanin, V B; Caffrey, A J; Chapon, A; Chauveau, E; Daraktchieva, Z; Durand, D; Egorov, V G; Fatemi-Ghomi, N; Flack, R; Freshville, A; Guillon, B; Hubert, Ph; Jullian, S; Kauer, M; King, S; Kochetov, O I; Konovalov, S I; Kovalenko, V E; Lalanne, D; Lang, K; Lemiere, Y; Lutter, G; Mamedov, F; Marquet, Ch; Martín-Albo, J; Mauger, F; Nachab, A; Nasteva, I; Nemchenok, I B; Nova, F; Novella, P; Ohsumi, H; Pahlka, R B; Perrot, F; Piquemal, F; Reyss, J L; Ricol, J S; Saakyan, R; Sarazin, X; Simard, L; Shitov, Yu A; Smolnikov, A A; Snow, S; Söldner-Rembold, S; Stekl, I; Sutton, C S; Szklarz, G; Thomas, J; Timkin, V V; Tretyak, V I; Tretyak, Vl I; Umatov, V I; Vàla, L; Vanyushin, I A; Vasiliev, V A; Vorobel, V; Vylov, Ts


    Using 1221 days of data from the NEMO-3 detector, the measurement of Zr-96 2vbb decay half-life is [2.35 +/- 0.14(stat) +/- 0.19(syst)] x 10^19 yr. Different characteristics of the final state electrons have been studied, such as the energy sum, individual electron energy, and angular distribution. The 2v nuclear matrix element is extracted using the measured 2vbb half-life and is 0.049 +/- 0.003. A 90% CL limit is set on the 0vbb decay half-life of > 9.2 x 10^21 yr corresponding to a limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass < 7.2 - 19.5 eV. Limits on other mechanisms of 0vbb decay have also been set.

  6. Degradation and half-life of DNA present in biomass from a genetically-modified organism during land application. (United States)

    Halter, Mathew C; Zahn, James A


    White biotechnology has made a positive impact on the chemical industry by providing safer, more efficient chemical manufacturing processes that have reduced the use of toxic chemicals, harsh reaction conditions, and expensive metal catalysts, which has improved alignment with the principles of Green Chemistry. The genetically-modified (GM) biocatalysts that are utilized in these processes are typically separated from high-value products and then recycled, or eliminated. Elimination routes include disposal in sanitary landfills, incineration, use as a fuel, animal feed, or reuse as an agricultural soil amendment or other value-added products. Elimination routes that have the potential to impact the food chain or environment have been more heavily scrutinized for the fate and persistence of biological products. In this study, we developed and optimized a method for monitoring the degradation of strain-specific DNA markers from a genetically-modified organism (GMO) used for the commercial production of 1,3-propanediol. Laboratory and field tests showed that a marker for heterologous DNA in the GM organism was no longer detectable by end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after 14 days. The half-life of heterologous DNA was increased by 17% (from 42.4 to 49.7 h) after sterilization of the soil from a field plot, which indicated that abiotic factors were important in degradation of DNA under field conditions. There was no evidence for horizontal transfer of DNA target sequences from the GMO to viable organisms present in the soil.

  7. Use of short half-life cosmogenic isotopes to quantify sediment mixing and transport in karst conduits (United States)

    Paylor, R.


    Particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) transport and flux in karst aquifers is poorly understood. Methods to quantify PIC flux are needed in order to account for total inorganic carbon removal (chemical plus mechanical) from karst settings. Quantifying PIC flux will allow more accurate calculations of landscape denudation and global carbon sink processes. The study concentrates on the critical processes of the suspended sediment component of mass flux - surface soil/stored sediment mixing, transport rates and distance, and sediment storage times. The primary objective of the study is to describe transport and mixing with the resolution of single storm-flow events. To quantify the transport processes, short half-life cosmogenic isotopes are utilized. The isotopes 7Be (t1/2 = 53d) and 210Pb (t1/2 = 22y) are the primary isotopes measured, and other potential isotopes such as 137Cs and 241Am are investigated. The study location is at Mammoth Cave National Park within the Logsdon River watershed. The Logsdon River conduit is continuously traversable underground for two kilometers. Background levels and input concentrations of isotopes are determined from soil samples taken at random locations in the catchment area, and suspended sediment collected from the primary sinking stream during a storm event. Suspended sediment was also collected from the downstream end of the conduit during the storm event. After the storm flow receded, fine sediment samples were taken from the cave stream at regular intervals to determine transport distances and mixing ratios along the conduit. Samples were analyzed with a Canberra Industries gamma ray spectrometer, counted for 24 hours to increase detection of low radionuclide activities. The measured activity levels of radionuclides in the samples were adjusted for decay from time of sampling using standard decay curves. The results of the study show that surface sediment mixing, transport and storage in karst conduits is a dynamic but

  8. Half-life of Re184 populated by the (γ,n) reaction from laser Compton scattering γ rays at the electron storage ring NewSUBARU (United States)

    Hayakawa, T.; Miyamoto, S.; Hayashi, Y.; Kawase, K.; Horikawa, K.; Chiba, S.; Nakanishi, K.; Hashimoto, H.; Ohta, T.; Kando, M.; Mochizuki, T.; Kajino, T.; Fujiwara, M.


    We report a half-life of the ground state of Re184 populated by the Re185(γ,n)Re184 reaction from laser Compton scattering γ rays generated through relativistic engineering. The γ rays are provided at the electron storage ring NewSUBARU. The previous experiment using deuteron-induced reactions has yielded a recommended half-life of the 3- ground state of Re184 of 38.0±0.5 d, including a possible contribution from the 8+ isomer (T1/2=169±8 d) of Re184 since the presence of the isomer was not known at that time. In contrast, the (γ,n) reaction has an advantage to selectively populate the ground state because this reaction does not bring large angular momentum. The measured half-life of 35.4±0.7 d is shorter than the previous half-life by about 7%. This difference is crucial for applications using the activation method.

  9. Database for mRNA half-life of 19 977 genes obtained by DNA microarray analysis of pluripotent and differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. (United States)

    Sharova, Lioudmila V; Sharov, Alexei A; Nedorezov, Timur; Piao, Yulan; Shaik, Nabeebi; Ko, Minoru S H


    Degradation of mRNA is one of the key processes that control the steady-state level of gene expression. However, the rate of mRNA decay for the majority of genes is not known. We successfully obtained the rate of mRNA decay for 19 977 non-redundant genes by microarray analysis of RNA samples obtained from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Median estimated half-life was 7.1 h and only genes, including Prdm1, Myc, Gadd45 g, Foxa2, Hes5 and Trib1, showed half-life less than 1 h. In general, mRNA species with short half-life were enriched among genes with regulatory functions (transcription factors), whereas mRNA species with long half-life were enriched among genes related to metabolism and structure (extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton). The stability of mRNAs correlated more significantly with the structural features of genes than the function of genes: mRNA stability showed the most significant positive correlation with the number of exon junctions per open reading frame length, and negative correlation with the presence of PUF-binding motifs and AU-rich elements in 3'-untranslated region (UTR) and CpG di-nucleotides in the 5'-UTR. The mRNA decay rates presented in this report are the largest data set for mammals and the first for ES cells.

  10. Database for mRNA Half-Life of 19 977 Genes Obtained by DNA Microarray Analysis of Pluripotent and Differentiating Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells (United States)

    Sharova, Lioudmila V.; Sharov, Alexei A.; Nedorezov, Timur; Piao, Yulan; Shaik, Nabeebi; Ko, Minoru S.H.


    Degradation of mRNA is one of the key processes that control the steady-state level of gene expression. However, the rate of mRNA decay for the majority of genes is not known. We successfully obtained the rate of mRNA decay for 19 977 non-redundant genes by microarray analysis of RNA samples obtained from mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Median estimated half-life was 7.1 h and only <100 genes, including Prdm1, Myc, Gadd45 g, Foxa2, Hes5 and Trib1, showed half-life less than 1 h. In general, mRNA species with short half-life were enriched among genes with regulatory functions (transcription factors), whereas mRNA species with long half-life were enriched among genes related to metabolism and structure (extracellular matrix, cytoskeleton). The stability of mRNAs correlated more significantly with the structural features of genes than the function of genes: mRNA stability showed the most significant positive correlation with the number of exon junctions per open reading frame length, and negative correlation with the presence of PUF-binding motifs and AU-rich elements in 3′-untranslated region (UTR) and CpG di-nucleotides in the 5′-UTR. The mRNA decay rates presented in this report are the largest data set for mammals and the first for ES cells. PMID:19001483

  11. Half-life and rational drug use of paclitaxel%紫杉醇的半衰期与合理用药

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In this article,the author mainly discusses the relationship of paclitaxel drug metabolism in human body and its half-life to promote its rational drug use.Refer to the relevant medical literature at home and abroad in recent years,we have induction and summary.The relationship of paclitaxel half-life and pesticide effect is analyzed.The paclitaxel half-life can determine the metabolism degree of the drug in the body,so drug half-life plays a critical role in the process of rational drug use.%本文主要对紫杉醇药物在人体内的代谢与其半衰期的关系进行探讨,以促进其合理用药。笔者参阅近几年来国内外的相关医学文献,进行归纳、总结,分析紫杉醇半衰期与药效之间的关系。根据紫杉醇的半衰期可以判定药物在人体内的代谢程度,因此药物半衰期在合理用药的过程中发挥着至关重要的作用。

  12. Platelet half-life in patients with primary hyperlipoproteinemia type IIa, IIb, and IV according to Fredrickson with and without clinical signs of atherosclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, E.; Sinzinger, H.; Widhalm, K.; Kaliman, J.; Hoefer, R. (Vienna Univ. (Austria). 2. Medizinische Klinik; Ludwig Boltzmann-Institut fuer Nuklearmedizin, Vienna (Austria); Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kinderklinik; Vienna Univ. (Austria). Kardiologische Klinik)


    It is generally accepted that platelet half-life is shortened in atherosclerotic vascular diseases. Concerning changes due to hyperlipoproteinemia (HLP), however, there exist only few data. Therefore, we examined the platelet-half life in 60 patients with recently discovered HLP type IIa, IIb and IV according to Fredrickson before treatment in comparison to 60 controls. 33 of the HLP-patients had no clinical symptoms of angiopathy. 27 patients suffered from peripheral vascular disease or from coronary heart disease as verified by angiography. The labelling of autologous platelets was performed with of /sup 111/Indium-oxine-sulfate at 37/sup 0/C for 5 minutes. The mean labelling efficiency was 90%, the recovery after 2 hours about 70%. Serum lipoproteins were estimated by means of ultracentrifugation and polyanionprecipitation according to Lipid Research Clinic Methods. In the patients with HLP platelet half-life was significantly shortened in comparison to the control group (p < 0.01). These changes were most pronounced in patients with HLP-type IIa and with atherosclerotic lesions, respectively. In patients with HLP-type IIa a very close correlation could be demonstrated between platelet half-life and LDL-cholesterol (r = -0.72; p < 0.001) as well as total cholesterol (r = -0.73; p < 0.001). These data prove that in HLP in-vivo platelet function as measured by platelet survival is significantly influenced even before the occurrence of clinically relevant symptoms of atherosclerosis.

  13. 基于下载量的期刊半衰期实证研究%Empirical Research on Half-life Period of Journals Based on Downloads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    针对期刊网络老化速度研究较为薄弱的状况,以CNKI为数据源,通过对图书馆学情报学期刊下载量半衰期的实证分析研究,解读了下载量半衰期的特点,剖析了其与其它期刊评价指标的区别与联系。结果显示:期刊下载量半衰期明显小于被引半衰期和引用半衰期,与被引半衰期之间存在显著的相关性;与期刊其它计量指标相比有其特质与独立性;开展期刊下载量半衰期研究,有利于突破老化研究中引文分析的藩篱,提升期刊评价的时效性,拓展考察范围及促进期刊出版机构主动缩短网络版与印刷版之间的出版时滞,对期刊整体影响力的提升将产生积极影响。%Aimed at the unsubstantial research on aging speed of network periodicals and taking CNKI as data source, the paper interprets the characteristics of half-life period of downloads, and analyses its differences and relations with other periodical evaluation indexes through the empirical analysis research on half-life period of downloads as to library &information science periodicals. The result shows that half-life period of journal downloads are much smaller than cited half-life period and citation half-life period, and there is significant correlation with the cited half-life period among them as well;but compared with other periodical evaluation indexes, there exist its own traits and independence; it avails for the research of half-life periodical downloads to break through barriers in the study of aging citation analysis, to improve the timeliness of periodical evaluation and expand the scope of inspection, and also to promote periodical publishing organizations to take the initiative shortening of the delay between online and print publication, which will have a positive impact on the promotion of overall journal influence.

  14. A new value for the half-life of {sup 10}Be by Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection and liquid scintillation counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korschinek, G., E-mail: Gunther.Korschinek@ph.tum.d [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bergmaier, A. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, D-85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Faestermann, T. [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Gerstmann, U.C. [Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Center for Environmental Health, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstaedter Landstr. 1, D-85764 Neuherberg (Germany); Knie, K.; Rugel, G. [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Wallner, A. [VERA Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Strasse 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Dillmann, I. [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Dollinger, G. [Universitaet der Bundeswehr Muenchen, Fakultaet fuer Luft- und Raumfahrttechnik, Institut fuer Angewandte Physik und Messtechnik LRT2, Werner-Heisenberg-Weg 39, D-85577 Neubiberg (Germany); Lierse von Gostomski, Ch. [Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kossert, K. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany); Maiti, M.; Poutivtsev, M. [Physik Department, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Remmert, A. [Lehrstuhl fuer Radiochemie, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, D-85748 Garching (Germany)


    The importance of {sup 10}Be in different applications of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is well-known. In this context the half-life of {sup 10}Be has a crucial impact, and an accurate and precise determination of the half-life is a prerequisite for many of the applications of {sup 10}Be in cosmic-ray and earth science research. Recently, the value of the {sup 10}Be half-life has been the centre of much debate. In order to overcome uncertainties inherent in previous determinations, we introduced a new method of high accuracy and precision. An aliquot of our highly enriched {sup 10}Be master solution was serially diluted with increasing well-known masses of {sup 9}Be. We then determined the initial {sup 10}Be concentration by least square fit to the series of measurements of the resultant {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be ratio. In order to minimize uncertainties because of mass bias which plague other low-energy mass spectrometric methods, we used for the first time Heavy-Ion Elastic Recoil Detection (HI-ERD) for the determination of the {sup 10}Be/{sup 9}Be isotopic ratios, a technique which does not suffer from difficult to control mass fractionation. The specific activity of the master solution was measured by means of accurate liquid scintillation counting (LSC). The resultant combination of the {sup 10}Be concentration and activity yields a {sup 10}Be half-life of T{sub 1/2} = 1.388 +- 0.018 (1 s, 1.30%) Ma. In a parallel but independent study (Chmeleff et al. ), found a value of 1.386 +- 0.016 (1.15%) Ma. Our recommended weighted mean and mean standard error for the new value for {sup 10}Be half-life based on these two independent measurements is 1.387 +- 0.012 (0.87%) Ma.

  15. Improved in vivo anti-tumor effects of IgA-Her2 antibodies through half-life extension and serum exposure enhancement by FcRn targeting. (United States)

    Meyer, Saskia; Nederend, Maaike; Jansen, J H Marco; Reiding, Karli R; Jacobino, Shamir R; Meeldijk, Jan; Bovenschen, Niels; Wuhrer, Manfred; Valerius, Thomas; Ubink, Ruud; Boross, Peter; Rouwendal, Gerard; Leusen, Jeanette H W


    Antibody therapy is a validated treatment approach for several malignancies. All currently clinically applied therapeutic antibodies (Abs) are of the IgG isotype. However, not all patients respond to this therapy and relapses can occur. IgA represents an alternative isotype for antibody therapy that engages FcαRI expressing myeloid effector cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes. IgA Abs have been shown to effectively kill tumor cells both in vitro and in vivo. However, due to the short half-life of IgA Abs in mice, daily injections are required to reach an effect comparable to IgG Abs. The relatively long half-life of IgG Abs and serum albumin arises from their capability of interacting with the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn). As IgA Abs lack a binding site for FcRn, we generated IgA Abs with the variable regions of the Her2-specific Ab trastuzumab and attached an albumin-binding domain (ABD) to the heavy or light chain (HCABD/LCABD) to extend their serum half-life. These modified Abs were able to bind albumin from different species in vitro. Furthermore, tumor cell lysis of IgA-Her2-LCABD Abs in vitro was similar to unmodified IgA-Her2 Abs. Pharmacokinetic studies in mice revealed that the serum exposure and half-life of the modified IgA-Her2 Abs was extended. In a xenograft mouse model, the modified IgA1 Abs exhibited a slightly, but significantly, improved anti-tumor response compared to the unmodified Ab. In conclusion, empowering IgA Abs with albumin-binding capacity results in in vitro and in vivo functional Abs with an enhanced exposure and prolonged half-life.

  16. Refinements on the age-dependent half-life model for estimating child body burdens of polychlorodibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans. (United States)

    Kerger, Brent D; Leung, Hon-Wing; Scott, Paul K; Paustenbach, Dennis J


    We modified our prior age-dependent half-life model to characterize the range of child (ages 0-7) body burdens associated with dietary and environmental exposure to polychlorodibenzodioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs). Several exposure scenarios were evaluated. Infants were assumed to be either breast-fed or formula-fed from birth to 6 months of age. They then received intakes of PCDD/Fs through age 7 from foods based on weighted means estimates [JECFA, 2001. Joint FAO/WHO Committee on Food Additives. Fifty-seventh meeting, Rome, June 5-14 , 2001, pp. 24-40], and with or without exposures (ingestion and dermal) to urban residential soils at 1ppb TCDD toxic equivalents (TEQ). A one-compartment (adipose volume) toxicokinetic model for TCDD described by Kreuzer [Kreuzer, P.F., Csanady, Gy.A., et al., 1997. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and congeners in infants. A toxicokinetic model of human lifetime body burden by TCDD with special emphasis on its uptake by nutrition. Arch. Toxicol. 71, 383-400] was expanded to include the key non-TCDD congeners in human breast milk and adipose tissues, and two model parameter refinements were examined: (1) use of updated and more detailed age-correlated body fat mass data [CDC, 2000. Centers for Disease Control. CDC Growth Charts: United States. Advance Data from Vital and Health Statistics of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics, Number 314, December 2000]; (2) use of breast milk PCDD/F concentration data from sampling completed in 2000-2003 [Wittsiepe, J., Fürst, P., et al., 2004. PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB in human blood and milk from German mothers. Organohalogen Compd. 66, 2865-2872]. The updated body fat mass data nearly halved the predicted peak body burden for breast-feeding and lowered the time-weighted average (TWA) body burdens from ages 0-7 by 30-40% for breast-fed and formula-fed infants. Combined use of the updated breast milk PCDD/F concentration and body fat

  17. Bis(6-meth-oxy-2-{[tris-(hydroxy-meth-yl)methyl-κO]imino-meth-yl}phenolato-κN,O)nickel(II) dihydrate. (United States)

    Zhou, Tian; Zhou, Ru-Jin; An, Zhe


    In the title compound, [Ni(C(12)H(16)NO(5))(2)]·2H(2)O, the Ni(II) atom is coordinated by four O atoms and two N atoms from the two 6-meth-oxy-2-{[tris-(hydroxy-meth-yl)meth-yl]imino-meth-yl}phenolate ligands in a distorted octa-hedral coordination geometry. O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the complexes and uncoordinated water mol-ecules into two-dimensional networks parallel to (001).

  18. Measurement of the two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of {sup 130}Te with the CUORE-0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduino, C.; Avignone, F.T.; Chott, N.; Creswick, R.J.; Rosenfeld, C.; Wilson, J. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); Alfonso, K.; Hickerson, K.P.; Huang, H.Z.; Liu, X.; Trentalange, S.; Zhu, B.X. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Artusa, D.R. [University of South Carolina, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Columbia, SC (United States); INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); Azzolini, O.; Camacho, A.; Keppel, G.; Palmieri, V.; Pira, C. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro, Padova (Italy); Banks, T.I.; Drobizhev, A.; Freedman, S.J.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; O' Donnell, T.; Wagaarachchi, S.L. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bari, G.; Deninno, M.M. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Beeman, J.W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Bellini, F.; Cardani, L.; Casali, N.; Cosmelli, C.; Ferroni, F. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Bersani, A.; Caminata, A. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Biassoni, M.; Carbone, L.; Cremonesi, O.; Ferri, E.; Giachero, A.; Pessina, G.; Previtali, E.; Rusconi, C. [INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Brofferio, C.; Capelli, S.; Carniti, P.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Clemenza, M.; Faverzani, M.; Fiorini, E.; Gironi, L.; Gotti, C.; Maino, M.; Nucciotti, A.; Pavan, M.; Pozzi, S.; Sisti, M.; Terranova, F.; Zanotti, L. [Universita di Milano-Bicocca, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milan (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Milano Bicocca, Milan (Italy); Bucci, C.; Cappelli, L.; D' Addabbo, A.; Di Vacri, M.L.; Gorla, P.; Pattavina, L.; Pirro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); Canonica, L. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cao, X.G.; Fang, D.Q.; Ma, Y.G.; Wang, H.W.; Zhang, G.Q. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Shanghai (China); Copello, S.; Di Domizio, S.; Fernandes, G.; Marini, L.; Pallavicini, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Genova (Italy); Universita di Genova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Genova (Italy); Cushman, J.S.; Davis, C.J.; Heeger, K.M.; Lim, K.E.; Maruyama, R.H. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); Dafinei, I.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P.J.; Orio, F.; Pettinacci, V.; Tomei, C.; Vignati, M. [INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Dell' Oro, S. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); INFN-Gran Sasso Science Institute, L' Aquila (Italy); Feintzeig, J.; Fujikawa, B.K.; Mei, Y.; Smith, A.R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Franceschi, M.A.; Ligi, C.; Napolitano, T.; Piperno, G. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, Rome (Italy); Giuliani, A.; Tenconi, M. [Universite Paris-Saclay, CSNSM, Univ. Paris-Sud, CNRS/IN2P3, Orsay (France); Gladstone, L.; Leder, A.; Winslow, L.A. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Gutierrez, T.D. [California Polytechnic State University, Physics Department, San Luis Obispo, CA (United States); Haller, E.E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Materials Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Han, K. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (United States); Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai (China); Hansen, E. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Kadel, R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Kolomensky, Yu.G. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Physics Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Martinez, M. [Sapienza Universita di Roma, Dipartimento di Fisica, Rome (Italy); INFN-Sezione di Roma, Rome (Italy); Universidad de Zaragoza, Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear y Astroparticulas, Zaragoza (Spain); Moggi, N. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Alma Mater Studiorum-Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Scienze per la Qualita della Vita, Bologna (Italy); Nones, C. [Service de Physique des Particules, CEA/Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Norman, E.B.; Wang, B.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); University of California, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Berkeley, CA (United States); Ouellet, J.L. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Nuclear Science Division, Berkeley, CA (United States); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Pagliarone, C.E. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita degli Studi di Cassino e del Lazio Meridionale, Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Meccanica, Cassino (Italy); Sangiorgio, S.; Scielzo, N.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Santone, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, Assergi, L' Aquila (Italy); Universita dell' Aquila, Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche e Chimiche, L' Aquila (Italy); Singh, V. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (US); Taffarello, L. [INFN-Sezione di Padova, Padova (IT); Wise, T. [Yale University, Department of Physics, New Haven, CT (US); University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Madison, WI (US); Woodcraft, A. [University of Edinburgh, SUPA, Institute for Astronomy, Edinburgh (GB); Zimmermann, S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Engineering Division, Berkeley, CA (US); Zucchelli, S. [INFN-Sezione di Bologna, Bologna (IT); Alma Mater Studiorum-Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (IT)


    We report on the measurement of the two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of {sup 130}Te with the CUORE-0 detector. From an exposure of 33.4 kg year of TeO{sub 2}, the half-life is determined to be T{sub 1/2}{sup 2ν} = [8.2 ± 0.2 (stat.) ± 0.6 (syst.)] x 10{sup 20} year. This result is obtained after a detailed reconstruction of the sources responsible for the CUORE-0 counting rate, with a specific study of those contributing to the {sup 130}Te neutrinoless double-beta decay region of interest. (orig.)

  19. Measurement of the half-life of the two-neutrino double beta decay of Ge-76 with the Gerda experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Agostini, M; Andreotti, E; Bakalyarov, A M; Balata, M; Barabanov, I; Heider, M Barnabe; Barros, N; Baudis, L; Bauer, C; Becerici-Schmidt, N; Bellotti, E; Belogurov, S; Belyaev, S T; Benato, G; Bettini, A; Bezrukov, L; Bode, T; Brudanin, V; Brugnera, R; Budjas, D; Caldwell, A; Cattadori, C; Chernogorov, A; Cossavella, F; Demidova, E V; Denisov, A; Domula, A; Egorov, V; Falkenstein, R; Ferella, A D; Freund, K; Froborg, F; Frodyma, N; Gangapshev, A; Garfagnini, A; Gazzana, S; Grambayr, P; Gurentsov, V; Gusev, K; Guthikonda, K K; Hampel, W; Hegai, A; Heisel, M; Hemmer, S; Heusser, G; Hofmann, W; Hult, M; Inzhechik, L V; Ioannucci, L; Csathy, J Janicsko; Jochum, J; Junker, M; Kianovsky, S; Kirpichnikov, I V; Kirsch, A; Klimenko, A; Knoepfle, K T; Kochetov, O; Kornoukhov, V N; Kusminov, V; Laubenstein, M; Lazzaro, A; Lebedev, V I; Lehnert, B; Liao, H Y; Lindner, M; Lippi, I; Liu, X; Lubashevskiy, A; Lubsandorzhiev, B; Lutter, G; Machado, A A; Majorovits, B; Maneschg, W; Nemchenok, I; Nisi, S; O'Shaughnessy, C; Pandola, L; Pelczar, K; Peraro, L; Pullia, A; Riboldi, S; Ritter, F; Sada, C; Salathe, M; Schmitt, C; Schoenert, S; Schreiner, J; Schulz, O; Schwingenheuer, B; Shevchik, E; Shirchenko, M; Simgen, H; Smolnikov, A; Stanco, L; Strecker, H; Tarka, M; Ur, C A; Vasenko, A A; Volynets, O; von Sturm, K; Walter, M; Wegmann, A; Wojcik, M; Yanovich, E; Zavarise, P; Zhitnikov, I; Zhukov, S V; Zinatulina, D; Zuber, K; Zuzel, G


    The primary goal of the GERmanium Detector Array (Gerda) experiment at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso of INFN is the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay of Ge-76. High-purity germanium detectors made from material enriched in Ge-76 are operated directly immersed in liquid argon, allowing for a substantial reduction of the background with respect to predecessor experiments. The first 5.04 kg yr of data collected in Phase I of the experiment have been analyzed to measure the half-life of the neutrino-accompanied double beta decay of Ge-76. The observed spectrum in the energy range between 600 and 1800 keV is dominated by the double beta decay of Ge-76. The half-life extracted from Gerda data is T(1/2) = (1.84 +0.14 -0.10) 10^{21} yr.

  20. Measurement of the two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of $^{130}$ Te with the CUORE-0 experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alduino, C.; Alfonso, K.; Artusa, D. R.; Avignone, F. T.; Azzolini, O.; Banks, T. I.; Bari, G.; Beeman, J. W.; Bellini, F.; Bersani, A.; Biassoni, M.; Brofferio, C.; Bucci, C.; Camacho, A.; Caminata, A.; Canonica, L.; Cao, X. G.; Capelli, S.; Cappelli, L.; Carbone, L.; Cardani, L.; Carniti, P.; Casali, N.; Cassina, L.; Chiesa, D.; Chott, N.; Clemenza, M.; Copello, S.; Cosmelli, C.; Cremonesi, O.; Creswick, R. J.; Cushman, J. S.; D’Addabbo, A.; Dafinei, I.; Davis, C. J.; Dell’Oro, S.; Deninno, M. M.; Di Domizio, S.; Di Vacri, M. L.; Drobizhev, A.; Fang, D. Q.; Faverzani, M.; Feintzeig, J.; Fernandes, G.; Ferri, E.; Ferroni, F.; Fiorini, E.; Franceschi, M. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Giachero, A.; Gironi, L.; Giuliani, A.; Gladstone, L.; Gorla, P.; Gotti, C.; Gutierrez, T. D.; Haller, E. E.; Han, K.; Hansen, E.; Heeger, K. M.; Hennings-Yeomans, R.; Hickerson, K. P.; Huang, H. Z.; Kadel, R.; Keppel, G.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Leder, A.; Ligi, C.; Lim, K. E.; Liu, X.; Ma, Y. G.; Maino, M.; Marini, L.; Martinez, M.; Maruyama, R. H.; Mei, Y.; Moggi, N.; Morganti, S.; Mosteiro, P. J.; Napolitano, T.; Nones, C.; Norman, E. B.; Nucciotti, A.; O’Donnell, T.; Orio, F.; Ouellet, J. L.; Pagliarone, C. E.; Pallavicini, M.; Palmieri, V.; Pattavina, L.; Pavan, M.; Pessina, G.; Pettinacci, V.; Piperno, G.; Pira, C.; Pirro, S.; Pozzi, S.; Previtali, E.; Rosenfeld, C.; Rusconi, C.; Sangiorgio, S.; Santone, D.; Scielzo, N. D.; Singh, V.; Sisti, M.; Smith, A. R.; Taffarello, L.; Tenconi, M.; Terranova, F.; Tomei, C.; Trentalange, S.; Vignati, M.; Wagaarachchi, S. L.; Wang, B. S.; Wang, H. W.; Wilson, J.; Winslow, L. A.; Wise, T.; Woodcraft, A.; Zanotti, L.; Zhang, G. Q.; Zhu, B. X.; Zimmermann, S.; Zucchelli, S.


    We report on the measurement of the two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of 130 Te with the CUORE-0 detector. From an exposure of 33.4 kg year of TeO 22 , the half-life is determined to be T$2ν\\atop{1/2}$ = [8.2 ± 0.2 (stat.) ± 0.6 (syst.)] ×× 10 20 year. This result is obtained after a detailed reconstruction of the sources responsible for the CUORE-0 counting rate, with a specific study of those contributing to the 130130 Te neutrinoless double-beta decay region of interest.

  1. Nicotinic stimulation modulates tyrosine hydroxylase mRNA half-life and protein binding to the 3'UTR in a manner that requires transcription. (United States)

    Roe, David F; Craviso, Gale L; Waymire, Jack C


    Tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression increases in adrenal chromaffin cells treated with the nicotinic agonist, dimethylphenylpiperazinium (DMPP; 1 microM). We are using this response as a model of the changes in TH level that occur during increased cholinergic neural activity. Here we report a 4-fold increase in TH mRNA half-life in DMPP-treated cells chromaffin cells that is apparent when using a pulse-chase analysis to measure TH mRNA half-life. No increase is apparent using actinomycin D to measure half-life, indicating a requirement for ongoing transcription. Characterization of protein binding to the TH 3'UTR responsible for stabilization using labeled TH 3'UTR probes and electro-mobility shift assays shows the presence of two complexes both of which are increased by DMPP-treatment. The faster migrating complex (FMC) increases 2.5-fold and the slower migrating complex (SMC) increases 1.5-fold. Both changes are prevented by actinomycin D. Characterization of the protein binding to the TH UTR probes indicates SMC is disrupted by polyribonucleotides, poly (A) and poly (U), while binding to FMC is reduced by poly (CU). Separation of UV crosslinked RNA-protein complexes on SDS polyacrylamide gels shows FMC to contain a single protein whereas SMC contains three proteins. Northwesterns yielded similar results. Comparison of DMPP-induced protein binding with the poly C binding protein (PCBP) involved in hypoxia induced rat PC12 TH mRNA stability indicates none of the bovine UTR binding proteins are the PCBP. Thus, nicotinic stimulation produces a transcription-dependent increase in TH mRNA half-life that is mediated by previously unrecognized TH mRNA binding proteins.

  2. Pile-up corrections for high-precision superallowed {beta} decay half-life measurements via {gamma}-ray photopeak counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grinyer, G.F. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada)], E-mail:; Svensson, C.E.; Andreoiu, C. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Andreyev, A.N. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Austin, R.A.E. [Department of Astronomy and Physics, St. Mary' s University, Halifax, NS, B3H 3C3 (Canada); Ball, G.C. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Bandyopadhyay, D. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Chakrawarthy, R.S. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Finlay, P. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Garrett, P.E. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, Canada N1G 2W1 (Canada); TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hackman, G. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Hyland, B. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Kulp, W.D. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 0430 (United States); Leach, K.G. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Leslie, J.R. [Department of Physics, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ont., K7L 3N6 (Canada); Morton, A.C.; Pearson, C.J. [TRIUMF, 4004 Wesbrook Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T 2A3 (Canada); Phillips, A.A. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sarazin, F. [Department of Physics, Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Schumaker, M.A. [Department of Physics, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ont, N1G 2W1 (Canada)] (and others)


    A general technique that corrects {gamma}-ray gated {beta} decay-curve data for detector pulse pile-up is presented. The method includes corrections for non-zero time-resolution and energy-threshold effects in addition to a special treatment of saturating events due to cosmic rays. This technique is verified through a Monte Carlo simulation and experimental data using radioactive beams of {sup 26}Na implanted at the center of the 8{pi}{gamma}-ray spectrometer at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF in Vancouver, Canada. The {beta}-decay half-life of {sup 26}Na obtained from counting 1809-keV {gamma}-ray photopeaks emitted by the daughter {sup 26}Mg was determined to be T{sub 1/2}=1.07167{+-}0.00055s following a 27{sigma} correction for detector pulse pile-up. This result is in excellent agreement with the result of a previous measurement that employed direct {beta} counting and demonstrates the feasibility of high-precision {beta}-decay half-life measurements through the use of high-purity germanium {gamma}-ray detectors. The technique presented here, while motivated by superallowed-Fermi {beta} decay studies, is general and can be used for all half-life determinations (e.g. {alpha}-, {beta}-, X-ray, fission) in which a {gamma}-ray photopeak is used to select the decays of a particular isotope.

  3. New limits on Beyond Standard Model physics from a measurement of the half-life of the T=1/2 mirror decay of 19Ne

    CERN Document Server

    Broussard, L; Boswell, M S; Crowell, A S; Dendooven, P; Howell, C R; Kidd, M F; Jungmann, K; Kruithof, W L; Onderwater, C J G; Pattie, R W; Shidling, P D; Sohani, M; van der Hoek, D J; Rogachevskiy, A; Traykov, E; Versolato, O O; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W; Young, A R


    The 1/2+ -> 1/2+ superallowed mixed mirror decay of 19Ne to 19F is excellently suited for high-precision studies of the weak interaction. However, there is some disagreement on the value of the half-life. In a new measurement we have determined this quantity to be T_{1/2} = 17.2832 +/- 0.0051_{(stat)} +/- 0.0066_{(sys)} seconds, which differs from the previous world average by 3 standard deviations. The impact of this measurement on limits for physics beyond the standard model such as the presence of tensor currents is discussed.

  4. Measurement of the Double-Beta Decay Half-Life and Search for the Neutrinoless Double-Beta Decay of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$ with the NEMO-3 Detector

    CERN Document Server

    :,; Augier, C; Bakalyarov, A M; Baker, J D; Barabash, A S; Basharina-Freshville, A; Blondel, S; Blot, S; Bongrand, M; Brudanin, V; Busto, J; Caffrey, A J; Calvez, S; Cascella, M; Cerna, C; Cesar, J P; Chapon, A; Chauveau, E; Chopra, A; Duchesneau, D; Durand, D; Egorov, V; Eurin, G; Evans, J J; Fajt, L; Filosofov, D; Flack, R; Garrido, X; Gómez, H; Guillon, B; Guzowski, P; Hodák, R; Huber, A; Hubert, P; Hugon, C; Jullian, S; Klimenko, A; Kochetov, O; Konovalov, S I; Kovalenko, V; Lalanne, D; Lang, K; Lebedev, V I; Lemière, Y; Noblet, T Le; Liptak, Z; Liu, X R; Loaiza, P; Lutter, G; Mamedov, F; Marquet, C; Mauger, F; Morgan, B; Mott, J; Nemchenok, I; Nomachi, M; Nova, F; Nowacki, F; Ohsumi, H; Pahlka, R B; Perrot, F; Piquemal, F; Povinec, P; Přidal, P; Ramachers, Y A; Remoto, A; Reyss, J L; Richards, B; Riddle, C L; Rukhadze, E; Rukhadze, N I; Saakyan, R; Salazar, R; Sarazin, X; Shitov, Yu; Simard, L; Šimkovic, F; Smetana, A; Smolek, K; Smolnikov, A; Söldner-Rembold, S; Soulé, B; Štekl, I; Suhonen, J; Sutton, C S; Szklarz, G; Thomas, J; Timkin, V; Torre, S; Tretyak, Vl I; Tretyak, V I; Umatov, V I; Vanushin, I; Vilela, C; Vorobel, V; Waters, D; Zhukov, S V; Žukauskas, A


    The NEMO-3 experiment at the Modane Underground Laboratory has investigated the double-$\\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$. Using $5.25$\\,yr of data recorded with a $6.99\\,{\\rm g}$ sample of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$, approximately $150$ double-$\\beta$ decay candidate events have been selected with a signal-to-background ratio greater than $3$. The half-life for the two-neutrino double-$\\beta$ decay of $^{48}{\\rm Ca}$ has been measured to be \\mbox{$T^{2\

  5. 裂变产物94Y和95Y半衰期的测定%Half-life determination of fission products 94Y and95Y

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王世联; 白涛; 师全林; 张小林; 凡金龙; 李奇; 刘杰; 卢嘉春; 常永福


    用脉冲反应堆热中子辐照浓缩235U溶液靶,经快速放射化学分离纯化出94Y和95Y溶液,稀释并制备放射性浓度依次相差~10倍的3个测量源.将测量源放置在井式HPGe探测器井内,采用质量归一法测得94Y和95Y的半衰期分别为(19.16±0.05)min和(10.36±0.03)min.%Solutions of enriched235U were irradiated in thermal-neutron flux producedby apulsed reactor,and 94Yand 95Y werc separated chemically from the fission products immediately.The purified solution of 94Y and 95Y is diluted aboutten timgs in sequence to three concentration solutions.Three Sources were prepared with the solutions.The sources are measured,from the lower concentration to higher onc,with a well-type HPGe detector to determine the half-life of94Y and95Y.The determined half-life results arg(19.16±0.05)min and(10.35±0.04)min for94Y and 95Y respectively.

  6. Results of a search for daily and annual variations of the Po-214 half-life at the two year observation period

    CERN Document Server

    Alexeyev, E N; Gangapshev, A M; Kazalov, V V; Kuzminov, V V; Panasenko, S I; Ratkevich, S S


    The brief description of installation TAU-2 intended for long-term monitoring of the half-life value $\\tau$ ($\\tau_{1/2}$) of the $^{214}$Po is presented. The methods of measurement and processing of collected data are reported. The results of analysis of time series values $\\tau$ with different time step are presented. Total of measurement time was equal to 590 days. Averaged value of the $^{214}$Po half-life was obtained $\\tau=163.46\\pm0.04$ $\\mu$s. The annual variation with an amplitude $A=(8.9\\pm2.3)\\cdot10^{-4}$, solar-daily variation with an amplitude $A_{So}=(7.5\\pm1.2)\\cdot10^{-4}$, lunar-daily variation with an amplitude $A_L=(6.9\\pm2.0)\\cdot10^{-4}$ and sidereal-daily variation with an amplitude $A_S=(7.2\\pm1.2)\\cdot10^{-4}$ were found in a series of $\\tau$ values. The maximal values of amplitude are observed at the moments when the projections of the installation Earth location velocity vectors toward the source of possible variation achieve its maximal magnitudes.

  7. Differential regulation of p21 (waf1) protein half-life by DNA damage and Nutlin-3 in p53 wild-type tumors and its therapeutic implications. (United States)

    Chang, Li-Ju; Eastman, Alan


    DNA damage induces the canonical p53 pathway including elevation of p21 (waf1) resulting in arrest of cell cycle progression. This can protect cells from subsequent Chk1 inhibition. Some p53 wild-type cancer cells such as HCT116 and U2OS exhibit attenuated p21 (waf1) induction upon DNA damage due to translational inhibition, and are incapable of maintaining arrest upon Chk1 inhibition. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this attenuated p21 (waf1) induction also occurred with the non-DNA damaging agent Nutlin-3 which induces p53 by disrupting binding to its negative regulator MDM2. We find that Nutlin-3 circumvented the attenuated induction of p21 (waf1) protein by increasing its half-life which led to G 1 and G 2 arrest in both cell lines. Interestingly, the p21 (waf1) protein half-life remained short on Nutlin-3 in p53 wild-type MCF10A cells; these cells achieve high p21 (waf1) levels through transcriptional upregulation. Consequently, all three p53 wild-type cells but not p53 mutant MDA-MB-231 cancer cells were protected from subsequent incubation with a combination of DNA damage plus a checkpoint inhibitor.

  8. Esculetin Downregulates the Expression of AML1-ETO and C-Kit in Kasumi-1 Cell Line by Decreasing Half-Life of mRNA. (United States)

    Sawney, Sharad; Arora, Rashi; Aggarwal, Kamal K; Saluja, Daman


    One of the most frequent genetic aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is chromosomal translocation between AML1/RUNX1 on chromosome 21 and ETO gene on chromosome 8 resulting in the expression of chimeric oncogene AML1-ETO. Although patients with t(8;21) translocation have good prognosis, 5-year survival is observed only in 50% of the cases. AML1-ETO translocation is usually accompanied by overexpression of mutant C-Kit, a tyrosine kinase, which contributes to uncontrolled proliferation of premature blood cells leading to relapse and poor prognosis. We illustrate the potential use of esculetin on leukemic cell line, Kasumi-1, bearing t(8;21) translocation and mutated C-Kit gene. Esculetin decreases the expression of AML1-ETO at both protein and transcript level within 24 hours of treatment. Half-life of AML1-ETO mRNA was reduced from 7 hours to 1.5 hours. Similarly half-life of C-Kit mRNA was reduced to 2 hours from 5 hours in esculetin treated cells. Esculetin also perturbed the expression of ectopically expressed AML1-ETO in U937 cells. The decreased expression of AML1-ETO chimeric gene was associated with increased expression of LAT1 and RUNX3 genes, targets of AML1. We envisage that discovery of a drug candidate which could target both these mutated genes would be a considerable breakthrough for future application.

  9. Esculetin Downregulates the Expression of AML1-ETO and C-Kit in Kasumi-1 Cell Line by Decreasing Half-Life of mRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Sawney


    Full Text Available One of the most frequent genetic aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML is chromosomal translocation between AML1/RUNX1 on chromosome 21 and ETO gene on chromosome 8 resulting in the expression of chimeric oncogene AML1-ETO. Although patients with t(8;21 translocation have good prognosis, 5-year survival is observed only in 50% of the cases. AML1-ETO translocation is usually accompanied by overexpression of mutant C-Kit, a tyrosine kinase, which contributes to uncontrolled proliferation of premature blood cells leading to relapse and poor prognosis. We illustrate the potential use of esculetin on leukemic cell line, Kasumi-1, bearing t(8;21 translocation and mutated C-Kit gene. Esculetin decreases the expression of AML1-ETO at both protein and transcript level within 24 hours of treatment. Half-life of AML1-ETO mRNA was reduced from 7 hours to 1.5 hours. Similarly half-life of C-Kit mRNA was reduced to 2 hours from 5 hours in esculetin treated cells. Esculetin also perturbed the expression of ectopically expressed AML1-ETO in U937 cells. The decreased expression of AML1-ETO chimeric gene was associated with increased expression of LAT1 and RUNX3 genes, targets of AML1. We envisage that discovery of a drug candidate which could target both these mutated genes would be a considerable breakthrough for future application.

  10. New AMS method to measure the atom ratio {sup 146}Sm/{sup 147}Sm for a half-life determination of {sup 146}Sm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, N. [Tandem Accelerator Complex, Research Facility Center for Science and Technology, University of Tsukuba (Japan); Paul, M., E-mail: [Racah Institute of Physics, Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91904 (Israel); Alcorta, M. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Bowers, M.; Collon, P. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Deibel, C.M. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 46624 (United States); DiGiovine, B. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Goriely, S. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, CP-226, Brussels 1050 (Belgium); Greene, J.P.; Henderson, D.J.; Jiang, C.L. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Kashiv, Y. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); Kay, B.P.; Lee, H.Y.; Marley, S.T. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Nakanishi, T. [Faculty of Chemistry, Institute of Science and Engineering, Kanazawa University (Japan); Pardo, R.C.; Patel, N.; Rehm, K.E. [Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Robertson, D. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556-5670 (United States); and others


    The extinct p-process nuclide {sup 146}Sm (t{sub 1/2} = 103 {+-} 5 Myr) is known to have been present in the Early-Solar System and has been proposed as an astrophysical chronometer. {sup 146}Sm is also intensely used to date meteorite and planetary differentiation processes, enhancing the importance of an accurate knowledge of the {sup 146}Sm half-life. We are engaged in a new determination of the {sup 146}Sm half-life in which the {sup 146}Sm/{sup 147}Sm atom ratio is determined by accelerator mass spectrometry at the ATLAS facility of Argonne National Laboratory. In order to reduce systematic errors in the AMS determination of the {sup 146}Sm/{sup 147}Sm ratios (in the range of 10{sup -7}-10{sup -9}), {sup 146}Sm and {sup 147}Sm ions were alternately counted in the same detector in the focal plane of a gas-filled magnet, respectively in continuous-wave and attenuated mode. Quantitative attenuation is obtained with the 12 MHz pulsed and ns-bunched ATLAS beam by chopping beam pulses with an RF sweeper in a ratio (digitally determined) down to 1:10{sup 6}. The experiments and preliminary results are discussed.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunningham, B.B.; Asprey, L.B.


    The microgram scale isolation and preparation of pure compounds of americium is described. Data are presented to show that the alpha-half-life of the isotope Am{sup 241} is 490 {+-} 14 years. The absorption spectrum of Am(III) in 1M nitric acid in the range 3500-8000 mu is given. The wave lengths of 10 of the most prominent lines in the copper spark emission spectrum of americium are given to the nearest 0.01 {angstrom}. Evidence is presented to show that the potential for the Am(III)-Am(IV) couple in acid solution is more negative than -2v and that the potential for the Am(II)-Am(III) couple is more positive than +0.9v.

  12. The effective and environmental half-life of {sup 137}Cs at Coral Islands at the former US nuclear test site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, William L. E-mail:; Conrado, Cynthia L.; Bogen, Kenneth T.; Stoker, A. Carol


    The United States (US) conducted nuclear weapons testing from 1946 to 1958 at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. Based on previous detailed dose assessments for Bikini, Enewetak, Rongelap, and Utirik Atolls over a period of 28 years, cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) at Bikini Atoll contributes about 85-89% of the total estimated dose through the terrestrial food chain as a result of uptake of {sup 137}Cs by food crops. The estimated integral 30, 50, and 70-year doses were based on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30-year half-life) and other radionuclides. However, there is a continuing inventory of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr in the fresh water portion of the groundwater at all contaminated atolls even though the turnover rate of the fresh groundwater is about 5 years. This is evidence that a portion of the soluble fraction of {sup 137}Cs and {sup 90}Sr inventory in the soil is lost by transport to groundwater when rainfall is heavy enough to cause recharge of the lens, resulting in loss of {sup 137}Cs from the soil column and root zone of the plants. This loss is in addition to that caused by radioactive decay. The effective rate of loss was determined by two methods: (1) indirectly, from time-dependent studies of the {sup 137}Cs concentration in leaves of Pisonia grandis, Guettarda specosia, Tournefortia argentea (also called Messerschmidia), Scaevola taccada, and fruit from Pandanus and coconut trees (Cocos nucifera L.), and (2) more directly, by evaluating the {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr ratios at Bikini Atoll. The mean (and its lower and upper 95% confidence limits) for effective half-life and for environmental-loss half-life (ELH) based on all the trees studied on Rongelap, Bikini, and Enewetak Atolls are 8.5 years (8.0 years, 9.8 years), and 12 years (11 years, 15 years), respectively. The ELH based on the {sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr ratios in soil in 1987 relative to the{sup 137}Cs/{sup 90}Sr ratios at the time of deposition in 1954 is less

  13. Orthogonal assembly of a designed ankyrin repeat protein-cytotoxin conjugate with a clickable serum albumin module for half-life extension. (United States)

    Simon, Manuel; Frey, Raphael; Zangemeister-Wittke, Uwe; Plückthun, Andreas


    The generation of drug conjugates for safe and effective tumor targeting requires binding proteins tolerant to functionalization by rational engineering. Here, we show that Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPins), a novel class of binding proteins not derived from antibodies, can be used as building blocks for facile orthogonal assembly of bioconjugates for tumor targeting with tailored properties. DARPin Ec1, which targets the Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM), was genetically modified with a C-terminal cysteine for conjugation of the small molecule cytotoxin monomethylauristatin F (MMAF). In addition, it was N-terminally functionalized by metabolic introduction of the non-natural amino acid azidohomoalanine to enable linkage of site-specifically dibenzocyclooctyne-modified mouse serum albumin (MSA) for half-life extension using Cu(I)-free click chemistry. The conjugate MSA-Ec1-MMAF was assembled to obtain high yields of a pure and stable drug conjugate as confirmed by various analytical methods and in functional assays. The orthogonality of the assembly led to a defined reaction product and preserved the functional properties of all modules, including EpCAM-specific binding and internalization, FcRn binding mediated by MSA, and cytotoxic potency. Linkage of MMAF to the DARPin increased receptor-specific uptake of the drug while decreasing nonspecific uptake, and further coupling of the conjugate to MSA enhanced this effect. In mice, albumin conjugation increased the serum half-life from 11 min to 17.4 h, resulting in a more than 22-fold increase in the area-under-the-curve (AUC). Our data demonstrate the promise of the DARPin format for facile modular assembly of drug conjugates with improved pharmacokinetic performance for tumor targeting.

  14. [Crystal meth: a particular form of methamphetamine]. (United States)

    Chiadmi, Fouad; Schlatter, Joël


    Crystal Meth: is a synthesis drug whose consumption developed with the beginning of the year 2000 in Europe. Crystal can be swallowed, crunched, smoked, injected or inserted by rectal way. Required effects: "crystal" removes tiredness, brings a feeling of power and of self-control, makes trustful, sexy and merry. Clinical effects: by its sympathomimetic action-like, "crystal" causes hypertension and tachycardia. It crosses the placenta and and is excreted in the mother's milk. It brings to a dependence similar to that of cocaine. "crystal" can generate cardiopulmonary complications, can reveal cognitive and psychological disorders. It leads the consumers to have not protected and repeated sexual relations. in France, the consumption of "crystal" remains marginal. Plan 2007-2011 of assumption of responsibility and prevention of the addictions integrates the elements such as the prevention to fight against the extension of this drug.

  15. rac-2-{[1-(1-Adamant-yl)eth-yl]imino-meth-yl}-5-meth-oxy-phenol. (United States)

    Jin, Xu-Dong; Wang, Hai-Bo; Jin, Yue-Hong


    A novel Schiff base compound, C(20)H(27)NO(2), was obtained by a condensation of rimantadine and 2-hy-droxy-4-meth-oxy-benzaldehyde. An intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond supports the phenol-imine tautomeric form. The adamantane and imino-methyl-4-meth-oxy-phenol units are arranged in a folded conformation [C-N-C-C torsion angle = 110.9 (3)°]. In the crystal, highly hydro-phobic adamantane moieties are inserted between the imino-methyl-4-meth-oxy-phenol units in a sandwich-like arrangement along the c axis.

  16. Metabolically stable bradykinin B2 receptor agonists enhance transvascular drug delivery into malignant brain tumors by increasing drug half-life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glen Daniel


    -lysine-bradykinin and labradimil increased the blood half-life of Gd-DTPA sufficiently enough to increase significantly the tumor tissue Gd-DTPA area under the time-concentration curve. Conclusion Metabolically stable bradykinin B2 receptor agonists, methionine-lysine-bradykinin and labradimil, enhance the transvascular delivery of small chemotherapy drugs across the BBTB of malignant gliomas by increasing the blood half-life of the co-infused drug. The selectivity of the increase in drug delivery into the malignant glioma tissue, but not into normal brain tissue or skeletal muscle tissue, is due to the inherent porous nature of the BBTB of malignant glioma microvasculature.

  17. New limit for the half-life of double beta decay of $^{94}$Zr to the first excited state of $^{94}$Mo

    CERN Document Server

    Dokania, N; Gupta, G; Pal, S; Pillay, R G; Rath, P K; Tretyak, V I; Garai, A; Krishnamoorthy, H; Ghosh, C; Raina, P K; Bhushan, K G


    Double Beta Decay is a phenomenon of fundamental interest for particle physics and the study of these transitions to the excited states is of relevance to the calculation of Nuclear Transition Matrix Element for the process. In the present work, double beta decay of $^{94}$Zr to the $2^{+}_{1}$ excited state of $^{94}$Mo at 871.1 keV is studied using a low background $\\sim$ 250 cm$^3$ HPGe detector. No evidence of this decay was found with a 232 g.y exposure of natural Zirconium. The lower half-life limit obtained for the double beta decay of $\\rm^{94}Zr$ to the $2^{+}_{1}$ excited state of $\\rm^{94}Mo$ is $T_{1/2} > 6.1 \\times 10^{19}$ y at 90\\% C.L. ($T_{1/2} > 2.0 \\times 10^{20}$ y at 68\\% C.L.), a significant improvement by an order of magnitude over the existing experimental limit at 68\\% C.L.

  18. Precision measurement of the half-life and branching ratio of the T=1/2 mirror $\\beta$-decay of $^{37}$K

    CERN Multimedia

    We propose to study the T=1/2 mirror $\\beta$-decay of $^{37}$K. Nuclear mirror $\\beta$-decay is a competitive means to test the electroweak model by means of the high-precision measurement of V$_{ud}$ element of the CKM quark mixing matrix. One key ingredient to obtain V$_{ud}$ is the force of the transition, Ft, which has to be determined with a relative precision below 10$^{−3}$. This quantity is related to the half-life T$_{1/2}$ of the decaying nucleus, the branching ratio BR for this decay and the mass difference between the mother and daughter nucleus (Q value). Another important feature is the mixing ratio $\\rho$ between the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller character of the transition. In most cases, $\\rho$ is the major contributor to the uncertainty on Ft. Available data concerning T$_{1/2}$ and BR of $^{37}$K suffer from a lack of precision that will be easily reduced by a dedicated experiment.

  19. Analytical expression for the α-decay half-life and understanding the data including very long life-times and superheavy nuclei (United States)

    Sahu, Basudeb


    An analytically solvable composite potential that can closely reproduce the combined potential of an α+nucleus system consisting of attractive nuclear and repulsive electrostatic potentials is developed. The exact s-wave solution of the Schrödinger equation with this potential in the interior region and the outside Coulomb wave function are used to give a heuristic expression for the width or half-life of the quasibound state at the accurately determined resonance energy, called the Q value of the decaying system. By using the fact that for a relatively low resonance energy, the quasibound state wave function is quite similar to the bound state wave function where the amplitude of the wave function in the interaction region is very large as compared to the amplitude outside, the resonance energy could easily be calculated from the variation of relative probability densities of inside and outside waves as a function of energy. By considering recent α-decay systems, the applicability of the model is demonstrated with excellent explanations being found for the experimental data of Q values and half-lives of a vast range of masses including superheavy nuclei and nuclei with very long lifetimes (of order 1022 s). Throughout the application, by simply varying the value of a single potential parameter describing the flatness of the barrier, we obtain successful results in cases with as many as 70 pairs of α+daughter nucleus systems.

  20. Neutron activation of natural materials in a PWR spectrum: feedback on {sup 116m}In relative γ emission intensities and half-life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruel, Adrien; Geslot, Benoit; Di Salvo, Jacques; Blaise, Patrick; Girard, Jean-Michel; Destouches, Christophe [CEA, DEN, SPEx, Cadarache, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)


    During the MAESTRO program, carried out between 2011 and 2014 in MINERVE zero power reactor, common Gen-II and Gen-III light water reactor materials were irradiated. For some of these materials, the decay of their activation products was also measured by γ spectrometry. Initially devoted to the measurement of the integral capture cross section by activation and reactivity-oscillation method, these results can also provide useful information on decay data of various radionuclides. This approach of this experiment led to a common roadmap shared by the Experimental Physics Section and the Henri Becquerel National Laboratory to improve decay data in nuclear data libraries. Results discussed in this paper concern the relative emission intensities of the main γ rays of {sup 116m}In. Six irradiations of samples with various physical forms of {sup nat}In were carried out. Measurements were analyzed using decay data from several evaluations and it is shown that γ ray activities are not consistent. Analyses were carried out to provide new relative γ emission intensities from these measurements. The {sup 116m}In half-life has also been measured and shows a good agreement with existing values. Finally, an overview of the foreseen results on additional decay data from the MAESTRO program is given. (authors)

  1. Upregulation of the mammalian X chromosome is associated with enhanced transcription initiation, MOF-mediated H4K16 acetylation, and longer RNA half-life (United States)

    Deng, Xinxian; Berletch, Joel B.; Ma, Wenxiu; Nguyen, Di Kim; Noble, William S.; Shendure, Jay; Disteche, Christine M.


    SUMMARY X upregulation in mammals increases levels of expressed X-linked transcripts to compensate for autosomal bi-allelic expression. Here, we present molecular mechanisms that enhance X expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Active mouse X-linked promoters are enriched in the initiation form of RNA polymerase II (PolII-S5p) and in specific histone marks including H4K16ac and histone variant H2AZ. The H4K16 acetyltransferase MOF, known to mediate the Drosophila X upregulation, is also enriched on the mammalian X. Depletion of MOF or MSL1 in mouse ES cells causes a specific decrease in PolII-S5p and in expression of a subset of X-linked genes. Analyses of RNA half-life datasets show increased stability of mammalian X-linked transcripts. Both ancestral X-linked genes, defined as those conserved on chicken autosomes, and newly acquired X-linked genes are upregulated by similar mechanisms but to a different extent, suggesting that subsets of genes are distinctly regulated dependent on their evolutionary history. PMID:23523075

  2. Precision measurement of the half-life and the $\\beta$-decay Q value of the superallowed 0$^{+}\\rightarrow$ 0$^{+}\\beta$-decay of $^{38}$Ca

    CERN Multimedia


    We propose to study the $\\beta$-decay of $^{38}$Ca. In a first instance, we intend to perform a high-precision study of the half-life of this nucleus as well as a measurement of its $\\beta$-decay Q-value with ISOLTRAP. At a later stage, we propose to study its decay branches to determine the super-allowed branching ratio with high precision. These measurements are essential to improve our understanding of the theoretical corrections (in particular the $\\delta$c correction factor) needed to calculate the universal Ft value from the ft value determined for individual nuclei. For this nucleus, the correction factor is predicted to increase significantly as compared to the nine well-studied nuclei between $^{10}$C and $^{54}$Co and the model calculations used to determine the corrections, in particular the shell-model calculations, are well under control in this mass region. Therefore, the T$_{Z}$= -1 nuclei between A=18 and A=38 are ideal test cases for the correction factors which limit today the precision on t...

  3. pH-selective mutagenesis of protein-protein interfaces: in silico design of therapeutic antibodies with prolonged half-life. (United States)

    Spassov, Velin Z; Yan, Lisa


    Understanding the effects of mutation on pH-dependent protein binding affinity is important in protein design, especially in the area of protein therapeutics. We propose a novel method for fast in silico mutagenesis of protein-protein complexes to calculate the effect of mutation as a function of pH. The free energy differences between the wild type and mutants are evaluated from a molecular mechanics model, combined with calculations of the equilibria of proton binding. The predicted pH-dependent energy profiles demonstrate excellent agreement with experimentally measured pH-dependency of the effect of mutations on the dissociation constants for the complex of turkey ovomucoid third domain (OMTKY3) and proteinase B. The virtual scanning mutagenesis identifies all hotspots responsible for pH-dependent binding of immunoglobulin G (IgG) to neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) and the results support the current understanding of the salvage mechanism of the antibody by FcRn based on pH-selective binding. The method can be used to select mutations that change the pH-dependent binding profiles of proteins and guide the time consuming and expensive protein engineering experiments. As an application of this method, we propose a computational strategy to search for mutations that can alter the pH-dependent binding behavior of IgG to FcRn with the aim of improving the half-life of therapeutic antibodies in the target organism.

  4. Ligand-substitution mode capillary electrophoretic reactor: extending capillary electrophoretic reactor toward measurement of slow dissociation kinetics with a half-life of hours. (United States)

    Iki, Nobuhiko; Takahashi, Mariko; Takahashi, Toru; Hoshino, Hitoshi


    A method employing capillary electrophoresis (CE) was developed to determine the rate constant of the very slow spontaneous dissociation of a complex species. The method uses a CE reactor (CER) to electrophoretically separate components from a complex zone and, thus, spontaneously dissociate a complex. The dissociation is accelerated by ligand substitution (LS) involving a competing ligand added to the electrophoretic buffer. The LS-CER method is validated using the dissociation of a Ti(IV)-catechin complex and EDTA as a competing ligand. There is good agreement between the spontaneous dissociation rate constant (k(d) = (1.64 +/- 0.63) x 10(-4) s(-1)) and the rate constant obtained by a conventional batchwise LS reaction (k(d) = (1.43 +/- 0.04) x 10(-4) s(-1)). Furthermore, the usefulness of the method is demonstrated using a Ti(IV)-tiron complex, for which k(d) = (0.51 +/- 0.43) x 10(-4) s(-1), corresponding to a half-life (t(1/2)) of 3.8 h. Notably, a single run of LS-CER for the Ti(IV) complex is completed within 40 min, implying that LS-CER requires a considerably shorter measurement time (roughly equal to t(1/2)) than conventional CER. LS-CER can be widely applied to determine the spontaneous dissociation rates of inorganic diagnostic and therapeutic reagents as well as of biomolecular complexes.

  5. Research on Half-life Measuring Index of Chinese Psychology Science Based on Bibliometrics%基于文献计量学的我国心理学学科半衰期分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    文章对心理学学科文献的引用和被引情况进行统计分析,通过学科文献被引半衰期和引用半衰期指标及其相关影响因素的分析,发现:心理学学科引用半衰期明显长于被引半衰期;心理学学科非常注重参考和借鉴国外的研究成果,但引用外文文献的时效相对滞后,说明我国心理学研究落后于国际水平;基础心理学半衰期最长,发展与教育心理学半衰期最短,比较符合偏理论的学科半衰期较长,偏应用的学科半衰期较短的规律。%This paper makes a statistical analysis of research papers' citation. Through analyzing the indexes of half- life of literature and the reference factors, it is found that citing half-life is longer than cited half-life in psychology. It is important to take reference of foreign research achievements in psychology, but the cited foreign papers are lagging, which shows psychology in China lags behind international level. The half-life of basic psychology is longest, while the half-life of development and education psychology is shortest, which shows the rule that half-life of discipline that focus more on theory is longer than the discipline that focus more on application.

  6. Alterative application of five anticonvulsants according to the half life for the treatment of status epilepticus in children with severe viral encephalitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    BACKGROUND: Traditional subhibernation therapy may easily cause complications, such as respiratory depression and hyportension because of application of chlorpromazine hydrochloride and promethazine in a large dosage.OBJECTIVE: To observe therapeutic effect of modified subhibernation therapy (alterative application of five anticonvulsants according to the half life) on status epilepticus in children with severe viral encephalitis (VE).DESIGN: Contrast observation.SETTING: Department of Pediatrics, the First Hospital of Jilin University.PARTICIPANTS: The participants in present study were 96 patients withsevere viral encephalitis including 52 boys and 44 girls who received treatment in the Department of Pediatrics, the First Hospital of Jilin University from February 2000 to March 2006. All children met the diagnostic criteria of Zhufutong Practice Pediatrics (the seventh edition). Two weeks ago, they ever got upper respiratory infection or enteronitis and so on before the onset, spirit abnormal, behavior disorder, limbs act disorder, vomit, headache, convulsion,nervous system masculine signs such as limbs act disord, autonomic nerve damage manifestation, brain nerve palsy, dysreflexia, meningeal irritation sign, cerebrospinal fluid and electroencephalography (EEG)abnormity. All parents provided the confirmed consent. The patients were randomly divided into control group (n =40) and experimental group (n =56).METHODS: Patients in the control group received anticonvulsion, ice compress and routine treatment. The convulsion was treated with five drugs: 0.5 mg/kg wintermin and phenergan, respectively, 100 g/L chlorpromazine hydrochloride (0.5 mL/kg), 5 mg/kg luminal, 0.3 mg/kg ansiolin. When convulsion attacked,those five drugs were given alternatively; however, those were not given if the convulsion did not attack.Children in the experimental group were treated with improved subhibernation therapy based on routine treatment. The dosages of anticonvulsants were as the

  7. Studies on the mechanism of the epileptiform activity induced by U18666A. II. concentration, half-life and distribution of radiolabeled U18666A in the brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cenedella, R.J.; Sarkar, C.P.; Towns, L.


    The concentration, half-life, and distribution in brain of U18666A, a drug that can drastically alter cerebral lipids and induce a chronic epileptiform state, was determined following both acute and chronic drug administration. U18666A specifically labeled with tritium was prepared by custom synthesis. Brain levels of 1 x 10(-6)M and higher were reached soon after giving an acute 10-mg/kg dose (i.p. or s.c.) of U18666A containing 7-/sup 3/H-U18666A of known specific activity. A steady state concentration of 1 to 2 x 10(-6)M was reached with chronic injection of 10 mg/kg every 4th day, a treatment schedule that results in altered brain lipids and induction of epilepsy if begun soon after birth. The disappearance of U18666A from both brain and serum was described by two similar biexponential processes, a brief rapid clearance (t1/2 . 10 h) and a sustained and much slower one (t1/2 . 65 h). Brain levels of the drug were about 10 times higher than serum at all times examined. Few differences were seen in the regional distribution of radiolabeled drug in brain as determined by both direct analysis and by autoradiographic examination; but the drug did concentrate in lipid-rich subcellular fractions. For example, the synaptosome and myelin fractions each contained about 25-35% of both the total /sup 3/H-labeled drug and total lipid in whole brain. The lipid composition of these fractions was drastically altered in treated animals. In conclusion, the chronic epileptiform state induced by U18666A does not appear to involve localization of the drug in a specific brain region or particular cell type. Rather, the condition could involve localization of the drug in lipid-rich membranes and marked changes in the composition of these membranes.

  8. Long circulating half-life and high tumor selectivity of the photosensitizer meta-tetrahydroxyphenylchlorin conjugated to polyethylene glycol in nude mice grafted with a human colon carcinoma. (United States)

    Westerman, P; Glanzmann, T; Andrejevic, S; Braichotte, D R; Forrer, M; Wagnieres, G A; Monnier, P; van den Bergh, H; Mach, J P; Folli, S


    In a mode of nude mice bearing a human colon carcinoma xenograft, the biodistribution and tumor localization of metatetrahydroxyphenylchlorin (m-THPC) coupled to polyethylene glycol (PEG) were compared with those of the free form of this photosensitizer used in photodynamic therapy (PDT). At different times after i.v. injection of both forms of 125I-labeled photosensitizer, m-THPC-PEG gave on average a 2-fold higher tumor uptake than free m-THPC. In addition, at early times after injection, m-THPC-PEG showed a 2-fold longer blood circulating half-life and a 4-fold lower liver uptake than free m-THPC. The tumor to normal tissue ratios of radioactivity concentrations were always higher for m-THPC-PEG than for free m-THPC at any time point studied from 2 to 96 hr post-injection. Significant coefficients of correlation between direct fluorescence measurements and radioactivity counting were obtained within each organ tested. Fluorescence microscopy studies showed that m-THPC-PEG was preferentially localized near the tumor vessels, whereas m-THPC was more diffusely distributed inside the tumor tissue. To verify whether m-THPC-PEG conjugate remained phototoxic in vivo, PDT experiments were performed 72 hr after injection and showed that m-THPC-PEG was as potent as free m-THPC in the induction of tumor regression provided that the irradiation does for m-THPC-PEG conjugate was adapted to a well-tolerated 2-fold higher level. The overall results demonstrate first the possibility of improving the in vivo tumor localization of a hydrophobic dye used for PDT by coupling it to PEG and second that a photosensitizer conjugated to a macromolecule can remain phototoxic in vivo.

  9. Effect of Truncating AUC at 12, 24 and 48 hr When Evaluating the Bioequivalence of Drugs with a Long Half-Life. (United States)

    Moreno, Isabel; Ochoa, Dolores; Román, Manuel; Cabaleiro, Teresa; Abad-Santos, Francisco


    Bioequivalence studies of drugs with a long half-life require long periods of time for pharmacokinetic sampling. The latest update of the European guideline allows the area under the curve (AUC) truncated at 72 hr to be used as an alternative to AUC0-t as the primary parameter. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of truncating the AUC at 48, 24 and 12 hr on the acceptance of the bioequivalence criterion as compared with truncation at 72 hr in bioequivalence trials. The effect of truncated AUC on the within-individual coefficient of variation (CVw) and on the ratio of the formulations was also analysed. Twenty-eight drugs were selected from bioequivalence trials. Pharmacokinetic data were analysed using WinNonLin 2.0 based on the trapezoidal method. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to obtain the ratios and 90% confidence intervals for AUC at different time-points. The degree of agreement of AUC0-72 in relation to AUC0-48 and AUC0-24, according to the Landis and Koch classification, was 'almost perfect'. Statistically significant differences were observed when the CVw of AUC truncated at 72, 48 and 24 hr was compared with the CVw of AUC0-12. There were no statistically significant differences in the AUC ratio at any time-point. Compared to AUC0-72, Pearson's correlation coefficient for mean AUC, AUC ratio and AUC CVw was worse for AUC0-12 than AUC0-24 or AUC0-48. These preliminary results could suggest that AUC truncation at 24 or 48 hr is adequate to determine whether two formulations are bioequivalent.

  10. Use of expression-enhancing terminators in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to increase mRNA half-life and improve gene expression control for metabolic engineering applications. (United States)

    Curran, Kathleen A; Karim, Ashty S; Gupta, Akash; Alper, Hal S


    Control of gene and protein expression of both endogenous and heterologous genes is a key component of metabolic engineering. While a large amount of work has been published characterizing promoters for this purpose, less effort has been exerted to elucidate the role of terminators in yeast. In this study, we characterize over 30 terminators for use in metabolic engineering applications in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and determine mRNA half-life changes to be the major cause of the varied protein and transcript expression level. We demonstrate that the difference in transcript level can be over 6.5-fold even for high strength promoters. The influence of terminator selection is magnified when coupled with a low-expression promoter, with a maximum difference in protein expression of 11-fold between an expression-enhancing terminator and the parent plasmid terminator and over 35-fold difference when compared with a no-terminator baseline. This is the first time that terminators have been investigated in the context of multiple promoters spanning orders of magnitude in activity. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of terminator selection for metabolic engineering by using a mutant xylose isomerase gene as a proof-of-concept. Through pairing an expression-enhancing terminator with a low-expression promoter, we were able to achieve the same phenotypic result as with a promoter considerably higher in strength. Moreover, we can further boost the phenotype of the high-strength promoter by pairing it with an expression-enhancing terminator. This work highlights how terminator elements can be used to control metabolic pathways in the same way that promoters are traditionally used in yeast. Together, this work demonstrates that terminators will be an important part of heterologous gene expression and metabolic engineering for yeast in the future.

  11. First measurements on how pressure affects the half-life of 22Na: Comparison to theory and analog to 40K (United States)

    Lee, K. K.; Nelson, R. O.; Rundberg, R.; Steinle-Neumann, G.


    Radioactive decay plays a central role in planetary sciences as appropriate decay schemes are used to date geological and astronomical processes and radioactivity provides an important source of heat in planetary bodies, both in their early history during accretion and differentiation and also over geological times. The most important isotopes that currently heat the Earth are 40K, 232Th, 235U and 238U. As radioactive decay is a nuclear process it is considered to be insensitive to external factors such as pressure or chemical environment. This has been shown to be true for α, β+ and β- processes, however, electron capture decay is dependent on the electron charge density at the nucleus of a compound, which is sensitive to the external environment. Using high-resolution Ge gamma-ray detectors to make relative measurements with 137Cs and the positron decay of 22Na, we measure how pressure affects the half-life of 22Na due to electron-capture decay. Our systematics look favorable for observing this small effect. We will compare our preliminary measurements with complementary ab-initio all-electron computations using the linearized augmented plane wave method (LAPW). Using 22Na as an analog for 40K, our results suggest that the pressure effect for 40K, combined with the opposing effects of high temperatures, will have little, discernible effect on the heat production in the deep Earth as our predicted changes are smaller than the uncertainties in the total decay constant for 40K. This work was supported in part by the Carnegie/DOE Alliance Center (CDAC), through the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances Program of the U.S. Department of Energy. The LANSCE facility is operated, and portions of this work were performed, by Los Alamos National Security, LLC, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC52- 06NA25396.

  12. Poly(meth)acrylates obtained by cascade reaction. (United States)

    Popescu, Dragos; Keul, Helmut; Moeller, Martin


    Preparation, purification, and stabilization of functional (meth)acrylates with a high dipole moment are complex, laborious, and expensive processes. In order to avoid purification and stabilization of the highly reactive functional monomers, a concept of cascade reactions was developed comprising enzymatic monomer synthesis and radical polymerization. Transacylation of methyl acrylate (MA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) with different functional alcohols, diols, and triols (1,2,6-hexanetriol and glycerol) in the presence of Novozyme 435 led to functional (meth)acrylates. After the removal of the enzyme by means of filtration, removal of excess (meth)acrylate and/or addition of a new monomer, e.g., 2-hydroxyethyl (meth)acrylate the (co)polymerization via free radical (FRP) or nitroxide mediated radical polymerization (NMP) resulted in poly[(meth)acrylate]s with predefined functionalities. Hydrophilic, hydrophobic as well as ionic repeating units were assembled within the copolymer. The transacylation of MA and MMA with diols and triols carried out under mild conditions is an easy and rapid process and is suitable for the preparation of sensitive monomers.

  13. Meth mouth severity in response to drug-use patterns and dental access in methamphetamine users. (United States)

    Brown, Ronni E; Morisky, Donald E; Silverstein, Steven J


    Meth mouth is the rapid development of tooth decay in methamphetamine users. Our study questioned whether drug-use patterns and dental care access are risk factors affecting the severity of meth mouth. Participants received dental examinations, and the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) were counted and used to measure meth mouth severity.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Zhigalov


    Full Text Available Objective: to investigate the impact of the selectivity and half-life of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs on the development of subclinical kidney injury (SKI. A standard physical examination was made.Patients and methods. The study included 80 patients with a verified rheumatoid arthritis (RA diagnosis. The patients filled in a specially designed questionnaire to explore a history of drug use. As markers of SKI, the investigators determined the concentrations of albumin, α1-microglobulin (α1-MG, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP in urine. A control group consisted of 20 apparently healthy individuals matched for age and gender.Results. 80 patients suffering from RA received drug therapy. Of them, 82.5% and 87.5% took NSAIDs and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs, respectively. The levels of SKI markers were compared in three groups of the examinees: 1 NSAID-treated patients; 2 NSAID-untreated patients; 3 a control group. There were statistically significant differences between all the groups (p<0.05. Comparison of the levels of SKI markers revealed no statistically significant difference in the groups receiving selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors (n=18.6%, in those taking nonselective ones (n=68.6%, and the control group. Comparison of the levels of SKI markers demonstrated significantly higher >< 0.05. Comparison of the levels of SKI markers revealed no statistically significant difference in the groups receiving selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 inhibitors (n=18.6%, in those taking nonselective ones (n=68.6%, and the control group. Comparison of the levels of SKI markers demonstrated significantly higher α1-MG levels in the long-acting NSAID groups (n=8.6% than in the short-acting NSAID group (n=80%. ALT, ALP, and microalbuminuria showed a similar trend that failed to reach statistical significance.Conclusion: NSAIDs remain a group of medications with a certain nephrotoxic effect. At the

  15. Biological half-life of radioactive cesium in Japanese rockfish Sebastes cheni contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. (United States)

    Matsumoto, Akira; Shigeoka, Yu; Arakawa, Hisayuki; Hirakawa, Naoto; Morioka, Yoshiaki; Mizuno, Takuji


    Since the Fukushima accident in March 2011 the concentration of radioactive cesium in Japanese rockfish (Sebastes cheni) has been decreasing slower than other fish species. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the possibility of slow elimination rate (i.e., relatively longer Tb) as one of the reasons for the slow decrease in (137)Cs concentrations in Japanese rockfish (S. cheni). To do this, we reared twenty-three individuals of this species for a period of about 1 year, during which time we measured the (137)Cs concentrations and γ-ray spectra 14 times by using a high-efficiency NaI(Tl) scintillator. We then examined the relationship between the (137)Cs concentrations and the total length of each individual. We estimated the biological half-life (Tb, day) for each individual using the total number of (137)Cs counts in the energy region, and examined the effects of total length and (137)Cs concentration on Tb by generalized linear model (GLM). We also examined the effect of sex, total length, seawater temperature, and the (137)Cs concentration of seawater on temporal changes in the (137)Cs count reduction rate by GLM. There was no clear relationship between the corrected whole-body (137)Cs concentrations and the total length in females, however there was a significant positive correlation between these two variables in males. The difference between males and females may be attributable to variation in the degree of dilution because of variable growth of individuals, and suggests that the (137)Cs concentrations of small individuals may be greatly diluted because of faster growth. However, there was no significant difference in Tb between sexes. The mean Tb (±SD) in all individuals was 269 (±39) days; this Tb value is 2.7-5.4 times longer than past Tb values (marine fish: 50-100 days), and is thought to be one of the reasons for the slower decrease in (137)Cs concentrations in this species than other fish species on the coast of Fukushima. The GLM

  16. N-(4-Meth-oxy-phen-yl)-6-methyl-2-phenyl-5-{[4-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)anilino]meth-yl}pyrimidin-4-amine. (United States)

    Cieplik, Jerzy; Pluta, Janusz; Bryndal, Iwona; Lis, Tadeusz


    The title compound, C26H23F3N4O, crystallizes with two symmetry-independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit, denoted A and B, which differ mainly in the rotation of the meth-oxy-phenyl ring. The -CF3 group of mol-ecule B is disordered by rotation, with the F atoms split over two sets of sites; the occupancy factor for the major component is 0.853 (4). The dihedral angles between the pyrimidine ring and the attached phenyl, meth-oxy-phenyl and tri-fluoro-methyl-phenyl rings are 8.1 (2), 37.5 (2) and 70.7 (2)°, respectively, in mol-ecule A, and 9.3 (2), 5.3 (2) and 79.7 (2)° in mol-ecule B. An intra-molecular N-H⋯N hydrogen bond occurs in each mol-ecule. In the crystal, two crystallographically independent mol-ecules associate into a dimer via a pair of N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds, with a resulting R 2 (2)(12) ring motif and π-π stacking inter-actions [centroid-centroid distance = 3.517 (4) Å] between the pyrimidine rings. For the A mol-ecules, there are inter-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds between an aryl C atom of meth-oxy-phenyl ring and a meth-oxy O atom of an adjacent mol-ecule. A similar inter-action is lacking in the B mol-ecules.

  17. Zwitterionic 4-bromo-6-meth-oxy-2-{[tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)methyl]-iminiumyl-meth-yl}phenolate: crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis. (United States)

    Lee, See Mun; Lo, Kong Mun; Tan, Sang Loon; Tiekink, Edward R T


    In the solid state, the title compound, C12H16BrNO5 [systematic name: 4-bromo-2-((1E)-{[1,3-dihy-droxy-2-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)propan-2-yl]iminium-yl}meth-yl)-6-meth-oxy-benzen-1-olate], C12H16BrNO5, is found in the keto-amine tautomeric form, with an intra-molecular iminium-N-H⋯O(phenolate) hydrogen bond and an E conformation about the C=N bond. Both gauche (two) and anti relationships are found for the methyl-hydroxy groups. In the crystal, a supra-molecular layer in the bc plane is formed via hy-droxy-O-H⋯O(hy-droxy) and charge-assisted hy-droxy-O-H⋯O(phenolate) hydrogen-bonding inter-actions; various C-H⋯O inter-actions provide additional cohesion to the layers, which stack along the a axis with no directional inter-actions between them. A Hirshfeld surface analysis confirms the lack of specific inter-actions in the inter-layer region.

  18. 6,12,18,24-Tetra-meth-oxy-4,10,16,22-tetra-kis-[(meth-oxy-carbon-yl)meth-oxy]-2,8,14,20-tetra-kis-(2-phenyl-eth-yl)resorcin[4]arene. (United States)

    Pansuriya, Pramod B; Friedrich, Holger B; Maguire, Glenn E M


    The title compound, C(76)H(80)O(16), is a macrocyclic structure. This novel resorcin[4]arene derivative has (meth-oxy-carbon-yl)meth-oxy 'head' groups on the upper rim. The compound has a C(2v) 'boat' geometry and there are a range of C-H⋯O contacts in the crystal structure.

  19. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of mRNA decay: half-life of Beta-actin mRNA in human leukemia CCRF-CEM and Nalm-6 cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barredo Julio C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background We describe an alternative method to determine mRNA half-life (t1/2 based on the Real-Time RT-PCR procedure. This approach was evaluated by using the β-actin gene as a reference molecule for measuring of mRNA stability. Results Human leukemia Nalm-6 and CCRF-CEM cells were treated with various concentrations of Actinomycin D to block transcription and aliquots were removed periodically. Total RNA was isolated and quantified using the RiboGreen® fluorescent dye with the VersaFluor Fluorometer System. One μg of total RNA was reverse transcribed and used as template for the amplification of a region of the β-actin gene (231 bp. To generate the standard curve, serial ten-fold dilutions of the pBactin-231 vector containing the cDNA amplified fragment were employed, β-actin mRNAs were quantified by Real-Time RT-PCR using the SYBR® Green I fluorogenic dye and data analyzed using the iCycle iQ system software. Using this method, the β-actin mRNA exhibited a half-life of 6.6 h and 13.5 h in Nalm-6 and CCRF-CEM cells, respectively. The t1/2 value obtained for Nalm-6 is comparable to those estimated from Northern blot studies, using normal human leukocytes (5.5 h. Conclusions We have developed a rapid, sensitive, and reliable method based on Real-Time RT-PCR for measuring mRNA half-life. Our results confirm that β-actin mRNA half-life can be affected by the cellular growth rate.

  20. Childhood trauma and METH abuse among men who have sex with men: Implications for intervention. (United States)

    Lopez-Patton, Maria; Kumar, Mahendra; Jones, Deborah; Fonseca, Marla; Kumar, Adarsh M; Nemeroff, Charles B


    Methamphetamine (METH) has become one of the most widely abused drugs in South Florida, particularly among MSM who may or may not be HIV seropositive. High rates of childhood trauma have been reported among HIV-infected MSM (Chartier et al., 2010), but, the association of childhood trauma, and mood disorders with methamphetamine use in HIV-infected men, has not been comprehensively explored. A better understanding of the association between these factors could improve existing substance abuse treatment intervention strategies and medical treatment programs (e.g., medication adherence; Carrico, 2010) to enhance positive health outcomes for male meth abusers living with the psychological consequences of childhood abuse. This study, as part of a larger study, examined the occurrence of childhood trauma and depression in a group of HIV seropositive METH abusing MSM. Significantly higher levels of depression symptom severity were found among METH users relative to non-METH users (p METH users also reported higher frequencies of emotional, physical and sexual child abuse relative to non-METH users (p meth users, depression was predicted by childhood emotional neglect. These results suggest that childhood maltreatment may be implicated in the development of emotional distress (e.g., depression) and higher prevalence of methamphetamine/drug abuse in this population. These findings have important implications for substance abuse interventions, specifically targeting METH addiction among MSM. Addressing childhood trauma and depression may play a key role in enhancing the effectiveness of interventions for methamphetamine addiction.

  1. (E)-4-Meth-oxy-N'-(2,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzyl-idene)benzohydrazide hemihydrate. (United States)

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Boonnak, Nawong; Horkaew, Jirapa; Quah, Ching Kheng; Fun, Hoong-Kun


    The title compound crystallizes as a hemihydrate, C18H20N2O5·0.5H2O. The mol-ecule exists in an E conformation with respect to the C=N imine bond. The 4-meth-oxy-phenyl unit is disordered over two sets of sites with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.54 (2):0.46 (2). The dihedral angles between the benzene rings are 29.20 (9) and 26.59 (9)°, respectively, for the major and minor components of the 4-meth-oxy-substituted ring. All meth-oxy substituents lie close to the plane of the attached benzene rings [the Cmeth-yl-O-C-C torsion angles range from -4.0 (12) to 3.9 (2)°]. In the crystal, the components are linked into chains propagating along [001] via N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O inter-actions.

  2. (E)-2-Meth-oxy-9-(2-meth-oxy-9H-xanthen-9-yl-idene)-9H-xanthene. (United States)

    Tian, Xiang-Yu; Song, Qin-Hua


    The title compound, C28H20O4, was synthesized by a bimolecular Zn-HCl reduction in glacial acetic acid using the meth-oxy-substituted xanthone as a starting material. The crystal structure shows that the 2,2'-meth-oxy-bixanthenyl-idene unit is an E-type conformation anti-folded conformer. The mol-ecule lies on an inversion center. The meth-oxy group is almost coplanar with the attached benzene ring, with a C-O-C-C torsion angle of 179.38 (14)°.

  3. Crystal structure of 2-[chloro-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)meth-yl]-2-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-5,5-di-methyl-cyclo-hexane-1,3-dione. (United States)

    Chelli, Saloua; Troshin, Konstantin; Lakhdar, Sami; Mayr, Herbert; Mayer, Peter


    In the title compound, C23H25ClO4, the cyclo-hexane ring adopts a chair conformation with the 4-meth-oxy-phenyl substituent in an axial position and the chloro-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)methyl substituent in an equatorial position. The packing features inversion dimers formed by pairs of C-H⋯O contacts and strands along [100] and [010] established by further C-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl contacts, respectively.

  4. Shiga toxin type 2 (Stx2), a potential agent of bioterrorism, has a short distribution and a long elimination half-life, and induces kidney and thymus lesions in rats. (United States)

    Liu, Yue-Nan; Wang, Sheng-Han; Li, Tao; Wang, Qin; Tu, Wei; Cai, Kun; Hou, Xiao-Jun; Tian, Ren-Mao; Gao, Xiang; Liu, Hao; Xiao, Le; Shi, Jing; Cheng, Yuan-Guo; Li, Jian-Chun; Wang, Hui


    Shiga toxin type 2, a major virulence factor produced by the Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli, is a potential toxin agent of bioterrorism. In this study, iodine-125 (125I) was used as an indicator to describe the in vivo Stx2 biodistribution profile. The rats were injected intravenously (i.v.) with 125I-Stx2 at three doses of 5.1-127.5 μg/kg body weight. Stx2 had a short distribution half-life (t (1/2)α, less than 6 min) and a long elimination half-life in rat. The toxicokinetics of Stx2 in rats was dose dependent and nonlinear. Stx2 concentrations in various tissues were detected at 5-min, 0.5-h, and 72-h postinjection. High radioactivity was found in the lungs, kidneys, nasal turbinates, and sometimes in the eyes, which has never been reported in previous studies. In a preliminary assessment, lesions were found in the kidney and thymus.

  5. Methamphetamine abuse and oral health: a pilot study of "meth mouth". (United States)

    Ravenel, Michele C; Salinas, Carlos F; Marlow, Nicole M; Slate, Elizabeth H; Evans, Zachary P; Miller, Peter M


    Abuse of methamphetamine (meth), a potent central nervous system stimulant, has been associated with significant dental disease. Current descriptions of "meth mouth" are limited in their scope and fail to illuminate the potential pathogenic mechanisms of meth for oral disease. The purpose of this pilot study was to characterize the oral health of subjects with a history of meth abuse as compared to nonabusing control subjects. A total of 28 meth abusers and 16 control subjects were enrolled. Interviews and surveys regarding meth abuse, dental history, oral hygiene, and diet were collected. A comprehensive oral cavity examination including salivary characterization was completed. We observed significantly higher rates of decayed surfaces, missing teeth, tooth wear, plaque, and calculus among meth abusers. No significant difference in salivary flow rates were noted, yet results showed significant trends for lower pH and decreased buffering capacity. These findings suggest that salivary quality may play a more important role in meth mouth than previously considered. Salivary analysis may be useful when managing a dental patient with history of methamphetamine abuse.

  6. 40 CFR 721.4840 - Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane. 721.4840 Section 721.4840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC... Substances § 721.4840 Substituted tri-phenyl-meth-ane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new...

  7. Trafficking in Meth: An Analysis of the Differences between Male and Female Dealers (United States)

    Senjo, Scott R.


    Male and female meth dealers exhibit numerous common characteristics and patterns. For example, both can be relatively heavy users and both have similar (long) criminal records. However, both groups show important distinctions in their drug dealing patterns. This exploratory study compares 34 male and 26 female meth dealers (N = 60) who were…

  8. METH-108H型甲烷化催化剂还原探讨%The research for reduction of METH -108H methanation catalyst

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    A reduction of METH -108H methanation catalyst in Chitianhua Co. was introduced. The reduction took place under high air speed, high concentration of carbon monoxide, higher temperature and shorter time, better effect. To ensure deep reduction of METH -108H methanation catalyst, the key step is controlling concentration of carbon monoxide by high temperature convertor.%介绍了赤天化股份公司对METH-108H型甲烷化催化剂还原的情况。还原在高空速,高一氧化碳浓度下进行,还原温度高,时间短,效果好。要保证METH-108H型甲烷化催化剂得到深度还原,利用高变气控制一氧化碳浓度是关键。

  9. (E)-1-[2-Hy-droxy-4,6-bis-(meth-oxy-meth-oxy)phen-yl]-3-phenyl-prop-2-en-1-one. (United States)

    Niu, Chao; Liu, Y Q; He, Y W; Aisa, H A


    The title compound, C19H20O6, consists of a tetra-substituted benzene ring with one substituent being an α,β-unsaturated cinnamoyl group, which forms an extended conjugated system in the mol-ecule. In addition, two meth-oxy-meth-oxy and one hy-droxy group are bonded to the central benzene ring. The dihedral angle between eh rings is 10.22 (10)°. An intra-molecular hydrogen bond is observed between the hy-droxy group and the carbonyl O atom. One of the meth-oxy-meth-oxy substituents is conformationally disordered over two sets of sites with site-occupation factors of 0.831 (3) and 0.169 (3).

  10. Crystal structure of 4-meth-oxy-quinazoline. (United States)

    El-Hiti, Gamal A; Smith, Keith; Hegazy, Amany S; Alshammari, Mohammed B; Kariuki, Benson M


    The title compound, C9H8N2O, is almost planar, with the C atom of the meth-oxy group deviating from the mean plane of the quinazoline ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.011 Å) by 0.068 (4) Å. In the crystal, mol-ecules form π-π stacks parallel to the b-axis direction [centroid-centroid separation = 3.5140 (18) Å], leading to a herringbone packing arrangement.

  11. I-Xe systematics of the impact plume produced chondrules from the CB carbonaceous chondrites: Implications for the half-life value of 129I and absolute age normalization of 129I-129Xe chronometer (United States)

    Pravdivtseva, O.; Meshik, A.; Hohenberg, C. M.; Krot, A. N.


    0.6 Ma value for 129I half-life. The slopes of I-Xe - Pb-Pb correlation lines plotted for different sets of samples for Shallowater normalization are always ⩽1. Assuming uranium half-life values are correct; this restricts the half-life of 129I to ⩽15.7 Ma.

  12. Effects of prolonged abstinence from METH on the hippocampal BDNF levels, neuronal numbers and apoptosis in methamphetamine-sensitized rats. (United States)

    Hajheidari, Samira; Sameni, Hamid Reza; Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Miladi-Gorji, Hossein


    Methamphetamine (METH) use is associated with neuronal damage in various regions of brain, while effects of prolonged abstinence on METH-induced damage are not quite clear. This study evaluated serum and hippocampal BDNF levels, neuronal numbers and apoptosis in METH-sensitized and abstinent rats. Rats were sensitized to METH (2mg/kg, daily/18 days, s.c.). All rats were evaluated for neuron counting, the TUNEL test and serum and hippocampal BDNF levels after 30 days of forced abstinence from METH. The results showed that increased BDNF levels in the hippocampus and serum of METH-sensitized rats returned to control level after 30 days of abstinence. The number of neurons in the DG and CA1 of hippocampus and also, the total hippocampal perimeter and area in METH-sensitized rats were significantly lower than the saline rats. While, the number of neurons was not significantly increased in the hippocampus after prolonged abstinence from METH. Also, METH-sensitized rats showed a significant increase in TUNEL-positive cells, whereas METH-abstinent rats showed a slight but significant decrease in TUNEL-positive cells in the DG and CA3 of hippocampus. These results suggest that despite the reduction in BDNF levels, reducing the number of neurons, perimeter and area of the hippocampus were stable after abstinence. Thus, the degenerative effects of METH have been sustained even after prolonged abstinence in the hippocampus.

  13. Crystal structure of triphenylphosphonium-meth-yl-enetrifluoroborate. (United States)

    Bateman, Christopher M; Zakharov, Lev N; Abbey, Eric R


    The title compound, C19H17BF3P {alternative name: triphen-yl[(tri-fluoro-boran-yl)meth-yl]phosphanium}, was formed by the reaction of tri-phenyl-phosphine with potassium iodo-methyl-tri-fluoro-borate. The mol-ecule features a nearly staggered conformation along the P-C bond and a less than staggered conformation along the C-B bond. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯F hydrogen bonds between the meta-phenyl C-H groups and the tri-fluoro-borate B-F groups form chains of R2(2)(16) rings along [100]. These chains are are further stabilized by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions. A weak intra-molecular C-H⋯F hydrogen bond is also observed.

  14. (E)-1-{4-[Bis(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)meth-yl]piperazin-1-yl}-3-(4-eth-oxy-3-meth-oxy-phen-yl)prop-2-en-1-one. (United States)

    Zhong, Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Wu, Bin


    In the mol-ecule of the title compound, C(31)H(36)N(2)O(5), the piperazine ring displays a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings of the bis-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)methyl group is 83.42 (15)°. In the crystal, centrosymmetric-ally related mol-ecules are linked through pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into dimers, generating an R(2) (2)(10) ring motif. The dimers are further connected into chains parallel to [2-10] by C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds involving the meth-oxy groups.

  15. Modification of the Fc Region of a Human Anti-oncostatin M Monoclonal Antibody for Higher Affinity to FcRn Receptor and Extension of Half-life in Cynomolgus Monkeys. (United States)

    Nnane, Ivo P; Han, Chao; Jiao, Qun; Tam, Susan H; Davis, Hugh M; Xu, Zhenhua


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of anti-oncostatin M (OSM) IgG1 monoclonal antibodies, CNTO 1119 and its Fc variant (CNTO 8212), which incorporates the LS(Xtend) mutation to extend terminal half-life (T1/2 ), after a single intravenous (IV) or subcutaneous (SC) administration in cynomolgus monkeys, and to predict human PK. In study 1, single doses of CNTO 1119 and CNTO 8212 were administered IV or SC at 3 mg/kg to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 3 per group). In study 2, single doses of CNTO 8212 were administered IV at 1, 5 or 20 mg/kg, or SC at 5 mg/kg to cynomolgus monkeys (n = 5 per group). Serial blood samples were collected for assessment of serum concentrations of CNTO 1119 and/or CNTO 8212. A two-compartment population PK model with first-order elimination was utilized to simultaneously describe the serum concentrations of CNTO 1119 and CNTO 8212 over time after IV and SC administration in cynomolgus monkeys. The typical population PK parameter estimates for CNTO 1119 in cynomolgus monkeys were clearance (CL) = 2.81 mL/day/kg, volume of distribution of central compartment (V1 ) = 31.3 mL/kg, volume of distribution of peripheral compartment (V2 ) = 23.3 mL/kg, absolute bioavailability (F) = 0.84 and T1/2 = 13.4 days. In comparison, the typical population PK parameter estimates for CNTO 8212 in cynomolgus monkeys were CL = 1.41 mL/day/kg, V1 = 39.8 mL/kg, V2 = 32.6 mL/kg, F = 0.75 and T1/2 = 35.7 days. The mean CL of CNTO 8212 was ~50% lower compared with that for CNTO 1119 in cynomolgus monkeys. The overall volume of distribution (V1 +V2 ) for CNTO 8212 was about 32% larger compared with that for CNTO 1119, but generally similar to the vascular volume in cynomolgus monkeys. The T1/2 of CNTO 8212 was significantly (p monkeys. Thus, the modification of the Fc portion of an anti-OSM IgG1 mAb for higher FcRn binding affinity resulted in lower systemic clearance and a longer terminal half-life in cynomolgus monkeys. CNTO 8212

  16. Tris(2-{[2-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)eth-yl]imino-meth-yl}phenolato-κ(2)N,O(1))cobalt(III). (United States)

    Ourari, Ali; Ouennoughi, Yasmina; Bouacida, Sofiane


    In the title compound, [Co(C(16)H(16)NO(2))(3)], the Co(III) atom is six-coordinated in an irregular octa-hedral geometry by three N,O-chelating 2-{[2-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)eth-yl]imino-meth-yl}phenolate groups. One of the three meth-oxy group is disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.768 (5):0.232 (5). The crystal packing can be described by alternating zigzag layers of organic ligands and CoN(3)O(3) octa-hedra along the c axis. There are no classical hydrogen bonds in the structure, but C-H⋯π inter-actions occur.

  17. Crystal structure of 3,4-di-meth-oxy-phenol. (United States)

    Mills-Robles, Heather A; Desikan, Vasumathi; Golen, James A; Manke, David R


    The title compound, C8H10O3, has two planar mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit possessing mean deviations from planarity of 0.051 and 0.071 Å. In the crystal, there are two distinct infinite chains, both along [010]. The chains are formed by O-H⋯O inter-actions between the phenol and both the 3-meth-oxy and the 4-meth-oxy groups.

  18. Impaired frontal cortical energy metabolism underlies an anhedonic-like behaviour in METH-treated mice



    Dissertação de mestrado em Bioquimica , apresentada ao Departamento de Ciências da Vida da Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia da Universidade de Coimbra . Methamphetamine (METH) is an illegal stimulant drug with over 500,000 individuals estimated to abuse METH, in the United States, each month (Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2010). Long term users are at greatly increased risk for psychiatric problems including depression pathology (Curtis 2006; Hendrickson e...

  19. Predicting attitude toward methamphetamine use: the role of antidrug campaign exposure and conversations about meth in Montana. (United States)

    Richards, Adam S


    This investigation utilized the integrative model of behavioral prediction to assess the Montana Meth Project (MMP) campaign by testing theoretical antecedents of attitude toward methamphetamine (meth) use. College students in Montana (N = 403) were surveyed about their exposure to MMP ads and communication about meth in conversation. Structural equation modeling showed that the data fit the specified model well. Significant parameters indicated that only beliefs about the negative relational outcomes of meth use, and not about personal well-being or physical appearance, were related to attitude. Attention, rather than encoded exposure, to MMP ads related to each belief about meth use. Conversation frequency related to engagement with MMP ads, and a conversational partner's conveyed attitude toward meth use related to personal and physical beliefs as well as attitudes. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  20. Investigation of temperature effect on half-life periods of long-lived isomer sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 sup m Hf and sup 8 sup 7 sup m Sr

    CERN Document Server

    Alpatov, V G; Davydov, A V; Isaev, Y N; Kartashov, G R; Korotkov, M M; Samojlov, V M


    The experiments on measuring the half-life periods of the sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 sup m Hf and sup 8 sup 7 sup m Sr long-lived isomers at the room temperature and at 77 K with application of the HfO sub 2 , Sr(NO sub 3) sub 2 and SrCO sub 3 massive samples are described. The isomer states of the corresponding nuclei were formed by the samples irradiation through neutrons from the Pu-Be source. According to the Vysotski theory and other authors the surrounding of the gamma-active nuclei by a large number of the same nuclei in the basic state should lead to the T sub 1 sub / sub 2 growth due to distortion of the zero electromagnetic vacuum oscillations near the nuclear energy level value. Decrease in the sample temperature leads to the narrowing of the gamma-lines, especially for the Moessbauer low-energy transitions, which increases the resonance effect on the zero oscillations spectrum. Increase in the T sub 1 sub / sub 2 by 2.99 +- 0.87% was observed by cooling the sup 1 sup 8 sup 0 sup m Hf isomer sample, in the ...

  1. Crystal structures of three 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide-based derivatives. (United States)

    Gomes, Ligia R; Low, John Nicolson; Oliveira, Catarina; Cagide, Fernando; Borges, Fernanda


    The crystal structures of three benzamide derivatives, viz. N-(6-hy-droxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C16H25NO5, (1), N-(6-anilinohex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C22H30N2O4, (2), and N-(6,6-di-eth-oxy-hex-yl)-3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzamide, C20H33NO6, (3), are described. These compounds differ only in the substituent at the end of the hexyl chain and the nature of these substituents determines the differences in hydrogen bonding between the mol-ecules. In each mol-ecule, the m-meth-oxy substituents are virtually coplanar with the benzyl ring, while the p-meth-oxy substituent is almost perpendicular. The carbonyl O atom of the amide rotamer is trans related with the amidic H atom. In each structure, the benzamide N-H donor group and O acceptor atoms link the mol-ecules into C(4) chains. In 1, a terminal -OH group links the mol-ecules into a C(3) chain and the combined effect of the C(4) and C(3) chains is a ribbon made up of screw related R 2 (2)(17) rings in which the ⋯O-H⋯ chain lies in the centre of the ribbon and the tri-meth-oxy-benzyl groups forms the edges. In 2, the combination of the benzamide C(4) chain and the hydrogen bond formed by the terminal N-H group to an O atom of the 4-meth-oxy group link the mol-ecules into a chain of R 2 (2)(17) rings. In 3, the mol-ecules are linked only by C(4) chains.

  2. Environmental Metabolic Footprinting (EMF) vs. half-life: a new and integrative proxy for the discrimination between control and pesticides exposed sediments in order to further characterise pesticides' environmental impact. (United States)

    Salvia, Marie-Virginie; Ben Jrad, Amani; Raviglione, Delphine; Zhou, Yuxiang; Bertrand, Cédric


    Pesticides are regularly used for a variety of applications and are disseminated throughout the environment. These substances may have significant negative impacts. To date, the half-life, t1/2, was often used to study the fate of pesticides in environmental matrices (water, soil, sediment). However, this value gives limited information. First, it does not evaluate the formation of by-products, resulting in the need for additional experiments to be performed to evaluate biodegradation and biotransformation products. T1/2 also fails to consider the chemical's impact on biodiversity. Resilience time, a new and integrative proxy, was recently proposed as an alternative to t1/2, with the potential to evaluate all the post-application effects of the chemical on the environment. The 'Environmental Metabolic Footprinting' (EMF) approach, giving an idea of the resilience time, was used to evaluate the impact of botanicals on soil. The goal is to optimise the EMF to study the impact of a microbial insecticide, the Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti), on sediment. The difficulty of this work lies in the commercial solution of Bti that is really complex, and this complexity yields chromatograms that are extremely difficult to interpret; t1/2 cannot be used. No methodologies currently exist to monitor the impact of these compounds on the environment. We will test the EMF to determine if it is sensitive enough to tolerate such complex mixtures. A pure chemical insecticide, the α-cypermethrin, will be also studied. The article shows that the EMF is able to distinguish meta-metabolome differences between control and exposed (with Bti) sediments.

  3. The multiple truths about crystal meth among young people entrenched in an urban drug scene: a longitudinal ethnographic investigation. (United States)

    Fast, Danya; Kerr, Thomas; Wood, Evan; Small, Will


    Transitions into more harmful forms of illicit drug use among youth have been identified as important foci for research and intervention. In settings around the world, the transition to crystal methamphetamine (meth) use among youth is considered a particularly dangerous and growing problem. Epidemiological evidence suggests that, particularly among young, street-involved populations, meth use is associated with numerous sex- and drug-related "risks behaviors" and negative health outcomes. Relatively few studies, however, have documented how youth themselves understand, experience and script meth use over time. From 2008 to 2012, we conducted over 100 in-depth interviews with 75 street-entrenched youth in Vancouver, Canada, as well as ongoing ethnographic fieldwork, in order to examine youth's understandings and experiences of meth use in the context of an urban drug scene. Our findings revealed positive understandings and experiences of meth in relation to other forms of drug addiction and unaddressed mental health issues. Youth were simultaneously aware of the numerous health-related harms and social costs associated with heavy meth use. Over time, positive understandings of meth may become entirely contradictory to a lived reality in which escalating meth use is a factor in further marginalizing youth, although this may not lead to cessation of use. Recognition of these multiple truths about meth, and the social structural contexts that shape the scripting of meth use among youth in particular settings, may help us to move beyond moralizing debates about how to best educate youth on the "risks" associated with meth, and towards interventions that are congruent with youth's lived experiences and needs across the lifecourse.

  4. Facile Fabrication of Gradient Surface Based on (meth)acrylate Copolymer Films (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Yang, H.; Wen, X.-F.; Cheng, J.; Xiong, J.


    This paper describes a simple and economic approach for fabrication of surface wettability gradient on poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA)] and poly(butyl acrylate - methyl methacrylate - 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) [P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films. The (meth)acrylate copolymer [including P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA)] films are hydrolyzed in an aqueous solution of NaOH and the transformation of surface chemical composition is achieved by hydrolysis in NaOH solution. The gradient wetting properties are generated based on different functional groups on the P (BA-MMA) and P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films. The effects of both the surface chemical and surface topography on wetting of the (meth)acrylate copolymer film are discussed. Surface chemical composition along the materials length is determined by XPS, and surface topography properties of the obtained gradient surfaces are analyzed by FESEM and AFM. Water contact angle system (WCAs) results show that the P (BA-MMA-HEMA) films provide a larger slope of the gradient wetting than P (BA-MMA). Moreover, this work demonstrates that the gradient concentration of chemical composition on the poly(meth) acrylate films is owing to the hydrolysis processes of ester group, and the hydrolysis reactions that have negligible influence on the surface morphology of the poly(meth) acrylate films coated on the glass slide. The gradient wettability surfaces may find broad applications in the field of polymer coating due to the compatibility of (meth) acrylate polymer.

  5. (E)-3-[3,4-Bis(meth-oxy-methoxy)phen-yl]-1-(7-hy-droxy-5-meth-oxy-2,2-dimethyl-chroman-8-yl)prop-2-en-1-one. (United States)

    Hashim, Nur Athirah; Ahmad, Farediah; Basar, Norazah; Awang, Khalijah; Ng, Seik Weng


    The reaction of 5,6-(2,2-dimethyl-chroman-yl)-2-hy-droxy-4-meth-oxy-acetophenone and 3,4-bis-(meth-oxy-meth-yloxy)benzaldehyde affords the intense orange title chalcone derivative, C(25)H(30)O(8). The two benzene rings are connected through a -C(=O)-CH=CH- (propenone) unit, which is in an E conformation; the ring with the hy-droxy substitutent is aligned at 19.5 (2)° with respect to this unit, whereas the ring with the meth-oxy-meth-yloxy substituent is aligned at 9.3 (3)°. The dihedral angle between the rings is 19.38 (10)°. The hy-droxy group engages in an intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bond with the carbonyl O atom of the propenone unit, generating an S(5) ring.

  6. Brief exposure to methamphetamine (METH) and phencyclidine (PCP) during late development leads to long-term learning deficits in rats. (United States)

    White, Ilsun M; Minamoto, Takehiro; Odell, Joseph R; Mayhorn, Joseph; White, Wesley


    Exposure to methamphetamine (METH) and phencyclidine (PCP) during early development is thought to produce later behavioral deficits. We postulated that exposure to METH and PCP during later development would produce similar behavioral deficits, particularly learning deficits in adulthood. Wistar rats were treated with METH (9 mg/kg), PCP (9 mg/kg), or saline during later development, postnatal days (PD) 50-51, and subsequent behavioral changes were examined including: locomotor activity during the acute drug state (PD 50-51) and the post-drug phase (PD 50-80); social interaction on PD 54-80; and spatial discrimination and reversal in adulthood (after PD 90). METH and PCP differentially affected locomotion during the acute state, but not during the post-drug phase. METH decreased social interaction throughout tests two weeks after drug treatment, whereas PCP decreased social interaction only during the first 8 min of tests. Neither METH nor PCP impaired initial acquisition of spatial discrimination. However, reversal was significantly impaired by PCP, whereas METH produced a mild deficit, compared to controls. Our data provide evidence that exposure to PCP and METH during later development lead to enduring cognitive deficits in adulthood. Selective impairment of reversal may reflect neurological damage in the prefrontal cortex due to early exposure to drugs.

  7. 40 CFR 721.6540 - Acrylamide, polymers with tetraalkyl ammonium salt and polyalkyl, aminoalkyl meth-a-cryl-a-mide... (United States)


    ... ammonium salt and polyalkyl, aminoalkyl meth-a-cryl-a-mide salt. 721.6540 Section 721.6540 Protection of... with tetraalkyl ammonium salt and polyalkyl, aminoalkyl meth-a-cryl-a-mide salt. (a) Chemical... as acrylamide, polymers with tetraalkyl ammonium salt and poly-al-kyl, amino alkyl...

  8. Hybrid thiol-ene network nanocomposites based on multi(meth)acrylate POSS. (United States)

    Li, Liguo; Liang, Rendong; Li, Yajie; Liu, Hongzhi; Feng, Shengyu


    First, multi(meth)acrylate functionalized POSS monomers were synthesized in this paper. Secondly, FTIR was used to evaluate the homopolymerization behaviors of multi(meth)acrylate POSS and their copolymerization behaviors in the thiol-ene reactions with octa(3-mercaptopropyl) POSS in the presence of photoinitiator. Results showed that the photopolymerization rate of multimethacrylate POSS was faster than that of multiacrylate POSS. The FTIR results also showed that the copolymerizations were dominant in the thiol-ene reactions with octa(3-mercaptopropyl) POSS, different from traditional (meth)acrylate-thiol system, in which homopolymerizations were predominant. Finally, the resulted hybrid networks based on POSS were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, DSC, and TGA. The characterization results showed that hybrid networks based on POSS were homogeneous and exhibited high thermal stability.

  9. Crystal structure of bis-(2-{[1,1-bis-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)-2-oxidoeth-yl]imino-meth-yl}-6-meth-oxy-phenolato)manganese(IV) 0.39-hydrate. (United States)

    Buvaylo, Elena A; Vassilyeva, Olga Yu; Skelton, Brian W


    The title compound, [Mn(C12H15NO5)2]·0.39H2O, is a 0.39 hydrate of the isostructural complex bis-(2-{[1,1-bis-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)-2-oxidoeth-yl]imino-meth-yl}-6-meth-oxy-phenolato)manganese(IV) that has previously been reported by Back, Oliveira, Canabarro & Iglesias [Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. (2015), 641, 941-947], based on room-temperature data. The current structure that was determined at 100 K reveals a lengthening of the c cell parameter compared with the published one due to the incorporation of the partial occupancy water mol-ecule. The title compound crystallizes in the tetra-gonal chiral space group P41212; the neutral [Mn(IV)(C12H15NO5)2] mol-ecule is situated on a crystallographic C 2 axis. The overall geometry about the central manganese ion is octa-hedral with an N2O4 core; each ligand acts as a meridional ONO donor. The coordination environment of Mn(IV) at 100 K displays a difference in one of the two Mn-O bond lengths, compared with the room-temperature structure. In the crystal, the neutral mol-ecules are stacked in a helical fashion along the c-axis direction.

  10. Use of a Microsoft Excel based add-in program to calculate plasma sinistrin clearance by a two-compartment model analysis in dogs. (United States)

    Steinbach, Sarah M L; Sturgess, Christopher P; Dunning, Mark D; Neiger, Reto


    Assessment of renal function by means of plasma clearance of a suitable marker has become standard procedure for estimation of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Sinistrin, a polyfructan solely cleared by the kidney, is often used for this purpose. Pharmacokinetic modeling using adequate software is necessary to calculate disappearance rate and half-life of sinistrin. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of a Microsoft excel based add-in program to calculate plasma sinistrin clearance, as well as additional pharmacokinetic parameters such as transfer rates (k), half-life (t1/2) and volume of distribution (Vss) for sinistrin in dogs with varying degrees of renal function.

  11. N-[(3,5-Dimethyl­pyrazol-1-yl)meth­yl]phthalimide


    Wang, Su-qing; Jian, Fang-Fang; Liu, Huan-Qiang


    The title compound {systematic name: 2-[(3,5-dimenthylpyrazol-1-yl)meth­yl]isoindole-1,3-dione}, C14H13N3O2, was prepared by reaction of N-(bromo­meth­yl)phthalimide and 3,5-dimethyl­pyrazole in chloro­form solution. The mol­ecular structure and packing are stabilized by intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen-bonding and C—H⋯π inter­actions.

  12. The Result of Multiple I-131 Treatments on the Effective Half-Life of Retained Radioactivity in Patients Ablated for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: Possible Evidence for Thyroid Remnant Function Impairment. (United States)

    Okkalides, Demetrios


    The ablation of differentiated thyroid cancer by ingested I-131 depends on the activity absorbed by the remnant. This depends on the function of the thyroid cells and on the rate that radioactivity is excreted from the blood. The reduction of radioiodine is described by the effective half-life (EHL), which is the time taken to half the retained radioactivity. If the tumor recurs, more treatments are prescribed, often with escalating activities. Patients may receive several treatments during the evolution of the disease, and the total radioactivity administered (TRA) is the sum of all such activities. The patients' archived information permitted the calculation of EHL and TRA. The patient cohort processed here comprised 274 females and 101 males treated during 1997 to 2015. The TRA to the patients ranged between 1.1 and 129.5 GBq (average = 7.93 ± 9.9 GBq) and the EHL varied between 5.06 and 43.87 hours (average = 14.13 ± 5.7 hours). The data were processed as follows: (a) the EHL corresponding to the last treatment of each patient was plotted against TRA to patients who were treated once and to those treated several times for comparison and (b) using a small subgroup of 16 patients who were treated at least 5 times, the EHL and TRA corresponding to each treatment of each patient were plotted. A function of the form y = p-k·ln(x) was fitted on the data in all graphs and k was calculated. For patients treated once, EHL was independent of TRA. A decrease was seen in (a) multitreated patients, with the gradient (k) ranging between -0.541 and -13.880 and (b) 13 out of 16 patients, with the gradient (k) ranging between -5.55 and -31.17, both indicating an impairment of the remnant function, perhaps identified as "stunning." Since this is not avoidable, the uptake may be boosted by splitting the prescribed activity into low radioactivity fractions, which will also reduce patient hospitalization.

  13. N-[(9H-Fluoren-9-yl-idene)(2-meth-oxy-phen-yl)meth-yl]-1,1,1-tri-methyl-silanamine. (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Yuan; Wang, Peng; Chen, Xia


    The title mol-ecule, C24H25NOSi, is a hydrolysis product of the reaction between 9-tri-methyl-silyfluorenyl lithium and 2-meth-oxy-benzo-nitrile. The fluorene ring system is substanti-ally planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0288 Å from the best-fit plane through its 13 C atoms. This plane forms a dihedral angle of 58.07 (7)° with the 2-meth-oxy-benzyl-amine ring plane. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯π and C-H⋯π inter-actions, which leads to the formation of two-dimensional network lying parallel to the bc plane.

  14. Crystal structure of 2-meth-oxy-2-[(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)sulfan-yl]-1-phenyl-ethanone. (United States)

    Caracelli, Ignez; Olivato, Paulo R; Traesel, Henrique J; Valença, Jéssica; Rodrigues, Daniel N S; Tiekink, Edward R T


    In the title β-thio-carbonyl compound, C16H16O3S, the adjacent meth-oxy and carbonyl O atoms are synperiplanar [the O-C-C-O torsion angle is 19.8 (4)°] and are separated by 2.582 (3) Å. The dihedral angle between the rings is 40.11 (16)°, and the meth-oxy group is coplanar with the benzene ring to which it is connected [the C-C-O-C torsion angle is 179.1 (3)°]. The most notable feature of the crystal packing is the formation of methine and methyl C-H⋯O(carbon-yl) inter-actions that lead to a supra-molecular chain with a zigzag topology along the c axis. Chains pack with no specific inter-molecular inter-actions between them.

  15. Effects of Parental Use of Meth on Children in My Community (United States)

    McKellar, Nancy A.


    Of all the videos that the author shows in psychopathology class, the one that her graduate students invariably find the most disturbing is "Crank: Made in America" (Yates, 2003). Long-time users of methamphetamine (meth) candidly tell their stories in this HBO film. The author still finds it very unsettling to watch it, even though she…


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    The reversible photoisomerization and the thermal isomerization of azobenzene-based (Az.b.) groups covalently bound to (meth)acrylic (co)polymers were investigated in thin films. For the amorphous polymers it was found that a broad range of the thermal cis --> trans isomerization rates could be obta

  17. Chromatin remodeling by rosuvastatin normalizes TSC2-/meth cell phenotype through the expression of tuberin. (United States)

    Lesma, Elena; Ancona, Silvia; Orpianesi, Emanuela; Grande, Vera; Di Giulio, Anna Maria; Gorio, Alfredo


    Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multi-systemic syndrome caused by mutations in TSC1 or TSC2 gene. In TSC2-null cells, Rheb, a member of the Ras family of GTPases, is constitutively activated. Statins inhibit 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase and block the synthesis of isoprenoid lipids with inhibition of Rheb farnesylation and RhoA geranylgeranylation. The effects of rosuvastatin on the function of human TSC2(-/-) and TSC2(-/meth) α-actin smooth muscle (ASM) cells have been investigated. The TSC2(-/-) and TSC2(-/meth) ASM cells, previously isolated in our laboratory from the renal angiomyolipoma of two TSC patients, do not express tuberin and bear loss of heterozigosity caused by a double hit on TSC2 and methylation of TSC2 promoter, respectively. Exposure to rosuvastatin affected TSC2(-/meth) ASM cell growth and promoted tuberin expression by acting as a demethylating agent. This occurred without changes in interleukin release. Rosuvastatin also reduced RhoA activation in TSC2(-/meth) ASM cells, and it required coadministration with the specific mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) inhibitor rapamycin to be effective in TSC2(-/-) ASM cells. Rapamycin enhanced rosuvastatin effect in inhibiting cell proliferation in TSC2(-/-) and TSC2(-/meth) ASM cells. Rosuvastatin alone did not alter phosphorylation of S6 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and at the higher concentration, rosuvastatin and rapamycin slightly decreased ERK phosphorylation. These results suggest that rosuvastatin may potentially represent a treatment adjunct to the therapy with mTOR inhibitors now in clinical development for TSC. In particular, rosuvastatin appears useful when the disease is originated by epigenetic defects.

  18. Oncology Journals Cited Half - life and Its Connection with Other Indicators Such as Impact Factors and Total Cited Frequen%肿瘤医学期刊被引半衰期及其与影响因子、总被引频次等计量指标的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    对《2011年版中国期刊引证报告(扩刊版)》中肿瘤医学期刊被引半衰期、影响因子、引用半衰期、总被引频次、平均引文数等的相关关系进行分析,并对期刊编辑和期刊管理工作提出建议。%The paper analyzes the connection among citated half - life, impact factors, citation half - life, total cited frequency of oncology journals included in " Chinese S & T Journal Citation Report (2011 )", proposes advices on journal editing and management work.

  19. Measurement of the double- β decay half-life of 136Xe with the KamLAND-Zen experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gando, A.; Gando, Y.; Hanakago, H.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, K.; Kato, R.; Koga, M.; Matsuda, S.; Mitsui, T.; Nakada, T.; Nakamura, K.; Obata, A.; Oki, A.; Ono, Y.; Shimizu, I.; Shirai, J.; Suzuki, A.; Takemoto, Y.; Tamae, K.; Ueshima, K.; Watanabe, H.; Xu, B. D.; Yamada, S.; Yoshida, H.; Kozlov, A.; Yoshida, S.; Banks, T. I.; Detwiler, J. A.; Freedman, S. J.; Fujikawa, B. K.; Han, K.; O’Donnell, T.; Berger, B. E.; Efremenko, Y.; Karwowski, H. J.; Markoff, D. M.; Tornow, W.; Enomoto, S.; Decowski, M. P.


    We present results from the KamLAND-Zen double-beta decay experiment based on an exposure of 77.6 days with 129 kg of 136Xe. The measured two-neutrino double-beta decay half-life of 136Xe is T$2ν\\atop{1/2}$ = 2.38 ± 0.02(stat) ± 0.14(syst) x1021 yr, consistent with a recent measurement by EXO-200. We also obtain a lower limit for the neutrinoless double-beta decay half-life, T$0ν\\atop{1/2}$ > 5.7 x 1024 yr at 90% C.L.

  20. The effects of GABAA and NMDA receptors in the shell-accumbens on spatial memory of METH-treated rats. (United States)

    Heysieattalab, Soomaayeh; Naghdi, Nasser; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza; Haghparast, Abbas; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Khoshbouei, Habibeh


    Methamphetamine (METH) is a highly addictive and neurotoxic psychostimulant. Its use in humans is often associated with neurocognitive impairment and deficits in hippocampal plasticity. Striatal dopamine system is one of the main targets of METH. The dopamine neurons in the striatum directly or indirectly regulate the GABA and glutamatergic signaling in this region and thus their outputs. This is consistent with previous reports showing modification of neuronal activity in the striatum modulates the expression of hippocampal LTP and hippocampal-dependent memory tasks such as Morris water maze (MWM). Therefore, reversing or preventing METH-induced synaptic modifications via pharmacological manipulations of the shell-nucleus accumbens (shell-NAc) may introduce a viable therapeutic target to attenuate the METH-induced memory deficits. This study is designed to investigate the role of intra-shell NAc manipulation of GABAA and NMDA receptors and their interaction with METH on memory performance in MWM task. Pharmacological manipulations were performed in rats received METH or saline. We found systemic saline plus intra-shell NAc infusions of muscimol dose-dependently impaired performance, while bicuculline had no effect. Surprisingly, the intra-NAc infusions of 0.005μg/rat muscimol that has no effect on memory performance (ineffective dose) prevented METH-induced memory impairment. In the contrary, the intra-NAc infusions of bicuculline (0.2μg/rat) increased METH-induced memory impairment. However, pre-training intra-NAc infusions of D-AP5 dose-dependently impaired performance, while NMDA had no effect in rats received systemic saline (control group). The intra-NAc infusions with an ineffective dose of NMDA (0.1μg/rat) increased METH-induced memory impairment. Furthermore, intra-NAc infusions of D-AP5 with an ineffective dose (0.1μg/rat) prevented METH-induced memory impairment. Our result is consistent with the interpretation that METH-mediated learning deficit

  1. Importance of neonatal FcR in regulating the serum half-life of therapeutic proteins containing the Fc domain of human IgG1: a comparative study of the affinity of monoclonal antibodies and Fc-fusion proteins to human neonatal FcR. (United States)

    Suzuki, Takuo; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Tada, Minoru; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie; Kawanishi, Toru; Yamaguchi, Teruhide


    The neonatal FcR (FcRn) binds to the Fc domain of IgG at acidic pH in the endosome and protects IgG from degradation, thereby contributing to the long serum half-life of IgG. To date, more than 20 mAb products and 5 Fc-fusion protein products have received marketing authorization approval in the United States, the European Union, or Japan. Many of these therapeutic proteins have the Fc domain of human IgG1; however, the serum half-lives differ in each protein. To elucidate the role of FcRn in the pharmacokinetics of Fc domain-containing therapeutic proteins, we evaluated the affinity of the clinically used human, humanized, chimeric, or mouse mAbs and Fc-fusion proteins to recombinant human FcRn by surface plasmon resonance analysis. The affinities of these therapeutic proteins to FcRn were found to be closely correlated with the serum half-lives reported from clinical studies, suggesting the important role of FcRn in regulating their serum half-lives. The relatively short serum half-life of Fc-fusion proteins was thought to arise from the low affinity to FcRn. The existence of some mAbs having high affinity to FcRn and a short serum half-life, however, suggested the involvement of other critical factor(s) in determining the serum half-life of such Abs. We further investigated the reason for the relatively low affinity of Fc-fusion proteins to FcRn and suggested the possibility that the receptor domain of Fc-fusion protein influences the structural environment of the FcRn binding region but not of the FcgammaRI binding region of the Fc domain.

  2. Semiperiodo de la literatura científica en Biblioteconomía y Documentación y la influencia de los aspectos temáticos The half-life of scientific literature in library and information science and the influence of thematic issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Martínez-Comeche


    Full Text Available Este trabajo presenta el cálculo del semiperiodo o vida media de las referencias en 28 revistas españolas y anglosajonas de Biblioteconomía y Documentación siguiendo la fórmula de Burton y Kebler, durante el año 2006. Se analiza posteriormente la posible relación con los contenidos presentes en las revistas, y se extraen conclusiones sobre qué temas nucleares del área imponen básicamente dicho semiperiodo, dando lugar a lo que puede considerarse como el semiperiodo de la literatura científica en Biblioteconomía y Documentación, y señalando qué temas tienden a aumentar o disminuir dicho semiperiodo cuando están presentes en una determinada revista. De esta forma el semiperiodo podría considerarse un indicio del contenido temático de la revista.Following the formula developed by Burton and Kebler, this paper presents a calculation of the half-life of bibliographical references appearing in twenty-eight English- and Spanish-language Library and Information Science journals in the year 2006. An analysis of the relationship of this phenomenon to content is carried out in order to identify the nuclear topic areas that in turn determine this half-life. Moreover, the paper provides an assessment of those subject areas for each of the journals studied that tend to lengthen or shorten the half-life of a given bibliographic reference. As such, the bibliographic half-life may be considered an indicator of the thematic inclination of a given journal.

  3. 2-(4-Meth-oxy-phen-yl)-1-pentyl-4,5-di-phenyl-1H-imidazole. (United States)

    Simpson, Jim; Mohamed, Shaaban K; Marzouk, Adel A; Talybov, Avtandil H; Abdelhamid, Antar A


    The title compound, C27H28N2O, is a lophine (2,4,5-triphenyl-1H-imidazole) derivative with an n-pentyl chain on the amine N atom and a 4-meth-oxy substituent on the benzene ring. The two phenyl and meth-oxy-benzene rings are inclined to the imidazole ring at angles of 25.32 (7), 76.79 (5) and 35.42 (7)°, respectively, while the meth-oxy substituent lies close to the plane of its benzene ring, with a maximum deviation of 0.126 (3) Å for the meth-oxy C atom. In the crystal, inversion dimers linked by pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds generate R2(2)(22) loops. These dimers are stacked along the a-axis direction.

  4. A kryptoracemic salt: 2-{[2,8-bis-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)quinolin-4-yl](hy-droxy)meth-yl}piperidin-1-ium (+)-3,3,3-tri-fluoro-2-meth-oxy-2-phenyl-propanoate. (United States)

    Wardell, James L; Wardell, Solange M S V; Tiekink, Edward R T


    The asymmetric unit of the title salt, C17H17F6N2O(+)·C10H8F3O3 (-), comprises two piperidin-1-ium cations and two carboxyl-ate anions. The cations, each having an l-shaped conformation owing to the near orthogonal relationship between the quinolinyl and piperidin-1-ium residues, are pseudo-enanti-omeric. The anions have the same absolute configuration but differ in the relative orientations of the carboxyl-ate, meth-oxy and benzene groups. Arguably, the most prominent difference between the anions occurs about the Cq-Om bond as seen in the Cc-Cq-Om-Cm torsion angles of -176.1 (3) and -67.1 (4)°, respectively (q = quaternary, m = meth-oxy and c = carboxyl-ate). The presence of Oh-H⋯Oc and Np-H⋯Oc hydrogen bonds leads to the formation of a supra-molecular chain along the a axis (h = hy-droxy and p = piperidin-1-ium); weak intra-molecular Np-H⋯Oh hydrogen bonds are also noted. Chains are connected into a three-dimensional architecture by C-H⋯F inter-actions. Based on a literature survey, related mol-ecules/cations adopt a uniform conformation in the solid state based on the letter L.

  5. Dopamine plasma clearance is increased in piglets compared to neonates during continuous dopamine infusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Martin B; Gramsbergen, Jan Bert; Eriksen, Vibeke R


    AIM: Piglets models have often been used to study the effects of dopamine infusion on hypotension in neonates. However, piglets need higher doses of dopamine than neonates to increase blood pressure. We investigated whether this difference was due to interspecific difference in dopamine...... pharmacokinetics. METHODS: Arterial blood samples were drawn from six neonates admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of Copenhagen University Hospital and 20 newborn piglets during continuous dopamine infusion. Furthermore, to estimate the piglet plasma dopamine half-life, blood samples were drawn at 2.......5-minute intervals after the dopamine infusion was discontinued. The plasma dopamine content was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. RESULTS: The dopamine displayed first-order kinetics in piglets and had a half-life of 2.5 minutes, while the median plasma...

  6. Crystal structure of (E)-4-hy-droxy-N'-(3-meth-oxy-benzyl-idene)benzohydrazide. (United States)

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Prachumrat, Patcharawadee; Ruanwas, Pumsak; Boonnak, Nawong; Kassim, Mohammad B


    The title compound, C15H14N2O3, crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit that differ in the orientation of the 3-meth-oxy-phenyl group with respect to the methyl-idenebenzohydrazide unit. The dihedral angles between the two benzene rings are 24.02 (10) and 29.30 (9)° in mol-ecules A and B, respectively. In mol-ecule A, the meth-oxy group is twisted slightly relative to its bound benzene ring, with a Cmeth-yl-O-C-C torsion angle of 14.2 (3)°, whereas it is almost co-planar in mol-ecule B, where the corresponding angle is -2.4 (3)°. In the crystal, the mol-ecules are linked by N-H⋯O, O-H⋯N and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, as well as by weak C-H⋯O inter-actions, forming sheets parallel to the bc plane. The N-H⋯O hydrogen bond and weak C-H⋯O inter-action link different mol-ecules (A⋯B) whereas both O-H⋯N and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link like mol-ecules (A⋯A) and (B⋯B). Pairs of inversion-related B mol-ecules are stacked approximately along the a axis by π-π inter-actions in which the distance between the centroids of the 3-meth-oxy-phenyl rings is 3.5388 (12) Å. The B mol-ecules also participate in weak C-H⋯π inter-actions between the 4-hy-droxy-phenyl and the 3-meth-oxy-phenyl rings.

  7. Disclosing bias in bisulfite assay: MethPrimers underestimate high DNA methylation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Fuso

    Full Text Available Discordant results obtained in bisulfite assays using MethPrimers (PCR primers designed using MethPrimer software or assuming that non-CpGs cytosines are non methylated versus primers insensitive to cytosine methylation lead us to hypothesize a technical bias. We therefore used the two kinds of primers to study different experimental models and methylation statuses. We demonstrated that MethPrimers negatively select hypermethylated DNA sequences in the PCR step of the bisulfite assay, resulting in CpG methylation underestimation and non-CpG methylation masking, failing to evidence differential methylation statuses. We also describe the characteristics of "Methylation-Insensitive Primers" (MIPs, having degenerated bases (G/A to cope with the uncertain C/U conversion. As CpG and non-CpG DNA methylation patterns are largely variable depending on the species, developmental stage, tissue and cell type, a variable extent of the bias is expected. The more the methylome is methylated, the greater is the extent of the bias, with a prevalent effect of non-CpG methylation. These findings suggest a revision of several DNA methylation patterns so far documented and also point out the necessity of applying unbiased analyses to the increasing number of epigenomic studies.

  8. Crystal structure of (E)-2-hy-droxy-4'-meth-oxy-aza-stilbene. (United States)

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Kaewmanee, Narissara; Boonnak, Nawong; Chantrapromma, Kan; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Fun, Hoong-Kun


    The title aza-stilbene derivative, C14H13NO2 {systematic name: (E)-2-[(4-meth-oxy-benzyl-idene)amino]-phenol}, is a product of the condensation reaction between 4-meth-oxy-benzaldehyde and 2-amino-phenol. The mol-ecule adopts an E conformation with respect to the azomethine C=N bond and is almost planar, the dihedral angle between the two substituted benzene rings being 3.29 (4)°. The meth-oxy group is coplanar with the benzene ring to which it is attached, the Cmeth-yl-O-C-C torsion angle being -1.14 (12)°. There is an intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond generating an S(5) ring motif. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming zigzag chains along [10-1]. The chains are linked via C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  9. Crystal structures of 4-meth-oxy-N-(4-methyl-phenyl)benzene-sulfonamide and N-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-4-meth-oxy-benzene-sulfonamide. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Vinola Z; Preema, C P; Naveen, S; Lokanath, N K; Suchetan, P A


    Crystal structures of two N-(ar-yl)aryl-sulfonamides, namely, 4-meth-oxy-N-(4-methyl-phen-yl)benzene-sulfonamide, C14H15NO3S, (I), and N-(4-fluoro-phen-yl)-4-meth-oxy-benzene-sulfonamide, C13H12FNO3S, (II), were determined and analyzed. In (I), the benzene-sulfonamide ring is disordered over two orientations, in a 0.516 (7):0.484 (7) ratio, which are inclined to each other at 28.0 (1)°. In (I), the major component of the sulfonyl benzene ring and the aniline ring form a dihedral angle of 63.36 (19)°, while in (II), the planes of the two benzene rings form a dihedral angle of 44.26 (13)°. In the crystal structure of (I), N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds form infinite C(4) chains extended in [010], and inter-molecular C-H⋯πar-yl inter-actions link these chains into layers parallel to the ab plane. The crystal structure of (II) features N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds forming infinite one dimensional C(4) chains along [001]. Further, a pair of C-H⋯O inter-molecular inter-actions consolidate the crystal packing of (II) into a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture.

  10. 40 CFR 721.9730 - 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted-. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9730 1,3,5-Triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6... substances generically identified as 1,3,5-triazin-2-amine, 4-di-meth-yl-a-mino-6-substituted- (PMN Nos....

  11. Analytical studies by activation. Part A and B: Counting of short half-life radio-nuclides. Part C: Analytical programs for decay curves; Etudes d'analyse par activation. Parties A et B: le comptage des radio-nucleides de periodes courtes. Partie C: programme de depouillement des courbes de decroissance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junod, E. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique Grenoble (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    Part A and B: Since a radio-nuclide of short half-life is characterized essentially by the decrease in its activity even while it is being measured, the report begins by recalling the basic relationships linking the half-life the counting time, the counting rate and the number of particles recorded. The second part is devoted to the problem of corrections for counting losses due to the idle period of multichannel analyzers. Exact correction formulae have been drawn up for the case where the short half-life radionuclide is pure or contains only a long half-life radio-nuclide. By comparison, charts have been drawn up showing the approximations given by the so-called 'active time' counting and by the counting involving the real time associated with a measurement of the overall idle period, this latter method proving to be more valid than the former. A method is given for reducing the case of a complex mixture to that of a two-component mixture. Part C: The problems connected with the qualitative and quantitative analysis of the decay curves of a mixture of radioactive sources of which one at least has a short half-life are presented. A mathematical description is given of six basic processes for which some elements of Fortran programs are proposed. Two supplementary programs are drawn up for giving an overall treatment of problems of dosage in activation analysis: one on the basis of a simultaneous irradiation of the sample and of one or several known samples, the other with separate irradiation of the unknown and known samples, a dosimeter (activation, or external) being used for normalizing the irradiation flux conditions. (author) [French] Parties A et B: Un radionucleide de periode courte etant defini specialement par la decroissance de son activite pendant la duree meme du comptage, on rappelle en premiere partie de ce rapport les relations fondamentales qui lient periode, temps de comptage, taux de comptage et nombre d'impulsions enregistrees. La

  12. Independent and co-morbid HIV infection and Meth use disorders on oxidative stress markers in the cerebrospinal fluid and depressive symptoms. (United States)

    Panee, Jun; Pang, Xiaosha; Munsaka, Sody; Berry, Marla J; Chang, Linda


    Both HIV infection and Methamphetamine (Meth) use disorders are associated with greater depressive symptoms and oxidative stress; whether the two conditions would show additive or interactive effects on the severity of depressive symptoms, and whether this is related to the level of oxidative stress in the CNS is unknown. 123 participants were evaluated, which included 41 HIV-seronegative subjects without substance use disorders (Control), 25 with recent (Meth use disorders (Meth), 34 HIV-seropositive subjects without substance use disorders (HIV) and 23 HIV+Meth subjects. Depressive symptoms were assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D), and oxidative stress markers were evaluated with glutathione (GSH), 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and activities of gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Compared with Controls, HIV subjects had higher levels of HNE (+350%) and GGT (+27%), and lower level of GSH (-34%), while Meth users had higher levels of GPx activity (+23%) and GSH (+30 %). GGT correlated with GPx, and with age, across all subjects (p Meth and HIV+Meth groups. HIV and Meth use had an interactive effects on depressive symptoms, but did not show additive or interactive effects on oxidative stress. The differential relationship between depressive symptoms and oxidative stress response amongst the four groups suggest that depressive symptoms in these groups are mediated through different mechanisms which are not always related to oxidative stress.

  13. 40 CFR 721.2275 - N,N,N′,N′-Tetrakis(oxi-ranyl- methyl)-1,3-cyclohexane di-meth-anamine. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false N,N,Nâ²,Nâ²-Tetrakis(oxi-ranyl- methyl)-1,3-cyclohexane di-meth-anamine. 721.2275 Section 721.2275 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...-cyclohexane di-meth-anamine. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1)...

  14. Monthly oceanic rainfall based on METH techniques: DMSP SSM/I V6 and SSMIS continuity (United States)

    Chiu, L. S.; Gao, S.; Shin, D.-B.; Cho, Y.-J.; Adler, R. F.; Huffman, G.; Bolvin, D.; Nelkin, E.


    As part of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP), our group have been producing oceanic rainfall over 2.5 and 5 degree boxes by applying the Microwave Emission brightness Temperature (Tb) Histogram, or METH technique to the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) data taken on board the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellite series. Recently, the rainfall series have been updated using the V6 SSM/I provided by RSS (Chiu and Chokngamwong., 2010). With the demise of the F15 SSM/I sensor, we examine the use of the SSMIS series to continue the DMSP time series. With its long duration, the DMSP satellite sensors constitute a unique data set capable of producing microwave-based products for climate studies. We compared the F13 SSM/I and F17 SSMIS for the period January 2008 - September 2009. The METH technique matches the histogram of Tb (twice 19V minus 22V) to a mixed-distribution of rain rates and estimates the parameters of the rain rate distribution. Mathematical convergence of the matching procedure is reached when a certain Chi-square threshold is reached. The important parameters are the Tb of the non-raining pixels (To) and the freezing level (FL) of the grid box considered. The sample size of the SSMIS is much larger than the SSM/I, hence the convergence criteria is relaxed by changing the Chi-square threshold. Preliminary results show a slight shift of the To (~0.8K). By adjusting To by a constant, the domain average SSMIS rain rates and FL are computed to within 2% and 1% of the SSM/I rain rates, respectively. Further investigation of the SSMIS METH rain rate will involve the comparison of the 19V and 22V and fine tuning the Chi-square parameter.

  15. [4-(4-Meth-oxy-phen-yl)-2-(pyridin-3-yl)-1,3-thia-zol-5-yl][4-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]methanone. (United States)

    Pampa, K J; Abdoh, M M M; Swaroop, T R; Rangappa, K S; Lokanath, N K


    In the title compound, C23H15F3N2O2S, the thia-zole ring makes dihedral angles of 12.98 (13), 49.30 (11) and 49.83 (12)° with the pyridine ring, the meth-oxy-phenyl ring and the (tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phenyl ring, respectively. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [010]. There are also C-H⋯π and C-F⋯π inter-actions present, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  16. 2,2,6,6-Tetra-bromo-3,4,4,5-tetra-meth-oxy-cyclo-hexa-none. (United States)

    Faizi, Md Serajul Haque; Mashrai, Ashraf; Shahid, M


    In the title compound, C10H14Br4O5, synthesized from the meth-oxy Schiff base N-(pyridin-2-ylmeth-yl)meth-oxy-aniline and mol-ecular bromine, the cyclo-hexa-none ring has a chair conformation with one of the four meth-oxy groups equatorially orientated with respect to the carbonyl group and the others axially orientated. The C-Br bond lengthsvary from 1.942 (4) to1.964 (4) Å. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯Ocarbon-yl hydrogen-bonding inter-actions generate chains extending along the b-axis direction. Also present in the structure are two short inter-molecular Br⋯Ometh-oxy inter-actions [3.020 (3) and 3.073 (4) Å].

  17. Crystal structure of (E)-N-[(E)-3-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)allyl-idene]naphthalen-1-amine. (United States)

    Lee, Jae Kyun; Cha, Joo Hwan; Cho, Yong Seo; Min, Sun-Joon; Lee, Joon Kyun


    In the title compound, C20H17NO, the dihedral angle between the mean planes of the 4-meth-oxy-phenyl ring and the naphthalene ring is 69.50 (7)°. The meth-oxy group is almost coplanar with the benzene ring to which it is connected [Cb-Cb-Om-Cm torsion angle of -7.9 (2)°; b = benzene and m = meth-oxy] and the imine group displays a C-C-N=C torsion angle is -57.2 (2)°. The imine (C=N) group has an E conformation. In the crystal, weak π-π inter-actions between the benzene rings [centroid-centroid distance = 3.7781 (10) Å] are observed.

  18. N-(2-Ferrocenylethyl-idene)-4-(trifluoro-meth-yl)aniline. (United States)

    Imhof, Wolfgang


    The title compound, [Fe(C(5)H(5))(C(13)H(9)F(3)N)], was prepared by a condensation reaction from ferrocenylcarbaldehyde and 4-(trifluoro-meth-yl)aniline. The cyclo-penta-dienyl (Cp) rings are coplanar [dihedral angle = 1.4 (3)°] and the imine function is situated in the same plane. The aromatic substituent is bent out of the plane of the Cp ring to which the imine group is attached by 44.5 (4)°. The F atoms of the trifluoro-methyl substituent are disordered [occupancies 0.52 (2)/0.48 (2)].

  19. Crystal structure of 4-(4-meth-oxy-phen-oxy)benzaldehyde. (United States)

    Schäfer, Andreas; Iovkova-Berends, Ljuba; Gilke, Stefan; Kossmann, Paul; Preut, Hans; Hiersemann, Martin


    The title compound, C14H12O3, was synthesized via the nucleophilic addition of 4-meth-oxy-phenol to 4-fluoro-benzaldehyde. The dihedral angle between the least-squares planes of the benzene rings is 71.52 (3)° and the C-O-C angle at the central O atom is 118.82 (8)°. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the molecules to generate supra-molecular layers in the bc plane. The layers are linked by weak C-H⋯π inter-actions.

  20. MethLAB: a graphical user interface package for the analysis of array-based DNA methylation data. (United States)

    Kilaru, Varun; Barfield, Richard T; Schroeder, James W; Smith, Alicia K; Conneely, Karen N


    Recent evidence suggests that DNA methylation changes may underlie numerous complex traits and diseases. The advent of commercial, array-based methods to interrogate DNA methylation has led to a profusion of epigenetic studies in the literature. Array-based methods, such as the popular Illumina GoldenGate and Infinium platforms, estimate the proportion of DNA methylated at single-base resolution for thousands of CpG sites across the genome. These arrays generate enormous amounts of data, but few software resources exist for efficient and flexible analysis of these data. We developed a software package called MethLAB ( using R, an open source statistical language that can be edited to suit the needs of the user. MethLAB features a graphical user interface (GUI) with a menu-driven format designed to efficiently read in and manipulate array-based methylation data in a user-friendly manner. MethLAB tests for association between methylation and relevant phenotypes by fitting a separate linear model for each CpG site. These models can incorporate both continuous and categorical phenotypes and covariates, as well as fixed or random batch or chip effects. MethLAB accounts for multiple testing by controlling the false discovery rate (FDR) at a user-specified level. Standard output includes a spreadsheet-ready text file and an array of publication-quality figures. Considering the growing interest in and availability of DNA methylation data, there is a great need for user-friendly open source analytical tools. With MethLAB, we present a timely resource that will allow users with no programming experience to implement flexible and powerful analyses of DNA methylation data.

  1. Crystal structure of ethyl (E)-4-(4-chlorophen-yl)-4-meth-oxy-2-oxobut-3-enoate. (United States)

    Flores, Darlene Correia; Vicenti, Juliano Rosa de Menezes; Pereira, Bruna Ávila; da Silva, Gabriele Marques Dias; Zambiazi, Priscilla Jussiane


    In the title compound, C13H13ClO4, the dihedral angle between the chloro-benezene ring and the least-squares plane through the 4-meth-oxy-2-oxobut-3-enoate ethyl ester residue (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0975 Å) is 54.10 (5)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are connected by meth-oxy-ketone and benzene-carboxyl-ate carbonyl C-H⋯O inter-actions, generating a supra-molecular layer in the ac plane.

  2. Kinetic parameters and intraindividual fluctuations of ochratoxin A plasma levels in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studer-Rohr, I. [Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland); Dept. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech., Zurich (Switzerland); Schlatter, J. [Toxicology Section, Div. of Food Science, Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, Zurich (Switzerland); Dietrich, D.R. [Dept. of Environmental Toxicology, Univ. of Konstanz, Konstanz (Germany); Inst. of Toxicology, Swiss Federal Inst. of Tech. and Univ. of Zurich, Schwerzenbach (Switzerland)


    The mycotoxin ochratoxin A (OTA) is a rodent carcinogen produced by species of the ubiquitous fungal genera Aspergillus and Penicillium. OTA is found in a variety of food items and as a consequence is also found in human plasma (average concentrations found in this study: 0.1-1 ng OTA/ml plasma). To improve the scientific basis for cancer risk assessment the toxicokinetic profile of OTA was studied in one human volunteer following ingestion of 395 ng {sup 3}H-labeled OTA (3.8 {mu}Ci). A two-compartment open model consisting of a central compartment was found to best describe the in vivo data. This two-compartment model consisted of a fast elimination and distribution phase (T{sub 1/2} about 20 h) followed by a slow elimination phase (renal clearance about 0.11 ml/min.) and a calculated plasma half-life of 35.55 days. This half-life was approximately eight times longer than that determined previously in rats. In addition, the intraindividual fluctuation of OTA plasma levels was investigated in eight individuals over a period of 2 months. The concentrations determined ranged between 0.2 and 0.9 ng OTA/ml plasma. The plasma levels in some individuals remained nearly constant over time, while others varied considerably (e.g. increase of 0.4 ng/ml within 3 days, decrease of 0.3 ng/ml within 5 days) during the observation period. This intraindividual fluctuation in OTA plasma levels, which may represent differences in OTA exposure and/or metabolism, as well as the large difference in plasma half-life in humans compared to rats must be taken into consideration when the results of rat cancer study data are extrapolated to humans for risk assessment purposes. (orig.)

  3. Crystal structure of 3-(2,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)propionic acid. (United States)

    Bugenhagen, Bernhard; Al Jasem, Yosef; AlAzani, Mariam; Thiemann, Thies


    In the crystal of the title compound, C11H14O4, the aromatic ring is almost coplanar with the 2-position meth-oxy group with which it subtends a dihedral of 0.54 (2)°, while the 5-position meth-oxy group makes a corresponding dihedral angle of just 5.30 (2)°. The angle between the mean planes of the aromatic ring and the propionic acid group is 78.56 (2)°. The fully extended propionic side chain is in a trans configuration with a C-C-C-C torsion angle of -172.25 (7)°. In the crystal, hydrogen bonding is limited to dimer formation via R 2 (2)(8) rings. The hydrogen-bonded dimers are stacked along the b axis. The average planes of the two benzene rings in a dimer are parallel to each other, but at an offset of 4.31 (2) Å. Within neighbouring dimers along the [101] direction, the average mol-ecular benzene planes are almost perpendicular to each other, with a dihedral angle of 85.33 (2)°.

  4. Crystal structure of poly[[μ-4-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)pyridine-κ(2) N:O][4-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)pyridine-κN](μ-thio-cyanato-κ(2) N:S)(thio-cyanato-κN)cadmium]. (United States)

    Werner, Julia; Jess, Inke; Näther, Christian


    The crystal structure of the title compound, [Cd(NCS)2(C6H7NO)2] n is made up of Cd(2+) cations that are coordinated by three thio-cyanate ligands and three 4-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)pyridine ligands within distorted N4OS octa-hedra. The asymmetric unit consists of one Cd(2+) cation, two thio-cyanate anions and two 4-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)pyridine ligands in general positions. Two Cd(2+) cations are linked by two μ-1,3 N- and S-bonding thio-ycanate anions into dimers which are further linked into branched chains along [100] by two μ-1,6 N- and O-bonding 4-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)pyridine ligands. One additional N-bonded 4-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)pyridine ligand and one additional N-bonded thio-cyanate anion are only terminally bonded to the metal cation. Inter-chain O-H⋯S hydrogen bonds between the hy-droxy H atoms and one of the thio-cyanate S atoms connect the chains into a three-dimensional network.

  5. Metformin's Intrinsic Blood-to-Plasma Partition Ratio (B/P): Reconciling the Perceived High In Vivo B/P > 10 with the In Vitro Equilibrium Value of Unity. (United States)

    Xie, Fang; Ke, Alice B; Bowers, Gary D; Zamek-Gliszczynski, Maciej J


    Blood cells are considered an important distributional compartment for metformin based on the high blood-to-plasma partition ratio (B/P) in humans (>10 at Cmin). However, literature reports of metformin's intrinsic in vitro B/P values are lacking. At present, the extent and rate of metformin cellular partitioning was determined in incubations of fresh human and rat blood with [(14)C]metformin for up to 1 week at concentrations spanning steady-state plasma Cmin, Cmax, and a concentration associated with lactic acidosis. The results showed that metformin's intrinsic equilibrium B/P was ∼0.8-1.4 in blood, which is <10% of the reported clinical value. Kinetics of metformin partitioning into human blood cells and repartitioning back into plasma were slow (repartitioning half-life ∼32-39 hours). These data, along with in vivo rapid and efficient renal clearance of plasma metformin (plasma renal extraction ratio ∼90%-100%), explain why the clinical terminal half-life of metformin in plasma (6 hours) is 3- to 4-fold shorter than the half-life in whole blood (18 hours) and erythrocytes (23 hours). The rate constant for metformin repartitioning from blood cells to plasma (∼0.02 h(-1)) is far slower than the clinical renal elimination rate constant (0.3 h(-1)). Blood distributional rate constants were incorporated into a metformin physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model, which predicted the differential elimination half-life in plasma and blood. The present study demonstrates that the extent of cellular drug partitioning in blood observed in a dynamic in vivo system may be very different from the static in vitro values when repartitioning from blood cells is far slower than clearance of drug in plasma.

  6. Quantum Yields of Decomposition and Homo-Dimerization of Solid L-Alanine Induced by 7.2 eV Vacuum Ultraviolet Light Irradiation: An Estimate of the Half-Life of L-Alanine on the Surface of Space Objects (United States)

    Izumi, Yudai; Nakagawa, Kazumichi


    One of the leading hypotheses regarding the origin of prebiotic molecules on primitive Earth is that they formed from inorganic molecules in extraterrestrial environments and were delivered by meteorites, space dust and comets. To evaluate the availability of extraterrestrial amino acids, it is necessary to examine their decomposition and oligomerization rates as induced by extraterrestrial energy sources, such as vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and X-ray photons and high energy particles. This paper reports the quantum yields of decomposition ((8.2 ± 0.7) × 10-2 photon-1) and homo-dimerization ((1.2 ± 0.3) × 10-3 photon-1) and decomposition of the dimer (0.24 ± 0.06 photon-1) of solid l-alanine (Ala) induced by VUV light with an energy of 7.2 eV. Using these quantum yields, the half-life of l-Ala on the surface of a space object in the present earth orbit was estimated to be about 52 days, even when only photons with an energy of 7.2 eV emitted from the present Sun were considered. The actual half-life of solid l-Ala on the surface of a space object orbit around the present day Earth would certainly be much shorter than our estimate, because of the added effect of photons and particles of other energies. Thus, we propose that l-Ala needs to be shielded from solar VUV in protected environments, such as the interior of a meteorite, within a time scale of days after synthesis to ensure its arrival on the primitive Earth.

  7. Crystal structure of 1-(8-meth-oxy-2H-chromen-3-yl)ethanone. (United States)

    Koh, Dongsoo


    In the structure of the title compound, C12H12O3, the di-hydro-pyran ring is fused with the benzene ring. The di-hydro-pyran ring is in a half-chair conformation, with the ring O and methyl-ene C atoms positioned 1.367 (3) and 1.504 (4) Å, respectively, on either side of the mean plane formed by the other four atoms. The meth-oxy group is coplanar with the benzene ring to which it is connected [Cb-Cb-Om-Cm torsion angle = -0.2 (4)°; b = benzene and m = meth-oxy], and similarly the aldehyde is coplanar with respect to the double bond of the di-hydro-pyran ring [Cdh-Cdh-Ca-Oa = -178.1 (3)°; dh = di-hydro-pyran and a = aldehyde]. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak meth-yl-meth-oxy C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds into supra-molecular chains along the a-axis direction.

  8. DiseaseMeth version 2.0: a major expansion and update of the human disease methylation database (United States)

    Xiong, Yichun; Wei, Yanjun; Gu, Yue; Zhang, Shumei; Lyu, Jie; Zhang, Bin; Chen, Chuangeng; Zhu, Jiang; Wang, Yihan; Liu, Hongbo; Zhang, Yan


    The human disease methylation database (DiseaseMeth, is an interactive database that aims to present the most complete collection and annotation of aberrant DNA methylation in human diseases, especially various cancers. Recently, the high-throughput microarray and sequencing technologies have promoted the production of methylome data that contain comprehensive knowledge of human diseases. In this DiseaseMeth update, we have increased the number of samples from 3610 to 32 701, the number of diseases from 72 to 88 and the disease–gene associations from 216 201 to 679 602. DiseaseMeth version 2.0 provides an expanded comprehensive list of disease–gene associations based on manual curation from experimental studies and computational identification from high-throughput methylome data. Besides the data expansion, we also updated the search engine and visualization tools. In particular, we enhanced the differential analysis tools, which now enable online automated identification of DNA methylation abnormalities in human disease in a case-control or disease–disease manner. To facilitate further mining of the disease methylome, three new web tools were developed for cluster analysis, functional annotation and survival analysis. DiseaseMeth version 2.0 should be a useful resource platform for further understanding the molecular mechanisms of human diseases. PMID:27899673

  9. The effects of D3R on TLR4 signaling involved in the regulation of METH-mediated mast cells activation. (United States)

    Xue, Li; Geng, Yan; Li, Ming; Jin, Yao-Feng; Ren, Hui-Xun; Li, Xia; Wu, Feng; Wang, Biao; Cheng, Wei-Ying; Chen, Teng; Chen, Yan-Jiong


    Accumulating studies have revealed that the dopamine D3 receptor (D3R) plays an important role in methamphetamine (METH) addiction. However, the action of D3R on METH-mediated immune response and the underlying mechanism remain unclear. Mast cells (MCs) are currently identified as effector cells in many processes of immune responses, and MC activation is induced by various stimuli such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Moreover, CD117 and FcεRI are known as MC markers due to their specific expression in MCs. To investigate the effects of D3R on METH-mediated alteration of LPS-induced MCs activation and the underlying mechanism, in this study, we examined the expression of CD117 and FcεRI in the intestines of wild-type (D3R(+/+)) and D3R-deficient (D3R(-/-)) mice. We also measured the production of MC-derived cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4, IL-13 and CCL-5, in the bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) of WT and D3R(-/-) mice. Furthermore, we explored the effects of D3R on METH-mediated TLR4 and downstream MAPK and NF-κB signaling induced by LPS in mouse BMMCs. We found that METH suppressed MC activation induced by LPS in the intestines of D3R(+/)mice. In contrast, LPS-induced MC activation was less affected by METH in D3R(-/-) mice. Furthermore, METH altered LPS-induced cytokine production in BMMCs of D3R(+/+) mice but not D3R(-/-) mice. D3R was also involved in METH-mediated modulation of LPS-induced expression of TLR4 and downstream MAPK and NF-κB signaling molecules in mouse BMMCs. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the effect of D3R on TLR4 signaling may be implicated in the regulation of METH-mediated MCs activation induced by LPS.

  10. Methamphetamine (Meth) (United States)

    ... problems like strokes, seizures, and heart failure. Other long-term effects include: anxiety and confusion repetitive or compulsive activity insomnia personality changes mood disturbances or psychotic behavior memory loss weight loss or anorexia strange or violent behavior ...

  11. Methamphetamine (Meth) (United States)

    ... Articles: Methamphetamine NIDA Notes Articles: Stimulants Statistics and Trends NIDA: DrugFacts: High School and Youth Trends Monitoring ... the National Drug and Alcohol Facts Week logo design are registered marks of the U.S. Department of ...

  12. A New Value of 93Zr Half-Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    <正>93Zr is a long-lived pure β emitter with energies of 60.6 keV (97.5%) and 91.4 keV (2.5%). It is produced by both nuclear fission and neutron capture of 92Zr. 93Zr has considerable attention because of its

  13. What Is the Half-Life of Basketball Teams? (United States)

    Hrepic, Zdeslav


    What do basketball teams have in common with radioactive nuclei? It turns out, there is more here than first meets the eye. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball tournaments feeds fans' craving when NBA competitions are not in swing, and the college tournament time has been referred to as "March Madness" or…

  14. Using an Authentic Radioisotope to Teach Half-Life (United States)

    Liddicoat, Scott; Sebranek, John


    Traditionally nuclear chemistry appears in the last few chapters of chemistry textbooks and is not normally considered a mainstream topic. In addition, some science teachers lack the training or equipment to teach nuclear chemistry. Yet nuclear chemistry is a very important topic that should be taught in all chemistry classrooms. Learning about…

  15. Half Life - The divided life of Bruno Maximovitch Pontecorvo

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva


    When Bruno Pontecorvo fled to the USSR at the height of the Cold War in 1950, half way through his life, the British Government, MI5 and FBI tried to portray him as scientifically insignificant, and to imply that his disappearance posed no threat to the West. In reality Pontecorvo was already one of the leading experts in nuclear physics, and recently declassified papers reveal that a prime agenda of FBI and MI5 was to cover up their errors. . During his time in the USSR he made major contributions to physics, and justified the sobriquet: "Mr Neutrino". This talk will reveal the background to his sudden flight, and also evaluate his work in theoretical physics in the aftermath of his arrival in Dubna. Previously secret documents now show that he proposed the concept of associated production before Gell Mann and Pais, and he had an idea to discover the neutrino at a reactor. He may be considered the father of neutrino astronomy with his successful prediction that neutrinos from a supernova could be detected, b...

  16. What Is the Half-Life of Basketball Teams? (United States)

    Hrepic, Zdeslav


    What do basketball teams have in common with radioactive nuclei? It turns out, there is more here than first meets the eye. The National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) basketball tournaments feeds fans' craving when NBA competitions are not in swing, and the college tournament time has been referred to as "March Madness" or…

  17. Cosmic-ray half-life of {sup 144}Pm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaerpoor, K.; Dragowsky, M.R.; Krane, K.S. [Physics Department, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon97331 (United States); Chan, Y.D.; Isaac, M.C.; Larimer, R.M.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Macleod, R.W.; Norman, E.B. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California94720 (United States); DiGregorio, D.E. [Laboratorio TANDAR-CNEA, Buenos Aires, 1429 (Argentina); Hindi, M.M.; Robinson, S.J. [Physics Department, Tennessee Technological University, Cookeville, Tennessee38505 (United States); Miocinovic, P. [Physics Department, University of California, Berkeley, California94720 (United States)


    In order to test the possibility of using {sup 144}Pm as a clock to measure the mean cosmic-ray confinement time in the Galaxy, we counted a highly purified 1.4 {mu}Ci source of this isotope in GAMMASPHERE and searched for its astrophysically interesting {beta}{sup +} decay branch through the observation of positron-annihilation {gamma} rays in coincidence with the characteristic 697-keV {gamma} ray. Analysis of 57 h of source counting and 15 h of background shows no net signal and results in an upper limit of 3.7 of 511-511-697 keV coincident events. From this result we establish a 90{percent} confidence level upper limit on the branch for this decay mode to be 7.4{times}10{sup {minus}6}{percent}. The implications of this result for the {sup 144}Pm cosmic-ray chronometer problem are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  18. Comprehensive dental treatment for "meth mouth": a case report and literature review. (United States)

    Wang, Panpan; Chen, Xinmei; Zheng, Liwei; Guo, Lan; Li, Xin; Shen, Simin


    Methamphetamine-induced caries (MIC) is the rampant caries often found in methamphetamine (MA) users and is often called "meth mouth". It leads to devastating effects on dentition and is the major reason that brings patients to professional help. Dental management of these patients is challenging and the most important factor is cessation of MA use. Dentists must be aware of the signs and medical risks associated with this serious condition. If duly attended to, the dental team can help patients on many levels. Treatment plans can be simplified, so that each visit does not last too long. Finally, more attention should be paid topostoperative care. This case report presents a 40-year-old man with rampant caries caused by MA abuse with poor oral hygiene and smoking habits. He was advised to stop the drug abuse and the affected teeth underwent endodontic, restorative and prosthetic rehabilitation. One year later, the patient had some secondary caries but had stopped all drug abuse.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-qian Zang; Yu-fei Luo; Dong Zhang; Xin-hua Wan; Qi-feng Zhou


    Novel side-chain liquid-crystalline poly(meth)acrylates were synthesized using 1-(3-hydroxyl-propyl)-3-[(4"cyano-p-terphenyloxycarbonyl)alkyl]-1, 1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane as the key intermediate. The polymers used a disiloxane moiety as decoupling spacer with cyano-p-terphenyl as mesogenic unit. The products were characterized by NMR, GPC,DSC and polarizing optical microscopy. All the polymers with cyano-p-terphenyl mesogens formed a stable mesophase.However, if the mesogenic unit is replaced by cyano-p-biphenyl, the liquid crystalline character will be lost. The results also showed that the decoupling is incomplete even if a complex and very flexible decoupling spacer is deliberately incorporated to obtain the highest possible decoupling effect.

  20. Self-initiation of UV photopolymerization reactions using tetrahalogenated bisphenol A (meth)acrylates. (United States)

    Pelras, Théophile; Knolle, Wolfgang; Naumov, Sergej; Heymann, Katja; Daikos, Olesya; Scherzer, Tom


    The potential of tetrachlorinated and tetrabrominated bisphenol A diacrylates and dimethacrylates for self-initiation of a radical photopolymerization was investigated. The kinetics of the photopolymerization of an acrylic model varnish containing halogenated monomers was studied by real-time FTIR spectroscopy, whereas the formation of reactive species and secondary products was elucidated by laser flash photolysis and product analysis by GC-MS after steady-state photolysis. The interpretation of the experimental data and the analysis of possible reaction pathways were assisted by quantum chemical calculations. It was shown that all halogenated monomers lead to a significant acceleration of the photopolymerization kinetics at a minimum concentration of 5 wt%. Steady-state and laser flash photolysis measurements as well as quantum chemical calculations showed that brominated and chlorinated samples do not follow the same pathway to generate radical species. Whereas chlorinated (meth)acrylates may cleave only at the C-O bonds of the carboxyl groups resulting in acrolein and oxyl radicals for initiation, brominated monomers may cleave either at the C-O bonds or at the C-Br bonds delivering aryl and bromine radicals. The quantum yields for the photolysis of the halogenated monomers were found to be in the order of 0.1 for acrylates and 0.2 for methacrylates (with an estimated error of 25%), independently of the attached Br and Cl halogens. Finally, the trihalogenated bisphenol A di(meth)acrylate radicals and the acrolein radicals were found to show the highest efficiencies for the reaction with another acrylic double bond leading to the formation of a polymer network.

  1. Intravenous Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Alters METH-Induced Hyperactivity, Conditioned Hyperactivity, and BDNF in Adult Rat Offspring. (United States)

    Lacy, Ryan T; Brown, Russell W; Morgan, Amanda J; Mactutus, Charles F; Harrod, Steven B


    In the USA, approximately 15% of women smoke tobacco cigarettes during pregnancy. In utero tobacco smoke exposure produces somatic growth deficits like intrauterine growth restriction and low birth weight in offspring, but it can also negatively influence neurodevelopmental outcomes in later stages of life, such as an increased incidence of obesity and drug abuse. Animal models demonstrate that prenatal nicotine (PN) alters the development of the mesocorticolimbic system, which is important for organizing goal-directed behavior. In the present study, we determined whether intravenous (IV) PN altered the initiation and/or expression of methamphetamine (METH)-induced locomotor sensitization as a measure of mesocorticolimbic function in adult rat offspring. We also determined whether PN and/or METH exposure altered protein levels of BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) in the nucleus accumbens, the dorsal striatum, and the prefrontal cortex of adult offspring. BDNF was of interest because of its role in the development and maintenance of the mesocorticolimbic pathway and its ability to modulate neural processes that contribute to drug abuse, such as sensitization of the dopamine system. Dams were injected with IV nicotine (0.05 mg/kg/injection) or saline, 3×/day on gestational days 8-21. Testing was conducted when offspring reached adulthood (around postnatal day 90). Following 3 once daily habituation sessions the animals received a saline injection and baseline locomotor activity was measured. PN and prenatal saline (PS)-exposed offspring then received 10 once daily injections of METH (0.3 mg/kg) to induce locomotor sensitization. The animals received a METH injection (0.3 mg/kg) to assess the expression of sensitization following a 14-day period of no injections. A day later, all animals were injected with saline and conditioned hyperactivity was assessed. Brain tissue was harvested 24 h later. PN animals habituated more slowly to the activity chambers

  2. Native and Reconstituted Plasma Lipoproteins in Nanomedicine: Physicochemical Determinants of Nanoparticle Structure, Stability, and Metabolism. (United States)

    Pownall, Henry J; Rosales, Corina; Gillard, Baiba K; Ferrari, Mauro


    Although many acute and chronic diseases are managed via pharmacological means, challenges remain regarding appropriate drug targeting and maintenance of therapeutic levels within target tissues. Advances in nanotechnology will overcome these challenges through the development of lipidic particles, including liposomes, lipoproteins, and reconstituted high-density lipoproteins (rHDL) that are potential carriers of water-soluble, hydrophobic, and amphiphilic molecules. Herein we summarize the properties of human plasma lipoproteins and rHDL, identify the physicochemical determinants of lipid transfer between phospholipid surfaces, and discuss strategies for increasing the plasma half-life of lipoprotein- and liposome-associated molecules.

  3. 40 CFR 721.6120 - Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (United States)


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phosphoric acid, 1,2-eth-a-ne-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. 721.6120 Section 721.6120 Protection of Environment...-diyl tet-ra-kis(2-chloro-1-meth-yl-ethyl) ester. (a) Chemical substances and significant new...

  4. Inhibiting hypertrophic scar formation in ears of rabbits by Ad-METH-1%重组血管生成抑制剂Ad-METH-1对兔耳增生性瘢痕的抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋保强; 鲁开化; 郭树忠; 李荟元; 张阳; 胡佩臻; 夏炜



  5. Mechanisms of action of (meth)acrylates in hemolytic activity, in vivo toxicity and dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes determined using NMR spectroscopy. (United States)

    Fujisawa, Seiichiro; Kadoma, Yoshinori


    We investigated the quantitative structure-activity relationships between hemolytic activity (log 1/H(50)) or in vivo mouse intraperitoneal (ip) LD(50) using reported data for α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds such as (meth)acrylate monomers and their (13)C-NMR β-carbon chemical shift (δ). The log 1/H(50) value for methacrylates was linearly correlated with the δC(β) value. That for (meth)acrylates was linearly correlated with log P, an index of lipophilicity. The ipLD(50) for (meth)acrylates was linearly correlated with δC(β) but not with log P. For (meth)acrylates, the δC(β) value, which is dependent on the π-electron density on the β-carbon, was linearly correlated with PM3-based theoretical parameters (chemical hardness, η; electronegativity, χ; electrophilicity, ω), whereas log P was linearly correlated with heat of formation (HF). Also, the interaction between (meth)acrylates and DPPC liposomes in cell membrane molecular models was investigated using (1)H-NMR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The log 1/H(50) value was related to the difference in chemical shift (ΔδHa) (Ha: H (trans) attached to the β-carbon) between the free monomer and the DPPC liposome-bound monomer. Monomer-induced DSC phase transition properties were related to HF for monomers. NMR chemical shifts may represent a valuable parameter for investigating the biological mechanisms of action of (meth)acrylates.

  6. Crystal structure of 3-{[4-(2-meth-oxy-phen-yl)piperazin-1-yl]meth-yl}-5-(thio-phen-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxa-diazole-2(3H)-thione. (United States)

    Al-Alshaikh, Monirah A; Abuelizz, Hatem A; El-Emam, Ali A; Abdelbaky, Mohammed S M; Garcia-Granda, Santiago


    The title compound, C18H20N4O2S2, is a new 1,3,4-oxa-diazole and a key pharmacophore of several biologically active agents. It is composed of a meth-yl(thio-phen-2-yl)-1,3,4-oxa-diazole-2(3H)-thione moiety linked to a 2-meth-oxy-phenyl unit via a piperazine ring that has a chair conformation. The thio-phene ring mean plane lies almost in the plane of the oxa-diazole ring, with a dihedral angle of 4.35 (9)°. The 2-meth-oxy-phenyl ring is almost normal to the oxa-diazole ring, with a dihedral angle of 84.17 (10)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯S hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming layers parallel to the bc plane. The layers are linked via weak C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and slipped parallel π-π inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 3.6729 (10) Å], forming a three-dimensional structure. The thio-phene ring has an approximate 180° rotational disorder about the bridging C-C bond.

  7. Bis{μ-2-[(pyrimidin-2-yl)amino-meth-yl]phenolato}-κ(2) N (1):O;κ(2) O:N (1)-bis-({2-[(pyrimidin-2-yl-κN)amino-meth-yl]phenol}silver(I)) dihydrate. (United States)

    Gao, Shan; Ng, Seik Weng


    The Ag(I) atom in the title centrosymmetric dinuclear compound, [Ag2(C11H10N3O)2(C11H11N3O)2]·2H2O, shows a T-shaped coordination arising from bonding to the N atom of a neutral 2-[(pyrimidin-2-yl)amino-meth-yl]phenol ligand, the N atom of the 2-[(pyrimidin-2-yl)amino-meth-yl]phenolate anion [N-Ag-N = 171.8 (1)°] and the terminal O atom of the other anion [Ag-O = 2.606 (3) Å]. A pair of 2-[(pyrimidin-2-yl)amino-meth-yl]phenolate anions link the two Ag(I) atoms to form the dinuclear compound. In the crystal, adjacent dinuclear mol-ecules are linked to the lattice water mol-ecules, generating an O-H⋯O- and N-H⋯O-connected three-dimensional network. In the crystal, the hy-droxy H atom is disordered over two positions in a 1:1 ratio; one half-occupancy H atom is connected to one hy-droxy group, whereas the other half-occupancy H atom is connected to another hy-droxy group.

  8. Crystal structure of tetra-kis-(μ3-2-{[1,1-bis-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)-2-oxidoeth-yl]imino-meth-yl}phenolato)tetra-copper(II) ethanol monosolvate 2.5-hydrate. (United States)

    Wang, Weilun; Ran, Jingwen


    The title compound, [Cu4(C11H13NO4)4]·CH3CH2OH·2.5H2O, is an electronically neutral tetra-nuclear copper(II) complex with a cubane-like Cu4O4 core. The complete molecule has point group symmetry 2. The phenol hy-droxy group and one of the three alcohol hy-droxy groups of each 2-{[tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)meth-yl]imino-meth-yl}phenol ligand are depro-ton-ated, while the secondary amine and the other two hy-droxy groups remain unchanged. The Cu(II) atoms in the Cu4O4 core are connected by four μ3-O atoms from the deprotonated alcohol hy-droxy groups. Each of the penta-coordinated Cu(II) ions has an NO4 distorted square-pyramidal environment through coordination to the tridentate Schiff base ligands. The Cu-N/O bond lengths span the range 1.902 (4)-1.955 (4) Å, similar to values reported for related structures. There are O-H⋯O hydrogen-bond inter-actions between the complex molecules and the ethanol and water solvent molecules, leading to the formation of a three-dimensional network. The ethanol solvent molecule is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. One of the two independent water molecules is also located on this twofold rotation axis and shows half-occupancy.

  9. Development of controller of acquisition and sample positioner for activation for use in measurements of short half-life radioisotopes; Desenvolvimento de dispositivo movimentador automatizado de amostras com vista a aplicacao em medidas de radioisotopos que possuem curto tempo de meia-vida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Secco, Marcello


    High resolution gamma spectroscopy measurements have several applications. Those involving short half-life radioisotope measurements may present low precision problems when the radioactive source is far from detector end cup and in the very high activity situations also can present accuracy loss due to dead time and pile-up effects. A way to overcome these problems is changing the source detector distance as the activity is decreasing, and thereby maximizing the statistical counting. In the present study, the Controller of Acquisition and Sample Positioner for Activation (CASPA) was developed. It is a low cost and weight device, made with low atomic number materials designed to assist gamma spectroscopy measurements, which is able to control the distance between the source and the detector, even allowing that there is a change of this distance during the measurement process. Because it is automated it optimizes the time of the operator, who has complete freedom to program their routine measurements in the device besides minimizing the radiation dose in the operator. An interface that allow the user control the CASPA system and to program the acquisition system was created. Tests aiming to optimize the operation of CASPA system were carried out and the safety of the CASPA operation was verified, it was not presented any failure during their tests. It was applied the repeatability tests by the acquisition {sup 60}Co standard source and was found that the positioning of automated system has reproduced the results of static system with a 95% of confidence level. (author)

  10. From the N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Alcohols to the Controlled Polymerization of (Meth)acrylates. (United States)

    Ottou, Winnie Nzahou; Bourichon, Damien; Vignolle, Joan; Wirotius, Anne-Laure; Robert, Fredéric; Landais, Yannick; Sotiropoulos, Jean-Marc; Miqueu, Karinne; Taton, Daniel


    Among various N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) tested, only 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (NHC(tBu) ) proved to selectively promote the catalytic conjugate addition of alcohols onto (meth)acrylate substrates. This rather rare example of NHC-catalyzed 1,4-addition of alcohols was investigated as a simple means to trigger the polymerization of both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate (MMA and MA, respectively). Well-defined α-alkoxy poly(methyl (meth)acrylate) (PM(M)A) chains, the molar masses of which could be controlled by the initial [(meth)acrylate]0/[ROH]0 molar ratio, were ultimately obtained in N,N-dimethylformamide at 25 °C. A hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-OH) macro-initiator was also employed to directly access PEO-b-PMMA amphiphilic block copolymers. Investigations into the reaction mechanism by DFT calculations revealed the occurrence of two competitive concerted pathways, involving either the activation of the alcohol or that of the monomer by NHC(tBu) .

  11. IL-7 inhibits tumor growth by promoting T cell-mediated antitumor immunity in Meth A model. (United States)

    Tang, Jian-Cai; Shen, Guo-Bo; Wang, Shi-Min; Wan, Yong-Sheng; Wei, Yu-Quan


    Immune suppression is well documented during tumor progression, which includes loss of effect of T cells and expansion of T regulatory (Treg) cells. IL-7 plays a key role in the proliferation, survival and homeostasis of T cells and displays a potent antitumor activity in vivo. In the present study, we investigated the antitumor effect of IL-7 in Meth A model. IL-7 inhibited tumor growth and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice with corresponding increases in the frequency of CD4 and CD8 T cells, Th1 (CD4(+)IFN-γ(+)), Tc1 (CD8(+)IFN-γ(+)) and T cells cytolytic activity against Meth A cells. Neutralization of CD4 or CD8 T cells reversed the antitumor benefit of IL-7. Furthermore, IL-7 decreased regulatory T Foxp3 as well as cells suppressive activity with a reciprocal increase in SMAD7. In addition, we observed an increase of the serum concentrations of IL-6 and IFN-γ, and a significant decrease of TGF-β and IL-10 after IL-7 treatment. Taken together, these results indicate that IL-7 augments T cell-mediated antitumor immunity and improves the effect of antitumor in Meth A model.

  12. Comprehensive dental treatment for “meth mouth”: A case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panpan Wang


    Full Text Available Methamphetamine-induced caries (MIC is the rampant caries often found in methamphetamine (MA users and is often called “meth mouth”. It leads to devastating effects on dentition and is the major reason that brings patients to professional help. Dental management of these patients is challenging and the most important factor is cessation of MA use. Dentists must be aware of the signs and medical risks associated with this serious condition. If duly attended to, the dental team can help patients on many levels. Treatment plans can be simplified, so that each visit does not last too long. Finally, more attention should be paid topostoperative care. This case report presents a 40-year-old man with rampant caries caused by MA abuse with poor oral hygiene and smoking habits. He was advised to stop the drug abuse and the affected teeth underwent endodontic, restorative and prosthetic rehabilitation. One year later, the patient had some secondary caries but had stopped all drug abuse.

  13. Crystal structure of 4-(meth-oxy-carbon-yl)phenyl-boronic acid. (United States)

    Flanagan, Keith J; Senge, Mathias O


    In the title compound, C8H9BO4, the meth-oxy-carbonyl group is rotated out of the plane of the benzene ring by 7.70 (6)°. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked via pairs of O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving the boronic acid OH groups, forming inversion dimers. The dimers are linked via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, involving a boronic acid OH group and the carbonyl O atom, forming undulating sheets parallel to (10-2). Within the sheets there are also C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds present, also involving the carbonyl O atom. The sheets are linked via C-H⋯π and offset face-to-face π-inter-actions between inversion-related mol-ecules [inter-centroid distance = 3.7843 (16) Å, inter-planar distance = 3.3427 (4) Å and offset = 1.744 Å], forming a three-dimensional structure.

  14. Synthesis and Biomedical Applications of Poly((meth)acrylic acid) Brushes. (United States)

    Qu, Zhenyuan; Xu, Hong; Gu, Hongchen


    Poly((meth)acrylic acid) (P(M)AA) brushes possess a number of distinctive properties that are particularly attractive for biomedical applications. This minireview summarizes recent advances in the synthesis and biomedical applications of P(M)AA brushes and brushes containing P(M)AA segments. First, we review different surface-initiated polymerization (SIP) methods, with a focus on recent progress in the surface-initiated controlled/living radical polymerization (SI-CLRP) techniques used to generate P(M)AA brushes with a tailored structure. Next, we discuss biomolecule immobilization methods for P(M)AA brushes, including physical adsorption, covalent binding, and affinity interactions. Finally, typical biomedical applications of P(M)AA brushes are reviewed, and their performance is discussed based on their unique properties. We conclude that P(M)AA brushes are promising biomaterials, and more potential biomedical applications are expected to emerge with the further development of synthetic techniques and increased understanding of their interactions with biological systems.

  15. Amino-functionalized (meth)acryl polymers by use of a solvent-polarity sensitive protecting group (Br-t-BOC). (United States)

    Ritter, Helmut; Tabatabai, Monir; Herrmann, Markus


    We describe the synthesis of bromo-tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Br-t-BOC)-amino-protected monomers 2-((1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-yl)oxycarbonylamino)ethyl (meth)acrylate 3a,b. For this purpose, 2-isocyanatoethyl (meth)acrylate 1a,b was reacted with 1-bromo-2-methylpropan-2-ol (2a). The free radical polymerization of (Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylates 3a,b yielded poly((Br-t-BOC)-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 6a,b bearing protected amino side groups. The subsequent solvolysis of the Br-t-BOC function led to the new polymers poly(2-aminoethyl (meth)acrylate) 8a,b with protonated free amino groups. The monomers and the resulting polymers were thoroughly characterized by (1)H NMR, IR, GPC and DSC methods. The kinetics of the deprotection step was followed by (1)H NMR spectroscopy. The solvent polarity and neighboring group effects on the kinetics of deprotection are discussed.

  16. High-performance liquid chromatographic method for sensitive determination of the alkylating agent CB1954 in human plasma. (United States)

    Anderson, D; Ferry, D R; Knox, R J; Andrews, S J; Downes, A J; Kerr, D J; Seymour, L W


    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method is described for the measurement of the weak alkylating agent CB1954 in human plasma. CB1954 can be used as an innocuous prodrug designed for activation by bacterial nitroreductases in strategies of gene-directed enzyme-prodrug therapy, and becomes activated to a potent bifunctional alkylating agent. The HPLC method involves precipitation and solvent extraction and uses Mitomycin C (MMC) as an internal standard, with a retention time for MMC of 5.85 +/- 0.015 min, and for CB1954 of 10.72 +/- 0.063 min. The limit of detection for CB1954 is 2.9 ng/ml, and this compares favourably with systems involving direct analysis of plasma (limit of detection 600 ng/ml, approximately). The method is now being used for pharmacokinetic measurements in plasma samples from cancer patients entering phase I clinical trials of CB1954. Results using serial plasma samples from one patient are presented. The patient was treated intravenously with CB1954 (6 mg/m2), and plasma clearance of the drug showed biphasic kinetics with alpha half-life 14.6 min, and beta half-life 170.5 min.

  17. Crystal structure of 4,5-bis-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-2H-1,2,3-triazole methanol monosolvate. (United States)

    Madadi, Nikhil Reddy; Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Bommagani, Shobanbabu; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A


    The title compound, C20H23N3O6·CH3OH, was synthesized by [3 + 2] cyclo-addition of (Z)-2,3-bis-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with sodium azide and ammonium chloride in DMF/water. The central nitro-gen of the triazole ring is protonated. The dihedral angles between the triazole ring and the 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phenyl ring planes are 34.31 (4) and 45.03 (5)°, while that between the 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phenyl rings is 51.87 (5)°. In the crystal, the mol-ecules, along with two methanol solvent mol-ecules are linked into an R (4) 4(10) centrosymmetric dimer by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯N hydrogen bonds.

  18. Development and validation of the HarsMeth NP methodology for the assessment of chemical reaction hazards.



    L'objectiu d'aquest treball es centra en el desenvolupament, comprovació i millora d'una metodologia per l'assessorament del perill tèrmic de les reaccions químiques, orientada especialment a les petites i mitjanes empreses. La metodologia està basada en un sistema de llistes de comprovació per identificar els perills, així com en altres eines senzilles d'entendre per a personal no expert en seguretat. Els orígens del desenvolupament de la metodologia es basen en dos eines existents, HarsMeth...

  19. Pulling habits out of rats: adenosine 2A receptor antagonism in dorsomedial striatum rescues meth-amphetamine-induced deficits in goal-directed action. (United States)

    Furlong, Teri M; Supit, Alva S A; Corbit, Laura H; Killcross, Simon; Balleine, Bernard W


    Addiction is characterized by a persistent loss of behavioral control resulting in insensitivity to negative feedback and abnormal decision-making. Here, we investigated the influence of methamphetamine (METH)-paired contextual cues on decision-making in rats. Choice between goal-directed actions was sensitive to outcome devaluation in a saline-paired context but was impaired in the METH-paired context, a deficit that was also found when negative feedback was provided. Reductions in c-Fos-related immunoreactivity were found in dorsomedial striatum (DMS) but not dorsolateral striatum after exposure to the METH context suggesting this effect reflected a loss specifically in goal-directed control in the METH context. This reduction in c-Fos was localized to non-enkephalin-expressing neurons in the DMS, likely dopamine D1-expressing direct pathway neurons, suggesting a relative change in control by the D1-direct versus D2-indirect pathways originating in the DMS may have been induced by METH-context exposure. To test this suggestion, we infused the adenosine 2A receptor antagonist ZM241385 into the DMS prior to test to reduce activity in D2 neurons relative to D1 neurons in the hope of reducing the inhibitory output from this region of the striatum. We found that this treatment fully restored sensitivity to negative feedback in a test conducted in the METH-paired context. These results suggest that drug exposure alters decision-making by downregulation of the circuitry mediating goal-directed action, an effect that can be ameliorated by acute A2A receptor inhibition in this circuit.

  20. 半衰期为数天的惰性气体和卤素裂变产物在UO2颗粒中的扩散与释放%Diffusion and Release of Noble Gas and Halogen Fission Products With Several Days Half-Life in UO2 Particle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    在考虑吸附效应等物理过程的基础上,得到了裂变产物在UO2颗粒中扩散与释放模型的严格解,并导出了不同反应堆运行状态下裂变产物累积释放份额F(t)、释放-产出比R(t)/B(t)的严格表达式.利用上述结果以及相应的近似解、数值解,对半衰期为数天的惰性气体和卤素裂变产物(131I、131Xem、133Xe和133Xem)在不同堆芯历史条件下的F(t)和R(t)/B(t)进行了比较计算.分析表明,F(t)与R(t)/B(t)的结果均有所差别,但当反应堆运行时间达一定长度后,它们的数值相等.此外,严格解去掉了近似解中不必要的保守性,也比数值解更符合物理实际.%The exact solutions of diffusion and release model of noble gas and halogen fission products in UO2 particle of HTGR were built under the conditions of adsorption effect and other physical processes. The corresponding release fractions (F(t)) and the ratio of release and productive amounts (R (t)/B (t)) of fission products were also derived. Furthermore, the F(t) and R(t)/B(t) of 131I, 131Xem, 133Xe and 133Xem whose half-lifes are several days in UO2 particle with the exact solutions, approximate solutions and corresponding numerical solutions under different temperature histories of reactor core were investigated. The results show that the F(t) and R(t)/B(t) are different in numerical values unless the time of release is long enough. The properties of conservation of exact solutions are much more reasonable than the ones of approximate solutions. It is also found that the results of exact solutions approach the actual working conditions more than the approximate and numerical solutions.

  1. 4-Hy-droxy-5-meth-oxy-N,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-N-[4-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]-1,2-di-hydro-quinoline-3-carboxamide. (United States)

    Akinboye, Emmanuel S; Butcher, Ray J; Yildirim, Sema Ozturk; Isaacs, John T


    The title compound, C20H17F3N2O4, named tasquinimod, is a second-generation oral quinoline-3-carboxamide analogue, which is currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. The quinoline unit is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation of fitted atoms = 0.0075 Å). The carboxamide side chain, substituted at position 3, is tilted by 88.07 (7)° to the quinoline plane. Both the methyl and carbonyl groups of this carboxamide side chain are in a syn conformation. The 4-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phenyl plane is inclined at 50.62 (17)° to the plane of the carboxamide side chain, and at 87.14 (4)° to the plane of the quinoline ring system. The 4-hy-droxy H atom acts as a double proton donor in an intra-molecular hydrogen bond to the 5-position meth-oxy O atom and in an inter-molecular contact to the 2-oxo group, generating a chain along [010] in the crystal structure.

  2. Bis{bis-[1-meth-oxy-2-(2-meth-oxy-eth-oxy)ethane-κ(3) O,O',O'']sodium} 1,1,2,2-tetra-phenyl-ethane-1,2-diide. (United States)

    Minyaev, Mikhail E; Ellis, John E


    Crystals of the title salt, [Na(C6H14O3)2]2(C26H20), were grown from a tetra-hydro-furan/diglyme/Et2O solvent mixture [diglyme is 1-meth-oxy-2-(2-meth-oxy-eth-oxy)ethane]. The cations and dianion are separated in the crystal structure, unlike in the other three structurally characterized dialkali metal tetra-phenyl-ethyl-ene salts. The asymmetric unit contains one [Na(diglyme)2](+) cation and one half of the [Ph2CCPh2](2-) dianion. The latter lies on a twofold rotation axis. C-C bond-length redistribution displays that excessive electron density of the dianion is predominantly located at the C atoms of a former double bond and at all eight ortho positions. The studied crystal was a twin, with the ratio of two major components being 0.2143 (9):0.7857 (9). The twin operation is a twofold rotation around the a axis.

  3. Prolonging the plasma circulation of proteins by nano-encapsulation with phosphorylcholine-based polymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Linlin Zhang; Yang Liu; Gan Liu; Duo Xu; Sheng Liang; Xinyuan Zhu; Yunfeng Lu


    Short in vivo circulation is a major hindrance to the widespread adoption of protein therapeutics.Protein nanocapsules generated by encapsulating proteins with a thin layer of phosphorylcholine-based polymer via a two-step encapsulation process exhibited significantly prolonged plasma half-life.Furthermore,by constructing nanocapsules with similar sizes but different surface charges and chemistry,we demonstrated a generic strategy for prolonging the plasma half-life of therapeutic proteins.In an in vitro experiment,four types of bovine serum albumin (BSA) nanocapsules were incubated with fetal bovine serum (FBS) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS);the cell uptake by HeLa cells was monitored to systematically evaluate the characteristics of the surface chemistry during drculation.Single positron emission tomography-computed tomography (SPECT)was employed to allow real-time observation of the BSA nanoparticle distribution in vivo,as well as quantification of the plasma concentration after intravenous administration.This study offers a practical method for translating a broad range of proteins for clinical use.

  4. HPLC determination of tolperisone in human plasma. (United States)

    Bae, Jung-Woo; Park, Young-Seo; Sohn, Uy-Dong; Myung, Chang-Sun; Ryu, Byung-Kwon; Jang, Choon-Gon; Lee, Seok-Yong


    A simple high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method was developed for the determination of tolperisone in human plasma. Tolperisone and internal standard (chlorphenesin) were isolated from 1 mL of plasma using 8 mL of dichlormethane. The organic phase was collected and evaporated under nitrogen gas. The residue was then reconstituted with 300 mL aliquot of mobile phase and a 100 mL aliquot was injected onto the C18 reverse-phased column. The mobile phase, 45% methanol containing 1% glacial acetic acid and 0.05% 1-hexanesulfonic acid was run at a flow rate of 1 mL/min. The column effluent was monitored using UV detector at 260 nm. The retention times for tolperisone and the internal standard were approximately 7.1 and 8.4 min, respectively. The standard curve was linear with minimal intra-day and inter-day variability. The quantification limit of tolperisone in human plasma was 10 ng/ mL. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of pharmacokinetic profile of tolperisone in Koreans. The Tmax of tolperisone in Koreans (0.94 +/- 0.42 h) was not significantly differ from that reported in Europeans (0.5-1 h), but the mean half-life in Koreans (1.14 +/- 0.27 h) was shorter than that in Europeans (2.56 +/- 0.2 h). The proposed HPLC method is simple, accurate, reproducible and suitable for pharmacokinetic study of tolperisone.


    Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S.; Melega, William P.; Lacan, Goran; McCunney, Stanley J.


    Bingeing is one pattern of high dose methamphetamine (METH) abuse which involves continuous drug taking over several days and can result in psychotic behaviors for which the brain pathology remains poorly-defined. A corresponding animal model of this type of METH exposure may provide novel insights into the neurochemical and behavioral sequelae associated with this condition. Accordingly, to simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of a human METH binge exposure in rats we used a computer-controlled, intravenous METH procedure (dynamic infusion) to overcome species differences in METH pharmacokinetics and to replicate the human 12-h plasma METH half-life. Animals were treated over 13 weeks with escalating METH doses, using dynamic infusion, and then exposed to a binge in which drug was administered every 3 h for 72h. Throughout the binge, behavioral effects included unabated intense oral stereotypies in the absence of locomotion and in the absence of sleep. Decrements in regional brain dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin levels, measured at 1 and 10 h after the last injection of the binge, had, with the exception of caudate-putamen dopamine and frontal cortex serotonin, recovered by 48 h. At 10 h after the last injection of the binge, [3H]ligand binding to dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporters in caudate-putamen were reduced by 35% and 13%, respectively. In a separate METH binge treated cohort, post-binge behavioral alterations were apparent in an attenuated locomotor response to a METH challenge infusion at 24h after the last injection of the binge. Collectively, the changes we characterized during and following a METH binge suggest that for humans under similar exposure conditions, multiple time-dependent neurochemical deficits contribute to their behavioral profiles. PMID:19571794

  6. Human methamphetamine pharmacokinetics simulated in the rat: behavioral and neurochemical effects of a 72-h binge. (United States)

    Kuczenski, Ronald; Segal, David S; Melega, William P; Lacan, Goran; McCunney, Stanley J


    Bingeing is one pattern of high-dose methamphetamine (METH) abuse, which involves continuous drug taking over several days and can result in psychotic behaviors for which the brain pathology remains poorly defined. A corresponding animal model of this type of METH exposure may provide novel insights into the neurochemical and behavioral sequelae associated with this condition. Accordingly, to simulate the pharmacokinetic profile of a human METH binge exposure in rats, we used a computer-controlled, intravenous METH procedure (dynamic infusion, DI) to overcome species differences in METH pharmacokinetics and to replicate the human 12-h plasma METH half-life. Animals were treated over 13 weeks with escalating METH doses, using DI, and then exposed to a binge in which drug was administered every 3 h for 72 h. Throughout the binge, behavioral effects included unabated intense oral stereotypies in the absence of locomotion and in the absence of sleep. Decrements in regional brain dopamine, norepinephrine, and serotonin levels, measured at 1 and 10 h after the last injection of the binge, had, with the exception of caudate-putamen dopamine and frontal cortex serotonin, recovered by 48 h. At 10 h after the last injection of the binge, [(3)H]ligand binding to dopamine and vesicular monoamine transporters in caudate-putamen were reduced by 35 and 13%, respectively. In a separate METH binge-treated cohort, post-binge behavioral alterations were apparent in an attenuated locomotor response to a METH challenge infusion at 24 h after the last injection of the binge. Collectively, the changes we characterized during and after a METH binge suggest that for human beings under similar exposure conditions, multiple time-dependent neurochemical deficits contribute to their behavioral profiles.

  7. Crystal structures of two bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene derivatives: similarities and differences in the crystal packing. (United States)

    McAdam, C John; Hanton, Lyall R; Moratti, Stephen C; Simpson, Jim


    The isomeric derivatives 1,2-bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene, (I), and 1,3-bis-(iodo-meth-yl)benzene (II), both C8H8I2, were prepared by metathesis from their di-bromo analogues. The ortho-derivative, (I), lies about a crystallographic twofold axis that bis-ects the C-C bond between the two iodo-methyl substituents. The packing in (I) relies solely on C-H⋯I hydrogen bonds supported by weak parallel slipped π-π stacking inter-actions [inter-centroid distance = 4.0569 (11) Å, inter-planar distance = 3.3789 (8) Å and slippage = 2.245 Å]. While C-H⋯I hydrogen bonds are also found in the packing of (II), type II, I⋯I halogen bonds [I⋯I = 3.8662 (2) Å] and C-H⋯π contacts feature prominently in stabilizing the three-dimensional structure.

  8. Meth/amphetamine use and associated HIV: Implications for global policy and public health. (United States)

    Degenhardt, Louisa; Mathers, Bradley; Guarinieri, Mauro; Panda, Samiran; Phillips, Benjamin; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Tyndall, Mark; Wiessing, Lucas; Wodak, Alex; Howard, John


    Amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) have become the focus of increasing attention worldwide. There are understandable concerns over potential harms including the transmission of HIV. However, there have been no previous global reviews of the extent to which these drugs are injected or levels of HIV among users. A comprehensive search of the international peer-reviewed and grey literature was undertaken. Multiple electronic databases were searched and documents and datasets were provided by UN agencies and key experts from around the world in response to requests for information on the epidemiology of use. Amphetamine or methamphetamine (meth/amphetamine, M/A) use was documented in 110 countries, and injection in 60 of those. Use may be more prevalent in East and South East Asia, North America, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia and a number of European countries. In countries where the crystalline form is available, evidence suggests users are more likely to smoke or inject the drug; in such countries, higher levels of dependence may be occurring. Equivocal evidence exists as to whether people who inject M/A are at differing risk of HIV infection than other drug injectors; few countries document HIV prevalence/incidence among M/A injectors. High risk sexual behaviour among M/A users may contribute to increased risk of HIV infection, but available evidence is not sufficient to determine if the association is causal. A range of possible responses to M/A use and harm are discussed, ranging from supply and precursor control, to demand and harm reduction. Evidence suggests that complex issues surround M/A, requiring novel and sophisticated approaches, which have not yet been met with sufficient investment of time or resources to address them. Significant levels of M/A in many countries require a response to reduce harms that in many cases remain poorly understood. More active models of engagement with M/A users and provision of services that meet their specific needs

  9. Murine leukemia RL male 1 and sarcoma Meth A antigens recognized by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL). (United States)

    Uenaka, Akiko; Nakayama, Eiichi


    Peptide elution and expression cloning methods have been used to identify T cell-recognized antigens for which no molecular information is available. We identified a unique tumor antigen peptide pRL1a, IPGLPLSL that is recognized by CTL on BALB/c RL male 1 leukemia by peptide elution. The sequence of the peptide corresponded to the normally untranslated 5' region of akt. Cytotoxicity was generated in BALB/c spleen cells by in vivo and in vitro sensitization with pRL1a peptide in the form of multiple antigen peptide (MAP), but not the original form. pRL1a MAP immunization had a significant growth-inhibitory effect. pRL1a MAP was mostly internalized into the endosomal compartment of antigen-presenting cells, leaked to the cytosol, and degraded, and the pRL1a peptide produced was presented through the MHC class I pathway. In vivo depletion of CD4 T cells from tumor-inoculated BALB/c mice caused RL male 1 regression. Overexpression of the RLakt molecule seemed to induce CD4 immunoregulatory cells, which resulted in progressive RL male 1 growth in BALB/c mice. In vivo administration of anti-CD25 mAb (PC61) caused regression of RL male 1, suggesting that CD4(+) CD25(+) immunoregulatory cells were involved in the tumor growth. Recently, we improved the sensitivity and the efficacy of T cell antigen cloning from cDNA expression libraries by using large- and small-scale ELISPOT assays. Using the IFN-gamma ELISPOT method, we obtained a cDNA clone S35 of 937 bp recognized by AT-1 CTL on BALB/c Meth A sarcoma. S35 was a part of the retinoic acid-regulated nuclear matrix-associated protein (ramp). AT-1 CTL recognized the peptide LGAEAIFRL, which was derived from a newly created open reading frame due to the exon 14 extension.

  10. Crystal structure of (E)-2-[(2-bromopyridin-3-yl)methyl-idene]-6-meth-oxy-3,4-di-hydro-naphthalen-1(2H)-one and 3-[(E)-(6-meth-oxy-1-oxo-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-naphthalen-2-ylidene)meth-yl]pyridin-2(1H)-one. (United States)

    Zingales, Sarah K; Moore, Morgan E; Goetz, Andrew D; Padgett, Clifford W


    The title compounds C17H14BrNO2, (I), and C17H15NO3, (II), were obtained from the reaction of 6-meth-oxy-3,4-di-hydro-2H-naphthalen-1-one and 2-bromo-nicotinaldehyde in ethanol. Compound (I) was the expected product and compound (II) was the oxidation product from air exposure. In the crystal structure of compound (I), there are no short contacts or hydrogen bonds. The structure does display π-π inter-actions between adjacent benzene rings and adjacent pyridyl rings. Compound (II) contains two independent mol-ecules, A and B, in the asymmetric unit; both are non-planar, the dihedral angles between the meth-oxy-benzene and 1H-pyridin-2-one mean planes being 35.07 (9)° in A and 35.28 (9)°in B. In each mol-ecule, the 1H-pyridin-2-one unit participates in inter-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding to another mol-ecule of the same type (A to A or B to B). The structure also displays π-π inter-actions between the pyridyl and the benzene rings of non-equivalent mol-ecules (viz., A to B and B to A).

  11. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)


    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  12. 1-(2,4-Di-nitro-phen-yl)-2-[(E)-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzyl-idene)]hydrazine. (United States)

    Chantrapromma, Suchada; Ruanwas, Pumsak; Boonnak, Nawong; Chidan Kumar, C S; Fun, Hoong-Kun


    Mol-ecules of the title compound, C16H16N4O7, are not planar with a dihedral angle of 5.50 (11)° between the substituted benzene rings. The two meta-meth-oxy groups of the 3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-benzene moiety lie in the plane of the attached ring [Cmeth-yl-O-C-C torsion angles -0.1 (4)° and -3.7 (3)°] while the para-meth-oxy substituent lies out of the plane [Cmeth-yl-O-C-C, -86.0 (3)°]. An intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bond involving the 2-nitro substituent generates an S(6) ring motif. In the crystal structure, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯O inter-actions into screw chains, that are arranged into a sheet parallel to the bc plane. These sheets are connected by π-π stacking inter-actions between the nitro and meth-oxy substituted aromatic rings with a centroid-centroid separation of 3.9420 (13) Å. C-H⋯π contacts further stabilize the two-dimensional network.

  13. Research of influential factors on elimination half life of vancomycin in children with severe pneumonia%万古霉素在重症肺炎患儿体内消除半衰期影响因素的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪洋; 宋新文; 许琼; 张华年; 徐华


    目的:探讨万古霉素在重症肺炎患儿体内消除半衰期的影响因素.方法:测定29例重症肺炎患儿静滴万古霉素后在消除相两个时间点的血药浓度,并以此估算每位患儿万古霉素的消除半衰期t1/2(β).进一步利用SPSS 13.0软件作多元线性回归分析来考察t1/2(β)与患儿性别、年龄、身高、体质量、给药量及各生化指标之间的相关性.结果:万古霉素t1/2(β)与血清肌酐(CRE,X)及天门冬酸氨基转移酶(AST,Y)浓度呈正相关(P<0.05),与其他统计数据无显著相关性.回归方程为:t1/2(β)=0.360X+0.043Y-6.316(r=0.851,P<0.01).结论:万古霉素在重症肺炎患儿体内的消除速率与肝、肾功能密切相关,应监测血药浓度并根据患儿的自身状况来制订个体化给药方案.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the influential factors on elimination half life of vancomycin in children with severe pneumonia. METHODS The serum vancomycin concentrations at two time points on elimination phase after intravenous drip in each one of 29 children with severe pneumonia were determined, and which were used to calculate the elimination half lives of vancomycin (t1/2beta). The correlation between vancomycin t1/2beta and sex, age, body height, body weight and biochemical indexes of patients was analyzed with multiple linear regression method by SPSS (13. 0) software. RESULTS Vancomycin t1/2betawas positive correlated with serum creatinine concentration(CRE) and AST (P<0. 05), but no significant correlation was noted between t1/2beta and other statistical data. The regression equation was t1/2beta = 0. 360CRE + 0. 043AST - 6. 316(r = 0. 851, P>0. 000). CONCLUSION The elimination rate of vancomycin in children with severe pneumonia was closely correlated with liver and kidney functions, so it's necessary to monitor the serum vancomycin concentration and draw up individualized therapy according the body condition of every patient.

  14. Safety, Pharmacokinetics, Pharmacodynamics, and Plasma Lipoprotein Distribution of Eritoran (E5564) during Continuous Intravenous Infusion into Healthy Volunteers (United States)

    Rossignol, Daniel P.; Wasan, Kishor M.; Choo, Eugene; Yau, Edwin; Wong, Nancy; Rose, Jeffrey; Moran, Jeffrey; Lynn, Melvyn


    Eritoran, a structural analogue of the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), is an antagonist of LPS in animal and human endotoxemia models. Previous studies have shown that low doses (350 to 3,500 μg) of eritoran have demonstrated a long pharmacokinetic half-life but a short pharmacodynamic half-life. The present study describes the safety, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, and lipid distribution profile of eritoran during and after a 72-h intravenous infusion of 500, 2,000, or 3,500 μg/h into healthy volunteers. Except for the occurrence of phlebitis, eritoran administration over 72 h was safe and well tolerated. Eritoran demonstrated a slow plasma clearance (0.679 to 0.930 ml/h/kg of body weight), a small volume of distribution (45.6 to 49.8 ml/kg), and a relatively long half-life (50.4 to 62.7 h). In plasma, the majority (∼55%) of eritoran was bound to high-density lipoproteins. During infusion and for up to 72 h thereafter, ex vivo response of blood to 1- or 10-ng/ml LPS was inhibited by ≥85%, even when the lowest dose of eritoran (500 μg/h) was infused. Inhibition of response was dependent on eritoran dose and the concentration of LPS used as an agonist. Finally, in vitro analysis with purified lipoprotein and protein fractions from plasma obtained from healthy volunteers indicated that eritoran is inactivated by high-density but not low-density lipoproteins, very-low-density lipoproteins, or albumin. From these results, we conclude that up to 252 mg of eritoran can be safely infused into normal volunteers over 72 h and even though it associates extensively with high-density lipoproteins, antagonistic activity is maintained, even after infusion ceases. PMID:15328078

  15. Crystal structure of (E)-13-{4-[(Z)-2-cyano-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]phen-yl}parthenolide methanol hemisolvate. (United States)

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Bommagani, Shobanbabu; Janganati, Venumadhav; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A


    The title compound, C33H35NO6 [systematic name: (Z)-3-(4-{(E)-[(E)-1a,5-dimethyl-9-oxo-2,3,7,7a-tetra-hydro-oxireno[2',3':9,10]cyclo-deca-[1,2-b]furan-8(1aH,6H,9H,10aH,10bH)-yl-idene]meth-yl}phen-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-ni-trile methanol hemisolvate], C33H35NO6·0.5CH3OH, was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(4-iodo-phen-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with parthenolide [systematic name: (E)-1a,5-dimethyl-8-methyl-ene-2,3,6,7,7a,8,10a,10b-octa-hy-dro-oxireno[2',3':9,10]cyclo-deca-[1,2-b]furan-9(1aH)-one] under Heck reaction conditions. The mol-ecule is built up from fused ten-, five- (lactone) and three-membered (epoxide) rings with a {4-[(Z)-2-cyano-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]phen-yl}methyl-idene group as a substituent. The 4-[(Z)-2-cyano-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]phenyl group on the parthenolide exocyclic double bond is oriented in a trans position to the lactone ring to form the E isomer. The dihedral angle between the benzene ring of the phenyl moiety and the lactone ring mean plane is 21.93 (4)°.

  16. Plasma harmonics

    CERN Document Server

    Ganeev, Rashid A


    Preface; Why plasma harmonics? A very brief introduction Early stage of plasma harmonic studies - hopes and frustrations New developments in plasma harmonics studies: first successes Improvements of plasma harmonics; Theoretical basics of plasma harmonics; Basics of HHG Harmonic generation in fullerenes using few-cycle pulsesVarious approaches for description of observed peculiarities of resonant enhancement of a single harmonic in laser plasmaTwo-colour pump resonance-induced enhancement of odd and even harmonics from a tin plasmaCalculations of single harmonic generation from Mn plasma;Low-o

  17. Crystal structure of 2-((1E)-{2-[bis-(2-methyl-benzyl-sulfan-yl)methyl-idene]hydrazin-1-yl-idene}meth-yl)-6-meth-oxy-phenol. (United States)

    Yusof, Enis Nadia Md; Ravoof, Thahira Begum S A; Tahir, Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed; Tiekink, Edward R T


    In the title compound, C25H26N2O2S2, the central CN2S2 atoms are almost coplanar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0058 Å). One phenyl ring clearly lies to one side of the central plane, while the other is oriented in the plane but splayed. Despite the different relative orientations, the phenyl rings form similar dihedral angles of 64.90 (3) and 70.06 (3)° with the central plane, and 63.28 (4)° with each other. The benzene ring is twisted with respect to the central plane, forming a dihedral angle of 13.17 (7)°. The S2C=N, N-N and N-N=C bond lengths of 1.2919 (19), 1.4037 (17) and 1.2892 (19) Å, respectively, suggest limited conjugation over these atoms; the configuration about the N-N=C bond is E. An intra-molecular O-H⋯N hydrogen bond is noted. In the crystal, phen-yl-meth-oxy C-H⋯O and phen-yl-phenyl C-H⋯π inter-actions lead to supra-molecular double chains parallel to the b axis. These are connected into a layer via meth-yl-phenyl C-H⋯π inter-actions, and layers stack along the a axis, being connected by weak π-π inter-actions between phenyl rings [inter-centroid distance = 3.9915 (9) Å] so that a three-dimensional architecture ensues.

  18. Dusty plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fortov, Vladimir E; Khrapak, Aleksei G; Molotkov, Vladimir I; Petrov, Oleg F [Institute for High Energy Densities, Associated Institute for High Temperatures, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation); Khrapak, Sergei A [Max-Planck-Institut fur Extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany)


    The properties of dusty plasmas - low-temperature plasmas containing charged macroparticles - are considered. The most important elementary processes in dusty plasmas and the forces acting on dust particles are investigated. The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of different states of strongly nonideal dusty plasmas - crystal-like, liquid-like, gas-like - are summarized. Waves and oscillations in dusty plasmas, as well as their damping and instability mechanisms, are studied. Some results on dusty plasma investigated under microgravity conditions are presented. New directions of experimental research and potential applications of dusty plasmas are discussed. (reviews of topical problems)

  19. Crystal structures of two mononuclear complexes of terbium(III) nitrate with the tripodal alcohol 1,1,1-tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)propane. (United States)

    Gregório, Thaiane; Giese, Siddhartha O K; Nunes, Giovana G; Soares, Jaísa F; Hughes, David L


    Two new mononuclear cationic complexes in which the Tb(III) ion is bis-chelated by the tripodal alcohol 1,1,1-tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)propane (H3L(Et), C6H14O3) were prepared from Tb(NO3)3·5H2O and had their crystal and mol-ecular structures solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis after data collection at 100 K. Both products were isolated in reasonable yields from the same reaction mixture by using different crystallization conditions. The higher-symmetry complex dinitratobis[1,1,1-tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)propane]-terbium(III) nitrate di-meth-oxy-ethane hemisolvate, [Tb(NO3)2(H3L(Et))2]NO3·0.5C4H10O2, 1, in which the lanthanide ion is 10-coordinate and adopts an s-bicapped square-anti-prismatic coordination geometry, contains two bidentate nitrate ions bound to the metal atom; another nitrate ion functions as a counter-ion and a half-mol-ecule of di-meth-oxy-ethane (completed by a crystallographic twofold rotation axis) is also present. In product aqua-nitratobis[1,1,1-tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)propane]-terbium(III) dinitrate, [Tb(NO3)(H3L(Et))2(H2O)](NO3)2, 2, one bidentate nitrate ion and one water mol-ecule are bound to the nine-coordinate terbium(III) centre, while two free nitrate ions contribute to charge balance outside the tricapped trigonal-prismatic coordination polyhedron. No free water mol-ecule was found in either of the crystal structures and, only in the case of 1, di-meth-oxy-ethane acts as a crystallizing solvent. In both mol-ecular structures, the two tripodal ligands are bent to one side of the coordination sphere, leaving room for the anionic and water ligands. In complex 2, the methyl group of one of the H3L(Et) ligands is disordered over two alternative orientations. Strong hydrogen bonds, both intra- and inter-molecular, are found in the crystal structures due to the number of different donor and acceptor groups present.

  20. Plasma kinetics and biodistribution of water-soluble CdTe quantum dots in mice: a comparison between Cd and Te (United States)

    Han, Ying; Xie, Guangyun; Sun, Zhiwei; Mu, Ying; Han, Sihai; Xiao, Yang; Liu, Na; Wang, Hui; Guo, Caixia; Shi, Zhixiong; Li, Yanbo; Huang, Peili


    Water-soluble quantum dots (QDs) have shown potential as tumor diagnostic agents. However, little is known about their biological behaviors in vivo. Male ICR mice were intravenously given a single dose (2.5 μmol kg-1 body weight) of water-soluble cadmium-telluride (CdTe) QDs (the QDs are approximately 4 nm in diameter and have maximal emission at 630 nm). Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for measuring the kinetic action of 111Cd and 125Te for 7 days. The plasma kinetics of Cd and Te followed a two-compartment model, in which Cd exhibited greater apparent volume of distribution, greater clearance, faster distribution half-life, and significantly slower elimination half-life compared to Te. Contrary to its relatively transient fate in the plasma, high levels of Cd persisted in the liver and kidneys. Te accumulated primarily in the spleen. The different plasma kinetics and distribution patterns of Cd and Te imply that CdTe QDs have been part of the degradation or aggregation in vivo.

  1. Plasma concentrations of buprenorphine after epidural administration in conscious cats. (United States)

    Duke-Novakovski, Tanya; Clark, Christopher R; Ambros, Barbara; Gilbert, Peter; Steagall, Paulo V M


    Buprenorphine plasma concentrations were measured after administering buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) into the lumbosacral epidural space of conscious cats chronically instrumented with an epidural catheter. Blood was collected from a jugular vein before injection and 15, 30, 45 and 60 min and 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 12 and 24 h after administration. Plasma buprenorphine concentrations were measured using ELISA. Background concentration (before injection) was 1.27 ± 0.27 ng/mL (mean ± SD). Including background concentration, the mean peak plasma concentration was obtained 15 min after injection (5.82 ± 3.75 ng/mL), and ranged from 3.79 to 2.20 ng/mL (30 min-3 h), remaining between 1.93 and 1.77 ng/mL (4-12 h), and declined to 1.40 ± 0.62 ng/mL at 24h. Elimination half-life was 58.8 ± 40.2 min and clearance 56.7 ± 21.5 mL/min. Results indicate early rapid systemic uptake of buprenorphine from epidural administration with plasma concentrations similar to using buccal or IM routes by 15 min postinjection.

  2. Stability of caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA) in rat plasma. (United States)

    Yang, John; Kerwin, Sean M; Bowman, Phillip D; Stavchansky, Salomon


    A validated C₁₈ reverse-phase HPLC method with UV detection at 320 nm was developed and used for the stability evaluation of caffeic acid phenethyl amide (CAPA) and caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) in rat plasma. CAPA is the amide derivative of CAPE, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound that has been found to be active in a variety of biological pathways. CAPA has been shown to protect endothelial cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress to a similar degree to CAPE. CAPE has been reported to be rapidly hydrolyzed in rat plasma via esterase enzymes. CAPA is expected to display a longer half-life than CAPE by avoiding hydrolysis via plasma esterases. The stability of CAPA and CAPE in rat plasma was investigated at three temperatures. The half-lives for CAPA were found to be 41.5, 10 and 0.82 h at 25, 37 and 60 °C, respectively. The half-lives for CAPE were found to be 1.95, 0.35 and 0.13 h at 4, 25 and 37 °C, respectively. The energy of activation was found to be 22.1 kcal/mol for CAPA and 14.1 kcal/mol for CAPE. A more stable compound could potentially extend the beneficial effects of CAPE.

  3. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG


    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  4. Plasma astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D


    Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary

  5. Bactericidal active ingredient in cryopreserved plasma-treated water with the reduced-pH method for plasma disinfection (United States)

    Kitano, Katsuhisa; Ikawa, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yoichi; Tani, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Ohshima, Tomoko


    For the plasma disinfection of human body, plasma sterilization in liquid is crucial. We found that the plasma-treated water (PTW) has strong bactericidal activity under low pH condition. Physicochemical properties of PTW is discussed based on chemical kinetics. Lower temperature brings longer half-life and the bactericidal activity of PTW can be kept by cryopreservation. High performance PTW, corresponding to the disinfection power of 22 log reduction (B. subtilis spore), can be obtained by special plasma system equipped with cooling device. This is equivalent to 65% H2O2, 14% sodium hypochlorite and 0.33% peracetic acid, which are deadly poison for human. But, it is deactivated soon at higher temperature (4 sec. at body temperature), and toxicity to human body seems low. For dental application, PTW was effective on infected models of human extracted tooth. Although PTW has many chemical components, respective chemical components in PTW were isolated by ion chromatography. In addition to peaks of H2O2, NO2- and NO3-, a specific peak was detected. and only this fraction had bactericidal activity. Purified active ingredient of PTW is the precursor of HOO, and further details will be discussed in the presentation. MEXT (15H03583, 23340176, 25108505). NCCE (23-A-15).

  6. Midazolam plasma concentration after anesthesia premedication in clinical routine - an observational study : Midazolam plasma concentration after anesthesia premedication. (United States)

    Steiner, C; Steurer, M P; Mueller, D; Zueger, M; Dullenkopf, A


    Midazolam is commonly used as a pre-anesthesia anxiolytic. It`s elimination may not be fast enough for short procedures. In orally premedicated patients we obtained midazolam plasma concentrations at the end of surgical procedures and compared those to concentrations at anesthesia induction. The study was conducted prospectively with consent of the local ethics committee (Ethikkomission Kanton Thurgau, Switzerland) and carried out with written informed consent of each patient. Female patients aged 20 to 60 years undergoing elective procedures with general anesthesia were included, and were divided in two groups according to the planned surgical time: group S (Midazolam po as premedication. Blood samples were drawn at anesthesia induction, and at the end of surgery. Data were compared with t-test (independent samples; significance level p midazolam was not detectable in any samples. Time of premedication to the 1st blood sample was not statistically different between groups, neither were Midazolam plasma levels at this time point (p = 0.94). None of the patients from group L (n = 24), but five patients in group S (n = 22) did have a higher plasma level of Midazolam at the end of the case compared to the beginning. The elimination half-life of oral Midazolam can lead to higher plasma levels at the end of a short procedure compared to those at induction of anesthesia. German Clinical Trials Register (Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien), DRKS00005429 ; date of registration 3(rd) January 2014.

  7. Review of Synthesis of Higher Alkyl(Meth) Acrylates%丙烯酸高级酯合成的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凯庆; 王玉路


    It was reviewed the development of the synthetic methods of higher alkyl(meth) acrylates. The main influencing factors on esterification such as molar rate of (meth)acrylic acid and higher alcohols, the dosage of catalyst and inhibitor of polymerization, reaction temperature and reaction time, as well as the post-treatment were discussed.%综述了丙烯酸高级酯的制备方法,反应过程的主要影响因素如酸醇摩尔比、催化剂用量、阻聚剂用量、反应温度、反应时间及后处理方法等.

  8. 带Hermite插值条件的最小二乘估计%The Methed of Least Squares with the First Order Cantact Interpolation Condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The metheds of least squares with the first order cantact interpolation condition are proposed in this paper and the concrete expressions of the fitted curve using the metheds of least squares with the first order cantact interpolation condition.%提出了带Hermite插值条件的最小二乘拟合问题,并给出了带Hermite插值条件的最小二乘拟合的拟合曲线的具体表达式.利用Lingo建模语言设计了求解带Hermite插值条件的最小二乘拟合的拟合曲线的Lingo程序,并通过Excel软件得到了求解带Hermite插值条件的最小二乘拟合的拟合曲线的应用软件.

  9. Crystal structure of bis-(1,3-di-meth-oxy-imidazolin-2-yl-idene)silver(I) hexa-fluorido-phosphate, N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complex. (United States)

    Rietzler, Barbara; Laus, Gerhard; Kahlenberg, Volker; Schottenberger, Herwig


    The title salt, [Ag(C5H8N2O2)2]PF6, was obtained by deprotonation and metalation of 1,3-di-meth-oxy-imidazolium hexa-fluorido-phosphate using silver(I) oxide in methanol. The C-Ag-C angle in the cation is 178.1 (2)°, and the N-C-N angles are 101.1 (4) and 100.5 (4)°. The meth-oxy groups adopt an anti conformation. In the crystal, anions (A) are sandwiched between cations (C) in a layered arrangement {C…A…C} n stacked along [001]. Within a C…A…C layer, the hexafluoridophosphate anions accept several C-H⋯F hydrogen bonds from the cationic complex.

  10. Poly[[aqua-{μ4-2-[(carb-oxy-meth-yl)sulfan-yl]nicotinato-κ(4) O:O':O'':O'''}copper(II)] trihydrate]. (United States)

    Li, Wei-Qi


    In the polymeric title complex, {[Cu(C8H5NO4S)(H2O)]·3H2O} n , the Cu(II) cation is coordinated by one water mol-ecule and four carboxyl-ate O atoms from four 2-[(carb-oxy-meth-yl)sulfan-yl]nicotinate anions in a distorted square-pyramidal geometry. The 2-[(carb-oxy-meth-yl)sulfan-yl]nicotinate anion bridges four Cu(II) cations, forming a two-dimensional polymeric complex parallel to the bc plane. In the crystal, O-H⋯O, O-H⋯N and O-H⋯S hydrogen bonds link the complex mol-ecules and lattice water mol-ecules into a three-dimensional supra-molecular architecture.

  11. Crystal structure of a mixed-ligand dinuclear Ba-Zn complex with 2-meth-oxy-ethanol having tri-phenyl-acetate and chloride bridges. (United States)

    Utko, Józef; Sobocińska, Maria; Dobrzyńska, Danuta; Lis, Tadeusz


    The dinuclear barium-zinc complex, μ-chlorido-1:2κ(2) Cl:Cl-chlorido-2κCl-bis-(2-meth-oxy-ethanol-1κO)bis-(2-meth-oxy-ethanol-1κ(2) O,O')bis-(μ-tri-phenyl-acetato-1:2κ(2) O:O')bariumzinc, [BaZn(C20H15O2)2Cl2(C3H8O2)4], has been synthesized by the reaction of barium tri-phenyl-acetate, anhydrous zinc chloride and 2-meth-oxy-ethanol in the presence of toluene. The barium and zinc metal cations in the dinuclear complex are linked via one chloride anion and carboxyl-ate O atoms of the tri-phenyl-acetate ligands, giving a Ba⋯Zn separation of 3.9335 (11) Å. The irregular nine-coordinate BaO8Cl coordination centres comprise eight O-atom donors, six of them from 2-meth-oxy-ethanol ligands (four from two bidentate O,O'-chelate inter-actions and two from monodentate inter-actions), two from bridging tri-phenyl-acetate ligands and one from a bridging Cl donor. The distorted tetra-hedral coordination sphere of zinc comprises two O-atom donors from the tri-phenyl-acetate ligands and two Cl donors (one bridging and one terminal). In the crystal, O-H⋯Cl, O-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl inter-molecular inter-actions form a layered structure, lying parallel to (001).

  12. Crystal structures of bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate and tetra-chlorido-cuprate. (United States)

    Gauchat, Eric; Nazarenko, Alexander Y


    (9S,13S,14S)-3-Meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinan (dextromethorphan) forms two isostructural salts with (a) tetra-chlorido-cobaltate, namely bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cobaltate, (C18H26NO)2[CoCl4], and (b) tetra-chlorido-cuprate, namely bis-[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth-oxy-17-methyl-morphinanium] tetra-chlorido-cuprate, (C18H26NO)2[CuCl4]. The distorted tetra-hedral anions are located on twofold rotational axes. The dextromethorphan cation can be described as being composed of two ring systems, a tetra-hydro-naphthalene system A+B and a deca-hydro-isoquinolinium subunit C+D, that are nearly perpendicular to one another: the angle between mean planes of the A+B and C+D moieties is 78.8 (1)° for (a) and 79.0 (1)° for (b). Two symmetry-related cations of protonated dextromethorphan are connected to the tetra-chlorido-cobaltate (or tetra-chlorido-cuprate) anions via strong N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming neutral ion associates. These associates are packed in the (001) plane with no strong attractive bonding between them. Both compounds are attractive crystalline forms for unambiguous identification of the dextromethorphan and, presumably, of its optical isomer, levomethorphan.

  13. 基于动态面控制的船舶航迹跟踪%Tracking Control of Ships Based on Dynamic Surface Control Methed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建锋; 王锡淮; 肖健梅


    Tracking control of surface ships is a chal enging problem.A design scheme based on the dynamic surface control methed is proposed for this problem.The addition of low pass filters in backstepping design procedure al ows the dynamic surface control methed to avoid the explosion of terms involving the calculation of the state derivatives and result in the simpler control structure.Simulation results prove that the proposed methed can implement the tracking of ships.%针对船舶航迹跟踪控制问题,引入动态面控制算法,设计了基于动态面控制的船舶航迹跟踪控制器。该算法是在backstepping算法的基础上加入了一阶低通滤波器,这样能够避免状态量微分计算时的微分膨胀问题,使得设计更为简单。仿真结果表明,所设计的控制器能够很好地实现船舶航迹跟踪。

  14. Oral Bioavailability and Plasma Disposition of Pefloxacin in Healthy Broiler Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Aránzazu Martínez


    Full Text Available The pharmacokinetics of pefloxacin after single 10 mg/kg BW intravenous (IV and oral doses were studied in healthy broiler chickens. For 24 h, serial blood samples were obtained after IV and oral administration. Concentrations of pefloxacin and its major metabolite N-demethyl pefloxacin (norfloxacin were measured by use of high-performance liquid chromatography. The plasma concentrations–time data were found to fit a two-compartment open model. For pefloxacin, the elimination half-life (t½β was 8.44 ± 0.48 and 13.18 ± 0.82 h after IV and oral administration, respectively. After single oral dose, pefloxacin was rapidly absorbed with an absorption half-life (t½a and TMAX of 0.87 ± 0.07 and 2.01 ± 0.12 h, respectively. Maximum plasma concentration (CMAX was 4.02 ± 0.31 µg/mL. Oral bioavailability of pefloxacin was found to be 70 ± 2%. Pefloxacin was converted to N-demethyl pefloxacin (norfloxacin. This metabolite represented 5% of the parent drug plasma concentrations. The maximal plasma concentration (CMAX of N-demethyl pefloxacin (norfloxacin was calculated as 0.19 ± 0.01 mg/mL. The t½β of N-demethyl pefloxacin after oral pefloxacin administration was 10.93 ± 0.80 h. The results indicate that an oral dose of 10 mg pefloxacin/kg BW, every 24 h, should be effective in treatment of the most systemic infections in poultry.

  15. Plasma non-esterified docosahexaenoic acid is the major pool supplying the brain. (United States)

    Chen, Chuck T; Kitson, Alex P; Hopperton, Kathryn E; Domenichiello, Anthony F; Trépanier, Marc-Olivier; Lin, Lauren E; Ermini, Leonardo; Post, Martin; Thies, Frank; Bazinet, Richard P


    Despite being critical for normal brain function, the pools that supply docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to the brain are not agreed upon. Using multiple kinetic models in free-living adult rats, we first demonstrate that DHA uptake from the plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) pool predicts brain uptake of DHA upon oral administration, which enters the plasma NEFA pool as well as multiple plasma esterified pools. The rate of DHA loss by the brain is similar to the uptake from the plasma NEFA pool. Furthermore, upon acute iv administration, although more radiolabeled lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC)-DHA enters the brain than NEFA-DHA, this is due to the longer plasma half-life and exposure to the brain. Direct comparison of the uptake rate of LPC-DHA and NEFA-DHA demonstrates that uptake of NEFA-DHA into the brain is 10-fold greater than LPC-DHA. In conclusion, plasma NEFA-DHA is the major plasma pool supplying the brain.

  16. Massive thyroxine intoxication: evaluation of plasma extraction. (United States)

    Binimelis, J; Bassas, L; Marruecos, L; Rodriguez, J; Domingo, M L; Madoz, P; Armengol, S; Mangues, M A; de Leiva, A


    Six patients were admitted after erroneous massive intake of levothyroxine (70-1200 mg over an interval of 2-12 days). All patients developed classical symptoms of thyrotoxicosis within 3 days of the first dose; five patients presented grade II-III coma and one became stuporous (days 7-10). Two patients developed left ventricular failure and three had arrhythmias (days 8-11). Total thyroid hormone levels in serum on admission ranged 935-7728 nmol/l for T4 (TT4) and 23-399 nmol/l for T3 (TT3). All patients received treatment with hydrocortisone and Propranolol. Propylthiouracil was also given in 3 cases. Extractive techniques (charcoal haemoperfusion and/or plasmapheresis) were initiated 8-14 days after the first dose of L-T4. The plasma disappearance rate (K) of TT4 with plasmapheresis was 30 times higher, on average, than under standard medical treatment (M). Also, K of TT4 under haemoperfusion was about five times higher than K under M. K changes for TT3 were higher under haemoperfusion than under plasmapheresis. Furthermore, extractive procedures shortened the average half life of TT4, (from 106.5 +/- 44.6 to 59.7 +/- 20.2 h, p less than 0.05).

  17. Application of Targeted Molecular and Material Property Optimization to Bacterial Attachment-Resistant (Meth)acrylate Polymers. (United States)

    Adlington, Kevin; Nguyen, Nam T; Eaves, Elizabeth; Yang, Jing; Chang, Chien-Yi; Li, Jianing; Gower, Alexandra L; Stimpson, Amy; Anderson, Daniel G; Langer, Robert; Davies, Martyn C; Hook, Andrew L; Williams, Paul; Alexander, Morgan R; Irvine, Derek J


    Developing medical devices that resist bacterial attachment and subsequent biofilm formation is highly desirable. In this paper, we report the optimization of the molecular structure and thus material properties of a range of (meth)acrylate copolymers which contain monomers reported to deliver bacterial resistance to surfaces. This optimization allows such monomers to be employed within novel coatings to reduce bacterial attachment to silicone urinary catheters. We show that the flexibility of copolymers can be tuned to match that of the silicone catheter substrate, by copolymerizing these polymers with a lower Tg monomer such that it passes the flexing fatigue tests as coatings upon catheters, that the homopolymers failed. Furthermore, the Tg values of the copolymers are shown to be readily estimated by the Fox equation. The bacterial resistance performance of these copolymers were typically found to be better than the neat silicone or a commercial silver containing hydrogel surface, when the monomer feed contained only 25 v% of the "hit" monomer. The method of initiation (either photo or thermal) was shown not to affect the bacterial resistance of the copolymers. Optimized synthesis conditions to ensure that the correct copolymer composition and to prevent the onset of gelation are detailed.

  18. Recrystallization of water in non-water-soluble (meth)acrylate polymers is not rare and is not devitrification. (United States)

    Gemmei-Ide, Makoto; Ohya, Atsushi; Kitano, Hiromi


    Change in the state of water sorbed into four kinds of non-water-soluble poly(meth)acrylates with low water content by temperature (T) perturbation was examined on the basis of T variable mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy. Many studies using differential scanning calorimetry suggested that there was no change in the state. T dependence of their MIR spectra, however, clearly demonstrated various changes in the state. Furthermore, recrystallization, which was crystallization during heating, was observed in all four polymers. The recrystallization observed in this study was not devitrification, which is the change in the state from glassy water to crystalline water, but vapor deposition during heating (vapor re-deposition). There were only two reports about recrystallization of water in a non-water-soluble polymer before this report; therefore, it might be considered to be a rare phenomenon. However, as demonstrated in this study, it is not a rare phenomenon. Recrystallization (vapor re-deposition) of water in the polymer matrices is related to a balance between flexibility and strength of the electrostatic interaction sites of polymer matrices but might not be related to the biocompatibility of polymers.

  19. [Effect of solcoseryl and combined therapy of solcoseryl and FT-207 for mice bearing meth-A tumor]. (United States)

    Iwasa, H; Mimura, K; Ohsaki, Y; Kanabe, S; Hiraide, H; Mizoguchi, O; Tamaki, K; Kurokawa, T; Hatsuse, K; Kadota, T; Ezoe, I; Tsuru, S; Zinnaka, Y


    The effects of a combined chemotherapy of solcoseryl and FT-207 on tumor growth, delayed hypersensitivity and cell population of the spleen were studied using inbred BALB/c mice. Meth-A tumor cells (2 X 10(6] were inoculated into the back of 5 to 6 week old BALB/c male mouse. Animals were divided into three groups: Solcoseryl group, in which 0.04 mg of solcoseryl was injected intravenously three times before inoculation and four times after inoculation; Combined group, in which 1.2 mg of FT-207 and 0.04 mg of solcoseryl were injected intravenously four times after inoculation; FT-207 group, in which 1.2 mg of FT-207 was injected four times after inoculation, with out solcoseryl administration. Following results were obtained: Solcoseryl group showed enhanced immunity and tumor suppression; Decreased immunity due to FT-207 was recovered by administration of solcoseryl but no tumor suppression was observed and, Decreased T-cell population of spleen due to FT-207 was recovered by administration of solcoseryl. These facts suggested that solcoseryl was useful because of making recovery possible from decreased immunity due to chemotherapy.

  20. Crystal structures of (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio-phen-2-yl)-1-(3,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetra-zole and (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio-phen-3-yl)-1-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetra-zole. (United States)

    Penthala, Narsimha Reddy; Yadlapalli, Jaishankar K B; Parkin, Sean; Crooks, Peter A


    (Z)-5-[2-(Benzo[b]thio-phen-2-yl)-1-(3,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetrazole methanol monosolvate, C19H16N4O2S·CH3OH, (I), was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(benzo[b]thio-phen-2-yl)-2-(3,5-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with tri-butyl-tin azide via a [3 + 2]cyclo-addition azide condensation reaction. The structurally related compound (Z)-5-[2-(benzo[b]thio-phen-3-yl)-1-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)ethen-yl]-1H-tetra-zole, C20H18N4O3S, (II), was prepared by the reaction of (Z)-3-(benzo[b]thio-phen-3-yl)-2-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)acrylo-nitrile with tri-butyl-tin azide. Crystals of (I) have two mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit (Z' = 2), whereas crystals of (II) have Z' = 1. The benzo-thio-phene rings in (I) and (II) are almost planar, with r.m.s deviations from the mean plane of 0.0084 and 0.0037 Å in (I) and 0.0084 Å in (II). The tetra-zole rings of (I) and (II) make dihedral angles with the mean planes of the benzo-thio-phene rings of 88.81 (13) and 88.92 (13)° in (I), and 60.94 (6)° in (II). The di-meth-oxy-phenyl and tri-meth-oxy-phenyl rings make dihedral angles with the benzo-thio-phene rings of 23.91 (8) and 24.99 (8)° in (I) and 84.47 (3)° in (II). In both structures, mol-ecules are linked into hydrogen-bonded chains. In (I), these chains involve both tetra-zole and methanol, and are parallel to the b axis. In (II), mol-ecules are linked into chains parallel to the a axis by N-H⋯N hydrogen bonds between adjacent tetra-zole rings.

  1. Matching the decay half-life with the biological half-life: ImmunoPET imaging with (44)Sc-labeled cetuximab Fab fragment. (United States)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Goel, Shreya; Valdovinos, Hector F; Hernandez, Reinier; Hong, Hao; Nickles, Robert J; Cai, Weibo


    Scandium-44 (t1/2 = 3.9 h) is a relatively new radioisotope of potential interest for use in clinical positron emission tomography (PET). Herein, we report, for the first time, the room-temperature radiolabeling of proteins with (44)Sc for in vivo PET imaging. For this purpose, the Fab fragment of Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), was generated and conjugated with N-[(R)-2-amino-3-(para-isothiocyanato-phenyl)propyl]-trans-(S,S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine-N,N,N',N″,N″-pentaacetic acid (CHX-A″-DTPA). The high purity of Cetuximab-Fab was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. The potential of the bioconjugate for PET imaging of EGFR expression in human glioblastoma (U87MG) tumor-bearing mice was investigated after (44)Sc labeling. PET imaging revealed rapid tumor uptake (maximum uptake of ∼12% ID/g at 4 h postinjection) of (44)Sc-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab-Fab with excellent tumor-to-background ratio, which might allow for same day PET imaging in future clinical studies. Immunofluorescence staining was conducted to correlate tracer uptake in the tumor and normal tissues with EGFR expression. This successful strategy for immunoPET imaging of EGFR expression using (44)Sc-CHX-A″-DTPA-Cetuximab-Fab can make clinically translatable advances to select the right population of patients for EGFR-targeted therapy and also to monitor the therapeutic efficacy of anti-EGFR treatments.

  2. Plasma Antenna


    N M Vijay


    The fundamental base of plasma antenna is the use of an ionized medium as a conductor. The plasma antenna is a radiofrequency antenna formed by a plasma columns, Filaments or sheets, which are excited by a surface wave. The relevance of this device is how rapidly it can be turned on and off, only applying an electrical pulse. Besides its wide carrier frequency, the great directivity and controllable antenna shape. Otherwise a disadvantage is that it needs energy to be ionized....

  3. Innovative Plasma Disinfection Technique with the Reduced-pH Method and the Plasma-Treated Water (PTW) -Safety and Powerful Disinfection with Cryopreserved PTW- (United States)

    Kitano, Katsuhisa; Ikawa, Satoshi; Nakashima, Yoichi; Tani, Atsushi; Yokoyama, Takashi; Ohshima, Tomoko


    Among the applications of the plasma disinfection to human body, plasma sterilization in liquid is crucial. We found that the plasma-treated water (PTW) has strong bactericidal activity under low pH condition and the half-lives of its activity depend on temperature. Lower temperature brings longer half-life and the bactericidal activity of PTW can be kept by cryopreservation. These physicochemical properties were in accordance with Arrhenius equation both in liquid and solid states. From the experimental results of ESR (Electron Spin Resonance) measurement of O2-in liquid against PTW with spin trapping method, half-lives of PTW were also in accordance with Arrhenius equation. It suggests that high concentration PTW as integrated value can be achieved by cooling of plasma apparatus. Pure PTW has disinfection power of 22 log reduction (B. subtilis). This corresponds to 65% H2O2, 14% hypochlorous acid and 0.33% peracetic acid, which are deadly poison for human. On the other hand, PTW is deactivated soon at body temperature. This indicates that toxicity to human body seems to be low. PTW, which is a sort of indirect plasma exposure, with pH and temperature controls could be applied for safety and powerful disinfection. MEXT (15H03583, 23340176, 25108505). NCCE (23-A-15).

  4. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drummond, James E


    A historic snapshot of the field of plasma physics, this fifty-year-old volume offers an edited collection of papers by pioneering experts in the field. In addition to assisting students in their understanding of the foundations of classical plasma physics, it provides a source of historic context for modern physicists. Highly successful upon its initial publication, this book was the standard text on plasma physics throughout the 1960s and 70s.Hailed by Science magazine as a ""well executed venture,"" the three-part treatment ranges from basic plasma theory to magnetohydrodynamics and microwa

  5. (μ2-2-Meth-oxy-ethanol-κ(3) O (1):O (1),O (3))(2-meth-oxy-ethanol-κO (1))tris-(μ2-3,4,5,6-tetra-fluoro-o-phenyl-ene-κ(2) C (1):C (2))trimercury(II). (United States)

    Castañeda, Raúl; Draguta, Sergiu; Yakovenko, Andrey; Fonari, Marina; Timofeeva, Tatiana


    In the title compound, [Hg3(C6F4)3(C3H8O2)2], two O atoms from one 2-meth-oxy-ethanol ligand and one O atom from the second 2-meth-oxy-ethanol ligand coordinate three Hg(II) atoms [Hg-O = 2.765 (7)-2.890 (8) Å] in the trimeric organomercurial Lewis acid (o-C6F4Hg)3. The hy-droxy groups are involved in formation of intra- and inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds; the latter link two mol-ecules into centrosymmetric dimers. An extensive net of weak inter-molecular C-H⋯F inter-actions further consolidates the crystal packing.

  6. HumMeth27QCReport: an R package for quality control and primary analysis of Illumina Infinium methylation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mancuso Francesco M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The study of the human DNA methylome has gained particular interest in the last few years. Researchers can nowadays investigate the potential role of DNA methylation in common disorders by taking advantage of new high-throughput technologies. Among these, Illumina Infinium assays can interrogate the methylation levels of hundreds of thousands of CpG sites, offering an ideal solution for genome-wide methylation profiling. However, like for other high-throughput technologies, the main bottleneck remains at the stage of data analysis rather than data production. Findings We have developed HumMeth27QCReport, an R package devoted to researchers wanting to quickly analyse their Illumina Infinium methylation arrays. This package automates quality control steps by generating a report including sample-independent and sample-dependent quality plots, and performs primary analysis of raw methylation calls by computing data normalization, statistics, and sample similarities. This package is available at CRAN repository, and can be integrated in any Galaxy instance through the implementation of ad-hoc scripts accessible at Galaxy Tool Shed. Conclusions Our package provides users of the Illumina Infinium Methylation assays with a simplified, automated, open-source quality control and primary analysis of their methylation data. Moreover, to enhance its use by experimental researchers, the tool is being distributed along with the scripts necessary for its implementation in the Galaxy workbench. Finally, although it was originally developed for HumanMethylation27, we proved its compatibility with data generated with the HumanMethylation450 Bead Chip.

  7. Crystal structures of 4-meth-oxy-benzoic acid-1,3-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)propane (2/1) and biphenyl-4,4'-di-carb-oxy-lic acid-4-meth-oxy-pyridine (1/2). (United States)

    Gotoh, Kazuma; Ishida, Hiroyuki


    The crystal structures of two hydrogen-bonded compounds, namely 4-meth-oxy-benzoic acid-1,3-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)propane (2/1), C13H14.59N2·C8H7.67O3·C8H7.74O3, (I), and biphenyl-4,4'-di-carb-oxy-lic acid-4-meth-oxy-pyridine (1/2), C14H9.43O4·C6H7.32NO·C6H7.25NO, (II), have been determined at 93 K. In (I), the asymmetric unit consists of two crystallographically independent 4-meth-oxy-benzoic acid mol-ecules and one 1,3-bis-(pyridin-4-yl)propane mol-ecule. The asymmetric unit of (II) comprises one biphenyl-4,4'-di-carb-oxy-lic acid mol-ecule and two independent 4-meth-oxy-pyridine mol-ecules. In each crystal, the acid and base mol-ecules are linked by short O-H⋯N/N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, in which H atoms are disordered over the acid O-atom and base N-atom sites, forming a linear hydrogen-bonded 2:1 or 1:2 unit of the acid and the base. The 2:1 units of (I) are linked via C-H⋯π, π-π and C-H⋯O inter-actions into a tape structure along [101], while the 1:2 units of (II) form a double-chain structure along [-101] through π-π and C-H⋯O inter-actions.

  8. 65例吸食冰毒所致精神障碍的治疗%Treatment of 65 cases with mental disorders caused by meth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    目的:为了加强对吸食冰毒所致精神障碍的认识和重视,提高冰毒所致精神障碍的治愈率和戒断率,减少复吸率。方法:对65例吸食冰毒所致精神障碍者的治疗方法、康复过程进行了分析总结。结果:58例患者的精神病症状在1周内基本消失,7例患者在2周内精神病症状基本消失。结论:药物、心理和康复治疗方法简单有效,值得进一步探讨和积极推广。%Objective:To strengthen understanding of mental disorder caused by meth, and improve cure rate, drug rehabilita-tion rate, as well as reduce relapse rate. Methods:The doctors in our hospital cured 65 patients caused by meth with drug treatment;psychological treatment and rehabilitation treatment from January 2007 to September 2013. The treatment method and recovery process were statistically summarized. Results:The psychiatric symptoms of 58 patients nearly disappeared within a week, and those of 7 pa-tients almost disappeared within two weeks. Conclusions:These treatment methods are simple and effective for mental disorders caused by meth, and it is worth further exploring and promoting actively for the doctors later.

  9. Keyhole limpet hemocyanin augmented the killing activity, cytokine production and proliferation of NK cells, and inhibited the proliferation of Meth A sarcoma cells in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker


    Full Text Available Objective: Keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH is a popular tumor vaccine carrier protein and an immunostimulant. The present study aimed to investigate the immunoregulatory activity of KLH on cytotoxicity, cytokines production, and proliferation of natural killer (NK cells. Moreover, antiproliferative activity of KLH on Meth A sarcoma cells was studied. Materials and Methods: Cytotoxicity was determined with killing ability of NK cells against yeast artificial chromosome (YAC-1 cells. Interferon-gamma (IFN-γ and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α productions by NK cells were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Proliferations of NK and Meth A cells were determined by [ 3 H]thymidine incorporated proliferation and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT methods, respectively. Results: KLH at 6.25, 12.5, and 25 μg/well augmented cytotoxicity of NK cells against YAC-1 cells by 2.5, three, and five-times, respectively. KLH at 25 μg/well enhanced IFN-γ and TNF-α productions by 17- and 23-folds, respectively. The proliferation of NK cells was three times stimulated by KLH. The proliferation of Meth A cells was markedly inhibited by all the doses; the highest (4-folds higher inhibition was observed at a dose of KLH (25 μg/well. Conclusion: The study demonstrated the anticancer activity of KLH acting through the induction of NK cells and inhibition of cancer cells. KLH, therefore, may be a good candidate for an anticancer agent alone or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents.

  10. Plasma and Ocular Prednisolone Disposition after Oral Treatment in Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María J. Del Sole


    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the plasma and aqueous humor disposition of prednisolone after oral administration in cats. Methods. Six cats were administered with a single oral dose of prednisolone (10 mg. Blood and aqueous humor samples were serially collected after drug administration. Prednisolone concentrations in plasma and aqueous humor were measured at 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, and 5.0 h after administration by a high-performance liquid chromatographic analytical method developed and validated for this purpose. Results. Mean ± standard error (SE of maximum plasma prednisolone concentration (300.8 ± 67.3 ng/mL was reached at 1 h after administration. Prednisolone was distributed to the aqueous humor reaching a mean peak concentration of 100.9 ± 25.5 ng/mL at 1.25 h after administration. The mean ± SE systemic and aqueous humor exposure (AUC was 553.3 ± 120.0 ng*h/mL and 378.8 ± 64.9 ng*h/mL, respectively. A high AUCaqueous humor/AUCplasma ratio was observed (0.68 ± 0.13. The mean half-life time of elimination in plasma and aqueous humor was 0.87 ± 0.16 h and 2.25 ± 0.44 h, respectively. Clinical Significance. The observed high ratio between aqueous humor and plasma prednisolone concentrations indicates that extensive penetration of prednisolone to the anterior segment of the eye may occur. This is the first step that contributes to the optimization of the pharmacological therapeutics for the clinical treatment of uveitis.

  11. Why mammals more susceptible to the hepatotoxic microcystins than fish: evidences from plasma and albumin protein binding through equilibrium dialysis. (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Liang, Gaodao; Wu, Laiyan; Tuo, Xun; Wang, Wenjing; Chen, Jun; Xie, Ping


    To elucidate the interspecies variation of susceptibility to microcystins (MCs), fresh plasma and purified albumin from six kinds of mammals and fish were used in toxins-substances binding test. Protein contents in the test plasma were analyzed and the binding characteristics to MCs were compared. Two kinds of widely observed MCs, microcystin-LR (MC-LR) and microcystin-RR (MC-RR) were tested and data were collected through the method of equilibrium dialysis. It was found that total plasma protein and albumin content in mammals were nearly two times and four times higher than that in fish, respectively. In the test range of 0-100 μg/mL, binding rates of fish plasma to MCs were considered significant lower (p mammals. And human plasma demonstrated the highest binding rate in mammals. In all the test species, plasma protein binding rates of MC-RR were significantly higher than MC-LR (p 0.05). From the view of protein binding, it is concluded that both the variation of plasma protein composition and albumin binding characteristic could influence the existing form of MCs in circulation, change MCs utilization, alter MCs half-life and further contribute to the difference of susceptibility between mammals and fish.

  12. Physicochemical properties of bactericidal plasma-treated water (United States)

    Ikawa, Satoshi; Tani, Atsushi; Nakashima, Yoichi; Kitano, Katsuhisa


    Plasma-treated water (PTW), i.e. distilled water (DW) exposed to low-temperature atmospheric pressure helium plasma, exhibited strong bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli in suspension even within a few minutes of preparation. This effect was enhanced under acidic conditions. The bactericidal activity of PTW was attenuated according to first-order kinetics and the half-life was highly temperature dependent. The electron spin resonance (ESR) signal of an adduct of the superoxide anion radical (\\text{O}2-\\bullet ) was detected in an aqueous solution using a spin-trapping reagent mixed with PTW, and adding superoxide dismutase to the PTW resulted in a loss of the bactericidal activity and weakening of the ESR adduct signal of \\text{O}2-\\bullet in the spin-trapping. These results suggest that \\text{O}2-\\bullet plays an important role in imparting bactericidal activity to PTW. Moreover, molecular nitrogen was required both in the ambient gas and in the DW used to prepare the PTW. We, therefore, suggest that the reactive molecule in PTW with bactericidal effects is not a free reactive oxygen species but nitrogen atom(s)-containing molecules that release \\text{O}2-\\bullet , such as peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH) or peroxynitric acid (O2NOOH). Considering the activation energy for degradation of these species, we conclude that peroxynitric acid stored in PTW induces the bactericidal effect.

  13. Plasma chromograninx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetze, Jens P; Hilsted, Linda M; Rehfeld, Jens F


    Cardiovascular risk assessment remains difficult in elderly patients. We examined whether chromogranin A (CgA) measurement in plasma may be valuable in assessing risk of death in elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure in a primary care setting. A total of 470 patients (mean age 73 years......) were followed for 10 years. For CgA plasma measurement, we used a two-step method including a screening test and a confirmative test with plasma pre-treatment with trypsin. Cox multivariable proportional regression and receiver-operating curve (ROC) analyses were used to assess mortality risk...... of follow-up showed significant additive value of CgA confirm measurements compared with NT-proBNP and clinical variables. CgA measurement in the plasma of elderly patients with symptoms of heart failure can identify those at increased risk of short- and long-term mortality....

  14. Plasma Cleaning (United States)

    Hintze, Paul E.


    NASA's Kennedy Space Center has developed two solvent-free precision cleaning techniques: plasma cleaning and supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2), that has equal performance, cost parity, and no environmental liability, as compared to existing solvent cleaning methods.

  15. Plasma confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Hazeltine, R D


    Detailed and authoritative, this volume examines the essential physics underlying international research in magnetic confinement fusion. It offers readable, thorough accounts of the fundamental concepts behind methods of confining plasma at or near thermonuclear conditions. Designed for a one- or two-semester graduate-level course in plasma physics, it also represents a valuable reference for professional physicists in controlled fusion and related disciplines.

  16. Identification of the biologically active liquid chemistry induced by a nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma jet. (United States)

    Wende, Kristian; Williams, Paul; Dalluge, Joe; Gaens, Wouter Van; Aboubakr, Hamada; Bischof, John; von Woedtke, Thomas; Goyal, Sagar M; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Bogaerts, Annemie; Masur, Kai; Bruggeman, Peter J


    The mechanism of interaction of cold nonequilibrium plasma jets with mammalian cells in physiologic liquid is reported. The major biological active species produced by an argon RF plasma jet responsible for cell viability reduction are analyzed by experimental results obtained through physical, biological, and chemical diagnostics. This is complemented with chemical kinetics modeling of the plasma source to assess the dominant reactive gas phase species. Different plasma chemistries are obtained by changing the feed gas composition of the cold argon based RF plasma jet from argon, humidified argon (0.27%), to argon/oxygen (1%) and argon/air (1%) at constant power. A minimal consensus physiologic liquid was used, providing isotonic and isohydric conditions and nutrients but is devoid of scavengers or serum constituents. While argon and humidified argon plasma led to the creation of hydrogen peroxide dominated action on the mammalian cells, argon-oxygen and argon-air plasma created a very different biological action and was characterized by trace amounts of hydrogen peroxide only. In particular, for the argon-oxygen (1%), the authors observed a strong negative effect on mammalian cell proliferation and metabolism. This effect was distance dependent and showed a half life time of 30 min in a scavenger free physiologic buffer. Neither catalase and mannitol nor superoxide dismutase could rescue the cell proliferation rate. The strong distance dependency of the effect as well as the low water solubility rules out a major role for ozone and singlet oxygen but suggests a dominant role of atomic oxygen. Experimental results suggest that O reacts with chloride, yielding Cl2(-) or ClO(-). These chlorine species have a limited lifetime under physiologic conditions and therefore show a strong time dependent biological activity. The outcomes are compared with an argon MHz plasma jet (kinpen) to assess the differences between these (at least seemingly) similar plasma sources.

  17. Size-Dependent Filling Behavior of UV-Curable Di(meth)acrylate Resins into Carbon-Coated Anodic Aluminum Oxide Pores of around 20 nm. (United States)

    Nakagawa, Masaru; Nakaya, Akifumi; Hoshikawa, Yasuto; Ito, Shunya; Hiroshiba, Nobuya; Kyotani, Takashi


    Ultraviolet (UV) nanoimprint lithography is a promising nanofabrication technology with cost efficiency and high throughput for sub-20 nm size semiconductor, data storage, and optical devices. To test formability of organic resist mask patterns, we investigated whether the type of polymerizable di(meth)acrylate monomer affected the fabrication of cured resin nanopillars by UV nanoimprinting using molds with pores of around 20 nm. We used carbon-coated, porous, anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) films prepared by electrochemical oxidation and thermal chemical vapor deposition as molds, because the pore diameter distribution in the range of 10-40 nm was suitable for combinatorial testing to investigate whether UV-curable resins comprising each monomer were filled into the mold recesses in UV nanoimprinting. Although the UV-curable resins, except for a bisphenol A-based one, detached from the molds without pull-out defects after radical photopolymerization under UV light, the number of cured resin nanopillars was independent of the viscosity of the monomer(s) in each resin. The number of resin nanopillars increased and their diameter decreased as the number of hydroxy groups in the aliphatic diacrylate monomers increased. It was concluded that the filling of the carbon-coated pores having diameters of around 20 nm with UV-curable resins was promoted by the presence of hydroxy groups in the aliphatic di(meth)acrylate monomers.

  18. Anti-tumor activity of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum BF-LP284 on Meth-A tumor cells in BALB/c mice. (United States)

    Shin, Ryoichi; Itoh, Yukie; Kataoka, Motoyuki; Iino-Miura, Shiori; Miura, Ryosuke; Mizutani, Takeo; Fujisawa, Tomohiko


    Probiotics exert numerous effects on human well-being. Here, heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum BF-LP284 (H-Lp) was isolated as a potent immuno-modulator among 15 strains of lactobacilli in terms of TNF-α induction ability in peritoneal macrophages. In vitro TNF-α and IFN-γ induction in Peyer's patch (PP) cells was higher when incubated with H-Lp than with live L. plantarum BF-LP284 (L-Lp). Suppression of syngeneic Meth-A tumors in a murine model by oral administration of H-Lp was also greater than that of L-Lp and of controls. H-Lp stimulated IFN-γ production in spleen cells, which displayed inhibited tumor growth in Winn assays when treated with H-Lp. Moreover, H-Lp increased the ratio of CD3(+ )cells among peripheral blood mononuclear cells in Meth-A tumor-bearing mice, suggesting an H-Lp-mediated anti-tumor mechanism whereby immune cells that are activated by H-Lp in PP and acquire anti-tumor activity in the spleen migrate to tumor sites through lymphocyte homing to inhibit tumor growth.

  19. {μ-2-[(3-Amino-2,2-dimethyl-prop-yl)imino-meth-yl]-6-meth-oxy-phenolato-1:2κ(5)O(1),O(6):N,N',O(1)}{2-[(3-amino-2,2-dimethyl-prop-yl)imino-meth-yl]-6-meth-oxy-phenolato-1κ(3)N,N',O(1)}-μ-azido-1:2κ(2)N:N-azido-2κN-methanol-2κO-dinickel(II). (United States)

    Ghaemi, Akbar; Rayati, Saeed; Fayyazi, Kazem; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R T


    Two distinct coordination geometries are found in the binuclear title complex, [Ni(2)(C(13)H(19)N(2)O(2))(2)(N(3))(2)(CH(3)OH)], as one Schiff base ligand is penta-dentate, coordinating via the anti-cipated oxide O, imine N and amine N atoms (as for the second, tridentate, ligand) but the oxide O is bridging and coordination also occurs through the meth-oxy O atom. The Ni(II) atoms are linked by a μ(2)-oxide atom and one end of a μ(2)-azide ligand, forming an Ni(2)ON core. The coordination geometry for the Ni(II) atom coordinated by the tridentate ligand is completed by the meth-oxy O atom derived from the penta-dentate ligand, with the resulting N(3)O(3) donor set defining a fac octa-hedron. The second Ni(II) atom has its cis-octa-hedral N(4)O(2) coordination geometry completed by the imine N and amine N atoms of the penta-dentate Schiff base ligand, a terminally coordinated azide N and a methanol O atom. The arrangement is stabilized by an intra-molecular hydrogen bond between the methanol H and the oxide O atom. Linear supra-molecular chains along the a axis are formed in the crystal packing whereby two amine H atoms from different amine atoms hydrogen bond to the terminal N atom of the monodentate azide ligand.

  20. Crystal structure of benzyl (E)-2-(3,4-di-meth-oxy-benzyl-idene)hydrazine-1-carbodi-thio-ate. (United States)

    Tan, Yew-Fung; Break, Mohammed Khaled Bin; Tahir, M Ibrahim M; Khoo, Teng-Jin


    The title compound, C17H18N2O2S2, synthesized via a condensation reaction between S-benzyl di-thio-carbazate and 3,4-di-meth-oxy-benzaldehyde, crystallized with two independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. Both mol-ecules have an L-shape but differ in the orientation of the benzyl ring with respect to the 3,4-di-meth-oxy-benzyl-idine ring, this dihedral angle is 65.59 (8)° in mol-ecule A and 73.10 (8)° in mol-ecule B. In the crystal, the A and B mol-ecules are linked via pairs of N-H⋯S hydrogen bonds, forming dimers with an R 2 (2)(8) ring motif. The dimers are linked via pairs of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, giving inversion dimers of dimers. These units are linked by C-H⋯π inter-actions, forming ribbons propagating in the [100] direction.

  1. Decrease in pyridoxal-5'-phosphate concentration and increase in pyridoxal concentration in rat plasma by 4'-O-methylpyridoxine administration. (United States)

    Kobayashi, Daisuke; Yoshimura, Teruki; Johno, Atsushi; Ishikawa, Mika; Sasaki, Keiko; Wada, Keiji


    Food poisoning from Ginkgo biloba seeds can cause epilepsy because of a decrease in γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations in the brain. We previously demonstrated that 4'-O-methylpyridoxine (MPN) is responsible for this observed toxicity of G biloba seeds; however, the mechanism for the decrease in GABA and plasma concentration profile of MPN has not been clarified. Our hypothesis is that MPN induces a decrease in vitamin B6 concentrations, resulting in a decrease in GABA concentration. This study aimed to characterize the plasma concentration profile of MPN and intrinsic vitamin B6 concentrations (pyridoxal [PL], PL-5'-phosphate [PLP], and 4-pyridoxic acid) using a rat model. Plasma concentrations of B6 vitamers after intravenous MPN administration (5 mg/kg) were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with a fluorescence detector. The half-life of MPN (0.91 ± 0.05 hours) was shorter in rats than the previously reported value in humans. We found a significant decrease in the plasma concentration of PLP, an active form of vitamin B6, after MPN administration. We also observed an increase in plasma PL and 4-pyridoxic acid concentrations; the increase in PL concentration may be caused by either metabolism of MPN to PL or by MPN-mediated inhibition of PL kinase. The present study is the first in vivo study showing relatively rapid elimination of MPN in rats and a decrease in plasma PLP concentration caused by MPN. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. plasma treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puač Nevena


    Full Text Available In this paper we will present results for plasma sterilization of planktonic samples of two reference strains of bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212. We have used a plasma needle as a source of non-equilibrium atmospheric plasma in all treatments. This device is already well characterized by OES, derivative probes and mass spectrometry. It was shown that power delivered to the plasma is bellow 2 W and that it produces the main radical oxygen and nitrogen species believed to be responsible for the sterilization process. Here we will only present results obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance which was used to detect the OH, H and NO species. Treatment time and power delivered to the plasma were found to have the strongest influence on sterilization. In all cases we have observed a reduction of several orders of magnitude in the concentration of bacteria and for the longest treatment time complete eradication. A more efficient sterilization was achieved in the case of gram negative bacteria.

  3. Plasma metallization

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, J M


    Many methods are currently used for the production of thin metal films. However, all of these have drawbacks associated with them, for example the need for UHV conditions, high temperatures, exotic metal precursors, or the inability to coat complex shaped objects. Reduction of supported metal salts by non-isothermal plasma treatment does not suffer from these drawbacks. In order to produce and analyse metal films before they become contaminated, a plasma chamber which could be attached directly to a UHV chamber with XPS capability was designed and built. This allowed plasma treatment of supported metal salts and surface analysis by XPS to be performed without exposure of the metal film to the atmosphere. Non-equilibrium plasma treatment of Nylon 66 supported gold(lll) chloride using hydrogen as the feed gas resulted in a 95% pure gold film, the remaining 5% of the film being carbon. If argon or helium were used as the feed gases during plasma treatment the resultant gold films were 100% pure. Some degree of s...

  4. Plasma dynamo

    CERN Document Server

    Rincon, F; Schekochihin, A A; Valentini, F


    Magnetic fields pervade the entire Universe and, through their dynamical interactions with matter, affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. How primordial cosmological seed fields arose and were further amplified to $\\mu$Gauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs, is a major theoretical puzzle still largely unconstrained by observations. Extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to collisional magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic-field growth and its sustainment through an efficient dynamo instability driven by chaotic motions is possible in such plasmas is not known. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a six-dimensional phase space necessary to answer this question have until recently remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic-field a...

  5. Temporal plasma vitamin concentrations are altered by fat-soluble vitamin administration in suckling pigs. (United States)

    Jang, Y D; Ma, J Y; Monegue, J S; Monegue, H J; Stuart, R L; Lindemann, M D


    Piglets are born with purportedly low plasma vitamin D levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration, primarily vitamin D, by different administration routes on plasma vitamin concentrations in suckling pigs. A total of 45 pigs from 5 litters were allotted at birth to 3 treatments within each litter. Pigs were administered 400 IU of α-tocopherol, 40,000 IU of retinyl palmitate, and 40,000 IU of vitamin D at d 1 of age either orally or by i.m. injection and compared with control pigs with no supplemental vitamin administration. Blood samples were collected at d 0 (initial), 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 9, 14, and 20 after administration. Plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25OHD), α-tocopherol, retinyl palmitate, and retinol concentrations were analyzed. Except for retinol, the effects of treatment, day, and day × treatment interaction ( vitamin concentrations. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD and α-tocopherol increased immediately regardless of administration routes to peak at d 2 and 1 after administration, respectively. Plasma retinyl palmitate concentrations increased only with the injection treatment, with the peak at d 1 after administration. Plasma concentrations of 25OHD in both administration treatments and α-tocopherol in the injection treatment were maintained at greater levels than those in the control treatment until d 20 after administration. With regard to the pharmacokinetic parameters for plasma 25OHD concentrations, the injection treatment had greater elimination half-life ( vitamins administered and between administration routes and that the injection route had a greater increase and slower disappearance of plasma vitamin levels than the oral route during the suckling period.

  6. Assays to measure nanomolar levels of the renin inhibitor CGP 38 560 in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cumin, F.; de Gasparo, M.; Wood, J.M.; Schnell, C.; Frueh, F.; Graf, P. (Ciba-Geigy Limited, Basel (Switzerland))


    A radioinhibitor binding assay and an enzyme inhibition assay have been developed to measure plasma levels of CGP 38 560, a potent human renin inhibitor. The detection limit of the assays was between 0.5 and 1 pmol/ml. There was a good correlation (r = 0.989) between the two assays for the measurement of human plasma spiked with CGP 38 560 in concentrations from 1.9 nM to 12 microM. Intra-assay variability was 6.1-17.3% and 4.4-27.2% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Interassay variability was 6.0-28.2% and 3.8-28.4% for the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibition assay, respectively. Blood samples were collected during a pharmacological study performed in normotensive human volunteers on an unrestricted diet who were infused during a 30-minute period with CGP 38 560 A (50 micrograms/kg). Similar values for the concentrations of renin inhibitor in plasma were obtained with the radioinhibitor binding assay and the enzyme inhibitor assay, and there was a significant correlation between values obtained with the two different methodologies (r = 0.94). The plasma levels of renin inhibitor reached a maximum at the end of infusion and then decreased rapidly, indicating a short plasma half-life. The changes in biochemical parameters, plasma renin activity, and plasma concentration of active renin could be related to the concentrations of CGP 38 560 measured in the plasma.

  7. Plasma medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander


    This comprehensive text is suitable for researchers and graduate students of a 'hot' new topic in medical physics. Written by the world's leading experts,  this book aims to present recent developments in plasma medicine, both technological and scientific, reviewed in a fashion accessible to the highly interdisciplinary audience consisting of doctors, physicists, biologists, chemists and other scientists, university students and professors, engineers and medical practitioners. The book focuses on major topics and covers the physics required to develop novel plasma discharges relevant for medic

  8. The time course of metabolites in human plasma after 6-[(18)F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine administration. (United States)

    Wahl, L M; Chen, J J; Thompson, M; Chirakal, R; Nahmias, C


    For the investigation of intracerebral dopamine metabolism, 6-[(18)F]fluoro-l-m-tyrosine (FmT) has been proposed as an alternative tracer that, unlike 6-[(18)F]fluoro-l-dopa, is not subjected to O-methylation. We have studied the time course of FmT and its labelled metabolites in plasma after intravenous injection into humans, employing a method that we have developed and validated to analyze labelled metabolites of FmT in plasma. The study population comprised 38 subjects, 14 of whom were taking an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase inhibitor (carbidopa), and obtained arterialized venous blood samples at various times after an intravenous injection of between 185 and 370 MBq of FmT. The major metabolite of FmT present in plasma was 6-[(18)F]fluoro-3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. The time course of the fraction of radioactivity in plasma attributable to FmT was fitted well by the decay of two exponential functions. The fast component of the decay accounted for 40%-50% of the radioactivity and had a half-life of about 5 min. The slow component of the decay had a half-life of about 6 h in the subjects not taking carbidopa and 20 h in the patients taking carbidopa. When the total available FmT was calculated for each individual subject and expressed as a proportion of total radioactivity, this quantity did not differ significantly from that determined from the corresponding population mean. There was significantly more (15% on average) FmT available over the course of the 2-h experiment in the group pretreated with carbidopa. Our results demonstrate that the major metabolite in plasma after an intravenous injection of FmT is 6-[(18)F]fluoro-3-hydroxyphenylacetic acid. The clearance of FmT from plasma compares well with the clearance of intravenously administered levodopa. Carbidopa increases significantly the availability of FmT in plasma. These results verify, in a large number of human subjects, earlier analyses of FmT metabolism in other species. We validate a

  9. Plasma physics and engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Alexander


    Part I: Fundamentals of Plasma Physics and Plasma ChemistryPlasma in Nature, in the Laboratory, and in IndustryOccurrence of Plasma: Natural and Man MadeGas DischargesPlasma Applications, Plasmas in IndustryPlasma Applications for Environmental ControlPlasma Applications in Energy ConversionPlasma Application for Material ProcessingBreakthrough Plasma Applications in Modern TechnologyElementary Processes of Charged Species in PlasmaElementary Charged Particles in Plasma and Their Elastic and Inelastic CollisionsIonization ProcessesMechanisms of Electron Losses: The Electron-Ion RecombinationEl

  10. Inhibiting Plasma Kallikrein for Hereditary Angioedema Prophylaxis. (United States)

    Banerji, Aleena; Busse, Paula; Shennak, Mustafa; Lumry, William; Davis-Lorton, Mark; Wedner, Henry J; Jacobs, Joshua; Baker, James; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Lockey, Richard; Li, H Henry; Craig, Timothy; Cicardi, Marco; Riedl, Marc; Al-Ghazawi, Ahmad; Soo, Carolyn; Iarrobino, Ryan; Sexton, Daniel J; TenHoor, Christopher; Kenniston, Jon A; Faucette, Ryan; Still, J Gordon; Kushner, Harvey; Mensah, Robert; Stevens, Chris; Biedenkapp, Joseph C; Chyung, Yung; Adelman, Burt


    Background Hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency is characterized by recurrent, unpredictable swelling episodes caused by uncontrolled plasma kallikrein generation and excessive bradykinin release resulting from cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen. Lanadelumab (DX-2930) is a new kallikrein inhibitor with the potential for prophylactic treatment of hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency. Methods We conducted a phase 1b, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multiple-ascending-dose trial. Patients with hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive either lanadelumab (24 patients) or placebo (13 patients), in two administrations 14 days apart. Patients assigned to lanadelumab were enrolled in sequential dose groups: total dose of 30 mg (4 patients), 100 mg (4 patients), 300 mg (5 patients), or 400 mg (11 patients). The pharmacodynamic profile of lanadelumab was assessed by measurement of plasma levels of cleaved high-molecular-weight kininogen, and efficacy was assessed by the rate of attacks of angioedema during a prespecified period (day 8 to day 50) in the 300-mg and 400-mg groups as compared with the placebo group. Results No discontinuations occurred because of adverse events, serious adverse events, or deaths in patients who received lanadelumab. The most common adverse events that emerged during treatment were attacks of angioedema, injection-site pain, and headache. Dose-proportional increases in serum concentrations of lanadelumab were observed; the mean elimination half-life was approximately 2 weeks. Lanadelumab at a dose of 300 mg or 400 mg reduced cleavage of high-molecular-weight kininogen in plasma from patients with hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency to levels approaching that from patients without the disorder. From day 8 to day 50, the 300-mg and 400-mg groups had 100% and 88% fewer attacks, respectively, than the placebo group. All

  11. N-glycosylation increases the circulatory half-life of human growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flintegaard, Thomas V; Thygesen, Peter; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik


    Therapeutic use of recombinant GH typically involves daily sc injections. We examined the possibilities for prolonging the in vivo circulation of GH by introducing N-glycans. Human GH variants with a single potential N-glycosylation site (N-X-S/T) introduced by site-directed mutagenesis were...

  12. Endogenous compounds labeled with radionuclides of short half-life-some perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roland Långström, Bengt; Karimi, F; Watanabe, Y


    In the article, the strategy and synthesis of some endogenous compounds labeled mainly with (11) C are presented. There are some examples illustrating how endogenous labeled compounds in connection with positron emission tomography have unique properties to describe various biological processes......, and a few examples of the use of tracers labeled with (13) N and (15) O are also discussed. Labeled endogenous compounds may be an important asset to describe the conditions and the status of biological systems and might therefore be a key for the future search of individualized medicine....

  13. The mysteriously variable half-life of dissolved organic matter in aquatic ecosystems: artefact or insight? (United States)

    Evans, Chris; Fovet, Ophelie; Jones, Tim; Jones, Davey; Moldan, Filip; Futter, Martyn


    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) fluxes from land to water represent an important loss term in the terrestrial carbon balance, a major pathway in the global carbon cycle, a significant influence on aquatic light, nutrient and energy regimes, and an important concern for drinking water production. Although freshwaters are now recognised as zones of active carbon cycling, rather than passive conduits for carbon transport, evidence regarding the magnitude of, and controls on, DOM cycling in aquatic systems is incomplete and in some cases seemingly contradictory, with DOM 'half-lives' ranging from a few days to many years. Bringing together experimental, isotopic, catchment mass balance and modelling data, we suggest that apparently conflicting results can be reconciled through understanding of differences in: i) the terrestrial sources of DOM within heterogeneous landscapes, and consequent differences in its reactivity and stoichiometry; ii) experimental methodologies (i.e. which reactions are actually being measured), and iii) the extent of prior transformation of DOM upstream of the point of study. We argue that rapid photo-degradation, particularly of peat-derived DOM, is a key process in headwaters, whilst apparently slow DOM turnover in downstream, agriculturally-influenced lakes and rivers can partly be explained by the offsetting effect of in situ DOM production. This production appears to be strongly constrained by nutrient supply, thus linking DOM turnover and composition to the supply of inorganic nutrient inputs from diffuse agricultural pollution, and also providing a possible mechanistic link between aquatic DOM production and terrestrial DOM breakdown via the mineralisation and re-assimilation of organic nutrients. A more complete conceptual understanding of these interlinked processes will provide an improved understanding of the sources and fate of aquatic DOM, its role in the global carbon cycle, and the impact of anthropogenic activities, for example in relation to drinking water supplies and land management.

  14. Surfactant phosphatidylcholine half-life and pool size measurements in premature baboons developing bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Janssen; V.P. Carnielli (Virgilio); P.E. Cogo (Paola); S.R. Seidner; I.H.I. Luijendijk; J.L.D. Wattimena (Josias); A.H. Jobe (Alan); L.J.I. Zimmermann (Luc)


    textabstractBecause minimal information is available about surfactant metabolism in bronchopulmonary dysplasia, we measured half-lives and pool sizes of surfactant phosphatidylcholine in very preterm baboons recovering from respiratory distress syndrome and developing

  15. Use of daily detector verification data for isotopical half-life determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goncalves, Vitor C.; Zahn, Guilherme S.; Genezini, Frederico A.; Ticianelli, Regina B.; Saiki, Mitiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP. P.O. Box 11049, Sao Paulo, 05422-970 (Brazil)


    In this work, the possibility of using data fromthe daily detector verification routines performed at the Neutron Activation Laboratory of IPEN to determine precise values for the half-lives of {sup 57}Co and {sup 60}Co was evaluated. For this purpose data from 4 of the laboratory's detectors, some spanning for more than 9 years, were inspected, separated in consistent groups, and then analyzed using a robust least-squares fit procedure in order to determine the half-lives. The results allowed for a discussion on the possibilities and limitations of the use of these data for the determination of half-lives.

  16. Investigations of short half-life states from SF of {sup 252}Cf

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fong, D.; Hwang, J.K.; Ramayya, A.V.; Hamilton, J.H.; Beyer, C.J.; Li, K.; Gore, P.M.; Jones, E.F.; Luo, Y.X. [Vanderbilt University, Physics Department, Nashville, TN (United States); Rasmussen, J.O.; Wu, S.C.; Lee, I.Y.; Fallon, P.; Ginter, T.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Zhu, S.J. [Tsinghua University, Department of Physics, Beijing (China); Stoyer, M.A.; Asztalos, S.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Cole, J.D. [Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ter-Akopian, G.M.; Daniel, A. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Flerov Laboratory for Nuclear Reactions, Dubna (Russian Federation)


    By using different time-gated triple {gamma} coincidence data, the half-lives (T{sub 1/2}) of several short lived states in neutron-rich nuclei have been studied. The first excited states in the ground state bands often decay by delayed {gamma} emission. By creating triple {gamma} coincidence spectra with time windows of 8, 16, 20, 28, and 48 ns, we have studied states with half-lives below 10 ns. The estimated half-lives of {sup 102}Zr, {sup 137}Xe, and {sup 143}Ba are in reasonable agreement with previously reported values. We extract the first estimates of the half lives of the 2{sup +} states in {sup 104}Zr and {sup 152}Ce. (orig.)

  17. Half-Life Learning Curves in the Defense Acquisition Life Cycle (United States)


    learning include Smith (1989); Belkaoui (1976, 1986); Nanda (1979); Pegels (1976); Richardson (1978); Towill, and Kaloo (1978); Womer (1979, 1981, 1984...analysis adjusted for learning. Management Science, 24(2), 149–160. Nanda , R. (1979). Using learning curves in integration of production resources

  18. "半条命"当选最佳%Half-Life 2 Voted Best

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    @@ As much as Hollywood critics tend to spurn(弃绝)movies involving exploding zombies(巫毒崇拜), video game critics appear to love them. A game centered on the adventures of a scientist who blasts( 毁灭 ) an invading army of zombies has bested a field of rival offerings-including a driving adventure and a game first developed as a U. S. Army training tool-to win a coveted(觊觎的) award from game commentators.

  19. The half-life of the moral dilemma task : A case study in experimental (neuro-) philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil


    The pioneering neuroscience of moral decisions studies implementing the moral dilemma task by Joshua Greene and colleagues stimulated interdisciplinary experimental research on moral cognition as well as a philosophical debate on its normative implications. This chapter emphasizes the influence thes

  20. The half-life of the moral dilemma task : A case study in experimental (neuro-) philosophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil


    The pioneering neuroscience of moral decisions studies implementing the moral dilemma task by Joshua Greene and colleagues stimulated interdisciplinary experimental research on moral cognition as well as a philosophical debate on its normative implications. This chapter emphasizes the influence

  1. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: upgrade'05

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S


    All existing ``positive'' results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, $^{130}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. We recommend the use of these results as presently the most precise and reliable values for half-lives.

  2. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: upgrade-09

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S


    All existing ``positive'' results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te, $^{130}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. We recommend the use of these results as presently the most precise and reliable values for half-lives.

  3. Average and recommended half-life values for two neutrino double beta decay: upgrade-2013

    CERN Document Server

    Barabash, A S


    All existing positive results on two neutrino double beta decay in different nuclei were analyzed. Using the procedure recommended by the Particle Data Group, weighted average values for half-lives of $^{48}$Ca, $^{76}$Ge, $^{82}$Se, $^{96}$Zr, $^{100}$Mo, $^{100}$Mo - $^{100}$Ru ($0^+_1$), $^{116}$Cd, $^{130}$Te, $^{136}$Xe, $^{150}$Nd, $^{150}$Nd - $^{150}$Sm ($0^+_1$) and $^{238}$U were obtained. Existing geochemical data were analyzed and recommended values for half-lives of $^{128}$Te and $^{130}$Ba are proposed. I recommend the use of these results as the most currently reliable values for half-lives.

  4. Systematics of alpha decay half-life: new evaluations for alpha-emitter nuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, E.L.; Rodrigues, M.M.N.; Duarte, S.B.; Tavares, O.A.P. E-mail:


    A semiempirical model based on the quantum mechanical tunnelling mechanism of alpha emission from nuclei has been used to systematize the alpha decay half-lives of a set of 336 nuclides, comprising all the alpha-emitter nuclides whose T{sub 1/2} {sup a}lpha-data for ground-state to ground-state transitions of mutual angular momentum l = 0 are known. With a minimum of data rejection (only {approx} 5% of cases), the procedure has been successful in reproducing quite satisfactorily (within a factor {approx} 2) most of the cases ({approx} 80%) investigated. The few significant discrepancies found between measured and calculated results are analysed and discussed. Also reported is the prediction from the model for possible new alpha-emitter nuclides, namely {sup 180} W, {sup 184} Os, and {sup 228} Ra for which cases the calculated partial alpha decay half-lives fall within the range of half-lives measurable by the current techniques. (author)

  5. Focus on the legislative approach to short half life radioactive hospital waste releasing. (United States)

    Petrucci, Caterina; Traino, Antonio Claudio


    We propose to summarize the advancements introduced by the new Directive 2013/59/Euratom concerning the concept of clearance, for which the radioactive medical waste represents a typical candidate. We also intend to spotlight disputable points in the regulatory scheme in force in Italy, as well to make a contribution to evaluate whether the practice of patients' urine storing, stated by it, can be regarded to be proper. With directing our interest to radionuclides used in Nuclear Medicine, we first present an overview of how the clearance concept, and that of exemption closely related to it, have been developed from the previous Directive 96/29 to the new one; then we describe the implementation of these concepts in the Italian legislation. Subsequently we estimate the exposure due both to keeping the effluent on site and to direct discharging it to the environment. In line with a well established international consensus, the Directive 2013/59 drives simple and harmonized regulation of clearance. On the contrary, some complexity and lack of consistency can be found in the framework of the national legislation affecting the radioactive medical waste handling. In addition the practice of excreta storing is disputed not to be really beneficial. The opportunity should be taken to make the whole system of these requirements simpler and more consistent and effective when it is revised to transpose the new Directive. Copyright © 2015 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Stability of the tumor suppressor merlin depends on its ability to bind paxillin LD3 and associate with β1 integrin and actin at the plasma membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Elisa Manetti


    The NF2 gene encodes a tumor suppressor protein known as merlin or schwannomin whose loss of function causes Neurofibromatosis Type 2 (NF2. NF2 is characterized by the development of benign tumors, predominantly schwannomas, in the peripheral nervous system. Merlin links plasma membrane receptors with the actin cytoskeleton and its targeting to the plasma membrane depends on direct binding to the paxillin scaffold protein. Exon 2 of NF2, an exon mutated in NF2 patients and deleted in a mouse model of NF2, encodes the merlin paxillin binding domain (PBD1. Here, we sought to determine the role of PBD1 in regulation of merlin stability and association with plasma membrane receptors and the actin cytoskeleton in Schwann cells. Using a fluorescence-based pulse-chase technique, we measured the half-life of Halo-tagged merlin variants carrying PBD1, exon 2, and exons 2 and 3 deletions in transiently transfected Schwann cells. We found that PBD1 alone was necessary and sufficient to increase merlin's half-life from approximately three to eleven hours. Merlin lacking PBD1 did not form a complex with surface β1 integrins or associate with the actin cytoskeleton. In addition, direct binding studies using purified merlin and paxillin domains revealed that merlin directly binds paxillin LD3 (leucine-aspartate 3 domain as well as the LD4 and LD5 domains. Together these results demonstrate that a direct interaction between merlin PBD1 and the paxillin LD3–5 domains targets merlin to the plasma membrane where it is stabilized by its association with surface β1 integrins and cortical actin.

  7. Crystal structure of 1,3-bis­[(E)-4-meth­oxy­benzyl­idene­amino]­propan-2-ol (United States)

    Rivera, Augusto; Miranda-Carvajal, Ingrid; Ríos-Motta, Jaime; Bolte, Michael


    The title Schiff base, C19H22N2O3, was synthesized via the condensation reaction of 1,3-di­amino­propan-2-ol with 4-meth­oxy­benzaldehyde using water as solvent. The mol­ecule exists in an E,E conformation with respect to the C=N imine bonds and the dihedral angle between the aromatic rings is 37.25 (15)°. In the crystal, O—H⋯N hydrogen bonds link the mol­ecules into infinite C(5) chains propagating along the a-axis direction. The packing of these chains is consolidated by C—H⋯O inter­actions and C—H⋯π short contacts, forming a three-dimensional network. PMID:27980818

  8. Self-assembling linear and star shaped poly(ϵ-caprolactone)/poly[(meth)acrylic acid] block copolymers as carriers of indomethacin and quercetin. (United States)

    Bury, Katarzyna; Du Prez, Filip; Neugebauer, Dorota


    A amphiphilic linear AB, BAB, and star shaped (AB)3 block copolymers of poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL)/poly(meth)acrylic acid (P(M)AA) are used for the preparation of nanoparticles and drug entrapment, where indomethacin and quercetin are employed as model drugs. Drug loading experiments with the nanoparticles based on PAA block copolymers demonstrate a higher efficiency for the star structure, whereas the PMAA star copolymer presents the lowest entrapment ability. The release properties are studied at room temperature and 37 °C in phosphate buffer solutions with pH equal to 5 and 7.4. The kinetic profiles show a strong relation to the copolymer's topology, indicating the lowest release rates from the star based superstructures, while the PMAA particles are less stable than those containing PAA segment(s).

  9. Magnetoresistive waves in plasmas (United States)

    Felber, F. S.; Hunter, R. O., Jr.; Pereira, N. R.; Tajima, T.


    The self-generated magnetic field of a current diffusing into a plasma between conductors can magnetically insulate the plasma. Propagation of magnetoresistive waves in plasmas is analyzed. Applications to plasma opening switches are discussed.

  10. Lapatinib Plasma and Tumor Concentrations and Effects on HER Receptor Phosphorylation in Tumor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil L Spector

    Full Text Available The paradigm shift in cancer treatment from cytotoxic drugs to tumor targeted therapies poses new challenges, including optimization of dose and schedule based on a biologically effective dose, rather than the historical maximum tolerated dose. Optimal dosing is currently determined using concentrations of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in plasma as a surrogate for tumor concentrations. To examine this plasma-tumor relationship, we explored the association between lapatinib levels in tumor and plasma in mice and humans, and those effects on phosphorylation of human epidermal growth factor receptors (HER in human tumors.Mice bearing BT474 HER2+ human breast cancer xenografts were dosed once or twice daily (BID with lapatinib. Drug concentrations were measured in blood, tumor, liver, and kidney. In a randomized phase I clinical trial, 28 treatment-naïve female patients with early stage HER2+ breast cancer received lapatinib 1000 or 1500 mg once daily (QD or 500 mg BID before evaluating steady-state lapatinib levels in plasma and tumor.In mice, lapatinib levels were 4-fold higher in tumor than blood with a 4-fold longer half-life. Tumor concentrations exceeded the in vitro IC90 (~ 900 nM or 500 ng/mL for inhibition of HER2 phosphorylation throughout the 12-hour dosing interval. In patients, tumor levels were 6- and 10-fold higher with QD and BID dosing, respectively, compared to plasma trough levels. The relationship between tumor and plasma concentration was complex, indicating multiple determinants. HER receptor phosphorylation varied depending upon lapatinib tumor concentrations, suggestive of changes in the repertoire of HER homo- and heterodimers.Plasma lapatinib concentrations underestimated tumor drug levels, suggesting that optimal dosing should be focused on the site of action to avoid to inappropriate dose escalation. Larger clinical trials are required to determine optimal dose and schedule to achieve tumor concentrations that maximally

  11. QSAR Models for the Prediction of Plasma Protein Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeshan Amin


    Full Text Available Introduction: The prediction of plasma protein binding (ppb is of paramount importance in the pharmacokinetics characterization of drugs, as it causes significant changes in volume of distribution, clearance and drug half life. This study utilized Quantitative Structure – Activity Relationships (QSAR for the prediction of plasma protein binding. Methods: Protein binding values for 794 compounds were collated from literature. The data was partitioned into a training set of 662 compounds and an external validation set of 132 compounds. Physicochemical and molecular descriptors were calculated for each compound using ACD labs/logD, MOE (Chemical Computing Group and Symyx QSAR software packages. Several data mining tools were employed for the construction of models. These included stepwise regression analysis, Classification and Regression Trees (CART, Boosted trees and Random Forest. Results: Several predictive models were identified; however, one model in particular produced significantly superior prediction accuracy for the external validation set as measured using mean absolute error and correlation coefficient. The selected model was a boosted regression tree model which had the mean absolute error for training set of 13.25 and for validation set of 14.96. Conclusion: Plasma protein binding can be modeled using simple regression trees or multiple linear regressions with reasonable model accuracies. These interpretable models were able to identify the governing molecular factors for a high ppb that included hydrophobicity, van der Waals surface area parameters, and aromaticity. On the other hand, the more complicated ensemble method of boosted regression trees produced the most accurate ppb estimations for the external validation set.

  12. Electrosurgical plasmas (United States)

    Stalder, Kenneth R.; McMillen, Donald F.; Woloszko, Jean


    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  13. Electrosurgical plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stalder, Kenneth R; McMillen, Donald F; Woloszko, Jean [ArthroCare Corp., Sunnyvale, CA 94085-3523 (United States)


    Electrosurgical medical devices based on repetitively pulsed nonequilibrium micron-scale to millimetre-scale plasma discharges in saline solutions are described. The formation of vapour layers (bubbles) around active electrodes appears to be a common feature at moderate (<300 V rms) voltages, and dissociation, excitation and ionization of the vapour in these bubbles produces chemical conditions that are thought to be the source of beneficial tissue removal and treatment. Experimental data are discussed, as are the results of modelling efforts of the plasma chemistry. Hydroxyl radicals, hydrogen atoms and other species are observed spectroscopically and their interactions with collagen, a common component of tissue encountered in surgical situations, are considered. Several pathways by which hydroxyl radicals interacting with collagen can lead to tissue removal are discussed.

  14. Plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cairns, R A


    This book is intended as an introduction to plasma physics at a level suitable for advanced undergraduates or beginning postgraduate students in physics, applied mathematics or astrophysics. The main prerequisite is a knowledge of electromagnetism and of the associated mathematics of vector calculus. SI units are used throughout. There is still a tendency amongst some plasma physics researchers to· cling to C.g.S. units, but it is the author's view that universal adoption of SI units, which have been the internationally agreed standard since 1960, is to be encouraged. After a short introductory chapter, the basic properties of a plasma con­ cerning particle orbits, fluid theory, Coulomb collisions and waves are set out in Chapters 2-5, with illustrations drawn from problems in nuclear fusion research and space physics. The emphasis is on the essential physics involved and (he theoretical and mathematical approach has been kept as simple and intuitive as possible. An attempt has been made to draw attention t...

  15. Plasma pharmacy - physical plasma in pharmaceutical applications. (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th; Haertel, B; Weltmann, K-D; Lindequist, U


    During the last years the use of physical plasma for medical applications has grown rapidly. A multitude of findings about plasma-cell and plasma-tissue interactions and its possible use in therapy have been provided. One of the key findings of plasma medical basic research is that several biological effects do not result from direct plasma-cell or plasma-tissue interaction but are mediated by liquids. Above all, it was demonstrated that simple liquids like water or physiological saline, are antimicrobially active after treatment by atmospheric pressure plasma and that these effects are attributable to the generation of different low-molecular reactive species. Besides, it could be shown that plasma treatment leads to the stimulation of specific aspects of cell metabolism and to a transient and reversible increase of diffusion properties of biological barriers. All these results gave rise to think about another new and innovative field of medical plasma application. In contrast to plasma medicine, which means the direct use of plasmas on or in the living organism for direct therapeutic purposes, this field - as a specific field of medical plasma application - is called plasma pharmacy. Based on the present state of knowledge, most promising application fields of plasma pharmacy might be: plasma-based generation of biologically active liquids; plasma-based preparation, optimization, or stabilization of - mainly liquid - pharmaceutical preparations; support of drug transport across biological barriers; plasma-based stimulation of biotechnological processes.

  16. Crystal structures of (2E)-1-(3-bromo-thio-phen-2-yl)-3-(2-meth-oxy-phen-yl)prop-2-en-1-one and (2E)-1-(3-bromo-thio-phen-2-yl)-3-(3,4-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)prop-2-en-1-one. (United States)

    Naik, Vasant S; Shettigar, Venkataraya; Berglin, Tyler S; Coburn, Jillian S; Jasinski, Jerry P; Yathirajan, Hemmige S


    In the mol-ecules of the title compounds, (2E)-1-(3-bromo-thio-phen-2-yl)-3-(2-meth-oxy-phen-yl)prop-2-en-1-one, C14H11BrO2S, (I), which crystallizes in the space group P-1 with four independent mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit (Z' = 8), and (2E)-1-(3-bromo-thio-phen-2-yl)-3-(3,4-di-meth-oxy-phen-yl)prop-2-en-1-one, C15H13BrO3S, (II), which crystallizes with Z' = 8 in the space group I2/a, the non-H atoms are nearly coplanar. The mol-ecules of (I) pack with inversion symmetry stacked diagonally along the a-axis direction. Weak C-H⋯Br intra-molecular inter-actions in each of the four mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit are observed. In (II), weak C-H⋯O, bifurcated three-center inter-molecular inter-actions forming dimers along with weak C-H⋯π and π-π stacking inter-actions are observed, linking the mol-ecules into sheets along [001]. A weak C-H⋯Br intra-molecular inter-action is also present. There are no classical hydrogen bonds present in either structure.

  17. (μ-Acetato-κ(2) O:O')[μ-2,6-bis-({bis-[(pyri-din-2-yl-κN)meth-yl]amino-κN}meth-yl)-4-methyl-phenolato-κ(2) O:O](metha-nol-κO)dizinc bis-(perchlorate). (United States)

    Das, Biswanath; Haukka, Matti; Nordlander, Ebbe


    The binuclear title complex, [Zn2(C33H33N6O)(CH3COO2)(CH3OH)](ClO4)2, was synthesized by the reaction between 2,6-bis-({[bis-(pyridin-2-yl)meth-yl]amino}-meth-yl)-4-methyl-phenol (H-BPMP), Zn(OAc)2 and NaClO4. The two Zn(II) ions are bridged by the phenolate O atom of the octadentate ligand and the acetate group. An additional methanol ligand is terminally coordinated to one of the Zn(II) ions, rendering the whole structure unsymmetric. Other symmetric dizinc complexes of BPMP have been reported. However, to the best of our knowledge, the present structure, in which the two Zn(II) ions are distinguishable by the number of coordinating ligands and the coordination geometries (octahedral and square-pyramidal), is unique. The dizinc complex is a dication, and two perchlorate anions balance the charge. The -OH group of the coordinating methanol solvent mol-ecule forms a hydrogen bond with a perchlorate counter-anion. One of the anions is disordered over two sets of sites with an occupancy ratio of 0.734 (2):0.266 (2).

  18. Crystal structures of two mononuclear complexes of terbium(III) nitrate with the tripodal alcohol 1,1,1-tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)propane (United States)

    Gregório, Thaiane; Giese, Siddhartha O. K.; Nunes, Giovana G.; Soares, Jaísa F.; Hughes, David L.


    Two new mononuclear cationic complexes in which the TbIII ion is bis-chelated by the tripodal alcohol 1,1,1-tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)propane (H3 L Et, C6H14O3) were prepared from Tb(NO3)3·5H2O and had their crystal and mol­ecular structures solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis after data collection at 100 K. Both products were isolated in reasonable yields from the same reaction mixture by using different crystallization conditions. The higher-symmetry complex dinitratobis[1,1,1-tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)propane]­terbium(III) nitrate di­meth­oxy­ethane hemisolvate, [Tb(NO3)2(H3 L Et)2]NO3·0.5C4H10O2, 1, in which the lanthanide ion is 10-coordinate and adopts an s-bicapped square-anti­prismatic coordination geometry, contains two bidentate nitrate ions bound to the metal atom; another nitrate ion functions as a counter-ion and a half-mol­ecule of di­meth­oxy­ethane (completed by a crystallographic twofold rotation axis) is also present. In product aqua­nitratobis[1,1,1-tris­(hy­droxy­meth­yl)propane]­terbium(III) dinitrate, [Tb(NO3)(H3 L Et)2(H2O)](NO3)2, 2, one bidentate nitrate ion and one water mol­ecule are bound to the nine-coordinate terbium(III) centre, while two free nitrate ions contribute to charge balance outside the tricapped trigonal-prismatic coordination polyhedron. No free water mol­ecule was found in either of the crystal structures and, only in the case of 1, di­meth­oxy­ethane acts as a crystallizing solvent. In both mol­ecular structures, the two tripodal ligands are bent to one side of the coordination sphere, leaving room for the anionic and water ligands. In complex 2, the methyl group of one of the H3 L Et ligands is disordered over two alternative orientations. Strong hydrogen bonds, both intra- and inter­molecular, are found in the crystal structures due to the number of different donor and acceptor groups present. PMID:28217359

  19. Plasma quetiapine in relation to prescribed dose and other factors: data from a therapeutic drug monitoring service, 2000–2011 (United States)

    Bowskill, Sally V.J.; Patel, Maxine X.; Flanagan, Robert J.


    Objective: Suggested predose plasma quetiapine target ranges for effective therapy in schizophrenia lie between 50 and 500 µg/l. We aimed to examine data from a quetiapine therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) service to assess the plasma quetiapine concentrations attained at specified doses in clinical practice. Method: We studied TDM data from patients given immediate-release quetiapine in the period 2000–2011. Results: There were 946 samples from 487 patients (257 males, age at time of first sample, median [range] 34 [14–87] years, and 230 females, age at time of first sample, median [range] 38 [10–92] years). The plasma quetiapine concentration was <50 and <100 µg/l in 30% and 50% of samples, respectively (no quetiapine detected in 9% of samples). The relationship between dose and plasma quetiapine was poor. The mean (95% confidence interval [CI]) quetiapine dose was higher (t = 3.6, df = 446, p <0.01) in males versus females (641 [600–1240] and 548 [600–943] mg/day, respectively), although there was no difference in median dose (600 mg/day) or in the mean (95% CI) plasma quetiapine concentrations attained. Smoking habit had no discernible effect on plasma quetiapine concentration. Conclusions: There was a poor relationship between dose and plasma quetiapine concentration in this study, as found by others. This is probably because of the short plasma half-life of the drug, at least in part. Nevertheless, quetiapine TDM can help assess adherence and measurement of quetiapine metabolites, notably N-desalkylquetiapine, as well as quetiapine itself may enhance the value of quetiapine TDM in future. PMID:24167685

  20. Crystal structure of bis-[μ-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)methane-thiol-ato-κ(2) S:S]bis-[chlorido-(η(6)-1-isopropyl-4-methyl-benzene)-ruthenium(II)] chloro-form disolvate. (United States)

    Stíbal, David; Süss-Fink, Georg; Therrien, Bruno


    The mol-ecular structure of the title complex, [Ru2(C8H9OS)2Cl2(C10H14)2]·2CHCl3 or (p-MeC6H4Pr (i) )2Ru2(SCH2-p-C6H5-OCH3)2Cl2·2CHCl3, shows inversion symmetry. The two symmetry-related Ru(II) atoms are bridged by two 4-meth-oxy-α-toluene-thiol-ato [(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)methane-thiol-ato] units. One chlorido ligand and the p-cymene ligand complete the typical piano-stool coordination environment of the Ru(II) atom. In the crystal, the CH moiety of the chloro-form mol-ecule inter-acts with the chlorido ligand of the dinuclear complex, while one Cl atom of the solvent inter-acts more weakly with the methyl group of the bridging 4-meth-oxy-α-toluene-thiol-ato unit. This assembly leads to the formation of supra-molecular chains extending parallel to [021].

  1. Avaliação da mutagenicidade de Piper methysticum L. f. no sistema methG1 em Aspergillus nidulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Palioto


    Full Text Available O extrato seco da raiz de Piper methysticum L. f. Forster (PIPERACEAE, a kava-kava, é usado no tratamento de diversos problemas envolvendo ansiedade como um dos sintomas. Por não causar dependência, sedação e ter ação ansiolítica, muitas pessoas têm recorrido a kava-kava para auxiliá-las no emagrecimento. Isto pode levar ao consumo indiscriminado da planta e acarretar riscos, pois todo medicamento fitoterápico deve respeitar limites de doses. Um risco na utilização de plantas medicinais é a toxicidade e, dentro deste, a mutagenicidade. Como a mutagenicidade está relacionada com a carcinogenicidade torna-se importante testar este potencial na kava-kava. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial mutagênico do extrato seco da raiz de P. methysticum no sistema methG1 em Aspergillus nidulans. A linhagem utilizada foi a biA1methG1, auxotrófica para biotina e metionina. Conídios dormentes de colônias crescidas por cinco dias foram tratados com soluções da kava-kava nas concentrações de 0,35 mg mL-1 e 3,5 mg mL-1, e depois de 24h, semeados em meio seletivo contendo metionina, para análise dos sobreviventes, e sem metionina, para a análise dos mutantes. Os números de sobreviventes e mutantes dos tratamentos foram comparados aos do controle. Os resultados indicaram que o extrato da raiz da kava-kava é mutagênica, pois a freqüência de mutação dos tratamentos foi maior que da mutação espontânea, porém não ocorrendo diferença significativa entre as doses.

  2. Plasma Free Metanephrines (United States)

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Plasma Free Metanephrines Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Plasma Metanephrines Formal name: Fractionated Plasma Free Metanephrines (Metanephrine ...

  3. Improved plasma accelerator (United States)

    Cheng, D. Y.


    Converging, coaxial accelerator electrode configuration operates in vacuum as plasma gun. Plasma forms by periodic injections of high pressure gas that is ionized by electrical discharges. Deflagration mode of discharge provides acceleration, and converging contours of plasma gun provide focusing.

  4. Plasma physics and fusion plasma electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Bers, Abraham


    Plasma is a ubiquitous state of matter at high temperatures. The electrodynamics of plasmas encompasses a large number of applications, from understanding plasmas in space and the stars, to their use in processing semiconductors, and their role in controlled energy generation by nuclear fusion. This book covers collective and single particle dynamics of plasmas for fully ionized as well as partially ionized plasmas. Many aspects of plasma physics in current fusion energy generation research are addressed both in magnetic and inertial confinement plasmas. Linear and nonlinear dynamics in hydrodynamic and kinetic descriptions are offered, making both simple and complex aspects of the subject available in nearly every chapter. The approach of dividing the basic aspects of plasma physics as "linear, hydrodynamic descriptions" to be covered first because they are "easier", and postponing the "nonlinear and kinetic descriptions" for later because they are "difficult" is abandoned in this book. For teaching purpose...

  5. Concentrations of danofloxacin 18% solution in plasma, milk and tissues after subcutaneous injection in dairy cows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mestorino, N. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail:; Marchetti, M.L.; Turic, E.; Pesoa, J.; Errecalde, J. [Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Science, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, CC 296, 1900 La Plata, Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Danofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone developed for use in veterinary medicine. Its concentrations and pharmacokinetic profile in plasma, milk and tissues of lactating dairy cows were determined, and its milk withdrawal time (WT) calculated. Twenty-one dairy cows received a single subcutaneous administration of 18% mesylate danofloxacin salt (6 mg kg{sup -1}). Plasma and milk samples were obtained at different times until 48 h. Groups of three animals were sacrificed at different post-administration times and tissue samples (mammary gland, uterus, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon and mesenteric lymph nodes) obtained. Danofloxacin concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The milk WT was calculated by the Time to Safe Concentration method (Software WTM 1.4, EMEA). Danofloxacin was rapidly absorbed and its distribution from plasma to all sampled tissues and milk was extensive. Milk and tissues concentrations were several times above those found in plasma. Plasma area under the curve (AUCp) was 9.69 {mu}g h mL{sup -1} and its elimination half life (T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2}) was 12.53 h. AUC values for the various tissues and milk greatly exceeded AUCp. T{sub {beta}}{sup 1/2} from milk and tissues ranged between 4.57 and 21.91 h and the milk withdrawal time was 73.48 h. The reported results support the potential use of danofloxacin in the treatment of mastitis and other infections in milk cows with 3 days of withdrawal.

  6. Distribuição de Cladocora debilis Meth, 1849 (Faviidae, Anthozoa, Cnidaria, ao sul do Cabo Frio (23ºS Distribution of Cladocora debilis Meth, 1849 (Faviidae, Anthozoa, Cnidaria, in the region south of Cabo Frio (23ºS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleuza Ferreira Leite


    Full Text Available É analisada a distribuição de Cladocora debilis Meth na região ao sul do Cabo Frio (23º S. Essa espécie ocorre ate a região do Cabo Polônio (Uruguai, mas, aparentemente, não mais ao sul, onde esse gênero e ecologicamente substituido, juntamente com outros subtropicais, por especies subantárticas. Ocorre de 46 a 338 m de profundidade, em agua de fundo da plataforma, com temperaturas de 9,77 a 19,54º C e salinidades de 33,56 a 36,53 ‰. Foi mais freqüente entre 101 e 200 me em regiões cuja água de fundo apresenta temperaturas de 13 - 15º C e salinidades de 35,51 - 36,00 ‰. Ocorre especialmente em fundos de granulometria maior e detríticos calcãrios. É uma das mais conspícuas especies de corais ahermatípicos do circalitoral inferior da região entre o Cabo Frio (23º S e o Cabo Polônio (34º25' S.The distribution of Cladocora debilis Meth in the region between Cabo Frio (23º S and Rio Grande do Sul (34º35' S is discussed. Its bathymetric distribution in that region is of 46 to 338 meters. It is one of the most conspicuous species of the circalitoral of the subtropical region of Brazil.

  7. Determination of Epimedin B in Rat Plasma and Tissue by LC-MS/MS: Application in Pharmacokinetic and Tissue Distribution Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qianru Feng


    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, and specific liquid chromatography tandem mass-spectrometric method was developed and validated for the determination of epimedin B in rat plasma and tissue samples. After being processed with a protein precipitation method, these samples were separated on an Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution (32 : 68, v/v. The calibration curve of epimedin B was linear over the concentration range from 1 to 500 ng/mL in plasma and tissue homogenate. The method was then applied to pharmacokinetic and tissue distribution studies after a single oral administration of Herba Epimedii extract to SD rats. Results showed that epimedin B reached the plasma peak concentration at 0.4 h and the terminal elimination half-life was 1.6 h in rat plasma, and the plasma area under the curve from time zero to infinity (AUC0–∞ was 14.35 μg/L·h. The concentration distribution of epimedin B in rat tissue was in the following order: liver > ovary > womb > lung > kidney > spleen > heart > brain, indicating that the compound could be widely distributed in rat, and the reproductive system may be the principal target of epimedin B for female rat.

  8. Plasma and interstitial fluid pharmacokinetics of enrofloxacin, its metabolite ciprofloxacin, and marbofloxacin after oral administration and a constant rate intravenous infusion in dogs. (United States)

    Bidgood, T L; Papich, M G


    Enrofloxacin and marbofloxacin were administered to six healthy dogs in separate crossover experiments as a single oral dose (5 mg/kg) and as a constant rate IV infusion (1.24 and 0.12 mg/, respectively) following a loading dose (4.47 and 2 mg/kg, respectively) to achieve a steady-state concentration of approximately 1 microg/mL for 8 h. Interstitial fluid (ISF) was collected with an in vivo ultrafiltration device at the same time period as plasma to measure protein unbound drug concentrations at the tissue site and assess the dynamics of drug distribution. Plasma and ISF were analyzed for enrofloxacin, its active metabolite ciprofloxacin, and for marbofloxacin by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Lipophilicity and protein binding of enrofloxacin were higher than for marbofloxacin and ciprofloxacin. Compared to enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin had a longer half-life, higher Cmax, and larger AUC(0-infinity) in plasma and ISF after oral administration. Establishing steady state allowed an assessment of the dynamics of drug concentrations between plasma and ISF. The ISF and plasma-unbound concentrations were similar during the steady-state period despite differences in lipophilicity and pharmacokinetic parameters of the drugs.

  9. Crystal structure of tri-hydrogen bis-{[1,1,1-tris-(2-oxido-ethyl-amino-meth-yl)ethane]-cobalt(III)} trinitrate. (United States)

    Sethi, Waqas; Johannesen, Heini V; Morsing, Thorbjørn J; Piligkos, Stergios; Weihe, Høgni


    The title compound, [Co2(L)2](3+)·3NO3 (-) [where L = CH3C(CH2NHCH2CH2OH1/2)3], has been synthesized from the ligand 1,1,1-tris-(2-hy-droxy-ethyl-amino-meth-yl)ethane. The cobalt(III) dimer has an inter-esting and uncommon O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding motif with the three bridging hy-droxy H atoms each being equally disordered over two positions. In the dimeric trication, the octa-hedrally coordinated Co(III) atoms and the capping C atoms lie on a threefold rotation axis. The N atoms of two crystallographically independent nitrate anions also lie on threefold rotation axes. N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding between the complex cations and nitrate anions leads to the formation of a three-dimensional network structure. The compound is a racemic conglomerate of crystals containing either d or l mol-ecules. The crystal used for this study is a d crystal.

  10. Durability to oxygen reactive ion etching enhanced by addition of synthesized bis(trimethylsilyl)phenyl-containing (meth)acrylates in ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (United States)

    Ito, Shunya; Sato, Hiroki; Tasaki, Yuhei; Watanuki, Kimihito; Nemoto, Nobukatsu; Nakagawa, Masaru


    We investigated the selection of bis(trimethylsilyl)phenyl-containing (meth)acrylates as additives to improve the durability to oxygen reactive ion etching (O2 RIE) of sub-50 nm imprint resist patterns suitable for bubble-defect-free UV nanoimprinting with a readily condensable gas. 2,5-Bis(2-acryloyloxyethoxy)-1,4-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, which has a diacrylate chemical structure similar to that of glycerol 1,3-diglycerolate diacrylate used as a base monomer, and 3-(2-methacryloyloxyethoxy)-1-(hydroxylethoxy)-2-propoxy-3,5-bis(trimethylsilyl)benzene, which has a hydroxy group similar to the base monomer, were synthesized taking into consideration the Ohnishi and ring parameters, and the oxidization of the trimethylsilyl moiety to inorganic species during O2 RIE. The addition of the latter liquid additive to the base monomer decreased etching rate owing to the good miscibility of the additive in the base monomer, while the addition of the former crystalline additive caused phase separation after UV nanoimprinting. The latter additive worked as a compatibilizer to the former additive, which is preferred for etching durability improvement. The coexistence of the additives enabled the fabrication of a 45 nm line-and-space resist pattern by UV nanoimprinting, and its residual layer could be removed by O2 RIE.

  11. AthMethPre: a web server for the prediction and query of mRNA m(6)A sites in Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Xiang, Shunian; Yan, Zhangming; Liu, Ke; Zhang, Yaou; Sun, Zhirong


    N(6)-Methyladenosine (m(6)A) is the most prevalent and abundant modification in mRNA that has been linked to many key biological processes. High-throughput experiments have generated m(6)A-peaks across the transcriptome of A. thaliana, but the specific methylated sites were not assigned, which impedes the understanding of m(6)A functions in plants. Therefore, computational prediction of mRNA m(6)A sites becomes emergently important. Here, we present a method to predict the m(6)A sites for A. thaliana mRNA sequence(s). To predict the m(6)A sites of an mRNA sequence, we employed the support vector machine to build a classifier using the features of the positional flanking nucleotide sequence and position-independent k-mer nucleotide spectrum. Our method achieved good performance and was applied to a web server to provide service for the prediction of A. thaliana m(6)A sites. The server also provides a comprehensive database of predicted transcriptome-wide m(6)A sites and curated m(6)A-seq peaks from the literature for query and visualization. The AthMethPre web server is the first web server that provides a user-friendly tool for the prediction and query of A. thaliana mRNA m(6)A sites, which is freely accessible for public use at .

  12. Design of new phosphonic acid monomers for dental adhesives--synthesis of (meth) acryloxyalkyl 3-phosphonopropionates and evaluation of their adhesion-promoting functions. (United States)

    Ikemura, Kunio; Tay, Franklin R; Nishiyama, Nonrihiro; Pashley, David H; Endo, Takeshi


    The aims of this study were to synthesize new phosphonic acid monomers, and to examine their bonding performance. Four kinds of newly designed phosphonic acid monomers were synthesized, and seven experimental composite-type adhesive resins comprising the synthesized monomers (3 wt%), with BPO/DEPT/BPBA initiator were prepared. Tensile bond strengths of the adhesive resins to enamel and metal were measured with a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 1.0 mm/ min. The synthesized adhesive monomers were light yellow viscous liquids with 32.5%-49.3% yields, and identified by 1H NMR, IR and elemental analysis to be (meth)acryloxyalkyl 3-phosphonopropionates [R-P(=O) (OH)2] (5-MPPP, 6-MHPP, 6-AHPP, 10-MDPP). It was found that the newly developed phosphonic acid monomers with BPO/DEPT/BPBA initiator attained strong adhesion to both unetched, ground enamel and sandblasted Ni-Cr alloy with good durability. They exhibited significantly higher bond strengths than conventional phosphorous-containing monomers such as MEPP and VBPA (p adhesive resins have potential prosthodontic and orthodontic applications, especially as self-etching, non-rinsing orthodontic adhesive resins.

  13. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M


    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  14. Site-Specific Zwitterionic Polymer Conjugates of a Protein Have Long Plasma Circulation. (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Somnath; Liu, Wenge; Wang, Wei-Han; Weitzhandler, Isaac; Li, Xinghai; Qi, Yizhi; Liu, Jinyao; Pang, Yan; Hunt, Donald F; Chilkoti, Ashutosh


    Many proteins suffer from suboptimal pharmacokinetics (PK) that limit their utility as drugs. The efficient synthesis of polymer conjugates of protein drugs with tunable PK to optimize their in vivo efficacy is hence critical. We report here the first study of the in vivo behavior of a site-specific conjugate of a zwitterionic polymer and a protein. To synthesize the conjugate, we first installed an initiator for atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) at the N terminus of myoglobin (Mb-N-Br). Subsequently, in situ ATRP was carried out in aqueous buffer to grow an amine-functionalized polymer from Mb-N-Br. The cationic polymer was further derivatized to two zwitterionic polymers by treating the amine groups of the cationic polymer with iodoacetic acid to obtain poly(carboxybetaine methacrylate) with a one-carbon spacer (PCBMA; C1 ), and sequentially with 3-iodopropionic acid and iodoacetic acid to obtain PCBMA(mix) with a mixture of C1 and C2 spacers. The Mb-N-PCBMA polymer conjugates had a longer in vivo plasma half-life than a PEG-like comb polymer conjugate of similar molecular weights (MW). The structure of the zwitterion plays a role in controlling the in vivo behavior of the conjugate, as the PCBMA conjugate with a C1 spacer had significantly longer plasma circulation than the conjugate with a mixture of C1 and C2 spacers.

  15. Catabolism of circulating enzymes: plasma clearance, endocytosis, and breakdown of lactate dehydrogenase-1 in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smit, M.J.; Beekhuis, H.; Duursma, A.M.; Bouma, J.M.; Gruber, M.


    Lactate dehydrogenase-1, intravenously injected into rabbits, was cleared with first-order kinetics (half-life 27 min), until at least 80% of the injected activity had disappeared from plasma. Radioactivity from injected SVI-labeled enzyme disappeared at this same rate. Trichloroacetic-acid-soluble breakdown products started to appear in the circulation shortly after injection of the labeled enzyme. Body scans of the rabbits for 80 min after injection of T I-labeled enzyme revealed rapid accumulation of label in the liver, peaking 10-20 min after injection. Subsequently, activity in the liver declined and radioactivity (probably labeled breakdown products of low molecular mass) steadily accumulated in the bladder. Tissue fractionation of liver, 19 min after injection of labeled enzyme, indicated that the radioactivity was present both in endosomes and in lysosomes, suggesting uptake by endocytosis, followed by breakdown in the lysosomes. Measurements of radioactivity in liver and plasma suggest that the liver is responsible for the breakdown of at least 75% of the injected enzyme. Radioautography of tissue sections of liver and spleen showed accumulated radioactivity in sinusoidal liver cells and red pulpa, respectively. These results are very similar to those for lactate dehydrogenase-5, creatine kinase MM, and several other enzymes that we have previously studied in rats.

  16. Catabolism of circulating enzymes: plasma clearance, endocytosis, and breakdown of lactate dehydrogenase-1 in rabbits. (United States)

    Smit, M J; Beekhuis, H; Duursma, A M; Bouma, J M; Gruber, M


    Lactate dehydrogenase-1 (EC, intravenously injected into rabbits, was cleared with first-order kinetics (half-life 27 min), until at least 80% of the injected activity had disappeared from plasma. Radioactivity from injected 125I-labeled enzyme disappeared at this same rate. Trichloroacetic-acid-soluble breakdown products started to appear in the circulation shortly after injection of the labeled enzyme. Body scans of the rabbits for 80 min after injection of 131I-labeled enzyme revealed rapid accumulation of label in the liver, peaking 10-20 min after injection. Subsequently, activity in the liver declined and radioactivity (probably labeled breakdown products of low molecular mass) steadily accumulated in the bladder. Tissue fractionation of liver, 19 min after injection of labeled enzyme, indicated that the radioactivity was present both in endosomes and in lysosomes, suggesting uptake by endocytosis, followed by breakdown in the lysosomes. Measurements of radioactivity in liver and plasma suggest that the liver is responsible for the breakdown of at least 75% of the injected enzyme. Radioautography of tissue sections of liver and spleen showed accumulated radioactivity in sinusoidal liver cells and red pulpa, respectively. These results are very similar to those for lactate dehydrogenase-5, creatine kinase MM, and several other enzymes that we have previously studied in rats.

  17. International movement of plasma and plasma contracting. (United States)

    Farrugia, A


    Plasma fractionation is a global business characterised by technological stability, increasing consolidation and a high level of regulatory oversight. All these factors affect the ease with which plasma derivatives can be accessed in the world market. As domestic regulatory measures in the first world blood economies become increasingly resonant to the precautionary approach, the availability of plasma as a raw material, as well as its cost, become an increasingly significant component in the cost of the final product. This decreases the amount of plasma which fractionators are able to allocate for export activities. Also, regulatory standards in the country of manufacture will reflect priorities in that country which may not be similar to those in export markets, but which will affect entry to those markets. While many countries possess a fractionation capacity, the limiting factor in supply worldwide is the amount of plasma available, and nationalistic drivers for each country to have its own plant are inimical to product safety and supply. Rather, the provision of sufficient supplies of domestic plasma should be the focus of resource allocation, with a choice of an appropriate contract fractionator. However, contract fractionation too may be affected by domestic considerations unrelated to the needs of the country of plasma origin. This chapter will review the global plasma market and the influences on plasma and plasma product movement across national borders. Problems in ensuring adequate safety and supply will be identified, and some tentative approaches to the amelioration of current barriers to the provision of plasma derivatives will be outlined.

  18. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to predict the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs and the impact of errors in plasma protein binding. (United States)

    Ye, Min; Nagar, Swati; Korzekwa, Ken


    Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data were often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding and the blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate the model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 , 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax , 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t , 95.4%), clearance (CLh , 95.4%), mean residence time (MRT, 95.4%) and steady state volume (Vss , 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Therapeutic efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine combinations and the plasma and saliva concentrations of desethylamodiaquine in children with acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. (United States)

    Sowunmi, Akintunde; Gbotosho, Grace O; Happi, Christian T; Okuboyejo, Titilope M; Sijuade, Abayomi O; Michael, Obaro S; Adewoye, Elsie O; Folarin, Onikepe


    The treatment efficacy of artesunate-amodiaquine (AQ) coformulated or copackaged, and the plasma and saliva concentrations of desethylamodiaquine (DEAQ), the active metabolite of AQ, were evaluated in 120 and 7 children, respectively, with uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria treated with oral daily doses of the 2 formulations for 3 days. All children recovered clinically. Fever clearance (1.1 ± 0.2 vs 1.0 ± 0 days) and parasite clearance times (21.1 ± 10.2 vs 19.0 ± 7.0 hours) in artesunate-AQ coformulated and artesunate-AQ copackaged treated children, respectively, were similar. All children remained aparasitemic for at least 28 days. Blood and saliva samples were collected over 35 days and DEAQ in plasma and saliva was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. DEAQ was detectable in plasma and saliva within 40 minutes of oral administration of artesunate-AQ. DEAQ concentrations 7 days after the start of therapy were 247.8 and 125.1 ng/mL in plasma and saliva, respectively. The concentration-time curves of plasma and saliva in declining phases were approximately parallel giving a similar half-life of 169.1 ± 16.4 and 142.8 ± 6.5 hours in plasma and saliva, respectively. Clearance from plasma and saliva was also similar (335.6 and 443.4 mL·h·kg, respectively). Area under concentration-time curves (AUC0-35d) for plasma and saliva were 94,744.9 and 74,004.2 ng·mL·h, respectively. In general, Saliva-plasma concentration ratio was 0.25-0.4. DEAQ concentrations in saliva may be useful for monitoring therapy and for the evaluation of the disposition of AQ in children with falciparum malaria treated with AQ-based combination.

  20. Communication through Plasma Sheaths

    CERN Document Server

    Korotkevich, A O; Zakharov, V E


    We wish to transmit messages to and from a hypersonic vehicle around which a plasma sheath has formed. For long distance transmission, the signal carrying these messages must be necessarily low frequency, typically 2 GHz, to which the plasma sheath is opaque. The idea is to use the plasma properties to make the plasma sheath appear transparent.

  1. PIC numerical study of ECR plasmas confinement in a minimum-B and zero-B magnetic traps with GPU (United States)

    Murillo Acevedo, M. T.; Dugar-Zhabon, V. D.


    This work analyzes through computational methods the phenomenon of confinement and heating of plasmas, in open magnetic traps, Minimum-B, and zero-B under conditions of resonance electron cyclotron (ECR). This simulation is made using electrostatic particle in cell method. First, it simulates the minimum-B trap, which has been studied both numerically and experimentally, by which is accomplished the confrontation of 6 different types of results that help us to validate our code. In the same way the zero-B trap is analysed. Proposed by Dr. Dugar-Zhabon, the main characteristic of the trap is the nullity of the magnetic field in the centre of the trap. The results show the detailed behaviour of the electronic component in the initial stage of the formation of plasma. Given the computational cost of the used model that allowed us to simulates fine details of the dynamics of plasma. Results were only reached in the time of half-life of the electrons. During this period the minimum-B trap proved to be better for the production of ions than the zero-B trap. Due to the huge amount of equations needed to solve the motion equations and the charge density, they are calculated in a Parallel way by GPU clustering.

  2. The pharmacokinetic study of rutin in rat plasma based on an electrochemically reduced graphene oxide modified sensor$

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei Zhang a; Yu-Qiang Gou b; Xia Gao a; Rui-Bin Bai a; Wen-Xia Chen a; Bo-Lu Sun a; Fang-Di Hu a; n; Wang-Hong Zhao c


    An electrochemical method based on a directly electrochemically reduced graphene oxide (ERGO) film coated on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was developed for the rapid and convenient determination of rutin in plasma. ERGO was modified on the surface of GCE by one-step electro-deposition method. Electrochemical behavior of rutin on ERGO/GCE indicated that rutin underwent a surface-controlled quasi-reversible process and the electrochemical parameters such as charge transfer coefficient (α), electron transfer number (n) and electrode reaction standard rate constant (ks) were 0.53, 2 and 3.4 s?1, respectively. The electrochemical sensor for rutin in plasma provided a wide linear response range of 4.70 ? 10 ? 7 ? 1.25 ? 10 ? 5 M with the detection limit (s/n ¼ 3) of 1.84 ? 10 ? 8 M. The assay was success-fully used to the pharmacokinetic study of rutin. The pharmacokinetic parameters such as elimination rate half-life (t1/2), area under curve (AUC), and plasma clearance (CL) were calculated to be 3.345 7 0.647 min, 5750 7 656.0 mg min/mL, and 5.891 7 0.458 mL/min/kg, respectively. The proposed method utilized a small sample volume of 10μL and had no complicated sample pretreatment (without deproteinization), which was simple, eco-friendly, and time-and cost-efficient for rutin pharmacokinetic studies.

  3. Introduction to plasma dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Morozov, A I


    As the twenty-first century progresses, plasma technology will play an increasing role in our lives, providing new sources of energy, ion-plasma processing of materials, wave electromagnetic radiation sources, space plasma thrusters, and more. Studies of the plasma state of matter not only accelerate technological developments but also improve the understanding of natural phenomena. Beginning with an introduction to the characteristics and types of plasmas, Introduction to Plasma Dynamics covers the basic models of classical diffuse plasmas used to describe such phenomena as linear and shock w

  4. Collisionless plasmas in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Belmont, Gerard; Mottez, Fabrice; Pantellini, Filippo; Pelletier, Guy


    Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics examines the unique properties of media without collisions in plasma physics. Experts in this field, the authors present the first book to concentrate on collisionless conditions in plasmas, whether close or not to thermal equilibrium. Filling a void in scientific literature, Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics explains the possibilities of modeling such plasmas, using a fluid or a kinetic framework. It also addresses common misconceptions that even professionals may possess, on phenomena such as "collisionless (Landau) damping". Abundant illustrations

  5. Intravascular plasma disposition and salivary secretion of closantel and rafoxanide in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.E. Swan


    Full Text Available The plasma and salivary disposition of closantel and rafoxanide were examined following intravenous administration in adult sheep. Two studies were conducted with rafoxanide at 7.5 mg/kg and 1 with closantel using 2 doses (5 and 15 mg/kg. The pharmacokinetic profile of both drugs in plasma were best described by a 2-compartmental model with 1st-order rate constants. Plasma disposition of closantel and rafoxanide were characterised by a rapid distribution (t1/2(a of <30 min, long elimination half-life (t1/2(b of 17.0 + 4.0 days for closantel and 7.2 + 0.6 days for rafoxanide, small apparent volume of distribution (Vss of <0.15 ℓ/kg and a slow rate of total body clearance (Cl of <0.01mℓ/min/kg. The area under the drug plasma concentration curve (AUC of closantel at 5 mg/kg was nearly twice as large as that of rafoxanide at 7.5 mg/kg resulting from the slower t1/2(b observed with closantel compared to rafoxanide. Large individual differences were observed in the rate measurements of distribution (k12, k21 and t1/2(a, whereas the parameters of elimination (k10, t1/2(b and Cl, were more consistent between animals. A dose proportional increase in AUC was observed for closantel administered at 5 and 15 mg/kg. A low, constant salivary concentration of closantel (mean of 0.04+0.05 mg/mℓ and rafoxanide (mean of 0.07+0.04 mg/mℓ was observed during the 24-h examination period after dosing.

  6. Pharmacokinetics of methimazole in children and adolescents with Graves' disease. Studies on plasma and intrathyroidal concentrations. (United States)

    Okuno, A; Yano, K; Inyaku, F; Suzuki, Y; Sanae, N; Kumai, M; Naitoh, Y


    Methimazole concentrations in plasma and in the thyroid glands were measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetics of methimazole were studied after a single oral dose (175 mumol/m2) in nine children and adolescent who were in the thyrotoxic state. Plasma levels of methimazole showed peak concentrations of 4.4 to 12.6 (median 9.2) mumol/l at 0.5 to 4 h after drug administration. Plasma half-life, area under the curve, and distribution volume ranged from 2.73 to 6.04 h, 32.8 to 77.9 mumol X l-1 X h-1, and 0.516 to 0.913 l/kg, respectively. These pharmacokinetic parameters showed a wide variation among the patients, but were quite reproducible in the same subject. Intrathyroidal concentrations of methimazole were measured in another nine subjects including four adolescents and five adults who underwent thyroidectomy. The drug concentrations in the thyroid glands ranged between 3.5 and 23.8 mumol/kg tissue and were far higher than those in the plasma obtained at the time of surgery. In this series of experiments, the dose of the drug varied from 76 to 319 mumol/m2, time after the last dose to surgery from 5 to 24 h, and the mode of drug administration from a single to three divided doses. Among these variable factors, only the daily dose of methimazole corrected by body surface area showed significant correlation with the intrathyroidal concentration, whereas the time after the last dose of the drug and the mode of drug administration did not.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Plasma clearance of hemoglobin and haptoglobin in mice and effect of CD163 gene targeting disruption. (United States)

    Etzerodt, Anders; Kjolby, Mads; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Maniecki, Maciej; Svendsen, Pia; Moestrup, Søren Kragh


    In humans, plasma haptoglobin (Hp) and the macrophage receptor CD163 promote a fast scavenging of hemoglobin (Hb). In the present study, we have compared the mouse and human CD163-mediated binding and uptake of Hb and HpHb complex in vitro and characterized the CD163-mediated plasma clearance of Hb in CD163 gene knockout mice and controls. Contrary to human Hp, mouse Hp did not promote high-affinity binding to CD163. This difference between mouse and man was evident both by analysis of the binding of purified proteins and by ligand uptake studies in CD163-transfected cells. Plasma clearance studies in mice showed a fast clearance (half-life few minutes) of fluorescently labeled mouse Hb with the highest uptake in the kidney and liver. HPLC analysis of serum showed that the clearance curve exhibited a two-phase decay with a faster clearance of Hb than plasma-formed HpHb. In CD163-deficient mice, the overall clearance of Hb was slightly slower and followed a one-phase decay. In conclusion, mouse Hp does not promote high-affinity binding of mouse Hb to CD163, and noncomplexed mouse Hb has a higher CD163 affinity than human Hb has. Moreover, CD163-mediated uptake in mice seems to only account for a part of the Hb clearance. The new data further underscore the fact that the Hp system in man seems to have a broader and more sophisticated role. This has major implications in the translation of data on Hb metabolism from mouse to man.

  8. Colloidal Plasmas : Basic physics of colloidal plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C B Dwivedi


    Colloidal plasma is a distinct class of the impure plasmas with multispecies ionic composition. The distinction lies in the phase distribution of the impurity-ion species. The ability to tailor the electrostatic interactions between these colloidal particles provides a fertile ground for scientists to investigate the fundamental aspects of the Coulomb phase transition behavior. The present contribution will review the basic physics of the charging mechanism of the colloidal particles as well as the physics of the collective normal mode behavior of the general multi-ion species plasmas. Emphasis will be laid on the clarification of the prevailing confusing ideas about distinct qualities of the various acoustic modes, which are likely to exist in colloidal plasmas as well as in normal multi-ion species plasmas. Introductory ideas about the proposed physical models for the Coulomb phase transition in colloidal plasma will also be discussed.

  9. Nonlinear plasma wave in magnetized plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulanov, Sergei V. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Prokhorov Institute of General Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny, Moscow region 141700 (Russian Federation); Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K. [Kansai Photon Science Institute, JAEA, Kizugawa, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G. [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Japan Science and Technology Agency, CREST, 2-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Kodama, Ryosuke [Photon Pioneers Center, Osaka University, 2-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)


    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic “Four-Ray Star” pattern.

  10. Elements of plasma technology

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Chiow San


    This book presents some fundamental aspects of plasma technology that are important for beginners interested to start research in the area of plasma technology . These include the properties of plasma, methods of plasma generation and basic plasma diagnostic techniques. It also discusses several low cost plasma devices, including pulsed plasma sources such as plasma focus, pulsed capillary discharge, vacuum spark and exploding wire; as well as low temperature plasmas such as glow discharge and dielectric barrier discharge which the authors believe may have potential applications in industry. The treatments are experimental rather than theoretical, although some theoretical background is provided where appropriate. The principles of operation of these devices are also reviewed and discussed.

  11. Development and Validation of a Bioanalytical Method for Quantification of 2,6-Bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene-cyclohexanone (BHMC in Rat Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhao Lee


    Full Text Available A sensitive and accurate high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet/visible light detection (HPLC-UV/VIS method for the quantification of 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene-cyclohexanone (BHMC in rat plasma was developed and validated. BHMC and the internal standard, harmaline, were extracted from plasma samples by a simple liquid–liquid extraction using 95% ethyl acetate and 5% methanol. Plasma concentration of BHMC and internal standard were analyzed by reversed phase chromatography using a C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm I.D., particle size 5 µm and elution with a gradient mobile phase of water and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection of BHMC and internal standard was done at a wavelength of 380 nm. The limit of quantification was 0.02 µg/mL. The calibration curves was linear (R2 > 0.999 over the concentration range of 0.02–2.5 µg/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision were less than 2% coefficient of variation. The validated method was then applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats by intravenous administration of BHMC at a single dose of 10 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as half-life, maximum plasma concentration, volume of distribution, clearance and elimination rate constant for BHMC were calculated.

  12. Development and validation of a bioanalytical method for quantification of 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-cyclohexanone (BHMC) in rat plasma. (United States)

    Lee, Yu Zhao; Ming-Tatt, Lee; Lajis, Nordin Hj; Sulaiman, Mohd Roslan; Israf, Daud Ahmad; Tham, Chau Ling


    A sensitive and accurate high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet/visible light detection (HPLC-UV/VIS) method for the quantification of 2,6-bis-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)-cyclohexanone (BHMC) in rat plasma was developed and validated. BHMC and the internal standard, harmaline, were extracted from plasma samples by a simple liquid-liquid extraction using 95% ethyl acetate and 5% methanol. Plasma concentration of BHMC and internal standard were analyzed by reversed phase chromatography using a C₁₈ column (150 × 4.6 mm I.D., particle size 5 µm) and elution with a gradient mobile phase of water and methanol at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Detection of BHMC and internal standard was done at a wavelength of 380 nm. The limit of quantification was 0.02 µg/mL. The calibration curves was linear (R² > 0.999) over the concentration range of 0.02-2.5 µg/mL. Intra- and inter-day precision were less than 2% coefficient of variation. The validated method was then applied to a pharmacokinetic study in rats by intravenous administration of BHMC at a single dose of 10 mg/kg. Pharmacokinetic parameters such as half-life, maximum plasma concentration, volume of distribution, clearance and elimination rate constant for BHMC were calculated.

  13. 5-Acetyl-4-(3-hy-droxy-phen-yl)-6-methyl-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-pyrimidin-2-one-tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)ammonium chloride (2/1). (United States)

    Huq, C A M A; Fouzia, S; Nizammohideen, M


    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, 2C13H14N2O3·C3H10NO3 (+)·Cl(-), contains two independent mol-ecules (A and B) of the title pyrimidine derivative and one ion-pair of tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)ammonium chloride. The pyrimidine ring in each pyrimidine derivative has a half-chair conformation. Its mean plane is inclined to the benzene ring by 87.2 (3)° in mol-ecule A and 85.7 (2)° in mol-ecule B. In the crystal, the pyrimidine derivatives are connected to each other by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along the b-axis direction. The chains are linked via O-H-Cl hydrogen bonds, forming corrugated sheets lying parallel to the bc plane. The sheets are linked via C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework. The tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)ammonium chloride mol-ecules are located in the cages of the framework. There are also further C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and C-H⋯π inter-actions present in the three-dimensional framework structure. Both the cation and chloride anion of the tris-(hy-droxy-meth-yl)ammonium chloride ion pair are disordered over two positions, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.418 (8):0.582 (8) for the cation and 0.71 (4):0.29 (4) for the anion.

  14. Crystal structures of bis­[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth­oxy-17-methyl­morphinanium] tetra­chlorido­cobaltate and tetra­chlorido­cuprate (United States)

    Gauchat, Eric; Nazarenko, Alexander Y.


    (9S,13S,14S)-3-Meth­oxy-17-methyl­morphinan (dextromethorphan) forms two isostructural salts with (a) tetra­chlorido­cobaltate, namely bis­[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth­oxy-17-methyl­morphinanium] tetra­chlorido­cobaltate, (C18H26NO)2[CoCl4], and (b) tetra­chlorido­cuprate, namely bis­[(9S,13S,14S)-3-meth­oxy-17-methyl­morphinanium] tetra­chlorido­cuprate, (C18H26NO)2[CuCl4]. The distorted tetra­hedral anions are located on twofold rotational axes. The dextromethorphan cation can be described as being composed of two ring systems, a tetra­hydro­naphthalene system A+B and a deca­hydro­isoquinolinium subunit C+D, that are nearly perpendicular to one another: the angle between mean planes of the A+B and C+D moieties is 78.8 (1)° for (a) and 79.0 (1)° for (b). Two symmetry-related cations of protonated dextromethorphan are connected to the tetra­chlorido­cobaltate (or tetra­chlorido­cuprate) anions via strong N—H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds, forming neutral ion associates. These associates are packed in the (001) plane with no strong attractive bonding between them. Both compounds are attractive crystalline forms for unambiguous identification of the dextromethorphan and, presumably, of its optical isomer, levomethorphan. PMID:28083138

  15. Reviews of plasma physics

    CERN Document Server


    "Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24," edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence

  16. Reviews of plasma physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafranov, Vitalii Dmitrievich (ed.); Bakunin, Oleg G. (comps.) [Rossijskij Nauchnyj Tsentr ' ' Kurchatovskij Inst.' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation). Nuclear Fusion Inst.; Rozhansky, V. [St. Petersburg State Polytechnical Univ. (Russian Federation)


    Reviews of Plasma Physics Volume 24, edited by V.D. Shafranov, presents two reviews from the cutting-edge of Russian plasma physics research. The first review by V.A. Rozhansky devoted to the mechanisms of transverse conductivity and generation of self-consistent electric fields in strongly ionized magnetized plasma. The second review by O.G. Bakunin considers numerous aspects of turbulent transport in plasma and fluids. This review is focused on scaling arguments for describing anomalous diffusion in the presence of complex structures. These topics are especially important for fusion plasma research, plasma astrophysics, discharge physics, and turbulence (orig.)

  17. 2-[1-(4-Bromo­phen­yl)-3-hy­droxy-3-(4-meth­oxy­phen­yl)prop­yl]cyclo­hexa­nol (United States)

    Çelik, Ísmail; Akkurt, Mehmet; Gezegen, Hayreddin; Üremiş, Muhammed M.; Duteanu, Narcis


    In the title compound, C22H27BrO3, the cyclo­hexane ring adopts a chair conformation. The dihedral angle between the benzene rings is 41.9 (4)°. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by O—H⋯O and C—H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network. In addition, π–π stacking inter­actions [centroid–centroid distance = 3.953 (6) Å] between the benzene rings of the meth­oxy­benzene groups occur. PMID:24046654

  18. Plasma concentrations of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole in alpacas (Lama pacos after single intravenous and oral dosing of FBZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakritz J


    Full Text Available Jeffrey Lakritz,1 Daniel Linden,2 David E Anderson,3 Terri A Specht4 1Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA; 2Department of Agriculture and Engineering Technologies, College of Food, Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Wooster, OH, USA; 3Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN, USA; 4Four Star Veterinary Service, Chickasaw, OH, USA Abstract: The objective of this study was to determine plasma pharmacokinetics and bioavailability of fenbendazole (FBZ and oxfendazole (OFZ after intravenous (iv and oral administrations of FBZ (5 mg/kg to alpacas. Plasma concentrations of FBZ and OFZ after administration of FBZ iv and orally (5 mg/kg were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection. Total clearance (CL of FBZ was 16.5±4 mL/kg/min (range: 4–31 mL/kg/min, and steady-state volume of distribution (Vdss was 3.3±1 L/kg (range: 1.7–7.4 L/kg. The terminal phase half-life of FBZ after iv administration was 5.9±3.8 hours (range: 0.8–20 hours. After oral administration, the FBZ terminal phase half-life was 23±5 hours (range: 9–37 hours and the systemic bioavailability of FBZ was 16%±6% (range: 1%–41%. Peak FBZ concentrations after oral administration were 0.13±0.05 µg/mL (range: 0.05–0.28 µg/mL at 10 hours (range: 8–12 hours. Peak plasma OFZ concentrations after oral dosing with FBZ (5 mg/kg were 0.14±0.05 µg/mL (0.05–0.3 µg/mL at 24±7 hours (range: 12–48 hours. FBZ clearance is lower in comparison to that of other species. Systemic availability of FBZ after oral administration is low after oral dosing. Metabolites of FBZ produced by alpacas are similar to those observed in other species. Keywords: bioavailability, benzimidazoles, camelid, pharmacokinetics

  19. Preclinical pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution and plasma protein binding of sodium (±-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl benzoate (BZP, an innovative potent anti-ischemic stroke agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian


    Full Text Available Sodium (±-5-bromo-2-(α-hydroxypentyl benzoate (BZP is a potential cardiovascular drug and exerts potent neuroprotective effect against transient and long-term ischemic stroke in rats. BZP could convert into 3-butyl-6-bromo-1(3H-isobenzofuranone (Br-NBP in vitro and in vivo. However, the pharmacokinetic profiles of BZP and Br-NBP still have not been evaluated. For the purpose of investigating the pharmacokinetic profiles, tissue distribution and plasma protein binding of BZP and Br-NBP, a rapid, sensitive and specific method based on liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS has been developed for determination of BZP and Br-NBP in biological samples. The results indicated that BZP and Br-NBP showed a short elimination half-life, and pharmacokinetic profile in rats (3, 6 and 12 mg/kg; i.v. and beagle dogs (1, 2 and 4 mg/kg; i.v.gtt were obtained after single dosing of BZP. After multiple dosing of BZP, there was no significant accumulation of BZP and Br-NBP in the plasma of rats and beagle dogs. Following i.v. single dose (6 mg/kg to rats, BZP and Br-NBP were distributed rapidly into all tissues examined, with the highest concentrations of BZP and Br-NBP in lung and kidney, respectively. The brain distribution of Br-NBP in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO rats was more than in normal rats (P<0.05. The plasma protein binding degree of BZP at three concentrations (8000, 20000 and 80000 ng/mL from rat, beagle dog and human plasma were 98.1~98.7%, 88.9~92.7% and 74.8%~83.7% respectively. In conclusion, both BZP and Br-NBP showed short half-life, good dose-linear pharmacokinetic profile, wide tissue distribution and different degree protein binding to various species plasma. This was the first preclinical pharmacokinetic investigation of BZP and Br-NBP in both rats and beagle dogs, which provided vital guidance for further preclinical research and the subsequent clinical trials.

  20. Hot plasma dielectric tensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.


    The hot plasma dielectric tensor is discussed in its various approximations. Collisionless cyclotron resonant damping and ion/electron Bernstein waves are discussed to exemplify the significance of a kinetic description of plasma waves.

  1. Special issue: Plasma Conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nozaki, T.; Bogaerts, A.; Tu, X.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.


    With growing concern of energy and environmental issues, the combination of plasma and heterogeneous catalysts receives special attention in greenhouse gas conversion, nitrogen fixation and hydrocarbon chemistry. Plasma gas conversion driven by renewable electricity is particularly important for the

  2. Microwave Argon Plasma Torch (United States)


    an electron-ion pair in the discharge. Fig. 2. EEDF is non - Maxwellian and changes along the plasma column The electron–neutral collision...plasma radius. Even at atmospheric pressure the EEDF is non - Maxwellian and it is changing along the plasma column. ...18 31st ICPIG, July 14-19, 2013, Granada, Spain EEDF usually strongly differs from Maxwellian and chages along the plasma column (this is

  3. Introduction to Plasma Physics (United States)

    Gurnett, Donald A.; Bhattacharjee, Amitava


    Preface; 1. Introduction; 2. Characteristic parameters of a plasma; 3. Single particle motions; 4. Waves in a cold plasma; 5. Kinetic theory and the moment equations; 6. Magnetohydrodynamics; 7. MHD equilibria and stability; 8. Discontinuities and shock waves; 9. Electrostatic waves in a hot unmagnetized plasma; 10. Waves in a hot magnetized plasma; 11. Nonlinear effects; 12. Collisional processes; Appendix A. Symbols; Appendix B. Useful trigonometric identities; Appendix C. Vector differential operators; Appendix D. Vector calculus identities; Index.

  4. Plasma physics an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Fitzpatrick, Richard


    Plasma Physics: An Introduction is based on a series of university course lectures by a leading name in the field, and thoroughly covers the physics of the fourth state of matter. This book looks at non-relativistic, fully ionized, nondegenerate, quasi-neutral, and weakly coupled plasma. Intended for the student market, the text provides a concise and cohesive introduction to plasma physics theory, and offers a solid foundation for students wishing to take higher level courses in plasma physics.

  5. Disposition of isoflupredone acetate in plasma, urine and synovial fluid following intra-articular administration to exercised Thoroughbred horses. (United States)

    Knych, Heather K; Harrison, Linda M; White, Alexandria; McKemie, Daniel S


    The use of isoflupredone acetate in performance horses and the scarcity of published pharmacokinetic data necessitate further study. The objective of the current study was to describe the plasma pharmacokinetics of isoflupredone acetate as well as time-related urine and synovial fluid concentrations following intra-articular administration to horses. Twelve racing-fit adult Thoroughbred horses received a single intra-articular administration (8 mg) of isoflupredone acetate into the right antebrachiocarpal joint. Blood, urine and synovial fluid samples were collected prior to and at various times up to 28 days post drug administration. All samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. Plasma data were analyzed using a population pharmacokinetic compartmental model. Maximum measured plasma isoflupredone concentrations were 1.76 ± 0.526 ng/mL at 4.0 ± 1.31 h and 1.63 ± 0.243 ng/mL at 4.75 ± 0.5 h, respectively, for horses that had synovial fluid collected and for those that did not. The plasma beta half-life was 24.2 h. Isoflupredone concentrations were below the limit of detection in all horses by 48 h and 7 days in plasma and urine, respectively. Isoflupredone was detected in the right antebrachiocarpal and middle carpal joints for 8.38 ± 5.21 and 2.38 ± 0.52 days, respectively. Results of this study provide information that can be used to regulate the use of intra-articular isoflupredone in the horse.

  6. Fenofibrate increases very low density lipoprotein triglyceride production despite reducing plasma triglyceride levels in APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice. (United States)

    Bijland, Silvia; Pieterman, Elsbet J; Maas, Annemarie C E; van der Hoorn, José W A; van Erk, Marjan J; van Klinken, Jan B; Havekes, Louis M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Princen, Hans M G; Rensen, Patrick C N


    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) activator fenofibrate efficiently decreases plasma triglycerides (TG), which is generally attributed to enhanced very low density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG clearance and decreased VLDL-TG production. However, because data on the effect of fenofibrate on VLDL production are controversial, we aimed to investigate in (more) detail the mechanism underlying the TG-lowering effect by studying VLDL-TG production and clearance using APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a unique mouse model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism. Male mice were fed a Western-type diet for 4 weeks, followed by the same diet without or with fenofibrate (30 mg/kg bodyweight/day) for 4 weeks. Fenofibrate strongly lowered plasma cholesterol (-38%) and TG (-60%) caused by reduction of VLDL. Fenofibrate markedly accelerated VLDL-TG clearance, as judged from a reduced plasma half-life of glycerol tri[(3)H]oleate-labeled VLDL-like emulsion particles (-68%). This was associated with an increased post-heparin lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity (+110%) and an increased uptake of VLDL-derived fatty acids by skeletal muscle, white adipose tissue, and liver. Concomitantly, fenofibrate markedly increased the VLDL-TG production rate (+73%) but not the VLDL-apolipoprotein B (apoB) production rate. Kinetic studies using [(3)H]palmitic acid showed that fenofibrate increased VLDL-TG production by equally increasing incorporation of re-esterified plasma fatty acids and liver TG into VLDL, which was supported by hepatic gene expression profiling data. We conclude that fenofibrate decreases plasma TG by enhancing LPL-mediated VLDL-TG clearance, which results in a compensatory increase in VLDL-TG production by the liver.

  7. Plasma membrane ATPases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael Broberg; Bækgaard, Lone; Lopez Marques, Rosa Laura


    The plasma membrane separates the cellular contents from the surrounding environment. Nutrients must enter through the plasma membrane in order to reach the cell interior, and toxic metabolites and several ions leave the cell by traveling across the same barrier. Biological pumps in the plasma me...

  8. Plasma in dentistry


    Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok


    This review describes the contemporary aspects of plasma application in dentistry. Previous studies on plasma applications were classified into two categories, surface treatment and direct applications, and were reviewed, respectively according to the approach. The current review discussed modification of dental implant surface, enhancing of adhesive qualities, enhancing of polymerization, surface coating and plasma cleaning under the topics of surface treatment. Microbicidal activities, deco...

  9. The Plasma Universe (United States)

    Suplee, Curt


    Preface; 1. The fourth state of matter; 2. The music and dance of plasmas; 3. The Sun-Earth connection; 4. Bringing the Sun to Earth: the story of controlled thermonuclear fusion; 5. The cosmic plasma theater: galaxies, stars, and accretion disks; 6. Putting plasmas to work; Index.

  10. Crystal structure of tri-aqua-(1,10-phen-anthroline-κ(2) N,N')(2,4,5-tri-fluoro-3-meth-oxy-benzoato-κO (1))cobalt(II) 2,4,5-tri-fluoro-3-meth-oxy-benzoate. (United States)

    Sun, Junshan


    The title salt, [Co(C8H4F3O3)(C12H8N2)(H2O)3](C8H4F3O3), was obtained under solvothermal conditions by the reaction of 2,4,5-tri-fluoro-3-meth-oxy-benzoic acid with CoCl2 in the presence of 1,10-phenanthroline (phen). The Co(II) ion is octa-hedrally coordinated by two N atoms [Co-N = 2.165 (2) and 2.129 (2) Å] from the phen ligand, by one carboxyl-ate O atom [Co-O = 2.107 (1) Å] and by three O atoms from water mol-ecules [Co-O = 2.093 (1), 2.102 (1) and 2.114 (1) Å]. The equatorial positions of the slightly distorted octa-hedron are occupied by the N atoms, the carboxyl-ate O and one water O atom. An intra- and inter-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen-bonding network between the water-containing complex cation and the organic anion leads to the formation of ribbons parallel to [010].

  11. Crystal structure of (4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)[(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)phospho-nato]dioxidophosphate(1-) 2-amino-6-benzyl-3-eth-oxy-carbon-yl-4,5,6,7-tetra-hydro-thieno[2,3-c]pyridin-6-ium. (United States)

    Mague, Joel T; Mohamed, Shaaban K; Akkurt, Mehmet; Younes, Sabry H H; Ahmed, Essam K; Albayati, Mustafa R


    The asymmetric unit of the title mol-ecular salt, C17H21N2O2S(+)·C14H15O7P2 (-), comprises two cations and two anions. Each cation features an intra-molecular N-H⋯O hydrogen bond, which closes an S(6) ring; in each case the hydro-pyridine ring adopts a half-chair conformation. In the anions, the dihedral angles between the aromatic rings are 64.1 (2) and 54.9 (2)°. In each case, the diphosphate groups are close to eclipsed [C-P⋯P-C pseudo-torsion angles = 11.6 (2) and -19.3 (2)°]. One of the meth-oxy groups in each anion is disordered over two orientations in a 0.539 (18):0.461 (18) ratio in one anion and 0.82 (2):0.18 (2) in the other. In the crystal, O-H⋯O and N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components into [100] chains. Numerous C-H⋯O inter-actions cross-link the chains into a three-dimensional network.

  12. Effects of C-terminal truncations on trafficking of the yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase. (United States)

    Mason, A Brett; Allen, Kenneth E; Slayman, Carolyn W


    Within the large family of P-type cation-transporting ATPases, members differ in the number of C-terminal transmembrane helices, ranging from two in Cu2+-ATPases to six in H+-, Na+,K+-, Mg2+-, and Ca2+-ATPases. In this study, yeast Pma1 H+-ATPase has served as a model to examine the role of the C-terminal membrane domain in ATPase stability and targeting to the plasma membrane. Successive truncations were constructed from the middle of the major cytoplasmic loop to the middle of the extended cytoplasmic tail, adding back the C-terminal membrane-spanning helices one at a time. When the resulting constructs were expressed transiently in yeast, there was a steady increase in half-life from 70 min in Pma1 delta452 to 348 min in Pma1 delta901, but even the longest construct was considerably less stable than wild-type ATPase (t(1/2) = 11 h). Confocal immunofluorescence microscopy showed that 11 of 12 constructs were arrested in the endoplasmic reticulum and degraded in the proteasome. The only truncated ATPase that escaped the ER, Pma1 delta901, traveled slowly to the plasma membrane, where it hydrolyzed ATP and supported growth. Limited trypsinolysis showed Pma1 delta901 to be misfolded, however, resulting in premature delivery to the vacuole for degradation. As model substrates, this series of truncations affirms the importance of the entire C-terminal domain to yeast H+-ATPase biogenesis and defines a sequence element of 20 amino acids in the carboxyl tail that is critical to ER escape and trafficking to the plasma membrane.

  13. Crystal structure of 3-(3,4,5-tri-meth-oxy-phen-yl)-1,2,3,4-tetra-hydro-cyclo-penta[b]indole-2-carb-oxy-lic acid. (United States)

    Fernandes, Daniara; Simoni, Deborah de Alencar; Rodrigues, Manoel T; Santos, Marilia S; Coelho, Fernando


    In the title compound, C21H21NO5, obtained from a Morita-Baylis-Hillman adduct, the hydrogenated five-membered ring adopts a shallow envelope conformation, with the C atom bearing the carb-oxy-lic acid substituent deviating by 0.237 (1) Å from the mean plane of the other four atoms (r.m.s. deviation = 0.007 Å). The dihedral angle between the fused ring system (all atoms; r.m.s. deviation = 0.057 Å) and the pendant trimeth-oxy benzene ring is 66.65 (3)°. The C atoms of the meta-meth-oxy groups lie close to the plane of the benzene ring [deviations = 0.052 (1) and -0.083 (1) Å], whereas the C atom of the para-meth-oxy group is significantly displaced [deviation = -1.289 (1) Å]. In the crystal, carb-oxy-lic acid inversion dimers generate R 2 (2)(8) loops. The dimers are connected by N-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming [011] chains. A C-H⋯O inter-action is also observed.

  14. Cyclotron waves in plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Lominadze, D G


    Cyclotron Waves in Plasma is a four-chapter text that covers the basic physical concepts of the theory of cyclotron waves and cyclotron instabilities, brought about by the existence of steady or alternating plasma currents flowing perpendicular to the magnetic field.This book considers first a wide range of questions associated with the linear theory of cyclotron oscillations in equilibrium plasmas and in electron plasmas in metals and semiconductors. The next chapter deals with the parametric excitation of electron cyclotron oscillations in plasma in an alternating electric field. A chapter f

  15. Biocompatible KMnF3 nanoparticular contrast agent with proper plasma retention time for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-jun; Song, Xiao-xia; Xu, Xian-zhu; Tang, Qun


    Nanoparticular MRI contrast agents are rapidly becoming suitable for use in clinical diagnosis. An ideal nanoparticular contrast agent should be endowed with high relaxivity, biocompatibility, proper plasma retention time, and tissue-specific or tumor-targeting imaging. Herein we introduce PEGylated KMnF3 nanoparticles as a new type of T1 contrast agent. Studies showed that the nanoparticular contrast agent revealed high bio-stability with bovine serum albumin in PBS buffer solution, and presented excellent biocompatibility (low cytotoxicity, undetectable hemolysis and hemagglutination). Meanwhile the new contrast agent possessed proper plasma retention time (circulation half-life t1/2 is approximately 2 h) in the body of the administrated mice. It can be delivered into brain vessels and maintained there for hours, and is mostly cleared from the body within 48 h, as demonstrated by time-resolved MRI and Mn-biodistribution analysis. Those distinguishing features make it suitable to obtain contrast-enhanced brain magnetic resonance angiography. Moreover, through the process of passive targeting delivery, the T1 contrast agent clearly illuminates a brain tumor (glioma) with high contrast image and defined shape. This study demonstrates that PEGylated KMnF3 nanoparticles represent a promising biocompatible vascular contrast agent for magnetic resonance angiography and can potentially be further developed into an active targeted tumor MRI contrast agent.

  16. Diagnosing the high density FRX-L Field Reversed Configuration plasma (United States)

    Wurden, G. A.; Intrator, T. P.; Renneke, R. M.; Dorf, L. A.; Farrell, M. W.; Gray, T. K.; Hsu, S. C.; Lynn, A. G.; Ruden, E. L.


    The FRX-L plasma is a high pressure, high density, field reversed configuration (FRC), at n ˜1x10^16-1x10^17 cm-3, and hundreds of eV electron temperature. In order to study formation, equilibrium, transport, flow, and confinement issues, we have a suite of diagnostics. Standard plasma diagnostics include B-dot probes, magnetic flux loops, single and multi-channel visible spectroscopy, optical light tomography arrays, up to 8 filtered visible fibers (546 nm or 486 nm) and an 8-chord side-on HeNe interferometer. Recent diagnostic additions include AXUV bolometers, VUV spectroscopy using a methly salicylate fluorescer converter and optical multichannel analyzer (OMA), eight simultaneous axial views of visible spectra with a 0.3 meter spectrometer and Princeton Instruments PI-Max camera, two-foil end-on surface barrier diode soft x-ray measurements, a hard x-ray/neutron plastic scintillator/ PMT, and indium activation foils to detect time-integrated absolute DD neutron emission. We also discuss plans for a soft x-ray framing camera, using end-on optical access and consisting of a pinhole/fluorescer geometry coupled to a high resolution DiCam camera.

  17. Plasma Therapy: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Diwan


    Full Text Available Definition: Plasma, the fourth state of matter, is a collection of charged particles (electrons, ions, neutral atoms. Recent demonstration of plasma technology in treatment of living cells, tissue and organs are creating a new field at the intersection of plasma science and technology with biology and medicine known as plasma medicine. Plasma medicine is one of the newest fields of modem applied plasma chemistry. It appeared several years ago and comprises studies concerning the direct action of low-temperature, one atmosphere air plasma (cold plasma/nonthermal plasmalnonequilibrium on body tissues for various noninvasive therapeutic treatments or diagnostics purpose. The study of plasma holds promise for a myriad of applications ranging from lasers and electronics, hazardous decontamination, sterilization and disinfection of foods, soil, water, instruments, to medical uses in wound healing and treating certain types of tumors and cancers. Plasma represents a new state-of-the-art sterilization and disinfection treatment for certain oral and environmental pathogens, heat-sensitive materials, hard and soft surfaces, and may assist health care facilities in the management of various health concerns. The role that low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma (LTAPP could play in the inactivation of pathogenic microorganisms might prove to be a new, faster, more economical alternative.

  18. Determination of Menthol in Plasma and Urine by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). (United States)

    Peat, Judy; Frazee, Clint; Kearns, Gregory; Garg, Uttam


    Menthol, a monoterpene, is a principal component of peppermint oil and is used extensively in consumer products as a flavoring aid. It is also commonly used medicinally as a topical skin coolant; to treat inflammation of the mucous membranes, digestive problems, and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); and in preventing spasms during endoscopy and for its spasmolytic effect on the smooth muscle of the gastrointestinal tract. Menthol has a half life of 3-6 h and is rapidly metabolized to menthol glucuronide which is detectable in urine and serum following menthol use. We describe a method for the determination of total menthol in human plasma and urine using liquid/liquid extraction, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in selected ion monitoring mode and menthol-d4 as the internal standard. Controls are prepared with menthol glucuronide and all samples undergo enzymatic hydrolysis for the quantification of total menthol. The method has a linear range of 5-1000 ng/mL, and coefficient of variation <10%.

  19. Arc Plasma Torch Modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Trelles, J P; Vardelle, A; Heberlein, J V R


    Arc plasma torches are the primary components of various industrial thermal plasma processes involving plasma spraying, metal cutting and welding, thermal plasma CVD, metal melting and remelting, waste treatment and gas production. They are relatively simple devices whose operation implies intricate thermal, chemical, electrical, and fluid dynamics phenomena. Modeling may be used as a means to better understand the physical processes involved in their operation. This paper presents an overview of the main aspects involved in the modeling of DC arc plasma torches: the mathematical models including thermodynamic and chemical non-equilibrium models, turbulent and radiative transport, thermodynamic and transport property calculation, boundary conditions and arc reattachment models. It focuses on the conventional plasma torches used for plasma spraying that include a hot-cathode and a nozzle anode.

  20. Laminar Plasma Dynamos

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Z; Barnes, C W; Barnes, D C; Wang, Zhehui; Pariev, Vladimir I.; Barnes, Cris W.; Barnes, Daniel C.


    A new kind of dynamo utilizing flowing laboratory plasmas has been identified. Conversion of plasma kinetic energy to magnetic energy is verified numerically by kinematic dynamo simulations for magnetic Reynolds numbers above 210. As opposed to intrinsically-turbulent liquid-sodium dynamos, the proposed plasma dynamos correspond to laminar flow topology. Modest plasma parameters, 1-20 eV temperatures, 10^{19}-10^{20} m^{-3} densities in 0.3-1.0 m scale-lengths driven by velocities on the order of the Alfven Critical Ionization Velocity (CIV), self-consistently satisfy the conditions needed for the magnetic field amplication. Growth rates for the plasma dynamos are obtained numerically with different geometry and magnetic Reynolds numbers. Magnetic-field-free coaxial plasma guns can be used to sustain the plasma flow and the dynamo.

  1. Plasma polymerization by Softplasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, J.; Wu, Zhenning; Benter, Maike


    In the late 19th century, the first depositions - known today as plasma polymers, were reported. In the last century, more and more research has been put into plasma polymers. Many different deposition systems have been developed. [1, 2] Shi F. F. broadly classified them into internal electrode......, external electrode, and electrodeless microwave or high frequency reactors. [3] Softplasma™ is an internal electrode plasma setup powered by low frequenc~ gower supply. It was developed in late 90s for surface treatment of silicone rubber. [ ]- 5] It is a low pressure, low electron density, 3D homogenous...... plasma. In this study, we are presenting the surface modification"pf polymers by plasma polymerization using Softplasma™. Softplasma™ can be used for two major types of polymerization: polymerization of vinyl monomers, where plasma acts as initiator; chemical vapour deposition, where plasma acts...

  2. Plasmas for medicine (United States)

    von Woedtke, Th.; Reuter, S.; Masur, K.; Weltmann, K.-D.


    Plasma medicine is an innovative and emerging field combining plasma physics, life science and clinical medicine. In a more general perspective, medical application of physical plasma can be subdivided into two principal approaches. (i) “Indirect” use of plasma-based or plasma-supplemented techniques to treat surfaces, materials or devices to realize specific qualities for subsequent special medical applications, and (ii) application of physical plasma on or in the human (or animal) body to realize therapeutic effects based on direct interaction of plasma with living tissue. The field of plasma applications for the treatment of medical materials or devices is intensively researched and partially well established for several years. However, plasma medicine in the sense of its actual definition as a new field of research focuses on the use of plasma technology in the treatment of living cells, tissues, and organs. Therefore, the aim of the new research field of plasma medicine is the exploitation of a much more differentiated interaction of specific plasma components with specific structural as well as functional elements or functionalities of living cells. This interaction can possibly lead either to stimulation or inhibition of cellular function and be finally used for therapeutic purposes. During recent years a broad spectrum of different plasma sources with various names dedicated for biomedical applications has been reported. So far, research activities were mainly focused on barrier discharges and plasma jets working at atmospheric pressure. Most efforts to realize plasma application directly on or in the human (or animal) body for medical purposes is concentrated on the broad field of dermatology including wound healing, but also includes cancer treatment, endoscopy, or dentistry. Despite the fact that the field of plasma medicine is very young and until now mostly in an empirical stage of development yet, there are first indicators of its enormous

  3. Nonlinear Plasma Wave in Magnetized Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bulanov, Sergei V; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K; Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G; Kodama, Ryosuke


    Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic "Four-Ray Star" pattern which has been observed in the image of the electron bunch in experiments [T. Hosokai, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 075004 (2006)].

  4. Crystal structures of (±)-(1SR,5SR,6SR,7SR,10SR,11SR,13RS,14SR)-13-hy-droxy-7-meth-oxy-meth-oxy-11,15,18,18-tetra-methyl-3-oxo-2,4-dioxa-tetra-cyclo-[,5).0(6,11)]octa-dec-15-en-10-yl benzoate, its 13-epimer and 13-one derivative. (United States)

    Oishi, Takeshi; Fukaya, Keisuke; Yamaguchi, Yu; Sugai, Tomoya; Watanabe, Ami; Sato, Takaaki; Chida, Noritaka


    The title compounds, C29H38O8·0.25C5H12, (A), C29H38O8, (B), and C29H36O8, (C), are tetra-cyclic benzoates possessing a taxane skeleton with a fused dioxolane ring as the core structure. In the asymmetric unit of (A), there are two independent benzoate mol-ecules (A and A') and a half mol-ecule of solvent pentane disordered about an inversion center. The mol-ecular conformations of (A), (B) and (C) are similar except for the flexible meth-oxy-meth-oxy group. The cyclo-hexane, cyclo-hexene and central cyclo-octane rings adopt chair, half-chair and chair-chair (extended crown) forms, respectively. The dioxolane rings are essentially planar, while the dioxolane ring of A' is slightly twisted from the mean plane. In the crystal of (A), inter-molecular O-H⋯O, C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions link the independent benzoates alternately, forming a chain structure. In the crystals of (B) and (C), mol-ecules are linked through O-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions, and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, respectively, into similar chains. Further, weak inter-molecular C-H⋯O inter-actions connect the chains into a three-dimensional network in (A) and a sheet in (B), whereas no other interactions are observed for (C).

  5. First report on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol and O-desmethyltramadol in exhaled breath compared to plasma and oral fluid after a single oral dose. (United States)

    Meyer, Markus R; Rosenborg, Staffan; Stenberg, Marta; Beck, Olof


    Exhaled breath (EB) is a promising matrix for bioanalysis of non-volatiles and has been routinely implemented for drugs of abuse analysis. Nothing is known regarding the pharmacokinetics of therapeutics and their metabolites in EB. Therefore, we used tramadol as a model drug. Twelve volunteers received a single oral dose of tramadol and repeated sampling of EB, plasma, and oral fluid (OF) was done for 48 h using a particle filter device for EB and the Quantisal-device for OF. Samples were analyzed with LC-MS/MS and the pharmacokinetic correlations between matrices were investigated. The initial tramadol half-life in EB was shorter than in plasma but it reappeared in EB after 8-24 h. The ratio of O-desmethyltramadol to tramadol was considerably lower in EB and OF compared to plasma. This pilot study compared for the first time the pharmacokinetics of a therapeutic drug and active metabolite in different biomatrices including EB and demonstrated its potential for bioanalysis.

  6. Development and full validation of an UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of the plant-derived alkaloid indirubin in rat plasma. (United States)

    Jähne, Evelyn A; Sampath, Chethan; Butterweck, Veronika; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin


    An UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantification of indirubin in lithium heparinized rat plasma was developed and validated according to current international guidelines. Indirubin was extracted from rat plasma by using Waters Ostro™ pass-through sample preparation plates. The method was validated with a LLOQ of 5.00ng/mL and an ULOQ of 500ng/mL. The calibration curve was fitted by least-square quadratic regression, and a weighting factor of 1/X was applied. Recoveries of indirubin and I.S. were consistent and ≥75.5%. Stability studies demonstrated that indirubin was stable in lithium heparinized rat plasma for at least 3 freeze/thaw cycles, for 3h at RT, for 96h in the autosampler at 10°C, and for 84days when stored below -65°C. Preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) data were obtained from Sprague Dawley rats after intravenous administration of indirubin (2mg/kg b.w.) and blood sampling up to 12h after injection. PK parameters were determined by non-compartmental analysis. Indirubin had a half-life (t1/2) of 35min, and a relatively high clearance (CL) of 2.71L/h/kg.

  7. Determination of MKT-077, a novel antineoplastic agent, in plasma samples by high-performance liquid chromatography and its application to pharmacokinetics in rats. (United States)

    Tatsuta, N; Suzuki, N; Koya, K; Kawakami, M; Shishido, T; Chen, L B


    A simple high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for determination of a novel antineoplastic agent MKT-077 in plasma. MKT-077 was extracted from 50 microl of plasma with acetonitrile containing 1 ml trifluoroacetic acid per liter. Chromatographic separation was achieved within 13.5 min using a reverse-phase Puresil C18 analytical column. A visible detector operated at 490 nm was used. The linearity of the calibration curve was obtained (r2 = 0.99986) over the analytical range of 10-500 ng/ml(-1). The intra- and inter-assay precision was in the range of 0.9-11.1 and 0.3-4.4%, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay bias ranged from -7.3 to 11.1% and from 0.4 to 11.6%, respectively. The utility of this assay was demonstrated after the administration of a single dose of MKT-077 to rats. The plasma elimination half-life of MKT-077 was 1.8-4 h.

  8. Plasma Biomedicine in Orthopedics (United States)

    Hamaguchi, Satsohi


    Various effects of plasmas irradiation on cells, tissues, and biomaterials relevant for orthopedic applications have been examined. For direct application of plasmas to living cells or tissues, dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) with helium flows into ambient air were used. For biomaterial processing, on the other hand, either helium DBDs mentioned above or low-pressure discharges generated in a chamber were used. In this presentation, plasma effects on cell proliferation and plasma treatment for artificial bones will be discussed. First, the conditions for enhanced cell proliferation in vitro by plasma applications have been examined. The discharge conditions for cell proliferation depend sensitively on cell types. Since cell proliferation can be enhanced even when the cells are cultured in a plasma pre-treated medium, long-life reactive species generated in the medium by plasma application or large molecules (such as proteins) in the medium modified by the plasma are likely to be the cause of cell proliferation. It has been found that there is strong correlation between (organic) hydroperoxide generation and cell proliferation. Second, effects of plasma-treated artificial bones made of porous hydroxyapatite (HA) have been examined in vitro and vivo. It has been found that plasma treatment increases hydrophilicity of the surfaces of microscopic inner pores, which directly or indirectly promotes differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells introduced into the pores and therefore causes faster bone growth. The work has been performed in collaboration with Prof. H. Yoshikawa and his group members at the School of Medicine, Osaka University.

  9. Plasma detachment in linear devices (United States)

    Ohno, N.


    Plasma detachment research in linear devices, sometimes called divertor plasma simulators, is reviewed. Pioneering works exploring the concept of plasma detachment were conducted in linear devices. Linear devices have contributed greatly to the basic understanding of plasma detachment such as volume plasma recombination processes, detached plasma structure associated with particle and energy transport, and other related issues including enhancement of convective plasma transport, dynamic response of plasma detachment, plasma flow reversal, and magnetic field effect. The importance of plasma detachment research using linear devices will be highlighted aimed at the design of future DEMO.

  10. Advanced plasma diagnostics for plasma processing (United States)

    Malyshev, Mikhail Victorovich


    A new, non-intrusive, non-perturbing diagnostic method was developed that can be broadly applied to low pressure, weakly ionized plasmas and glow discharges-trace rare gases optical emission spectroscopy (TRG-OES). The method is based on a comparison of intensities of atomic emission from trace amounts of inert gases (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, and Xe) that are added to the discharge to intensities calculated from the theoretical model. The model assumes a Maxwellian electron energy distribution function (EEDF), computes the population of emitting levels both from the ground state and the metastable states of rare gases, and from the best fit between theory and experiment determines electron temperature (Te). Subject to conditions, TRG-OES can also yield electron density or its upper or lower limit. From the comparison of the emission from levels excited predominantly by high energy electrons to that excited by low energy electrons, information about the EEDF can be obtained. The use of TRG-OES also allows a traditionally qualitative actinometry technique (determination of concentration of radical species in plasma through optical emission) to become a precise quantitative method by including Te and rare gases metastables effects. A combination of TRG-OES, advanced actinometry, and Langmuir probe measurements was applied to several different plasma reactors and regimes of operation. Te measurements and experiments to correct excitation cross section were conducted in a laboratory helical resonator. Two chamber configuration of a commercial (Lam Research) metal etcher were studied to determine the effects of plasma parameters on plasma-induced damage. Two different methods (RF inductive coupling and ultra-high frequency coupling) for generating a plasma in a prototype reactor were also studied. Pulsed plasmas, a potential candidate to eliminate the plasma-induced damage to microelectronics devices that occurs in manufacturing due to differential charging of the wafer, have

  11. Plasma nitrate clearance in mice: modeling of the systemic production of nitrate following the induction of nitric oxide synthesis. (United States)

    Veszelovsky, E; Holford, N H; Thomsen, L L; Knowles, R G; Baguley, B C


    Nitric oxide (NO) is produced in mammals by the enzyme NO synthase (NOS) in response to a number of agents, including the experimental antitumour agent flavone acetic acid (FAA) and the cytokine tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF). NO is converted rapidly in the presence of oxygen, water and haemoglobin to oxidation products, largely nitrate. To quantitate the production of nitric oxide it is necessary to know the clearance of nitrate. The concentration of nitrite and nitrate ion in the plasma of C3H and BDF1 (C57BL6 x DBA2) mice was assessed before and after injection of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. Nitrite was covered rapidly to nitrate and the kinetics of elimination of nitrate were determined. There was no significant difference between results obtained with different mouse strains, between levels of nitrite and nitrate, or between i.p. and i.v. administration, and the observations were therefore combined. The volume of distribution of nitrate was 0.71 +/- 0.04 l/kg and the clearance was 0.32 +/- 0.02 l/h-1/kg-1 (plasma half-life, 1.54 h). Using previously published data, we developed a pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model that relates the production of TNF in response to administration of FAA, the enhancement of NOS activity in response to TNF, and the elevation of plasma nitrate in response to NO production. This information permits the prediction from observed plasma nitrate values of the amount of NOS induced in vivo.

  12. Pulsed plasma arc cladding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙; 白钢; 李振民; 张赋升; 杨思乾


    A prototype of Pulsed Plasma Arc Cladding system was developed, in which single power source supplies both transferred plasma arc (TPA) and non-transferred plasma arc (N-TPA). Both plasmas work in turn in a high frequency controlled by an IGBT connecting nozzle and workpiece. The working frequency of IGBT ranges from 50 ~ 7000Hz, in which the plasmas can work in turn smoothly. Higher than 500 Hz of working frequency is suggested for promotion of cladding quality and protection of IGBT. Drag phenomenon of TPA intensifies as the frequency goes up, which tends to increase the current proportion of TPA and suppress N-TPA. The occupation ratio of IGBT can be regulated from 5% ~ 95%, which balances the power supplies of both plasmas. An occupation ratio higher than 50% gives adequate proportion of arc current for N-TPA to preheat powder.

  13. Introduction to Complex Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Bonitz, Michael; Ludwig, Patrick


    Complex plasmas differ from traditional plasmas in many ways: these are low-temperature high pressure systems containing nanometer to micrometer size particles which may be highly charged and strongly interacting. The particles may be chemically reacting or be in contact with solid surfaces, and the electrons may show quantum behaviour. These interesting properties have led to many applications of complex plasmas in technology, medicine and science. Yet complex plasmas are extremely complicated, both experimentally and theoretically, and require a variety of new approaches which go beyond standard plasma physics courses. This book fills this gap presenting an introduction to theory, experiment and computer simulation in this field. Based on tutorial lectures at a very successful recent Summer Institute, the presentation is ideally suited for graduate students, plasma physicists and experienced undergraduates.

  14. Ultracold Neutral Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Killian, T C; Gupta, P; Laha, S; Martinez, Y N; Mickelson, P G; Nagel, S B; Saenz, A D; Simien, C E; Killian, Thomas C.


    Ultracold neutral plasmas are formed by photoionizing laser-cooled atoms near the ionization threshold. Through the application of atomic physics techniques and diagnostics, these experiments stretch the boundaries of traditional neutral plasma physics. The electron temperature in these plasmas ranges from 1-1000 K and the ion temperature is around 1 K. The density can approach $10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$. Fundamental interest stems from the possibility of creating strongly-coupled plasmas, but recombination, collective modes, and thermalization in these systems have also been studied. Optical absorption images of a strontium plasma, using the Sr$^+$ ${^2S_{1/2}} -> {^2P_{1/2}}$ transition at 422 nm, depict the density profile of the plasma, and probe kinetics on a 50 ns time-scale. The Doppler-broadened ion absorption spectrum measures the ion velocity distribution, which gives an accurate measure of the ion dynamics in the first microsecond after photoionization.

  15. What is a plasma?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Intrator, Thomas P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    This introduction will define the plasma fourth state of matter, where we find plasmas on earth and beyond, and why they are useful. There are applications to many consumer items, fusion energy, scientific devices, satellite communications, semiconductor processing, spacecraft propulsion, and more. Since 99% of our observable universe is ionized gas, plasma physics determines many important features of astrophysics, space physics, and magnetosphere physics in our solar system. We describe some plasma characteristics, examples in nature, some useful applications, how to create plasmas. A brief introduction to the theoretical framework includes the connection between kinetic and fluid descriptions, quasi neutrality, Debye shielding, ambipolar electric fields, some plasma waves. Hands-on demonstrations follow. More complete explanations will follow next week.

  16. Pulsed plasma electron sourcesa) (United States)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Yarmolich, D.; Gleizer, J. Z.; Vekselman, V.; Hadas, Y.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Felsteiner, J.


    There is a continuous interest in research of electron sources which can be used for generation of uniform electron beams produced at E ≤105 V/cm and duration ≤10-5 s. In this review, several types of plasma electron sources will be considered, namely, passive (metal ceramic, velvet and carbon fiber with and without CsI coating, and multicapillary and multislot cathodes) and active (ferroelectric and hollow anodes) plasma sources. The operation of passive sources is governed by the formation of flashover plasma whose parameters depend on the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating electric field. In the case of ferroelectric and hollow-anode plasma sources the plasma parameters are controlled by the driving pulse and discharge current, respectively. Using different time- and space-resolved electrical, optical, spectroscopical, Thomson scattering and x-ray diagnostics, the parameters of the plasma and generated electron beam were characterized.

  17. Quantification of piroxicam and 5'-hydroxypiroxicam in human plasma and saliva using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry following oral administration. (United States)

    Calvo, Adriana Maria; Santos, Gabriel Mulinari; Dionísio, Thiago José; Marques, Maria Paula; Brozoski, Daniel Thomas; Lanchote, Vera Lúcia; Fernandes, Maria Helena Raposo; Faria, Flávio Augusto Cardoso; Santos, Carlos Ferreira


    Saliva sampling used to quantify piroxicam and 5'-hydroxypiroxicam is a noninvasive and painless method when compared to sequential blood sampling. For that, a rapid, selective and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for simultaneous determination of piroxicam and 5'-hydroxypiroxicam in saliva and human plasma was developed and validated. Piroxicam and its major metabolite were separated using a LiChroCART 125-4 RP Select-B Sorbent C18 column using a mixture of methanol and 2% phosphoric acid (pH 2.7) (70:30, v/v) for the mobile phase with a flow injection of 1mL/min. The run time was 4min. Volunteers had saliva and blood sampled before, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 24, 48 and 72h after taking a 20mg oral dose of piroxicam. The pharmacokinetic parameters of piroxicam in plasma samples were as follows: AUC0-72 (64819hng/mL), predicted clearance (0.2L/h), distribution volume (14.8L), elimination half-life (50.7h) and saliva/plasma concentration ratio (0.003). The estimation of all pharmacokinetic parameters for 5'-hydroxypiroxicam would require collections beyond 72h; however, it was possible to quantify the mean maximum concentration (133ng/mL), time to peak concentration (53.6h), mean AUC0-72 (6213hng/mL), predicted clearance (110.3L/h) and saliva/plasma concentration ratio (0.04). The developed methods proved effective and sensitive for determining the lower quantification limit of piroxicam in plasma (6.1ng/mL) and saliva (0.15ng/mL) and of 5'-hydroxypiroxicam in plasma (1.2ng/mL) and saliva (0.15ng/mL).

  18. Space plasma physics research (United States)

    Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.


    During the course of this grant, work was performed on a variety of topics and there were a number of significant accomplishments. A summary of these accomplishments is included. The topics studied include empirical model data base, data reduction for archiving, semikinetic modeling of low energy plasma in the inner terrestrial magnetosphere and ionosphere, O(+) outflows, equatorial plasma trough, and plasma wave ray-tracing studies. A list of publications and presentations which have resulted from this research is also included.

  19. Atmospheric Plasma Depainting (United States)


    Plasma Carbon Dioxide Water Vapor 11 Atmospheric Plasma Depainting, ASETSDefense, Nov 19, 2014 Features and Benefits of APCR Technology Feature...Depainting, ASETSDefense, Nov 19, 2014 14 APC on Aluminum Removal to Primer RAM on Carbon Fiber Partial Topcoat Removal APC Topcoat RAM...60Hz Plasma Flux™ Power Supply VENT To Facility HEPA <= Filtration COTS Six-Axis Robot Aircraft part Particulate Collection System

  20. Plasma nitriding of steels

    CERN Document Server

    Aghajani, Hossein


    This book focuses on the effect of plasma nitriding on the properties of steels. Parameters of different grades of steels are considered, such as structural and constructional steels, stainless steels and tools steels. The reader will find within the text an introduction to nitriding treatment, the basis of plasma and its roll in nitriding. The authors also address the advantages and disadvantages of plasma nitriding in comparison with other nitriding methods. .

  1. Plasma adiabatic lapse rate

    CERN Document Server

    Amendt, Peter; Wilks, Scott


    The plasma analog of an adiabatic lapse rate (or temperature variation with height) in atmospheric physics is obtained. A new source of plasma temperature gradient in a binary ion species mixture is found that is proportional to the concentration gradient and difference in average ionization states . Application to inertial-confinement-fusion implosions indicates a potentially strong effect in plastic (CH) ablators that is not modeled with mainline (single-fluid) simulations. An associated plasma thermodiffusion coefficient is derived, and charge-state diffusion in a single-species plasma is also predicted.

  2. Nonlinear Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Kono, Mitsuo


    A nonlinearity is one of the most important notions in modern physics. A plasma is rich in nonlinearities and provides a variety of behaviors inherent to instabilities, coherent wave structures and turbulence. The book covers the basic concepts and mathematical methods, necessary to comprehend nonlinear problems widely encountered in contemporary plasmas, but also in other fields of physics and current research on self-organized structures and magnetized plasma turbulence. The analyses make use of strongly nonlinear models solved by analytical techniques backed by extensive simulations and available experiments. The text is written for senior undergraduates, graduate students, lecturers and researchers in laboratory, space and fusion plasmas.

  3. Physics of Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Leslie Colin


    A short, self-sufficient introduction to the physics of plasma for beginners as well as researchers in a number of fields. The author looks at the dynamics and stability of magnetoplasma and discusses wave and transport in this medium. He also looks at such applications as fusion research using magnetic confinement of Deuterium plasma, solar physics with its plasma loops reaching high into the corona, sunspots and solar wind, engineering applications to metallurgy, MHD direct generation of electricity, and railguns, finally touching on the relatively new and difficult subject of dusty plasmas.

  4. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report discusses the following topics: principal parameters achieved in experimental devices fiscal year 1990; tokamak fusion test reactor; compact ignition tokamak; Princeton beta experiment- modification; current drive experiment-upgrade; international collaboration; x-ray laser studies; spacecraft glow experiment; plasma processing: deposition and etching of thin films; theoretical studies; tokamak modeling; international thermonuclear experimental reactor; engineering department; project planning and safety office; quality assurance and reliability; technology transfer; administrative operations; PPPL patent invention disclosures for fiscal year 1990; graduate education; plasma physics; graduate education: plasma science and technology; science education program; and Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory reports fiscal year 1990.

  5. Solid expellant plasma generator (United States)

    Stone, Nobie H. (Inventor); Poe, Garrett D. (Inventor); Rood, Robert (Inventor)


    An improved solid expellant plasma generator has been developed. The plasma generator includes a support housing, an electrode rod located in the central portion of the housing, and a mass of solid expellant material that surrounds the electrode rod within the support housing. The electrode rod and the solid expellant material are made of separate materials that are selected so that the electrode and the solid expellant material decompose at the same rate when the plasma generator is ignited. This maintains a point of discharge of the plasma at the interface between the electrode and the solid expellant material.

  6. Plasma processing for VLSI

    CERN Document Server

    Einspruch, Norman G


    VLSI Electronics: Microstructure Science, Volume 8: Plasma Processing for VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) discusses the utilization of plasmas for general semiconductor processing. It also includes expositions on advanced deposition of materials for metallization, lithographic methods that use plasmas as exposure sources and for multiple resist patterning, and device structures made possible by anisotropic etching.This volume is divided into four sections. It begins with the history of plasma processing, a discussion of some of the early developments and trends for VLSI. The second section

  7. Plasma and particles (United States)

    Špatenka, Petr; Vacková, Tat'ana; Nováček, Vojtěch; Jeníková, Zdenka


    Plasma has been proved as a standard industrial method for surface treatment of solid bulk materials. Recently plasma has also been used in connection with production, treatment and functionalization of powder and granulate materials. Functionalization was originally developed for hydrophylization of hydrophobic surfaces of particles made from various materials. An industrial scale device with a capacity of several hundreds of tons per year based on plasma treatment will be presented. As examples of the applications are given plasma treated polyethylene powder dispersed in the water; and very good adhesion of polymer powders to metals or glass, which is promising for development of new generation of thermoplastic composites.

  8. Meth abuse and oral health


    Deviprasad Makonahally; Vaibhav Gupta; Pushpanjali Krishnappa


    Methamphetamine abuse is spreading its roots in India due to its widespread appeal, ease of manufacture and low cost compared with other stimulant drugs. Methamphetamine-induced caries is a characteristic finding among methamphetamine abusers. Thus, it is important to understand the typical clinical manifestations inclusive of cervical and proximal caries, elicit proper case history and develop a comprehensive treatment plan to help patients in a complete rehabilitation. We present a series o...

  9. Sensitivity Analysis on the Half-Life of Trichloroethylene and the Distribution Coefficient at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopp, Joshua D [Univ of KY, Dept of Civil Engineering


    To determine the future extent of the TCE contamination plume at PGDP, a groundwater and solute transport model has been developed by the Department of Energy (DOE). The model used to perform these calculations is MODFLOWT which is an enhanced groundwater transport model developed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). MODFLOWT models groundwater movement as well as the transport of species that are subject to adsorption and decay by using a finite difference method (Duffield et al 2001). A significant limitation of MODFLOWT is that it requires large amounts of data. This data can be difficult and expensive to obtain. MODFLOWT also requires excessive computational time to perform one simulation. It is desirable to have a model that can predict the spatial extent of the contaminant plume without as much required data and that does not require excessive computational times. The purpose of this study is to develop and alternative model to MODFLOWT that can produce similar results for possible use in a companion management model. The alternative model used in this study is an artificial neural network (ANN).

  10. Comparative Study of α Half-life of 210Po in Metal Environment at CIAE with a Reference Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO; Qing-zhang; HE; Ming; DONG; Ke-jun; WANG; Xiao-ming; WANG; Wei; RUAN; Xiang-dong; SHEN; Hong-tao; ZHANG; Hui; DOU; Liang; YANG; Xu-ran; XU; Yong-ning; PANG; Yi-jun; WU; Shao-yong; JIANG; Shan


    The influence of the electron screening on nuclear processes is studied by many scientists.Within the framework of the Gamow theory,a conventional expression for theαdecay probability is essentially given by the product of two factors:the cluster pre-formation and the penetration probabilities.The former may not affected by the electron screening.The second factor may

  11. Fission properties of einsteinium and fermium. [Half-life, kinetic energy release, mass division, prompt neutron emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C.


    The systematics of the low energy fission of the fermium isotopes is studied considering half-lives, masss division, kinetic-energy release, and accompanying prompt neutron emission. It is shown that the low energy fission of the fermium isotopes is a microcosm of the fission process, exhibiting a wide range of half lives, mass and kinetic energy distributions and varying neutron emission. The trends in the fermium isotopes are considered. 23 references. (JFP)

  12. Experimental implementation and proof of principle for a radionuclidic purity test solely based on half-life measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas; Jensen, Mikael


    In this paper we present the results of an experimental implementation of the method (Jorgensen et al., 2012) for testing the radionuclidic purity (RNP) of F-18 compounds.The overall limitations of the experimental methods and their possible impacts on RNP detectability have been identified. We...

  13. Ultracold neutral plasmas (United States)

    Lyon, M.; Rolston, S. L.


    By photoionizing samples of laser-cooled atoms with laser light tuned just above the ionization limit, plasmas can be created with electron and ion temperatures below 10 K. These ultracold neutral plasmas have extended the temperature bounds of plasma physics by two orders of magnitude. Table-top experiments, using many of the tools from atomic physics, allow for the study of plasma phenomena in this new regime with independent control over the density and temperature of the plasma through the excitation process. Characteristic of these systems is an inhomogeneous density profile, inherited from the density distribution of the laser-cooled neutral atom sample. Most work has dealt with unconfined plasmas in vacuum, which expand outward at velocities of order 100 m/s, governed by electron pressure, and with lifetimes of order 100 μs, limited by stray electric fields. Using detection of charged particles and optical detection techniques, a wide variety of properties and phenomena have been observed, including expansion dynamics, collective excitations in both the electrons and ions, and collisional properties. Through three-body recombination collisions, the plasmas rapidly form Rydberg atoms, and clouds of cold Rydberg atoms have been observed to spontaneously avalanche ionize to form plasmas. Of particular interest is the possibility of the formation of strongly coupled plasmas, where Coulomb forces dominate thermal motion and correlations become important. The strongest impediment to strong coupling is disorder-induced heating, a process in which Coulomb energy from an initially disordered sample is converted into thermal energy. This restricts electrons to a weakly coupled regime and leaves the ions barely within the strongly coupled regime. This review will give an overview of the field of ultracold neutral plasmas, from its inception in 1999 to current work, including efforts to increase strong coupling and effects on plasma properties due to strong coupling.

  14. Plasma Physics An Introduction to Laboratory, Space, and Fusion Plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Piel, Alexander


    Plasma Physics gives a comprehensive introduction to the basic processes in plasmas and demonstrates that the same fundamental concepts describe cold gas-discharge plasmas, space plasmas, and hot fusion plasmas. Starting from particle drifts in magnetic fields, the principles of magnetic confinement fusion are explained and compared with laser fusion. Collective processes are discussed in terms of plasma waves and instabilities. The concepts of plasma description by magnetohydrodynamics, kinetic theory, and particle simulation are stepwise introduced. Space charge effects in sheath regions, double layers and plasma diodes are given the necessary attention. The new fundamental mechanisms of dusty plasmas are explored and integrated into the framework of conventional plasmas. The book concludes with a brief introduction to plasma discharges. Written by an internationally renowned researcher in experimental plasma physics, the text keeps the mathematical apparatus simple and emphasizes the underlying concepts. T...

  15. EDITORIAL: Plasma jets and plasma bullets Plasma jets and plasma bullets (United States)

    Kong, M. G.; Ganguly, B. N.; Hicks, R. F.


    Plasma plumes, or plasma jets, belong to a large family of gas discharges whereby the discharge plasma is extended beyond the plasma generation region into the surrounding ambience, either by a field (e.g. electromagnetic, convective gas flow, or shock wave) or a gradient of a directionless physical quantity (e.g. particle density, pressure, or temperature). This physical extension of a plasma plume gives rise to a strong interaction with its surrounding environment, and the interaction alters the properties of both the plasma and the environment, often in a nonlinear and dynamic fashion. The plasma is therefore not confined by defined physical walls, thus extending opportunities for material treatment applications as well as bringing in new challenges in science and technology associated with complex open-boundary problems. Some of the most common examples may be found in dense plasmas with very high dissipation of externally supplied energy (e.g. in electrical, optical or thermal forms) and often in or close to thermal equilibrium. For these dense plasmas, their characteristics are determined predominantly by strong physical forces of different fields, such as electrical, magnetic, thermal, shock wave, and their nonlinear interactions [1]. Common to these dense plasma plumes are significant macroscopic plasma movement and considerable decomposition of solid materials (e.g. vaporization). Their applications are numerous and include detection of elemental traces, synthesis of high-temperature materials and welding, laser--plasma interactions, and relativistic jets in particle accelerators and in space [2]-[4]. Scientific challenges in the understanding of plasma jets are exciting and multidisciplinary, involving interweaving transitions of all four states of matter, and their technological applications are wide-ranging and growing rapidly. Using the Web of Science database, a search for journal papers on non-fusion plasma jets reveals that a long initial phase up

  16. [Acute plasma cell leukemia]. (United States)

    Monsalbe, V; Domíngues, C; Roa, I; Busel, D; González, S


    Plasma Cell Leukemia is a very rare form of plasmocytic dyscrasia, whose clinical and pathological characteristics warrant its recognition as a distinct subentity. We report the case of a 60 years old man who presented a rapidly fatal acute plasma cell leukemia, with multiple osteolytic lesions, hipercalcemia, renal and cardiac failure.

  17. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimoto, Takashi [Department of Engineering Physics and Mechanics, Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)


    Polarization of radiation emitted from a plasma reflects the anisotropic properties of the plasma, especially the angular anisotropic distribution of electron velocities. Polarization has been observed on impurity ion lines from the WT-3 tokamak and the GAMMA-10 tandem mirror machines. The soft x-ray laser line from the neonlike germanium was also found polarized. (author)

  18. Plasma polarization spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwamae, Atsushi; Inoue, Takeru; Tanaka, Akihiro; Kawakami, Kazuki; Fujimoto, Takashi [Kyoto Univ., Dept. of Engineering Physics, Kyoto (Japan)


    Polarization of radiation emitted from plasma reflects the anisotropic properties of the plasma, especially the angular isotropic distribution of electron velocities. Polarization has been observed on impurity ion lines from the WT-3 tokamak and GAMMA 10 tandem mirror device. (author)

  19. Atoms in dense plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, R.M.


    Recent experiments with high-power pulsed lasers have strongly encouraged the development of improved theoretical understanding of highly charged ions in a dense plasma environment. This work examines the theory of dense plasmas with emphasis on general rules which govern matter at extreme high temperature and density. 106 refs., 23 figs.

  20. Plasma etching an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Manos, Dennis M


    Plasma etching plays an essential role in microelectronic circuit manufacturing. Suitable for researchers, process engineers, and graduate students, this book introduces the basic physics and chemistry of electrical discharges and relates them to plasma etching mechanisms. Throughout the volume the authors offer practical examples of process chemistry, equipment design, and production methods.