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Sample records for plasma melting furnace

  1. Energy Balance in DC Arc Plasma Melting Furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Peng; Meng Yuedong; Yu Xinyao; Chen Longwei; Jiang Yiman; Nie Guohua; Chen Mingzhou

    2009-01-01

    In order to treat hazardous municipal solid waste incinerator's (MSWI) fly ash, a new DC arc plasma furnace was developed. Taking an arc of 100 V/1000 A DC as an example, the heat transfer characteristics of the DC arc plasma, ablation of electrodes, heat properties of the fly ash during melting, heat transfer characteristics of the flue gas, and heat loss of the furnace were analyzed based on the energy conservation law, so as to achieve the total heat information and energy balance during plasma processing, and to provide a theoretical basis for an optimized design of the structure and to improve energy efficiency. (plasma technology)

  2. Melting experiment on concrete waste using a hollow type plasma torch mounted on furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Y. P.; Kim, T. W.; Kim, H. S.; Shin, S. U.; Lee, M. C.

    2000-01-01

    A furnace coupled with a hollow type plasma torch was manufactured and installed in order to develop a volume reduction technology for non-combustible radioactive waste using plasma. A melting test with 10kg of concrete waste was carried out for the evaluation of melting characteristics in the non-transferred operation mode for 20 minutes with the melter. Feeded concrete was completely melted. However, the molten bath was not easily discharged because of its high viscosity. It was found that some molten slag spat from the molten bath was coated on the surface of torch which was mounted vertically inside furnace

  3. Temperature simulation of thermal plasma melting furnace for disposal of radioactive waste and preliminary research of vitrification formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin Peng; Lu Yonghong; Xiang Wenyuan; Chen Mingzhou; Liu Xiajie; Qin Yuxin

    2013-01-01

    Radioactive waste treatment techniques currently used in nuclear power plant increase the volume greatly and bring much pressure on final disposal; Thermal plasma treatment as a crucial technique to reduce the waste volume is introduced. How to improve the efficiency of the plasma energy is the limiting factor of concern. In this paper, the temperature field of thermal plasma melting furnace is simulated, the maximal temperature of fixed bed melting furnace is calculated (about 1445 ℃). According to the optional fire-resistant materials, the feasibility of furnace fabrication is discussed. Vitrification formulas for three typical radioactive wastes are tested with their feasibilities being analyzed then. Finally, the prospect of thermal plasma techniques of radioactive waste is discussed, and issues for future study are raised. (authors)

  4. Presentation of the Vulcano installation which uses a plasma transferred arc rotary furnace for corium melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cognet, G.; Laffont, G.; Jegou, C.; Pierre, J.; Journeau, C.; Sudreau, F.; Roubaud, A.

    1998-01-01

    In the case of loss coolant accident, the reactor core could melt and turn into a mixture of uranium oxides, zirconium, iron and steel called corium. A large experimental program has been launched to study corium behaviour, to qualify solutions to stabilize it and to confine it in the reactor containment. The Vulcano installation has been designed to that purpose. It is made up of: i) a plasma transferred arc rotary furnace, ii) a testing surface covered with refractory materials, iii) an induction heating system in order to simulate the residual power of corium, iv) instrumentation devices such as video cameras, thermocouples, infra-red pyrometers and flowmeters, and v) a laboratory to perform chemical analysis of corium samples. The first experimental results show that a mixture of corium and concrete spreads better than expected. It seems that a low initial height of matter can produce a great distance flowing while having a chaotic behaviour. This characteristic suggests that the mixture acts as a Bingham type threshold fluid. (A.C.)

  5. Effect of Feed Forms on the Results of Melting of Fly Ash by a DC Plasma Arc Furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Mingzhou; Meng Yuedong; Shi Jiabiao; Ni Guohua; Jiang Yiman; Yu Xinyao; Zhao Peng

    2009-01-01

    Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) without preprocessing (original fly ash, OFA) was melted by a direct current (DC) plasma arc furnace to investigate how the feed forms governed the results. Dioxins in flue gas from stack and bag-filter ash (BFA) were detected. The distribution of heavy metals of Pb, Cd, As, and Cr along the flue gas process system was analyzed. Through a comparison of the results for dioxins and heavy metals in this study and previous work, carrying-over of fly ash particles with the flue gas stream can be deduced. Based on the magnetic induction equation and Navier-Stokes equations, a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for the plasma arc was developed to describe the particle-carrying effect. The results indicate that, a. when melted, the feed forms of MSWI fly ash affect the results significantly; b. it is not preferable to melt MSWI fly ash directly, and efforts should be made to limit the mass transfer of OFA from the plasma furnace. (plasma technology)

  6. Effect of Feed Forms on the Results of Melting of Fly Ash by a DC Plasma Arc Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong; Shi, Jiabiao; Ni, Guohua; Jiang, Yiman; Yu, Xinyao; ZHAO, Peng

    2009-10-01

    Fly ash from a municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) without preprocessing (original fly ash, OFA) was melted by a direct current (DC) plasma arc furnace to investigate how the feed forms governed the results. Dioxins in flue gas from stack and bag-filter ash (BFA) were detected. The distribution of heavy metals of Pb, Cd, As, and Cr along the flue gas process system was analyzed. Through a comparison of the results for dioxins and heavy metals in this study and previous work, carrying-over of fly ash particles with the flue gas stream can be deduced. Based on the magnetic induction equation and Navier-Stokes equations, a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for the plasma arc was developed to describe the particle-carrying effect. The results indicate that, a. when melted, the feed forms of MSWI fly ash affect the results significantly; b. it is not preferable to melt MSWI fly ash directly, and efforts should be made to limit the mass transfer of OFA from the plasma furnace.

  7. Melting method for miscellaneous radioactive solid waste and melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, Toru; Furukawa, Hirofumi; Uda, Nobuyoshi; Katsurai, Kiyomichi

    1998-01-01

    A vessel containing miscellaneous solid wastes is inserted in a crucible having a releasable material on the inner surface, they are induction-heated from the outside of the crucible by way of low temperature heating coils to melt low melting point materials in the miscellaneous wastes within a temperature range at which the vessel does not melt. Then, they are induction-heated by way of high temperature heating coils to melt the vessel and not yet melted materials, those molten materials are cooled, solidified molten material and the releasable material are taken out, and then the crucible is used again. Then, the crucible can be used again, so that it can be applied to a large scaled melting furnace which treats wastes by a unit of drum. In addition, since the cleaning of the used crucible and the application of the releasable material can be conducted without interrupting the operation of the melting furnace, the operation cycle of the melting furnace can be shortened. (N.H.)

  8. Monitoring device for glass melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, Noboru; Asano, Naoki; Higuchi, Tatsuo; Koyama, Mayumi; Hanado, Shinji.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention can monitor, from a remote place, a liquid surface in a glass melting furnace for use in a solidification treatment, for example, of high level radioactive wastes. Namely, a vertical sleeve is disposed penetrating a ceiling wall of a melting vessel. A reflection mirror is disposed above the vertical sleeve and flex an optical axis. A monitoring means is disposed on the optical axis of the reflecting mirror at a spaced position. The monitoring means may have an optical telescopic means, a monitoring camera by way of a half mirror and an illumination means. The reflection mirror may be made of a metal. The monitoring device thus constituted suffer from no effects of high temperature and high radiation dose rate, thereby enabling to easily monitor the liquid surface in the melting furnace. (I.S.)

  9. Electric melting furnace for waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    To avoid electric troubles or reduction of waste processing performance even when platinum group elements are contained in wastes to be applied with glass solidification. For this purpose, a side electrode is disposed to the side wall of a melting vessel and a central electrode serving as a counter electrode is disposed about at the center inside the melting vessel. With such a constitution, if conductive materials are deposited at the bottom of the furnace or the bottom of the melting vessel, heating currents flow selectively between the side electrode and the central electrode. Accordingly, no electric currents flow through the conductive deposits thereby enabling to prevent abnormal heating in the bottom of the furnace. Further, heat generated by electric supply between the side electrode and the central electrode is supplied efficiently to raw material on the surface of the molten glass liquid to improve the processing performance. Further, disposition of the bottom electrode at the bottom of the furnace enables current supply between the central electrode and the bottom electrode to facilitate the temperature control for the molten glass in the furnace than in the conventional structure. (I.S.)

  10. Modeling of evaporation processes in glass melting furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, van J.A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of glass furnaces worldwide, apply fossil fuel combustion to transfer heat directly by radiation from the combustion processes to the melting batch and glass melt. During these high temperature melting processes, some glass components, such as: sodium, potassium, boron and lead species

  11. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe 3 O 4 . Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe 2 O 3 . Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs

  12. [Utilization of a transferred arc-plasma rotating furnace to melt and found oxide mixtures at around 2000 degrees C (presentation of the film VULCANO)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognet, G; Laffont, G; Jegou, C; Pierre, J; Journeau, C; Sudreau, F; Roubaud, A

    1999-03-01

    Unless security measures are taken, a hypothetical accident resulting from the loss of the cooling circuit in a pressurized water nuclear reactor could cause the heart of the reactor to melt forming a bath, called the corium, mainly composed of uranium, zirconium and iron oxides as well as the structural steel. This type of situation would be similar to the Three Mile Island accident in 1979. In order to limit the consequences of such an accident, the Atomic Energy Commission has implemented a large study program [1] to improve our understanding of corium behavior and determine solutions to stabilize it and avoid its propagation outside the unit. The VULCANO installation was designed in order to perform the trials using real materials which are indispensable to study all the phenomena involved. A film on the VULCANO trials was presented at the Henri Moissan commemorative session organized by the French National Academy of Pharmacy. The rotating furnace used to melt and found the mixture simulating the corium is a direct descendant of the pioneer work by Henri Moissan. An electrical arc is directed at the center of the load to melt which is maintained against the walls by centrifugal force. After six high-temperature trials performed with compositions without uranium oxide, the first trial with real corium showed that the magma spread rather well, a result which is quite favorable for cooling.

  13. Electric melting furnace of solidifying radioactive waste by utilizing magnetic field and melting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igarashi, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    An electric melting furnace for solidification of radioactive wastes utilizing magnetic fields in accordance with the present invention comprises a plurality of electrodes supplying AC current to molten glass in a glass melting furnace and a plurality of magnetic poles for generating AC magnetic fields. Interactions between the current and the magnetic field, generated forces in the identical direction in view of time in the molten glass. That is, forces for promoting the flow of molten glass in the melting furnace are resulted due to the Fleming's left-hand rule. As a result, the following effects can be obtained. (1) The amount of heat ransferred from the molten glass to the starting material layer on the molten surface is increased to improve the melting performance. (2) For an identical melting performance, the size and the weight of the melting furnace can be reduced to decrease the amount of secondary wastes when the apparatus-life is exhausted. (3) Bottom deposits can be suppressed and prevented from settling and depositing to the reactor bottom by the promoted flow in the layer. (4) Further, the size of auxiliary electrodes for directly supplying electric current to heat the molten glass near the reactor bottom can be decreased. (I.S.)

  14. Numerical modelling of an industrial glass-melting furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, S C [Brigham Young Univ., Advanced Combustion Engineering Research Center, Provo, UT (United States); Webb, B W; McQuay, M Q [Brigham Young Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Provo, UT (United States); Newbold, J [Lockheed Aerospace, Denver, CO (United States)

    2000-03-01

    The predictive capability of two comprehensive combustion codes, PCGC-3 and FLUENT, to simulate local flame structure and combustion characteristics in a industrial gas-fired, flat-glass furnace is investigated. Model predictions are compared with experimental data from the furnace for profiles of velocity, species concentrations, temperatures, and wall-incident radiative heat flux. Predictions from both codes show agreement with the measured mean velocity profiles and incident radiant flux on the crown. However, significant differences between the code predictions and measurements are observed for the flame-ozone temperatures and species concentrations. The observed discrepancies may be explained by (i) uncertainties in the distributions of mean velocity and turbulence in the portneck, (ii) uncertainties in the port-by-port stoichiometry, (iii) different grid-based approximations to the furnace geometry made in the two codes, (iv) the assumption of infinitely fast chemistry made in the chemical reaction model of both codes, and (v) simplifying assumptions made in the simulations regarding the complex coupling between the combustion space, batch blanket, and melt tank. The study illustrates the critical need for accurate boundary conditions (inlet air and fuel flow distributions, boundary surface temperatures, etc.) and the importance of representative furnace geometry in simulating these complex industrial combustion systems. (Author)

  15. Behavior of an indigenously fabricated transferred arc plasma furnace for smelting studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, K. MANDAL; R, K. DISHWAR; O, P. SINHA

    2018-03-01

    The utilization of industrial solid waste for metal recovery requires high-temperature tools due to the presence of silica and alumina, which is reducible at high temperature. In a plasma arc furnace, transferred arc plasma furnace (TAP) can meet all requirements, but the disadvantage of this technology is the high cost. For performing experiments in the laboratory, the TAP was fabricated indigenously in a laboratory based on the different inputs provided in the literature for the furnace design and fabrication. The observed parameters such as arc length, energy consumption, graphite electrode consumption, noise level as well as lining erosion were characterized for this fabricated furnace. The nitrogen plasma increased by around 200 K (200 °C) melt temperature and noise levels decreased by ∼10 dB compared to a normal arc. Hydrogen plasma offered 100 K (100 °C) higher melt temperature with ∼5 dB higher sound level than nitrogen plasma. Nitrogen plasma arc melting showed lower electrode and energy consumption than normal arc melting, whereas hydrogen plasma showed lower energy consumption and higher electrode consumption in comparison to nitrogen plasma. The higher plasma arc temperature resulted in a shorter meltdown time than normal arc with smoother arcing. Hydrogen plasma permitted more heats, reduced meltdown time, and lower energy consumption, but with increased graphite consumption and crucible wear. The present study showed that the fabricated arc plasma is better than the normal arc furnace with respect to temperature generation, energy consumption, and environmental friendliness. Therefore, it could be used effectively for smelting-reduction studies.

  16. TECHNOLOGICAL PECULIARITIES O F MELTING AND OUT-OF-FURNACE PROCESSING OF BALANCED STEELS IN CONDITIONS OF ELECTRIC FURNACE STEELMAKING AND CONTINUOUS CASTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Terletski

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The technological peculiarities of melting and out-of-furnace processing of balanced steels in conditions of electric furnace steelmaking and continuous cast of RUP “BMZ” are considered.

  17. Plasma arc melting of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubesing, P.K.; Korzekwa, D.R.; Dunn, P.S.

    1997-01-01

    Zirconium, like some other refractory metals, has an undesirable sensitivity to interstitials such as oxygen. Traditionally, zirconium is processed by electron beam melting to maintain minimum interstitial contamination. Electron beam melted zirconium, however, does not respond positively to mechanical processing due to its large grain size. The authors undertook a study to determine if plasma arc melting (PAM) technology could be utilized to maintain low interstitial concentrations and improve the response of zirconium to subsequent mechanical processing. The PAM process enabled them to control and maintain low interstitial levels of oxygen and carbon, produce a more favorable grain structure, and with supplementary off-gassing, improve the response to mechanical forming

  18. [The electric furnace of Henri Moissan at one hundred years: connection with the electric furnace, the solar furnace, the plasma furnace?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royère, C

    1999-03-01

    The trace of Henri Moissan's pioneer work 100 years ago is clearly evidenced by an overview of achievements in high temperature devices; 1987: "Le four électrique" by Henri Moissan; 1948-1952: "High temperature heating in a cavity rotary kiln using focusing of solar radiation" by Félix Trombe; 1962: "The cavity rotary kiln using focused solar radiation jointly with a plasma gun" by Marc Foëx; 1970: "The rotary kiln with two plasma guns and arc transfer" by Marc Foëx; 1984: "The plasma furnace" by Electricité de France (EDF) at Renardières; 1997: "The plasma furnace" by the Atomic Energy Center (CEA) at Cadarache, the VULCANO program. The first part of this contribution is devoted to Henri Moissan. Re-reading his early book on the electric furnace, especially the first chapter and the sections on silica, carbon vapor and experiments performed in casting molten metal--the conclusions are outstanding--provides modern readers with an amazing insight into future developments. The last two parts are devoted to Félix Trombe and Marc Foëx, tracing the evolution of high temperature cavity processus leading to the solar furnace and the present day plasma furnace at the CEA. Focus is placed on research conducted by the French National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS) with the solar and plasma furnaces at Odeillo. The relationships with Henri Moissan's early work are amazing, offering a well deserved homage to this pioneer researcher.

  19. Influence of glass furnace operational conditions on the evaporation from soda-lime and borosilicate glass melts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2000-01-01

    The evaporation of sodium and boron species from the melts in industrial glass furnaces leads to emissions of particulates (dust) and to furnace atmospheres containing reactive evaporation products. These reactive species, especially alkali vapors, can react with the superstructure refractories

  20. Nonmetallic inclusions in carbon steel smelted in plasma furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shengelaya, I B; Kostyakov, V N; Nodiy, T K; Imerlishvili, V G; Gavisiani, A G [AN Gruzinskoj SSR, Tbilisi. Inst. Metallurgii

    1979-01-01

    A complex investigation on nonmetallic inclusions in carbon cast iron, smelted in plasma furnace in argon atmosphere and cast partly in the air and partly in argon atmosphere, has been carried out. As compared to open-hearth furnace carbon steel, the test metal was found to contain more oxide inclusions and nitrides; besides, in chromium-containing metal, chromium nitrides form the larger part of nitrides.

  1. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet evaluation with the slurry-fed melt rate furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to support validation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter offgas flammability model for the nitric-glycolic (NG) flowsheet. The work supports Deliverable 4 of the DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering Technical Task Request (TTR)1 and is supplemental to the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) testing conducted in 2014.2 The Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) was selected for the supplemental testing as it requires significantly less resources than the CEF and could provide a tool for more rapid analysis of melter feeds in the future. The SMRF platform has been used previously to evaluate melt rate behavior of DWPF glasses, but was modified to accommodate analysis of the offgas stream. Additionally, the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) and Quartz Melt Rate Furnace (QMRF) were utilized for evaluations. MRF data was used exclusively for melt behavior observations and REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) prediction comparisons and will be briefly discussed in conjunction with its support of the SMRF testing. The QMRF was operated similarly to the SMRF for the same TTR task, but will be discussed in a separate future report. The overall objectives of the SMRF testing were to; 1) Evaluate the efficacy of the SMRF as a platform for steady state melter testing with continuous feeding and offgas analysis; and 2) Generate supplemental melter offgas flammability data to support the melter offgas flammability modelling effort for DWPF implementation of the NG flowsheet.

  2. A plasma melting system for solid radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higashi, Yasuo; Sugimoto, Masahiko; Fujitomi, Masashi; Noura, Tsuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    Kobe Steel has developed a plasma melting system for the volume reduction and stabilization of solid radioactive wastes such as concrete, insulation, filters, glass, sand etc. The main features of the system are as follows. (1) Non-transfer air plasma torches: 1.3 MW x 2 (2) Treatment capacity: 2 tons/batch (3) Waste feed: 200 liter drums (4) Tapping method: furnace tilting (5) Molten slag cooling: in the system's chambers. In this paper, an outline of the system and its first-run performance results are described. (author)

  3. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. First annual technical progress report, May 1978-June 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C.E.; Hines, J.E.; Stewart, D.L. Jr.; Yu, H.

    1979-10-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. Phase I has begun with the design and construction of a 350 lb/h (coal) staged slagging cyclone combustor (SSCC) attached to a 7-ft dia aluminum melting ladle furnace. Process development will culminate with a 1000 pph prototype SSCC firing a 40,000 lb capacity open hearth melting furnace at the Alcoa Laboratories. Phase II implementation is currently planned for Alcoa's Lafayette, IN, Works, where two of the ingot plant's five open hearth melting furnaces will be converted to utilize coal. In addition to confirmation of data gathered in Phase I, the effect of extended production schedule operation on equipment and efficiencies will be determined. This work would begin in 1982 pursuant to technical and economic evaluation of the process development at that time. A major design subcontract for assistance in the design of the SSCC is 80% completed.

  4. Presentation of the Vulcano installation which uses a plasma transferred arc rotary furnace for corium melting; Utilisation d`un four tournant a arc plasma transfere pour fondre et couler des melanges d`oxydes autour de 2000 C. Presentation du film Vulcano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cognet, G.; Laffont, G.; Jegou, C.; Pierre, J.; Journeau, C.; Sudreau, F.; Roubaud, A. [CEA Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. d`Etudes des Reacteurs

    1998-06-01

    In the case of loss coolant accident, the reactor core could melt and turn into a mixture of uranium oxides, zirconium, iron and steel called corium. A large experimental program has been launched to study corium behaviour, to qualify solutions to stabilize it and to confine it in the reactor containment. The Vulcano installation has been designed to that purpose. It is made up of: i) a plasma transferred arc rotary furnace, ii) a testing surface covered with refractory materials, iii) an induction heating system in order to simulate the residual power of corium, iv) instrumentation devices such as video cameras, thermocouples, infra-red pyrometers and flowmeters, and v) a laboratory to perform chemical analysis of corium samples. The first experimental results show that a mixture of corium and concrete spreads better than expected. It seems that a low initial height of matter can produce a great distance flowing while having a chaotic behaviour. This characteristic suggests that the mixture acts as a Bingham type threshold fluid. (A.C.) 5 refs.

  5. Material properties of the F82H melted in an electric arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakasegawa, Hideo, E-mail: sakasegawa.hideo@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Tanigawa, Hiroyasu [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Rokkasho, Aomori (Japan); Kano, Sho; Abe, Hiroaki [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku university, Sendai, Miyagi (Japan)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • We studied material properties of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel. • We melted F82H using a 20 tons electric arc furnace for the first time. • Mass effect likely affected material properties. • MX (M: Metal, C: Carbon and/or Nitrogen) precipitates mainly formed on grain and sub grain boundaries. - Abstract: Fusion DEMO reactor requires over 11,000 tons of reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel. It is necessary to develop the manufacturing technology for fabricating such large-scale steel with appropriate mechanical properties. In this work, we focused fundamental mechanical properties and microstructures of F82H-BA12 heat which was melted using a 20 tons electric arc furnace followed by electroslag remelting process. Its raw material of iron was blast furnace iron, because the production volume of electrolytic iron which has been used in former heats, is limited. After melting and forging, this F82H-BA12 heat was heat-treated in four different conditions to consider their fluctuations and to optimize them, and tensile and Charpy impact tests were then performed. The result of these mechanical properties were comparable to those of former F82H heats less than 5 tons which were melted applying vacuum induction melting.

  6. Utilizing Rice Husk Briquettes in Firing Crucible Furnace for Low Temperature Melting Metals in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. A. Musa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The search for alternative fuels for firing crucible furnace for low temperature melting metals has become mandatory, as a result of the pollution problem associated with the use of fossil fuels, the expense of electricity and also deforestation as a result of the use of charcoal. An agricultural waste, rice husk, in briquette form was used as an alternative fuel to fire crucible furnace to melt lead, zinc and aluminium. Results showed that lead and zinc melted and reached their pouring temperatures of 3840C and 5300C in 70 minutes and 75 minutes respectively. Aluminium was raised to a maximum temperature of 5200C in 75 and 100 minutes.The average concentration of the pollutants (CO, SO2and NOX were found to be below the tolerance limit and that of TSP (Total Suspended Particulates was found to be within the tolerance limit stipulated by Federal Environmental Protection Agency (FEPA in Nigeria.

  7. Effect Of Turbulence Modelling In Numerical Analysis Of Melting Process In An Induction Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buliński P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the velocity field and turbulence effects that occur inside a crucible of a typical induction furnace were investigated. In the first part of this work, a free surface shape of the liquid metal was measured in a ceramic crucible. Then a numerical model of aluminium melting process was developed. It took into account coupling of electromagnetic and thermofluid fields that was performed using commercial codes. In the next step, the sensitivity analysis of turbulence modelling in the liquid domain was performed. The obtained numerical results were compared with the measurement data. The performed analysis can be treated as a preliminary approach for more complex mathematical modelling for the melting process optimisation in crucible induction furnaces of different types.

  8. A plasma melting of noncombustible waste for vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Young Pyo; Cho, Chun Hyung; Song, Myung Jae; Han, Sang Ok

    1997-01-01

    Multi-stage experiments have been under way to develop a new technology for radioactive waste treatment to reduce volume. Korea Electric Power Research Institute(KEPRI) has been seeking various technologies in order to reduce the radioactive volume significantly and to produce very stable waste forms. Plasma melting technology which offers greater control of temperature, faster time of reaction, better control of processing, lower capital costs, greater throughput, and more efficient use of energy has caught KEPRI's attention to the noncombustible radioactive waste. For the study of plasma melting for noncombustible wastes, KEPRI leased a lab scale multi-purpose plasma furnace together with accessory facilities and performed preliminary tests. The lab scale melting experiments were carried out by using the simulated noncombustible wastes based on the field survey data from nuclear power plants. KEPRI's current study is focused to find an optimum composition ratio of various noncombustible wastes for easy melting, to investigate physical properties of molten slag, and to obtain operating parameters for continuous operations

  9. Melting of Nb2O5 glass in a RF furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranha, N.; Barbosa, L.C.

    1987-01-01

    Nd 2 O 5 were sucessfully melted in a furnace under He inert atmosphere. After melting, the glasses presented refractive index about 1,73 +- 0,01, free of bubbles with good homogeneity. The only problem was the yellow colour produced by impurities originating in the niobium. To Brazil, this glass has strategic importance, because the world largest niobum resources are founded in Brazil and other glass components, as P 2 O 5 and PbO are also easily founded. (Author) [pt

  10. SLUDGE BATCH 4 BASELINE MELT RATE FURNACE AND SLURRY-FED MELT RATE FURNACE TESTS WITH FRITS 418 AND 510 (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M; Timothy Jones, T; Donald02 Miller, D

    2007-01-01

    Several Slurry-Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) tests with earlier projections of the Sludge Batch 4 (SB4) composition have been performed.1,2 The first SB4 SMRF test used Frits 418 and 320, however it was found after the test that the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) correlation at that time did not have the proper oxidation state for manganese. Because the manganese level in the SB4 sludge was higher than previous sludge batches tested, the impact of the higher manganese oxidation state was greater. The glasses were highly oxidized and very foamy, and therefore the results were inconclusive. After resolving this REDOX issue, Frits 418, 425, and 503 were tested in the SMRF with the updated baseline SB4 projection. Based on dry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) tests and the above mentioned SMRF tests, two previous frit recommendations were made by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) for processing of SB4 in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The first was Frit 503 based on the June 2006 composition projections.3 The recommendation was changed to Frit 418 as a result of the October 2006 composition projections (after the Tank 40 decant was implemented as part of the preparation plan). However, the start of SB4 processing was delayed due to the control room consolidation outage and the repair of the valve box in the Tank 51 to Tank 40 transfer line. These delays resulted in changes to the projected SB4 composition. Due to the slight change in composition and based on preliminary dry-fed MRF testing, SRNL believed that Frit 510 would increase throughput in processing SB4 in DWPF. Frit 418, which was used in processing Sludge Batch 3 (SB3), was a viable candidate and available in DWPF. Therefore, it was used during the initial SB4 processing. Due to the potential for higher melt rates with Frit 510, SMRF tests with the latest SB4 composition (1298 canisters) and Frits 510 and 418 were performed at a targeted waste loading (WL) of 35%. The '1298 canisters

  11. Evaluation of quartz melt rate furnace with the nitric-glycolic flowsheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to support validation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter offgas flammability model for the Nitric-Glycolic (NG) flowsheet. The work is supplemental to the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) testing conducted in 20141 and the Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) testing conducted in 20162 that supported Deliverable 4 of the DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering Technical Task Request (TTR).3 The Quartz Melt Rate Furnace (QMRF) was evaluated as a bench-scale scoping tool to potentially be used in lieu of or simply prior to the use of the larger-scale SMRF or CEF. The QMRF platform has been used previously to evaluate melt rate behavior and offgas compositions of DWPF glasses prepared from the Nitric-Formic (NF) flowsheet but not for the NG flowsheet and not with continuous feeding.4 The overall objective of the 2016-2017 testing was to evaluate the efficacy of the QMRF as a lab-scale platform for steady state, continuously fed melter testing with the NG flowsheet as an alternative to more expensive and complex testing with the SMRF or CEF platforms.

  12. On melting criteria for complex plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klumov, Boris A

    2011-01-01

    The present paper considers melting criteria for a plasma crystal discovered in dust plasma in 1994. Separate discussions are devoted to three-dimensional (3D) and two-dimensional (2D) systems. In the 3D case, melting criteria are derived based on the properties of local order in a system of microparticles. The order parameters are constructed from the cumulative distributions of the microparticle probability distributions as functions of various rotational invariants. The melting criteria proposed are constructed using static information on microparticle positions: a few snapshots of the system that allow for the determination of particle coordinates are enough to determine the phase state of the system. It is shown that criteria obtained in this way describe well the melting and premelting of 3D complex plasmas. In 2D systems, a system of microparticles interacting via a screened Coulomb (i.e., Debye-Hueckel or Yukawa) potential is considered as an example, using molecular dynamics simulations. A number of new order parameters characterizing the melting of 2D complex plasmas are proposed. The order parameters and melting criteria proposed for 2D and 3D complex plasmas can be applied to other systems as well. (methodological notes)

  13. Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osintsev, V V; Khidiyatov, A M

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to improve the operating efficiency of the furnace device containing prefurnaces connected to the main combustion chamber. For this purpose in the proposed furnace device is equipped with prefurnaces with burners, rectangular vertical chamber of combustion is equipped with central hearth projection. As indicated by studies, the hearth projection of the indicated projections promotes the development of transverse streams which guarantee effective mixing of the combustion products in the upper part of the combustion chamber 3. This reduces the nonuniformity of temperature at the outlet from the latter, decreases the probability of slagging and hot spots on the heating surface.

  14. Design and analysis of high current DC power supply for vacuum arc melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adhikary, Santu; Sharma, Vishnu Kumar; Sharma, Archana

    2015-01-01

    Vacuum Arc furnace (VAR), is used for melting of ingot in many industrial units. Till now in many industries the existing power supply for VAR is based on magnetic amplifier, which is a lossy component. Thus an efficient topology is needed to develop as a suitable alternative for the existing power supply. Basically Arc in electrical furnace is an unstable phenomena, it has drooping characteristic in nature so to stabilize the arc we need a power supply across the load (arc), which is more drooping in nature than arc characteristics. So this paper highlights the stability and response analysis of several alternative topologies and Stabilization of arc using the feedback and firing angle control in MATLAB. The work also covers comparison among those topologies to choose the optimized topology as a suitable alternative of the existing magnetic amplifier based power supply and the detail design of the proposed topology with a tested trail circuit in PROTEUS. (author)

  15. Sludge Batch 5 Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace Test with Frits 418 and 550

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Donald; Pickenheim, Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Based on Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) testing for the Sludge Batch 5 (SB5) projected composition and assessments of the potential frits with reasonable operating windows, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommended Slurry Fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) testing with Frits 418 and 550. DWPF is currently using Frit 418 with SB5 based on SRNL's recommendation due to its ability to accommodate significant sodium variation in the sludge composition. However, experience with high boron containing frits in DWPF indicated a potential advantage for Frit 550 might exist. Therefore, SRNL performed SMRF testing to assess Frit 550's potential advantages. The results of SMRF testing with SB5 simulant indicate that there is no appreciable difference in melt rate between Frit 418 and Frit 550 at a targeted 34 weight % waste loading. Both batches exhibited comparable behavior when delivered through the feed tube by the peristaltic pump. Limited observation of the cold cap during both runs showed no indication of major cold cap mounding. MRF testing, performed after the SMRF runs due to time constraints, with the same two Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) dried products led to the same conclusion. Although visual observations of the cross-sectioned MRF beakers indicated differences in the appearance of the two systems, the measured melt rates were both ∼0.6 in/hr. Therefore, SRNL does not recommend a change from Frit 418 for the initial SB5 processing in DWPF. Once the actual SB5 composition is known and revised projections of SB5 after the neptunium stream addition and any decants is provided, SRNL will perform an additional compositional window assessment with Frit 418. If requested, SRNL can also include other potential frits in this assessment should processing of SB5 with Frit 418 result in less than desirable melter throughput in DWPF. The frits would then be subjected to melt rate testing at SRNL to determine any potential advantages

  16. Refractories materials characterization for aluminum melting and holding furnaces: an alternative for a better performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novo, M.M.M.; Pandolfelli, V.C.

    2011-01-01

    The industrial needs in reducing the energy consumption is part of a continuing search towards higher levels of sustainability and competitiveness. Considering these aspects, the aluminum industry seeks new alternatives for a better performance of aluminum melting and holding furnaces and this aim is directly dependent on the refractory materials ability to conserve heat and withstand the mechanical, chemical and thermal degradation processes. This paper presents the thermo-mechanical characterization of five aluminous dense commercial refractory (average density of 2.7 g / cm ³), used in such equipment. The results indicated that choosing the most suitable composition requires the evaluation of the microstructure aspects, such as porosity, permeability and pore size, and also the refractory's physical integrity, such as thermal shock resistance, abrasion resistance and high temperature modulus of rupture. The laboratory tests allowed the characterization of all the materials at the same conditions. Moreover, it was possible to optimize the selection of lining materials for melting and holding furnaces and to provide basis to a possible costs improvements synergy. (author)

  17. Improvement of energy efficiency in glass-melting furnaces, cement kilns and baking ovens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, M.D.G. [Technical University of Lisbon (Portugal). Instituto Superior Tecnico; Nogueira, M. [IrRADIARE, R and D in Engineering andrsholm Environment, Oeiras (Portugal)

    1997-08-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting the utilisation of dedicated modelling tools for the optimisation of a variety of thermal equipment for high-, medium-, and low-temperature heat transfer process. A combination of modelling with advanced extensive on-line measurements is proposed as an approach for the development of optimisation procedures able to be used in equipment design and operation. The industrially oriented utilisation of modelling is discussed considering the state-of-the-art and the application of existing codes capable of computing the three-dimensional characteristics of the aerodynamics, mixing, combustion (single- or multi-phase), pollutants formation and heat transfer of industrial combustion equipment. The present paper describes modelling tools for the optimisation of a glass-melting furnace, a ceramic kiln, a cement kiln and a baking oven. Significant reduction of energy consumption and low-cost abatement were achieved for these four industrial situations. (author)

  18. Plasma arc and cold crucible furnace vitrification for medium level waste: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitou, S.; Fiquet, O.; Bourdeloie, C.; Gramondi, P.; Rebollo, F.; Girold, C.; Charvillat, J.P.; Boen, R.; Jouan, A.; Ladirat, C.; Nabot, J.P.; Ochem, D.; Baronnet, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Initially developed for high-level waste reprocessing, several vitrification processes have been under study since the 80's at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) for other waste categories. According to the French law concerning waste management research passed on December 30, 1991, vitrification may be applied to mixed medium-level waste. A review of processes developed at CEA is presented: cold crucible furnace heated by induced current, refractory furnace heated by nitrogen transferred arc plasma torch, and coupling of cold crucible furnace with oxygen transferred plasma arc twin torch. Furthermore, gas post-combustion has been studied with an oxygen non-transferred plasma torch. (authors)

  19. Physical and mathematical modelling of gas-fired glass melting furnaces with regard to NO-formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, F.; Stuchlik, O.; Kremer, H.

    1999-01-01

    The increasing demand in quality, efficiency, energy conservation and the environmental issues drive the operators of high temperature processes to optimize their furnaces. Especially the glass manufacturing industry with their high working temperatures from about 1850 K to more than 1950 K and high air preheating temperatures of above 1480 K will produce high NOx-concentrations in the flue gas if no primary measures are taken. Considering the three different paths for NO-formation it is obvious that increased thermal NO is responsible for higher emissions. The German environmental regulations on air ''TA Luft'' requires a maximum value of 500 mg/mN3 in the flue gas for most of the combustion processes but for glass melting furnaces a temporary regulation of 1200 mg/mN3 and further on to 800 mg/mN3 is valid. Due to economical reasons the level of secondary measures is to be minimized thus the main objective of research is to reduce the NOx-emissions via primary measures. The design of the furnace is very important due to its strong influence on the distribution of velocity and species. That consequently affects the temperature field and the heat transfer to the load and further on the emissions. For the understanding of the processes within these furnaces numerical simulations, which are successfully validated with experiments, can give valuable indications to optimize furnace design for the reduction of NOx-emissions. The glass melting furnace modelled here is a regenerative horseshoe furnace fired with natural gas. Combustion air is preheated within the regenerator onto a level of temperature of 1650 K. (author)

  20. Destruction of inorganic municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash in a DC arc plasma furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Peng; Ni, Guohua; Jiang, Yiman; Chen, Longwei; Chen, Mingzhou; Meng, Yuedong

    2010-09-15

    Due to the toxicity of dioxins, furans and heavy metals, there is a growing environmental concern on municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) fly ash in China. The purpose of this study is directed towards the volume-reduction of fly ash without any additive by thermal plasma and recycling of vitrified slag. This process uses extremely high-temperature in an oxygen-starved environment to completely decompose complex waste into very simple molecules. For developing the proper plasma processes to treat MSWI fly ash, a new crucible-type plasma furnace was built. The melting process metamorphosed fly ash to granulated slag that was less than 1/3 of the volume of the fly ash, and about 64% of the weight of the fly ash. The safety of the vitrified slag was tested. The properties of the slag were affected by the differences in the cooling methods. Water-cooled and composite-cooled slag showed more excellent resistance against the leaching of heavy metals and can be utilized as building material without toxicity problems. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Investigations on oxy-fuel combustion in glass melting furnaces; Untersuchungen zur Oxy-Fuel-Feuerung in Glasschmelzwannen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leicher, Joerg; Giese, Anne [Gaswaerme-Institut e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Glass melting requires process temperatures of more than 1600 C which are usually achieved using intensive air preheating and near-stoichiometric combustion. This often leads to high nitrous oxide emissions (NO{sub x}). Oxy-fuel technology offers an interesting alternative since high combustion temperatures can be achieved using pure oxygen as oxidizer while obtaining low NO{sub x} emissions. In the course of the AiF research project ''O2-Glaswanne'' (IGF-Nr.: 15987 N), Gaswaerme- Institut e.V. Essen investigates this combustion process by experimental and numerical means in order to determine potential optimization approaches for glass melting furnaces.

  2. Dynamics and Melting of Finite Plasma Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, Patrick; K"Ahlert, Hanno; Baumgartner, Henning; Thomsen, Hauke; Bonitz, Michael

    2009-11-01

    Interacting few-particle systems in external trapping potentials are of strong current interest since they allow to realize and control strong correlation and quantum effects [1]. Here, we present our recent results on the structural and thermodynamic properties of the crystal-like Wigner phase of complex plasma confined in a 3D harmonic potential. We discuss the linear response of the strongly correlated system to external excitations, which can be described in terms of normal modes [2]. By means of first-principle simulations the details of the melting phase transitions of these mesoscopic systems are systematically analysed with the melting temperatures being determined by a modified Lindemann parameter for the pair distance fluctuations [3]. The critical temperatures turn out to be utmost sensitive to finite size effects (i.e., the exact particle number), and form of the (screened) interaction potential.[4pt] [1] PhD Thesis, P. Ludwig, U Rostock (2008)[0pt] [2] C. Henning et al., J. Phys. A 42, 214023 (2009)[0pt] [3] B"oning et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 113401 (2008)

  3. Comparison of glassy slag waste forms produced in laboratory crucibles and in a bench-scale plasma furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Brown, N.R.; Gong, M.; Whitworth, C.; Filius, K.; Battleson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Vitrification is currently the best demonstrated available technology for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. An innovative vitrification approach known as minimum additive waste stabilization (MAWS) is being developed. Both homogeneous glass and glassy slags have been used in implementing MAWS. Glassy slags (vitro-ceramics) are glass-crystal composites, and they are composed of various metal oxide crystalline phases embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix. Glassy slags with compositions developed in crucible melts at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) were successfully produced in a bench-scale Retech plasma centrifugal furnace (PCF) by MSE, Inc. Detailed examinations of these materials showed that the crucible melts and the PCF produced similar glass and crystalline phases. The two sets of glassy slags exhibited similar chemical durability in terms of normalized releases of their major components. The slags produced in the PCF furnace using metals were usually less oxidized, although this had no effect on the corrosion behavior of the major components of the slags. However, the normalized release rate of cerium was initially lower for the PCF slags. This difference diminished with time as the redox sates of the metal oxides in slags began to be controlled by exposure to air in the tests. Thus, the deference in cerium release due to the differences in slag redox state may be transitory. The cerium solubility is a complex function of redox state and solution pH and Eh

  4. Erosion of melt layers developed during a plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1995-01-01

    Material erosion of plasma-facing components during a tokamak disruption is a serious problem that limits reactor operation and economical reactor lifetime. In particular, metallic low-Z components such as Be will be subjected to severe melting during disruptions and edge localized modes (ELMs). Loss of the developed melt layer will critically shorten the lifetime of these components, severely contaminate the plasma, and seriously inhibit successful and reliable operation of the reactor. In this study mechanisms responsible for melt-layer loss during a disruption are modeled and evaluated. Implications of melt-layer loss on the performance of metallic facing components in the reactor environment are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Erosion of melt layers developed during a plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, A.; Konkashbaev, I.

    1994-08-01

    Material erosion of plasma-facing components during a tokamak disruption is a serious problem that limits reactor operation and economical reactor lifetime. In particular, metallic low-Z components such as Be will be subjected to severe melting during disruptions and edge localized models (ELMs). Loss of the developed melt layer will critically shorten the lifetime of these components, severely contaminate the plasma, and seriously inhibit successful and reliable operation of the reactor. In this study mechanisms responsible for melt-layer loss during a disruption are modeled and evaluated. Implications of melt-layer loss on the performance of metallic facing components in the reactor environment are discussed

  6. Usage of Thermodynamic Activity for Optimization of Power Expenses in Respect of Casting Process in Arc Steel-Melting Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chichko

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The equilibrium between carbon and oxygen has been investigated during oxidizing refining in an arc steel-melting furnace. It is shown that there is a possibility to apply an equilibrium thermodynamic. It has been established that during oxidizing refining FeO concentration in slag practically does not depend on C concentration in metal. It is demonstrated that in a number of cases metal carbon oxidation is characterized by the presence of a transit period that may be attributed to incomplete slag-formation process.

  7. Crucible and coil monitoring during melting operation in induction crucible furnaces; Tiegel- und Spulenueberwachung beim Schmelzbetrieb von Induktionstiegeloefen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doetsch, Erwin; Forsthoevel, Christoph; Rische, Marco [ABP Induction Systems GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2013-03-15

    The immediate proximity of the metal melt, with a temperature of up to above, 1600 C, to the induction coil in inductive melting necessitates highly reliable monitoring systems, in order to prevent dangerous contact between the melt and the cooling-water-conducting copper section. Ground-fault monitoring, in which the electrical resistance between the melt and the coil is continuously measured, is a standard solution for this function. Everyday use of this long-established system has been made more dependable by automating a number of functions, and the system has also been adapted to modern plant technology, including synchronous tandem operation of two crucible furnaces from a common converter power supply, for example. Measurement of frequency and effective power, as a function of wall thickness, is a supplementary monitoring strategy. Processing of the measured data in the melt processor, in combination with visual assessment, permits appraisal of the integral crucible state and reliable estimation of the remaining service-life of the current crucible. (orig.)

  8. Behavior of nuclides at plasma melting of TRU wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amakawa, Tadashi; Adachi, Kazuo

    2001-01-01

    Arc plasma heating technique can easily be formed at super high temperature, and can carry out stable heating without any effect of physical and chemical properties of the wastes. By focussing to these characteristics, this technique was experimentally investigated on behavior of TRU nuclides when applying TRU wastes forming from reprocessing process of used fuels to melting treatment by using a mimic non-radioactive nuclide. At first, according to mechanism determining the behavior of TRU nuclides, an element (mimic nuclide) to estimate the behavior was selected. And then, to zircaloy with high melting point or steel can simulated to metal and noncombustible wastes and fly ash, the mimic nuclide was added, prior to melting by using the arc plasma heating technique. As a result, on a case of either melting sample, it was elucidated that the nuclides hardly moved into their dusts. Then, the technique seems to be applicable for melting treatment of the TRU wastes. (G.K.)

  9. A plasma melting technology for volume reduction of noncombustible radioactive waste in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Myung Jae; Moon, Young Pyo

    1998-01-01

    In Korea, there is a strong need for the development of radioactive waste volume reduction technology. Korea Electric Power Research Institute (KEPRI) has been searching for ways to reduce the radioactive volume significantly and to produce stable waste forms. In particular, plasma treatment technology has caught KEPR's attention for treating noncombustible radwaste because this technology may far surpass conventional methods. The potential for greater control of temperature, faster reaction times, better control of processing, lower capital costs, greater throughput and more efficient use of energy is there. For the plasma melting study of noncombustible waste, KEPRI has leased a lab scale multipurpose plasma furnace system and performed preliminary tests. Using simulated noncombustible waste based on field survey data from nuclear power plants, lab scale melting experiments have been carried out. The properties of molten slag vary with additives and noncombustible waste materials. KEPRI's current study is focused on finding an optimum composition ratio of various noncombustible wastes for melting, investigating physical properties of molten slag, and obtaining operating parameters for continuous operation. (author)

  10. The induction furnace as a melting facility in steel production. Pt. 1. Features of induction furnaces used in steel production; Der Induktionsofen als Schmelzaggregat fuer die Stahlerzeugung. T. 1. Merkmale von Induktionsoefen in der Stahlerzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabet, Mohamed; Doetsch, Erwin [ABP Induction Systems GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Global steel output has now been growing extremely rapidly for a prolonged time; in the past ten years alone, annual production has risen from 851 million t/a (in 2001) to 1417 million t/a (2010), as a result, primarily, of growth in China. Electric steel production using the electric arc furnace as the classical melting facility is around 45 % world-wide, with a rising trend (but excluding the special case of China, where oxygen-route steel holds a 90 % share of production). Following the development of induction technology and inverter outputs of over 40 MW for crucible furnaces with capacities of above 65 t, the induction furnace is now available as an alternative electrical melting installation for use in smaller mini steel mills. The benefits of this technology can be found in high feed-material efficiencies and low environmental and workplace burdens, in addition to the absence of electrode costs and the only modest demands made on the power-supply grid. These features of the induction furnace and their special significance for steel production are examined in Part 1 of this article. The second part of the article then focuses on examples of the use of induction furnaces in the steelmaking plant. (orig.)

  11. A study on the particle melting by plasma spraying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, In Ha; Ji, C. G.; Bae, S. O.; Yoon, J. H.; Kwon, H. I.

    2001-12-01

    As a preliminary study for fabricating a thick and dense free standing type deposit, powder melting studies were carried out. Various morphologies and sizes of powder having the same chemical compositions were applied in particle melting experiments with varying systematic parameters. Through the study of powder melting by inductively coupled plasma, we can conclude as followings: Argon-hydrogen plasma gas with a higher plasma power gave good quality of splats and shown a higher density with a higher build-up rate. Reproducibility of the experiments appeared in the range of 99%. Degree of particle melting and its density just before impinging played a predominant role in the density of a deposit. Chamber pressure has an effect on degree of deformation of the splats, i.e. on the particle momentum. Completely melted particle showed a high deformation appearance. Build-up rate had a relation with a fraction of the fully melted particle, and this also closely associates with productivity and economical efficiency. For increasing the fraction of the fully melted particle, either increasing the power or limiting the particle size was recommended. Mean pore size and its distribution of a deposit seemed to have a relation with a viscosity of the melted powder, i.e. particle temperature, and also with a chamber pressure and spraying distances. Particle temperature may be governed by a plasma power, plasma gas property, probe position, and spraying distance in the present experimental range. Some results might be appeared with mutual interactions of the effects, for example, particle residence time and momentum with chamber pressure, particle temperature with chamber pressure, spraying distance and its size

  12. A study on the particle melting by plasma spraying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, In Ha; Ji, C. G.; Bae, S. O.; Yoon, J. H.; Kwon, H. I

    2001-12-01

    As a preliminary study for fabricating a thick and dense free standing type deposit, powder melting studies were carried out. Various morphologies and sizes of powder having the same chemical compositions were applied in particle melting experiments with varying systematic parameters. Through the study of powder melting by inductively coupled plasma, we can conclude as followings: Argon-hydrogen plasma gas with a higher plasma power gave good quality of splats and shown a higher density with a higher build-up rate. Reproducibility of the experiments appeared in the range of 99%. Degree of particle melting and its density just before impinging played a predominant role in the density of a deposit. Chamber pressure has an effect on degree of deformation of the splats, i.e. on the particle momentum. Completely melted particle showed a high deformation appearance. Build-up rate had a relation with a fraction of the fully melted particle, and this also closely associates with productivity and economical efficiency. For increasing the fraction of the fully melted particle, either increasing the power or limiting the particle size was recommended. Mean pore size and its distribution of a deposit seemed to have a relation with a viscosity of the melted powder, i.e. particle temperature, and also with a chamber pressure and spraying distances. Particle temperature may be governed by a plasma power, plasma gas property, probe position, and spraying distance in the present experimental range. Some results might be appeared with mutual interactions of the effects, for example, particle residence time and momentum with chamber pressure, particle temperature with chamber pressure, spraying distance and its size.

  13. Physics-Based Modeling of Electric Operation, Heat Transfer, and Scrap Melting in an AC Electric Arc Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Florian; Treffinger, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Electric arc furnaces (EAF) are complex industrial plants whose actual behavior depends upon numerous factors. Due to its energy intensive operation, the EAF process has always been subject to optimization efforts. For these reasons, several models have been proposed in literature to analyze and predict different modes of operation. Most of these models focused on the processes inside the vessel itself. The present paper introduces a dynamic, physics-based model of a complete EAF plant which consists of the four subsystems vessel, electric system, electrode regulation, and off-gas system. Furthermore the solid phase is not treated to be homogenous but a simple spatial discretization is employed. Hence it is possible to simulate the energy input by electric arcs and fossil fuel burners depending on the state of the melting progress. The model is implemented in object-oriented, equation-based language Modelica. The simulation results are compared to literature data.

  14. Plasma arc melting of titanium-tantalum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, P.; Patterson, R.A.; Haun, R.

    1994-01-01

    Los Alamos has several applications for high temperature, oxidation and liquid-metal corrosion resistant materials. Further, materials property constraints are dictated by a requirement to maintain low density; e.g., less than the density of stainless steel. Liquid metal compatibility and density requirements have driven the research toward the Ti-Ta system with an upper bound of 60 wt% Ta-40 wt% Ti. Initial melting of these materials was performed in a small button arc melter with several hundred grams of material; however, ingot quantities were soon needed. But, refractory metal alloys whose constituents possess very dissimilar densities, melting temperatures and vapor pressures pose significant difficulty and require specialized melting practices. The Ti-Ta alloys fall into this category with the density of tantalum 16.5 g/cc and that of titanium 4.5 g/cc. Melting is further complicated by the high melting point of Ta(3020 C) and the relatively low boiling point of Ti(3287 C). Previous electron beam melting experience with these materials resulted, in extensive vaporization of the titanium and poor chemical homogeneity. Vacuum arc remelting(VAR) was considered as a melting candidate and discarded due to density and vapor pressure issues associated with electron beam. Plasma arc melting offered the ability to supply a cover gas to deal with vapor pressure issues as well as solidification control to help with macrosegregation in the melt and has successfully produced high quality ingots of the Ti-Ta alloys

  15. Combustion performance of an aluminum melting furnace operating with liquid fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieckele, Angela Ourivio; Naccache, Monica Feijo; Gomes, Marcos Sebastiao de P. [Pontificia Universidade Catolica (PUC-Rio), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica], E-mails: nieckele@puc-rio.br, naccache@puc-rio.br, mspgomes@puc-rio.br

    2010-10-15

    The characteristics associated with the delivery of the fuel to be used as the energy source in any industrial combustion equipment are of extreme importance, as for example, in improving the performance of the combustion process and in the preservation of the equipment. A clean and efficient combustion may be achieved by carefully selecting the fuel and oxidant, as well as the operational conditions of the delivery system for both. In the present work, numerical simulations were carried out using the commercial code FLUENT for analyzing some of the relevant operational conditions inside an aluminum reverb furnace employing liquid fuel and air as the oxidant. Different fuel droplets sizes as well as inlet droplet stream configurations were examined. These characteristics, associated with the burner geometry and the fuel dispersion and delivery system may affect the flame shape, and consequently the temperature and the heat flux distribution within the furnace. Among the results obtained in the simulations, it was shown the possible damages to the equipment, which may occur as a result of the combustion process, if the flame is too long or too intense and concentrated. (author)

  16. FT-IR emissivity measurements of Nb melt using an electrostatic levitation furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakata, K.; Watanabe, Y.; Okada, J.T.; Kumar, M.V.; Paradis, P.-F.; Ishikawa, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Since molten Nb has a high melting point, its thermal properties were measured using FT-IR combined with an electrostatic levitator. • The measured ε_T of molten Nb at the melting temperature in this study was 0.29, and the C_p was calculated as 41.9 J ⋅ mol"−"1 ⋅ K"−"1. - Abstract: Total hemispherical emissivity (ε_T) and constant pressure heat capacity (C_p) of molten Nb, which has a high melting point, was measured using FT-IR combined with an electrostatic levitator. In order to heat the sample to temperatures higher than 2000 °C and avoid chemical reactions between the sample and a crucible, a containerless method was needed. By applying these methods, the measured ε_T of molten Nb at the melting temperature was 0.29, and the C_p was calculated as 41.9 J ⋅ mol"−"1 ⋅ K"−"1. Both data showed good agreement with the literature values. In addition, the result was compared with the Drude model and the difference of emissivity between Zr and Nb was discussed.

  17. Stability and erosion of melt layers formed during plasma disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.M.

    1989-01-01

    Melting and vaporization of metallic reactor components such as the first wall and the limiter/divertor may be expected in fusion reactors due to the high energy deposition resulting from plasma instabilities occuring during both normal and off-normal operating conditions. Off-normal operating conditions result from plasma disruptions where the plasma losses confinement and dumps its energy on parts of reactor components. High heat flux may also result during normal operating conditions due to fluctuations in plasma edge conditions. Of particular significance is the stability and erosion of the resulting melt layer which directly impacts the total expected lifetime of the reactor. The loss of the melt layer during the disruption could have a serious impact on the required safe and economic operation of the reactor. A model is developed to describe the behavior of the melt layer during the time evolution of the disruption. The analysis is done parametrically for a range of disruption times, energy densities and various acting forces

  18. Plasma carburizing with surface micro-melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balanovsky, A. E.; Grechneva, M. V.; Van Huy, Vu; Ponomarev, B. B.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents carburizing the surface of 20 low carbon steel using electric arc and graphite prior. A carbon black solution was prepared with graphite powder and sodium silicate in water. A detailed analysis of the phase structure and the distribution profile of the sample hardness after plasma treatment were given. The hardened layer consists of three different zones: 1 – the cemented layer (thin white zone) on the surface, 2 – heat-affected zone (darkly etching structure), 3 – the base metal. The experimental result shows that the various microstructures and micro-hardness profiles were produced depending on the type of graphite coating (percentage of liquid glass) and processing parameters. The experiment proved that the optimum content of liquid glass in graphite coating is 50–87.5%. If the amount of liquid glass is less than 50%, adhesion to metal is insufficient. If liquid glass content is more than 87.5%, carburization of a metal surface does not occur. A mixture of the eutectic lamellar structure, martensite and austenite was obtained by using graphite prior with 67% sodium silicate and the levels of the hardness layer increased to around 1000 HV. The thickness of the cemented layer formed on the surface was around 200 μm. It is hoped that this plasma surface carburizing treatment could improve the tribological resistance properties.

  19. Experimental research on the characteristics of softening and melting of iron ores as significant factor of influence on gas permeability of blast furnace charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branescu, E; Blajan, A O; Constantin, N

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted as a cohesive zone is directly influenced by softening and melting properties of iron ores, preparations (crowded, pellets, which represents about 90%, of the loads with metal furnace intake), or uncooked (raw ores ranked). Important results can be obtained through the study of behavior of ferrous materials at temperatures above 1000 ° C. Starting from research methods presented in the literature, this paper presents itself in carrying out their own laboratory experiments, conducted with the aim of analysing the softening and melting properties of sinter iron cores. (paper)

  20. DU Processing Efficiency and Reclamation: Plasma Arc Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imhoff, Seth D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aikin, Jr., Robert M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Swenson, Hunter [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Solis, Eunice Martinez [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-26

    The work described here corresponds to one piece of a larger effort to increase material usage efficiency during DU processing operations. In order to achieve this goal, multiple technologies and approaches are being tested. These technologies occupy a spectrum of technology readiness levels (TRLs). Plasma arc melting (PAM) is one of the technologies being investigated. PAM utilizes a high temperature plasma to melt materials. Depending on process conditions, there are potential opportunities for recycling and material reclamation. When last routinely operational, the LANL research PAM showed extremely promising results for recycling and reclamation of DU and DU alloys. The current TRL is lower due to machine idleness for nearly two decades, which has proved difficult to restart. This report describes the existing results, promising techniques, and the process of bringing this technology back to readiness at LANL.

  1. Melt-processing method for radioactive solid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroaki

    1998-01-01

    Radioactive solid wastes are charged into a water-cooled type cold crucible induction melting furnace disposed in high frequency coils, and high frequency currents are supplied to high frequency coils which surround the melting furnace to melt the solid wastes by induction-heating. In this case, heat plasmas are jetted from above the solid wastes to the solid wastes to conduct initial heating to melt a portion of the solid wastes. Then, high frequency currents are supplied to the high frequency coils to conduct induction heating. According to this method, even when waste components of various kinds of materials are mixed, a portion of the solid wastes in the induction melting furnace can be melted by the initial heating by jetting heat plasmas irrespective of the kinds and the electroconductivity of the materials of the solid wastes. With such procedures, entire solid wastes in the furnace can be formed into a molten state uniformly and rapidly. (T.M.)

  2. Disposal of low-level radioactive wastes. Plasma furnace for the treatment of low-level radwastes in Switzerland. Plasma furnace for the treatment of low-level radwastes in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffelner, W.; Mueller, T.; Fuenfschilling, M.R.; Jacobi, A.; Eschenbach, R.; Lutz, H.R.; Vuilleumier, C.

    1994-01-01

    The treatment method to be applied consists of thermal decomposition and vitrification. The facility to be constructed at the Zwilag is a plasma-arc furnace, and planning activities are heading towards the final phase. There will be only this one facility for treating in only one process step solid, mixed wastes, liquid wastes, sludges, metals, and inorganic wastes, producing vitrified waste packages ready for ultimate storage as 200-l waste drums. The main features of the plasma-arc furnace are explained. (orig./HP) [de

  3. Determination of the Optimum Conditions for Leaching of Zinc Cathode Melting Furnace Slag in Ammonium Chloride Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnajady, Bahram; Babaeidehkordi, Amin; Moghaddam, Javad

    2014-04-01

    This research is part of a continuing effort to leach zinc from zinc cathode melting furnace slags (ZCMFSs) to produce zinc oxide. The slag with an assay of 68.05 pct Zn was used in ammonium chloride leaching for zinc extraction. In this paper, the effects of influential factors on extraction efficiency of Zn from a ZCMFS were investigated. The Taguchi's method based on orthogonal array (OA) design has been used to arrange the experimental runs in order to maximize zinc extraction from a slag. The softwares named Excel and Design-Expert 7 have been used to design experiments and subsequent analysis. OA L 25 (55) consisting of five parameters, each with five levels, was employed to evaluate the effects of reaction time ( t = 10, 30, 50, 70, 90 minutes), reaction temperature [ T = 313, 323, 333, 343, 353 (40, 50, 60, 70, 80) K (°C)], pulp density ( S/ L = 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 g/L), stirring speed ( R = 300, 400, 500, 600, 700 rpm), and ammonium chloride concentration ( C = 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 pctwt), on zinc extraction percent. Statistical analysis, ANOVA, was also employed to determine the relationship between experimental conditions and yield levels. The results showed that the significant parameters affecting leaching of slag were ammonium chloride concentration and pulp density, and increasing pulp density reduced leaching efficiency of zinc. However, increasing ammonium chloride concentration promoted the extraction of zinc. The optimum conditions for this study were found to be t 4: 70 minutes, T 5: 353 K (80 °C), ( S/ L)2: 40 g/L, R 3: 500 rpm, and C 4: 25 pctwt. Under these conditions, the dissolution percentage of Zn in ammonium chloride media was 94.61 pct.

  4. Final Report, Materials for Industrial Heat Recovery Systems, Task 1 Improved Materials and Operation of Recuperators for Aluminum Melting Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, James R.; Sarma, Gorti B.; Thekdi, Arvind; Meisner Roberta A.; Phelps, Tony; Willoughby, Adam W.; Gorog, J. Peter; Zeh, John; Ningileri, Shridas; Liu, Yansheng; Xiao, Chenghe

    2007-09-30

    Production of aluminum is a very energy intensive process which is increasingly more important in the USA. This project concentrated on the materials issues associated with recovery of energy from the flue gas stream in the secondary industry where scrap and recycled metal are melted in large furnaces using gas fired burners. Recuperators are one method used to transfer heat from the flue gas to the air intended for use in the gas burners. By preheating this combustion air, less fuel has to be used to raise the gas temperature to the desired level. Recuperators have been successfully used to preheat the air, however, in many cases the metallic recuperator tubes have a relatively limited lifetime – 6 to 9 months. The intent of this project was to determine the cause of the rapid tube degradation and then to recommend alternative materials or operating conditions to prolong life of the recuperator tubes. The first step to understanding degradation of the tubes was to examine exposed tubes to identify the corrosion products. Analyses of the surface scales showed primarily iron oxides rather than chromium oxide suggesting the tubes were probably cycled to relatively high temperatures to the extent that cycling and subsequent oxide spalling reduced the surface concentration of chromium below a critical level. To characterize the temperatures reached by the tubes, thermocouples were mounted on selected tubes and the temperatures measured. During the several hour furnace cycle, tube temperatures well above 1000°C were regularly recorded and, on some occasions, temperatures of more than 1100°C were measured. Further temperature characterization was done with an infrared camera, and this camera clearly showed the variations in temperature across the first row of tubes in the four recuperator modules. Computational fluid dynamics was used to model the flow of combustion air in the tubes and the flue gas around the outside of the tubes. This modeling showed the

  5. Environmental assessment for Retech, Inc.'s Plasma Centrifugal Furnace Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The US DOE and the US EPA are conducting a hazardous waste demonstration program in cooperation with the EPA Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program. The program is testing Retech, Inc.'s Plasma Centrifugal Furnace (PCF) technology. Since shakedown/preliminary testing is nearly complete, DOE proposed to begin Phase I studies to examine the applicability of this technology to treatment/destruction of typical Idaho National Engineering Laboratory wastes and industrial water treatment sludges. Pending the results of the Phase I study, the EPA will decide their level of involvement. The timeframe for the EPA and Phase II of DOE testing will be decided at the conclusion of the Phase I study. This document focuses primarily on the environmental impact of the two DOE phases; however, impact analysis will also be performed for the EPA feedstock. 25 refs., 1 fig

  6. A combined arc-melting and tilt-casting furnace for the manufacture of high-purity bulk metallic glass materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soinila, E; Pihlajamäki, T; Bossuyt, S; Hänninen, H

    2011-07-01

    An arc-melting furnace which includes a tilt-casting facility was designed and built, for the purpose of producing bulk metallic glass specimens. Tilt-casting was chosen because reportedly, in combination with high-purity processing, it produces the best fatigue endurance in Zr-based bulk metallic glasses. Incorporating the alloying and casting facilities in a single piece of equipment reduces the amount of laboratory space and capital investment needed. Eliminating the sample transfer step from the production process also saves time and reduces sample contamination. This is important because the glass forming ability in many alloy systems, such as Zr-based glass-forming alloys, deteriorates rapidly with increasing oxygen content of the specimen. The challenge was to create a versatile instrument, in which high purity conditions can be maintained throughout the process, even when melting alloys with high affinity for oxygen. Therefore, the design provides a high-vacuum chamber to be filled with a low-oxygen inert atmosphere, and takes special care to keep the system hermetically sealed throughout the process. In particular, movements of the arc-melting electrode and sample manipulator arm are accommodated by deformable metal bellows, rather than sliding O-ring seals, and the whole furnace is tilted for tilt-casting. This performance of the furnace is demonstrated by alloying and casting Zr(55)Cu(30)Al(10)Ni(5) directly into rods up to ø 10 mm which are verified to be amorphous by x-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry, and to exhibit locally ductile fracture at liquid nitrogen temperature.

  7. Behaviour of radionuclides during accidental melting of orphan sources in electric arc furnaces by means of C.F.D. gas flow modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penalva, I.; Damborenea, J.; Legarda, F.; Zuloaga, P.; Ordonez, M.; Serrano, I.

    2006-01-01

    The appearance of orphan sources in steelmaking facilities has become a fact nowadays. Radiation sources, hidden within the scrap, may come into the scrap yard and become part of the melting. As a result, dispersion of the radioactive material that makes up the source takes place throughout the facility. The University of the Basque Country (U.P.V.-E.H.U.), in collaboration with the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (E.N.R.E.S.A.) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (C.S.N.), has carried out a Research Project to analyze this accidental melting of radioactive sources in electric arc furnaces (E.A.F.). The whole steelmaking process can be analyzed in several discrete phases. Radioactive sources that may be incorporated to this process will be exposed to the different critical conditions prevailing during each phase. In this sense, Computational Fluid Dynamics (C.F.D.) has been used in order to recreate such conditions and so, determine the characteristics of the dispersion of radioactivity. Two different situations have been studied in detail using C.F.D. techniques: thermal conditions around a scrap-basket that contains the source just before entering the furnace and the deposition of steelmaking dust containing 137 Cs on the inner surface of flue pipes. Before entering the furnace, scrap is usually placed inside a basket that remains above the furnace during some time. Once the furnace is open the scrap is dropped into the furnace to complete the loading process. C.F.D. techniques have been used to analyze the thermal conditions around the basket in order to assess the possibility of a break of the radioactive source hidden within the scrap, concluding that commercial sources will maintain their integrity during the whole loading process. On the other hand, after entering the furnace dispersion of the radioactive material will take place. Physical and chemical properties of the active elements (chemical form, composition, melting point, etc

  8. Behaviour of radionuclides during accidental melting of orphan sources in electric arc furnaces by means of C.F.D. gas flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penalva, I.; Damborenea, J.; Legarda, F. [University of the Basque Country, Nuclear Engineering and Fluids Mechanics (Spain); Zuloaga, P.; Ordonez, M. [Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, SA (ENRESA), Madrid (Spain); Serrano, I. [Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear, Madrid (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The appearance of orphan sources in steelmaking facilities has become a fact nowadays. Radiation sources, hidden within the scrap, may come into the scrap yard and become part of the melting. As a result, dispersion of the radioactive material that makes up the source takes place throughout the facility. The University of the Basque Country (U.P.V.-E.H.U.), in collaboration with the Empresa Nacional de Residuos Radiactivos, S.A. (E.N.R.E.S.A.) and the Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (C.S.N.), has carried out a Research Project to analyze this accidental melting of radioactive sources in electric arc furnaces (E.A.F.). The whole steelmaking process can be analyzed in several discrete phases. Radioactive sources that may be incorporated to this process will be exposed to the different critical conditions prevailing during each phase. In this sense, Computational Fluid Dynamics (C.F.D.) has been used in order to recreate such conditions and so, determine the characteristics of the dispersion of radioactivity. Two different situations have been studied in detail using C.F.D. techniques: thermal conditions around a scrap-basket that contains the source just before entering the furnace and the deposition of steelmaking dust containing {sup 137}Cs on the inner surface of flue pipes. Before entering the furnace, scrap is usually placed inside a basket that remains above the furnace during some time. Once the furnace is open the scrap is dropped into the furnace to complete the loading process. C.F.D. techniques have been used to analyze the thermal conditions around the basket in order to assess the possibility of a break of the radioactive source hidden within the scrap, concluding that commercial sources will maintain their integrity during the whole loading process. On the other hand, after entering the furnace dispersion of the radioactive material will take place. Physical and chemical properties of the active elements (chemical form, composition, melting point, etc

  9. A 100-kW three-phase ac plasma furnace for spheroidization of aluminum silicate particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, D.; Bonet, C.; Chauvin, G.; Geinaert, G.; Mathieu, A.C.; Millet, J.

    1981-01-01

    A 100-kW three-phase ac plasma furnace with sheathed copper electrodes (sheathing gas: air) is presented. It is used for spheroidizing ''chamotte'' (refractory-fired clay) particles having a smooth, pore-free surface. A simple, one-dimensional numerical model for the heat transfer to the particles explains the maximum processing rate and the detrimental influence of an inhomogeneous particle size distribution

  10. Comparative Study of Furnace and Flash Lamp Annealed Silicon Thin Films Grown by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheshwar Shrestha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Low-temperature growth of microcrystalline silicon (mc-Si is attractive for many optoelectronic device applications. This paper reports a detailed comparison of optical properties, microstructure, and morphology of amorphous silicon (a-Si thin films crystallized by furnace annealing and flash lamp annealing (FLA at temperatures below the softening point of glass substrate. The initial a-Si films were grown by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD. Reflectance measurement indicated characteristic peak in the UV region ~280 nm for the furnace annealed (>550 °C and flash lamp annealed films, which provided evidence of crystallization. The film surface roughness increased with increasing the annealing temperature as well as after the flash lamp annealing. X-ray diffraction (XRD measurement indicated that the as-deposited samples were purely amorphous and after furnace crystallization, the crystallites tended to align in one single direction (202 with uniform size that increased with the annealing temperature. On the other hand, the flash lamp crystalized films had randomly oriented crystallites with different sizes. Raman spectroscopy showed the crystalline volume fraction of 23.5%, 47.3%, and 61.3% for the samples annealed at 550 °C, 650 °C, and with flash lamp, respectively. The flash lamp annealed film was better crystallized with rougher surface compared to furnace annealed ones.

  11. Test Plan: Phase 1 demonstration of 3-phase electric arc melting furnace technology for vitrifying high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, W.C. [ed.

    1995-05-31

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of electric arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384216] is the US Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes feed preparation activities and melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a 3-phase electric arc (carbon electrode) furnace.

  12. Test Plan: Phase 1 demonstration of 3-phase electric arc melting furnace technology for vitrifying high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, W.C.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of electric arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384216] is the US Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, Albany Research Center, Albany, Oregon. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes feed preparation activities and melting of glass with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a 3-phase electric arc (carbon electrode) furnace

  13. Increase in the efficiency of electric melting of pellets in an arc furnace with allowance for the energy effect of afterburning of carbon oxide in slag using fuel-oxygen burners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, V. A.; Krakht, L. N.; Merker, E. E.; Sazonov, A. V.; Chermenev, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The problems of increasing the efficiency of electric steelmaking using fuel-oxygen burners to supply oxygen for the afterburning of effluent gases in an arc furnace are considered. The application of a new energy-saving regime based on a proposed technology of electric melting is shown to intensify the processes of slag formation, heating, and metal decarburization.

  14. High temperature aircraft research furnace facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, James E., Jr.; Cashon, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Focus is on the design, fabrication, and development of the High Temperature Aircraft Research Furnace Facilities (HTARFF). The HTARFF was developed to process electrically conductive materials with high melting points in a low gravity environment. The basic principle of operation is to accurately translate a high temperature arc-plasma gas front as it orbits around a cylindrical sample, thereby making it possible to precisely traverse the entire surface of a sample. The furnace utilizes the gas-tungsten-arc-welding (GTAW) process, also commonly referred to as Tungsten-Inert-Gas (TIG). The HTARFF was developed to further research efforts in the areas of directional solidification, float-zone processing, welding in a low-gravity environment, and segregation effects in metals. The furnace is intended for use aboard the NASA-JSC Reduced Gravity Program KC-135A Aircraft.

  15. Study on plasma melting treatment of crucibles, ceramic filter elements, asbestos, and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, Akiko; Nakasio, Nobuyuki; Nakajima, Mikio

    2004-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) decided to adopt an advanced volume reduction program for low-level radioactive wastes. In this program, inorganic wastes are converted to stable glassy products suitable for disposal by a plasma melting system in the Waste Volume Reduction Facilities (WVRF). High melting point wastes such as refractories are excluded from the plasma melting treatment in the WVRF, and wastes difficult to handle such as asbestos are also excluded. However, it is describable to apply the plasma melting treatment to these wastes for stabilization and volume reduction from the viewpoint of disposal. In this paper, plasma melting test of crucibles, ceramic filter elements, asbestos, and simulated fly ashes were carried out as a part of technical support for WVRF. The plasma melting treatment was applicable for crucibles and asbestos because homogeneous and glassy products were obtained by controlling of waste and loading condition. It was found that SiC in ceramic filter elements was volatile with a plasma torch with inert gas, and adding reducer was ineffective against stabilizing volatile metals such as Zn, Pb in a solidified product in the melting test of simulated fly ash. (author)

  16. Mathematical modeling of quartz particle melting process in plasma-chemical reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volokitin, Oleg, E-mail: volokitin-oleg@mail.ru; Volokitin, Gennady, E-mail: vgg-tomsk@mail.ru; Skripnikova, Nelli, E-mail: nks2003@mai.ru; Shekhovtsov, Valentin, E-mail: shehovcov2010@yandex.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Vlasov, Viktor, E-mail: rector@tsuab.ru [Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, 2, Solyanaya Sq., 634003, Tomsk (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Ave., 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    Among silica-based materials vitreous silica has a special place. The paper presents the melting process of a quartz particle under conditions of low-temperature plasma. A mathematical model is designed for stages of melting in the experimental plasma-chemical reactor. As calculation data show, quartz particles having the radius of 0.21≤ r{sub p} ≤0.64 mm completely melt at W = 0.65 l/s particle feed rate depending on the Nusselt number, while 0.14≤ r{sub p} ≤0.44 mm particles melt at W = 1.4 l/s. Calculation data showed that 2 mm and 0.4 mm quartz particles completely melted during and 0.1 s respectively. Thus, phase transformations occurred in silicon dioxide play the important part in its heating up to the melting temperature.

  17. Development of plasma melting technology for treatment of low level radioactive waste. Pt. 9. Treatment method for combustible wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Shinji; Adachi, Kazuo; Amakawa, Masashi

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes the incineration method for the miscellaneous solid waste containing the low level radioactive combustibles (wood, PE, PVC) in a plasma furnace. The maximum weights of the respective combustibles to be fed into the plasma furnace and the incineration conditions for continuous feeding of the respective combustibles were examined experimentally. As a result, a experimental equation which expresses the maximum weights of the respective combustibles to be fed in reference to the residence time in the plasma furnace was obtained by using apparent reaction rate constants. Furthermore, a calculation method for the feeding intervals in reference to the weights of the combustibles fed each time was obtained for the continuous feeding in the plasma furnace, and the method was found to be consistent with experimental results. (author)

  18. Particle melting and particle/plasma interactions in DC and RF plasmas: a modeling study. (Volumes I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, D.Y.C.

    1987-01-01

    Integral process models were developed to predict particle melting in both DC and RF plasmas. Specifically, a numerical model has been developed to predict the temperature history of particles injected in a low pressure DC plasma jet. The temperature and velocity fields of the plasma jet are predicted as a free jet by solving the parabolized Navier-Stokes equations using a spatial marching scheme. Correction factors were introduced to take into account non continuum effects encountered in the low pressure environment. The plasma jet profiles as well as the particle/plasma interactions under different jet pressure ratios (from underexpanded to overexpanded) were investigated. The flow and temperature fields in the RF plasma torch are calculated using the axisymmetric Navier-Stokes equations based on the primitive variables, along with pseudo two-dimensional electromagnetic field equations. Particle trajectories and heat transfer characteristics in both DC and RF plasmas are calculated using predicted plasma jet profiles. Particle melting efficiencies in both DC and RF plasmas are evaluated and compared using model alloy systems. Based on the theoretical considerations, an alternative route of plasma spraying process (hybrid plasma spraying process) is proposed. An evaluation of particle melting in hybrid plasma jets had indicated that further improvement in deposit properties could be made

  19. Melting characteristics of a plasma torch melter according to the waste feeding method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T. W.; Choi, J. R.; Park, S. C.; Lu, C. S.; Park, J. K.; Hwang, T. W.; Shin, S. W.

    2001-01-01

    By using a batch type plasma torch melting system, continuous feeding and melting tests of non-combustible waste were executed. Using the results, the establishment of a heat transfer model and its verification were executed; the characteristics of the molten slag, exhaust gas, fly dust, volatilization of Cs, and leaching of slag were analyzed. In order to establish the heat transfer mode, the followings were considered; the electrical energy supplied to the plasma torch, the absorbed energy to the plasma torch for generating the plasma gas, the absorbed energy to the cooling water of the plasma torch, the energy supplied to the melter from the plasma gas by radiant heat, the energy loss through the exhaust gas, the waste melting energy, and the heating energy of an inner crucible and the melter. The concrete and soil were melted for the verification of the model. The waste was fed through waste feeder by the amount of 0.5kg or 1kg that was calculated by using the model. The experiment for the verification resulted in that the model was fitted well until the melter was heated sufficiently. If the electrical energy of 128kW were supplied to the plasma torch, energy balance of the plasma melting system was calculated with the model: the absorbed energy to the plasma torch for generating the plasma gas (27kW), the absorbed energy to the cooling water of the plasma torch (0∼ 36kW), the energy loss through the exhaust gas (5 ∼ 8kW), the waste melting energy (14kW), and the heating energy of an inner crucible and the melter (82 ∼ 43kW)

  20. Modeling and simulation of melt-layer erosion during a plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassanein, A.; Belan, V.; Konkashbaev, I.; Nikandrov, L.; Safronov, V.; Zhitlukhin, A.; Litunovsky, V.

    1997-01-01

    Metallic plasma-facing components (PFCs) e.g. beryllium and tungsten, will be subjected to severe melting during plasma instabilities such as disruptions, edge-localized modes and high power excursions. Because of the greater thickness of the resulting melt layers relative to that of the surface vaporization, the potential loss of the developing melt-layer can significantly shorten PFC lifetime, severely contaminate the plasma and potentially prevent successful operation of the tokamak reactor. Mechanisms responsible for melt-layer loss during plasma instabilities are being modeled and evaluated. Of particular importance are hydrodynamic instabilities developed in the liquid layer due to various forces such as those from magnetic fields, plasma impact momentum, vapor recoil and surface tension. Another mechanism found to contribute to melt-layer splashing loss is volume bubble boiling, which can result from overheating of the liquid layer. To benchmark these models, several new experiments were designed and performed in different laboratory devices for this work; the SPLASH codes) are generally in good agreement with the experimental results. The effect of in-reactor disruption conditions, which do not exist in simulation experiments, on melt-layer erosion is discussed. (orig.)

  1. Ceramic plasma-sprayed coating of melting crucibles for casting metal fuel slugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Lee, Chong Tak; Lee, Chan Bock; Fielding, R.S.; Kennedy, J.R.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal cycling and melt reaction studies of ceramic coatings plasma-sprayed on Nb substrates were carried out to evaluate the performance of barrier coatings for metallic fuel casting applications. Thermal cycling tests of the ceramic plasma-sprayed coatings to 1450 °C showed that HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y 2 O 3 coating had good cycling characteristics with few interconnected cracks even after 20 cycles. Interaction studies by 1550 °C melt dipping tests of the plasma-sprayed coatings also indicated that HfN and Y 2 O 3 do not form significant reaction layer between U–20 wt.% Zr melt and the coating layer. Plasma-sprayed Y 2 O 3 coating exhibited the most promising characteristics among HfN, TiC, ZrC, and Y 2 O 3 coating

  2. Full melting of a two-dimensional complex plasma crystal triggered by localized pulsed laser heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couëdel, L.; Nosenko, V.; Rubin-Zuzic, M.; Zhdanov, S.; Elskens, Y.; Hall, T.; Ivlev, A. V.

    2018-04-01

    The full melting of a two-dimensional plasma crystal was induced in a principally stable monolayer by localized laser stimulation. Two distinct behaviors of the crystal after laser stimulation were observed depending on the amount of injected energy: (i) below a well-defined threshold, the laser melted area recrystallized; (ii) above the threshold, it expanded outwards in a similar fashion to mode-coupling instability-induced melting, rapidly destroying the crystalline order of the whole complex plasma monolayer. The reported experimental observations are due to the fluid mode-coupling instability, which can pump energy into the particle monolayer at a rate surpassing the heat transport and damping rates in the energetic localized melted spot, resulting in its further growth. This behavior exhibits remarkable similarities with impulsive spot heating in ordinary reactive matter.

  3. Melt layer behavior of metal targets irradiatead by powerful plasma streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tereshin, V.I.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high-heat loads is studied. Experiments with steel, copper, aluminum and titanium samples were carried out in two plasma accelerator devices with different time durations of the heat load. The surfaces of the resolidified melt layers show a considerable roughness with microcraters and ridge like relief on the surface. For each material the mass loss was determined. Melt layer erosion by melt motion was clearly identified. However it is masked by boiling, bubble expansion and bubble collapse and by formation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The experimental results can be used for validation of numerical codes which model melt layer erosion of metallic armour materials in off-normal events, in tokamaks

  4. Melt layer behavior of metal targets irradiatead by powerful plasma streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Garkusha, I.E. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Tereshin, V.I.; Wuerz, H

    2002-12-01

    In this paper melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high-heat loads is studied. Experiments with steel, copper, aluminum and titanium samples were carried out in two plasma accelerator devices with different time durations of the heat load. The surfaces of the resolidified melt layers show a considerable roughness with microcraters and ridge like relief on the surface. For each material the mass loss was determined. Melt layer erosion by melt motion was clearly identified. However it is masked by boiling, bubble expansion and bubble collapse and by formation of a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. The experimental results can be used for validation of numerical codes which model melt layer erosion of metallic armour materials in off-normal events, in tokamaks.

  5. Plasma melting and recycling technology for decommissioning material. Removal of zinc and lead of ferrous scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Koichi; Amakawa, Tadashi; Yasui, Shinji

    2001-01-01

    A great amount of nonradioactive waste such as concrete, metal and the like, will be generated intensively in a short period when dismantling nuclear power plants. Thus, it is very important for smooth dismantling to promote their recycling. Melting operates conditions to recycle metal easily, but degrades the quality by contamination of tramp elements. So it was performed to melt carbon steel coated with anti-corrosive paint including lead, zinc, etc. and to analyze the steel grade for study of obtaining the desired grade. On some test conditions, concentration of lead and zinc just after melting all samples lowered less than target concentration which was permissible for cast iron. About the unsatisfactory conditions when a lot of slag generated, concentration of zinc was simulated changing the sequence of plasma melting. The result showed that an efficient sequence controlled input energy to maintain molten bath after melting all samples as quickly as possible. (author)

  6. 3D Numerical Analysis of the Arc Plasma Behavior in a Submerged DC Electric Arc Furnace for the Production of Fused MgO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhen; Wang Ninghui; Li Tie; Cao Yong

    2012-01-01

    A three dimensional steady-state magnetohydrodynamic model is developed for the arc plasma in a DC submerged electric arc furnace for the production of fused MgO. The arc is generated in a small semi-enclosed space formed by the graphite electrode, the molten bath and unmelted raw materials. The model is first used to solve a similar problem in a steel making furnace, and the calculated results are found to be in good agreement with the published measurements. The behavior of arcs with different arc lengths is also studied in the furnace for MgO production. From the distribution of the arc pressure on the bath surface it is shown that the arc plasma impingement is large enough to cause a crater-like depression on the surface of the MgO bath. The circulation of the high temperature air under the electrode may enhance the arc efficiency, especially for a shorter arc.

  7. Plasma arc melting treatment of low level radioactive waste with centrifugal hearth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuji, Yukito

    1997-01-01

    Plasma Arc Melting technology may possible be able to treat various kinds of waste streams through volume reduction and stabilization into a disposal waste form. The ability of other melting technologies to convert inorganic material in a single step, however, varies according to the characteristics of the materials. Plasma technology also can treat organic waste by selecting the oxidation atmosphere. The Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) has decided to construct a low level radioactive waste treatment facility using the Plasma Arc Centrifugal Treatment (PACT) process with an 8 ft rotating hearth and 1.2 MW transferred torch developed by Retech (Ukiah, CA. USA) in the Tsuruga power station. In Japan, the plasma technology has been developed for incineration ash treatment, but the JAPC plant will be the first treatment system using plasma technology for solid waste with various characteristics and shapes. (author)

  8. Solid phase microextraction capillary gas chromatography combined with furnace atomization plasma emission spectrometry for speciation of mercury in fish tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, Patricia; Campos, Reinaldo C.; Mester, Zoltan; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

    2003-01-01

    The use of solid phase microextraction in conjunction with tandem gas chromatography-furnace atomization plasma emission spectrometry (SPME-GC-FAPES) was evaluated for the determination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in fish tissue. Samples were digested with methanolic potassium hydroxide, derivatized with sodium tetraethylborate and extracted by SPME. After the SPME extraction, species were separated by GC and detected by FAPES. All experimental parameters were optimized for best separation and analytical response. A repeatability precision of typically 2% can be achieved with long-term (3 months) reproducibility precision of 4.3%. Certified Reference Materials DORM-2, DOLT-2 and TORT-2 from the National Research Council of Canada were analyzed to verify the accuracy of this technique. Detection limits of 1.5 ng g -1 for methylmercury and 0.7 ng g -1 for inorganic mercury in biological tissues were obtained

  9. Influence of plasma pressure gradient on melt layer macroscopic erosion of metal targets in disruption simulation experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Garkusha, I.E. E-mail: garkusha@ipp.kharkov.ua; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Wuerz, H

    2003-03-01

    Melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high heat loads is discussed. Tungsten, copper, aluminum, and titanium targets were exposed to perpendicular and inclined plasma impact in the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. Melt layer motion results in erosion crater formation with rather large mountains of the resolidified material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of the melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten erosion.

  10. Influence of plasma pressure gradient on melt layer macroscopic erosion of metal targets in disruption simulation experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tereshin, V.I.; Garkusha, I.E.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Chebotarev, V.V.; Makhlaj, V.A.; Solyakov, D.G.; Wuerz, H.

    2003-01-01

    Melt layer erosion of metal targets under pulsed high heat loads is discussed. Tungsten, copper, aluminum, and titanium targets were exposed to perpendicular and inclined plasma impact in the quasi-steady-state plasma accelerator QSPA Kh-50. Melt layer motion results in erosion crater formation with rather large mountains of the resolidified material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of the melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten erosion

  11. The innovative plasma tilting furnace for treatment of radioactive and problematic chemical waste. From paper to reality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deckers, Jan; Gonzalez, Alicia; Cano, David

    2014-01-01

    The operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants, the nuclear fuel cycle in general, research laboratories and pharmaceutical, medical and industrial facilities generate large amounts of low-level radioactive wastes which, along with the historical radioactive wastes from past nuclear activities, needs to be treated to minimise the volume to be disposed of. Plasma technology offers a very effective way of treating this waste with a high volume reduction factor (VRF), free from organics, liquids and moisture, and meets without doubt the acceptance criteria for safe storage and disposal. By means of a plasma beam of approximately 5000 deg. C, the inorganic materials are melted into a glassy slag, containing the radioactive isotopes while the organic material is gasified and afterwards oxidized in an afterburner and purified in an off-gas cleaning system. This paper describes the principles of plasma, the different waste feed systems, off gas treatment, operational experience and future plasma plants. In particular a new full-scale plasma facility for the treatment of radioactive waste at the Kozloduy Nuclear Power Plant in Bulgaria is described. This facility is designed and now under construction by the Joint Venture Iberdrola Ingenieria y Construccion and Belgoprocess. (authors)

  12. INFLUENCE OF THE MODERN SYSTEMS OF THE BLAST STEEL-FURNACE ELECTRICAL PARAMETERS CONTROL ON CAPACITY AND TECHNICAL AND ECONOMICAL INDICES OF MELTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Andrianov

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of time under the current, electric energy rate, electrodes rate at working of arc steel-furnace with new transformer of capacity 95 MBA and with regulating system SIMELT-AC-NEC are noted.

  13. Evolution of transiently melt damaged tungsten under ITER-relevant divertor plasma heat loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bardin, S., E-mail: s.bardin@differ.nl [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Ass EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Morgan, T.W. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Ass EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Glad, X. [Université de Lorraine, Institut Jean Lamour, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Pitts, R.A. [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); De Temmerman, G. [FOM Institute DIFFER – Dutch Institute For Fundamental Energy Research, Ass EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-08-15

    A high-repetition-rate ELM simulation system was used at both the Pilot-PSI and Magnum-PSI linear plasma devices to investigate the nature of W damage under multiple shallow melt events and the subsequent surface evolution under ITER relevant plasma fluence and high ELM number. First, repetitive shallow melting of two W monoblocks separated by a 0.5 mm gap was obtained by combined pulsed/steady-state hydrogen plasma loading at normal incidence in the Pilot-PSI device. Surface modifications including melting, cracking and strong net-reshaping of the surface are obtained. During the second step, the pre-damaged W sample was exposed to a high flux plasma regime in the Magnum-PSI device with a grazing angle of 35°. SEM analysis indicates no measurable change to the surface state after the exposure in Magnum-PSI. An increase in transient-induced temperature rise of 40% is however observed, indicating a degradation of thermal properties over time.

  14. A close-form solution to predict the total melting time of an ablating slab in contact with a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, F.-B.

    2007-01-01

    An exact melt-through time is derived for a one-dimensional heated slab in contact with a plasma when the melted material is immediately removed. The plasma is composed of a collisionless presheath and sheath on a slab, which partially reflects and secondarily emits ions and electrons. The energy transport from plasma to the surface accounting for the presheath and sheath is determined from the kinetic analysis. This work proposes a semi-analytical model to calculate the total melting time of a slab based on a direct integration of the unsteady heat conduction equation, and provides quantitative results applicable to control the total melting time of the slab. The total melting time as a function of plasma parameters and thermophysical properties of the slab are obtained. The predicted energy transmission factor as a function of dimensionless wall potential agrees well with the experimental data. The effects of reflectivities of the ions and electrons on the wall, electron-to-ion source temperature ratio at the presheath edge, charge number, ion-to-electron mass ratio, ionization energy, plasma flow work-to-heat conduction ratios, Stefan number, melting temperature, Biot number and bias voltage on the total melting time of the slab are quantitatively provided in this work

  15. INTERACTION STUDIES OF CERAMIC VACUUM PLASMA SPRAYING FOR THE MELTING CRUCIBLE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JONG HWAN KIM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Candidate coating materials for re-usable metallic nuclear fuel crucibles, TaC, TiC, ZrC, ZrO2, and Y2O3, were plasma-sprayed onto a niobium substrate. The microstructure of the plasma-sprayed coatings and thermal cycling behavior were characterized, and U-Zr melt interaction studies were carried out. The TaC and Y2O3 coating layers had a uniform thickness, and high density with only a few small closed pores showing good consolidation, while the ZrC, TiC, and ZrO2 coatings were not well consolidated with a considerable amount of porosity. Thermal cycling tests showed that the adhesion of the TiC, ZrC, and ZrO2 coating layers with niobium was relatively weak compared to the TaC and Y2O3 coatings. The TaC and Y2O3 coatings had better cycling characteristics with no interconnected cracks. In the interaction studies, ZrC and ZrO2 coated rods showed significant degradations after exposure to U-10 wt.% Zr melt at 1600°C for 15 min., but TaC, TiC, and Y2O3 coatings showed good compatibility with U-Zr melt.

  16. Design and Development of Tilting Rotary Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Varun, V.; Tejesh, P.; Prashanth, B. N.

    2018-02-01

    Casting is the best and effective technique used for manufacturing products. The important accessory for casting is furnace. Furnace is used to melt the metal. A perfect furnace is one that reduces the wastage of material, reduces the cost of manufacturing and there by reduces the cost of production. Of all the present day furnaces there may be wastage of material, and the chances of increasing the time of manufacturing as the is continuous need of tilting of the furnace for every mould and then changing the moulds. Considering these aspects, a simple and least expensive tilting rotary furnace is designed and developed. The Tilting and Rotary Furnace consists of mainly melting chamber and the base. The metal enters the melting chamber through the input door that is provided on the top of the melting chamber. Inside the melting chamber there is a graphite furnace. The metal is melted in the graphite crucible. An insulation of ceramic fibre cloth is provided inside the furnace. The metal is melted using Propane gas. The propane gas is easily available and economic. The gas is burned using a pilot burner. The pilot burner is more efficient that other burners. The pilot burner is lit with a push button igniter. The pilot burner is located at the bottom of the combustion chamber. This enables the uniform heating of the metal inside the crucible. The temperature inside the melting chamber is noted using a temperature sensor. The gas input is cut-off if the temperature is exceeding a specific temperature. After the melting of the metal is done the furnace is tilted and after the mould is filled it is rotated. The external gears are used to controlling the tilting. The results of studies carried out for the design & development of low cost, simple furnace that can be mounted anywhere on the shop floor and this can be very much useful for the education purposes and small scale manufacturing. The furnace can be rotated in 360 degrees and can help in reducing the time taken

  17. Polygon construction to investigate melting in two-dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruhunusiri, W. D. Suranga; Goree, J.; Feng Yan; Liu Bin

    2011-01-01

    The polygon construction method of Glaser and Clark is used to characterize melting and crystallization in a two-dimensional (2D) strongly coupled dusty plasma. Using particle positions measured by video microscopy, bonds are identified by triangulation, and unusually long bonds are deleted. The resulting polygons have three or more sides. Geometrical defects, which are polygons with more than three sides, are found to proliferate during melting. Pentagons are found in liquids, where they tend to cluster with other pentagons. Quadrilaterals are a less severe defect, so that disorder can be characterized by the ratio of quadrilaterals to pentagons. This ratio is found to be less in a liquid than in a solid or a superheated solid. Another measure of disorder is the abundance of different kinds of vertices, according to the type of polygons that adjoin there. Unexpectedly, spikes are observed in the abundance of certain vertex types during rapid temperature changes. Hysteresis, revealed by a plot of a disorder parameter vs temperature, is examined to study sudden heating. The hysteresis diagram also reveals features suggesting a possibility of latent heat in the melting and rapid cooling processes.

  18. ELM-induced melting: assessment of shallow melt layer damage and the power handling capability of tungsten in a linear plasma device

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morgan, T.W.; van Eden, G.G.; de Kruif, T.M.; van den Berg, A.; Matějíček, Jiří; Chráska, Tomáš; De Temmerman, G.

    -, T159 (2014), 014022-014022 ISSN 0031-8949. [International Conference on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications/14./. Jülich, 13.05.2013-17.05.2013] Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : melting * tungsten * ELMs * divertor * ITER * DEMO Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy Impact factor: 1.126, year: 2014 http://iopscience.iop.org/1402-4896/2014/T159/014022/pdf/1402-4896_2014_T159_014022.pdf

  19. Evaluation of the graphite electrode DC arc furnace for the treatment of INEL buried wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, J.E.; Freeman, C.J.; Powell, T.D.; Cohn, D.R.; Smatlak, D.L.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.

    1993-06-01

    The past practices of DOE and its predecessor agencies in burying radioactive and hazardous wastes have left DOE with the responsibility of remediating large volumes of buried wastes and contaminated soils. The Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID), has chosen to evaluate treatment of buried wastes at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Because of the characteristics of the buried wastes, the potential for using high-temperature thermal treatment technologies is being evaluated. The soil-waste mixture at INEL, when melted or vitrified, produces a glass/ceramic referred to as iron-enriched basalt (IEB). One potential problem with producing the IEB material is the high melting temperature of the waste and soil (1,400-1,600 degrees C). One technology that has demonstrated capabilities to process high melting point materials is the plasma arc heated furnace. A three-party program was initiated and the program involved testing an engineering-scale DC arc furnace to gain preliminary operational and waste processibility information. It also included the design, fabrication, and evaluation of a second-generation, pilot-scale graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Widely ranging simulants of INEL buried waste were prepared and processed in the Mark I furnace. The tests included melting of soils with metals, sludges, combustibles, and simulated drums. Very promising results in terms of waste product quality, volume reduction, heating efficiency, and operational reliability and versatility were obtained. The results indicate that the graphite electrode DC arc technology would be very well suited for treating high melting point wastes such as those found at INEL. The graphite electrode DC arc furnace has been demonstrated to be very simple, yet effective, with excellent prospects for remote or semi-remote operation

  20. Induced tungsten melting events in the divertor of ASDEX Upgrade and their influence on plasma performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krieger, K.; Lunt, T.; Dux, R.; Janzer, A.; Kallenbach, A.; Mueller, H.W.; Neu, R.; Puetterich, T.; Rohde, V.

    2011-01-01

    Tungsten rods of 1 x 1 x 3 mm were exposed at the outer divertor plate of ASDEX Upgrade using a manipulator system. Controlled melting of the W-rod in H-mode discharges was induced by moving the outer strike point towards the W-rod position. Visible light emission of ejected W droplets was recorded by fast camera systems. The resulting increase of tungsten concentration in the confined plasma was compared to that induced by W laser ablation into the outer main chamber boundary plasma. The resulting divertor retention expressed as ratio of tungsten core penetration probability from a divertor source to that of a main chamber source is ∼100. Ejected droplets are found to move always in general direction of the plasma flow. The measured magnitude of droplet acceleration shows that droplets are mainly subject to rocket forces and friction forces. Typical initial droplet size can be inferred from the time evolution of the droplet light emission to be ≥100μm.

  1. Progress in atomizing high melting intermetallic titanium based alloys by means of a novel plasma melting induction guiding gas atomization facility (PIGA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerling, R.; Schimansky, F.P.; Wagner, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstofforschung

    1994-12-31

    For the production of intermetallic titanium based alloy powders a novel gas atomization facility has been put into operation: By means of a plasma torch the alloy is melted in a water cooled copper crucible in skull melting technique. To the tap hole of the crucible, a novel transfer system is mounted which forms a thin melt stream and guides it into the gas nozzle. This transfer system consists of a ceramic free induction heated water cooled copper funnel. Gas atomization of {gamma}-TiAl (melting temperature 1400 C) and Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} (2130 C) proved the possibility to produce ceramic free pre-alloyed powders with this novel facility. The TiAl powder particles are spherical; about 20 wt.% are smaller than 45 {mu}m. The oxygen and copper pick up during atomization do not exceed 250 and 35 {mu}g/g respectively. The Ti{sub 5}Si{sub 3} powder particles are almost spherical. Only about 10 wt.% are <45 {mu}m whereas the O{sub 2} and Cu contamination is also kept at a very low level (250 and 20 {mu}g/g respectively). (orig.)

  2. Arc plasma incineration of surrogate radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Girold, C.; Cartier, R.; Taupiac, J.P.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    The aim of this presentation is to demonstrate the feasibility to substitute a single plasma reactor, where the arc is transferred on a melt glass bath, for several steps in an existing nuclear technological wastes incinerator. The incineration of wastes, the produced gas treatment and the vitrification of ashes issued from waste incineration are the three simultaneous functions of this new kind of reactor. The three steps of the work are described: first, post-combustion in an oxygen plasma of gases generated from the waste pyrolysis, then, vitrification of ashes from the calcination of wastes in the transferred plasma furnace and finally, incineration/vitrification of wastes in the same furnace

  3. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  4. Melt layer macroscopic erosion of tungsten and other metals under plasma heat loads simulating ITER off-normal events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garkusha, I.E.; Bandura, A.N.; Byrka, O.V.; Kulik, N.V.; Landman, I.; Wuerz, H.

    2002-01-01

    This paper is focused on experimental analysis of metal layer erosion and droplet splashing of tungsten and other metals under heat loads typical for ITER FEAT off-normal events,such as disruptions and VDE's. Plasma pressure gradient action on melt layer results in erosion crater formation with mountains of displaced material at the crater edge. It is shown that macroscopic motion of melt layer and surface cracking are the main factors responsible for tungsten damage. Weight loss measurements of all exposed materials demonstrate inessential contribution of evaporation process to metals erosion

  5. Study of Raw Materials Treatment by Melting and Gasification Process in Plasma Arc Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter KURILLA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The world consumption of metals and energy has increased in last few decades and it is still increasing. Total volume production results to higher waste production. Raw material basis of majority metals and fossil fuels for energy production is more complex and current waste treatment has long term tendency. Spent power cells of different types have been unneeded and usually they are classified as dangerous waste. This important issue is the main topic of the thesis, in which author describes pyrometallurgical method for storage batteries – power cells and catalysts treatment. During the process there were tested a trial of spent NiMH, Li – ion power cells and spent copper catalysts with metal content treatment by melting and gasification process in plasma arc reactor. The synthetic gas produced from gasification process has been treated by cogenerations micro turbines units for energy recovery. The metal and slag from treatment process are produced into two separately phases and they were analyzing continually.

  6. Granulated blast furnace slag – A boon for foundry industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Silica sand; Blast Furnace Slag; Mould properties; Ferrous and nonferrous ... raw material for the production of cast components in foundry industries. ... applications for conserving natural resources and reduce the cost of the raw .... in an elevated temperature melting furnace with temperature values of 750 to.

  7. Surface cracking and melting of different tungsten grades under transient heat and particle loads in a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kitagawa, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.; Ueda, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Surface damage of pure tungsten (W), W alloys with 2 wt.% tantalum (W-Ta) and vacuum plasma spray (VPS) W coating on a reduced activation material of ferritic steel (F82H) due to repetitive ELM-like pulsed (˜0.3 ms) deuterium plasma irradiation has been investigated by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. Surface cracks appeared on a pure W sample exposed to 10 plasma pulses of ˜0.3 MJ m-2, while a W-Ta sample did not show surface cracks with similar pulsed plasma irradiation. The energy density threshold for surface cracking was significantly increased by the existence of the alloying element of tantalum. No surface morphology change of a VPS W coated F82H sample was observed under 10 plasma pulses of ˜0.3 MJ m-2, although surface melting and cracks in the resolidification layer occurred at higher energy density of ˜0.9 MJ m-2. There was no indication of exfoliation of the W coating from the substrate of F82H after the pulsed plasma exposures.

  8. Surface cracking and melting of different tungsten grades under transient heat and particle loads in a magnetized coaxial plasma gun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kikuchi, Y., E-mail: ykikuchi@eng.u-hyogo.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Sakuma, I.; Iwamoto, D.; Kitagawa, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, University of Hyogo, 2167 Shosha, Himeji, Hyogo 671-2280 (Japan); Ueda, Y. [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2013-07-15

    Surface damage of pure tungsten (W), W alloys with 2 wt.% tantalum (W–Ta) and vacuum plasma spray (VPS) W coating on a reduced activation material of ferritic steel (F82H) due to repetitive ELM-like pulsed (∼0.3 ms) deuterium plasma irradiation has been investigated by using a magnetized coaxial plasma gun. Surface cracks appeared on a pure W sample exposed to 10 plasma pulses of ∼0.3 MJ m{sup −2}, while a W–Ta sample did not show surface cracks with similar pulsed plasma irradiation. The energy density threshold for surface cracking was significantly increased by the existence of the alloying element of tantalum. No surface morphology change of a VPS W coated F82H sample was observed under 10 plasma pulses of ∼0.3 MJ m{sup −2}, although surface melting and cracks in the resolidification layer occurred at higher energy density of ∼0.9 MJ m{sup −2}. There was no indication of exfoliation of the W coating from the substrate of F82H after the pulsed plasma exposures.

  9. Plasma vitrification program for radioactive waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Tsungmin; Tzeng, Chinchin; Kuo, Pingchun

    1998-01-01

    In order to treat radioactive wastes effectively and solve storage problems, INER has developed the plasma arc technology and plasma process for various waste forms for several years. The plasma vitrification program is commenced via different developing stages through nine years. It includes (a) development of non-transferred DC plasma torch, (b) establishment of a lab-scale plasma system with home-made 100kW non-transferred DC plasma torch, (c) testing of plasma vitrification of simulated radioactive wastes, (d) establishment of a transferred DC plasma torch delivering output power more than 800 kW, (e) study of NOx reduction process for the plasma furnace, (f) development of a pilot-scale plasma melting furnace to verify the vitrification process, and (g) constructing a plasma furnace facility in INER. The final goal of the program is to establish a plasma processing plant with capacity of 250 kg/hr to treat the low-level radioactive wastes generated from INER itself and domestic institutes due to isotope applications. (author)

  10. Heat treatment furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D; Parrott, Jeffrey G; DeMint, Paul D; Finney, Kevin R; Blue, Charles T

    2014-10-21

    A furnace heats through both infrared radiation and convective air utilizing an infrared/purge gas design that enables improved temperature control to enable more uniform treatment of workpieces. The furnace utilizes lamps, the electrical end connections of which are located in an enclosure outside the furnace chamber, with the lamps extending into the furnace chamber through openings in the wall of the chamber. The enclosure is purged with gas, which gas flows from the enclosure into the furnace chamber via the openings in the wall of the chamber so that the gas flows above and around the lamps and is heated to form a convective mechanism in heating parts.

  11. Chemical durability of slag produced by thermal plasma melting of low-level miscellaneous solid wastes. Effects of slag composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amakawa, Tadashi; Yasui, Shinji

    2001-01-01

    Low-level radioactive miscellaneous solid wastes are generated from commercial operation of nuclear power plants and will be generated from decommissioning of nuclear power plants in future. Static leaching tests were carried out in deionized water of 10degC on slag obtained by thermal plasma melting of simulating materials of the miscellaneous solids wastes with surrogate elements of radionuclides. It is found that logarithm of normalized elemental mass loss from the slag is proportional to the basicity represented by mole fractions of main structural oxides of the slag, such as SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , CaO, FeO and MgO. The range of static leaching rates from the slag is determined based on the above results and the basicity range of the miscellaneous solid wastes. Then we compared the leaching rates form the slag and from high level waste glasses. On these grounds, we concluded that the slag obtained by thermal plasma melting of miscellaneous solid wastes can stabilize radio-nuclides in it by no means inferior to the high level waste glasses. (author)

  12. Optimization of cathodic arc deposition and pulsed plasma melting techniques for growing smooth superconducting Pb photoemissive films for SRF injectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nietubyć, Robert; Lorkiewicz, Jerzy; Sekutowicz, Jacek; Smedley, John; Kosińska, Anna

    2018-05-01

    Superconducting photoinjectors have a potential to be the optimal solution for moderate and high current cw operating free electron lasers. For this application, a superconducting lead (Pb) cathode has been proposed to simplify the cathode integration into a 1.3 GHz, TESLA-type, 1.6-cell long purely superconducting gun cavity. In the proposed design, a lead film several micrometres thick is deposited onto a niobium plug attached to the cavity back wall. Traditional lead deposition techniques usually produce very non-uniform emission surfaces and often result in a poor adhesion of the layer. A pulsed plasma melting procedure reducing the non-uniformity of the lead photocathodes is presented. In order to determine the parameters optimal for this procedure, heat transfer from plasma to the film was first modelled to evaluate melting front penetration range and liquid state duration. The obtained results were verified by surface inspection of witness samples. The optimal procedure was used to prepare a photocathode plug, which was then tested in an electron gun. The quantum efficiency and the value of cavity quality factor have been found to satisfy the requirements for an injector of the European-XFEL facility.

  13. Method of melting solid waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Katsuyuki; Mizuno, Ryokichi; Kuwana, Katsumi; Sawada, Yoshihisa; Komatsu, Fumiaki.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To enable the volume reduction treatment of a HEPA filter containing various solid wastes, particularly acid digestion residue, or an asbestos separator at a relatively low temperature range. Method: Solid waste to be heated and molten is high melting point material treated by ''acid digestion treatment'' for treating solid waste, e.g. a HEPA filter or polyvinyl chloride, etc. of an atomic power facility treated with nitric acid or the like. When this material is heated and molten by an electric furnace, microwave melting furnace, etc., boron oxide, sodium boride, sodium carbonate, etc. is added as a melting point lowering agent. When it is molten in this state, its melting point is lowered, and it becomes remarkably fluid, and the melting treatment is facilitated. Solidified material thus obtained through the melting step has excellent denseness and further large volume reduction rate of the solidified material. (Yoshihara, H.)

  14. Automatic Control of Silicon Melt Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, C. S.; Stickel, W. B.

    1982-01-01

    A new circuit, when combined with melt-replenishment system and melt level sensor, offers continuous closed-loop automatic control of melt-level during web growth. Installed on silicon-web furnace, circuit controls melt-level to within 0.1 mm for as long as 8 hours. Circuit affords greater area growth rate and higher web quality, automatic melt-level control also allows semiautomatic growth of web over long periods which can greatly reduce costs.

  15. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated

  16. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated.

  17. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  18. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace - Transformational Ironmaking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Kao [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Debski, Paul [Andritz Metals Inc.,Canonsburg, PA (United States)

    2014-11-19

    The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further significant gains in energy efficiency will require the development of new, transformational iron and steelmaking processes. The Paired Straight Hearth Furnace (PSH) process is an emerging alternative high productivity, direct reduced iron (DRI) technology that may achieve very low fuel rates and has the potential to replace blast furnace ironmaking. The PSH furnace can operate independently or may be coupled with other melting technologies to produce liquid hot metal that is both similar to blast furnace iron and suitable as a feedstock for basic oxygen steelmaking furnaces. The PSH process uses non-metallurgical coal as a reductant to convert iron oxides such as iron ore and steelmaking by-product oxides to DRI pellets. In this process, a multi-layer, nominally 120mm tall bed of composite “green balls” made from oxide, coal and binder is built up and contained within a moving refractory hearth. The pellet bed absorbs radiant heat energy during exposure to the high temperature interior refractory surfaces of the PSH while generating a strongly reducing gas atmosphere in the bed that yields a highly metalized DRI product. The PSH concept has been well tested in static hearth experiments. A moving bed design is being developed. The process developers believe that if successful, the PSH process has the potential to replace blast furnaces and coke ovens at a fraction of the operating and capital cost while using about 30% less energy relative to current blast furnace technology. DRI output could also feed electric arc furnaces (EAFs) by displacing a portion of the scrap charge.

  19. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included

  20. Glass science tutorial: Lecture No. 4, commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    This document serves as a manual for a workshop on commercial glass melting and associated air emission issues. Areas covered include: An overview of the glass industry; Furnace design and construction practices; Melting furnace operation; Energy input methods and controls; Air legislation and regulations; Soda lime emission mechanisms; and, Post furnace emission controls. Supporting papers are also included.

  1. Graphite electrode DC arc furnace. Innovative technology summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-05-01

    The Graphite Electrode DC Arc Furnace (DC Arc) is a high-temperature thermal process, which has been adapted from a commercial technology, for the treatment of mixed waste. A DC Arc Furnace heats waste to a temperature such that the waste is converted into a molten form that cools into a stable glassy and/or crystalline waste form. Hazardous organics are destroyed through combustion or pyrolysis during the process and the majority of the hazardous metals and radioactive components are incorporated in the molten phase. The DC Arc Furnace chamber temperature is approximately 593--704 C and melt temperatures are as high as 1,500 C. The DC Arc system has an air pollution control system (APCS) to remove particulate and volatiles from the offgas. The advantage of the DC Arc is that it is a single, high-temperature thermal process that minimizes the need for multiple treatment systems and for extensive sorting/segregating of large volumes of waste. The DC Arc has the potential to treat a wide range of wastes, minimize the need for sorting, reduce the final waste volumes, produce a leach resistant waste form, and destroy organic contaminants. Although the DC arc plasma furnace exhibits great promise for treating the types of mixed waste that are commonly present at many DOE sites, several data and technology deficiencies were identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) regarding this thermal waste processing technique. The technology deficiencies that have been addressed by the current studies include: establishing the partitioning behavior of radionuclides, surrogates, and hazardous metals among the product streams (metal, slag, and offgas) as a function of operating parameters, including melt temperature, plenum atmosphere, organic loading, chloride concentration, and particle size; demonstrating the efficacy of waste product removal systems for slag and metal phases; determining component durability through test runs of extended duration, evaluating the effect of

  2. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  3. Numerical study of particle filtration in an induction crucible furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asad, Amjad; Kratzsch, Christoph; Dudczig, Steffen; Aneziris, Christos G.; Schwarze, Rüdiger

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Removing particles from a melt in an induction furnace by using a filter is introduced. • The effect of filter and its permeability on the melt flow is shown. • The impact of filter permeability and particle diameter on filter efficiency is studied. • The filter efficiency depends on filter position and number of the used filter. - Abstract: The present paper deals with a numerical investigation of the turbulent melt flow driven by the electromagnetic force in an induction furnace. The main scope of the paper is to present a new principle to remove non-metallic particles from steel melt in an induction furnace by immersing a porous filter in the melt. The magnetic field acting on the melt is calculated by using the open source software MaxFEM"®, while the turbulent flow is simulated by means of the open source computational fluid dynamics library OpenFOAM"®. The validation of the numerical model is accomplished by using experimental results for the flow without the immersed filter. Here it is shown that the time-averaged flow, obtained numerically is in a good quantitive agreement with the experimental data. Then, the validated numerical model is employed to simulate the melt flow with the immersed filter in the induction furnace of a new type of real steel casting simulator investigated at Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg. The considerable effect of the filter on the flow pattern is indicated in the present work. Moreover, it is shown that the filter permeability and its position have a significant influence on the melt flow in the induction furnace. Additionally, particles are injected in the flow domain and tracked by using Lagrangian framework. In this case, the efficiency of the used filter is determined in the present investigation depending on its permeability, its position and the particles diameter.

  4. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  5. Reliability of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    spectrometry as alternative method for trace analysis of ... Purpose: To evaluate the comparative efficiency of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry .... Methods comparison and validation .... plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

  6. High Temperature Transparent Furnace Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Stephen C.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the use of novel techniques for heat containment that could be used to build a high temperature transparent furnace. The primary objective of the work was to experimentally demonstrate transparent furnace operation at 1200 C. Secondary objectives were to understand furnace operation and furnace component specification to enable the design and construction of a low power prototype furnace for delivery to NASA in a follow-up project. The basic approach of the research was to couple high temperature component design with simple concept demonstration experiments that modify a commercially available transparent furnace rated at lower temperature. A detailed energy balance of the operating transparent furnace was performed, calculating heat losses through the furnace components as a result of conduction, radiation, and convection. The transparent furnace shells and furnace components were redesigned to permit furnace operation at at least 1200 C. Techniques were developed that are expected to lead to significantly improved heat containment compared with current transparent furnaces. The design of a thermal profile in a multizone high temperature transparent furnace design was also addressed. Experiments were performed to verify the energy balance analysis, to demonstrate some of the major furnace improvement techniques developed, and to demonstrate the overall feasibility of a high temperature transparent furnace. The important objective of the research was achieved: to demonstrate the feasibility of operating a transparent furnace at 1200 C.

  7. Computer-integrated electric-arc melting process control system

    OpenAIRE

    Дёмин, Дмитрий Александрович

    2014-01-01

    Developing common principles of completing melting process automation systems with hardware and creating on their basis rational choices of computer- integrated electricarc melting control systems is an actual task since it allows a comprehensive approach to the issue of modernizing melting sites of workshops. This approach allows to form the computer-integrated electric-arc furnace control system as part of a queuing system “electric-arc furnace - foundry conveyor” and consider, when taking ...

  8. Modeling of glass fusion furnaces; Modelisation des fours de fusion de verre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechitoua, N. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Plard, C. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-12-31

    The furnaces used for glass melting are industrial installations inside which complex and coupled physical and chemical phenomena occur. Thermal engineering plays a major role and numerical simulation is a precious tool for the analysis of the different coupling, of their interaction and of the influence of the different parameters. In order to optimize the functioning of glass furnaces and to improve the quality of the glass produced, Electricite de France (EdF) has developed a specialized version of the ESTET fluid mechanics code, called `Joule`. This paper describes the functioning principle of glass furnaces, the interactions between heat transfers and flows inside the melted glass, the interactions between heat transfers and the thermal regulation of the furnace, the interactions between heat transfers and glass quality and the heat transfer interactions between the melted glass, the furnace walls and the combustion area. (J.S.)

  9. Effect of low-melting point phases on the microstructure and properties of spark plasma sintered and hot deformed Nd-Fe-B alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Meiyu; Yan, Xueliang; Lin, Ye; Shield, Jeffrey

    2018-04-01

    The effect of adding a low melting point Pr-Cu-Al alloy during spark plasma sintering of melt-spun Nd-Fe-B ribbons is investigated. Regions of coarse grains were reduced and overall grain refinement was observed after the addition of Pr68Cu25Al7, leading to an enhancement of coercivity from 12.7 kOe to 20.4 kOe. Hot deformation of the samples in the spark plasma sintering system resulted in the formation of platelet-like grains, producing crystallographic alignment and magnetic anisotropy. The hot deformation process improved the remanence and energy product but reduced the coercivity. The decrease of coercivity resulted from grain growth and aggregation of Pr and Nd elements at triple-junction phases.

  10. Calculation of gas release from DC and AC arc furnaces in a foundry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krutyanskii, M. M.; Nekhamin, S. M.; Rebikov, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    A procedure for the calculation of gas release from arc furnaces is presented. The procedure is based on the stoichiometric ratios of the oxidation of carbon in liquid iron during the oxidation heat period and the oxidation of iron from a steel charge by oxygen in the period of solid charge melting during the gas exchange of the furnace cavity with the external atmosphere.

  11. Feasibility study of utilizing solar furnace technology in steel making industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbaspoursani, K. [The Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Takestan Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: a.abbaspour@tiau.ac.ir; Tofigh, A.A.; Nahang Toudeshki, S.; Hadadian, A. [Department of Energy, Materials and Energy Research Center (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: Ali.A.Tofigh@gmail.com, email: toudeshki@hotmail.com, email: Arash.Hadadian@gmail.com; Farahmandpour, B. [Iranian Fuel Conservation company (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], Email: farahmandpour@gmail.com

    2011-07-01

    In Iran, the casting industry consumes 33.6% of electricity production, and most of this electricity is used in the melting process. Currently, scrap preheating is done using electric arc furnaces and the aim of this study is to assess the feasibility of replacing electric arc furnaces with solar furnaces. The performance of solar furnaces in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions was studied. It was found that the solar irradiation time and solar insulation are sufficient to operate a solar furnace with the capacity to preheat 250 thousand tons per year of scrap to 500 degrees celsius. Results showed that such a furnace would decrease energy consumption by 40 GWh per year and that it would take 5 years to return the investment. This study demonstrated that operating a solar furnace in the Iran Alloy Steel Company under Yazd climate conditions is feasible and would result in economic and environmental benefits.

  12. Hot deformed anisotropic nanocrystalline NdFeB based magnets prepared from spark plasma sintered melt spun powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hou, Y.H.; Huang, Y.L. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Liu, Z.W., E-mail: zwliu@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zeng, D.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ma, S.C.; Zhong, Z.C. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanchang Hangkong University, Nanchang 330063 (China)

    2013-09-01

    Highlights: • Microstructure evolution and its influence on the magnetic properties were investigated. • The increase of stray field and weakening of domain-wall pinning effects were the main reasons of the decrease of the coercivity with increasing the compression ratio. • The influences of non-uniform plastic deformation on the microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. • Magnetic properties and temperature coefficient of coercivity are indeed very promising without heavy rare earth elements. -- Abstract: Anisotropic magnets were prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS) followed by hot deformation (HD) using melt-spun powders as the starting material. Good magnetic properties with the remanence J{sub r} > 1.32 T and maximum of energy product (BH){sub max} > 303 kJ/m{sup 3} have been obtained. The microstructure evolution during HD and its influence on the magnetic properties were investigated. The fine grain zone and coarse grain zone formed in the SPS showed different deformation behaviors. The microstructure also had an important effect on the temperature coefficients of coercivity. A strong domain-wall pinning model was valid to interpret the coercivity mechanism of the HDed magnets. The increase of stray field and weakening of domain-wall pinning effects were the main reasons of the decrease of the coercivity with increasing the compression ratio. The influences of non-uniform plastic deformation on the microstructure and magnetic properties were investigated. The polarization characteristics of HDed magnets were demonstrated. It was found out that the HDed magnets had better corrosion resistance than the counterpart sintered magnet.

  13. New algorithm for controlling electric arc furnaces using their vibrational and acoustic characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherednichenko, V. S.; Bikeev, R. A.; Serikov, V. A.; Rechkalov, A. V.; Cherednichenko, A. V.

    2016-12-01

    The processes occurring in arc discharges are analyzed as the sources of acoustic radiation in an electric arc furnace (EAF). Acoustic vibrations are shown to transform into mechanical vibrations in the furnace laboratory. The shielding of the acoustic energy fluxes onto water-cooled wall panels by a charge is experimentally studied. It is shown that the rate of charge melting and the depth of submergence of arc discharges in the slag and metal melt can be monitored by measuring the vibrational characteristics of furnaces and using them in a universal industrial process-control system, which was developed for EAFs.

  14. Steam generators and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swoboda, E

    1978-04-01

    The documents published in 1977 in the field of steam generators for conventional thermal power plants are classified according to the following subjects: power industry and number of power plants, planning and operation, design and construction, furnaces, environmental effects, dirt accumulation and corrosion, conservation and scouring, control and automation, fundamental research, and materials.

  15. Thermocapillary convection of melts and its role in laser-plasma synthesis and laser-induced amorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uglov, A. A.; Smurov, I. Iu.; Gus'kov, A. G.; Semakhin, S. A.

    1987-06-01

    The role of thermocapillary convection in mass transfer processes in melts is investigated analytically and experimentally using vacuum-arc melted Ni63-Ta37 and Cu50-Zr50 alloys. It is shown that thermocapillary convection not only leads to the transfer of alloying components to the deeper layers of the melt but also may produce, in certain cases, a significant temperature redistribution in the liquid phase. Convective transfer dominates over conduction when the product of Re and Pr is greater than 1. In the experiments, the structure of the amorphous and crystalline layers in the solidified alloys is found to be in qualitative agreement with the structure of a thermocapillary vortex.

  16. Mass Balance Modeling for Electric Arc Furnace and Ladle Furnace System in Steelmaking Facility in Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    (I)smail Ekmek(c)i; Ya(s)ar Yetisken; (U)nal (C)amdali

    2007-01-01

    In the electric arc furnace (EAF) steel production processes, scrap steel is principally used as a raw material instead of iron ore. In the steelmaking process with EAF, scrap is first melted in the furnace and then the desired chemical composition of the steel can be obtained in a special furnace such as ladle furnace (LF). This kind of furnace process is used for the secondary refining of alloy steel. LF furnace offers strong heating fluxes and enables precise temperature control, thereby allowing for the addition of desired amounts of various alloying elements. It also provides outstanding desulfurization at high-temperature treatment by reducing molten steel fluxes and removing deoxidation products. Elemental analysis with mass balance modeling is important to know the precise amount of required alloys for the LF input with respect to scrap composition. In present study, chemical reactions with mass conservation law in EAF and LF were modeled altogether as a whole system and chemical compositions of the final steel alloy output can be obtained precisely according to different scrap compositions, alloying elements ratios, and other input amounts. Besides, it was found that the mass efficiency for iron element in the system is 95.93%. These efficiencies are calculated for all input elements as 8.45% for C, 30.31% for Si, 46.36% for Mn, 30.64% for P, 41.96% for S, and 69.79% for Cr, etc. These efficiencies provide valuable ideas about the amount of the input materials that are vanished or combusted for 100 kg of each of the input materials in the EAF and LF system.

  17. Formation of metallic Si and SiC nanoparticles from SiO2 particles by plasma-induced cathodic discharge electrolysis in chloride melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokushige, M.; Tsujimura, H.; Nishikiori, T.; Ito, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanoparticles are formed from SiO 2 particles by conducting plasma-induced cathodic discharge electrolysis. In a LiCl–KCl melt in which SiO 2 particles were suspended at 450 °C, we obtained Si nanoparticles with diameters around 20 nm. During the electrolysis period, SiO 2 particles are directly reduced by discharge electrons on the surface of the melt just under the discharge, and the deposited Si atom clusters form Si nanoparticles, which leave the surface of the original SiO 2 particle due to free spaces caused by a molar volume difference between SiO 2 and Si. We also found that SiC nanoparticles can be obtained using carbon anode. Based on Faraday's law, the current efficiency for the formation of Si nanoparticles is 70%

  18. Comparative microstructural and corrosion development of VCrNiCoFeCu equiatomic multicomponent alloy produced by induction melting and spark plasma sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazakas, É.; Heczel, A.; Molnár, D.; Varga, B.; Zadorozhnyy, V.; Vida, Á.

    2018-03-01

    The present study focuses on the corrosion behavior of a single-phase FCC high entropy alloy (VCrNiCoFeCu) casted by two different methods: induction melting and spark plasma sintering. The corrosion resistance has been evaluated using immersion tests in 3.5% NaCl solution, the potentiodynamic polarization measurements and the results are compared how is dependent the corrosion rate as a function of the production methods. Our results show that induction melted sample is stable in salty environment. On the other hand, based on the changes of polarization curves, there must be an evolution of oxide films on the SPSed sample until reaching the stable oxide layer.

  19. Prereduction and melting of domestic titaniferous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafziger, R. H.; Jordan, R. R.

    1983-03-01

    Two domestic ilmenites and one titaniferous magnetite were prereduced by the United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, in a batch rotary kiln with coal char to assess the feasibility of this technique in improving melting operations and subsequent electric furnace processing. All three prereduced titaniferous materials were melted satisfactorily in an electric arc furnace to produce iron as a metal suitable for further refining to steel; metallizations ranging from 63 to 83 pct of the iron oxides were achieved. The ilmenites yielded titanium enriched slags that were amenable to further processing by conventional methods. Prereduction decreased electrode consumption during furnace operation and also conserved expensive electrical energy that otherwise must be used to reduce and melt totally the entire titaniferous materials charge.

  20. Optimization of magnetocaloric properties of arc-melted and spark plasma-sintered LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamba, P.; Morley, N.A.; Reaney, I.M.; Rainforth, W.M. [University of Sheffield, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sheffield (United Kingdom); Cespedes, O. [University of Leeds, School of Physics and Astronomy, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-15

    LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} alloy has been synthesized in polycrystalline form using both arc melting and spark plasma sintering (SPS). The phase formation, hysteresis loss and magnetocaloric properties of the LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} alloys synthesized using the two different techniques are compared. The annealing time required to obtain the 1:13 phase is significantly reduced from 14 days (using the arc melting technique) to 30 min (using the SPS technique). The magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) for the arc-melted LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound, obtained for a field change of 5 - 0T (decreasing field), was estimated to be 19.6 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1}. The effective RCP at 5T of the arc-melted LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound was determined to be 360 J kg{sup -1} which corresponds to about 88 % of that observed in Gd. A significant reduction in the hysteretic losses in the SPS LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound was observed. The ΔS{sub M}, obtained for a field change of 5 - 0T (decreasing field), for the SPS LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound decreases to 7.4 J kg{sup -1} K{sup -1}. The T{sub C} also shifts from 186 (arc-melted) to 230 K (SPS) and shifts the order of phase transition from first to second order, respectively. The MCE of the SPS LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compound spreads over a larger temperature range with the RCP value at 5T reaching 288 J kg{sup -1} corresponding to about 70 % of that observed in Gd. At low fields, the effective RCP values of the arc-melted and spark plasma-sintered LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compounds are comparable, thereby clearly demonstrating the potential of SPS LaFe{sub 11.6}Si{sub 1.4} compounds in low-field magnetic refrigeration applications. (orig.)

  1. Influence of Low-Temperature Plasma Treatment on The Liquid Filtration Efficiency of Melt-Blown PP Nonwovens in The Conditions of Simulated Use of Respiratory Protective Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majchrzycka Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Filtering nonwovens produced with melt-blown technology are one of the most basic materials used in the construction of respiratory protective equipment (RPE against harmful aerosols, including bio- and nanoaerosols. The improvement of their filtering properties can be achieved by the development of quasi-permanent electric charge on the fibres. Usually corona discharge method is utilized for this purpose. In the presented study, it was assumed that the low-temperature plasma treatment could be applied as an alternative method for the manufacturing of conventional electret nonwovens for the RPE construction. Low temperature plasma treatment of polypropylene nonwovens was carried out with various process gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen or air in a wide range of process parameters (gas flow velocity, time of treatment and power supplied to the reactor electrodes. After the modification, nonwovens were evaluated in terms of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist. The stability of the modification results was tested after 12 months of storage and after conditioning at elevated temperature and relative humidity conditions. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy and ATR-IR spectroscopy were used to assess changes in surface topography and chemical composition of the fibres. The modification of melt-blown nonwovens with nitrogen, oxygen and air plasma did not result in a satisfactory improvement of the filtration efficiency. In case of argon plasma treatment, up to 82% increase of filtration efficiency of paraffin oil mist was observed in relation to untreated samples. This effect was stable after 12 months of storage in normal conditions and after thermal conditioning in (70 ± 3°C for 24 h. The use of low-temperature plasma treatment was proven to be a promising improvement direction of filtering properties of nonwovens used for the protection of respiratory tract against harmful aerosols.

  2. Optimizing of Work Arc Furnace to Decopperisation of Flash Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bydałek A.W.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Discusses an attempt to optimize the operation of an electric furnace slag to be decopperisation suspension of the internal recycling process for the production of copper. The paper presents a new method to recover copper from metallurgical slags in arc-resistance electric furnace. It involves the use of alternating current for a first period reduction, constant or pulsed DC in the final stage of processing. Even distribution of the electric field density in the final phase of melting caused to achieve an extremely low content of metallic copper in the slag phase. They achieved by including the economic effects by reducing the time reduction.

  3. Study of glass ceramic material on the base of ash group simulating slag of plasma shaft furnace for high temperature reprocessing of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aloj, A.S.; Dmitriev, S.A.; Stefanovskij, S.V.

    1997-01-01

    Using the methods of X-ray diffraction, differential thermal and micro-probe analysis it is shown that the processes of minerals formation and homogenization in ash residue based charge under the heating up to 1450 deg C take place with a high rate and completely finish during 10 minutes. Homogeneous materials containing besides glassy phase crystalline phases and metallic shots are formed in this process. The products obtained with fluxes (dolomite and clay) additions are more homogeneous than a flux-less fused slag. Losses of α-radioactive nuclides during the melting of ash residue at 1300 deg C do not exceed 1.5% and is likely attributed with the products of uranium decay. Hydrolytic stability of the slags estimated from the rate of α-radioactive elements lixiviation is on the level of (1.4-5.7)x10 -4 g/(cm 2 x day) at 95 deg C

  4. Melting of contaminated metallic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Y.-S.; Cheng, S.-Y.; Kung, H.-T.; Lin, L.-F.

    2004-01-01

    Approximately 100 tons of contaminated metallic wastes were produced each year due to maintenance for each TPC's nuclear power reactor and it was roughly estimated that there will be 10,000 tons of metallic scraps resulted from decommissioning of each reactor in the future. One means of handling the contaminated metal is to melt it. Melting process owns not only volume reduction which saves the high cost of final disposal but also resource conservation and recycling benefits. Melting contaminated copper and aluminum scraps in the laboratory scale have been conducted at INER. A total of 546 kg copper condenser tubes with a specific activity of about 2.7 Bq/g was melted in a vacuum induction melting facility. Three types of products, ingot, slag and dust were derived from the melting process, with average activities of 0.10 Bq/g, 2.33 Bq/g and 84.3 Bq/g respectively. After the laboratory melting stage, a pilot plant with a 500 kg induction furnace is being designed to melt the increasingly produced contaminated metallic scraps from nuclear facilities and to investigate the behavior of different radionuclides during melting. (author)

  5. Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain small volume of metals, sulfides of metals and gases. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of slag determinate their utilisation in different fields of industry.The paper presents results from the research of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag utilization in the concrete production. Pilotexperiments of the concrete production were performed, by that the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag with a fractions of 0–4mm;4–8mm; 8–16mm were used as a natural substitute. A cupola furnace slag and combination of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slagwere used in the experiments. The analysis results show that such concretes are suitable for less demanding applications.

  6. Improvement of wear resistance of machine elements by plasma spraying followed by hardening in the chlorine-barium melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fominykh, V.V.; Stepanov, V.V.

    1979-01-01

    Proposed is the mathematical model, allowing to choose the optimal regime of sprayed coating hardening in the BaCl 2 salt melt. The method of hardening of machine elements by spraying wear resistance coatings of the Ni-Cr-B-Si alloys is described. It is established that diffusion heating followed by coating melting in the BaCl 2 solution increases the adhesion of sprayed layer to substrate metal. The formation of intermediate intermetallic compounds of the Ni 3 Si and Ni 3 Fe types takes place as a result of diffusion of interacting material atoms and valence electron joining

  7. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, David Donald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  8. Lead scrap processing in rotary furnaces: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousseau, M

    1987-01-01

    Formerly, the lead scrap had been processed mainly in reverberatory and shaft furnaces or, even, in rotary furnaces (R.F.). The direct smelting of battery scrap entrains an expensive pollution control and high operating costs because of slag recirculation, coke consumption, losses in slag and matte. Nowadays, mechanized battery wrecking plants allow selective separation of casings and separators from metallic Pb (grids, poles, solders) as well as lead in non-metallic form (PbSO/sub 4/, PbO, PbO/sub 2/, contaminated with some Sb) frequently called paste. Because of their high performance and flexibility in metallurgical processing (melting, reducing, oxidizing and selective pouring) the R.F. supersedes the reverberatory furnace worldwide.

  9. Melting of fuel element racks and their recycling as granulate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quade, U.; Kluth, T.; Kreh, R.

    1998-01-01

    In order to increase the storage capacity for spent fuel elements in the Spanish NPPs of Almaraz and Asco, the existing racks were replaced by compact one in 1991/1993. The 28 racks from Almaraz NPP were cut on site, packed in 200-I-drums and taken to intermediate storage. For the remaining 28 racks of Asco NPP, ENRESA preferred the melting alternative. To demonstrate the recycling path melting in Germany, a test campaign with six racks was performed in 1997. As a result of this test melt, the limits for Carla melting plant were modified to 200 Bq/g total, α, β, γ 100 Bq/g nuclear fuels, max. 3g/100 kg 2,000 Bq/g total Fe55, H 3 , C-14 and Ni63. After the test melt campaign, the German authorities licensed the import and treatment of the remaining 22 racks on the condition that the waste resulting from the melting process as well as the granules produced were taken back to Spain. The shipment from Asco via France to Germany has been carried out in F 20-ft-IPII containers in accordance with ADR. Size reduction to chargeable dimensions was carried out by a plasma burner and hydraulic shears. For melting, a 3.2 Mg medium frequency induction furnace, operated in a separate housing, was used. For granules production outside this housing, the liquid iron was cast into a 5Mg ladle and then, through a water jet, into the granulating basin. The total mass of 287,659 Kg of 28 fuel elements racks and components of the storage basin yielded 297,914 kg of iron granulate. Secondary waste from melting amounted to 9,920 kg, corresponding to 3.45% of the input mass. The granulating process produced 6,589 kg, corresponding to 2.28% of the total mass to be melted. Radiological analysis of samples taken from the melt and different waste components confirmed the main nuclides Co60, Cs134 and Cs137. Fe55 was highly overestimated by the preliminary analysis. (Author) 2 refs

  10. Glass: Rotary Electric Glass Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Recca, L.

    1999-01-29

    Compared to conventional gas-fired furnaces, the new rotary electric furnace will increase energy efficiency while significantly reducing air emissions, product turnaround time, and labor costs. As this informative new fact sheet explains, the thousand different types of glass optical blanks produced for the photonics industry are used for lasers, telescopes, cameras, lights, and many other products.

  11. Synthesis of calcium aluminates on the big solar furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdurakhmanov, A. A.; Paizullakhanov, M. S.; Akhadov, Zh.

    2012-01-01

    The processes of synthesizing calcium aluminate in the flow of concentrated solar radiation on Large Solar Furnace are studied. It is shown that the synthesis of calcium aluminate takes place through a process of melting of a mixture of aluminum oxides and calcium (Al 2 O 3 + CaO). At values of power of the concentrated flow of 200 W/cm 2 , thermodynamic conditions for melting of the materials studied were implemented. Full fusion penetration is achieved at a power flow of 400 W/cm 2 . The resulting material exhibits high mechanical properties (the modulus of rupture upon bending is 40 MPa). (author)

  12. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D on high performance industrial furnace, etc.; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the development of high performance industrial furnace, initial targets were achieved such as energy saving of 30%, downsizing of 20%, and a remarkable NOx reduction. To verify the achievement, the test field project is being worked on by NEDO. In FY 1998, 23 heating furnaces, 29 heat treat furnaces and 6 melting furnaces were under the project at energy saving effect of 52,000 kl converted to crude oil. In FY 1999, 18 heating furnaces, 26 heat treat furnaces and 7 melting furnaces are now under the project at energy saving effect of 57,000 kl. The project was awarded 'The 9th Nikkei Global Environmental Technology Prize.' The themes for the R and D are as follows: high efficiency exhaust heat utilization system, self-completion type high temperature/high radiation heating technology, technology to make heat transfer in steel heating suitable under non-stationary state, high efficiency heat transfer technology, technology to optimize the shape of heating furnace, high performance atmosphere heat treat furnace, high efficiency heat transfer technology by high temperature jet flame heating, technology of high efficiency aluminum melting furnace, technology to improve soaking degree in steel heating, high performance tubular heating furnace in oil refining, optimum combustion control technology of regenerative burner furnace, and laser measuring method inside industrial furnace. (NEDO)

  13. Laser surface melting of 10 wt% Mo alloyed hardfacing Stellite 12 plasma transferred arc deposits: Structural evolution and high temperature wear performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilawary, Shaikh Asad Ali; Motallebzadeh, Amir; Afzal, Muhammad; Atar, Erdem; Cimenoglu, Huseyin

    2018-05-01

    Laser surface melting (LSM) process has been applied on the plasma transferred arc (PTA) deposited Stellite 12 and 10 wt% Mo alloyed Stellite 12 in this study. Following the LSM process, structural and mechanical property comparison of the LSM'ed surfaces has been made. Hardness of the LSM'ed surfaces was measured as 549 HV and 623 HV for the Stellite 12 and Stellite 12 + 10 wt% Mo deposits, respectively. Despite their different hardness and structural features, the LSM'ed surfaces exhibited similar tribological performance at room temperature (RT), where fatigue wear mechanism operates. However, the wear at 500 °C promotes tribo-oxide layer formation whose composition depended on the alloying with Mo. Thus, addition of 10 wt% Mo into Stellite 12 PTA deposit has remarkably enhanced the high temperature wear performance of the LSM'ed surface as a result of participation of complex oxide (CoMoO4) in tribo-oxide layer.

  14. Analysis of elementary process steps in industrial glass melting tanks: some ideas on innovations in industrial glass melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2008-01-01

    Conventional industrial glass furnaces show broad glass melt residence time distributions in the melting tanks and average residence times may be up to more than two days for high quality glass products, such as float glass or TV glass, despite the minimum residence times of 8-10 hours (or even less

  15. Method of melting to solidify radioactive powder wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ootsuka, Katsuyuki; Miyazaki, Hitoshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the microwave irradiation efficiency in a melting furnace. Constitution: Pelletization, sludgification and granularization are carried out as powderous dust reducing treatment. In the granularization, for example, radioactive burning ashes are sent from a hopper to a mixer and mixed with processing aids such as binders. Then, they are pelletized in a pelletizer into granular products and sent to a microwave melting furnace by way of a sieve screen. The granular products are melted by microwaves from a microwave guide tube and taken out through an exit. This can prevent powderous dusts from floating and scattering in the melting furnace and prevent the reduction in the microwave irradiation efficiency due to generation of electric discharges. (Seki, T.)

  16. Energy Efficiency Model for Induction Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Asit Kr

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a system of a solar induction furnace unit was design to find out a new solution for the existing AC power consuming heating process through Supervisory control and data acquisition system. This unit can be connected directly to the DC system without any internal conversion inside the device. The performance of the new system solution is compared with the existing one in terms of power consumption and losses. This work also investigated energy save, system improvement, process control model in a foundry induction furnace heating framework corresponding to PV solar power supply. The results are analysed for long run in terms of saving energy and integrated process system. The data acquisition system base solar foundry plant is an extremely multifaceted system that can be run over an almost innumerable range of operating conditions, each characterized by specific energy consumption. Determining ideal operating conditions is a key challenge that requires the involvement of the latest automation technologies, each one contributing to allow not only the acquisition, processing, storage, retrieval and visualization of data, but also the implementation of automatic control strategies that can expand the achievement envelope in terms of melting process, safety and energy efficiency.

  17. Melting technique for vanadium containing steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishanov, M P; Gutovskij, I B; Vakhrushev, A S

    1980-04-28

    To descrease cost price of high-quality vanadium steels a method of their melting in open-hearth furnaces with acid lining using slag-metal fraction of vanadium, which is loaded in the content of 2.1-4.7% of melting mass, is suggested. Introduction of slag-metal fraction of vanadium ensures the formation of slag with composition that guarantees the necessary content of vanadium in steel and does not require introduction of expensive vanadium-containing ferroalloys into the melt.

  18. NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE MELTING OF PARTICLES INJECTED IN A PLASMA JET SIMULACIÓN NUMÉRICA DE LA FUSIÓN DE PARTÍCULAS INYECTADAS EN UN JET DE PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Romero Rojas

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the numerical simulation of the melting process of a particle injected in a plasma jet. The plasma process is nowadays applied to produce thin coatings on metal mechanical components with the aim of improving the surface resistance to different phenomena such as corrosion, temperature or wear. In this work we studied the heat transfer including phase-change of a bi-layer particle composed of a metallic iron core coated with ceramic alumina, inside a plasma jet. The model accounted for the environmental conditions along the particle path. The numerical simulation of this problem was performed via a temperature-based phase-change finite element formulation. The results obtained with this methodology satisfactorily described the melting process of the particle. Particularly, the results of the present work illustrate the phase change evolution in a bi-layer particle during its motion in the plasma jet. Moreover, the numerical trends agreed with those previously reported in the literature and computed with a finite volume enthalpy based formulation.Este trabajo presenta la simulación numérica de la fusión de una partícula inyectada en un jet de plasma. Este proceso es hoy en día aplicado para producir capas o recubrimientos delgados sobre componentes mecánicos metálicos, con el objetivo de mejorar su resistencia superficial frente a diferentes fenómenos tales como corrosión, temperatura y desgaste. En este trabajo se estudió la transferencia de calor incluyendo cambio de fase, de una partícula bimaterial compuesta por un centro metálico de hierro recubierto por una capa protectora de alúmina cerámica, dentro de un jet de plasma. El modelo numérico tomó en cuenta las condiciones ambientales a lo largo de toda su trayectoria en el jet. La simulación numérica de este problema fue realizada mediante una formulación de elementos finitos con cambio de fase que retiene como variable única la temperatura. Los

  19. Scrap uranium recycling via electron beam melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKoon, R.

    1993-11-01

    A program is underway at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to recycle scrap uranium metal. Currently, much of the material from forging and machining processes is considered radioactive waste and is disposed of by oxidation and encapsulation at significant cost. In the recycling process, uranium and uranium alloys in various forms will be processed by electron beam melting and continuously cast into ingots meeting applicable specifications for virgin material. Existing vacuum processing facilities at LLNL are in compliance with all current federal and state environmental, safety and health regulations for the electron beam melting and vaporization of uranium metal. One of these facilities has been retrofitted with an auxiliary electron beam gun system, water-cooled hearth, crucible and ingot puller to create an electron beam melt furnace. In this furnace, basic process R ampersand D on uranium recycling will be performed with the goal of eventual transfer of this technology to a production facility

  20. Gaseous waste deposition preventive device for glass melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Sueo

    1998-01-01

    The device of the present invention comprises a heater for heating pressurized air and a moisturizer for mixing steams with the pressurized air heated by the heater to make moisturized pressurized air. Steams are mixed to rise humidity by the moisturizing up to the saturated vapor pressure at the temperature of the heating by heating pressurized air as an object of moisturizing by the heater to prevent dew condensation while increasing the amount of steams to be mixed. With such procedures, moisture enriched pressurized air can be jetted out thereby enabling to prevent deposition of solid materials and crystallized materials of gaseous wastes. (T.M.)

  1. Utilization of steel melting electric arc furnace slag for development ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Author Affiliations. Ritwik Sarkar1 Nar Singh2 Swapan Kumar Das2. Department of Ceramic Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela 769 008, India; Refractories Division, Central Glass & Ceramic Research Institute, Kolkata 700 032, India ...

  2. Utilization of steel melting electric arc furnace slag for development ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    sole solution in the medium and long term due to diffe- rent technical, social and .... indicates that batches R and T have a very short vitrifica- tion range; this may be .... environmental protection of ocean, Shiraishi Memorial. Lecture of the Iron ...

  3. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  4. Waste glass melting stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1994-01-01

    Three simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C to 1000 degrees C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentru Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. The behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied. 2 refs., 8 tabs

  5. Waste glass melting stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, L.D.; Dennis, T.; Elliott, M.L.; Hrma, P.

    1993-04-01

    Three different simulated nuclear waste glass feeds, consisting of dried waste and glass frit, were heat treated for 1 hour in a gradient furnace at temperatures ranging from approximately 600 degrees C--1000 degrees C. Simulated melter feeds from the Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP), the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), and Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany were used. The samples were thin-sectioned and examined by optical microscopy to investigate the stages of the conversion from feed to glass. Various phenomena were seen, such as frit softening, bubble formation, foaming, bubble motion and removal, convective mixing, and homogenization. Behavior of different feeds was similar, although the degree of gas generation and melt homogenization varied

  6. Furnace for treating bituminous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotzer, M

    1922-04-28

    A furnace with saw-teeth-like profiled hearth, which by means of a kind of shaking slide executes a backward and forward motion, for carrying out the process according to Patent 422,391. It is characterized in that the stroke of the hearth moving in the furnace is smaller than the length of the profile tooth and the height of the feed is held less than the tooth height.

  7. Control of the Gas Flow in an Industrial Directional Solidification Furnace for Production of High Purity Multicrystalline Silicon Ingots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A crucible cover was designed as gas guidance to control the gas flow in an industrial directional solidification furnace for producing high purity multicrystalline silicon. Three cover designs were compared to investigate their effect on impurity transport in the furnace and contamination of the silicon melt. Global simulations of coupled oxygen (O and carbon (C transport were carried out to predict the SiO and CO gases in the furnace as well as the O and C distributions in the silicon melt. Cases with and without chemical reaction on the cover surfaces were investigated. It was found that the cover design has little effect on the O concentration in the silicon melt; however, it significantly influences CO gas transport in the furnace chamber and C contamination in the melt. For covers made of metal or with a coating on their surfaces, an optimal cover design can produce a silicon melt free of C contamination. Even for a graphite cover without a coating, the carbon concentration in the silicon melt can be reduced by one order of magnitude. The simulation results demonstrate a method to control the contamination of C impurities in an industrial directional solidification furnace by crucible cover design.

  8. Nonlinear system identification of the reduction nickel oxide smelting process in electric arc furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubin, V.; Firsov, A.

    2018-03-01

    As the title implies the article describes the nonlinear system identification of the reduction smelting process of nickel oxide in electric arc furnaces. It is suggested that for operational control ratio of components of the charge must be solved the problem of determining the qualitative composition of the melt in real time. The use of 0th harmonic of phase voltage AC furnace as an indirect measure of the melt composition is proposed. Brief description of the mechanism of occurrence and nature of the non-zero 0th harmonic of the AC voltage of the arc is given. It is shown that value of 0th harmonic of the arc voltage is not function of electrical parameters but depends of the material composition of the melt. Processed industrial data are given. Hammerstein-Wiener model is used for description of the dependence of 0th harmonic of the furnace voltage from the technical parameters of melting furnace: the melt composition and current. Recommendations are given about the practical use of the model.

  9. Inverse boundary design of a radiative smelting furnace with ablative phase change phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzan, H.; Hosseini Sarvari, S.M.; Mansouri, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The ablation phenomenon in a reverberatory smelting furnace is simulated numerically. • The results are verified by comparing with exact analytic solution. • Inverse design problem is solved to construct the desired melting rate. • The conjugate gradient method is used to solve the inverse phase change problem. - Abstract: An inverse analysis is employed to control the time rate of heaters in a 2-D smelting furnace to provide the specified radiative heat flux across the design surface to establish a desired melting rate. The design surface in the smelting furnace is the melting surface of the metal concentrate bank, and the melting process is considered to occur as an ablation phenomenon. The net radiation method is used to determine the radiation exchange between the elements of the furnace surfaces and the melting surface. The conjugate gradient method is employed to minimize the objective function, which is the sum of square residuals between the estimated and the desired heat fluxes over the design surface. It is shown that the proposed inverse technique is reliable and accurate for predicting the heater power distribution.

  10. Computational Modeling of Arc-Slag Interaction in DC Furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Quinn G.

    2017-02-01

    The plasma arc is central to the operation of the direct-current arc furnace, a unit operation commonly used in high-temperature processing of both primary ores and recycled metals. The arc is a high-velocity, high-temperature jet of ionized gas created and sustained by interactions among the thermal, momentum, and electromagnetic fields resulting from the passage of electric current. In addition to being the primary source of thermal energy, the arc jet also couples mechanically with the bath of molten process material within the furnace, causing substantial splashing and stirring in the region in which it impinges. The arc's interaction with the molten bath inside the furnace is studied through use of a multiphase, multiphysics computational magnetohydrodynamic model developed in the OpenFOAM® framework. Results from the computational solver are compared with empirical correlations that account for arc-slag interaction effects.

  11. Materials analyses of ceramics for glass furnace recuperators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, G.W.; Tennery, V.J.

    1979-11-01

    The use of waste heat recuperation systems offers significant promise for meaningful energy conservation in the process heat industries. This report details the analysis of candidate ceramic recuperator materials exposed to simulated industrial glass furnace hot flue gas environments. Several candidate structural ceramic materials including various types of silicon carbide, several grades of alumina, mullite, cordierite, and silicon nitride were exposed to high-temperature flue gas atmospheres from specially constructed day tank furnaces. Furnace charging, operation, and batch composition were selected to closely simulate industrial practice. Material samples were exposed in flues both with and without glass batch in the furnace for times up to 116 d at temperatures from 1150 to 1550/sup 0/C (2100 to 2800/sup 0/F). Exposed materials were examined by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray analysis, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray fluorescence to identify material degradation mechanisms. The materials observations were summarized as: Silicon carbide exhibited enhanced corrosion at lower temperatures (1150/sup 0/C) when alkalies were deposited on the carbide from the flue gas and less corrosion at higher temperatures (1550/sup 0/C) when alkalies were not deposited on the carbide; alumina corrosion depended strongly upon purity and density and alumina contents less than 99.8% were unsatisfactory above 1400/sup 0/C; and mullite and cordierite are generally unacceptable for application in soda-lime glass melting environments at temperatures above 1100/sup 0/C.

  12. Electron beam melting of sponge titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, Hiroshi; Kusamichi, Tatsuhiko; Muraoka, Tetsuhiro; Onouye, Toshio; Nishimura, Takashi

    1991-01-01

    Fundamental investigations were done on electron beam (EB) melting of sponge titanium by using 80 kW EB melting furnace. Results obtained are as follows: (1) To increase the melting yield of titanium in EB melting of sponge titanium, it is important to recover splashed metal by installation of water-cooled copper wall around the hearth and to decrease evaporation loss of titanium by keeping the surface temperature of molten metal just above the melting temperature of titanium without local heating. (2) Specific power consumption of drip melting of pressed sponge titanium bar and hearth melting of sponge titanium are approximately 0.9 kWh/kg-Ti and 0.5-0.7 kWh/kg-Ti, respectively. (3) Ratios of the heat conducted to water-cooled mould in the drip melting and to water-cooled hearth in the hearth melting to the electron beam input power are 50-65% and 60-65%, respectively. (4) Surface defects of EB-melted ingots include rap which occurs when the EB output is excessively great, and transverse cracks when the EB output is excessively small. To prevent surface defects, the up-down withdrawal method is effective. (author)

  13. Energy Saving Melting and Revert Reduction Technology (E-SMARRT): Melting Efficiency Improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Principal Investigator Kent Peaslee; Co-PI’s: Von Richards, Jeffrey Smith

    2012-07-31

    Steel foundries melt recycled scrap in electric furnaces and typically consume 35-100% excess energy from the theoretical energy requirement required to pour metal castings. This excess melting energy is multiplied by yield losses during casting and finishing operations resulting in the embodied energy in a cast product typically being three to six times the theoretical energy requirement. The purpose of this research project was to study steel foundry melting operations to understand energy use and requirements for casting operations, define variations in energy consumption, determine technologies and practices that are successful in reducing melting energy and develop new melting techniques and tools to improve the energy efficiency of melting in steel foundry operations.

  14. Future energy-efficient and low-emissions glass melting processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.; Limpt, J.A.C. van; Lankhorst, A.M.; Santen, P.J. van

    2012-01-01

    All over the world, there is an increasing drive to develop new technologies or concepts for industrial glass melting furnaces, with the main aim to increase the energy efficiency, tabilize production and reduce emissions. The application of new process sensors, improved furnace design, intelligent

  15. Pyrometallurgical processing for raw materials of heavy non-ferrous metals and furnace for carrying it out. Pyrometallurgisches Verarbeitungsverfahren fuer Rohstoffe schwerer Buntmetalle und Ofen zu dessen Realisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanjukov, A V; Metschev, V V; Bystrov, V P; Eschov, E I; Vasiliev, M G; Zaitsev, V Y; Romenets, V A; Ivanov, V V; Golik, S Y; Grin-Gnatovsky, E S

    1980-06-04

    Pyrometallurgical processing is described, by which non-ferrous metals are obtained from a melt. The pneumatic mixing of melt material and the oxidation of sulphide and oxide starting material is done by blowing a flow of gas with more than 35% oxygen content into it. The layers of slag, ore and raw metal formed in the furnace can be separated. The construction of the furnace is described in detail. 4 examples complete the description.

  16. Conditioning of ashes from incineration plant in special furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganser, B.

    1988-01-01

    In this report we describe the development of a melting process for radioactive ashes. After a literature survey about the state of the art and investigated ash compositions the in-can-melting was elected for further work. Based on literature data lab experiments with inactive simulates were performed to investigate different additives (net work formers and transformers) for melting point reduction. Na-Tetraborate was most effective. An addition of 50% by weight (concerning ash weight) was sufficient to melt all simulates at 1000 0 C. The products showed similar low leach rates like vitrified HAW. With two different melting furnaces (Naber, LINN) full scale experiments were performed. The results were not quite sufficient because of uncomplete melting (Naber) resp. unsufficient operation (LINN). Nevertheless the results of the lab experiments could be nearly verified (Compressive strength 60-160 N/mm 2 , Diffusion coefficient for Boron E-17 - E-19 m 2 /s). Based on the technical experiments a plant was designed for hot operation. A cost estimation for conditioning and final disposal amounted to 19 DM/kg ash. (orig.) [de

  17. Chemical energy in electro arc furnace - examples from experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shushlevski, Ljupcho; Georgievski, Panche; Hadzhidaovski, Ilija

    2004-01-01

    Great competition on the market in steel-producing and chemical lack of electrical energy leads to realization of new project in section Steelworks AD 'Makstil' - Skopje named: 'Substitution of electrical energy i.e. entering of additional chemical energy in Electrical arc furnace for steel melting using fuels-naturual gas (CH 4 ), oxygen (O 2 ) and carbon (C)'. It is accumulate experience from two and one half year of intensive use of chemical energy with its accompanying problems, appropriate efficiency and economy in process for steel producing. In 2001 year we announced and described project for using of an additional alternative chemical energy in aggregate Electrical are furnace. In this work we will present realization, working experience and efficiency of the system for generating chemical energy. Practical realization needs serious approach in chemical energy usage The usage of chemical energy brings restrictions and needs many innovation for protection of equipment from shown aggressiveness during the combustion of fuel gasses. (Author)

  18. Achievement report for fiscal 1999 on project for supporting the formation of energy/environmental technology verification project. International joint verification research project (Verification project relative to ignition and NOx reduction using plasma sub-burner in pulverized coal-fired furnace); 1999 nendo plasma sabubana ni yoru bifuntan nenshoro ni okeru chakka oyobi NO{sub x} teigen gijutsu ni kansuru jissho project seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This project is executed through the cooperation of a Russian research institute, Akita Prefectural University, and the Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd. In the development of a plasma sub-burner and the basic research for its verification, a pulverized coal burning plasma sub-burner is designed and fabricated, a basic burning experiment is conducted for the plasma sub-burner, and plasma stabilization in a pulverized coal flow is simulated. In the verification study of the ignition by the plasma sub-burner in a pulverized coal-fired furnace, it is found that the newly-developed plasma sub-burner satisfies the prescribed operating conditions in the system and that the ignition of pulverized coal takes place across the air ratio range of 0.5-1.5 when pulverized coal is fed to the sub-burner. It is also found that NOx is reduced a great deal when a plasma operating on an orifice gas of air or nitrogen is generated in a gas which contains NOx. (NEDO)

  19. Effect of small glass composition changes on flue gas emissions of glass furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Kersbergen, M.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Relatively small changes in glass composition might have drastic consequences on the evaporation rates of volatile glass components in glass melting furnaces. Transpiration evaporation tests have been applied to measure the impact of minor glass composition changes on the evaporation rates of

  20. Secondary steel oxidation on the launder during tapping out of the open-hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oleksa, R P; Yavoiskii, V I; Gorokhov, L S; Vishkarev, A F [Moskovskij Inst. Stali i Splavov (USSR)

    1977-01-01

    An electrochemical method has established an intensive absorption of oxygen through interaction of metal with the surrounding atmosphere on the runner as a melt is being tapped from an open-hearth furnace. During the final ladle deoxidation of steel by effective deoxidizers, the intensity of the secondary oxidation of atmospheric oxygen has no effect upon the quality of the finished metal.

  1. Secondary steel oxidation on the launder during tapping out of the open-hearth furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oleksa, R.P.; Yavojskij, V.I.; Gorokhov, L.S.; Vishkarev, A.F.

    1977-01-01

    An electrochemical method has established an intensive absorption of oxygen through interaction of metal with the surrounding atmosphere on the runner as a melt is being tapped from an open-hearth furnace. During the final ladle deoxidation of steel by effective deoxidizers, the intensity of the secondary oxidation of atmospheric oxygen has no effect upon the quality of the finished metal

  2. Development of vacuum brazing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Rajvir; Yedle, Kamlesh; Jain, A.K.

    2005-01-01

    In joining of components where welding process is not possible brazing processes are employed. Value added components, high quality RF systems, UHV components of high energy accelerators, carbide tools etc. are produced using different types of brazing methods. Furnace brazing under vacuum atmosphere is the most popular and well accepted method for production of the above mentioned components and systems. For carrying out vacuum brazing successfully it is essential to have a vacuum brazing furnace with latest features of modern vacuum brazing technology. A vacuum brazing furnace has been developed and installed for carrying out brazing of components of copper, stainless steel and components made of dissimilar metals/materials. The above furnace has been designed to accommodate jobs of 700mm diameter x 2000mm long sizes with job weight of 500kgs up to a maximum temperature of 1250 degC at a vacuum of 5 x 10 -5 Torr. Oil diffusion pumping system with a combination of rotary and mechanical booster pump have been employed for obtaining vacuum. Molybdenum heating elements, radiation shield of molybdenum and Stainless Steel Grade 304 have been used. The above furnace is computer controlled with manual over ride facility. PLC and Pentium PC are integrated together to maneuver steps of operation and safety interlocks of the system. Closed loop water supply provides cooling to the system. The installation of the above system is in final stage of completion and it will be ready for use in next few months time. This paper presents insights of design and fabrication of a modern vacuum brazing furnace and its sub-system. (author)

  3. Treatment of radioactive metallic waste by the electro-slag melting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Atsuhiro; Nagura, Kanetake; Noura, Tsuyoshi

    1983-01-01

    The applicability of the electro-slag melting method for treating plutonuim contaminated metallic waste was studied. A 100kg test furnace was built and simulated metallic waste was melted and solidified in this furnace. Waste volume was reduced to 1/25 with a decontamination factor of 25 and the slag and the copper mold are repeatedly usable. The process is expected to be employed in the project of PWTF (Plutonium contaminated Wate Treatment Facilities). (author)

  4. Progress report : Plasma Physics Section

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyyengar, S.K.; Rohatgi, V.K.

    1975-08-01

    The activities of the plasma physics section of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, India over the last five years (1970-75) are reported. The R and D programme of the section has been divided into four cells mainly i.e., (i) Thermal plasma (ii) Relativistic Electron Beam (iii) Energetics and (iv) Electron beam technology. The salient features of the development activities carried out in these cells are outlined. In the Thermal plasma group, considerable research work has been done in (a) fundamental plasma studies, (b) industrial plasma technology and (c) open cycle MHD power generation project. The relativistic electron beam group is engaged in improving the technology to realize high power lasers, and pulsed thermonuclear fusion. The energetics programme is oriented to develop high voltage d.c. generators and pulse generators. The electron beam techniques developed here are routinely used for melting refractory and reactive metals. The technical know-how of the welding machines developed has been transfered to industries. Equipment developed by this section, such as, (1) electron beam furnace, (2) plasma cutting torch, (3) impulse magnet charger etc. are listed. (A.K.)

  5. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-01

    The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP), to be located at the Savannah River Site SRS, is a combined development and testing effort by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), and the Australian National Science and Technology Organization (ANSTO). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulating package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces types considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment

  6. Design of a rotating-hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, H A [Verein Deutscher Eisenhuettenleute (VDEh), Duesseldorf (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-10-01

    Presented in two parts, this paper is intended to provide an outline of the theoretical fundamentals for the design of rotating-hearth furnaces for heating round stock and deals with the characteristic design features of such furnaces.

  7. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  8. Effect of melting technique on grain size and heat resistance of the 12Kh1MF steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanskaya, K.A.; Kulikova, L.V.; Butneva, N.I.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated are the 12Kh1MF steel melted in open-hearth and arc furnaces (deoxidation by aluminium in 1.0 kg/t quantity) and then subjected to electroslag melting. The size of an austenitic grain depends on the residual contents of nitrogen and aluminium in steel. The open-hearth metal subjected to electroslag melting and containing a small quantity of nitrogen (0.006%) and aluminium (0.013%) has coarse austenitic grains and higher heat resistance compared to the steel melted in an arc furnace and also sub ected to electroslag melting. The nitride analysis of steel is carried out

  9. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  10. Magnetic orientation of paraffin in a magnetic levitation furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Umeki, C.; Mogi, I.; Koyama, K.; Awaji, S.; Motokawa, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2004-04-01

    Containerless melting of paraffin under a magnetic levitation condition has been performed by using a cryogen-free hybrid magnet and two kinds of laser furnaces. One is local irradiation of CO 2 laser light at the top of the sample. The other is homogeneous irradiation of YAG laser light with a concave ring mirror. In the latter case, reduction of the Marangoni convection on the surface of the sample and the magnetic orientation of paraffin molecules were observed. The magnetic anisotropy of the spherical sample was confirmed by the measurement of magnetization and X-ray diffraction.

  11. Magnetic orientation of paraffin in a magnetic levitation furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Umeki, C.; Mogi, I.; Koyama, K.; Awaji, S.; Motokawa, M.; Watanabe, K

    2004-04-30

    Containerless melting of paraffin under a magnetic levitation condition has been performed by using a cryogen-free hybrid magnet and two kinds of laser furnaces. One is local irradiation of CO{sub 2} laser light at the top of the sample. The other is homogeneous irradiation of YAG laser light with a concave ring mirror. In the latter case, reduction of the Marangoni convection on the surface of the sample and the magnetic orientation of paraffin molecules were observed. The magnetic anisotropy of the spherical sample was confirmed by the measurement of magnetization and X-ray diffraction.

  12. Magnetic orientation of paraffin in a magnetic levitation furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Umeki, C.; Mogi, I.; Koyama, K.; Awaji, S.; Motokawa, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2004-01-01

    Containerless melting of paraffin under a magnetic levitation condition has been performed by using a cryogen-free hybrid magnet and two kinds of laser furnaces. One is local irradiation of CO 2 laser light at the top of the sample. The other is homogeneous irradiation of YAG laser light with a concave ring mirror. In the latter case, reduction of the Marangoni convection on the surface of the sample and the magnetic orientation of paraffin molecules were observed. The magnetic anisotropy of the spherical sample was confirmed by the measurement of magnetization and X-ray diffraction

  13. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A cylindrical furnace with three heating zones, capable of providing a temperature of 1100°C, has been fabricated to enable recording of absorption spectra of high temperature species. The temperature of the furnace can be controlled to ± 1°C of the set temperature. The salient feature of this furnace is that the material ...

  14. Behavior of coke in large blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, N

    1978-01-01

    Three blast furnaces were quenched in operation and the contents were examined; the temperature distribution was also measured, using Tempil pellets. The furnaces examined included a low productivity one, which was examined to see what was wrong. Changes in the quality of coke as it descends in the furnace, and coke behavior in the raceway and hearth are reported. The functions required of coke, and the effects of poor coke quality, are explained, together with the coke quality required in large blast furnaces. A theoretical study of the role of coke in large blast furnaces is included.

  15. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  16. Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes an industrial furnace for heating work which emits volatiles during heating. It comprises a generally cylindrical, closed end furnace section defining a sealable heat transfer chamber for heating work disposed therein; fan means for directing furnace atmosphere as a swirling wind mass about the interior of the furnace section over a portion thereof; heat means for heating the wind mass within the fan chamber; and an incineration track formed as a circumferentially extending groove about the exterior of the furnace section and in heat transfer relationship with and situated at least to extend about a portion of the fan chamber.

  17. Pilot scale electron bombardment furnace for continuous casting; application to the trial preparation of 20 kg of uranium monocarbide rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trouve, J.; Genard, R.; Treillou, A.; Accary, A.

    1964-01-01

    The authors describe a pilot scale electron beam furnace designed for continuous melting and casting of uranium-carbon alloys. This equipment allows the melting and casting processes to be completely automatically controlled, the cooling being carried out under vacuum and the discharge being effected without breaking the vacuum. In a pre-production run of 20 kg of slugs, the composition of practically all the pieces was controlled within ± 0,1 per cent C. The output of the furnace was 2,2 kg/hour. (authors) [fr

  18. Methods of steel manufacturing - The electric arc furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragna, E. C.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.

    2018-01-01

    Initially, the carbon content was reduced by mixing “the iron” with metallic ingots in ceramic crucibles/melting pots, with external heat input. As time went by the puddling procedure was developed, a procedure which also assumes a mixture with oxidized iron ore. In 1856 Bessemer invented the convertor, thus demonstrating that steel can be obtained following the transition of an air stream through the liquid pig iron. The invention of Thomas, a slightly modified basic-lined converter, fostered the desulphurization of the steel and the removal of the phosphate from it. During the same period, in 1865, in Sireuil, the Frenchman Martin applies Siemens’ heat regeneration invention and brings into service the furnace with a charge composed of iron pig, scrap iron and iron ore, that produces a high quality steel [1]. An act worthy of being highlighted within the scope of steelmaking is the start-up of the converter with oxygen injection at the upper side, as there are converters that can produce 400 tons of steel in approximately 50 minutes. Currently, the share of the steel produced in electric arc furnaces with a charge composed of scrap iron has increased. Due to this aspect, the electric arc furnace was able to impose itself on the market.

  19. Multikilowatt variable frequency microwave furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bible, D.W.; Lauf, R.J.; Everleigh, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors describe a new type of microwave processing furnace in which the frequency can be varied continuously from 4 to 8 GHz and the power level varied from zero up to 2.5 kW. The extraordinary bandwidth of this furnace is achieved by using a traveling wave tube (TWT) amplifier originally developed for electronic warfare applications. The TWT is a linear beam device characterized by a traveling electromagnetic wave that continuously extracts energy longitudinally along the path of an electron beam. The TWT, unlike other microwave tubes such as the magnetron, klystron, gyrotron, and others, does not depend upon resonant RF fields and is therefore capable of wide bandwidth operation.operation

  20. Joule-heated glass-furnace system for the incineration of low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, K.M.; Klingler, L.M.; Doty, J.W.; Kramer, D.P.

    1982-01-01

    For the past 1-1/2 years, Mound has been preparing and evaluating a commercially available joule-heated glass furnace unit, coupled with a wet scrubbing system. The purpose of the glass furnace evaluation is to advance and document incinerator technology for such combustibles as solids, resins, and sludges, and to develop a stable waste form for subsequent disposal. Four (4) waste nonradioactive types were selected to determine the combustion efficiency of the furnace unit: (1) dry solid waste composed of paper, plastics, rubber, and cloth, (2) ion exchange resin of both the anionic and cationic type, (3) filter sludge composed of diatomaceous earth, organic cellulosic filter aid, and powdered ion exchange resin, and (4) cartridge filters having glass and plastic filter surfaces and nonmetallic cores. When completed, the combustion efficiency experiments for the proposed nonradioactive waste-types revealed the ability of the furnace to easily incinerate waste at feedrates of up to 150 lb/hr. During the course of the experiments, combustibles in the offgas remained consistently low, suggesting excellent combustion efficiency. Furthermore, ash produced by the combustion process was effectively incorporated into the melt by convective currents in the glass. Future work on the glass furnace incinerator will include spiking the waste to determine radioisotope behavior in the furnace

  1. Experimental Study on Environment Friendly Tap Hole Clay for Blast Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siva kumar, R.; Mohammed, Raffi; Srinivasa Rao, K.

    2018-03-01

    Blast furnace (BF) is the best possible route of iron production available. Blast furnace is a high pressure vessel where iron ore is melted and liquid iron is produced. The liquid iron is tapped through the hole in Blast Furnace called tap hole. The tapped liquid metal flowing through the tap hole is plugged using a clay called tap hole clay. Tap hole clay (THC) is a unshaped refractory used to plug the tap hole. The tap hole clay extruded through the tap hole using a gun. The tap hole clay is designed to expand and plug the tap hole. The tap hole filled with clay is drilled using drill bit and the hole made through the tap hole to tap the liquid metal accumulated inside the furnace. The number of plugging and drilling varies depending on the volume of the furnace. The tap hole clay need to have certain properties to avoid problems during plugging and drilling. In the present paper tap hole clay properties in industrial use was tested and studied. The problems were identified related to tap hole clay manufacturing. Experiments were conducted in lab scale to solve the identified problems. The present composition was modified with experimental results. The properties of the modified tap hole clay were found suitable and useful for blast furnace operation with lab scale experimental results.

  2. Bridge between fusion plasma and plasma processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Takamura, Shuichi

    2008-01-01

    In the present review, relationship between fusion plasma and processing plasma is discussed. From boundary-plasma studies in fusion devices new applications such as high-density plasma sources, erosion of graphite in a hydrogen plasma, formation of helium bubbles in high-melting-point metals and the use of toroidal plasmas for plasma processing are emerging. The authors would like to discuss a possibility of knowledge transfer from fusion plasmas to processing plasmas. (T. Ikehata)

  3. Recycling of post-consumer glass: energy savings, CO2 emission reduction, effects on glass quality and glass melting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.; Kers, G.; Santen, E. van

    2011-01-01

    This presentation shows the advantages of re-melting post-consumer glass, but also the potential risks of using contaminated cullet in the raw material batch of glass furnaces (e.g. container glass furnaces). As an example of potential advantages: increasing the cullet % in the batch of an efficient

  4. Automated, High Temperature Furnace for Glovebox Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neikirk, K.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy will immobilize excess plutonium in the proposed Plutonium Immobilization Plant (PIP) at the Savannah River Site (SRS) as part of a two track approach for the disposition of weapons usable plutonium. As such, the Department of Energy is funding a development and testing effort for the PIP. This effort is being performed jointly by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Westinghouse Savannah River Company (WSRC), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The Plutonium Immobilization process involves the disposition of excess plutonium by incorporation into ceramic pucks. As part of the immobilization process, furnaces are needed for sintering the ceramic pucks. The furnace being developed for puck sintering is an automated, bottom loaded furnace with insulting package and resistance heating elements located within a nuclear glovebox. Other furnaces considered for the application include retort furnaces and pusher furnaces. This paper, in part, will discuss the furnace technologies considered and furnace technology selected to support reliable puck sintering in a glovebox environment. Due to the radiation levels and contamination associated with the plutonium material, the sintering process will be fully automated and contained within nuclear material gloveboxes. As such, the furnace currently under development incorporates water and air cooling to minimize heat load to the glovebox. This paper will describe the furnace equipment and systems needed to employ a fully automated puck sintering process within nuclear gloveboxes as part of the Plutonium Immobilization Plant

  5. Bubble removal from glass melts with slow vertical circulation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jebavá, M.; Němec, Lubomír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 3 (2011), s. 232-239 ISSN 0862-5468 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : bubbles * glass-melt circulation * pot furnace * mathematical modelling * fining efficiency Subject RIV: JH - Ceramics, Fire-Resistant Materials and Glass Impact factor: 0.382, year: 2011

  6. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkki, J; Tervola, K [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1997-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquidus temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 2 refs.

  7. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tervola, K.; Haerkki, J.

    1996-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquids temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) (14 refs.)

  8. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkki, J.; Tervola, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquidus temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 2 refs.

  9. Modelling the evaporation of boron species. Part 1: Alkali-free borosilicate glass melts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Cook, S.; O'Connor, R.; Simon, J.

    2011-01-01

    A laboratory test facility has been used to measure the boron evaporation rates from borosilicate glass melts. The impact of furnace atmosphere composition and glass melt composition on the temperature dependent boron evaporation rates has been investigated experimentally. In Part 1 of this paper

  10. Fining of glass melts: what we know about fining processes today

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.

    2009-01-01

    The paper addresses the mechanisms of fining (removal of gases from melt) and the effect of batch composition, oxidation state of the melt and furnace atmosphere on bubble removal processes for commercial glass types, such as float glass and container glass compositions. The mechanisms of the

  11. Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thurber, W.C.; MacKinney, J.

    1997-02-01

    During the melting of steel with radioactive contamination, radionuclides may be distributed among the metal product, the home scrap, the slag, the furnace lining and the off-gas collection system. In addition, some radionuclides will pass through the furnace system and vent to the atmosphere. To estimate radiological impacts of recycling radioactive scrap steel, it is essential to understand how radionuclides are distributed within the furnace system. For example, an isotope of a gaseous element (e.g., radon) will exhaust directly from the furnace system into the atmosphere while a relatively non-volatile element (e.g., manganese) can be distributed among all the other possible media. This distribution of radioactive contaminants is a complex process that can be influenced by numerous chemical and physical factors, including composition of the steel bath, chemistry of the slag, vapor pressure of the particular element of interest, solubility of the element in molten iron, density of the oxide(s), steel melting temperature and melting practice (e.g., furnace type and size, melting time, method of carbon adjustment and method of alloy additions). This paper discusses the distribution of various elements with particular reference to electric arc furnace steelmaking. The first two sections consider the calculation of partition ratios for elements between metal and slag based on thermodynamic considerations. The third section presents laboratory and production measurements of the distribution of various elements among slag, metal, and the off-gas collection system; and the final section provides recommendations for the assumed distribution of each element of interest.

  12. Plasma treatment of INEL soil contaminated with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detering, B.A.; Batdorf, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    INEL soil spiked with inorganic salts of chromium, lead, mercury, silver, and zinc was melted in a 150 kW plasma furnace to produce a glassy slag product. This glassy slag is an environmentally safe waste form. In order to reduce the melting temperature of the soil, sodium carbonate was added to half of the test batches. Random sample from each batch of glassy slag product were analyzed by an independent laboratory for total metals concentration and leachability of metals via the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) toxicity characterization leaching procedure (RCLP) tests. These tests showed the residual metals were very tightly bound to the slag matrix and were within EPA TCLP limits under these test conditions. Additionally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and emissions dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of the vitrified soil also confirmed that the added metals present in the vitrified soil were totally contained in the crystalline phase as distinct oxide crystallites

  13. Treatment of simulated INEL buried wastes using a graphite electrode DC arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, J.E.; Lawrence, W.E.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Cohn, D.R.; Rhea, D.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.

    1994-08-01

    A program has been established under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD), to develop the graphite electrode DC arc technology for the application of treating buried heterogenous solid wastes. A three way open-quotes National Laboratory-University-Industryclose quotes partnership was formed to develop this technology in the most timely and cost effective manner. This program is presently testing a newly fabricated pilot-scale DC arc furnace with associated diagnostics at the Plasma Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Initial testing in a smaller engineering scale furnace has established the viability of this technology for the treatment of solid heterogeneous wastes. Two diagnostic tools were developed under this program which support the evaluation of the DC arc technology. The diagnostics provide for both spatially resolved temperature measurements within the furnace and real time monitoring of the furnace metal emissions

  14. FURNACE; a toroidal geometry neutronic program system method description and users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.

    1984-12-01

    The FURNACE program system performs neutronic and photonic calculations in 3D toroidal geometry for application to fusion reactors. The geometry description is quite general, allowing any torus cross section and any neutron source density distribution for the plasma, as well as simple parametric representations of circular, elliptic and D-shaped tori and plasmas. The numerical method is based on an approximate transport model that produces results with sufficient accuracy for reactor-design purposes, at acceptable calculational costs. A short description is given of the numerical method, and a user manual for the programs of the system: FURNACE, ANISN-PT, LIBRA, TAPEMA and DRAWER is presented

  15. The Influence A Crucible Arrangement On The Electrical Efficiency Of The Cold Crucible Induction Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smalcerz A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A big interest in application of cold crucible furnace (CCF for industrial, particularly metallurgical, processes has been observed in recent years. They are mainly utilised for melting of metal, glass and other materials. Analyses of processes that occur in such devices are performed; however, computer modelling is rarely applied. As a precise determination of the electromagnetic field distribution is essential for a proper analysis of processes in furnaces with cold crucibles, a complex 3D model development is necessary. In the paper, effects of a crucible design and current frequency on the efficiency of the induction furnace with cold crucible are presented. Numerical calculations were performed with the use of the Flux 3D professional software.

  16. Forecast situation of the blast furnace cohesive zone; Situacion estimada de la zona cohesiva en el horno alto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cores, A.; Saiz de Ayala, J.; Mochon, J.; Ruiz-Bustinza, I.; Parra, R.

    2010-07-01

    A series of sinters are manufactured in the pilot plant, using a mineral mixture, like that blast furnace. The sinters are characterised, by chemical and granulometric analysis and by determining the softening and melting temperatures. In the blast furnace temperatures are determined by using a series of probes in the furnace which make it possible to locate the position of the isotherm of higher temperature of 950 degree centigrade, which correspond to the reserve thermic zone. A model has been developed, proposing and indirect estimation of the shape of the cohesive zone through the determination of the isotherm with the highest temperature in the thermic reserve zone. The values of the softening and melting temperatures of sinters can be used to estimate the isotherms limiting the cohesive zone in the 1300-1400 degree centigrade range. (Author)

  17. Theoretical and experimental investigations into rare earth oxides behaviour during out of furnace treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishkarev, A.F.; Smirnov, B.V.; Krup, Yu.M.

    1987-01-01

    Theoretical model is developed and technology of metal desulfuration and modification by rear earth metals is tested during out of furnace vacuum treatment, the testing of which has demonstrated its high efficiency. 16KhN3MA steel was melted in 120-t open-hearth furnaces under tapping with treatment by synthetic lime-aluminous slag and subsequent ladle degassing by circulation technique. At the early stage of degassing process cerium oxides together with aluminium were introduced into the vacuum chamber in the quantities of 2.0 and 0.2 kg/t respectively. Two meltings ere performed. Sulfur content in steel reduced from 0.017 and 0.018 up to 0.007 and 0.006%

  18. Fiscal 1974 Sunshine Project result report. Research on solar energy utilization systems (solar furnace); 1974 nendo taiyo energy riyo system chosa kenkyu. Taiyoro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1975-03-01

    In fiscal 1974, analysis was made on the concept design of solar furnace hardware, and utilization and use purpose of solar furnaces as high-temperature industrial heat source. Detailed survey was also made on the history of high- temperature solar furnaces. Based on the history of large- scale solar furnaces and the current state of some industries consuming a large amount of thermal energy, wide consideration was made on the applicability of large-scale solar furnaces as heat source in the future. Although various applications of large-scale solar furnaces are expected in the future, their current main applications are production of high-melting point materials, research on high-temperature physical properties, production of silicon, and solar heat power generation. A solar furnace is mainly composed of a parabolic reflector and heliostat plane reflector as optical system. It is necessary for practical industrial use of solar furnaces to study on furnace core design, profitability, installation site, temperature control, and reflector maintenance enough. (NEDO)

  19. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-10-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R&D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  20. Fluxless furnace brazing and its theoretical fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lison, R.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the theoretical fundamental of fluxless furnace brazing are described. The necessary conditions for a wetting in the vacuum, under a inert-gas and with a reducing gas are discussed. Also other methods to reduce the oxygen partial pressure are described. Some applications of fluxless furnace brazing are outlined. (orig.) [de

  1. Refractory of Furnaces to Reduce Environmental Impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Shigeru

    2011-01-01

    The energy load of furnaces used in the manufacturing process of ceramics is quite large. Most of the environmental impact of ceramics manufacturing is due to the CO 2 produced from this high energy load. To improve this situation, R and D has focused on furnace systems and techniques of control in order to reduce energy load. Since furnaces are comprised of refractory, consideration of their mechanical and thermal characteristics is important. Herein are described several refractory types which were chosen through comparison of the characteristics which contribute to heat capacity reduction, heat insulating reinforcement and high emissivity, thereby improving thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency to the ceramic articles. One selected refractory material which will reduce the environmental impact of a furnace, chosen considering low heat capacity and high emissivity characteristics, is SiC. In this study, thermal radiation heat transfer efficiency improvement and its effect on ceramic articles in the furnace and oxidation behaviour were investigated at 1700K. A high density SiC refractory, built into the furnace at construction, has relatively high oxidation durability and has the ability to reduce environmental impact-CO 2 by 10 percent by decreasing the furnace's energy load. However, new oxidation prevention techniques for SiC will be necessary for long-term use in industrial furnaces, because passive to active oxidation transition behaviour of commercial SiC refractory is coming to close ideal.

  2. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  3. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  4. Research achievement report for fiscal 1998 on the development of high-performance industrial furnaces. Research and development of high-performance industrial furnaces and the like (2); 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Volume 2 named above contains part of research achievement reports and individual research achievement reports. The aluminum melting furnace working group research achievement report covers aluminum melting furnace operating patterns, concentrated impinging flame mode and dispersed impinging flame mode, and honeycomb and ball structures in heat storing bodies. The tubular heater working group report mentions the application of this facility to oil heating furnaces, studies and investigations for the embodiment of real systems using the tubular heater, and tests conducted in a furnace with plural heating tube lines. The individual research achievement reports elaborate on the development of technologies of heat transfer optimization under unsteady conditions in the steel material heating process, research and development of high-efficiency heat transfer technologies, development of heating furnace geometry optimization technologies, research and development of a high-performance controlled atmosphere heat treatment furnace, development of high-efficiency heat transfer technologies in high-temperature jet flame heating, development of heat uniformity improvement technologies for example for the steel material heating process, construction of optimum combustion control technologies for the regenerative burner furnace, research concerning laser-aided measurement in industrial furnaces, etc. (NEDO)

  5. Off gas processing device for degreasing furnace for uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Masaya; Akasaka, Takayuki; Noura, Takeshi.

    1996-01-01

    A low melting ingredient capturing-cooling trap connected to a degreasing sintering furnace by way of sealed pipelines, a burning/decomposing device for decomposing high melting ingredient gases discharged from the cooling trap by burning them and a gas sucking means for forming the flow of off gases are contained in a glovebox, the inside pressure of which is kept negative. Since the degreasing sintering furnace for uranium/plutonium mixed oxide fuels is disposed outside of the glovebox, operation can be performed safely without greatly increasing the scale of the device, and the back flow of gases is prevented easily by keeping the pressure in the inside of the glovebox negative. Further, a heater is disposed at the midway of the sealed pipelines from the degreasing sintering furnace to the cooling trap, the temperature is kept high to prevent deposition of low melting ingredients to prevent clogging of the sealed pipelines. Further, a portion of the pipelines is made extensible in the axial direction to eliminate thermal stresses caused by temperature change thereby enabling to extend the life of the sealed pipelines. (N.H.)

  6. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  7. Modeling of velocity field for vacuum induction melting process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bo; JIANG Zhi-guo; LIU Kui; LI Yi-yi

    2005-01-01

    The numerical simulation for the recirculating flow of melting of an electromagnetically stirred alloy in a cylindrical induction furnace crucible was presented. Inductive currents and electromagnetic body forces in the alloy under three different solenoid frequencies and three different melting powers were calculated, and then the forces were adopted in the fluid flow equations to simulate the flow of the alloy and the behavior of the free surface. The relationship between the height of the electromagnetic stirring meniscus, melting power, and solenoid frequency was derived based on the law of mass conservation. The results show that the inductive currents and the electromagnetic forces vary with the frequency, melting power, and the physical properties of metal. The velocity and the height of the meniscus increase with the increase of the melting power and the decrease of the solenoid frequency.

  8. Generating electricity and heat from lean gas. Dual fuel engine generates electricity and process heat from cupola furnace gas; Strom und Waerme aus Schwachgas gewinnen. Zuendstrahlmotor erzeugt Strom und Prozesswaerme aus Kupolofengas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirn, Gerhard

    2012-07-01

    White-hot molten iron flows into the launder. The blast of heat released provides visitors with an impressive demonstration of the amount of energy flowing in foundries. Large volumes of carbon (coke) are used for the melting process in the cupola furnace, whereby a combustible process gas is formed as a by-product. This so-called cupola furnace gas has a low heating value and has previously been completely combusted for generating the hot blast in the cupola furnace's recuperator. However, in this process only around 35 % of the contained energy is used thermally. Now it is possible to utilise the remaining 65 % of the chemically bound energy that was previously not used in most foundries: a modified biogas combined heat and power plant runs with cupola furnace gas (CFG) from the melting furnace. (orig.)

  9. Plasma-Gasification-Melting System (PGM) for Treatment of Low and Intermediate Level Radioactive Waste (LILRW) Generated by Nuclear Power Plants (NPP's)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegaz, D.

    2004-01-01

    Solid LILRW generated by NPP's is treated by various methods of Volume Reduction and Stabilization / Immobilization before disposal at suitable Storage Sites for Radioactive Waste. PGM Technology thermally treats such solid LILRW achieving maximum volume reduction and efficient stabilization of radionuclides of the waste in a Vitrified (glassy) solid residue, slag. Since such LILRW is made of a large variety of different materials, organic and inorganic, the PGM Process gasifies and pyrolizes the organics while the inorganics are melted and vitrified

  10. Optical emission from a small scale model electric arc furnace in 250-600 nm region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mäkinen, A; Niskanen, J; Tikkala, H; Aksela, H

    2013-04-01

    Optical emission spectroscopy has been for long proposed for monitoring and studying industrial steel making processes. Whereas the radiative decay of thermal excitations is always taking place in high temperatures needed in steel production, one of the most promising environment for such studies are electric arc furnaces, creating plasma in excited electronic states that relax with intense characteristic emission in the optical regime. Unfortunately, large industrial scale electric arc furnaces also present a challenging environment for optical emission studies and application of the method is not straightforward. To study the usability of optical emission spectroscopy in real electric arc furnaces, we have developed a laboratory scale DC electric arc furnace presented in this paper. With the setup, optical emission spectra of Fe, Cr, Cr2O3, Ni, SiO2, Al2O3, CaO, and MgO were recorded in the wavelength range 250-600 nm and the results were analyzed with the help of reference data. The work demonstrates that using characteristic optical emission, obtaining in situ chemical information from oscillating plasma of electric arc furnaces is indeed possible. In spite of complications, the method could possibly be applied to industrial scale steel making process in order to improve its efficiency.

  11. Model based energy benchmarking for glass furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sardeshpande, Vishal; Gaitonde, U.N.; Banerjee, Rangan

    2007-01-01

    Energy benchmarking of processes is important for setting energy efficiency targets and planning energy management strategies. Most approaches used for energy benchmarking are based on statistical methods by comparing with a sample of existing plants. This paper presents a model based approach for benchmarking of energy intensive industrial processes and illustrates this approach for industrial glass furnaces. A simulation model for a glass furnace is developed using mass and energy balances, and heat loss equations for the different zones and empirical equations based on operating practices. The model is checked with field data from end fired industrial glass furnaces in India. The simulation model enables calculation of the energy performance of a given furnace design. The model results show the potential for improvement and the impact of different operating and design preferences on specific energy consumption. A case study for a 100 TPD end fired furnace is presented. An achievable minimum energy consumption of about 3830 kJ/kg is estimated for this furnace. The useful heat carried by glass is about 53% of the heat supplied by the fuel. Actual furnaces operating at these production scales have a potential for reduction in energy consumption of about 20-25%

  12. Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of furnace thermal dynamics, and design of control systems are addressed. The optical scanning system is shown to greatly improve pyrometer measurement repeatability, particularly where heavy floating slag accumulations cause surface temperature gradients. Thermal dynamics of the furnaces were determined by applying least-squares system identification techniques to actual production data. A unity feedback control system utilizing a proportional-integral-derivative compensator is designed by using frequency-domain techniques. 14 refs

  13. Programmable temperature regulator of VAO-1 furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahalka, F.

    1979-01-01

    A programmable temperature controller is described for a furnace for high-level waste processing. Furnace temperature is controlled by a program compiled from a combination of 3 parts with different linear increments or decrements of time dependent temperature and 2 parts with isothermal control for over a preset period. The equipment consists essentially of a programming unit, a programmed digital-to-analog converter and a power unit. The design is described in detail and its specifications are given. The maximum operating temperature of 1500 degC may be reached in the furnace charge section. (B.S.)

  14. Alternative fuels for multiple-hearth furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bracket, B D; Lawson, T U

    1980-04-01

    Results are described of a feasibility study on the use of refuse-derived fuel, shredded paper, wood waste, coal, and waste oil in multiple-hearth furnaces at the Lower Molonglo Water Quality Control Centre in Australia. An assessment of waste fuel availability and characteristics is given, and a summary is made of the technical and economic aspects of using these alternative fuels and of minimizing furnace fuel requirements by reducing sludge moisture. The recommended method of reducing fuel oil consumption in the furnace is shown to be sludge drying, using process exhaust heat in a rotary dryer.

  15. Internal heat exchange tubes for industrial furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1992-05-26

    This patent describes a method for cooling the work within an industrial furnace. It comprises providing a longitudinally extending outer tube which extends into the furnace having a closed axial end and an open axial end; providing a preformed inner tube open at both ends within the outer tube; injecting a coolant into the inner tube so that the coolant flows from one axial end of the tube out the opposite end adjacent the closed end of the outer tube, and from the closed end of the outer tube to the open end thereof; circulating a gas within the furnace against the outer tube to effect heat transfer therewith.

  16. International blast furnace hearth and raceway symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-01-01

    Papers presented discussed some of the physical and chemical processes occuring in the raceway and hearths of blast furnaces. The injection of coal or fuel slurries to replace some of the coke was also covered. Fourteen papers are abstracted separately.

  17. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark M [Charlotte, NC; True, Bradford G [Charlotte, NC

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  18. Hopewell Furnace NHS : alternative transportation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-31

    This study assesses the potential for an alternative transportation system (ATS) at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). The Volpe Center investigated internal circulation and potential partnerships with local historic, cultural, and recrea...

  19. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero-Manzanares, J.; Garrido Saenz, I.; Mata Cabrera, F.; Rubio Mesas, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  20. Mutual Influence of Special Components in Baotou Steel Blast Furnace Slag on the Crystallization Behavior of Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yici; Jiang, Qi; Luo, Guoping; Yu, Wenwu; Ban, Yan

    2012-01-01

    In the process of glass-ceramics prepared with Baotou steel blast furnace slag, quartz sand, and other raw materials by melting method, the mutual influence of the special components such as CaF2, REXOY, TiO2, K2O, and Na2O in the blast furnace slag on the crystallization behavior of parent glass was investigated using differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results show that the special components in slag can reduce the crystallization temperature and promote cry...

  1. A furnace for firing carbon products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudavskii, A M

    1979-12-05

    A furnace for firing carbon products is patented that consists of several chambers with a perforated hearth, which are interconnected by a lower and an upper reservoir with a locking fixture, and a flue. In order to intensify the firing process by increasing the specific hearth productivity, the flue is connected to the upper reservoir. A block diagram of the patented furnace is given, together with a description of its operation.

  2. Multiphase flow modelling of furnace tapholes

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, Quinn G.; Erwee, Markus W.

    2017-01-01

    Pyrometallurgical furnaces of many varieties make use of tapholes in order to facilitate the removal of molten process material from inside the vessel. Correct understanding and operation of the taphole is essential for optimal performance of such furnaces. The present work makes use of computational fluid dynamics models generated using the OpenFOAM® framework in order to study flow behaviour in the taphole system. Single-phase large-eddy simulation models are used to quantify the discharge ...

  3. Arc melting and homogenization of ZrC and ZrC + B alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darolia, R.; Archbold, T. F.

    1973-01-01

    A description is given of the methods used to arc-melt and to homogenize near-stoichiometric ZrC and ZrC-boron alloys, giving attention to the oxygen contamination problem. The starting material for the carbide preparation was ZrC powder with an average particle size of 4.6 micron. Pellets weighing approximately 3 g each were prepared at room temperature from the powder by the use of an isostatic press operated at 50,000 psi. These pellets were individually melted in an arc furnace containing a static atmosphere of purified argon. A graphite resistance furnace was used for the homogenization process.

  4. Process and device for continuous measurement of the level of a radioactive glass melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, H.

    1987-01-01

    The glass melt runs into a high quality steel mould in the form of a jet at the bottom exit of the smelting furnace or reservoir. The smelting furnace or reservoir and the high quality steel mould can be made part of an electrical circuit by suitable insulation measures relative to one another and relative to the earth potential. The glass melt jet is used as a variable resistance in this circuit, as its resistance will decrease with its decreasing length due to the increasing level in the mould. The resistance is suitable as a direct measure of the level. (DG) [de

  5. Composition and microstructure of a furnace ash deposit from a coal-fired utility boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fessler, R R

    1980-07-01

    An exploratory study of the structure and composition of furnace-ash deposits was carried out using optical metallography, electron microprobe analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. The results of these analyses were supplemented by studies of particulate melting temperature using hot-stage microscopy to measure melting temperature, and energy-dispersive X-ray analyses to measure composition of melted particles. It was found that the general structure of the ash deposit was a matrix of glassy, spherical particles having a wide range of composition in which unfused particles containing iron oxide and calcium oxide were dispersed. At the imprint of the tube surface a considerable concentration of calcium, sulphur and iron was found. Near the fused outer surface of the deposit, the glassy materials had melted into a porous, glassy slag containing spherical globules of iron oxide combined with other materials. There were no systematic compositional gradients from the tube surface to the fused outer layer except for the sulfur layer found only at the tube surface. However, there were significant differences in composition from particle to particle and these differences were similar to those found in the coal mineral matter as isolated by low-temperature ashing. Single particles of low-temperature ash were found having low fusion temperatures, in the range of fusion temperatures for particles in furnance has. Thus, the glassy spheres found in furnace deposits could originate from single coal particles, without the need of interactions among coal particles or ash particles.

  6. Magnetic and microstructural investigation of high-coercivity net-shape Nd-Fe-B-type magnets produced from spark-plasma-sintered melt-spun ribbons blended with DyF3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Žagar, Kristina; Kocjan, Andraž; Kobe, Spomenka

    2016-04-01

    Nanostructured Nd-Fe-B-type materials produced by melt-spinning (MS) are used in a variety of applications in the electronics, automotive, and sensor industries. The very rapid MS process leads to flake-like powders with metastable, nanoscale, Nd2Fe14B grains. These powders are then formed into net-shaped, isotropic, polymer-bonded magnets, or they are hot formed into fully dense, metallic magnets that are isotropic and anisotropic. These fully dense magnets are usually produced with a conventional hot press without the inclusion of additives prior to the hot pressing. As a result, their properties, particularly the coercivity (Hci), are insufficient at automotive-relevant temperatures of 100-150 °C since the material Hci has a large temperature coefficient. In this study, we instead add a thin layer of DyF3 to the melt-spun ribbons prior to their hot consolidation in order to enhance the coercivity through a diffusion-based, partial substitution of the Nd by Dy. This is accomplished by applying extremely rapid, spark-plasma sintering to minimize any growth of the nanoscale Nd2Fe14B grains during consolidation. The result is a very high-coercivity magnet with drastically reduced amounts of heavy rare earths that is suitable for high-temperature applications. This work clearly demonstrates how rapidly formed, metastable states can provide us with properties that are unobtainable with conventional techniques.

  7. Remelting of metallurgical fines using thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vicente, L.C.; Neto F, J.B.F.; Bender, O.W.; Collares, M.P.

    1992-01-01

    A plasma furnace was developed for remelting of ferro alloys and silicon fines. The furnace capacity was about 4 Kg of silicon and power about 50 kW. The fine (20 to 100 mesh) was fed into the furnace directly at the high temperature zone. This system was tested for remelting silicon fines and the results in the recovery of silicon was about 95% and it took place a refine of aluminium and calcium. (author)

  8. Energy Saving in Industrial Annealing Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ÇANKA KILIÇ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy efficiency studies have been carried out in a natural gas-fired rolling mill annealing furnace of an industrial establishment. In this context, exhaust gas from the furnace has been examined in terms of waste heat potential. In the examinations that have been made in detail; waste heat potential was found as 3.630,31 kW. Technical and feasibility studies have been carried out to realize electricity production through an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system for evaluating the waste heat potential of the annealing furnace. It has been calculated that 1.626.378,88 kWh/year of electricity can be generated by using the exhaust gas waste heat of the annealing furnace through an ORC system to produce electric energy with a net efficiency of 16%. The financial value of this energy was determined as 436.032,18 TL/year and the simple repayment period of the investment was 8,12 years. Since the annealing period of the annealing furnace is 2800 hours/year, the investment has not been found to be feasible in terms of the feasibility studies. However, the investment suitability can be assured when the annealing furnace is operating at full capacity for 8,000 hours or more annually.

  9. Cladding hull decontamination and densification process. Part 2. Densification by inductoslag melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, R.G.; Montgomery, D.R.

    1980-04-01

    The Inductoslag melting process was developed to densify Zircaloy-4 cladding hulls. It is a cold crucible process that uses induction heating, a segmented water-cooled copper crucible, and a calcium fluoride flux. Metal and flux are fed into the furnace through the crucible, located at the top of the furnace, and the finished ingot is withdrawn from the bottom of the furnace. Melting rates of 40 to 50 kg/h are achieved, using 100 to 110 kW at an average energy use of 2.5 kWh/kg. The quality of ingots produced from factory supplied cladding tubing is sufficient to satisfy nuclear grade standards. An ingot of Zircaloy-4, made from melted cladding tubing that had been autoclaved to near reactor exposure and then descaled by the hydrogen fluoride decontamination process prior to Inductoslag melting, did not meet nuclear grade standards because the hydrogen, nitrogen, and hardness levels were too high. Melting development work is described that could possibly be used to test the capability of the Inductoslag process to satisfactorily melt a variety and mix of materials from LWR reprocessing, decontamination, and storage options. Results of experiments are also presented that could be used to improve remote operation of the melting process

  10. Simulation of Radiation Heat Transfer in a VAR Furnace Using an Electrical Resistance Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    The use of electrical resistance networks to simulate heat transfer is a well known analytical technique that greatly simplifies the solution of radiation heat transfer problems. In a VAR furnace, radiative heat transfer occurs between the ingot, electrode, and crucible wall; and the arc when the latter is present during melting. To explore the relative heat exchange between these elements, a resistive network model was developed to simulate the heat exchange between the electrode, ingot, and crucible with and without the presence of an arc. This model was then combined with an ingot model to simulate the VAR process and permit a comparison between calculated and observed results during steady state melting. Results from simulations of a variety of alloys of different sizes have demonstrated the validity of the model. Subsequent simulations demonstrate the application of the model to the optimization of both steady state and hot top melt practices, and raises questions concerning heat flux assumptions at the ingot top surface.

  11. Numerical study of melted particles crush metallic substrates and the interaction between particles and a plasma beam in the thermal projection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kriba, Ilhem; Djebaili, A.

    2009-01-01

    Plasma spray processes have been widely used to produce high performance coatings of a wide range of materials (metallic, non-metallic, and ceramics), offering protection from, e.g. wear, extreme temperature, chemical attack and environmental corrosion. To obtain good quality coatings, spray parameters must be carefully selected. Due to the large variety in process parameters, it is difficult to optimize the process for each specific coating and substrate combinations. Furthermore modelling the spray process allows a better understanding of the process sequences during thermal spraying. The simulation of coating formation to estimate the process parameters is an important tool to develop new coating structures with defined properties. In this work, the process of plasma sprayed coating has been analyzed by numerical simulation. Commercial code is used to predict the plasma jet characteristics, plasma-particle interaction, and coating formation. Using this model we can obtain coating microstructure and characteristics which form a foundation for further improvement of an advanced ceramic coating build up model

  12. A new multi-purpose furnace for the preparation of compounds, alloys and single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spirlet, J.-C.; Wellum, R.

    2004-01-01

    A new modular multi-purpose furnace has been designed and the prototype constructed. This furnace was a development utilizing more than two decades of experience at the JRC establishment, Karlsruhe, to bring together the possibility of several techniques that normally require separate, expensive facilities. With this new modular device, different functions are provided by exchanging the head of the furnace while leaving the base as a permanent fixture. The processes can be carried out in high vacuum (10 -6 Pa) or in the presence of high-purity gases, e.g., argon. The modules developed allow the following processes to be carried out: Arc melting, levitation melting, resistance and radio-frequency heating in a crucible, single-crystal growth by various techniques, and electron-beam heating. The rationale behind the development was to produce a device capable of many functions but at an acceptable cost so as to make the various techniques available to a wide range of research and development institutes. A full description of the apparatus is given, outlining the range of the methods which can be applied to the production of high-purity advanced materials for research purposes

  13. Arc melting in inert gas atmosphere of zirconium sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julio Junior, O.; Andrade, A.H.P. de

    1991-01-01

    The obtainment of metallic zirconium in laboratory scale with commercial and nuclear quality is the objective of the Metallurgy Department of IEN/CNEN - Brazil, so a melting procedure of zirconium sponge in laboratory scale using an arc furnace in inert atmosphere is developed. The effects of atmosphere operation, and the use of gas absorber and the sponge characteristics over the quality of button in as-cast reporting with hardness measures are described. (C.G.C.)

  14. Effect of Melting Techniques on Ductile Iron castings Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bockus, S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was designed to investigate the effects of the charge, melting conditions, nodularizing and inoculation on the ductile iron castings properties. Results showed that the temperature and holding time of the melt in an induction furnace and the intensity of spheroidizing effect on the carbon and residual magnesium contents in the ductile iron castings. The same grade of ductile iron may be obtained using different chemical compositions. The castings of ductile iron will be ferritic as-cast only when large amount of pig iron in the charge and in addition some-steps inoculating treatment are used.

  15. Industrial furnace with improved heat transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoetzl, M.; Lingle, T.M.

    1993-07-20

    A method is described for effecting improved heat transfer with in an industrial furnace having a cylindrical furnace section, a door at one end of the furnace section, an end plate at the opposite end of the section a circular fan plate concentrically positioned within the furnace section to define a cylindrical fan chamber between the plate and the end section with a fan there between and a heat treat chamber between the plate and the door, the fan plate defining a non-orificing annular space extending between the interior of the cylindrical furnace section and the outer edge of the plate, the plate having a centrally located under-pressure opening extending there through and a plurality of circumferentially spaced tubular heating elements extending through the annular space into the heat treating chamber, the method comprising the steps of: (a) heating the heating elements to a temperature which is hotter that the temperature of the work within the heat treating chamber; (b) rotating the fan at a speed sufficient to form a portion of the furnace atmosphere as a wind mass swirling about the fan chamber; (c) propagating the wind mass through the annular space into the heat treating chamber as a swirling wind mass in the form of an annulus, the wind mass impinging the heating elements to establish heat transfer contact therewith while the mass retains its annulus shape until contacting the door and without any significant movement of the wind mass into the center of the heat treating chamber; (d) drawing the wind mass through the under-pressure zone after the wind mass comes into heat transfer contact with the work in the heat treating chamber; and (e) thereafter heating the work by radiation from the beating elements at high furnace temperatures in excess of about 1,600 F.

  16. Comparison of a burning mass ceramics coating in laboratory furnace and instrustrial furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, R.A.L.; Castro, J.R. de S.

    2012-01-01

    This work intends to analyze the differences obtained in the technological properties of a ceramic coating after firing in two distinct environments, laboratory furnace and industrial furnace. For this, was characterized a ceramic mass used in the production of porous coating. The analyzes were performed chemical, mineralogical and thermal mass in that. The specimens were obtained by compacting and burned in the maximum temperature of 1140 deg C in two furnaces, laboratory and industrial. The technological tests were performed linear shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density and mechanical strength. The microstructure was evaluated by ray-X diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that both furnaces provided significant differences in analyzed specimens, such as increased strength and low water absorption in the fired samples in a laboratory furnace, for example. (author)

  17. Reviewing the analysis of silicons produced in Iran; design and construction of furnaces to produce lead glass by sintering and analyzing the end products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariatmadar Qoochan, Sharam.

    1995-01-01

    In this project there was always the need of a furnace and cast; therefore, the work was concentrated on construction the furnace and designing the cast. Many numbers of graphites were prepared and by altering their dimensions it was tried to obtain the best conditions from point of view of material and dimensions. Because in this type of furnace having the proper graphite in fact prepared to work with the furnace, because graphite was the heat transfer to the body and also was the cast of the body. The advantage of using graphite furnaces was the heating up of graphite soon, and there was not the problem of sticking to the cast. The disadvantage was the restriction of dimensions. Therefore, the glass size was also limited. another disadvantage was the temperature range to melt the sample. By varying the glass formulation the melting point of the sample also varied. So that by reducing the lead percentage the melting point increased, and restricted to fabricate glass with low percentage of lead

  18. Remelting of metallurgical fines using thermal plasma; Refusao de finos metalurgicos via plasma termico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vicente, L C; Neto F, J B.F.; Bender, O W; Collares, M P

    1993-12-31

    A plasma furnace was developed for remelting of ferro alloys and silicon fines. The furnace capacity was about 4 Kg of silicon and power about 50 kW. The fine (20 to 100 mesh) was fed into the furnace directly at the high temperature zone. This system was tested for remelting silicon fines and the results in the recovery of silicon was about 95% and it took place a refine of aluminium and calcium. (author) 10 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. The effect of Ti and Nb on nitrogen dissolution reaction in stainless steel melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Min Whan; Hong, In Kook; Pak, Jong Jin; Song, Hyo Seok; Lee, Yong Deuk

    2002-01-01

    A kinetic study of nitrogen dissolution in STS304 stainless steel melt containing Ti and Nb has been carried out at 1500 degree C using an induction furnace and a levitation melting furnace. At low O and S levels, the nitrogen dissolution rate showed the first-order kinetics being controlled by the mass transfer of nitrogen in the melt. Ti addition to STS304 stainless melt significantly retarded the nitrogen dissolution rate by the formation of solid Ti oxide layer adhered on the melt surface. Nb did not affect the rate of nitrogen dissolution. In the levitation melting experiment where the oxide layer was removed from the melt surface, Ti did not retard the nitrogen dissolution rate. Simultaneous addition of Ti and Al increased the dissolution rate by the formation of non-wetting Al 2 O 3 on the melt surface. A small addition of CaO-Al 2 O 3 synthetic flux to Ti containing melt was very effective to remove the oxide layer, hence to increase the nitrogen dissolution rate

  20. The effect of Ti and Nb on nitrogen dissolution reaction in stainless steel melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Min Whan; Hong, In Kook; Pak, Jong Jin [Hanyang Univ., Ansan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Hyo Seok; Lee, Yong Deuk [POSCO, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-01

    A kinetic study of nitrogen dissolution in STS304 stainless steel melt containing Ti and Nb has been carried out at 1500 degree C using an induction furnace and a levitation melting furnace. At low O and S levels, the nitrogen dissolution rate showed the first-order kinetics being controlled by the mass transfer of nitrogen in the melt. Ti addition to STS304 stainless melt significantly retarded the nitrogen dissolution rate by the formation of solid Ti oxide layer adhered on the melt surface. Nb did not affect the rate of nitrogen dissolution. In the levitation melting experiment where the oxide layer was removed from the melt surface, Ti did not retard the nitrogen dissolution rate. Simultaneous addition of Ti and Al increased the dissolution rate by the formation of non-wetting Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} on the melt surface. A small addition of CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} synthetic flux to Ti containing melt was very effective to remove the oxide layer, hence to increase the nitrogen dissolution rate.

  1. Numerical Simulation of High Frequency Induction Heating for the Design of a Casting Furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hye Jin; Lee, Yoon Sang; Yang, Jae Ho; Park, Jong Man

    2010-01-01

    Induction heating is used for various applications of the industrial manufacturing process. It provides various heat treatments such as hardening, melting, casting and so on. Induction heating is a complex process coupling the electromagnetic and thermal phenomena. In this process an alternating electric current induces electromagnetic field, which in turn induces eddy currents in the workpiece. The induced eddy currents release energy in the form of heat, which is then distributed throughout the workpiece. In this paper, the electromagnetic and thermal coupling analysis was performed by the 3 dimensional finite elements program, OPERA 3D. For convenience of calculation, a steady-state was assumed. Based on materials composing a real smelting furnace, testing the distribution of eddy current from each material and its final temperature value, we found out which material has advantage in the temperature variations among suggested materials, and confirmed which material is suitable to composing smelting furnace

  2. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  3. Vacuum-induction melting, refining, and casting of uranium and its alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, R J

    1989-10-11

    The vacuum-induction melting (VIM), refining, and casting of uranium and its alloys are discussed. Emphasis is placed on historical development, VIM equipment, crucible and mold design, furnace atmospheres, melting parameters, impurity pickup, ingot quality, and economics. The VIM procedures used to produce high-purity, high-quality sound ingots at the US Department of Energy Rocky Flats Plant are discussed in detail.

  4. Recycling of metals from metal containing industrial wastes by means of plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhard, R.

    1995-01-01

    Recovery of metals from complex mixed wastes is a challenging task of modern material and waste management strategies. Thermal methods are an important tool in this respect. Plasma turned out to be particularly useful for treatment of complex or toxic wastes and residuals. In order to study the recycling parameters and behaviour of different metal containing wastes at reasonable costs, two pilot plasma plants have been used and metal containing, industrial wastes like spent Raney-Nickel catalysts, copper and aluminium drosses, MMC's, scrap, and others were investigated. The heart of the plasma equipment used is the Rotating Hearth (PRH) with a central base orifice. The hearth of the furnace rotates with a speed which prevents the melt from dripping. For pouring, the rotational speed is lowered, which allows the melt to be dripped into a mould. The RIF2 is equipped with a transferred plasma torch which can be operated up to 200 kW. The furnace is equipped with a secondary combustion chamber (SCC). The gases leaving the SCC go through a quench/scrubber. A powerful fan maintains underpressure in the whole system. Waste and additives can be fed through a nitrogen-purged port batchwise or with a screw feeder. The main components of the waste material investigated are nickel and aluminium in Raney-Nickel. The goal to recycle it is to produce NiFe-alloys for further use in the steel industry, or even NiAl-alloy for new catalyst production by using aluminium scrap as reducing and alloying element respectively. Aluminium dross occurs as an unavoidable by-product of all aluminium melting operations. It consists of metallic aluminium, oxides, nitrides, and salts. The separation of the aluminium phase from the oxides is the main task for recycling the aluminium. The general result is: recovery of metals out of complex mixed waste by using plasma rotating hearth technology and appropriate furnace modifications is feasible and ecological-economically interesting. (author) 147

  5. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  6. Melting under shock compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, B.I.

    1980-10-01

    A simple model, using experimentally measured shock and particle velocities, is applied to the Lindemann melting formula to predict the density, temperature, and pressure at which a material will melt when shocked from room temperature and zero pressure initial conditions

  7. FY 1993-1999 report on all the results of the development of high performance industrial furnace; Koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu sogo seika hokokusho (1993 - 1999 nendo)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    Since an phenomenon was found out that NOx emission, which was thought to be increased, will be decreased by burning the high temperature preheated air jetting it at high speed (high temperature air combustion) in industrial furnace, there appeared a possibility of technical breakthrough for achieving the heightening of energy utilization efficiency and NOx reduction by exhaust heat recovery at the same time. This project aims at conducting full-scale experiments based on the basement technology including the theoretical elucidation of the combustion mechanism and high temperature air combustion by using various experimental facilities. Further, making full use of the most up-to-date analysis methods and constructing general-purpose database, the development is also aimed at of high performance industrial furnaces such as various heating furnace, heat treat furnace and melting furnace, with the assumption of prompt commercialization of the results of the development. As a result, targets were achieved such as energy saving of 30% or more, downsizing of 20% and a remarkable NOx reduction. Core technologies of this project are in-system limit heat recovery technology, high temperature air combustion technology, temperature field control technology (furnace temperature leveling technology) and high exergy heat transfer technology (furnace temperature heightening technology). (NEDO)

  8. Development of slagging system using DC joule-heating furnace; Chokuryu denki teikoshiki hai yoyu gijutsu no shohinka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshinari, N.; Ueda, J.; Nishino, J.; Takeshige, S. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Waste disposal by incineration is in wide use, inevitably discharging the unburnt portion or ash as the residue, and the residue contains heavy metals and dioxins. New slagging technologies capable of dealing with the situation, respecting in addition the effective use of resources, are now attracting attention, and are coming into popular use. IHI has already developed three types of melting technologies, which are the residual carbon combustion type, the joule-heating furnace type, and the coke-bed furnace type, and has already delivered to clients some facilities using these technologies. In this report, the three types are outlined, and the joule-heating furnace is taken up to explain the process of development up to commercialization. In the joule-heating furnace, molten slag (resistivity several ohms/cm at 1300degC) is electrified for the melting of ash by joule heat, and the result is a high-quality slag containing less chlorine thanks to the electrochemical decomposition. Studies were conducted about exhaust gas cleaning, silent operation, and cost performance (using only one electrode), etc., by operating 2.4t/d and 10t/d demonstration plants, and the efforts have culminated in the commercialization of the technology. 6 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Design of a day tank glass furnace using a transient model and steady-state computation fluid dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Ibarra, Oscar; Abad, Pablo; Molina, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    To design day tanks with energy efficiency and good operation standards, a detailed transient model that considers the melting, refining, cooling and working stages of the glass production process was developed. With the model, the required power input was determined, with glass coverage with batch (β) as parameter, for a furnace with a daily production of 1130 kg of soda-lime glass and 14 h for melting/refining. A detailed analysis of the energy balance with the model showed that during the daily cycle about 70% of the energy input is released with the flue gas. During the working stage most of the energy escapes through the doors. As the peak of energy consumption is during the refining process, the power requirement for this stage defines the global power requirement. Calculated energy efficiencies vary between 13% and 16% for β = 70% and 30% respectively. A steady state CFD simulation of the combustion chamber and glass tank shows that a side-fired burner configuration allows for lower gas velocities and temperatures close to the glass and the furnace walls while guaranteeing the same heat transfer characteristics to the glass than the more traditional end-fired (U-type) furnaces. -- Highlights: ► A transient model of a day tank glass furnace captures main process characteristics. ► Heat loss through doors during working stage impacts thermal efficiency. ► A side-fired burner configuration should be preferred to an end-fired approach

  10. Acoustic Levitator With Furnace And Laser Heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Stoneburner, James D.

    1991-01-01

    Acoustic-levitation apparatus incorporates electrical-resistance furnace for uniform heating up to temperature of about 1,000 degrees C. Additional local heating by pair of laser beams raise temperature of sample to more than 1,500 degrees C. High temperature single-mode acoustic levitator generates cylindrical-mode accoustic resonance levitating sample. Levitation chamber enclosed in electrical-resistance furnace. Infrared beams from Nd:YAG laser provide additional local heating of sample. Designed for use in containerless processing of materials in microgravity or in normal Earth gravity.

  11. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  12. Design of a rotating-hearth furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, H A [LOI Industrieofenanlagen G.m.b.H., Essen (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-09-01

    Part I of this paper is intended to present a review of the theory of heating round stock of a length considerably exceeding the diameter. It is permissible to neglect heating from the ends of the cylinders. With short and thick ingots as used in pilgrim mills, for instance, such simplification is not possible. The method for calculating the waste gas temperature can also be used for the remaining furnace sections provided certain conditions are allowed for and computational procedures observed. Part II of the paper will deal with this and with the major design features of rotating-hearth furnaces.

  13. Process and furnace for working bituminous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klotzer, M

    1921-06-28

    A process for working up bitumen-containing materials, such as coal, peat and shale is characterized in that the material in thin-height batches with constant shaking by means of forward and backward movement of an elongated horizontal hearth heated underneath on which the material freely lies and on which it is moved in the furnace, through a single narrow furnace space with zone-wise heating of the hearth. A drying zone, a spent-material removal zone, and a carbonization zone are provided. Under separate hoods the gases and vapors are removed from these zones.

  14. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  15. Glass Furnace Project, October 1982-March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, K.M.; Klingler, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the Glass Furnace Project currently under way at Mound, a treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste is being evaluated that will combine volume reduction and immobilization in one step. Initial work focused on demonstrating the ability of the furnace to efficiently incinerate nonradioactive, simulated power-plant waste and on determining the adequacy of immobilization in a soda-lime silica matrix. Further evaluation of the system will involve a demonstration of the combustion and containment of radioactive waste. In preparation for this next phase of the program, preliminary investigation and design work were conducted during the past six months. 5 figures, 1 table

  16. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  17. Magnetic and microstructural investigation of high-coercivity net-shape Nd–Fe–B-type magnets produced from spark-plasma-sintered melt-spun ribbons blended with DyF{sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Žagar, Kristina, E-mail: kristina.zagar@ijs.si; Kocjan, Andraž; Kobe, Spomenka

    2016-04-01

    Nanostructured Nd–Fe–B-type materials produced by melt-spinning (MS) are used in a variety of applications in the electronics, automotive, and sensor industries. The very rapid MS process leads to flake-like powders with metastable, nanoscale, Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains. These powders are then formed into net-shaped, isotropic, polymer-bonded magnets, or they are hot formed into fully dense, metallic magnets that are isotropic and anisotropic. These fully dense magnets are usually produced with a conventional hot press without the inclusion of additives prior to the hot pressing. As a result, their properties, particularly the coercivity (H{sub ci}), are insufficient at automotive-relevant temperatures of 100–150 °C since the material H{sub ci} has a large temperature coefficient. In this study, we instead add a thin layer of DyF{sub 3} to the melt-spun ribbons prior to their hot consolidation in order to enhance the coercivity through a diffusion-based, partial substitution of the Nd by Dy. This is accomplished by applying extremely rapid, spark-plasma sintering to minimize any growth of the nanoscale Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B grains during consolidation. The result is a very high-coercivity magnet with drastically reduced amounts of heavy rare earths that is suitable for high-temperature applications. This work clearly demonstrates how rapidly formed, metastable states can provide us with properties that are unobtainable with conventional techniques. - Highlights: • We produced high coercivity magnets with drastically reduced amounts of HRE. • Microstructural analysis was conducted of the “free” and “wheel” side of Dy-treated Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B ribbons. • Dy-diffusion mechanism into ribbons depending on processing parameters is shown.

  18. Survey report for fiscal 1999. Reference book for standard heat calculations in high-performance industrial furnace introduction field test project; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro donyu field test jigyo chosa hokokusho. Hyojun netsu keisanshiki kijunsho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    With an objective to verify in a short time the heat recovery capability being the evaluation parameter for the technologies to develop the high-performance industrial furnace, a standard calculation book will be prepared, which standardizes the data collection methods and heat calculation methods, and is used as the standard data sheets and bases. Evaluations and analyses will be given on business types, furnace constructions, thermal technologies, and functions in the research items adopted in the field test project. The results will be used to recognize the business entities engaged in the project in the next fiscal year, furnace types and sizes, establish the industrial furnace subjected to researches in the next fiscal year, and proliferate and expand the related business entities. Standard data sheets will be prepared on seven kinds of furnaces, heating furnaces (continuous and batch types), ladles, heat treatment furnaces (continuous and batch types), gas treatment furnaces, and melting furnaces. The standard data sheets will cover the following items: evaluation parameters (energy saving rate, thermal efficiency, and waste heat recovery rate), calculating conditions to be the base for the evaluation parameters, a heat production book to be the base for calculating the heat unit requirement, and a standard calculation book to be the base for the heat production table. The standard data sheets (including the standard calculation book) and floppy disks are submitted. (NEDO)

  19. Global analysis of the temperature and flow fields in samples heated in multizone resistance furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Grande, I.; Rivas, D.; de Pablo, V.

    The temperature field in samples heated in multizone resistance furnaces will be analyzed, using a global model where the temperature fields in the sample, the furnace and the insulation are coupled; the input thermal data is the electric power supplied to the heaters. The radiation heat exchange between the sample and the furnace is formulated analytically, taking into account specular reflections at the sample; for the solid sample the reflectance is both diffuse and specular, and for the melt it is mostly specular. This behavior is modeled through the exchange view factors, which depend on whether the sample is solid or liquid, and, therefore, they are not known a priori. The effect of this specular behavior in the temperature field will be analyzed, by comparing with the case of diffuse samples. A parameter of great importance is the thermal conductivity of the insulation material; it will be shown that the temperature field depends strongly on it. A careful characterization of the insulation is therefore necessary, here it will be done with the aid of experimental results, which will also serve to validate the model. The heating process in the floating-zone technique in microgravity conditions will be simulated; parameters like the Marangoni number or the temperature gradient at the melt-crystal interface will be estimated. Application to the case of compound samples (graphite-silicon-graphite) will be made; the temperature distribution in the silicon part will be studied, especially the temperature difference between the two graphite rods that hold the silicon, since it drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt. This flow will be studied, after coupling the previous model with the convective effects. The possibility of suppresing this flow by the controlled vibration of the graphite rods will be also analyzed. Numerical results show that the thermocapillary flow can indeed be counterbalanced quite effectively.

  20. Melting of Dense Sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoryanz, Eugene; Degtyareva, Olga; Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Somayazulu, Maddury

    2005-01-01

    High-pressure high-temperature synchrotron diffraction measurements reveal a maximum on the melting curve of Na in the bcc phase at ∼31 GPa and 1000 K and a steep decrease in melting temperature in its fcc phase. The results extend the melting curve by an order of magnitude up to 130 GPa. Above 103 GPa, Na crystallizes in a sequence of phases with complex structures with unusually low melting temperatures, reaching 300 K at 118 GPa, and an increased melting temperature is observed with further increases in pressure

  1. BPM Motors in Residential Gas Furnaces: What are the Savings?

    OpenAIRE

    Lutz, James; Franco, Victor; Lekov, Alex; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2006-01-01

    Residential gas furnaces contain blowers to distribute warm air. Currently, furnace blowers use either a Permanent Split Capacitor (PSC) or a Brushless Permanent Magnet (BPM) motor. Blowers account for the majority of furnace electricity consumption. Therefore, accurate determination of the blower electricity consumption is important for understanding electricity consumption of furnaces. The electricity consumption of blower motors depends on the static pressure across the blower. This p...

  2. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando, E-mail: bva@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Neves; Elton Silva; Silva, Sidiney Nascimento [Companhia Siderugica Nacional (CSN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10{sup 6} ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  3. Thermal model of the whole element furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    A detailed thermal analysis was performed to calculate temperatures in the whole element test furnace that is used to conduct drying studies of N-Reactor fuel. The purpose of this analysis was to establish the thermal characteristics of the test system and to provide a basis for post-test analysis

  4. Sintering furnace for remote fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.

    1978-10-01

    Component testing and evaluation of a chemical vapor deposition Re/W muffle has been initiated. Hydrogen permeation testing and thermal cycling behavior will be evaluated. Fabrication of prototype 10-12 Kg furnace is scheduled for completion late in 1979, at which time testing of the system will be initiated

  5. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10"6 ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  6. Aerosol and particle transport in biomass furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemenade, van H.P.; Obernberger, G.

    2005-01-01

    The particulate emissions of solid fuel fired furnaces typically exhibit a bimodal distribution: a small peak in the range of 0.1 mm and a larger one above 10 mm. The particles with sizes above 10 mm are formed by a mechanical process like disintegration of the fuel after combustion, or erosion,

  7. Furnace for distillation of shales, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germain-Clergault, M

    1863-07-09

    Practical experience and continuous operation of 55 retorts for 5 years of the system of vertical retorts patented in 1857 (French Patent 18,422) has shown the advantages resulting from this furnace which gives over a mean yield of 5% of Auton shale, which is /sup 1///sub 2/% more than the old systems with a fuel economy varying from 15 to 20%.

  8. Effect of electropolishing on vacuum furnace design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutanwi Lahiri

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of thermal shields of materials having low emissivity in vacuum furnaces is well-known. However, the surface condition of the heat shields is one of the most important factors governing their efficiency as radiation resistances. The emissivity of the thermal shields dictates the power rating of the heaters in furnace design. The unpolished materials used in the heater tests showed poor performance leading to loss of a signi­ficant percentage of the input power. The present work deals with the refur­bishment of the radiation heat shields used in a furnace for heating graphite structure. The effect of refurbishment of the heat shields by the buffing and subsequently electro­polishing was found to improve the performance of the shields as heat reflectors. The com­position of the electrolyte was chosen in such a way that the large shields of Mo, Inconel and SS can be polished using the same reagents in different ratios. The present work deals with the development of a standard electropolishing procedure for large metallic sheets and subsequently qualifying them by roughness and emissivity measure­ments. The improvement noted in the shielding efficiency of the furnace in the subsequent runs is also discussed here.

  9. Application of siliceous metal product for preliminary deoxidizing of metal in open-hearth furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luk'yanenko, A.A.; Evdokimov, A.V.; Kornilov, V.N.; Il'in, V.I.; Kuleshov, Yu.V.

    1995-01-01

    Metal wastes of abrasive processes-concomitant product of synthetic corundum production containing approximately 10 % Si - were tested for preliminary deoxidizing of metal in furnace to reduce manganese loss in burning and to increase the steel deoxidizing. The technology of preliminary deoxidizing of metal by siliceous metal product was mastered in the course of low carbon steel melting (st3sp, st4sp). The results of the study has shown that the use of siliceous metal product permits reducing the consumption of manganese-containing ferroalloys. 1 tab

  10. Development of a manufacturing technology of compacted graphite iron castings from a cupola furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bouska

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Compacted graphite iron, also known as vermicular cast iron or semiductile cast iron is a modern material, the production of which is increasing globaly. Recently this material has been very often used in automotive industry. This paper reviews some findigs gained during the development of the manufacturing technology of compacted graphite iron under the conditions in Slévárna Heunisch Brno, Ltd. The new technology assumes usage of cupola furnace for melting and is beeing developed for production of castings weighing up to 300 kilograms poured into bentonite sand moulds.

  11. Dynamics and control of a gas-fired furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, B.; Rijnsdorp, J.E.

    1974-01-01

    A non-linear model has been developed for a gas-fired furnace in which oil is heated. The model is applicable from minimum to maximum heat load of the furnace. The dynamics of the model have been compared to experimental results, which were obtained for a pilot-scale furnace. They are in good

  12. Modeling of aerodynamics in vortex furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anufriev, I.; Krasinsky, D. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Salomatov, V.; Anikin, Y.; Sharypov, O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation). Inst. of Thermophysics; Novosibirsk State Univ. (Russian Federation); Enkhjargal, Kh. [Mongol Univ. of Science and Technology, Ulan Bator (Mongolia)

    2013-07-01

    At present, the torch burning technology of pulverized-coal fuel in vortex flow is one of the most prospective and environmentally-friendly combustion technologies of low-grade coals. Appropriate organization of aerodynamics may influence stability of temperature and heat flux distributions, increase slag catching, and reduce toxic emissions. Therefore, from scientific point of view it is interesting to investigate aerodynamics in the devices aiming at justification of design and operating parameters for new steam generators with vortex furnace, and upgrade of existing boiler equipment. The present work is devoted to physical and mathematical modeling of interior aerodynamics of vortex furnace of steam generator of thermal power plants. Research was carried out on the air isothermal model which geometry was similar to one section of the experimental- industrial boiler TPE-427 of Novosibirsk TPS-3. Main elements of vortex furnace structure are combustion chamber, diffuser, and cooling chamber. The model is made from organic glass; on the front wall two rectangular nozzles (through which compressed air is injected) are placed symmetrically at 15 to the horizon. The Laser Doppler Velocimeter LAD-05 was used for non-contact measurement of vortex flow characteristics. Two velocity components in the XY-plane (in different cross- sections of the model) were measured in these experiments. Reynolds number was 3.10{sup 5}. Numerical simulation of 3-D turbulent isothermal flow was performed with the use of CFD package FLUENT. Detailed structure of the flow in vortex furnace model has been obtained in predictions. The distributions of main flow characteristics (pressure, velocity and vorticity fields, turbulent kinetic energy) are presented. The obtained results may be used at designing boilers with vortex furnace. Computations were performed using the supercomputer NKS-160.

  13. Thermal Analysis of an Industrial Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Filipponi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumption, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use, and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study described in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of steel in furnaces, and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and different forms of machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of lost energy is crucial for the development of systems which can contain this loss. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that when the door opens, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient air, turbulence is created. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 min for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor, with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that reducing the opening time of the door saves energy and limits pollutant emissions.

  14. Induction melting of simulated transuranic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tenaglia, R.D.; McCall, J.L.

    1983-06-01

    Coreless induction melting was investigated as a method to melt and consolidate waste material representative of the transuranic waste (TRU) stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Waste material was introduced onto the surface of a molten cast iron bath in a coreless induction furnace. Waste metallics were incorporated into the bath. Noncombustibles formed a slag which was poured or skimmed from the bath surface. Stack sampling was performed to characterize the off-gas and particulate matter evolved. Experimental melting tests were performed for a variety of types of wastes including metallics, chemical sludge, soil, concrete, and glass. Each test also included a representative level of combustible materials consisting of paper, wood, cloth, polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene. Metallic wastes were readily processed by induction melting with a minimum of slag production. Test waste consisting primarily of chemical sludge provided fluid slags which could be poured from the bath surface. Processing of wastes consisting of soil, concrete, or glass was limited by the inability to achieve fluid slags. It appears from test results that coreless induction melting is a feasible method to process INEL-type waste materials if two problems can be resolved. First, slag fluidity must be improved to facilitate the collection of slags formed from soil, concrete, or glass containing wastes. Secondly, refractory life must be further optimized to permit prolonged processing of the waste materials. The use of a chrome-bearing high-alumina refractory was found to resist slag line attach much better than a magnesia refractory, although some attack was still noted

  15. Temperature and flow fields in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, D.; Haya, R.

    The temperature field in samples heated in monoellipsoidal mirror furnaces will be analyzed. The radiation heat exchange between the sample and the mirror is formulated analytically, taking into account multiple reflections at the mirror. It will be shown that the effect of these multiple reflections in the heating process is quite important, and, as a consequence, the effect of the mirror reflectance in the temperature field is quite strong. The conduction-radiation model will be used to simulate the heating process in the floating-zone technique in microgravity conditions; important parameters like the Marangoni number (that drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt), and the temperature gradient at the melt-crystal interface will be estimated. The model will be validated comparing with experimental data. The case of samples mounted in a wall-free configuration (as in the MAXUS-4 programme) will be also considered. Application to the case of compound samples (graphite-silicon-graphite) will be made; the melting of the silicon part and the surface temperature distribution in the melt will be analyzed. Of special interest is the temperature difference between the two graphite rods that hold the silicon part, since it drives the thermocapillary flow in the melt. This thermocapillary flow will be studied, after coupling the previous model with the convective effects. The possibility of counterbalancing this flow by the controlled vibration of the graphite rods will be studied as well. Numerical results show that suppressing the thermocapillary flow can be accomplished quite effectively.

  16. Melt processing of Yb-123 tapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Athur, S. P.; Balachandran, U.; Salama, K.

    2000-01-01

    The innovation of a simple, scalable process for manufacturing long-length conductors of HTS is essential to potential commercial applications such as power cables, magnets, and transformers. In this paper the authors demonstrate that melt processing of Yb-123 tapes made by the PIT route is an alternative to the coated conductor and Bi-2223 PIT tape fabrication techniques. Ag-clad Yb-123 tapes were fabricated by groove rolling and subsequently, melt processed in different oxygen partial pressures in a zone-melting furnace with a gradient of 140 C/cm. The transition temperatures measured were found to be around 81 K undermost processing conditions. EPMA of the tapes processed under different conditions show the 123 phase to be Ba deficient and Cu and Yb rich. Critical current was measured at various temperatures from 77 K to 4.2 K. The J c increased with decrease in pO 2 . The highest I c obtained was 52 A at 4.2 K

  17. Cold-crucible melting of hulls and structural materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jouan, A.; Jacquet-Francillon, N.; Puyou, M.; Piccinato, R.

    1990-01-01

    The method currently implemented at the La Hague UP3 reprocessing plant for conditioning of PWR zircaloy hulls is cement embedding. Another promising method, mainly for reducing the waste volume and the available exchange surface area, is melting. A cold-crucible melting process has therefore been developed by the CEA at Marcoule (France) over the last decade. Development work first concentrated on cladding hulls from fast breeder reactors, then from pressurized water reactors. The process can be used for both types of cladding wastes. Subassembly head and foot end-caps are sheared off and should be suitable for surface storage after α decontamination by successive rinsing. If necessary because of their α activity, they could be melted in a larger furnace

  18. Development and melt growth of novel scintillating halide crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Akira; Yokota, Yuui; Shoji, Yasuhiro; Kral, Robert; Kamada, Kei; Kurosawa, Shunsuke; Ohashi, Yuji; Arakawa, Mototaka; Chani, Valery I.; Kochurikhin, Vladimir V.; Yamaji, Akihiro; Andrey, Medvedev; Nikl, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Melt growth of scintillating halide crystals is reviewed. The vertical Bridgman growth technique is still considered as very popular method that enables production of relatively large and commercially attractive crystals. On the other hand, the micro-pulling-down method is preferable when fabrication of small samples, sufficient for preliminary characterization of their optical and/or scintillation performance, is required. Moreover, bulk crystal growth is also available using the micro-pulling-down furnace. The examples of growths of various halide crystals by industrially friendly melt growth techniques including Czochralski and edge-defined film-fed growth methods are also discussed. Finally, traveling molten zone growth that in some degree corresponds to horizontal zone melting is briefly overviewed.

  19. AUTOMATION OF GLASS TEMPERING FURNACE BY USING PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah BÜYÜKYILDIZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a furnace which is used for observation of environments under high temperature, and also used for manufacturing of glasses which are resisted to high temperature has been designed and implemented. Automation of this system has been done by using PLC. Operating parameters of furnace such as materials entering, the furnace, the local temperature control of furnace, cooling control and materials outing have been sensed with Hall Effect Sensor. Furthermore, the observation of parameters of furnace on screen has been provided with SCADA software. Obtained products have been shown the system works successfully.

  20. Recycling melting process of the zirconium alloy chips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, Luis A.M. dos; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Tavares, Luiz A.P.; Alencar, Maicon C.; Gomes, Maurilio P.; Barbosa, Luzinete P.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.

    2017-01-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWR) commonly use 235 U enriched uranium dioxide pellets as a nuclear fuel, these are assembled and stacked in zirconium alloy tubes and end caps (M5, Zirlo, Zircaloy). During the machining of these components large amounts of chips are generated which are contaminated with cutting fluid. Its storage presents safety and environmental risks due to its pyrophoric and reactive nature. Recycling industry shown interest in its recycling due to its strategic importance. This paper presents a study on the recycling process and the results aiming the efficiency in the cleaning process; the quality control; the obtaining of the pressed electrodes and finally the melting in a Vacuum Arc Remelting furnace (VAR). The recycling process begins with magnetic separation of possible ferrous alloys chips contaminant, the washing of the cutting fluid that is soluble in water, washing with an industrial degreaser, followed by a rinse with continuous flow of water under high pressure and drying with hot air. The first evaluation of the process was done by an Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRFS) showed the presence of 10 wt. % to 17 wt. % of impurities due the mixing with stainless steel machining chips. The chips were then pressed in a custom-made matrix of square section (40 x 40 mm - 500 mm in length), resulting in electrodes with 20% of apparent density of the original alloy. The electrode was then melted in a laboratory scale VAR furnace at the CCTM-IPEN, producing a massive ingot with 0.8 kg. It was observed that the samples obtained from Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) are supposed to be secondary scrap and it is suggested careful separation in the generation of this material. The melting of the chips is possible and feasible in a VAR furnace which reduces the storage volume by up to 40 times of this material, however, it is necessary to correct the composition of the alloy for the melting of these ingots. (author)

  1. Investigation of microwave melting and vitrification of nuclear wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silve, J.M.

    1996-10-01

    This work deals with the treatment process of long-lived alpha-emitting wastes, developed by the CEA, and consisting of incinerating these wastes and of vitrifying the obtained ashes by micro-waves. In this study is at first presented the materials to characterize (incineration ashes, glasses) followed by measurements of their electric permittivity. A description of the melting furnace DEMW (Densification by Micro-Waves) is given as well as its electromagnetic characterization. The inductive heating of the molten glass by micro-waves has been revealed in this part. The modeling of the power transfer to the molten glass is then presented. It is based on a sectoring of the furnace in terms of the natural weakening of each of the three areas. With this model can be obtained a general formula of the power dissipated in the molten glass in terms of the attenuation and of the position of the short-circuit piston. The fourth part relates the melt tests of different glasses and is based on the technological improvements carried out in the furnace and coming from modeling. A correlation between the modeling and the tests results is proposed. A brief characterization of the obtained material allows to verify that its qualities are acceptable particularly for leaching. (O.M.)

  2. Development of melting and casting process for Nb-Al intermetallic compounds and mechanical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamata, Kinya; Degawa, Toru; Nagashima, Yoshinori

    1993-01-01

    The shaping methods of Nb-Al intermetallic compounds, especially melting and casting, have considerably different characteristics as compared with those for other metals and alloys. The authors have investigated melting and casting processes for Nb-Al compounds to develop precision casting processes for these intermetallics. Fundamental properties of Nb-Al compound castings have been also investigated for high temperature structural use in this work. An advanced Induction Skull Melting (ISM) furnace has been developed and the advantages of ISM have been recognized as a result of this study. The mechanical properties, such as hardness and compression strength, are dependent upon the Al content in Nb-Al binary compounds

  3. Sintering mechanism of blast furnace slag-kaolin ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mostafa, Nasser Y.; Shaltout, Abdallah A.; Abdel-Aal, Mohamed S.; El-maghraby, A.

    2010-01-01

    A general ceramics processing scheme by cold uniaxial pressing and conventional sintering process have been used to prepare ceramics from mixtures of blast furnace slag (BFS) and kaolin (10%, 30% and 50% kaolin). The properties of the ceramics were studied by measuring linear shrinkage, bulk density, apparent porosity and mechanical properties of samples heated at temperatures from 800 o C to 1100 o C. The formed crystalline phases were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Slag melt formed at relatively low temperatures (800-900 o C) modified the sintering process to liquid phase sintering mechanism. Combination of BFS with 10% kaolin gave the highest mechanical properties, densification and shrinkage at relatively low firing temperatures. The crystalline phases were identified as gehlenite (Ca 2 Al 2 SiO 7 ) in both BFS and BFS with 10% kaolin samples. Anorthite (CaAl 2 Si 2 O 8 ) phase increased with increasing kaolin contents. In the case of kaolin-rich mixtures (30% and 50% kaolin), increased expansion took place during firing at temperatures in the range 800-1000 o C. This effect could be attributed to the entrapment of released gases.

  4. Model of interfacial melting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouritsen, Ole G.; Zuckermann, Martin J.

    1987-01-01

    A two-dimensional model is proposed to describe systems with phase transitions which take place in terms of crystalline as well as internal degrees of freedom. Computer simulation of the model shows that the interplay between the two sets of degrees of freedom permits observation of grain-boundar......-boundary formation and interfacial melting, a nonequilibrium process by which the system melts at the boundaries of a polycrystalline domain structure. Lipid membranes are candidates for systems with pronounced interfacial melting behavior....

  5. Development of incineration and incineration-melting system for radioactive incombustible wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karita, Y.; Kanagawa, Y.; Teshima, T.

    2000-01-01

    Radioactive combustible solid wastes produced by nuclear power plants are generally incinerated for the purpose of volume reduction and stabilization. However incombustible wastes, such as PVC and rubber wastes are not incinerated and are still being stored since the off-gas treatment problems of a large amount of soot and harmful HCl and SO x gas need to be resolved. The authors have developed a new types of incineration system which consists of a water-cooling jacket type incinerator, ceramic filter, HEPA and wet scrubber. And as an application of its incinerator, the hybrid incineration-melting furnace, which is a unification of the incinerator and induction melting furnace, is being tested. Furthermore, the new type of dry absorber for removing HCl and SO x is also being tested. This report mainly describes an outline and the test results of the above incineration system, and secondly, the possibility of the incineration-melting system and dry absorber. (author)

  6. DC Electric Arc Furnace Application for Production of Nickel-Boron Master Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Murat; Tasyürek, Kerem Can; Bugdayci, Mehmet; Turan, Ahmet; Yücel, Onuralp

    2017-09-01

    In this study, nickel-boron (Ni-B) alloys were produced via a carbothermic reduction starting from boric acid (H3BO3) with high-purity nickel oxide (NiO), charcoal, and wood chips in a direct current arc furnace. In electric arc furnace experiments, different starting mixtures were used, and their effects on the chemical compositions of the final Ni-B alloys were investigated. After the reduction and melting stages, Ni-B alloys were obtained by tapping from the bottom of the furnace. The samples from the designated areas were also taken and analyzed. The chemical composition of the final alloys and selected samples were measured with wet chemical analysis. The Ni-B alloys had a composition of up to 14.82 mass% B. The phase contents of the final alloys and selected samples were measured using x-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD data helped predict possible reactions and reaction mechanisms. The material and energy balance calculations were made via the XRD Rietveld and chemical compositions. Nickel boride phases started to form 600 mm below the surface. The targeted NiB phase was detected at the tapping zone of the crucible (850-900 mm depth). The energy consumption was 1.84-4.29 kWh/kg, and the electrode consumption was 10-12 g/kg of raw material charged.

  7. Determination of total tin in silicate rocks by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheimer, H.N.; Fries, T.L.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of total tin in silicate rocks utilizing a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer with a stabilized-temperature platform furnace and Zeeman-effect background correction. The sample is decomposed by lithium metaborate fusion (3 + 1) in graphite crucibles with the melt being dissolved in 7.5% hydrochloric acid. Tin extractions (4 + 1 or 8 + 1) are executed on portions of the acid solutions using a 4% solution of tricotylphosphine oxide in methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK). Ascorbic acid is added as a reducing agent prior to extraction. A solution of diammonium hydrogenphosphate and magnesium nitrate is used as a matrix modifier in the graphite furnace determination. The limit of detection is > 10 pg, equivalent to > 1 ??g l-1 of tin in the MIBK solution or 0.2-0.3 ??g g-61 in the rock. The concentration range is linear between 2.5 and 500 ??g l-1 tin in solution. The precision, measured as relative standard deviation, is < 20% at the 2.5 ??g l-1 level and < 7% at the 10-30 ??g l-1 level of tin. Excellent agreement with recommended literature values was found when the method was applied to the international silicate rock standards BCR-1, PCC-1, GSP-1, AGV-1, STM-1, JGb-1 and Mica-Fe. Application was made to the determination of tin in geological core samples with total tin concentrations of the order of 1 ??g g-1 or less.

  8. Heat transfer modelling of first walls subject to plasma disruption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fillo, J.A.; Makowitz, H.

    1981-01-01

    A brief description of the plasma disruption problem and potential thermal consequences to the first wall is given. Thermal models reviewed include: a) melting of a solid with melt layer in place; b) melting of a solid with complete removal of melt (ablation); c) melting/vaporization of a solid; and d) vaporization of a solid but no phase change affecting the temperature profile

  9. Tests of Bed Agglomeration Tendency Using a Rotating Furnace; Roterugn foer bedoemning av sintringsbenaegenhet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larfeldt, Jenny; Zintl, Frank [TPS Termiska Processer AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2003-08-01

    Bed sintering is a well known problem in fluidised bed boilers. In order to avoid bed sintering the bed material turn over ratio is high which leads a high consumption of bed material. This work aims at developing and evaluating a method for testing the bed agglomeration tendency of a FB bed material by using a rotating furnace. A rotating furnace has been designed and tests have shown that three temperatures describing the increasing agglomeration tendency can be evaluated; TA when several particles stick to each other and to the crucible wall, TB when half of the material sticks to the wall and TC when almost all the material forms a ball in the crucible. Comparison with bed agglomeration tests has shown that TA is between 80 deg C to 130 deg C lower than the bed agglomeration temperature from fluid bed tests. It is shown that TB is closer to the bed agglomeration temperature and finally that the temperature TC is higher than the bed agglomeration temperature. It is concluded that in the rotating furnace sticking of particles is visualised early, and that this sticking will not cause defluidisation of the bed until more than half of the material in the crucible is sticky. Repeated tests has been performed at a heating rate of 5 deg/minute and a rotating speed of 12 rpm and a furnace inclination of 20 deg was found to give distinct results in the evaluation. The evaluation has shown to be reproducible at lower temperatures. At higher temperatures, around 1,000 deg C, the evaluation was complicated by a poor picture quality which probably can be improved by proper cooling of the camera. It has also been shown that sticking of material in the rotating furnace could be detected at relatively low temperatures of 750 deg C that disappeared at higher temperatures. This is likely to be explained by melting salts that evaporates as temperature increase. At even higher temperatures the sticking reappeared until a ball was formed in the crucible. The latter sticking is

  10. Dental Porcelain Furnaces: Test and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    D Q)L a ) a) C ) C C C C c *. . 3a)0. >4 a)->4 >4 -, Z 0 -a-’- 4-% a) ( nca )m m nU Cs C ) (3 ) 11) a) a) a3) Q) a) W) a2) C C~~ >4 L > > >1 >1 4 > 4...Fig. 1) is a computerized programmable porcelain furnace with 45 open programs. This unit has a large detachable cathode -ray tube (CRT) screen which

  11. Furnaces for the distillation of coal, etc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, F A; Deacon, M; Brady, N P.W.

    1918-08-14

    A tunnel or other furnace for the distillation of coal of the kind provided with inverted pockets in its roof to collect diverse distillates in the manner described, characterized by one or more of the pockets being provided with a sloping roof whose gradient from the higher end downwards is in the direction of the forward travel of the fuel beneath it for the purposes described.

  12. Husk energy for boilers and furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deven, M.

    1985-10-01

    In view of the technical feasibility and economic viability, industries located in rice, coconut, and cotton growing areas, can easily switch over from oil/coal fired furnace/boilers to husk fired ones and thereby effect fuel economy. The banks and financial institutions will readily agree to provide finance as per directions of the governments and in some cases they also offer subsidy for development and utilization of energy saving devices.

  13. Development of models and online diagnostic monitors of the high-temperature corrosion of refractories in oxy/fuel glass furnaces : final project report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Stewart K.; Gupta, Amul (Monofrax Inc., Falconer, NY); Walsh, Peter M.; Rice, Steven F.; Velez, Mariano (University of Missouri, Rolla, MO); Allendorf, Mark D.; Pecoraro, George A. (PPG Industries, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA); Nilson, Robert H.; Wolfe, H. Edward (ANH Refractories, Pittsburgh, PA); Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Bugeat, Benjamin () American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL); Spear, Karl E. (Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA); Marin, Ovidiu () American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL); Ghani, M. Usman (American Air Liquide, Countryside, IL)

    2005-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a five-year effort to understand the mechanisms and develop models that predict the corrosion of refractories in oxygen-fuel glass-melting furnaces. Thermodynamic data for the Si-O-(Na or K) and Al-O-(Na or K) systems are reported, allowing equilibrium calculations to be performed to evaluate corrosion of silica- and alumina-based refractories under typical furnace operating conditions. A detailed analysis of processes contributing to corrosion is also presented. Using this analysis, a model of the corrosion process was developed and used to predict corrosion rates in an actual industrial glass furnace. The rate-limiting process is most likely the transport of NaOH(gas) through the mass-transport boundary layer from the furnace atmosphere to the crown surface. Corrosion rates predicted on this basis are in better agreement with observation than those produced by any other mechanism, although the absolute values are highly sensitive to the crown temperature and the NaOH(gas) concentration at equilibrium and at the edge of the boundary layer. Finally, the project explored the development of excimer laser induced fragmentation (ELIF) fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of gas-phase alkali hydroxides (e.g., NaOH) that are predicted to be the key species causing accelerated corrosion in these furnaces. The development of ELIF and the construction of field-portable instrumentation for glass furnace applications are reported and the method is shown to be effective in industrial settings.

  14. Multicomponent Diffusion in Experimentally Cooled Melt Inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saper, L.; Stolper, E.

    2017-12-01

    Glassy olivine-hosted melt inclusions are compositionally zoned, characterized by a boundary layer depleted in olivine-compatible components that extends into the melt inclusion from its wall. The boundary layer forms in response to crystallization of olivine and relaxes with time due to diffusive exchange with the interior of the inclusion. At magmatic temperatures, the time scale for homogenization of inclusions is minutes to hours. Preservation of compositional gradients in natural inclusions results from rapid cooling upon eruption. A model of MgO concentration profiles that couples crystal growth and diffusive relaxation of a boundary layer can be used to solve for eruptive cooling rates [1]. Controlled cooling-rate experiments were conducted to test the accuracy of the model. Mauna Loa olivine containing >80 µm melt inclusions were equilibrated at 1225°C in a 1-atm furnace for 24 hours, followed by linear cooling at rates of 102 - 105 °C/hr. High-resolution concentration profiles of 40 inclusions were obtained using an electron microprobe. The model of [1] fits the experimental data with low residuals and the best-fit cooling rates are within 30% of experimental values. The initial temperature of 1225 °C is underestimated by 65°C. The model was modified using (i) MELTS to calculate the interface melt composition as a function of temperature, and (ii) a concentration-dependent MgO diffusion coefficient using the functional form of [2]. With this calibration the best-fit starting temperatures are within 5°C of the experimental values and the best-fit cooling rates are within 20% of experimental rates. The evolution of the CaO profile during cooling is evidence for strong diffusive coupling between melt components. Because CaO is incompatible in olivine, CaO concentrations are expected to be elevated in the boundary layer adjacent to the growing olivine. Although this is observed at short time scales, as the profile evolves the CaO concentration near the

  15. In-service testing of Ni{sub 3}Al coupons and trays in carburizing furnaces at Delphi Saginaw. CRADA final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikka, V.K.; Santella, M.L.; Viswanathan, S.; Swindeman, R.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Chatterjee, M. [General Motors Corporaion, Saginaw Division (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) report deals with the development of nickel aluminide alloy for improved longer life heat-resistant fixture assemblies for batch and continuous pusher carburizing furnaces. The nickel aluminide development was compared in both coupon and component testing with the currently used Fe-Ni-Cr heat-resisting alloy known as HU. The specific goals of the CRADA were: (1) casting process development, (2) characterization and possible modification of the alloy composition to optimize its manufacturing ability and performance under typical furnace operating conditions, and (3) testing and evaluation of specimens and prototype fixtures. In support of the CRADA objectives, coupons of nickel aluminide and the HU alloy were installed in both batch and pusher furnaces. The coupons were taken from two silicon levels and contained welds made with two different filler compositions (IC-221LA and IC-221W). Both nickel-aluminide and HU coupons were removed from the batch and pusher carburizing furnace at time intervals ranging from one month to one year. The exposed coupons were cut and mounted for metallographic, hardness, and microprobe analysis. The results of the microstructural analysis have been transmitted to General Motors Corporation, Saginaw Division (Delphi Saginaw) through reports that were presented at periodic CRADA review meetings. Based on coupon testing and verification of the coupon results with the testing of trays, Delphi Saginaw moved forward with the use of six additional trays in a batch furnace and two assemblies in a pusher furnace. Fifty percent of the trays and fixtures are in the as-cast condition and the remaining trays and fixtures are in the preoxidized condition. The successful operating experience of two assemblies in the pusher furnace for nearly a year formed the basis for a production run of 63 more assemblies. The production run required melting of 94 heats weighing 500 lb. each. Twenty

  16. Use of Different Furnaces to Study Repeatability and Reproducibility of Three Pd-C Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battuello, M.; Florio, M.; Girard, F.

    2010-09-01

    Three different Pd-C eutectic fixed-point cells were prepared and investigated at INRIM. Several tens of phase transition runs were carried out and recorded with both a Si-based radiation thermometer at 950 nm and a precision InGaAs-based thermometer at 1.6 μm. Two of the cells were of the same design with an inner volume of 12 cm3. The third one was smaller with a useful inner volume of 3.6 cm3. The three cells were filled with palladium powder 4N5 or 4N8 pure and graphite powder 6N pure. The repeatability and stability of the inflection point were investigated over a period of 1 year. The noticeably different external dimensions of the two cells, namely, 110 mm and 40 mm in length, allowed the influence of the longitudinal temperature distribution to be investigated. For this purpose, two different furnaces, a single-zone with SiC heaters and a three-zone with MoSi2 heaters, were used. Different operative conditions, namely, temperature steps, melting rate, longitudinal temperature distributions, and position of cells within the furnace, were tested to investigate the reproducibility of the cells. Effects on the duration and shape of the plateaux were also studied. This article gives details of the measurement setup and analyses of the melting plateaux obtained with the different conditions.

  17. Maximizing the transferred power to electric arc furnace for having maximum production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samet, Haidar; Ghanbari, Teymoor; Ghaisari, Jafar

    2014-01-01

    In order to increase production of an EAF (electric arc furnace) by reduction of melting time, one can increase transferred power to the EAF. In other words a certain value of energy can be transferred to the EAF in less time. The transferred power to the EAF reduces when series reactors are utilized in order to have stable arc with desired characteristics. To compensate the reduced transferred power, the secondary voltage of the EAF transformer should be increased by tap changing of the transformer. On the other hand, after any tap changing of the EAF transformer, improved arc stability is degraded. Therefore, the series reactor and EAF transformer tap changing should be simultaneously determined to achieve arc with desired characteristics. In this research, three approaches are proposed to calculate the EAF system parameters, by which the optimal set-points of the different series reactor and EAF transformer taps are determined. The electric characteristics relevant to the EAF for the all transformer and series reactor taps with and without SVC (static VAr compensator) are plotted and based on these graphs the optimal set-points are tabulated. Finally, an economic evaluation is also presented for the methods. - Highlights: • The main goal is to transfer the maximum power to electric arc furnace. • Optimal transformer and series reactor taps are determined. • Arc stability and transferred power to EAF determine the optimal performance. • An economic assessment is done and the number of increased meltings is calculated

  18. Melting the vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, J.

    1998-01-01

    Results presented at the Quark Matter 97 conference, held in December in Tsukuba, Japan, have provided new insights into the confinement of quarks in matter. The current physics paradigm is that the inertial masses of protons and neutrons, and hence of practically all of the matter around us, originate in the zero-point energy caused by the confinement of quarks inside the small volume of the nucleon. Today, 25 years after Harald Fritzsch, Heinrich Leutwyler and Murray Gell-Mann proposed quantum chromodynamics (QCD) as a means for understanding strongly interacting particles such as nucleons and mesons, our understanding of strong interactions and quark confinement remains incomplete. Quarks and the gluons that bind them together have a ''colour'' charge that may be red, green or blue. But quarks are seen in particles that are white: baryons such as protons and neutrons consist of three quarks with different colour charges, while mesons consist of a quark and an antiquark, and again the colour charge cancels out. To prove that confinement arises from quark-gluon fluctuations in the vacuum that quantum theories dictate exists today, we need to find a way of freeing the colour charge of quarks. Experiments must therefore ''melt'' the vacuum to deconfine quarks and the colour charge. By colliding nuclei at high energies, we hope to produce regions of space filled with free quarks and gluons. This deconfined phase is known as the quark-gluon plasma. At the Tsukuba meeting, Scott Pratt of Michigan State University in the US discussed measurements that show that the hot dense state of matter created in these collisions exists for only 2x10 -23 s. So does the quark gluon plasma exist? No-one doubts that it did at one time, before the vacuum froze into its current state about 20 into the life of the universe, causing the nucleons to form as we know them today. The issue is whether we can recreate this early stage of the universe in laboratory experiments. And if we did

  19. Melt inclusions: Chapter 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,; Lowenstern, J. B.

    2014-01-01

    Melt inclusions are small droplets of silicate melt that are trapped in minerals during their growth in a magma. Once formed, they commonly retain much of their initial composition (with some exceptions) unless they are re-opened at some later stage. Melt inclusions thus offer several key advantages over whole rock samples: (i) they record pristine concentrations of volatiles and metals that are usually lost during magma solidification and degassing, (ii) they are snapshots in time whereas whole rocks are the time-integrated end products, thus allowing a more detailed, time-resolved view into magmatic processes (iii) they are largely unaffected by subsolidus alteration. Due to these characteristics, melt inclusions are an ideal tool to study the evolution of mineralized magma systems. This chapter first discusses general aspects of melt inclusions formation and methods for their investigation, before reviewing studies performed on mineralized magma systems.

  20. Calibration of neutron yield activation measurements at JET using MCNP and furnace neutron transport codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillon, M.; Martone, M.; Verschuur, K.A.; Jarvis, O.N.; Kaellne, J.

    1989-01-01

    Neutron transport calculations have been performed using fluence ray tracing (FURNACE code) and Monte Carlo particle trajectory sampling methods (MCNP code) in order to determine the neutron fluence and energy distributions at different locations in the JET tokamak. These calculations were used to calibrate the activation measurements used in the determination of the absolute fusion neutron yields from the JET plasma. We present here the neutron activation response coefficients calculated for three different materials. Comparison of the MCNP and FURNACE results helps identify the sources of error in these neutron transport calculations. The accuracy of these calculations was tested by comparing the total 2.5 MeV neutron yields derived from the activation measurements with those obtained with calibrated fission chambers; agreement at the ±15% level was demonstrate. (orig.)

  1. A two-stage metal valorisation process from electric arc furnace dust (EAFD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Issa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper demonstrates possibility of separate zinc and lead recovery from coal composite pellets, composed of EAFD with other synergetic iron-bearing wastes and by-products (mill scale, pyrite-cinder, magnetite concentrate, through a two-stage process. The results show that in the first, low temp erature stage performed in electro-resistant furnace, removal of lead is enabled due to presence of chlorides in the system. In the second stage, performed at higher temperatures in Direct Current (DC plasma furnace, valorisation of zinc is conducted. Using this process, several final products were obtained, including a higher purity zinc oxide, which, by its properties, corresponds washed Waelz oxide.

  2. Sealed rotary hearth furnace with central bearing support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, James P.; Johnson, Beverly E.; Beri, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    The furnace has a hearth which rotates inside a stationary closed chamber and is supported therein on vertical cylindrical conduit which extends through the furnace floor and is supported by a single center bearing. The charge is deposited through the furnace roof on the rim of the hearth as it rotates and is moved toward the center of the hearth by rabbles. Externally generated hot gases are introduced into the furnace chamber below the hearth and rise through perforations in the hearth and up through the charge. Exhaust gases are withdrawn through the furnace roof. Treated charge drops from a center outlet on the hearth into the vertical cylindrical conduit which extends downwardly through the furnace floor to which it is also sealed.

  3. Application of Carbon Composite Bricks for Blast Furnace Hearth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Haibin; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Jianliang; Zhao, Yongan; Jiao, Kexin

    Traditional refractory materials for blast furnace hearth lining are mainly composed of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. However, these materials can't meet the demands for long service life design of blast furnaces. In this paper, a new refractory called carbon composite brick (CCB) was introduced, which combined the advantages of carbon bricks and the ceramic cup. In this case, the resistance of the CCB against corrosion was equal to the ceramic cup and the thermal conductivity of the CCB was equal to carbon bricks. From the results of more than 20 blast furnaces, the CCB could be well used in small blast furnaces and large blast furnaces. In the bad condition of low grade burden and high smelting intensity, the CCB gave full play to the role of cooling system, and effectively resisted the erosion of hot metal to improve the service life of blast furnaces.

  4. Assessment of selected furnace technologies for RWMC waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batdorf, J.; Gillins, R.; Anderson, G.L.

    1992-03-01

    This report provides a description and initial evaluation of five selected thermal treatment (furnace) technologies, in support of earlier thermal technologies scoping work for application to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) buried wastes. The cyclone furnace, molten salt processor, microwave melter, ausmelt (fuel fired lance) furnace, and molten metal processor technologies are evaluated. A system description and brief development history are provided. The state of development of each technology is assessed, relative to treatment of RWMC buried waste

  5. Effects of slag composition and process variables on decontamination of metallic wastes by melt refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heshmatpour, B.; Copeland, G.L.

    1981-01-01

    Melt refining has been suggested as an alternative for decontamination and volume reduction of low-level-contaminated metallic wastes. Knowledge of metallurgical and thermochemical aspects of the process is essential for effective treatment of various metals. Variables such as slag type and composition, melting technique, and refractory materials need to be identified for each metal or alloy. Samples of contaminated metals were melted with fluxes by resistance furnace or induction heating. The resulting ingots as well as the slags were analyzed for their nuclide contents, and the corresponding partition ratios were calculated. Compatibility of slags and refractories was also investigated, and proper refractory materials were identified. Resistance furnace melting appeared to be a better melting technique for nonferrous scrap, while induction melting was more suitable for ferrous metals. In general uranium contents of the metals, except for aluminum, could be reduced to as low as 0.01 to 0.1 ppM by melt refining. Aluminum could be decontaminated to about 1 to 2 ppM U when certain fluoride slags were used. The extent of decontamination was not very sensitive to slag type and composition. However, borosilicate and basic oxidizing slags were more effective on ferrous metals and Cu; NaNO 3 -NaCl-NaOH type fluxes were desirable for Zn, Pb, and Sn; and fluoride type slags were effective for decontamination of Al. Recrystallized alumina proved to be the most compatible refractory for melt refining both ferrous and nonferrous metals, while graphite was suitable for nonferrous metal processing. In conclusion, melt refining is an effective technique for volume reduction ad decontamination of contaminated metal scrap when proper slags, melting technique, and refractories are used

  6. Predictive control of thermal state of blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbasova, T. A.; Filimonova, A. A.

    2018-05-01

    The work describes the structure of the model for predictive control of the thermal state of a blast furnace. The proposed model contains the following input parameters: coke rate; theoretical combustion temperature, comprising: natural gas consumption, blasting temperature, humidity, oxygen, blast furnace cooling water; blast furnace gas utilization rate. The output parameter is the cast iron temperature. The results for determining the cast iron temperature were obtained following the identification using the Hammerstein-Wiener model. The result of solving the cast iron temperature stabilization problem was provided for the calculated values of process parameters of the target area of the respective blast furnace operation mode.

  7. Comprehensive Numerical Modeling of the Blast Furnace Ironmaking Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chenn; Tang, Guangwu; Wang, Jichao; Fu, Dong; Okosun, Tyamo; Silaen, Armin; Wu, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Blast furnaces are counter-current chemical reactors, widely utilized in the ironmaking industry. Hot reduction gases injected from lower regions of the furnace ascend, reacting with the descending burden. Through this reaction process, iron ore is reduced into liquid iron that is tapped from the furnace hearth. Due to the extremely harsh environment inside the blast furnace, it is difficult to measure or observe internal phenomena during operation. Through the collaboration between steel companies and the Center for Innovation through Visualization and Simulation, multiple computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models have been developed to simulate the complex multiphase reacting flow in the three regions of the furnace, the shaft, the raceway, and the hearth. The models have been used effectively to troubleshoot and optimize blast furnace operations. In addition, the CFD models have been integrated with virtual reality. An interactive virtual blast furnace has been developed for training purpose. This paper summarizes the developments and applications of blast furnace CFD models and the virtual blast furnace.

  8. Nitrogen oxide emissions from a kraft recovery furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prouty, A.L.; Stuart, R.C.; Caron, A.L.

    1993-01-01

    Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) emissions from a rebuilt kraft recovery furnace slightly exceeded the specified limit of 1.1 lb/ton (0.55 kg/metric ton) of black-liquor solids. Mill trials were undertaken to determine whether NOx emissions could be minimized by modifying furnace operation. NOx emissions increased when secondary air was shifted to tertiary ports. NOx emissions fell when the amounts of primary and total air were decreased, but this increased emissions of other pollutants. After demonstrating that best operation of the furnace could not meet the permit with an emissions limit that matched the furnace's performance at best operation

  9. A review of temperature measurement in the steel reheat furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martocci, A.P.; Mihalow, F.A.

    1985-01-01

    The incentive for conducting research and development on reheat furnaces is substantial; the domestic steel industry spent approximately one billion dollars on fuel in reheat furnaces in 1981. Bethlehem Steel Corp. spent /145 million of that total, and neither figure includes fuel consumed in soaking pits or annealing furnaces. If the authors set a goal to save 10% of these annual fuel costs, that translates into /100 million for the domestic steel industry and /14.5 million for Bethlehem Steel. These large sums of money are significant incentives. The purpose of this paper is to review the historical heating practices and equipment at steel reheat furnaces along with current practices and instrumentation

  10. Quality of structural steel melted by single-slag process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, A.M.; Andreev, V.I.; Monastyrskij, A.V.; Drozdova, M.F.; Pashchenko, V.E.; Orzhekh, M.B.

    1982-01-01

    The 40Kh and 12KhN3A steels were used to compare the quality of the metal manufactured according to several variants of a single-slag process with the metal of a conventional melting technology. Investigation results show, that a single-slag process metal has higher sulfides and oxides contents as well as an increased anisotropy of mechanical properties while its tendency to flake formation is weaker due to a less degree of gas saturation. It is marked that anisotropy in the properties and a sulfide content may be decreased by out-of-furnace treatment of steels

  11. Continuous denitration device using a microwave furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Hajime

    1982-04-01

    A continuous denitration device is described that enables to obtain dried U or Pu dioxide or a mixture of these from a solution of uranyl or plutonium nitrate or a mixed solution of these by irradiation with microwaves. This device allows uranyl or plutonium nitrate to crystallize and the resulting crystals to be separated from the solution. A belt conveyer carries the crystals to a microwave heating furnace for denitration. Approximately 2.4 kg dried cake of U dioxide per hour is obtained [fr

  12. Oil injection into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dongsheng Liao; Mannila, P.; Haerkki, J.

    1997-12-31

    Fuel injection techniques have been extensively used in the commercial blast furnaces, a number of publications concerning the fuels injection have been reported. This present report only summarizes the study achievements of oil injection due to the research need the of authors, it includes the following parts: First, the background and the reasons reducing coke rate of oil injection are analyzed. Reducing coke rate and decreasing the ironmaking costs are the main deriving forces, the contents of C, H and ash are direct reasons reducing coke rate. It was also found that oil injection had great effects on the state of blast furnace, it made operation stable, center gas flow develop fully, pressure drop increase, descent speed of burden materials decrease and generation of thermal stagnation phenomena, the quality of iron was improved. Based on these effects, as an ideal mean, oil injection was often used to adjust the state of blast furnace. Secondly, combustion behavior of oil in the raceway and tuyere are discussed. The distribution of gas content was greatly changed, the location of CO, H{sub 2} generation was near the tuyere; the temperature peak shifts from near the raceway boundary to the tuyere. Oxygen concentration and blast velocity were two important factors, it was found that increasing excess oxygen ratio 0.9 to 1.3, the combustion time of oil decreases 0.5 msec, an increase of the blast velocity results in increasing the flame length. In addition, the nozzle position and oil rate had large effects on the combustion of oil. Based on these results, the limit of oil injection is also discussed, soot formation is the main reason limiting to further increase oil injection rate, it was viewed that there were three types of soot which were generated under blast furnace operating conditions. The reason generating soot is the incomplete conversion of the fuel. Finally, three methods improving combustion of oil in the raceway are given: Improvement of oil

  13. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the research on the development of high-performance industrial furnaces. R and D of high-performance industrial furnaces, etc; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho). Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A R and D was conducted for the purpose of developing remarkable energy conservation/CO2 reduction technologies. In fiscal 1997, the five working groups about the following were formed to have animated discussions: the basic research, heating furnace, heat treatment furnace, melting furnace, and tubular heating furnace. The research subjects are the pursuit/deepening of the base study on flame structures in high temperature air combustion, critical heat recovery of the system in high temperature air combustion, examination of the basic common technology on the ultimate optimization of the material heat transfer, construction of general-purpose experimental database, setting-up of design standards for general-purpose high-performance industrial furnaces, presentation of examples of the actual trial design based on the design standards and feasibility study of the practical application, preparatory support of the field test project on high-performance industrial furnaces for commercialization/diffusion/spread, etc. Further, how to arrange the developmental results was studied to make the results of the project useful for study of the prompt commercialization. 442 refs., 1444 figs., 311 tabs.

  14. Melting point of yttria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skaggs, S.R.

    1977-06-01

    Fourteen samples of 99.999 percent Y 2 O 3 were melted near the focus of a 250-W CO 2 laser. The average value of the observed melting point along the solid-liquid interface was 2462 +- 19 0 C. Several of these same samples were then melted in ultrahigh-purity oxygen, nitrogen, helium, or argon and in water vapor. No change in the observed temperature was detected, with the exception of a 20 0 C increase in temperature from air to helium gas. Post test examination of the sample characteristics, clarity, sphericity, and density is presented, along with composition. It is suggested that yttria is superior to alumina as a secondary melting-point standard

  15. The thermodynamic activity of ZnO in silicate melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes, R. A.; Gaskell, D. R.

    1983-12-01

    The activity of ZnO in ZnO-SiO2 and CaO-ZnO-SiO2 melts has been measured at 1560 °C using a transpiration technique with CO-CO2 mixtures as the carrier gas. The activities of ZnO in dilute solution in 42 wt pct SiO2-38 wt pct CaO-20 wt pct A12O3 in the range 1400° to 1550 °C and in 62 wt pct SiO2-23.3 wt pct CaO-14.7 wt pct A12O3 at 1550 °C have also been measured. The measured free energies of formation of ZnO-SiO2 melts are significantly more negative than published estimated values and this, together with the behavior observed in the system CaO-Al2O3-SiO2, indicate that ZnO is a relatively basic oxide. The results are discussed in terms of the polymerization model of binary silicate melts and ideal silicate mixing in ternary silicate melts. The behavior of ZnO in dilute solution in CaO-Al2O3-SiO2 melts is discussed in terms of the possibility of the fluxing of ZnO by iron blast furnace slags.

  16. Force induced DNA melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santosh, Mogurampelly; Maiti, Prabal K

    2009-01-01

    When pulled along the axis, double-strand DNA undergoes a large conformational change and elongates by roughly twice its initial contour length at a pulling force of about 70 pN. The transition to this highly overstretched form of DNA is very cooperative. Applying a force perpendicular to the DNA axis (unzipping), double-strand DNA can also be separated into two single-stranded DNA, this being a fundamental process in DNA replication. We study the DNA overstretching and unzipping transition using fully atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and argue that the conformational changes of double-strand DNA associated with either of the above mentioned processes can be viewed as force induced DNA melting. As the force at one end of the DNA is increased the DNA starts melting abruptly/smoothly above a critical force depending on the pulling direction. The critical force f m , at which DNA melts completely decreases as the temperature of the system is increased. The melting force in the case of unzipping is smaller compared to the melting force when the DNA is pulled along the helical axis. In the case of melting through unzipping, the double-strand separation has jumps which correspond to the different energy minima arising due to sequence of different base pairs. The fraction of Watson-Crick base pair hydrogen bond breaking as a function of force does not show smooth and continuous behavior and consists of plateaus followed by sharp jumps.

  17. Reactor as furnace and reactor as lamp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldanskii, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    There are presented general characteristics of the following ways of transforming of nuclear energy released in reactors into chemical : ordinary way (i.e. trough the heat, mechanical energy and electricity); chemonuclear synthesis ; use of high-temperature fuel elements (reactor as furnace); use of the mixed nγ-radiation of reactors; use of the radiation loops; radiation - photochemical synthesis (reactor as lamp). Advantage and disadvantages of all above variants are compared. The yield of the primary product of fixation of nitrogen (nitric oxide NO) in reactor with the high-temperature (above ca. 1900degC) fuel elements (reactor-furnace) can exceed W ∼ 200 kg per gram of burned uranium. For the latter variant (reactor-lamp) the yield of chemical products can reach W ∼ 60 kg. per gram of uranium. Such values of W are close to or even strongly exceed the yields of chemical products for other abovementioned variants and - what is particularly important - are not connected to the necessity of archscrupulous removal of radioactive contamination of products. (author)

  18. Emission spectroscopy for coal-fired cyclone furnace diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehrmeyer, J.A.; Boll, D.E.; Smith, R. [Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-08-01

    Using a spectrograph and charge-coupled device (CCD) camera, ultraviolet and visible light emission spectra were obtained from a coal-burning electric utility's cyclone furnaces operating at either fuel-rich or fuel-lean conditions. The aim of this effort is to identify light emission signals that can be related to a cyclone furnace's operating condition in order to adjust its air/fuel ratio to minimize pollutant production. Emission spectra at the burner and outlet ends of cyclone furnaces were obtained. Spectra from all cyclone burners show emission lines for the trace elements Li, Na, K, and Rb, as well as the molecular species OH and CaOH. The Ca emission line is detected at the burner end of both the fuel-rich and fuellean cyclone furnaces but is not detected at the outlet ends of either furnace type. Along with the disappearance of Ca is a concomitant increase in the CaOH signal at the outlet end of both types of furnaces. The OH signal strength is in general stronger when viewing at the burner end rather than the exhaust end of both the fuel-rich and fuel-lean cyclone furnaces, probably due to high, non-equilibrium amounts of OH present inside the furnace. Only one molecular species was detected that could be used as a measure of air/fuel ratio: MgOH. It was detected at the burner end of fuel-rich cyclone furnaces but not detected in fuel-lean cyclone furnaces. More direct markers of air/fuel ratio, such as CO and 02 emission, were not detected, probably due to the generally weak nature of molecular emission relative to ambient blackbody emission present in the cyclone furnaces, even at ultraviolet wavelengths.

  19. A Feasibility Study on UO2/ZrO2 Mixture Melting using Induction Skull Melting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, S. W.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, H. D.

    1998-01-01

    Using ISM(Induction Skull Melting) method, which is usually used for the crystallization of refractory materials, a feasibility study on melting of the UO 2 /ZrO 2 mixture(w/o 8:2) is carried out. Frequency, one of main design parameters for ISM, is determined from electrical resistance of UO 2 /ZrO 2 mixture. Heat loss from the crucible for UO 2 /ZrO 2 20kg melting is predicted by comparison with the existing experimental data for UO , ZrO 2 , and ThO 2 . The analysis shows that melting and superheating of the UO 2 /ZrO 2 mixture using induction skull melting method is possible. To attain the superheat of 300K for 20 kg of UO 2 /ZrO 2 , 100kHz, 100 kW power input for induction coil, and 570L/min coolant flow rate are found to be required. The results of this feasibility study will be adopted for designing UO 2 /ZrO 2 furnace using actual corium material at KAERI

  20. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C E

    1980-10-01

    Heaviest acitivity this quarter has been in the area of system design and specification and purchase of system components. Mechanical design is now complete. The design of electrical power, process control and data acquisition systems has begun. Combustor design meetings with General Electric Space Science Labs have resulted in an increasing awareness that analytical flow field modeling of the cyclonic combustor could not only enhance current understanding of the process but also broaden the future scope of implementation. A proposal to add specific additional modeling tasks was presented to the Department of Energy, and is included herein in Appendix B. Equipment procurement will continue and system construction will begin during the next quarter.

  1. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biganzoli, Laura; Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. ► The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. ► Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. ► 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  2. Volatilisation and oxidation of aluminium scraps fed into incineration furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biganzoli, Laura, E-mail: laura.biganzoli@mail.polimi.it [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy); Gorla, Leopoldo; Nessi, Simone; Grosso, Mario [Politecnico di Milano, Piazza L. Da Vinci 32, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging partitioning in MSW incineration residues is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The amount of aluminium packaging recoverable from the bottom ashes is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Aluminium packaging oxidation rate in the residues of MSW incineration is evaluated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 80% of aluminium cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered from bottom ashes. - Abstract: Ferrous and non-ferrous metal scraps are increasingly recovered from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash and used in the production of secondary steel and aluminium. However, during the incineration process, metal scraps contained in the waste undergo volatilisation and oxidation processes, which determine a loss of their recoverable mass. The present paper evaluates the behaviour of different types of aluminium packaging materials in a full-scale waste to energy plant during standard operation. Their partitioning and oxidation level in the residues of the incineration process are evaluated, together with the amount of potentially recoverable aluminium. About 80% of post-consumer cans, 51% of trays and 27% of foils can be recovered through an advanced treatment of bottom ash combined with a melting process in the saline furnace for the production of secondary aluminium. The residual amount of aluminium concentrates in the fly ash or in the fine fraction of the bottom ash and its recovery is virtually impossible using the current eddy current separation technology. The average oxidation levels of the aluminium in the residues of the incineration process is equal to 9.2% for cans, 17.4% for trays and 58.8% for foils. The differences between the tested packaging materials are related to their thickness, mechanical strength and to the alloy.

  3. Heavy metals behavior during thermal plasma vitrification of incineration residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerqueira, N.; Vandensteendam, C.; Baronnet, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    In the developed world, incineration of wastes is widely and increasingly practiced. Worldwide, a total of approximately 100 millions of tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) material is incinerated annually. Incineration of one ton of MSW leads to the formation of 30 to 50 kg of fly ash, depending on the type of incinerator. The waste disposal of these dusts already causes great problems today; they are of low bulk density, they contain high concentrations of hazardous water-soluble heavy metal compounds, organohalogen compounds (dioxines, furanes), sulfur, and chlorinated compounds. Thermal processes, based mainly on electrical arc processes, show great promise: the residues are melted at high temperature and converted in a relatively inert glass. A few tens of plants, essentially in Japan and Taiwan, have been in industrial operation for a few years. To be authorized to be dumped in a common landfill, the glassy product has to satisfy the leaching test procedure to ensure long-term durability. But to satisfy the regulation to be reused, for example as a nonhazardous standard material in road building, the glassy product would probably include contents in some heavy metals lower than critical limits. So today, there are two alternatives: the first one is to improve the heavy toxic metals evaporation to get a 'light' glassy product and to recycle separately the said separated metals; the second is on the contrary to improve the incorporation of a maximum of heavy metals into the vitreous silicate matrix. Whatever, it is highly required to control, in situ and in real time, volatility of these metals during ash melting under electrical arc. The objective of this work was to reach basic data about metals volatility under the plasma column of an electrical arc transferred on the melt: an experiment has been designed to examine the effects of processing conditions, such as melt temperature, melt composition, and furnace atmosphere, upon volatilization and glassy slag

  4. Test plan for evaluation of plasma melter technology for vitrification of high-sodium content low-level radioactive liquid wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, D.F.; Lahoda, E.J.; Gass, W.R.; D'Amico, N.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides a test plan for the conduct of plasma arc vitrification testing by a vendor in support of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Low-Level Waste (LLW) Vitrification Program. The vendor providing this test plan and conducting the work detailed within it [one of seven selected for glass melter testing under Purchase Order MMI-SVV-384212] is the Westinghouse Science and Technology Center (WSTC) in Pittsburgh, PA. WSTC authors of the test plan are D. F. McLaughlin, E. J. Lahoda, W. R. Gass, and N. D'Amico. The WSTC Program Manager for this test is D. F. McLaughlin. This test plan is for Phase I activities described in the above Purchase Order. Test conduct includes melting of glass frit with Hanford LLW Double-Shell Slurry Feed waste simulant in a plasma arc fired furnace

  5. Atmospheric-pressure plasma technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kogelschatz, U

    2004-01-01

    Major industrial plasma processes operating close to atmospheric pressure are discussed. Applications of thermal plasmas include electric arc furnaces and plasma torches for generation of powders, for spraying refractory materials, for cutting and welding and for destruction of hazardous waste. Other applications include miniature circuit breakers and electrical discharge machining. Non-equilibrium cold plasmas at atmospheric pressure are obtained in corona discharges used in electrostatic precipitators and in dielectric-barrier discharges used for generation of ozone, for pollution control and for surface treatment. More recent applications include UV excimer lamps, mercury-free fluorescent lamps and flat plasma displays

  6. Open fireplace furnace as an adequate heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terbrack, E.

    The fireplace furnace is a furnace for the open fireplace. It is connected to the existing fuel-oil or gas central heating and is used for house heating and warm water preparation when the fire in the fireplace is on. It combines the romanticism of the open fireplace with the necessity of saving fuel oil and gas, ensuring heat supply.

  7. Liquid flow in the hearth of the blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauje, P.; Nicolle, R.; Steiler, J.M.; Venturini, M.J.; Libralesso, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The hearth of a blast furnace is poorly known. Our approach to characterize the hearth involves classical methods of chemical engineering, assessing the flow conditions by means of radioactive tracer techniques. The most important feature of this study is to combine measurements on industrial blast furnaces, experiments on a small scale model and flow model. calculations. 8 refs., 16 figs

  8. Design and Construction of Oil Fired Compact Crucible Furnace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a prelude to necessary industrialization, foundries are springing up in various parts of Nigeria and most of these foundries rely on oil fired furnaces in their operation. This study is aimed at developing an oil fired crucible furnace from locally sourced materials for foundries in Nigeria. In our design, a new system of fuel ...

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Claus Unit Reaction Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Pahlavan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Reaction furnace is the most important part of the Claus sulfur recovery unit and its performance has a significant impact on the process efficiency. Too many reactions happen in the furnace and their kinetics and mechanisms are not completely understood; therefore, modeling reaction furnace is difficult and several works have been carried out on in this regard so far. Equilibrium models are commonly used to simulate the furnace, but the related literature states that the outlet of furnace is not in equilibrium and the furnace reactions are controlled by kinetic laws; therefore, in this study, the reaction furnace is simulated by a kinetic model. The predicted outlet temperature and concentrations by this model are compared with experimental data published in the literature and the data obtained by PROMAX V2.0 simulator. The results show that the accuracy of the proposed kinetic model and PROMAX simulator is almost similar, but the kinetic model used in this paper has two importance abilities. Firstly, it is a distributed model and can be used to obtain the temperature and concentration profiles along the furnace. Secondly, it is a dynamic model and can be used for analyzing the transient behavior and designing the control system.

  10. Estimation of slagging in furnaces; Kuonaavuuden ennustaminen kivihiilen poelypoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, T; Jaeaeskelaeinen, K; Oeini, J; Koskiahde, A; Jokiniemi, J; Pyykkoenen, J [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Understanding and estimation of slagging in furnaces is essential in the design of new power plants with high steam values or in modifications like low-NO{sub x} retrofits in existing furnaces. Major slagging yields poor efficiency, difficult operation and high maintenance costs of the plant. The aim of the project is to develop a computational model for slagging in pulverized coal combustion. The model is based on Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) analysis of mineral composition of the coal and physical models for behaviour of minerals inside a furnace. The analyzed mineral particles are classified to five composition classes and distributed to calculational coal particles if internal minerals of coal. The calculational coal particles and the external minerals are traced in the furnace to find out the behaviour of minerals inside the furnace. If the particle tracing indicates that the particle hits the heat transfer surface of the furnace the viscosity of the particle is determined to see if particle is sticky. The model will be implemented to 3D computational fluid dynamics based furnace simulation environment Ardemus which predicts the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and combustion in a furnace. (orig.)

  11. Development of a cylindrical gas-fired furnace for reycling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the development of a cylindrical gas-fired furnace, which could be used for recycling aluminum in small-scale foundries in Nigeria. The crucible, combustion chamber, suspension shaft and bearings were appropriately sized. The furnace chamber was 410 mm high and 510 mm diameter and had a ...

  12. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 kg...

  13. Non-polluting steam generators with fluidized-bed furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandes, H [Deutsche Babcock A.G., Oberhausen (Germany, F.R.)

    1979-07-01

    The author reports on a 35 MW steam generator with hard coal fluidized-bed furnace a planned 35 MW steam generator with flotation-dirt fluidized-bed furnace, and on planned steam generators for fluidized-bed firing of hard coal up to a steam power of about 200 MW.

  14. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  15. Research of decreasing of the cesium radionuclides discharge in the course pouring of the liquid glass from furnace EhP-500/1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadovskij, B.F.; Borisov, N.B.; Dzekun, E.G.; Skobtsov, A.S.

    1996-01-01

    Cesium radionuclides discharge from the furnace liquid-glass discharge unit are studied and estimates of cesium emission from the glass melt by the stream flow-out and filling the waste storage capacity are performed. The ways for decreasing cesium discharges are indicated and new additional aerosol protection system for high-active glass discharge, providing for high protection efficiency is proposed. 10 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  16. EFFECT OF CaO/SiO₂ AND HEAT TREATMENT ON THE MICROSTRUCTURE OF GLASS-CERAMICS FROM BLAST FURNACE SLAG

    OpenAIRE

    Chunshai Xie; Yongliang Gui; Song Chunyan; Hu Binsheng

    2016-01-01

    Glass-ceramics, with molten blast furnace (BF) slag as the major raw material, were prepared successfully by the melting method. The effect of the CaO/SiO₂ ratio in the molten BF slag and heat treatment on the viscosity and microstructure of glass-ceramics produced from BF slag were traced using the melt property tester, DSC, XRD and SEM. The results showed that increasing the CaO/SiO₂ ratio of BF slag caused a decrease not only in the viscosity of the BF slag at high temperature but also in ...

  17. Melting temperature of graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korobenko, V.N.; Savvatimskiy, A.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text: Pulse of electrical current is used for fast heating (∼ 1 μs) of metal and graphite specimens placed in dielectric solid media. Specimen consists of two strips (90 μm in thick) placed together with small gap so they form a black body model. Quasy-monocrystal graphite specimens were used for uniform heating of graphite. Temperature measurements were fulfilled with fast pyrometer and with composite 2-strip black body model up to melting temperature. There were fulfilled experiments with zirconium and tungsten of the same black body construction. Additional temperature measurements of liquid zirconium and liquid tungsten are made. Specific heat capacity (c P ) of liquid zirconium and of liquid tungsten has a common feature in c P diminishing just after melting. It reveals c P diminishing after melting in both cases over the narrow temperature range up to usual values known from steady state measurements. Over the next wide temperature range heat capacity for W (up to 5000 K) and Zr (up to 4100 K) show different dependencies of heat capacity on temperature in liquid state. The experiments confirmed a high quality of 2-strip black body model used for graphite temperature measurements. Melting temperature plateau of tungsten (3690 K) was used for pyrometer calibration area for graphite temperature measurement. As a result, a preliminary value of graphite melting temperature of 4800 K was obtained. (author)

  18. Liquid steel analysis by laser-induced plasma spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruber, J.

    2002-11-01

    When a nanosecond pulsed laser is focused onto a sample and the intensity exceeds a certain threshold, material is vaporized and a plasma is formed above the sample surface. The laser-light becomes increasingly absorbed by inverse bremsstrahlung and by photo-excitation and photo-ionization of atoms and molecules. The positive feedback, by which the number of energetic electrons for ionization is increased in an avalanche-like manner under the influence of laser-light, is the so-called optical breakdown. Radiating excited atoms and ions within the expanding plasma plume produce a characteristic optical emission spectrum. A spectroscopic analysis of this optical emission of the laser-induced plasma permits a qualitative and quantitative chemical analysis of the investigated sample. This technique is therefore often called laser-induced plasma spectroscopy (LIPS) or laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIPS is a fast non-contact technique, by which solid, liquid or gaseous samples can be analyzed with respect to their chemical composition. Hence, it is an appropriate tool for the rapid in-situ analysis of not easily accessible surfaces for process control in industrial environments. In this work, LIPS was studied as a technique to determine the chemical composition of solid and liquid steel. A LIPS set-up was designed and built for the remote and continuous in-situ analysis of the steel melt. Calibration curves were prepared for the LIPS analysis of Cr, Mn, Ni and Cu in solid steel using reference samples with known composition. In laboratory experiments an induction furnace was used to melt steel samples in crucibles, which were placed at a working distance of 1.5 m away from the LIPS apparatus. The response of the LIPS system was monitored on-line during the addition of pure elements to the liquid steel bath within certain concentration ranges (Cr: 0.11 - 13.8 wt%, Cu: 0.044 - 0.54 wt%, Mn: 1.38 - 2.5 wt%, Ni: 0.049 - 5.92 wt%). The analysis of an element

  19. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  20. Recycling of electric arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marques Sobrinho, Vicente de Paulo Ferreira; Oliveira, Jose Roberto de; Tenorio, Jorge Alberto Soares; Espinosa, Denise Crocce Romano

    2010-01-01

    This research aims to study the process of incorporation of the metal iron in electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), from a steel mill producing long steel by liquid iron in addition to the changing temperature of 1400 degrees Celsius of EAFD 'as received', the percentage of EAFD to be added (5, 10 and 20% of initial weight of sample pig iron) and the time of withdrawal of the sample of pig iron and slag (30 minutes after the addition of EAFD). Previously, the EAFD will be characterized using the following techniques: chemical analysis, size analysis, specific surface area, Xray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) microanalysis. . After characterization, the EAFD will be added to the bath of liquid pig iron. It is expected that the results obtained at the end of the research allow the evaluation of the iron metal incorporation of EAFD in pig iron bath. (author)

  1. Direct induction skull melting for glass and vitreous materials (Fly ash- oxides - salts)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uring, J.C. [Celes, 68 - Lautenbach (France); Van den Broek, J. [Promethee, 92 - Paris-la-Defense (France)

    1997-12-31

    Direct coil cold crucibles appear as the most economic and reliable furnaces for vitrifying solid wastes. The efficiency is excellent, as the electromagnetic energy is only transferred into the melt and the power dissipation in the walls of the crucible is negligible. The walls of the crucible are cooled, so a skull of cold material protects the metal or the lining of the crucible. Application to municipal solid waste fly ashes is discussed

  2. Development of special automation devices and systems for the Zhezkazgan Copper Smeltery Melting Work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Namazbaev, T.S.

    2005-01-01

    In the article the description of the automated systems of flux materials batching and the multichannel control of temperature over caisson of ore-thermal furnace and horizontal convectors of melting shop is resulted. Due to an original design of primary gauges and application of powerful controller of industrial purpose the developed systems meet the requirements of high reliability of the technological processes control and management in a combination to sufficient productivity on processing the measuring information. (author)

  3. Ultrafast Melting of Carbon Induced by Intense Proton Beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelka, A.; Guenther, M. M.; Harres, K.; Otten, A.; Roth, M.; Gregori, G.; Gericke, D. O.; Vorberger, J.; Glenzer, S. H.; Kritcher, A. L.; Heathcote, R.; Li, B.; Neely, D.; Kugland, N. L.; Niemann, C.; Makita, M.; Riley, D.; Mithen, J.; Schaumann, G.; Schollmeier, M.

    2010-01-01

    Laser-produced proton beams have been used to achieve ultrafast volumetric heating of carbon samples at solid density. The isochoric melting of carbon was probed by a scattering of x rays from a secondary laser-produced plasma. From the scattering signal, we have deduced the fraction of the material that was melted by the inhomogeneous heating. The results are compared to different theoretical approaches for the equation of state which suggests modifications from standard models.

  4. Melting of gold microclusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garzon, I.L.; Jellinek, J.

    1991-01-01

    The transition from solid-like to liquid-like behavior in Au n , n=6, 7, 13, clusters is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. A Gupta-type potential with all-neighbour interactions is employed to incorporate n-body effects. The melting-like transition is described in terms of short-time averages of the kinetic energy per particle, root-mean-square bond length fluctuations and mean square displacements. A comparison between melting temperatures of Au n and Ni n clusters is presented. (orig.)

  5. Mechanism and Influencing Factors of Iron Nuggets Forming in Rotary Hearth Furnace Process at Lower Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hongliang; Duan, Dongping; Chen, Siming; Yuan, Peng

    2015-10-01

    In order to improve the efficiency of slag and iron separation, a new idea of "the separation of slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) in rotary hearth furnace process at lower temperature" is put forward. In this paper, the forming process of iron nuggets has been investigated. Based on those results, the forming mechanisms and influencing factors of iron nugget at low temperature are discussed experimentally using an electric resistance furnace simulating a rotary hearth furnace process. Results show that the reduction of iron ore, carburization of reduced iron, and the composition and quantity of slag are very important for producing iron nuggets at lower temperature. Reduction reaction of carbon-containing pellets is mainly at 1273 K and 1473 K (1000 °C and 1200 °C). When the temperature is above 1473 K (1200 °C), the metallization rate of carbon-containing pellets exceeds 93 pct, and the reduction reaction is substantially complete. Direct carburization is the main method for carburization of reduced iron. This reaction occurs above 1273 K (1000 °C), with carburization degree increasing greatly at 1473 K and 1573 K (1200 °C and 1300 °C) after particular holding times. Besides, to achieve the "slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation," the melting point of the slag phase should be increased. Slag (solid state) and iron (molten state) separation can be achieved below 1573 K (1300 °C), and when the holding time is 20 minutes, C/O is 0.7, basicity is less than 0.5 and a Na2CO3 level of 3 pct, the recovery rate of iron can reach 90 pct, with a proportion of iron nuggets more than 3.15 mm of nearly 90 pct. This study can provide theoretical and technical basis for iron nugget production.

  6. Process of coke less without waste treatment of direct vanadium allowing steel melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisienko, V.G.; Droujinina, O.G.; Morozova, V.A.; Ladigina, N.V.; Yusfin, Yu.S.; Parenkev, A.E.

    2003-01-01

    The development of new methods of steel production are now conducted with the purpose of energy consumption and harmful emissions reduction. The choice of technology and equipment in this case plays a marginal role. It is well known that vanadium alloying steel has increased service properties. The known classical scheme of vanadium steel melting is very power-intensive, as includes such power-intensive processes as blast furnace process and chemical processing of vanadium slag therewith sintering and by-product coke processes are accompanied by significant harmful emissions. In so doing the vanadium losses may run to 60%. In view of requests of environment protection and economical efficiency the new process of coke less without wastes processing of vanadium-bearing raw material with direct vanadium allowing of steel - LP-process is developed. Its purpose is the melting on the basis of vanadium-bearing titanomagnetite of vanadium allowing steel with increase of vanadium concentration in steel and diminution of vanadium losses without application coke and natural gas with use of any coals and carbon-bearing wastes. LP-process consists of three aggregates and corresponding processes: process of liquid-phase reduction, process of vanadium-bearing pellets metallization in the shaft furnace, and process of alloying steel melting in the arc electric furnace. The obtained results have shown, that the LP-process is more energy saving on a comparison with other methods of vanadium allowing steel production. (Original)

  7. GLASS MELTING PHENOMENA, THEIR ORDERING AND MELTING SPACE UTILISATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Němec L.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four aspects of effective glass melting have been defined – namely the fast kinetics of partial melting phenomena, a consideration of the melting phenomena ordering, high utilisation of the melting space, and effective utilisation of the supplied energy. The relations were defined for the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption of the glass melting process which involve the four mentioned aspects of the process and indicate the potentials of effective melting. The quantity “space utilisation” has been treated in more detail as an aspect not considered in practice till this time. The space utilisation was quantitatively defined and its values have been determined for the industrial melting facility by mathematical modelling. The definitions of the specific melting performance and specific energy consumption have been used for assessment of the potential impact of a controlled melt flow and high space utilisation on the melting process efficiency on the industrial scale. The results have shown that even the partial control of the melt flow, leading to the partial increase of the space utilisation, may considerably increase the melting performance, whereas a decrease of the specific energy consumption was determined to be between 10 - 15 %.

  8. Fission Product Release from Spent Nuclear Fuel During Melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.; Zino, J.F.

    1998-09-01

    The Melt-Dilute process consolidates aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel by melting the fuel assemblies and diluting the 235U content with depleted uranium to lower the enrichment. During the process, radioactive fission products whose boiling points are near the proposed 850 degrees C melting temperature can be released. This paper presents a review of fission product release data from uranium-aluminum alloy fuel developed from Severe Accident studies. In addition, scoping calculations using the ORIGEN-S computer code were made to estimate the radioactive inventories in typical research reactor fuel as a function of burnup, initial enrichment, and reactor operating history and shutdown time.Ten elements were identified from the inventory with boiling points below or near the 850 degrees C reference melting temperature. The isotopes 137Cs and 85Kr were considered most important. This review serves as basic data to the design and development of a furnace off-gas system for containment of the volatile species

  9. The Automation Control System Design of Walking Beam Heating Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu LIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Combining the transformation project of certain strip steel rolling production line, the techniques process of walking beam heating furnace was elaborated in this paper. The practical application of LOS-T18-2ZC1 laser detector was elaborated. The network communication model of walking beam heating furnace control system was designed. The realization method of production process automation control was elaborated. The entire automation control system allocation picture and PLC power distribution system picture of walking beam heating furnace were designed. Charge machine movement process was elaborated. Walking beam movement process was elaborated. Extractor movement process was elaborated. The hydraulic station of walking mechanism was elaborated. Relative control circuit diagram was designed. The control function of parallel shift motor, uplifted and degressive motor was elaborated. The control circuit diagram of parallel shift motor of charge machine and extractor of first heating furnace was designed. The control circuit diagram of uplifted and degressive motor of charge machine and extractor of first heating furnace was designed. The realization method of steel blank length test function was elaborated. The realization method of tracking and sequence control function of heating furnace field roller were elaborated. The design provides important reference base for enhancing walking beam heating furnace control level.

  10. An update on blast furnace granular coal injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, D.G. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); Strayer, T.J.; Bouman, R.W. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A blast furnace coal injection system has been constructed and is being used on the furnace at the Burns Harbor Division of Bethlehem Steel. The injection system was designed to deliver both granular (coarse) and pulverized (fine) coal. Construction was completed on schedule in early 1995. Coal injection rates on the two Burns Harbor furnaces were increased throughout 1995 and was over 200 lbs/ton on C furnace in September. The injection rate on C furnace reached 270 lbs/ton by mid-1996. A comparison of high volatile and low volatile coals as injectants shows that low volatile coal replaces more coke and results in a better blast furnace operation. The replacement ratio with low volatile coal is 0.96 lbs coke per pound of coal. A major conclusion of the work to date is that granular coal injection performs very well in large blast furnaces. Future testing will include a processed sub-bituminous coal, a high ash coal and a direct comparison of granular versus pulverized coal injection.

  11. Laboratory experiments on materials for radioactive labelling of blast furnace hearth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staicu, L.; Lucaciu, A.; Bascoveanu, I.; Plapceanu, C.

    1994-01-01

    Currently, the monitoring of refractory lining wear of hearth blast furnace uses for labelling of locations inside brick-work only two radionuclides 110m Ag and 60 Co. Consequently a great zone of hearth being unlabelled escapes to monitoring, leading to possible dangerous perforations. For augmentation of labelled hearth surface we have initiated research on 133 Ba, 134 Ce, 152+154 Eu, 204 Cl, and 65 Zn. It is known that it is not recommendable to use for labelling these elements in pure state because these are very reactive i.e. they are unstable, except for thallium. Moreover, at hearth and crucible temperatures they are volatile. Therefore, a major aspect that we took into consideration is the radioisotope chemical form which is used for radioactive labelling. In Ba or Eu case, oxides can be used being more stable but in Cs and Tl case, oxides are not useful; it is more suitable to employ simple or double silicates. Samples containing a mixture of pig iron, slag and silicates of the hearth furnace labelling elements have been prepared. After separation the samples were crushed and analysed by activation analysis. The obtained gamma spectra have shown the presence of Ba, Cs, and Eu separately in the slag sample into which they have been melt. (author) 2 tabs., 8 refs

  12. Interated Intelligent Industrial Process Sensing and Control: Applied to and Demonstrated on Cupola Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamed Abdelrahman; roger Haggard; Wagdy Mahmoud; Kevin Moore; Denis Clark; Eric Larsen; Paul King

    2003-02-12

    The final goal of this project was the development of a system that is capable of controlling an industrial process effectively through the integration of information obtained through intelligent sensor fusion and intelligent control technologies. The industry of interest in this project was the metal casting industry as represented by cupola iron-melting furnaces. However, the developed technology is of generic type and hence applicable to several other industries. The system was divided into the following four major interacting components: 1. An object oriented generic architecture to integrate the developed software and hardware components @. Generic algorithms for intelligent signal analysis and sensor and model fusion 3. Development of supervisory structure for integration of intelligent sensor fusion data into the controller 4. Hardware implementation of intelligent signal analysis and fusion algorithms

  13. Ferronickel Preparation from Nickeliferous Laterite by Rotary Kiln-Electric Furnace Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guanghui; Jia, Hao; Luo, Jun; Peng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Yuanbo; Jiang, Tao

    Nickel is an important strategic metal, which is mainly used for stainless steel production. In the recent years, ferronickel has been used as a substitute for electrolytic nickel for alleviating the cost of stainless steel production. Rotary kiln-electric furnace (RKEF) smelting is currently the world-wide mainstreaming process for ferronickel production from nickeliferous laterite ore, in spite of the high power consumption. In this study, aiming to provide some meaningful guidance for ferronickel production of RKEF smelting, reductive roasting followed by smelting process was carried out. The conditions including reducing parameters (roasting temperature and time) and smelting parameters (coke dosage, CaO dosage, melting temperature and time) were ascertained. The metal recovery ratios, as well as Ni, Fe, S and P content of ferronickel were considered. The results showed that a ferronickel containing 10. 32 wt. % Ni was obtained from a laterite with 1. 85 wt. % Ni, the nickel recovery ratio was about 99%.

  14. Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherspoon, K.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of porous fire brick on two sides of the furnace. Each firing wall uses two main burners and a pilot burner to heat the porous fire brick to a luminous glow. Regulators and orifice valves are used to provide a minimum gas pressure of 4 in. water column at a rate of approximately 1,450 scf/h to the burners. The gas flow rate was calculated by determining the gas flow appropriate for the instrumentation in the gas line. Observed flame length and vendor literature were used to calculate pilot burner gas consumption. Air for combustion, purging, and cooling is supplied by a single blower. Rough calculations of the air-flow distribution in piping entering the furnace show that air flow to the burners approximately agrees with the calculated natural gas flow. A simple on/off control loop is used to maintain a temperature of 1,000 F in the furnace chamber. Hoods and glove boxes provide contamination control during furnace loading and unloading and ash handling. Fan EF-120 exhausts the hoods, glove boxes, and furnace through filters to Stack 33. A review of the furnace safety shows that safety is ensured by design, interlocks, procedure, and a safety system. Recommendations for safety improvements include installation of both a timed ignition system and a combustible-gas monitor near the furnace. Contamination control in the area could be improved by redesigning the loading hood face and replacing worn gaskets throughout the system. 33 refs., 16 figs

  15. MELT-IIIB: an updated version of the melt code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tabb, K.K.; Lewis, C.H.; O'Dell, L.D.; Padilla, A. Jr.; Smith, D.E.; Wilburn, N.P.

    1979-04-01

    The MELT series is a reactor modeling code designed to investigate a wide variety of hypothetical accident conditions, particularly the transient overpower sequence. MELT-IIIB is the latest in the series

  16. The technological raw material heating furnaces operation efficiency improving issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paramonov, A. M.

    2017-08-01

    The issue of fuel oil applying efficiency improving in the technological raw material heating furnaces by means of its combustion intensification is considered in the paper. The technical and economic optimization problem of the fuel oil heating before combustion is solved. The fuel oil heating optimal temperature defining method and algorithm analytically considering the correlation of thermal, operating parameters and discounted costs for the heating furnace were developed. The obtained optimization functionality provides the heating furnace appropriate thermal indices achievement at minimum discounted costs. The carried out research results prove the expediency of the proposed solutions using.

  17. Recycling melting process of the zirconium alloy chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Luis A.M. dos; Mucsi, Cristiano S.; Tavares, Luiz A.P.; Alencar, Maicon C.; Gomes, Maurilio P.; Barbosa, Luzinete P.; Rossi, Jesualdo L., E-mail: luisreis.09@gmail.com, E-mail: csmucsi@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Pressurized water reactors (PWR) commonly use {sup 235}U enriched uranium dioxide pellets as a nuclear fuel, these are assembled and stacked in zirconium alloy tubes and end caps (M5, Zirlo, Zircaloy). During the machining of these components large amounts of chips are generated which are contaminated with cutting fluid. Its storage presents safety and environmental risks due to its pyrophoric and reactive nature. Recycling industry shown interest in its recycling due to its strategic importance. This paper presents a study on the recycling process and the results aiming the efficiency in the cleaning process; the quality control; the obtaining of the pressed electrodes and finally the melting in a Vacuum Arc Remelting furnace (VAR). The recycling process begins with magnetic separation of possible ferrous alloys chips contaminant, the washing of the cutting fluid that is soluble in water, washing with an industrial degreaser, followed by a rinse with continuous flow of water under high pressure and drying with hot air. The first evaluation of the process was done by an Energy Dispersive X-rays Fluorescence Spectrometry (EDXRFS) showed the presence of 10 wt. % to 17 wt. % of impurities due the mixing with stainless steel machining chips. The chips were then pressed in a custom-made matrix of square section (40 x 40 mm - 500 mm in length), resulting in electrodes with 20% of apparent density of the original alloy. The electrode was then melted in a laboratory scale VAR furnace at the CCTM-IPEN, producing a massive ingot with 0.8 kg. It was observed that the samples obtained from Indústrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB) are supposed to be secondary scrap and it is suggested careful separation in the generation of this material. The melting of the chips is possible and feasible in a VAR furnace which reduces the storage volume by up to 40 times of this material, however, it is necessary to correct the composition of the alloy for the melting of these ingots. (author)

  18. Hydrogen effect on different melts of steel 03Cr10Ni10Mo2(Ti,Al)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hruby, J.; Novosad, P.; Axamit, R.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of hydrogen on martensitic 03Cr10Ni10Mo2(Ti,Al) steel was studied following vacuum induction melting and electroslag remelting with and without the effect of radiation. Under the influence of hydrogen and under the same parameters of catodic hydrogen charging of steel after vacuum induction melting shows a 20 - 30% reduction in total ductility. Steels after electroslag remelting show a higher reduction in total ductility - within the range of 26 - 33%, i.e., 33 - 43% for different melts, and contraction Z shows a reduction of 23 - 59%. Electroslag remelted steels show a greater reduction in plasticity owing to hydrogen than steels melted in vacuum induction furnaces. The reduction of the yield point and the breaking strength owing to hydrogen are more explicit than in steel after vacuum melting. In non-irradiated hydrogenated samples a higher yield point was evident. (B.S.)

  19. Determination of trace elements in paints by direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentlin, Fabrina R.S. [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Pozebon, Dirce [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: dircepoz@iq.ufrgs.br; Mello, Paola A.; Flores, Erico M.M. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, UFSM, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2007-10-17

    A direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric (DS-GFAAS) method for the determination of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Cu in paints has been developed. Serigraphy, acrylic and tattoo paints were analysed. Approaches like pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, modifiers and sample mass introduced in the atomizer were studied. Quantification was performed using calibration curves measured with aqueous standard solutions pipetted onto the platform. The sample mass introduced in the graphite tube ranged from 0.02 to 8.0 mg. Palladium was used as modifier for Cd, Pb and Cu, while Mg(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} was used for Co. For Ni determination, the graphite platform was covered with carbon powder. The characteristic masses of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Cu were 1.4, 22.5, 7.9, 11.0, 9.6 and 12.5 pg, while the limits of detection were 0.0004, 0.001, 0.03, 0.22, 0.11 and 0.05 {mu}g g{sup -1} of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Cu, respectively. The accuracy was determined by comparison of the results with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), using liquid sampling of digests. For matrix characterization, major and minor elements (Al, Mg, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sr, Ti and Mg) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES)

  20. Determination of trace elements in paints by direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bentlin, Fabrina R.S.; Pozebon, Dirce; Mello, Paola A.; Flores, Erico M.M.

    2007-01-01

    A direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric (DS-GFAAS) method for the determination of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Cu in paints has been developed. Serigraphy, acrylic and tattoo paints were analysed. Approaches like pyrolysis and atomization temperatures, modifiers and sample mass introduced in the atomizer were studied. Quantification was performed using calibration curves measured with aqueous standard solutions pipetted onto the platform. The sample mass introduced in the graphite tube ranged from 0.02 to 8.0 mg. Palladium was used as modifier for Cd, Pb and Cu, while Mg(NO 3 ) 2 was used for Co. For Ni determination, the graphite platform was covered with carbon powder. The characteristic masses of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Cu were 1.4, 22.5, 7.9, 11.0, 9.6 and 12.5 pg, while the limits of detection were 0.0004, 0.001, 0.03, 0.22, 0.11 and 0.05 μg g -1 of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, Co and Cu, respectively. The accuracy was determined by comparison of the results with those obtained by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), using liquid sampling of digests. For matrix characterization, major and minor elements (Al, Mg, Ba, Ca, Cr, Cu, Pb, Sr, Ti and Mg) were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES)

  1. Innovation in electric arc furnaces scientific basis for selection

    CERN Document Server

    Toulouevski, Yuri N

    2013-01-01

    This book equips a reader with knowledge necessary for critical analysis of  innovations in electric arc furnaces and helps to select the most effective ones and for their successful implementation. The book also covers general issues related to history of development, current state and prospects of steelmaking in Electric Arc Furnaces. Therefore, it can be useful for everybody who studies metallurgy, including students of colleges and universities. The modern concepts of mechanisms of Arc Furnace processes are are discussed in the book at the level sufficient to solve practical problems: To help readers lacking knowledge required in the field of heat transfer as well as hydro-gas dynamics, it contains several chapters which provide the required minimum of information in these fields of science. In order to better assess different innovations, the book describes experience of the application of similar innovations in open-hearth furnaces and oxygen converters. Some promising ideas on key issues regarding int...

  2. Evaluation of Grade 120 Granulated Ground blast Furnace Slag.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-06-01

    This study evaluates Grade 120 Granulated Ground Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) and its effect on the properties of hydraulic cement concretes used in structural and pavement construction. Several mix designs, structural and pavement, were used for this ...

  3. Elements of the electric arc furnace's environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, Adrian; Semenescu, Augustin; Costoiu, Mihnea; Marcu, Dragoş

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the polluting generating mechanisms for steel making in the Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF). The scheme for the environment's polluting system through the EAF is designed and presented in this paper. The ecological experimenting consisted of determining by specialized measures of the dust percentage in the evacuated gases from the EAF and of thereof gas pollutants. From the point of view of reducing the impact on the environment, the main problem of the electric arc furnace (EAF) is the optimization of the powder collecting from the process gases, both from the furnace and from the work-area. The paper deals with the best dependence between the aggregate's constructive, functional and technological factors, which are necessary for the furnace's ecologization and for its energetically-technologically performances increasing.

  4. CMOS Thermal Ox and Diffusion Furnace: Tystar Tytan 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Names: CMOS Wet Ox, CMOS Dry Ox, Boron Doping (P-type), Phos. Doping (N-Type)This four-stack furnace bank is used for the thermal growth of silicon...

  5. SITE - DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN - MINERGY GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY - MINERGY CORPORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Glass Furnace Technology (GFT) was developed by Minergy Corporation (Minergy), of Waukesha, Wisconsin. Minergy originally developed vitrification technologies to process wastewater sludge into glass aggregate that could be sold as a commercial product. Minergy modified a st...

  6. MINERGY CORPORATION GLASS FURNACE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION: INNOVATION TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents performance and economic data for a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program demonstration of the Minergy Corporation (Minergy) Glass Furnace Technology (GFT). The demonstration evaluated the techno...

  7. Modular Distributed Concentrator for Solar Furnace, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to develop a lightweight approach to achieving the high concentrations of solar energy needed for a solar furnace achieving temperatures of...

  8. Melting of polydisperse hard disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pronk, S.; Frenkel, D.

    2004-01-01

    The melting of a polydisperse hard-disk system is investigated by Monte Carlo simulations in the semigrand canonical ensemble. This is done in the context of possible continuous melting by a dislocation-unbinding mechanism, as an extension of the two-dimensional hard-disk melting problem. We find

  9. Thermodynamics of Oligonucleotide Duplex Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber-Gosche, Sherrie; Edwards, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Melting temperatures of oligonucleotides are useful for a number of molecular biology applications, such as the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Although melting temperatures are often calculated with simplistic empirical equations, application of thermodynamics provides more accurate melting temperatures and an opportunity for students to apply…

  10. The Flexibility of Pusher Furnace Grate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słowik J.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lifetime of guide grates in pusher furnaces for heat treatment could be increased by raising the flexibility of their structure through, for example, the replacement of straight ribs, parallel to the direction of grate movement, with more flexible segments. The deformability of grates with flexible segments arranged in two orientations, i.e. crosswise (perpendicular to the direction of compression and lengthwise (parallel to the direction of compression, was examined. The compression process was simulated using SolidWorks Simulation program. Relevant regression equations were also derived describing the dependence of force inducing the grate deformation by 0.25 mm ‒ modulus of grate elasticity ‒ on the number of flexible segments in established orientations. These calculations were made in Statistica and Scilab programs. It has been demonstrated that, with the same number of segments, the crosswise orientation of flexible segments increases the grate structure flexibility in a more efficient way than the lengthwise orientation. It has also been proved that a crucial effect on the grate flexibility has only the quantity and orientation of segments (crosswise / lengthwise, while the exact position of segments changes the grate flexibility by less than 1%.

  11. Furnace coking simulations in a laboratory apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaton, Paul [Champion Technologies Inc (United States)], email: paul.eaton@champ-tech.com; Newman, Bruce [ConocoPhillips (United States)], email: Bruce.A.Newman@conocophillips.com; Gray, Murray; Kubis, Alan; Derakhshesh, Marzie; Holt, Chris; Mitlin, David [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, University of Alberta (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This work deals with simulating fouling behavior of crude oil in a delayed coker furnace. Fouling on different heated metal probes was investigated; these were mainly stainless steel, iron, or mild steel probes. Heat transfer theory was used to calculate the system fouling factor, and this parameter was recorded as a function of time to model in-situ fouling intensity. Physical and chemical properties such as buildup thickness and composition were investigated using different measuring techniques, most important of which were extractive-iron-nickel ion chromatography, optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron dispersion spectroscopy (EDS). Changes in surface layers of the metallic probe during coke formation along with microstructures of the coke were examined using a focused-ion beam (FIB). It was shown that the iron probe exhibited more buildups on its surface than stainless steels, and fouling of mild steel came in between. As for oils with different concentrations, fouling of diluted atmospheric tower bottom (ATB) was greater than that of undiluted ATP.

  12. Partitioning ratio of depleted uranium during a melt decontamination by arc melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Byeong Yeon; Choi, Wang Kyu; Oh, Won Zin; Jung, Chong Hun

    2008-01-01

    In a study of the optimum operational condition for a melting decontamination, the effects of the basicity, slag type and slag composition on the distribution of depleted uranium were investigated for radioactively contaminated metallic wastes of iron-based metals such as stainless steel (SUS 304L) in a direct current graphite arc furnace. Most of the depleted uranium was easily moved into the slag from the radioactive metal waste. The partitioning ratio of the depleted uranium was influenced by the amount of added slag former and the slag basicity. The composition of the slag former used to capture contaminants such as depleted uranium during the melt decontamination process generally consists of silica (SiO 2 ), calcium oxide (CaO) and aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ). Furthermore, calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ), magnesium oxide (MgO), and ferric oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ) were added to increase the slag fluidity and oxidative potential. The partitioning ratio of the depleted uranium was increased as the amount of slag former was increased. Up to 97% of the depleted uranium was captured between the ingot phase and the slag phase. The partitioning ratio of the uranium was considerably dependent on the basicity and composition of the slag. The optimum condition for the removal of the depleted uranium was a basicity level of about 1.5. The partitioning ratio of uranium was high, exceeding 5.5x10 3 . The slag formers containing calcium fluoride (CaF 2 ) and a high amount of silica proved to be more effective for a melt decontamination of stainless steel wastes contaminated with depleted uranium

  13. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the research on the development of high-performance industrial furnaces. Volume 2; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A R and D was conducted for the purpose of developing remarkable energy conservation/CO2 reduction technologies. In fiscal 1997, the five working groups about the following were formed to have animated discussions: the basic research, heating furnace, heat treatment furnace, melting furnace, and tubular heating furnace. The research subjects are the pursuit/deepening of the base study on flame structures in high temperature air combustion, critical heat recovery of the system in high temperature air combustion, examination of the basic common technology on the ultimate optimization of the material heat transfer, construction of general-purpose experimental database, setting-up of design standards for general-purpose high-performance industrial furnaces, presentation of examples of the actual trial design based on the design standards and feasibility study of the practical application, preparatory support of the field test project on high-performance industrial furnaces for commercialization/diffusion/spread, etc. Further, how to arrange the developmental results was studied to make the results of the project useful for study of the prompt commercialization. 442 refs., 1444 figs., 311 tabs

  14. Fiscal 1997 report on the results of the research on the development of high-performance industrial furnaces. Volume 3; 1997 nendo seika hokokusho (koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusto)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-01

    A R and D was conducted for the purpose of developing remarkable energy conservation/CO2 reduction technologies. In fiscal 1997, the five working groups about the following were formed to have animated discussions: the basic research, heating furnace, heat treatment furnace, melting furnace, and tubular heating furnace. The research subjects are the pursuit/deepening of the base study on flame structures in high temperature air combustion, critical heat recovery of the system in high temperature air combustion, examination of the basic common technology on the ultimate optimization of the material heat transfer, construction of general-purpose experimental database, setting-up of design standards for general-purpose high-performance industrial furnaces, presentation of examples of the actual trial design based on the design standards and feasibility study of the practical application, preparatory support of the field test project on high-performance industrial furnaces for commercialization/diffusion/spread, etc. Further, how to arrange the developmental results was studied to make the results of the project useful for study of the prompt commercialization. 442 refs., 1444 figs., 311 tabs.

  15. Pavement Snow Melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, John W.

    2005-01-01

    The design of pavement snow melting systems is presented based on criteria established by ASHRAE. The heating requirements depends on rate of snow fall, air temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity. Piping materials are either metal or plastic, however, due to corrosion problems, cross-linked polyethylene pipe is now generally used instead of iron. Geothermal energy is supplied to systems through the use of heat pipes, directly from circulating pipes, through a heat exchanger or by allowing water to flow directly over the pavement, by using solar thermal storage. Examples of systems in New Jersey, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Switzerland and Oregon are presented. Key words: pavement snow melting, geothermal heating, heat pipes, solar storage, Wyoming, Virginia, Japan, Argentina, Klamath Falls.

  16. Transient fuel melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, L.; Schmitz, F.

    1982-10-01

    The observation of micrographic documents from fuel after a CABRI test leads to postulate a specific mode of transient fuel melting during a rapid nuclear power excursion. When reaching the melt threshold, the bands which are characteristic for the solid state are broken statistically over a macroscopic region. The time of maintaining the fuel at the critical enthalpy level between solid and liquid is too short to lead to a phase separation. A significant life-time (approximately 1 second) of this intermediate ''unsolide'' state would have consequences on the variation of physical properties linked to the phase transition solid/liquid: viscosity, specific volume and (for the irradiated fuel) fission gas release [fr

  17. The Automation Control System Design of Walking Beam Heating Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Hong-Yu LIU; Jun-Qing LIU; Jun-Jie XI

    2014-01-01

    Combining the transformation project of certain strip steel rolling production line, the techniques process of walking beam heating furnace was elaborated in this paper. The practical application of LOS-T18-2ZC1 laser detector was elaborated. The network communication model of walking beam heating furnace control system was designed. The realization method of production process automation control was elaborated. The entire automation control system allocation picture and PLC power distributio...

  18. Atomization mechanisms for barium in furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Styris, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Atomic absorption spectrometry and mass spectrometry are used simultaneously in order to elucidate atomization mechanisms of barium dichloride in pyrolytic graphite, vitreous carbon, and tantalum furnaces. Gas-phase barium dicarbide is observed to appear concurrently with the free barium. Barium oxide and barium dihydroxide precursors appear with the chlorides. Surface reactions involving species that are absorbed on the various furnaces are postulated to explain the appearances of the species that are observed in the gas phase. 49 references, 4 figures, 1 table

  19. Transient induced tungsten melting at the Joint European Torus (JET).

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Coenen, J.W.; Matthews, G.F.; Krieger, K.; Iglesias, D.; Bunting, P.; Corre, Y.; Silburn, S.; Balboa, I.; Bazylev, B.; Conway, N.; Coffey, I.; Dejarnac, Renaud; Gauthier, E.; Gaspar, J.; Jachmich, S.; Jepu, I.; Makepeace, C.; Scannell, R.; Stamp, M.; Petersson, P.; Pitts, R.A.; Wiesen, S.; Widdowson, A.; Heinola, K.; Baron-Wiechec, A.

    T170, December (2017), č. článku 014013. ISSN 0031-8949. [PFMC 2017: 16th International Conference on Plasma-Facing Materials and Components for Fusion Applications. Düsseldorf, 16.05.2017-19.05.2017] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 633053 - EUROfusion Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : fusion * melting * plasma wall interaction * tungsten * plasma facing components Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 1.3 Physical sciences Impact factor: 1.280, year: 2016 http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1402-4896/aa8789/meta

  20. Similarity of Ferrosilicon Submerged Arc Furnaces With Different Geometrical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machulec B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine reasons of unsatisfactory production output regarding one of the 12 MVA furnaces, a comparative analysis with a furnace of higher power that showed a markedly better production output was performed. For comparison of ferrosilicon furnaces with different geometrical parameters and transformer powers, the theory of physical similarity was applied. Geometrical, electrical and thermal parameters of the reaction zones are included in the comparative analysis. For furnaces with different geometrical parameters, it is important to ensure the same temperature conditions of the reaction zones. Due to diverse mechanisms of heat generation, different criteria for determination of thermal and electrical similarity for the upper and lower reaction zones were assumed contrary to other publications. The parameter c3 (Westly was assumed the similarity criterion for the upper furnace zones where heat is generated as a result of resistive heating while the parameter J1 (Jaccard was assumed the similarity criterion for the lower furnace zones where heat is generated due to arc radiation.

  1. Holographic picture of heavy vector meson melting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Nelson R.F.; Diles, Saulo [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Fisica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Martin Contreras, Miguel Angel [Universidad de los Andes, High Energy Group, Department of Physics, Bogota (Colombia)

    2016-11-15

    The fraction of heavy vector mesons produced in a heavy ion collision, as compared to a proton-proton collision, serves as an important indication of the formation of a thermal medium, the quark-gluon plasma. This sort of analysis strongly depends on understanding the thermal effects of a medium like the plasma on the states of heavy mesons. In particular, it is crucial to know the temperature ranges where they undergo a thermal dissociation, or melting. AdS/QCD models are know to provide an important tool for the calculation of hadronic masses, but in general are not consistent with the observation that decay constants of heavy vector mesons decrease with excitation level. It has recently been shown that this problem can be overcome using a soft wall background and introducing an extra energy parameter, through the calculation of correlation functions at a finite position of anti-de Sitter space. This approach leads to the evaluation of masses and decay constants of S wave quarkonium states with just one flavor dependent and one flavor independent parameter. Here we extend this more realistic model to finite temperatures and analyze the thermal behavior of the states 1S, 2S and 3S of bottomonium and charmonium. The corresponding spectral function exhibits a consistent picture for the melting of the states where, for each flavor, the higher excitations melt at lower temperatures. We estimate for these six states the energy ranges in which the heavy vector mesons undergo a transition from a well-defined peak in the spectral function to complete melting in the thermal medium. A very clear distinction between the heavy flavors emerges, with the bottomonium state Υ(1S) surviving a deconfinement transition at temperatures much larger than the critical deconfinement temperature of the medium. (orig.)

  2. Assessing energy efficiency of electric car bottom furnaces intended for thermal energization of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodov, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with a new concept of electric furnaces for roasting and thermal energization of vermiculite and other minerals with vibrational transportation of a single-layer mass under constant thermal field. The paper presents performance calculation and comparative assessment of energy data for furnaces of different modifications: flame and electric furnaces with three units, furnaces with six units and ones with series-parallel connection of units, and furnaces of new concept.

  3. Pulverized coal burnout in blast furnace simulated by a drop tube furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Shan-Wen [Steel and Aluminum Research and Development Department, China Steel Corporation, Kaohsiung 812 (China); Chen, Wei-Hsin [Department of Greenergy, National University of Tainan, Tainan 700 (China); Lucas, John A. [School of Engineering of the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2010-02-15

    Reactions of pulverized coal injection (PCI) in a blast furnace were simulated using a drop tube furnace (DTF) to investigate the burnout behavior of a number of coals and coal blends. For the coals with the fuel ratio ranging from 1.36 to 6.22, the experimental results indicated that the burnout increased with decreasing the fuel ratio, except for certain coals departing from the general trend. One of the coals with the fuel ratio of 6.22 has shown its merit in combustion, implying that the blending ratio of the coal in PCI operation can be raised for a higher coke replacement ratio. The experiments also suggested that increasing blast temperature was an efficient countermeasure for promoting the combustibility of the injected coals. Higher fuel burnout could be achieved when the particle size of coal was reduced from 60-100 to 100-200 mesh. However, once the size of the tested coals was in the range of 200 and 325 mesh, the burnout could not be improved further, resulting from the agglomeration of fine particles. Considering coal blend reactions, the blending ratio of coals in PCI may be adjusted by the individual coal burnout rather than by the fuel ratio. (author)

  4. Transient induced tungsten melting at the Joint European Torus (JET)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, J. W.; Matthews, G. F.; Krieger, K.; Iglesias, D.; Bunting, P.; Corre, Y.; Silburn, S.; Balboa, I.; Bazylev, B.; Conway, N.; Coffey, I.; Dejarnac, R.; Gauthier, E.; Gaspar, J.; Jachmich, S.; Jepu, I.; Makepeace, C.; Scannell, R.; Stamp, M.; Petersson, P.; Pitts, R. A.; Wiesen, S.; Widdowson, A.; Heinola, K.; Baron-Wiechec, A.; Contributors, JET

    2017-12-01

    Melting is one of the major risks associated with tungsten (W) plasma-facing components (PFCs) in tokamaks like JET or ITER. These components are designed such that leading edges and hence excessive plasma heat loads deposited at near normal incidence are avoided. Due to the high stored energies in ITER discharges, shallow surface melting can occur under insufficiently mitigated plasma disruption and so-called edge localised modes—power load transients. A dedicated program was carried out at the JET to study the physics and consequences of W transient melting. Following initial exposures in 2013 (ILW-1) of a W-lamella with leading edge, new experiments have been performed on a sloped surface (15{}\\circ slope) during the 2015/2016 (ILW-3) campaign. This new experiment allows significantly improved infrared thermography measurements and thus resolved important issue of power loading in the context of the previous leading edge exposures. The new lamella was monitored by local diagnostics: spectroscopy, thermography and high-resolution photography in between discharges. No impact on the main plasma was observed despite a strong increase of the local W source consistent with evaporation. In contrast to the earlier exposure, no droplet emission was observed from the sloped surface. Topological modifications resulting from the melting are clearly visible between discharges on the photographic images. Melt damage can be clearly linked to the infrared measurements: the emissivity drops in zones where melting occurs. In comparison with the previous leading edge experiment, no runaway melt motion is observed, consistent with the hypothesis that the escape of thermionic electrons emitted from the melt zone is largely suppressed in this geometry, where the magnetic field intersects the surface at lower angles than in the case of perpendicular impact on a leading edge. Utilising both exposures allows us to further test the model of the forces driving melt motion that

  5. Emerging melt quality control solution technologies for aluminium melt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arturo Pascual, Jr

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The newly developed “MTS 1500” Melt Treatment System is performing the specifi cally required melt treatment operations like degassing, cleaning, modification and/or grain refinement by an automated process in one step and at the same location. This linked process is saving time, energy and metal losses allowing - by automated dosage of the melt treatment agents - the production of a consistent melt quality batch after batch. By linking the MTS Metal Treatment System with sensors operating on-line in the melt, i.e., with a hydrogen sensor “Alspek H”, a fully automated control of parts of the process chain like degassing is possible. This technology does guarantee a pre-specifi ed and documented melt quality in each melt treatment batch. Furthermore, to ensure that castings are consistent and predictable there is a growing realization that critical parameters such as metal cleanliness must be measured prior to casting. There exists accepted methods for measuring the cleanliness of an aluminum melt but these can be both slow and costly. A simple, rapid and meaningful method of measuring and bench marking the cleanliness of an aluminum melt has been developed to offer the foundry a practical method of measuring melt cleanliness. This paper shows the structure and performance of the integrated MTS melt treatment process and documents achieved melt quality standards after degassing, cleaning, modifi cation and grain refi nement operations under real foundry conditions. It also provides an insight on a melt cleanliness measuring device “Alspek MQ” to provide foundry men better tools in meeting the increasing quality and tighter specifi cation demand from the industry.

  6. Crystallization characteristics of iron-rich glass ceramics prepared from nickel slag and blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhong-Jie; Ni, Wen; Li, Ke-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Zhu, Li-Ping

    2011-08-01

    The crystallization process of iron-rich glass-ceramics prepared from the mixture of nickel slag (NS) and blast furnace slag (BFS) with a small amount of quartz sand was investigated. A modified melting method which was more energy-saving than the traditional methods was used to control the crystallization process. The results show that the iron-rich system has much lower melting temperature, glass transition temperature ( T g), and glass crystallization temperature ( T c), which can result in a further energy-saving process. The results also show that the system has a quick but controllable crystallization process with its peak crystallization temperature at 918°C. The crystallization of augite crystals begins from the edge of the sample and invades into the whole sample. The crystallization process can be completed in a few minutes. A distinct boundary between the crystallized part and the non-crystallized part exists during the process. In the non-crystallized part showing a black colour, some sphere-shaped augite crystals already exist in the glass matrix before samples are heated to T c. In the crystallized part showing a khaki colour, a compact structure is formed by augite crystals.

  7. Oxidation of Inconel 625 superalloy upon treatment with oxygen or hydrogen plasma at high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vesel, Alenka; Drenik, Aleksander; Elersic, Kristina; Mozetic, Miran; Kovac, Janez [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Gyergyek, Tomaz [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Stockel, Jan; Varju, Jozef; Panek, Radomir [Institute of Plasma Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Ze Slovankou 3, Praha 8 (Czech Republic); Balat-Pichelin, Marianne, E-mail: marianne.balat@promes.cnrs.fr [PROMES-CNRS Laboratory, 7 rue du four solaire, 66120 Font Romeu Odeillo (France)

    2014-06-01

    Initial stages of Inconel 625 superalloy (Ni{sub 60}Cr{sub 30}Mo{sub 10}Ni{sub 4}Nb{sub 1}) oxidation upon short treatment with gaseous plasma at different temperatures up to about 1600 K were studied. Samples were treated for different periods up to a minute by oxygen or hydrogen plasma created with a microwave discharge in the standing-wave mode at a pressure of 40 Pa and a power 500 W. Simultaneous heating of the samples was realized by focusing concentrated solar radiation from a 5 kW solar furnace directly onto the samples. The morphological changes upon treatment were monitored using scanning electron microscopy, compositional depth profiling was performed using Auger electron spectroscopy, while structural changes were determined by X-ray diffraction. The treatment in oxygen plasma caused formation of metal oxide clusters of three dimensional crystallites initially rich in nickel oxide with the increasing chromium oxide content as the temperature was increasing. At about 1100 K iron and niobium oxides prevailed on the surface causing a drop of the material emissivity at 5 μm. Simultaneously the NiCr{sub 2}O{sub 4} compound started growing at the interface between the oxide film and bulk alloy and the compound persisted up to temperatures close to the Inconel melting point. Intensive migration of minority alloying elements such as Fe and Ti was observed at 1600 K forming mixed surface oxides of sub-micrometer dimensions. The treatment in hydrogen plasma with small admixture of water vapor did not cause much modification unless the temperature was close to the melting point. At such conditions aluminum segregated on the surface and formed well-defined Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} crystals.

  8. Oxidation of Inconel 625 superalloy upon treatment with oxygen or hydrogen plasma at high temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesel, Alenka; Drenik, Aleksander; Elersic, Kristina; Mozetic, Miran; Kovac, Janez; Gyergyek, Tomaz; Stockel, Jan; Varju, Jozef; Panek, Radomir; Balat-Pichelin, Marianne

    2014-06-01

    Initial stages of Inconel 625 superalloy (Ni60Cr30Mo10Ni4Nb1) oxidation upon short treatment with gaseous plasma at different temperatures up to about 1600 K were studied. Samples were treated for different periods up to a minute by oxygen or hydrogen plasma created with a microwave discharge in the standing-wave mode at a pressure of 40 Pa and a power 500 W. Simultaneous heating of the samples was realized by focusing concentrated solar radiation from a 5 kW solar furnace directly onto the samples. The morphological changes upon treatment were monitored using scanning electron microscopy, compositional depth profiling was performed using Auger electron spectroscopy, while structural changes were determined by X-ray diffraction. The treatment in oxygen plasma caused formation of metal oxide clusters of three dimensional crystallites initially rich in nickel oxide with the increasing chromium oxide content as the temperature was increasing. At about 1100 K iron and niobium oxides prevailed on the surface causing a drop of the material emissivity at 5 μm. Simultaneously the NiCr2O4 compound started growing at the interface between the oxide film and bulk alloy and the compound persisted up to temperatures close to the Inconel melting point. Intensive migration of minority alloying elements such as Fe and Ti was observed at 1600 K forming mixed surface oxides of sub-micrometer dimensions. The treatment in hydrogen plasma with small admixture of water vapor did not cause much modification unless the temperature was close to the melting point. At such conditions aluminum segregated on the surface and formed well-defined Al2O3 crystals.

  9. Effect of glass-batch makeup on the melting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrma, Pavel R.; Schweiger, Michael J.; Humrickhouse, Carissa J.; Moody, J. Adam; Tate, Rachel M.; Rainsdon, Timothy T.; Tegrotenhuis, Nathan E.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.; Marcial, Jose; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Tincher, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5 (micro)m in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures 800 C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160 C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B 2 O 3 , CaO, Li 2 O, MgO, and Na 2 O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  10. Effect Of Glass-Batch Makeup On The Melting Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruger, A.A.; Hrma, P.

    2010-01-01

    The response of a glass batch to heating is determined by the batch makeup and in turn determines the rate of melting. Batches formulated for a high-alumina nuclear waste to be vitrified in an all-electric melter were heated at a constant temperature-increase rate to determine changes in melting behavior in response to the selection of batch chemicals and silica grain-size as well as the addition of heat-generating reactants. The type of batch materials and the size of silica grains determine how much, if any, primary foam occurs during melting. Small quartz grains, 5 (micro)m in size, caused extensive foaming because their major portion dissolved at temperatures 800 C when batch gases no longer evolved. The exothermal reaction of nitrates with sucrose was ignited at a temperature as low as 160 C and caused a temporary jump in temperature of several hundred degrees. Secondary foam, the source of which is oxygen from redox reactions, occurred in all batches of a limited composition variation involving five oxides, B 2 O 3 , CaO, Li 2 O, MgO, and Na 2 O. The foam volume at the maximum volume-increase rate was a weak function of temperature and melt basicity. Neither the batch makeup nor the change in glass composition had a significant impact on the dissolution of silica grains. The impacts of primary foam generation on glass homogeneity and the rate of melting in large-scale continuous furnaces have yet to be established via mathematical modeling and melter experiments.

  11. The recycling through melting machining chips: preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luiz A.T.; Rossi, Jesualdo L., E-mail: luiz.atp@uol.com.br, E-mail: jelrossi@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Ciência e Tecnologia de Materiais

    2017-07-01

    PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) reactors employ as nuclear fuel UO{sub 2} pellets packed in zirconium alloy tubes, called cladding. In the manufacture of the tubes, machining chips are generated which cannot be discarded, since the recycling of this material is strategic in terms of nuclear technology, legislation, economics and the environment. These nuclear alloys are very expensive and are not produced in Brazil and are imported for the manufacture of nuclear fuel. In this work, it will examined methods not yet studied to recycle Zircaloy chips using electron beam furnace in order to obtain ingots. In addition, it is intended to carry out the melting of new Zircaloy alloys, from the melting of zirconium sponge obtained in IPEN and imported and Zircaloy bars. The mechanical properties and the present phases of the material should be determined, as well as, the characterization of the microstructures by optical microscopy. This work, therefore, aims at the creation of a new line of research where methods will be approached to recycle the Zircaloy chips and to reduce in 30 times the volume by means of melting the enormous amount of material stored in the form of machining chips, being able to do others components for nuclear or chemical industry use, as well as conducting basic development research. (author)

  12. Combined electron beam and vacuum ARC melting for barrier tube shell material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worcester, S.A.; Woods, C.R.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a process of the type wherein zirconium tetrachloride is reduced to produce a metallic zirconium sponge. The sponge is distilled to generally remove residual magnesium and magnesium chloride, and the distilled sponge is melted to produce an ingot, the improvement for making a non-crystal bar material for use in lining the interior of zirconium alloy fuel element cladding which comprises: a. forming the distilled sponge into a consumable electrode; b. melting the consumable electrode in a multiple swept beam electron furnace with a feed rate between 1 and 20 inches per hour to form an intermediate ingot; and c. vacuum arc melting the intermediate ingot to produce a homogeneous final ingot, having 50-500 ppm iron

  13. A contribution to the study of arc melting in inert gas atmospheres of zirconium sponge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julio Junior, O.

    1990-01-01

    Mettalic zirconium is a material of great interest in the nuclear industry due to its low thermal neutron cross section, high strength and corrosion resistance. The latter permits its use in the chemical industry. In this study, a critical bibliographic revision of the industrial processes used for the melting and consolidation of zirconium sponge has been carried out. A procedure for the melting of zirconium on a laboratory scale, has been established. An nonconsumable-electrode arc furnace have been used. The effect of process variables like atmosphere, melting current and getter, have been showed. The influence of sponge characteristics on the qualities of cast zirconium buttons have been studied. The present study is a contribution towards future investigations to obtain high purity cast zirconium and its alloys commercially known as zircaloy. (author)

  14. Plasma technology for waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohn, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    Improved environmental cleanup technology is needed to meet demanding goals for remediation and treatment of future waste streams. Plasma technology has unique features which could provide advantages of reduced secondary waste, lower cost, and onsite treatment for a wide variety of applications. Plasma technology can provide highly controllable processing without the need for combustion heating. It can be used to provide high temperature processing (∼10,000 degrees C). Plasma technology can also be employed for low temperature processing (down to room temperature range) through selective plasma chemistry. A graphite electrode arc plasma furnace at MIT has been used to investigate high temperature processing of simulated solid waste for Department of Energy environmental cleanup applications. Stable, non-leachable glass has been produced. To ensure reliable operation and to meet environmental objectives, new process diagnostics have been developed to measure furnace temperature and to determine metals emissions in the gaseous effluent. Selective plasma destruction of dilute concentrations of hazardous compounds in gaseous waste streams has been investigated using electron beam generated plasmas. Selective destruction makes it possible to treat the gas steam at relatively low temperatures in the 30-300 degrees C range. On-line infrared measurements have been used in feedback operation to maximize efficiency and ensure desired performance. Plasma technology and associated process diagnostics will be used in future studies of a wide range of waste streams

  15. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stathopoulos, V.N., E-mail: vasta@teihal.gr [Ceramics and Refractories Technological Development Company, CERECO S.A., 72nd km Athens Lamia National Road, P.O. Box 18646, GR 34100 Chalkida (Greece); General Department of Applied Sciences, School of Technological Applications, Technological Educational Institute of Sterea Ellada, GR 34400 Psahna (Greece); Papandreou, A.; Kanellopoulou, D.; Stournaras, C.J. [Ceramics and Refractories Technological Development Company, CERECO S.A., 72nd km Athens Lamia National Road, P.O. Box 18646, GR 34100 Chalkida (Greece)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • Zn is stabilized due to formation of ZnAl{sub 2}O{sub 4} spinel and/or willemite type phases. • EAFD/clay fired mixtures exhibit improved mechanical properties. • Hollow bricks were successfully fabricated from the mixtures studied. • Laboratory articles and scaled up bricks found as environmentally inert materials. -- Abstract: In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in

  16. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathopoulos, V N; Papandreou, A; Kanellopoulou, D; Stournaras, C J

    2013-11-15

    In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an increase of mechanical strength. Moreover, leaching tests performed according to the Europeans standards on the EAFD-block samples showed that the quantities of heavy metals leached from crushed blocks were within the regulatory limits. Thus the EAFD-blocks can be regarded as material of no environmental concern. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B

  17. Structural ceramics containing electric arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stathopoulos, V.N.; Papandreou, A.; Kanellopoulou, D.; Stournaras, C.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Zn is stabilized due to formation of ZnAl 2 O 4 spinel and/or willemite type phases. • EAFD/clay fired mixtures exhibit improved mechanical properties. • Hollow bricks were successfully fabricated from the mixtures studied. • Laboratory articles and scaled up bricks found as environmentally inert materials. -- Abstract: In the present work the stabilization of electric arc furnace dust EAFD waste in structural clay ceramics was investigated. EAFD was collected over eleven production days. The collected waste was characterized for its chemical composition by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. By powder XRD the crystal structure was studied while the fineness of the material was determined by a laser particle size analyzer. The environmental characterization was carried out by testing the dust according to EN12457 standard. Zn, Pb and Cd were leaching from the sample in significant amounts. The objective of this study is to investigate the stabilization properties of EAFD/clay ceramic structures and the potential of EAFD utilization into structural ceramics production (blocks). Mixtures of clay with 2.5% and 5% EAFD content were studied by TG/DTA, XRD, SEM, EN12457 standard leaching and mechanical properties as a function of firing temperature at 850, 900 and 950 °C. All laboratory facilities maintained 20 ± 1 °C. Consequently, a pilot-scale experiment was conducted with an addition of 2.5% and 5% EAFD to the extrusion mixture for the production of blocks. During blocks manufacturing, the firing step reached 950 °C in a tunnel kiln. Laboratory heating/cooling gradients were similar to pilot scale production firing. The as produced blocks were then subjected to quality control tests, i.e. dimensions according to EN772-17, water absorbance according to EN772-6, and compressive strength according to EN772-1 standard, in laboratory facilities certified under EN17025. The data obtained showed that the incorporation of EAFD resulted in an

  18. A new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraka, K.; Oikawa, H.; Shimizu, T.; Kadoya, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J.

    2013-01-01

    More and more NMIs are realizing their primary scale themselves with fixed-point blackbodies as their reference standard. However, commercially available fixed-point blackbody furnaces of sufficient quality are not always easy to obtain. CHINO Corp. and NMIJ, AIST jointly developed a new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace. The new furnace has such features as 1) improved temperature uniformity when compared to previous products, enabling better plateau quality, 2) adoption of the hybrid fixed-point cell structure with internal insulation to improve robustness and thereby to extend lifetime, 3) easily ejectable and replaceable heater unit and fixed-point cell design, leading to reduced maintenance cost, 4) interchangeability among multiple fixed points from In to Cu points. The replaceable cell feature facilitates long term maintenance of the scale through management of a group of fixed-point cells of the same type. The compact furnace is easily transportable and therefore can also function as a traveling standard for disseminating the radiation temperature scale, and for maintaining the scale at the secondary level and industrial calibration laboratories. It is expected that the furnace will play a key role of the traveling standard in the anticipated APMP supplementary comparison of the radiation thermometry scale

  19. Petrological Geodynamics of Mantle Melting II. AlphaMELTS + Multiphase Flow: Dynamic Fractional Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirone, Massimiliano

    2018-03-01

    In this second installment of a series that aims to investigate the dynamic interaction between the composition and abundance of the solid mantle and its melt products, the classic interpretation of fractional melting is extended to account for the dynamic nature of the process. A multiphase numerical flow model is coupled with the program AlphaMELTS, which provides at the moment possibly the most accurate petrological description of melting based on thermodynamic principles. The conceptual idea of this study is based on a description of the melting process taking place along a 1-D vertical ideal column where chemical equilibrium is assumed to apply in two local sub-systems separately on some spatial and temporal scale. The solid mantle belongs to a local sub-system (ss1) that does not interact chemically with the melt reservoir which forms a second sub-system (ss2). The local melt products are transferred in the melt sub-system ss2 where the melt phase eventually can also crystallize into a different solid assemblage and will evolve dynamically. The main difference with the usual interpretation of fractional melting is that melt is not arbitrarily and instantaneously extracted from the mantle, but instead remains a dynamic component of the model, hence the process is named dynamic fractional melting (DFM). Some of the conditions that may affect the DFM model are investigated in this study, in particular the effect of temperature, mantle velocity at the boundary of the mantle column. A comparison is made with the dynamic equilibrium melting (DEM) model discussed in the first installment. The implications of assuming passive flow or active flow are also considered to some extent. Complete data files of most of the DFM simulations, four animations and two new DEM simulations (passive/active flow) are available following the instructions in the supplementary material.

  20. Logistics Reduction: Heat Melt Compactor

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction (LR) project Heat Melt Compactor (HMC) technology is a waste management technology. Currently, there are...

  1. Melting in trivalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saboungi, M.L.; Price, D.L.; Scamehorn, C.; Tosi, M.P.

    1990-11-01

    We report a neutron diffraction study of the liquid structure of YCl 3 and combine the structural data with macroscopic melting and transport data to contrast the behaviour of this molten salt with those of SrCl 2 , ZnCl 2 and AlCl 3 as prototypes of different melting mechanisms for ionic materials. A novel melting mechanism for trivalent metal chlorides, leading to a loose disordered network of edge-sharing octahedral units in the liquid phase, is thereby established. The various melting behaviours are related to bonding character with the help of Pettifor's phenomenological chemical scale. (author). 25 refs, 4 figs, 3 tabs

  2. Interface Shape and Convection During Solidification and Melting of Succinonitrile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degroh, Henry C., III; Lindstrom, Tiffany

    1994-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted of the crystal growth of succinonitrile during solidification, melting, and no-growth conditions using a horizontal Bridgman furnace and square glass ampoule. For use as input boundary conditions to numerical codes, thermal profiles on the outside of the ampoule at five locations around its periphery were measured along the ampoule's length. Temperatures inside the ampoule were also measured. The shapes of the s/l interface in various two dimensional planes were quantitatively determined. Though interfaces were nondendritic and noncellular, they were not flat, but were highly curved and symmetric in only one unique longitudinal y-z plane (at x=O). The shapes of the interface were dominated by the primary longitudinal flow cell characteristic of shallow cavity flow in horizontal Bridgman; this flow cell was driven by the imposed furnace temperature gradient and caused a 'radical' thermal gradient such that the upper half of the ampoule was hotter than the bottom half. We believe that due to the strong convection, the release of latent heat does not significantly influence the thermal conditions near the interface. We hope that the interface shape and thermal data presented in this paper can be used to optimize crystal growth processes and validate numerical models.

  3. Modeling and simulation of Si crystal growth from melt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lijun; Liu, Xin; Li, Zaoyang [National Engineering Research Center for Fluid Machinery and Compressors, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Miyazawa, Hiroaki; Nakano, Satoshi; Kakimoto, Koichi [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    A numerical simulator was developed with a global model of heat transfer for any crystal growth taking place at high temperature. Convective, conductive and radiative heat transfers in the furnace are solved together in a conjugated way by a finite volume method. A three-dimensional (3D) global model was especially developed for simulation of heat transfer in any crystal growth with 3D features. The model enables 3D global simulation be conducted with moderate requirement of computer resources. The application of this numerical simulator to a CZ growth and a directional solidification process for Si crystals, the two major production methods for crystalline Si for solar cells, was introduced. Some typical results were presented, showing the importance and effectiveness of numerical simulation in analyzing and improving these kinds of Si crystal growth processes from melt. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. Experience with melting beta and gamma contaminated metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feaugas, J.; Laplante, D.; Puechlong, Y.; Barbusse, R.

    1994-01-01

    Following a description of the melting facility operated for purposes of decommissioning the G2 and G3 gas-cooled reactors at Marcoule, the physical and radiological characteristics of 4070 tonnes of metal processed to date in the furnace are discussed. Considerable data have been recorded regarding operating and measurement procedures; the results show that secondary wastes account for less than 5 wt% of the processed scrap metal, and that all the 137 Cs is transferred to the dust and slag. During the last two months of 1993, the ingot mold line was replaced by rails on which dollies carrying integral work-form molds can be moved into position beneath the casting ladle. (authors). 21 figs

  5. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  6. Radiometric report for a blast furnace tracing with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, G.; Tanase, M.

    1995-01-01

    One of the methods to monitor refractory wall of blast furnace is its tracing with radioactive isotopes. The tracer isotope can be detected by two ways: the external dosimetric measurement at the armour of the blast furnace and/or the radiometric measurement of the iron sample charge by charge. Any change in radiometric situation of tracer radioisotope is recorded in a radiometric report. This paper presents an original concept of radiometric report based upon PARADOX and CORELDRAW soft kits. Their advantage are: quick and easy changes, easy recording of current radioactivity of tracer isotope, short history of changes, visual mapping of the tracer isotope and others. In this way we monitored 6 blast furnaces and more than 180 radioactive sources

  7. Production of blast furnace coke from soft brown coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, G.; Wundes, H.; Schkommodau, F.; Zinke, H.-G. (VEB Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe (German Democratic Republic))

    1988-01-01

    Reviews experimental production and utilization of high quality brown coal coke in the GDR during 1985 and 1986. The technology of briquetting and coking brown coal dust is described; the superior parameters of produced coke quality are listed in comparison to those of regular industrial coke made from brown and black coal. Dust emission from high quality brown coal coke was suppressed by coke surface treatment with dispersion foam. About 4,200 t of this coke were employed in black coal coke substitution tests in a blast furnace. Substitution rate was 11%, blast furnace operation was positive, a substitution factor of 0.7 t black coal coke per 1 t of brown coal coke was calculated. Technology development of high quality brown coal coke production is regarded as complete; blast furnace coke utilization, however, requires further study. 8 refs.

  8. Unique furnace system for high-energy-neutron experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panayotou, N.F.; Green, D.R.; Price, L.S.

    1982-03-01

    The low flux of high energy neutron sources requires optimum utilization of the available neutron field. A furnace system has been developed in support of the US DOE fusion materials program which meets this challenge. Specimens positioned in two temperature zones just 1 mm away from the outside surface of a neutron window in the furnace enclosure can be irradiated simultaneously at two independent, isothermal (+- 1 0 C) temperatures. The temperature difference between these closely spaced isothermal zones is controllable from 0 to 320 0 C and the maximum temperature is 400 0 C. The design of the system also provides a controlled specimen environment, rapid heating and cooling and easy access to heaters and thermocouples. This furnace system is in use at the Rotating Target Neutron Source-II of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

  9. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with diff erent addition of water glass, bentonite and cement. Quality of briquettes was tested by compression – strength test and by break down test in green state, after drying and afterstoring (1 month.

  10. High-gravity combustion synthesis and in situ melt infiltration: A new method for preparing cemented carbides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Guanghua; Li, Jiangtao; Yang, Zengchao; Guo, Shibin; Chen, Yixiang

    2013-01-01

    A new method of high-gravity combustion synthesis and in situ melt infiltration is reported for preparing cemented carbides, where hot nickel melt is in situ synthesized from a highly exothermic combustion reaction and then infiltrated into tungsten carbide powder compacts. The as-prepared sample showed a homogeneous microstructure, and its relative density, hardness and flexural strength were 94.4%, 84 HRA and 1.49 GPa, respectively. Compared with conventional powder metallurgy approaches, high-gravity combustion synthesis offers a fast and furnace-free way to produce cemented carbides

  11. Effect of vacuum arc melting/casting parameters on shrinkage cavity/piping of austenitic stainless steel ingot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamran, J.; Feroz, M.; Sarwar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Shrinkage cavity/piping at the end of the solidified ingot of steels is one of the most common casting problem in 316L austenitic stainless steel ingot, when consumable electrode is melted and cast in a water-cooled copper mould by vacuum arc re-melting furnace. In present study an effort has been made to reduce the size of shrinkage cavity/ piping by establishing the optimum value of hot topping process parameters at the end of the melting process. It is concluded that the shrinkage cavity/piping at the top of the solidified ingot can be reduced to minimum by adjusting the process parameters particularly the melting current density. (author)

  12. Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSTON, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed Loss on Ignition (LOI) equipment, including a model 1608FL CMTM Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform LOI testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an expected airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet G1 filter will be flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A

  13. Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, D.C.

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed LOI equipment, including a model 1608FL CM{trademark} Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform Loss on Ignition (LOI) testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet Glfilter will he flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A.

  14. The injection of ultrahigh rates of reducing gas into a modern blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buergler, T.; Skoeld, B.E. [Voestalpine, Linz (Austria)

    2007-07-01

    The pilot plant for gas injection consists of a screw compressor unit to supply two blast furnaces with reduction gas. Almost all of the reducing gas will react in the raceway; only a small part will combust inside the tuyere. Comparing different injection systems in the case with two lances, the gas will react faster than for the one lance system where the gas is more trapped inside a beam. During the project the melting rate of the furnace was increased by more than 30 %. Injecting reducing gas compensates increased raceway adiabatic flame temperature, RAFT by higher oxygen enrichment rates. The operation results showed that a lower RAFT and low-quality raw material result in increased consumption of reducing agents. 1 kg coke oven gas, COG substitutes 0.81 kg oil and 1.03 kg coke. Sulfur input was reduced by 40 % in comparison with heavy fuel oil operation. The top-gas calorific value is increased up to 30 %. This reduces the consumption of natural gas used to control a constant calorific value in the gas network. A high hydrogen content up to 12 % is no problem for the gas consumers. Tests with simultaneous COG/BOF gas injection have shown that a decrease in the oil rate can be compensated. The replacement of a carbon-rich resultant such as coke and oil in the BF process with a carbon-lean resultant such as COG leads to an absolute reduction in the CO{sub 2} emissions of the BF process and the power plant of approximately 184.000 t/a for both BFs or 102 kg/tHM. 3 refs., 98 figs., 16 tabs., 1 annex.

  15. Model technique for aerodynamic study of boiler furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-02-01

    The help of the Division was recently sought to improve the heat transfer and reduce the exit gas temperature in a pulverized-fuel-fired boiler at an Australian power station. One approach adopted was to construct from Perspex a 1:20 scale cold-air model of the boiler furnace and to use a flow-visualization technique to study the aerodynamic patterns established when air was introduced through the p.f. burners of the model. The work established good correlations between the behaviour of the model and of the boiler furnace.

  16. Modelling and control of a diffusion/LPCVD furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaard, H.; Dekoning, W. L.

    1988-12-01

    Heat transfer inside a cylindrical resistance diffusion/Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) furnace is studied with the aim of developing an improved temperature controller. A model of the thermal behavior is derived, which covers the important class of furnaces equipped with semitransparent quartz process tubes. The model takes into account the thermal behavior of the thermocouples. Currently used temperature controllers are shown to be highly inefficient for very large scale integration applications. Based on the model an alternative temperature controller of the LQG (linear quadratic Gaussian) type is proposed which features direct wafer temperature control. Some simulation results are given.

  17. Modernization of two gas-fired shaft annealing furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthof, G.; Porst, G.; Raczek, S.

    1986-04-01

    The objective was to modernize two existing shaft-type annealing furnaces used for the heat treatment of grey iron castings with the aim of reducing the consumption of gaseous fuel, minimize the formation of scale, decrease maintenance expense and apply more automatic control to the annealing process. This was to be achieved by an optimum combination of new types of construction materials and advanced firing and control equipment. The author describes the furnace in its condition prior to and after reconstruction. The operating results obtained after reconstruction were found to justify the costs incurred. The payback period is roughly one year.

  18. Video monitoring system for enriched uranium casting furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, P.C.

    1978-03-01

    A closed-circuit television (CCTV) system was developed to upgrade the remote-viewing capability on two oralloy (highly enriched uranium) casting furnaces in the Y-12 Plant. A silicon vidicon CCTV camera with a remotely controlled lens and infrared filtering was provided to yield a good-quality video presentation of the furnace crucible as the oralloy material is heated from 25 to 1300 0 C. Existing tube-type CCTV monochrome monitors were replaced with solid-state monitors to increase the system reliability

  19. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verdeja, L. F.; Gonzalez, R.; Alfonso, A.; Barbes, M. F.

    2003-01-01

    Criteria developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM) were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node) of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid. (Author) 31 refs

  20. Computer simulation of processes in the dead–end furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zavorin, A S; Khaustov, S A; Zaharushkin, Russia N A

    2014-01-01

    We study turbulent combustion of natural gas in the reverse flame of fire–tube boiler simulated with the ANSYS Fluent 12.1.4 engineering simulation software. Aerodynamic structure and volumetric pressure fields of the flame were calculated. The results are presented in graphical form. The effect of the twist parameter for a drag coefficient of dead–end furnace was estimated. Finite element method was used for simulating the following processes: the combustion of methane in air oxygen, radiant and convective heat transfer, turbulence. Complete geometric model of the dead–end furnace based on boiler drawings was considered

  1. Use of coal-water mixtures in blast furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malgarini, G; Giuli, M; Davide, A; Carlesi, C [Centro Sviluppo Materiali, Rome (Italy); Italsider, Genoa [Italy; Deltasider, Piombino [Italy

    1989-03-01

    At the present time, an ironworks blast furnace employing a pulverized coal injection (PCI) system is in operation at the Piombino Works (Italy). A wide development, within this industry, of PCI techniques is expected in the near future to limit, as much as possible, the rebuilding of coke ovens. Research activities and industrial trials aimed at maximizing the use of coal injection into blast furnaces are in course of development. This paper uses flowsheets to illustrate such a system and provides graphs to indicate the economic convenience of PCI systems as compared with systems using naphtha as an injected fuel.

  2. Glass Melting under microgravity. ; Space experiment by Mori astronaut. Mujuryokuka deno glass yoyu. ; Morisan no uchu jikken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makihara, M. (Osaka National Research Institute, Osaka (Japan))

    1993-03-01

    A space experiment on glass melting under microgravity was performed in a space shuttle in September 1992. The experiment has been intended to make glass from glass material floating in air by heating and melting it with light and an acoustic levitation furnace. The acoustic levitation furnace used in the experiment has been arranged so that a sound wave from a speaker makes a steady wave in a cylindrical quartz glass core tube with a length of 16 cm and a diameter of 4 cm, and a test sample can be retained floating in a valley of central wave pressures. The test sample retained floating has been collected and heated by light from a 500-W halogen lamp. Behavior of molten glass liquid under microgravity has been investigated. The glass material powder spheres have been melted completely and made into glass without crystallization. With regard to flows generated in the test sample placed in the acoustic levitation furnace, a glass spot containing cobalt oxide has been attached onto part of the test sample surface for observation. As a result, the spot has been incorporated in the glass without developing diffusion. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Feed Preparation for Source of Alkali Melt Rate Tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, M. E.; Lambert, D. P.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the Source of Alkali testing was to prepare feed for melt rate testing in order to determine the maximum melt-rate for a series of batches where the alkali was increased from 0% Na 2 O in the frit (low washed sludge) to 16% Na 2 O in the frit (highly washed sludge). This document summarizes the feed preparation for the Source of Alkali melt rate testing. The Source of Alkali melt rate results will be issued in a separate report. Five batches of Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) product and four batches of Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) product were produced to support Source of Alkali (SOA) melt rate testing. Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) simulant and frit 418 were used as targets for the 8% Na 2 O baseline run. For the other four cases (0% Na 2 O, 4% Na 2 O, 12% Na 2 O, and 16% Na 2 O in frit), special sludge and frit preparations were necessary. The sludge preparations mimicked washing of the SB3 baseline composition, while frit adjustments consisted of increasing or decreasing Na and then re-normalizing the remaining frit components. For all batches, the target glass compositions were identical. The five SRAT products were prepared for testing in the dry fed melt-rate furnace and the four SME products were prepared for the Slurry-fed Melt-Rate Furnace (SMRF). At the same time, the impacts of washing on a baseline composition from a Chemical Process Cell (CPC) perspective could also be investigated. Five process simulations (0% Na 2 O in frit, 4% Na 2 O in frit, 8% Na 2 O in frit or baseline, 12% Na 2 O in frit, and 16% Na 2 O in frit) were completed in three identical 4-L apparatus to produce the five SRAT products. The SRAT products were later dried and combined with the complementary frits to produce identical glass compositions. All five batches were produced with identical processing steps, including off-gas measurement using online gas chromatographs. Two slurry-fed melter feed batches, a 4% Na 2 O in frit run (less washed sludge combined with

  4. Reduction of Oxidative Melt Loss of Aluminum and Its Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Subodh K. Das; Shridas Ningileri

    2006-03-17

    This project led to an improved understanding of the mechanisms of dross formation. The microstructural evolution in industrial dross samples was determined. Results suggested that dross that forms in layers with structure and composition determined by the local magnesium concentration alone. This finding is supported by fundamental studies of molten metal surfaces. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy data revealed that only magnesium segregates to the molten aluminum alloy surface and reacts to form a growing oxide layer. X-ray diffraction techniques that were using to investigate an oxidizing molten aluminum alloy surface confirmed for the first time that magnesium oxide is the initial crystalline phase that forms during metal oxidation. The analytical techniques developed in this project are now available to investigate other molten metal surfaces. Based on the improved understanding of dross initiation, formation and growth, technology was developed to minimize melt loss. The concept is based on covering the molten metal surface with a reusable physical barrier. Tests in a laboratory-scale reverberatory furnace confirmed the results of bench-scale tests. The main highlights of the work done include: A clear understanding of the kinetics of dross formation and the effect of different alloying elements on dross formation was obtained. It was determined that the dross evolves in similar ways regardless of the aluminum alloy being melted and the results showed that amorphous aluminum nitride forms first, followed by amorphous magnesium oxide and crystalline magnesium oxide in all alloys that contain magnesium. Evaluation of the molten aluminum alloy surface during melting and holding indicated that magnesium oxide is the first crystalline phase to form during oxidation of a clean aluminum alloy surface. Based on dross evaluation and melt tests it became clear that the major contributing factor to aluminum alloy dross was in the alloys with Mg content. Mg was

  5. Metallurgical plasma torches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapovalov, V.A.; Latash, Yu.V.

    2000-01-01

    The technological equipment for the plasma heating of metals, plasma melting and plasma treatment of the surface is usually developed on the basis of are plasma torches using direct or alternating current. The reasons which partly restrict the industrial application of the plasma torches are the relatively short service life of the electrode (cathode) on which the arc is supported, and the contamination of the treated metal with the products of failure of the electrode. The aim of this work was to determine the reasons for the occurrence of negative phenomena observed in the process of service of plasma torches, and propose suitable approaches to the design of metallurgical plasma torches characterised by a long service life

  6. Rhenium corrosion in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A.D.; Shkol'nikov, S.N.; Vetyukov, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The results investigating rhenium corrosion in chloride melts containing sodium, potassium and chromium ions by a gravimetry potentials in argon atmosphere in a sealing quarth cell are described. Rhenium corrosion is shown to be rather considerable in melts containing CrCl 2 . The value of corrosion rate depending on temperature is determined

  7. UNCONSTRAINED MELTING AND SOLIDIFICATION INSIDE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-09-01

    Sep 1, 2015 ... There is a large number of experimental and numerical works on melting and solidification of PCM[6-10], and also its usage as thermal management in building [11-14], electronic devices [15-16] and solar energy. [17-20].Most investigated geometries in melting and freezing process are sphere (spherical.

  8. In-can melting process and equipment development from 1974 to 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blair, H.T.

    1979-08-01

    Both the defense HLLW stores in tanks presently and the HLLW from proposed reprocessing of commercial LWR fuel can be vitrified as borosilicate glass in containers made of 300-series stainless steel by the ICM (in-can melting) process. Melting rates of 50 kg/h in 12-in.-dia cans and 117 kg/h in 28-in.-dia cans can be achieved in the ICM by using the rising-level charging method and internal heat-transfer plate assemblies in the cans. The ICM process can be monitored and remotely controlled without the aid of instrumentation attached to the waste can. The ICM process is compatible with both heated-wall spray calciners and fluidized-bed calciners. The ICM process causes residual tensile stresses as high as the yield strength in vitrified product containers made of 300-series stainless steel. Spall due to oxidation of the exterior of the can during an ICM process can be prevented by using an inert cover gas, by putting a protective coating on the can surface, or by using an oxidation-resistant alloy. Processing problems are minimized and product quality is improved when the complete can is located inside the furnace chamber by setting it on the hearth. A maximum of 24 kW and an average of 15 kW is required per 15-in.-high furnace zone to melt waste borosilicate glass at a rate of 117 kg/h in a 28-in.-dia ICM

  9. Plasma technology for powder particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kranz, E. (Technische Hochschule, Ilmenau (German Democratic Republic))

    1983-03-01

    A survey is given of principles and applications of plasma spraying and of powder transformation and generation in plasma considering spheroidization, grain size transformation, powder particle formation, powder reduction, and melting within the power range of 10/sup 3/ to 10/sup 7/ W. The products are applied in many industrial fields such as nuclear engineering, hard metal production, metallurgy, catalysis, and semiconductor techniques.

  10. Effect of Scale on Slab Heat Transfer in a Walking Beam Type Reheating Furnace

    OpenAIRE

    Man Young Kim

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the effects of scale on thermal behavior of the slab in a walking-beam type reheating furnace is studied by considering scale formation and growth in a furnace environment. Also, mathematical heat transfer model to predict the thermal radiation in a complex shaped reheating furnace with slab and skid buttons is developed with combined nongray WSGGM and blocked-off solution procedure. The model can attack the heat flux distribution within the furnace and the temperature distribut...

  11. Energy conservation in industrial furnaces with vertical radiation roofs of reinforced refractory concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grafe, E

    1981-01-01

    The paper discusses static systems for furnaces of reinforced refractory concrete, the temperature field over the finned-plate cross section, the calculation of the reinforced refractory concrete, experimental application in a flat open-hearth pusher furnace, a pack heating furnace, and a sinker furnace. There are cantilever beam plates, frames, and drop ceiling elements particularly suited for efficient use of high-performance burners.

  12. Tunable molten oxide pool assisted plasma-melter vitrification systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titus, Charles H.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides tunable waste conversion systems and apparatus which have the advantage of highly robust operation and which provide complete or substantially complete conversion of a wide range of waste streams into useful gas and a stable, nonleachable solid product at a single location with greatly reduced air pollution to meet air quality standards. The systems provide the capability for highly efficient conversion of waste into high quality combustible gas and for high efficiency conversion of the gas into electricity by utilizing a high efficiency gas turbine or an internal combustion engine. The solid product can be suitable for various commercial applications. Alternatively, the solid product stream, which is a safe, stable material, may be disposed of without special considerations as hazardous material. In the preferred embodiment, the arc plasma furnace and joule heated melter are formed as a fully integrated unit with a common melt pool having circuit arrangements for the simultaneous independently controllable operation of both the arc plasma and the joule heated portions of the unit without interference with one another. The preferred configuration of this embodiment of the invention utilizes two arc plasma electrodes with an elongated chamber for the molten pool such that the molten pool is capable of providing conducting paths between electrodes. The apparatus may additionally be employed with reduced use or without further use of the gases generated by the conversion process. The apparatus may be employed as a net energy or net electricity producing unit where use of an auxiliary fuel provides the required level of electricity production. Methods and apparatus for converting metals, non-glass forming waste streams and low-ash producing inorganics into a useful gas are also provided. The methods and apparatus for such conversion include the use of a molten oxide pool having predetermined electrical, thermal and physical

  13. DETERMINATION OF HLW GLASS MELT RATE USING X-RAY COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, A.; Miller, D.; Immel, D.

    2011-10-06

    The purpose of the high-level waste (HLW) glass melt rate study is two-fold: (1) to gain a better understanding of the impact of feed chemistry on melt rate through bench-scale testing, and (2) to develop a predictive tool for melt rate in support of the on-going frit development efforts for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). In particular, the focus is on predicting relative melt rates, not the absolute melt rates, of various HLW glass formulations solely based on feed chemistry, i.e., the chemistry of both waste and glass-forming frit for DWPF. Critical to the successful melt rate modeling is the accurate determination of the melting rates of various HLW glass formulations. The baseline procedure being used at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is to; (1) heat a 4 inch-diameter stainless steel beaker containing a mixture of dried sludge and frit in a furnace for a preset period of time, (2) section the cooled beaker along its diameter, and (3) measure the average glass height across the sectioned face using a ruler. As illustrated in Figure 1-1, the glass height is measured for each of the 16 horizontal segments up to the red lines where relatively large-sized bubbles begin to appear. The linear melt rate (LMR) is determined as the average of all 16 glass height readings divided by the time during which the sample was kept in the furnace. This 'visual' method has proved useful in identifying melting accelerants such as alkalis and sulfate and further ranking the relative melt rates of candidate frits for a given sludge batch. However, one of the inherent technical difficulties of this method is to determine the glass height in the presence of numerous gas bubbles of varying sizes, which is prevalent especially for the higher-waste-loading glasses. That is, how the red lines are drawn in Figure 1-1 can be subjective and, therefore, may influence the resulting melt rates significantly. For example, if the red lines are drawn too low

  14. The effect of percentage of nitrogen in plasma gas on nitrogen

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    1985-09-01

    Sep 1, 1985 ... an arc plasma into liquid iron has been investigated by melting iron in an atmosphere of nitrogen and argon using an arc plasma. Results show that both the rate of ..... "Solubility of Nitrogen in arc melted and Levitation-melted.

  15. Concrete with steel furnace slag and fractionated reclaimed asphalt pavement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Steel furnace slag (SFS) is an industrial by-product material that can contain free calcium oxide (CaO) and free magnesium oxide (MgO), both : of which can cause significant expansion when hydrated. SFS aggregates are therefore not commonly used in c...

  16. REFINERY STAGE OF OXIDES RESTORATION IN ROTATIONAL FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to research of process of the iron-containing waste recycling in rotary tilting furnaces, in particular, to the phenomenon of formation of ball iron at transition from hard-phase to liquid-phase stage of iron restoration from scale.

  17. Analysis of a furnace for heat generation using polydisperse biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Edney Alves; Silva, Juarez de Sousa e; Silva, Jadir Nogueira da; Oliveira Filho, Delly [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola; Donzeles, Sergio Mauricio Lopes [Empresa de Pesquisa Agropecuaria de Minas Gerais (EPAMIG), Vicosa, MG (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In many agro-industrial activities, the processing of raw material generates a substantial amount of fine materials. Examples include the production of soluble coffee, processing of rice, and wood processing, among others. In many regions, these by-products keep piling up on the courtyard of companies or become an environmental problem for land dumps. However, detailed tests of these byproducts indicate that they are excellent sources of energy. With this in mind, a furnace was developed to generate clean and hot air, using the alimentation system for pneumatic transport. Wood sawdust was used as fuel for analysis. The obtained results were considered satisfactory, proven by the small heat losses, primarily by the non-burned carbon monoxide (less than 0.2%) and the cooling of the furnace (less than 2.5%) whereas the losses by the exhaust gases were a little more than 23%. The thermal efficiency of the furnace was considered high when compared to others with an indirect heating system, obtaining an average value of 73%. The developed furnace, beyond being efficient, allows the use of the waste from the wood industry, which is important in the reduction of environmental impacts and minimizing production costs associated with the acquisition of conventional energy. (author)

  18. Optimization of burners in oxygen-gas fired glass furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersbergen, M.J. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Sarmiento-Darkin, W.; Kobayashi, H.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency performance, production stability and emissions of oxygen-fired glass furnaces are influenced by the type of burner, burner nozzle sizes, burner positions, burner settings, oxygen-gas ratios and the fuel distribution among all the burners. These parameters have been optimized

  19. Metal diffusion from furnace tubes depends on location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of metal samples from an ethylene furnace on the Texas Gulf Coast, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX), reveal preferential diffusion of chromium, titanium, and aluminum in the coil wall to the surfaces of the tube where they form metal oxides. These elements are gradually depleted from the tube wall. Complicated surface reactions that include the formation of several metal oxides, metal sulfides, and metal-catalyzed coke also occur. Several mechanisms can be postulated as to how metal fines or compounds are formed and transferred in the coil and transfer lines exchanger (TLX) of ethylene units. These surface reactions directly or indirectly affect coke formation in the tube. Finally, creep in the coils is likely a factor in promoting corrosion. Such creep is promoted by variable temperature-time patterns to which a coil is exposed during pyrolysis, and then decoking. Periods of stress and compression occur in the coil walls. Knowledge of the diffusion and reactions that take place can result in better furnace operations and decoking procedures to extend the life of the furnace tubes. In this second installment of a four-part series, photomicrographs of four pyrolysis tube samples from the ethylene furnace indicate that significant differences existed between the outer surfaces, inner surfaces, and cross-sectional areas of the samples. The first installment of the series dealt with coke

  20. Development of synthetic graphite resistive elements for sintering furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Rezende, Mirabel C.; Polidoro, H.A.; Otani, S.

    1987-01-01

    The synthetic graphites have been produced using lignin coke, natural graphite and phenolic resin. The bulk density, porosity, flexural strength and eletrical resistivity measurements have been performed on specimens at about 2400 0 C. The performance of these materials, as heating elements, was evaluated in a sintering furnace prototype. This paper reports the fabrication process and the experimental results. (Author) [pt

  1. Studying and improving blast furnace cast iron quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. К. Balgabekov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are presented the results of studies to improve the quality of blast furnace cast iron. It was established that using fire clay suspension for increasing the mould covering heat conductivity improves significantly pig iron salable condition and filtration refining method decreases iron contamination by nonmetallic inclusions by 50 – 70 %.

  2. Fuzzy diagnosis of float-glass production furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaanenburg, L; TerHaseborg, H; Nijhuis, JAG; Reusch, B

    1997-01-01

    The industrial production of high-quality float-glass is usually supervised by the single human expert. It is of interest to formalize his empirical knowledge to support the furnace operator at all times during the day. The paper describes the systematic development of a fuzzy expert with 6 blocks

  3. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Jung, Jae Hee; Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin; Kim, Sang Soo

    2012-01-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO 2 and NO X emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO 2 -rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO 3 ) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO 3 , which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO 3 sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO 2 atmosphere due to the higher CO 2 partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO 2 atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain–subgrain structure model in both the air and CO 2 atmospheres.

  4. Furnace Fire and Women: Agents of Iron Production and Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... production either in the decoration of technical ceramics or activities and usage of or exchanges of words among the workers during production activities. Such rich experience lends a means of putting together ingredients resulting in a material culture made of iron. Key words: Ethiopia, Oromo, myth, furnace, fire, women, ...

  5. A review of NOx formation mechanisms in recovery furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, K.M.; Thompson, L.M.; Empie, H.J.

    1993-01-01

    Review of NOx formation studies shows that NO forms in recovery furnaces primarily by two independent mechanisms, thermal and fuel. Thermal NO formation is extremely temperature-sensitive. However, theoretical predictions indicate that recovery furnace temperatures are not high enough to form significant thermal NO. Fuel NO formation is less temperature-sensitive, and is related to fuel nitrogen content. Black liquors are shown to contain 0.05 to 0.24 weight percent fuel nitrogen. Conversion of just 20% of this would yield approximately 25-120 ppm NOx (at 8% 0 2 ) in the flue gas, enough to represent the majority of the total NOx. Data from operating recovery furnaces show NOx emissions ranging from near zero to over 100 ppm at 8% 0 2 . An apparent increase in recovery furnace NOx emissions was observed with increasing solids. This increase is much less than predicted by thermal NO formation theory, indicating that other NO formation/destruction mechanisms, such as fuel NO formation, are important. No data are available to show the relative importance of thermal and fuel NO to total NOx during black liquor combustion

  6. Analyses of laser and furnace treated sol-gel coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hosson, JT; De Haas, M; Sudarshan, TS; Jeandin, M; Khor, KA

    1998-01-01

    Here we explore a new method that allows thin films to be made with almost any composition and degree of porosity by means of a combination of sol-gel and laser technology. Results are presented for furnace and laser treated TEOTI-(tetraethylorthotitanate as sol precursor) coated silicon samples.

  7. Analysis of combustion efficiency in a pelletizing furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Vieira de Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to assess how much the improvement in the combustion reaction efficiency can reduce fuel consumption, maintaining the same thermal energy rate provided by the reaction in a pelletizing furnace. The furnace for pelletizing iron ore is a complex thermal machine, in terms of energy balance. It contains recirculation fan gases and constant variations in the process, and the variation of a single process variable can influence numerous changes in operating conditions. This study demonstrated how the main variables related to combustion in the burning zone influence fuel consumption (natural gas from the furnace of the Usina de Pelotização de Fábrica (owned by VALE S/A, without changing process conditions that affect production quality. Variables were analyzed regarding the velocity and pressure of the fuel in the burners, the temperature of the combustion air and reactant gases, the conversion rate and the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of the reaction. For the analysis, actual data of the furnace in operation was used, and for the simulation of chemical reactions, the software Gaseq® was used. The study showed that the adjustment of combustion reaction stoichiometry provides a reduction of 9.25% in fuel consumption, representing a savings of US$ 2.6 million per year for the company.

  8. Reliability of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the comparative efficiency of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) for trace analysis of arsenic (As) in natural herbal products (NHPs). Method: Arsenic analysis in natural herbal products and standard reference ...

  9. A REVIEW OF MILD COMBUSTION AND OPEN FURNACE DESIGN CONSIDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Noor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Combustion is still very important to generate energy. Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution (MILD combustion is one of the best new technologies for clean and efficient combustion. MILD combustion has been proven to be a promising combustion technology in industrial applications with decreased energy consumption due to the uniformity of its temperature distribution. It is clean compared to traditional combustion due to producing low NOx and CO emissions. This article provides a review and discussion of recent research and developments in MILD. The issue and applications are summarized, with some suggestions presented on the upgrading and application of MILD in the future. Currently MILD combustion has been successfully applied in closed furnaces. The preheating of supply air is no longer required since the recirculation inside the enclosed furnace already self-preheats the supply air and self-dilutes the oxygen in the combustion chamber. The possibility of using open furnace MILD combustion will be reviewed. The design consideration for open furnace with exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR was discussed.

  10. Movement of liquid beryllium during melt events in JET with ITER-like wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergienko, G; Huber, A; Brezinsek, S; Coenen, J W; Mertens, Ph; Philipps, V; Samm, U; Arnoux, G; Matthews, G F; Nunes, I; Riccardo, V; Sirinelli, A; Devaux, S

    2014-01-01

    The ITER-like wall recently installed in JET comprises solid beryllium limiters and a combination of bulk tungsten and tungsten-coated carbon fibre composite divertor tiles without active cooling. During a beryllium power handling qualification experiment performed in limiter configuration with 5 MW neutral beam injection input power, accidental beryllium melt events, melt layer motion and splashing were observed locally on a few beryllium limiters in the plasma contact areas. The Lorentz force is responsible for the observed melt layer movement. To move liquid beryllium against the gravity force, the current flowing from the plasma perpendicularly to the limiter surface must be higher than 6 kA m −2 . The thermo-emission current at the melting point of beryllium is much lower. The upward motion of the liquid beryllium against gravity can be due to a combination of the Lorentz force from the secondary electron emission and plasma pressure force. (paper)

  11. Radiation from Large Gas Volumes and Heat Exchange in Steam Boiler Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, A. N., E-mail: tgtu-kafedra-ese@mail.ru [Tver State Technical University (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    Radiation from large cylindrical gas volumes is studied as a means of simulating the flare in steam boiler furnaces. Calculations of heat exchange in a furnace by the zonal method and by simulation of the flare with cylindrical gas volumes are described. The latter method is more accurate and yields more reliable information on heat transfer processes taking place in furnaces.

  12. 10 CFR 431.72 - Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. 431... CERTAIN COMMERCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL EQUIPMENT Commercial Warm Air Furnaces § 431.72 Definitions concerning commercial warm air furnaces. The following definitions apply for purposes of this subpart D, and of subparts...

  13. 76 FR 56339 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...) which covered furnaces (but not boilers), and it establishes amended energy efficiency standards for... Database for Residential Furnaces and Boilers,\\7\\ and the Consortium for Energy Efficiency's Qualifying...\\ Consortium of Energy Efficiency, Qualifying Furnace and Boiler List (2010) (Available at: http://www.cee1.org...

  14. 46 CFR 59.15-5 - Stayed furnaces and combustion chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stayed furnaces and combustion chambers. 59.15-5 Section... and combustion chambers. (a) Where the plate forming the walls of stayed furnaces or combustion... wall of a stayed furnace or combustion chamber, the defective portion of the plate shall be cut away...

  15. 75 FR 41102 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public Comment Period AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... work of residential heating and cooling systems (``furnace fans''). The comment period closed on July 6... information relevant to the furnace fan rulemaking will be accepted until July 27, 2010. ADDRESSES: Interested...

  16. SLUDGE MASS REDUCTION: PRIMARY COMPOSITIONAL FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE MELT RATE FOR FUTURE SLUDGE BATCH PROJECTIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J; Miller, D; Stone, M; Pickenheim, B

    2008-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to provide an assessment of the downstream impacts to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) of decisions regarding the implementation of Al-dissolution to support sludge mass reduction and processing. Based on future sludge batch compositional projections from the Liquid Waste Organization's (LWO) sludge batch plan, assessments have been made with respect to the ability to maintain comparable projected operating windows for sludges with and without Al-dissolution. As part of that previous assessment, candidate frits were identified to provide insight into melt rate for average sludge batches representing with and without Al-dissolution flowsheets. Initial melt rate studies using the melt rate furnace (MRF) were performed using five frits each for Cluster 2 and Cluster 4 compositions representing average without and with Al-dissolution. It was determined, however, that the REDOX endpoint (Fe 2+ /ΣFe for the glass) for Clusters 2 and 4 resulted in an overly oxidized feed which negatively affected the initial melt rate tests. After the sludge was adjusted to a more reduced state, additional testing was performed with frits that contained both high and low concentrations of sodium and boron oxides. These frits were selected strictly based on the ability to ascertain compositional trends in melt rate and did not necessarily apply to any acceptability criteria for DWPF processing. The melt rate data are in general agreement with historical trends observed at SRNL and during processing of SB3 (Sludge Batch 3)and SB4 in DWPF. When MAR acceptability criteria were applied, Frit 510 was seen to have the highest melt rate at 0.67 in/hr for Cluster 2 (without Al-dissolution), which is compositionally similar to SB4. For Cluster 4 (with Al-dissolution), which is compositionally similar to SB3, Frit 418 had the highest melt rate at 0.63 in/hr. Based on this data, there appears to be a slight advantage of the Frit

  17. Efficient use of power in electric arc furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, E R; Medley, J E

    1978-02-01

    The maximum transfer of electric energy to the metal in an arc furnace depends on the length of arc and the impedance of the electrical supply system from the generators to the arc itself. The use of directly-reduced sponge iron by continuous feeding results in long periods of flat-bath operation, when it is particularly important to keep a short high-current arc to get the heat into the metal rather than to the refractories, which would suffer excessive wear. By reference to a 125 ton furnace, a method of assessing the optimum operating currents and power factors and the effects of differing power-supply systems is illustrated. The importance of a low-impedance power system is illustrated, and the possibility of being unable to use the maximum furnace power without excessive refractory wear is noted. The particular problems of connecting arc-furnace loads to electrical supply systems are reviewed, and consideration is given to the problem of voltage flicker. The use of compensators is discussed with reference to existing installations, in which strong supplies from the supply-authority system are not economically available. The furnace operating characteristics, which indicate the optimum points of working, have to be checked on commissioning, and the test procedures are outlined. The optimum points for each type of charge and steel can be assessed only during their actual production. The importance of proper recording of relevant data is stressed, and reference is made to the use of computers and automatic power-input controllers.

  18. DEPENDENCY OF SULFATE SOLUBILITY ON MELT COMPOSITION AND MELT POLYMERIZATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JANTZEN, CAROL M.

    2004-01-01

    Sulfate and sulfate salts are not very soluble in borosilicate waste glass. When sulfate is present in excess it can form water soluble secondary phases and/or a molten salt layer (gall) on the melt pool surface which is purported to cause steam explosions in slurry fed melters. Therefore, sulfate can impact glass durability while formation of a molten salt layer on the melt pool can impact processing. Sulfate solubility has been shown to be compositionally dependent in various studies, (e.g. , B2O3, Li2O, CaO, MgO, Na2O, and Fe2O3 were shown to increase sulfate solubility while Al2O3 and SiO2 decreased sulfate solubility). This compositional dependency is shown to be related to the calculated melt viscosity at various temperatures and hence the melt polymerization

  19. Determination of total tin in geological materials by electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometry using a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L.; Chao, T.T.; Meier, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    An electrothermal atomic-absorption spectrophotometric method is described for the determination of total tin in geological materials, with use of a tungsten-impregnated graphite furnace. The sample is decomposed by fusion with lithium metaborate and the melt is dissolved in 10% hydrochloric acid. Tin is then extracted into trioctylphosphine oxide-methyl isobutyl ketone prior to atomization. Impregnation of the furnace with a sodium tungstate solution increases the sensitivity of the determination and improves the precision of the results. The limits of determination are 0.5-20 ppm of tin in the sample. Higher tin values can be determined by dilution of the extract. Replicate analyses of eighteen geological reference samples with diverse matrices gave relative standard deviations ranging from 2.0 to 10.8% with an average of 4.6%. Average tin values for reference samples were in general agreement with, but more precise than, those reported by others. Apparent recoveries of tin added to various samples ranged from 95 to 111% with an average of 102%. ?? 1984.

  20. Experience in melting of high-quality chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel in oxygen converter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kosoi, L F; Yaburov, S I; Shul' kin, M L; Vedernikov, G G; Bragin, E D; Filork' yan, B K

    1978-10-01

    Technology of melting high-quality medium-carbon constructional chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel has been developed and tested in 130-t converters. The technology envisages metal refinement in a casting laddle using synthetic lime-aluminous slag and argon blowing, as well as liquid ferroallys (master alloys) for steel deoxidation and alloying. Due to a smaller content of sulfur, phosphorus, arsenic and sulphide inclusions, and to a smaller grain size (N 11-12), the steel, produced according to this technology possesses higher plastic properties and impact strength than conventional open-hearth furnace metal after heat treatment for the same strength.

  1. Properties of structural steels melted out of high-purity charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marchenko, V.N.; Sergeeva, T.K.; Kondakova, N.K.; Morozov, V.P.; Madorskij, L.L.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative evaluation has been made of impurities, mechanical properties and hydrogen embirittlement parameters for steels type 40Kh and 40KhS produced by electrometallurgical method with the use of direct reduced charge (DR-steels) and melted in an open-hearth furnace. Investigation results have shown that 40Kh and 40KhS Dr-steels have more coarse austenitic grains and experience more complete transformation of martensite into ferritic-pearlitic mixture on tempering. Threshold stresses increase 2.5 times due to purity enhancement at the expense of application of direct reduced charge

  2. ELM-induced transient tungsten melting in the JET divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coenen, J. W.; Arnoux, G.; Bazylev, B.; Matthews, G. F.; Autricque, A.; Balboa, I.; Clever, M.; Dejarnac, R.; Coffey, I.; Corre, Y.; Devaux, S.; Frassinetti, L.; Gauthier, E.; Horacek, J.; Jachmich, S.; Komm, M.; Knaup, M.; Krieger, K.; Marsen, S.; Meigs, A.; Mertens, Ph.; Pitts, R. A.; Puetterich, T.; Rack, M.; Stamp, M.; Sergienko, G.; Tamain, P.; Thompson, V.; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2015-02-01

    The original goals of the JET ITER-like wall included the study of the impact of an all W divertor on plasma operation (Coenen et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 073043) and fuel retention (Brezinsek et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 083023). ITER has recently decided to install a full-tungsten (W) divertor from the start of operations. One of the key inputs required in support of this decision was the study of the possibility of W melting and melt splashing during transients. Damage of this type can lead to modifications of surface topology which could lead to higher disruption frequency or compromise subsequent plasma operation. Although every effort will be made to avoid leading edges, ITER plasma stored energies are sufficient that transients can drive shallow melting on the top surfaces of components. JET is able to produce ELMs large enough to allow access to transient melting in a regime of relevance to ITER. Transient W melt experiments were performed in JET using a dedicated divertor module and a sequence of IP = 3.0 MA/BT = 2.9 T H-mode pulses with an input power of PIN = 23 MW, a stored energy of ˜6 MJ and regular type I ELMs at ΔWELM = 0.3 MJ and fELM ˜ 30 Hz. By moving the outer strike point onto a dedicated leading edge in the W divertor the base temperature was raised within ˜1 s to a level allowing transient, ELM-driven melting during the subsequent 0.5 s. Such ELMs (δW ˜ 300 kJ per ELM) are comparable to mitigated ELMs expected in ITER (Pitts et al 2011 J. Nucl. Mater. 415 (Suppl.) S957-64). Although significant material losses in terms of ejections into the plasma were not observed, there is indirect evidence that some small droplets (˜80 µm) were released. Almost 1 mm (˜6 mm3) of W was moved by ˜150 ELMs within 7 subsequent discharges. The impact on the main plasma parameters was minor and no disruptions occurred. The W-melt gradually moved along the leading edge towards the high-field side, driven by j × B forces. The evaporation rate determined

  3. ELM-induced transient tungsten melting in the JET divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coenen, J.W.; Clever, M.; Knaup, M.; Arnoux, G.; Matthews, G.F.; Balboa, I.; Meigs, A.; Bazylev, B.; Autricque, A.; Dejarnac, R.; Horacek, J.; Komm, M.; Coffey, I.; Corre, Y.; Gauthier, E.; Devaux, S.; Krieger, K.; Frassinetti, L.; Jachmich, S.; Marsen, S.

    2015-01-01

    The original goals of the JET ITER-like wall included the study of the impact of an all W divertor on plasma operation (Coenen et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 073043) and fuel retention (Brezinsek et al 2013 Nucl. Fusion 53 083023). ITER has recently decided to install a full-tungsten (W) divertor from the start of operations. One of the key inputs required in support of this decision was the study of the possibility of W melting and melt splashing during transients. Damage of this type can lead to modifications of surface topology which could lead to higher disruption frequency or compromise subsequent plasma operation. Although every effort will be made to avoid leading edges, ITER plasma stored energies are sufficient that transients can drive shallow melting on the top surfaces of components. JET is able to produce ELMs large enough to allow access to transient melting in a regime of relevance to ITER. Transient W melt experiments were performed in JET using a dedicated divertor module and a sequence of I P  = 3.0 MA/B T  = 2.9 T H-mode pulses with an input power of P IN  = 23 MW, a stored energy of ∼6 MJ and regular type I ELMs at ΔW ELM  = 0.3 MJ and f ELM  ∼ 30 Hz. By moving the outer strike point onto a dedicated leading edge in the W divertor the base temperature was raised within ∼1 s to a level allowing transient, ELM-driven melting during the subsequent 0.5 s. Such ELMs (δW ∼ 300 kJ per ELM) are comparable to mitigated ELMs expected in ITER (Pitts et al 2011 J. Nucl. Mater. 415 (Suppl.) S957–64). Although significant material losses in terms of ejections into the plasma were not observed, there is indirect evidence that some small droplets (∼80 µm) were released. Almost 1 mm (∼6 mm 3 ) of W was moved by ∼150 ELMs within 7 subsequent discharges. The impact on the main plasma parameters was minor and no disruptions occurred. The W-melt gradually moved along the leading edge towards the high-field side, driven by j

  4. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces; La metalurgia del mercurio en Almaden: desde los hornos de aludeles a los hornos Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejero-Manzanares, J.; Garrido Saenz, I.; Mata Cabrera, F.; Rubio Mesas, M. L.

    2014-07-01

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  5. Nitrogen Control in VIM Melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, P. D.; Hawk, J. A.

    NETL has developed a design and control philosophy for the addition of nitrogen to austenitic and ferritic steels. The design approach uses CALPHAD as the centerpiece to predict the level to which nitrogen is soluble in both the melt and the solid. Applications of this technique have revealed regions of "exclusion" in which the alloy, while within specification limits of prescribed, cannot be made by conventional melt processing. Furthermore, other investigations have found that substantial retrograde solubility of nitrogen exists, which can become problematic during subsequent melt processing and/or other finishing operations such as welding. Additionally, the CALPHAD method has been used to adjust primary melt conditions. To that end, nitrogen additions have been made using chrome nitride, silicon nitride, high-nitrogen ferrochrome as well as nitrogen gas. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach will be discussed and NETL experience in this area will be summarized with respect to steel structure.

  6. Theoretical melting curve of caesium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simozar, S.; Girifalco, L.A.; Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia

    1983-01-01

    A statistical-mechanical model is developed to account for the complex melting curve of caesium. The model assumes the existence of three different species of caesium defined by three different electronic states. On the basis of this model, the free energy of melting and the melting curve are computed up to 60 kbar, using the solid-state data and the initial slope of the fusion curve as input parameters. The calculated phase diagram agrees with experiment to within the experimental error. Other thermodynamic properties including the entropy and volume of melting were also computed, and they agree with experiment. Since the theory requires only one adjustable constant, this is taken as strong evidence that the three-species model is satisfactory for caesium. (author)

  7. Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, H.; Altmann, H.; Kehrer, M.

    1978-08-01

    Melting curves of gammairradiated DNA and data derived of them, are reported. The diminished stability is explained by basedestruction. DNA denatures completely at room temperature, if at least every fifth basepair is broken or weakened by irradiation. (author)

  8. Pressure melting and ice skating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colbeck, S. C.

    1995-10-01

    Pressure melting cannot be responsible for the low friction of ice. The pressure needed to reach the melting temperature is above the compressive failure stress and, if it did occur, high squeeze losses would result in very thin films. Pure liquid water cannot coexist with ice much below -20 °C at any pressure and friction does not increase suddenly in that range. If frictional heating and pressure melting contribute equally, the length of the wetted contact could not exceed 15 μm at a speed of 5 m/s, which seems much too short. If pressure melting is the dominant process, the water films are less than 0.08 μm thick because of the high pressures.

  9. Influence of Flame Retardants on the Melt Dripping Behaviour of Thermoplastic Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Matzen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Melt flow and dripping of the pyrolysing polymer melt can be both a benefit and a detriment during a fire. In several small-scale fire tests addressing the ignition of a defined specimen with a small ignition source, well-adjusted melt flow and dripping are usually beneficial to pass the test. The presence of flame retardants often changes the melt viscosity crucially. The influence of certain flame retardants on the dripping behaviour of four commercial polymers, poly(butylene terephthalate (PBT, polypropylene (PP, polypropylene modified with ethylene-propylene rubber (PP-EP and polyamide 6 (PA 6, is analysed based on an experimental monitoring of the mass loss due to melt dripping, drop size and drop temperature as a function of the furnace temperature applied to a rod-shaped specimen. Investigating the thermal transition (DSC, thermal and thermo-oxidative decomposition, as well as the viscosity of the polymer and collected drops completes the investigation. Different mechanisms of the flame retardants are associated with their influence on the dripping behaviour in the UL 94 test. Reduction in decomposition temperature and changed viscosity play a major role. A flow limit in flame-retarded PBT, enhanced decomposition of flame-retarded PP and PP-EP and the promotion of dripping in PA 6 are the salient features discussed.

  10. Dehydration and melting experiments constrain the fate of subducted sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marie C.; Plank, Terry

    2000-12-01

    Geochemical tracers demonstrate that elements are cycled from subducted sediments into the arc melting regime at subduction zones, although the transfer mechanism is poorly understood. Are key elements (Th, Be, Rb) lost during sediment dehydration or is sediment melting required? To investigate this question, we conducted phase equilibria and trace element partitioning experiments on a pelagic red clay for conditions appropriate to the slab beneath arc volcanoes (2-4 GPa, 600°-1000°C). Using both piston cylinders and multianvils, we determined the solidus, phase stabilities, and major element compositions of coexisting phases. The solidus (H2O + Cl fluid-saturated) was located at 775 ± 25°C at 2 GPa, 810 ± 15°C at 3 GPa, and 1025 ± 25°C at 4 GPa with noevidence for complete miscibility between melt and fluid. This sediment composition produces a profusion of phases both above and below the solidus: garnet, jadeitic pyroxene, alkali-rich amphibole, phengite, biotite, magnetite, coesite, kyanite, apatite, zircon, Cl-rich fluids, and peraluminous to peralkaline granitic melts. At 2 GPa the phengite dehydration solidus is at 800°-825°C, while biotite breaks down between 850° and 900°C. To explore trace element partitioning across the solidus at 2 GPa, we used diamonds to trap fluids and melts. Both the bulk sediment residues and diamond traps were analyzed postexperiment by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) for 40 elements for which we calculated bulk partition coefficients (D = Csolid/Cfluid). Below the solidus, Rb, Sr, Ba, and Pb showed the greatest mobility (D ˜ 0.5-1.0), while at the solidus, Th and Be became notably partitioned into the melt (D values changing from >2.0 to oceanic crust dehydration) may provide new constraints on the next generation of thermal/geodynamical models of subduction zones.

  11. Development of super-clean diesel engine and combustor using nonthermal plasma hybrid aftertreatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okubo, Masaaki

    2015-01-01

    One of important and successful environmental applications of atmospheric-pressure corona discharge or plasma is electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which have been widely used for coal- or oil-fired boilers in electric power plants and particulate matter control emitted from industries such as glass melting furnace system, etc. In the ESPs, steady high voltage is usually applied to a pair of electrodes (at least, one of these has sharp edge). Unsteady pulsed high voltage is often applied for the collection of high-resistivity particulate matter (PM) to avoid reverse corona phenomena which reduce the collection efficiency of the ESPs. It was found that unsteady high voltage can treat hazardous gaseous components (NO x , SO x , hydrocarbon, and CO, etc.) in the exhaust gas, and researches were shifted from PM removal to hazardous gases aftertreatment with unsteady corona discharge induced plasmas. In the paper, recent results on diesel engine and industrial boiler emission controls are mainly reviewed among these our research topics. (paper)

  12. Further research on melting activated and contaminated materials from the decommissioning of nuclear installations for the final storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deipenau, H.; Seidler, M.

    1990-07-01

    The unconditional reuse of activated and contaminated materials by melting and the production of qualified casks (type A- and type B-containers) was proved. Investigations on nuclide distribution in the melting furnace, molten material, dust and slag were used as a basis for the erection of a new central melting facility. Melting contaminated carbon steel a mass of 2-5% of the contaminated material was generated as dust and slag. They must be handled and transported as radioactive waste. Melting non-ferrous material activity contents could be reached for unconditional reuse. Binding radioactive carbon in the metal matrix of cast iron is only possible by using crushed graphite. The investigations of this project showed that unconditional reuse of contaminated material is possible in industrial scale. Doses of the workers and of the people in the environment of the facility resulting from melting were far below the limits of the German radiation protection law. Up to 1990 a mass of 2000 Mg of contaminated material was melted in the Siempelkamp foundry. Mass inventories for the dismantling of a reference power plant SWR 900 MWe are calculated. (orig./HP) With 7 refs., 18 tabs., 12 figs [de

  13. CFD simulation of gas and particles combustion in biomass furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griselin, Nicolas

    2000-11-01

    In this thesis, gas and particle combustion in biomass furnaces is investigated numerically. The aim of this thesis is to use Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technology as an effective computer based simulation tool to study and develop the combustion processes in biomass furnaces. A detailed model for the numerical simulation of biomass combustion in a furnace, including fixed-bed modeling, gas-phase calculation (species distribution, temperature field, flow field) and gas-solid two-phase interaction for flying burning particles is presented. This model is used to understand the mechanisms of combustion and pollutant emissions under different conditions in small scale and large scale furnaces. The code used in the computations was developed at the Division of Fluid Mechanics, LTH. The flow field in the combustion enclosure is calculated by solving the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations, with standard {kappa} - {epsilon} turbulence closure, together with the energy conservation equation and species transport equations. Discrete transfer method is used for calculating the radiation source term in the energy conservation equation. Finite difference is used to solve the general form of the equation yielding solutions for gas-phase temperatures, velocities, turbulence intensities and species concentrations. The code has been extended through this work in order to include two-phase flow simulation of particles and gas combustion. The Favre-averaged gas equations are solved in a Eulerian framework while the submodels for particle motion and combustion are used in the framework of a Lagrangian approach. Numerical simulations and measurement data of unburned hydrocarbons (UHC), CO, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and temperature on the top of the fixed bed are used to model the amount of tar and char formed during pyrolysis and combustion of biomass fuel in the bed. Different operating conditions are examined. Numerical calculations are compared with the measured data. It is

  14. Criteria determining the selection of slags for the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated stainless steel by electroslag remelting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckentin, J.M.R.; Damkroger, B.K.; Shelmidine, G.J.; Atteridge, D.G.

    1997-01-01

    Electroslag remelting is an excellent process choice for the melt decontamination of radioactively contaminated metals. ESR furnaces are easily enclosed and do not make use of refractories which could complicate thermochemical interactions between molten metal and slag. A variety of cleaning mechanisms are active during melting; radionuclides may be partitioned to the slag by means of thermochemical reaction, electrochemical reaction, or mechanical entrapment. At the completion of melting, the slag is removed from the furnace in solid form. The electroslag process as a whole is greatly affected by the chemical and physical properties of the slag used. When used as a melt decontamination scheme, the ESR process may be optimized by selection of the slag. In this research, stainless steel bars were coated with non-radioactive surrogate elements in order to simulate surface contamination. These bars were electroslag remelted using slags of various chemistries. The slags investigated were ternary mixtures of calcium fluoride, calcium oxide, and alumina. The final chemistries of the stainless steel ingots were compared with those predicted by the use of a Free Energy Minimization Modeling technique. Modeling also provided insight into the chemical mechanisms by which certain elements are captured by a slag. Slag selection was also shown to have an impact on the electrical efficiency of the process as well as the surface quality of the ingots produced

  15. Melting in super-earths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stixrude, Lars

    2014-04-28

    We examine the possible extent of melting in rock-iron super-earths, focusing on those in the habitable zone. We consider the energetics of accretion and core formation, the timescale of cooling and its dependence on viscosity and partial melting, thermal regulation via the temperature dependence of viscosity, and the melting curves of rock and iron components at the ultra-high pressures characteristic of super-earths. We find that the efficiency of kinetic energy deposition during accretion increases with planetary mass; considering the likely role of giant impacts and core formation, we find that super-earths probably complete their accretionary phase in an entirely molten state. Considerations of thermal regulation lead us to propose model temperature profiles of super-earths that are controlled by silicate melting. We estimate melting curves of iron and rock components up to the extreme pressures characteristic of super-earth interiors based on existing experimental and ab initio results and scaling laws. We construct super-earth thermal models by solving the equations of mass conservation and hydrostatic equilibrium, together with equations of state of rock and iron components. We set the potential temperature at the core-mantle boundary and at the surface to the local silicate melting temperature. We find that ancient (∼4 Gyr) super-earths may be partially molten at the top and bottom of their mantles, and that mantle convection is sufficiently vigorous to sustain dynamo action over the whole range of super-earth masses.

  16. Fuel sparing: Control of industrial furnaces using process gas as supplemental fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boisvert, Patrick G.; Runstedtler, Allan

    2014-01-01

    Combustible gases from industrial processes can be used to spare purchased fuels such as natural gas and avoid wasteful flaring of the process gases. One of the challenges of incorporating these gases into other furnaces is their intermittent availability. In order to incorporate the gases into a continuously operating furnace, the furnace control system must be carefully designed so that the payload is not affected by the changing fuel. This paper presents a transient computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of an industrial furnace that supplements natural gas with carbon monoxide during furnace operation. A realistic control system of the furnace is simulated as part of the CFD calculation. The time dependent changes in fuels and air injection on the furnace operation is observed. It is found that there is a trade-off between over-controlling the furnace, which results in too sensitive a response to normal flow oscillations, and under-controlling, which results in a lagged response to the fuel change. - Highlights: •Intermittently available process gases used in a continuously operating furnace. •Study shows a trade-off between over-controlling and under-controlling the furnace. •Over-controlling: response too sensitive to normal flow oscillations. •Under-controlling: lagged response to changing fuel composition. •Normal flow oscillations in furnace would not be apparent in steady-state model

  17. An innovative energy-saving in-flight melting technology and its application to glass production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaochun Yao et al

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional method used for glass melting is air-fuel firing, which is inefficient, energy-intensive and time-consuming. In this study, an innovative in-flight melting technology was developed and applied to glass production for the purposes of energy conservation and environmental protection. Three types of heating sources, radio-frequency (RF plasma, a 12-phase alternating current (ac arc and an oxygen burner, were used to investigate the in-flight melting behavior of granulated powders. Results show that the melted particles are spherical with a smooth surface and compact structure. The diameter of the melted particles is about 50% of that of the original powders. The decomposition and vitrification degrees of the prepared powders decrease in the order of powders prepared by RF plasma, the 12-phase ac arc and the oxygen burner. The largest heat transfer is from RF plasma to particles, which results in the highest particle temperature (1810 °C and the greatest vitrification degree of the raw material. The high decomposition and vitrification degrees, which are achieved in milliseconds, shorten the melting and fining times of the glass considerably. Our results indicate that the proposed in-flight melting technology is a promising method for use in the glass industry.

  18. Investigation and analysis of the usefulness of the Zellik method to design energy conserving electric furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szilagyi, L.; Fay, G.

    1984-01-01

    The characteristics predetermined by the method Zellik in designing the electrical furnaces isolated traditionally are comparable with measured values of furnaces in operation. The newest furnaces have been built with isolation resulting in a lower energy consumption. To plot the static characteristics, the furnace was heated up three times to the steady state. In determining the static heat capacity the stored heat was measured by the conventional method. With a view to determining the kinetic heat capacity the furnace was heated up at different rates. On the base of the operating results of the furnace can be stated both the practicability of the method Zellik and the improvement of the characteristics of the furnace isolated with fibrous material.

  19. Study of the processes for of remelting zirconium alloys in an electric arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Luiz A.T.; Rossi, Jesualdo L.; Costa, Guilherme R.; Martinez, Luis G.; Sato, Ivone M., E-mail: luiz.atp@uol.com.br, E-mail: jelrossi@ipen.br, E-mail: guilhermeramoscosta@gmail.com, E-mail: lgallego@ipen.br, E-mail: imsato@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Zirconium alloy tubes are used as cladding for fuel elements of PWR nuclear reactors, which contains the UO{sub 2} pellets. In the manufacture of these fuel element parts, machining chips from the nuclear grade zirconium alloys are generated. Hence, these machining chips cannot be discarded, as ordinary metallic waste. Thus, the recycling of this material is a strategic aspect for the nuclear technology, both for economic and environmental issues. The main reason is that nuclear grade alloys have very high cost, are not commercially produced in Brazil and has to be imported for the manufacture of the nuclear fuels. This work discusses a method to melt and recycle Zircaloy chips, using an electric-arc furnace to obtain small laboratory ingots. The chemical composition of the ingots was determined using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and was compared to the specifications of nuclear grade Zircaloy and to the chemical composition of the received machining chips. The ingots were annealed in high vacuum, as well as were hot rolled in a mill. The microstructures were characterized by optical microscopy. The hardness was evaluated using the Rockwell B scale hardness. The results showed that the compositions of the recycled Zircaloy comply with the chemical specifications and a suitable microstructure has been obtained for nuclear use. (author)

  20. Glacial melting in Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita Tariyal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Mountains are amongst the most flimsy environments on Earth. They are prosperous repositories of biodiversity, water and providers of ecosystem goods and services on which downstream communities, both regional and global, rely. The transport of atmospheric pollutants and climate-altering substances can significantly impact high mountain areas, which are generally considered “clean” regions. The snow glaciers of the Himalayas, considered the “third pole”, one of the largest stores of water on the planet and accelerated melting could have far-reaching effects, such as flooding in the short-term and water shortages in the long-term as the glaciers shrink. The data available on temperature in Himalayas indicate that warming during last 3-4 decades has been more than the global average over the last century. Some of the values indicate that the Himalayas are warming 5-6 times more than the global average. Mountain systems are seen globally as the prime sufferers from climate change. There is a severe gap in the knowledge of the short and long-term implications of the impact of climate change on water and hazards in the Himalayas, and their downstream river basins. Most studies have excluded the Himalayan region because of its extreme and complex topography and the lack of adequate rain gauge data. There is an urgent need to close the knowledge gap by establishing monitoring schemes for snow, ice and water; downscaling climate models; applying hydrological models to predict water availability; and developing basin wide scenarios, which also take water demand and socioeconomic development into account. Climate change induced hazards such as floods, landslides and droughts will impose considerable stresses on the livelihoods of mountain people and downstream populations. Enhancing resilience and promoting adaptation in mountain areas have thus become among the most important priorities of this decade. It is important to strengthen local