WorldWideScience

Sample records for plasma level fluctuations

  1. Theory of electromagnetic fluctuations for magnetized multi-species plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro, Roberto E., E-mail: roberto.navarro@ug.uchile.cl; Muñoz, Víctor [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Araneda, Jaime [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción 4070386 (Chile); Moya, Pablo S. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. 20064 (United States); Viñas, Adolfo F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Heliophysics Science Division, Geospace Physics Laboratory, Mail Code 673, Greenbelt, Maryland 20771 (United States); Valdivia, Juan A. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Santiago (Chile); Centro de Estudios Interdisciplinarios Básicos y Aplicados en Complejidad, CEIBA complejidad, Bogotá (Colombia)

    2014-09-15

    Analysis of electromagnetic fluctuations in plasma provides relevant information about the plasma state and its macroscopic properties. In particular, the solar wind persistently sustains a small but detectable level of magnetic fluctuation power even near thermal equilibrium. These fluctuations may be related to spontaneous electromagnetic fluctuations arising from the discreteness of charged particles. Here, we derive general expressions for the plasma fluctuations in a multi-species plasma following arbitrary distribution functions. This formalism, which generalizes and includes previous works on the subject, is then applied to the generation of electromagnetic fluctuations propagating along a background magnetic field in a plasma of two proton populations described by drifting bi-Maxwellians.

  2. RF current drive and plasma fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peysson, Yves; Decker, Joan; Morini, L; Coda, S

    2011-01-01

    The role played by electron density fluctuations near the plasma edge on rf current drive in tokamaks is assessed quantitatively. For this purpose, a general framework for incorporating density fluctuations in existing modelling tools has been developed. It is valid when rf power absorption takes place far from the fluctuating region of the plasma. The ray-tracing formalism is modified in order to take into account time-dependent perturbations of the density, while the Fokker–Planck solver remains unchanged. The evolution of the electron distribution function in time and space under the competing effects of collisions and quasilinear diffusion by rf waves is determined consistently with the time scale of fluctuations described as a statistical process. Using the ray-tracing code C3PO and the 3D linearized relativistic bounce-averaged Fokker–Planck solver LUKE, the effect of electron density fluctuations on the current driven by the lower hybrid (LH) and the electron cyclotron (EC) waves is estimated quantitatively. A thin fluctuating layer characterized by electron drift wave turbulence at the plasma edge is considered. The effect of fluctuations on the LH wave propagation is equivalent to a random scattering process with a broadening of the poloidal mode spectrum proportional to the level of the perturbation. However, in the multipass regime, the LH current density profile remains sensitive to the ray chaotic behaviour, which is not averaged by fluctuations. The effect of large amplitude fluctuations on the EC driven current is found to be similar to an anomalous radial transport of the fast electrons. The resulting lower current drive efficiency and broader current profile are in better agreement with experimental observations. Finally, applied to the ITER ELMy H-mode regime, the model predicts a significant broadening of the EC driven current density profile with the fluctuation level, which can make the stabilization of neoclassical tearing mode potentially

  3. Plasma fluctuation measurements in tokamaks using beam-plasma interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.; Duperrex, P.A.; Paul, S.F.

    1990-01-01

    High-frequency observations of light emitted from the interactions between plasma ions and injected neutral beam atoms allow the measurement of moderate-wavelength fluctuations in plasma and impurity ion densities. To detect turbulence in the local plasma ion density, the collisionally excited fluorescence from a neutral beam is measured either separately at several spatial points or with a multichannel imaging detector. Similarly, the role of impurity ion density fluctuations is measured using charge exchange recombination excited transitions emitted by the ion species of interest. This technique can access the relatively unexplored region of long-wavelength plasma turbulence with k perpendicular ρ i much-lt 1, and hence complements measurements from scattering experiments. Optimization of neutral beam geometry and optical sightlines can result in very good localization and resolution (Δx≤1 cm) in the hot plasma core region. The detectable fluctuation level is determined by photon statistics, atomic excitation processes, and beam stability, but can be as low as 0.2% in a 100 kHz bandwidth over the 0--1 MHz frequency range. The choices of beam species (e.g., H 0 , He 0 , etc.), observed transition (e.g., H α , L α , He I singlet or triplet transitions, C VI Δn=1, etc.) are dictated by experiment-specific factors such as optical access, flexibility of beam operation, plasma conditions, and detailed experimental goals. Initial tests on the PBX-M tokamak using the H α emissions from a heating neutral beam show low-frequency turbulence in the edge plasma region

  4. Fluctuations and transport in an inhomogeneous plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevins, W.M.; Chen, L.

    1979-11-01

    A formalism is developed for calculating the equilibrium fluctuation level in an inhomogeneous plasma. This formalism is applied to the collisionless drift wave in a sheared magnetic field. The fluctuation level is found to be anomalously large due to both the presence of weakly damped normal modes and convective amplification. As the magnetic shear is reduced, the steady-state fluctuation spectrum is found to increase both in coherence and in amplitude. The transport associated with this mode is evaluated. The diffusion coefficient is found to scale as D is proportional to B 2 /nT/sup 1/2/

  5. Fluctuation characteristics in detached recombining plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Noriyasu; Tanaka, Naoyuki; Takamura, Shuichi; Budaev, Viatcheslav

    2002-01-01

    Fluctuation in detached recombining plasmas has been investigated experimentally in the linear divertor plasma simulator, NAGDIS-II. As increasing neutral gas pressure, floating potential fluctuation of the target plate installed at the end of the NADIS-II device becomes larger and bursty negative spikes are observed in the signal associated with a transition from attached to detached a plasmas. The fluctuation property has been analyzed by using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), probability distribution function (PDF) and wavelet transform. The PDF of the floating potential fluctuation in the attached plasma condition obeys the Gaussian distribution function, on the other hand, the PDF in detached plasma shows a strong deviation from the Gaussian distribution function, which can be characterized by flatness and skewness. Comparison of the fluctuation properties between the floating potential and the optical emission from the detached plasma has been done based on the wavelet transform to show that a strong correlation between them, which could indicate bursty transport of energetic electrons from upstream to downstream region along the magnetic field. (author)

  6. Changes in atomic populations due to edge plasma fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammami, R., E-mail: ramzi.hammami@univ-provence.fr [PIIM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS, centre Saint Jérôme, Marseille 13397 (France); Capes, H. [PIIM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS, centre Saint Jérôme, Marseille 13397 (France); Catoire, F. [CELIA, Université de Bordeaux 1 and CNRS, Domaine du Haut Carré, Talence 33405 (France); Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Marandet, Y.; Mekkaoui, A.; Rosato, J.; Stamm, R. [PIIM, Aix-Marseille Université and CNRS, centre Saint Jérôme, Marseille 13397 (France)

    2013-07-15

    The population balance of atoms or ions in an edge plasma is calculated in the presence of fluctuating density or temperature. We have used a stochastic model taking advantage of the knowledge of the plasma parameter statistical properties, and assuming a stepwise constant stochastic process for the fluctuating variable. The model is applied to simplified atomic systems such as three level hydrogen atoms or the ionization balance of carbon affected by electronic temperature or density fluctuations obeying a gamma PDF, and an exponential waiting time distribution.

  7. Simultaneous measurement of 3 fluctuating plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.; Giannone, L.

    1991-01-01

    Langmuir triple probes can provide simultaneous measurements of n e , T e and V pl with good temporal and spatial resolution, and therefore are especially suited to detailed investigations of plasma turbulence in the scrape-off-layer. Unfortunately, the finite tip separation coupled with the fluctuating gradients prevents a simple interpretation of the results. We have developed a method using, essentially, two or more triple probes, which allows a good estimate of the three plasma parameters and their spatial derivatives at each point of time (assuming tip separation is much less than correlation length and dimensionless fluctuation levels are much less than unity). In particular, we can unambiguously measure the temperature fluctuations and the turbulent particle and heat flux. (author) 1 fig

  8. Simultaneous measurement of 3 fluctuating plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, A.; Giannone, L.

    1991-01-01

    Langmuir triple probes can provide simultaneous measurements of n e , T e , and V pl with good temporal and spatial resolution, and therefore are especially suited to detailed investigations of plasma turbulence in the scrape-off-layer. Unfortunately, the finite tip separation coupled with the fluctuating gradients prevents a simple interpretation of the results. We have developed a method using, essentially, two or more triple probes, which allows a good estimate of the three plasma parameters and their spatial derivatives at each point of time (assuming tip separation is much less than correlation length and dimensionless fluctuation levels are much less than unity). In particular, we can unambiguously measure the temperature fluctuations and the turbulent particle and heat flux. (orig.)

  9. Simultaneous measurement of 3 fluctuating plasma parameters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, A; Giannone, L. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    Langmuir triple probes can provide simultaneous measurements of n[sub e], T[sub e] and V[sub pl] with good temporal and spatial resolution, and therefore are especially suited to detailed investigations of plasma turbulence in the scrape-off-layer. Unfortunately, the finite tip separation coupled with the fluctuating gradients prevents a simple interpretation of the results. We have developed a method using, essentially, two or more triple probes, which allows a good estimate of the three plasma parameters and their spatial derivatives at each point of time (assuming tip separation is much less than correlation length and dimensionless fluctuation levels are much less than unity). In particular, we can unambiguously measure the temperature fluctuations and the turbulent particle and heat flux. (author) 1 fig.

  10. Thermal fluctuation levels of magnetic and electric fields in unmagnetized plasma: The rigorous relativistic kinetic theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, P. H.; Schlickeiser, R.; Kolberg, U.

    2014-01-01

    Any fully ionized collisionless plasma with finite random particle velocities contains electric and magnetic field fluctuations. The fluctuations can be of three different types: weakly damped, weakly propagating, or aperiodic. The kinetics of these fluctuations in general unmagnetized plasmas, governed by the competition of spontaneous emission, absorption, and stimulated emission processes, is investigated, extending the well-known results for weakly damped fluctuations. The generalized Kirchhoff radiation law for both collective and noncollective fluctuations is derived, which in stationary plasmas provides the equilibrium energy densities of electromagnetic fluctuations by the ratio of the respective spontaneous emission coefficient and the true absorption coefficient. As an illustrative example, the equilibrium energy densities of aperiodic transverse collective electric and magnetic fluctuations in an isotropic thermal electron-proton plasmas of density n e are calculated as |δB|=√((δB) 2 )=2.8(n e m e c 2 ) 1/2 g 1/2 β e 7/4 and |δE|=√((δE) 2 )=3.2(n e m e c 2 ) 1/2 g 1/3 β e 2 , where g and β e denote the plasma parameter and the thermal electron velocity in units of the speed of light, respectively. For densities and temperatures of the reionized early intergalactic medium, |δB|=6·10 −18 G and |δE|=2·10 −16 G result

  11. Spontaneous magnetic fluctuations and collisionless regulation of the Earth's plasma sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moya, P. S.; Espinoza, C.; Stepanova, M. V.; Antonova, E. E.; Valdivia, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Even in the absence of instabilities, plasmas often exhibit inherent electromagnetic fluctuations which are present due to the thermal motion of charged particles, sometimes called thermal (quasi-thermal) noise. One of the fundamental and challenging problems of laboratory, space, and astrophysical plasma physics is the understanding of the relaxation processes of nearly collisionless plasmas, and the resultant state of electromagnetic plasma turbulence. The study of thermal fluctuations can be elegantly addressed by using the Fluctuation-Dissipation Theorem that describes the average amplitude of the fluctuations through correlations of the linear response of the media with the perturbations of the equilibrium state (the dissipation). Recently, it has been shown that solar wind plasma beta and temperature anisotropy observations are bounded by kinetic instabilities such as the ion cyclotron, mirror, and firehose instabilities. The magnetic fluctuations observed within the bounded area are consistent with the predictions of the Fluctuation-Dissipation theorem even far below the kinetic instability thresholds, with an enhancement of the fluctuation level near the thresholds. Here, for the very first time, using in-situ magnetic field and plasma data from the THEMIS spacecraft, we show that such regulation also occurs in the Earth's plasma sheet at the ion scales and that, regardless of the clear differences between the solar wind and the magnetosphere environments, spontaneous fluctuation and their collisionless regulation seem to be fundamental features of space and astrophysical plasmas, suggesting the universality of the processes.

  12. Plasma fluctuation measurements in tokamaks using beam-plasma interactions (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, R.J.; Duperrex, P.A.; Paul, S.F.

    1990-01-01

    High-frequency observations of light emitted from the interactions between plasma ions and injected neutral beam atoms allow the measurement of moderate-wavelength fluctuations in plasma and impurity ion densities. To detect turbulence in the local plasma ion density, the collisionally excited fluorescence from a neutral beam is measured either separately at several spatial points or with a multichannel imaging detector. Similarly, the role of impurity ion density fluctuations is measured using charge exchange recombination excited transitions emitted by the ion species of interest. This technique can access the relatively unexplored region of long-wavelength plasma turbulence with k perpendicular ρ i much-lt 1, and hence complements measurements from scattering experiments. Optimization of neutral beam geometry and optical sightlines can result in very good localization and resolution (Δx≤1 cm) in the hot plasma core region. The detectable fluctuation level is determined by photon statistics, atomic excitation processes, and beam stability, but can be as low as 0.2% in a 100 kHz bandwidth over the 0--1 MHz frequency range. The choices of beam species (e.g., H 0 , He 0 , etc.), observed transition (e.g., H α , L α , He I singlet or triplet transitions, C VI Δn=1, etc.) are dictated by experiment-specific factors such as optical access, flexibility of beam operation, plasma conditions, and detailed experimental goals. Initial tests on the PBX-M tokamak using the H α emissions from a heating neutral beam show low-frequency turbulence in the edge plasma region

  13. Plasma diffusion due to magnetic field fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuda, H.; Lee, W.W.; Lin, A.T.

    1979-01-01

    Plasma diffusion due to magnetic field fluctuations has been studied in two dimensions for a plasma near thermal equilibrium and when the fluctuations are suprathermal. It is found that near thermal equilibrium electron diffusion varies as B -2 when the collisionless skin depth is greater than the thermal electron gyroradius and is generally smaller than the diffusion due to collisions or electrostatic fluctuations for a low-β plasma. When the suprathermal magnetic fluctuation exists because of macroscopic plasma currents, electron diffusion is enhanced due to the coalescence of current filaments and magnetic islands. Magnetic field energy is found to condense to the longest wavelength available in the system and stays there longer than the electron diffusion time scale

  14. Fluctuations in collisional plasma in the presence of an external electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momot, A. I.; Zagorodny, A. G.

    2011-01-01

    The theory of large-scale fluctuations in a plasma is used to calculate the correlations functions of electron and ion density with regard to particle collisions described within the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) model and the presence of a constant external electric field. The changes of plasma particle distribution functions due to an external electric field and their influence on the plasma dielectric response are taken into account. The dispersion relations for longitudinal waves in such a plasma are studied in details. It is shown that external electric field can lead to the ion-acoustic wave instability and anomalous growth of the fluctuation level. Detailed numerical studies of the general relations for electron number density fluctuations are performed and the effect of external electric field on the fluctuation spectra is studied.

  15. Origin of fluctuations in atmospheric pressure arc plasma devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghorui, S.; Das, A.K.

    2004-01-01

    Fluctuations in arc plasma devices are extremely important for any technological application in thermal plasma. The origin of such fluctuations remains unexplained. This paper presents a theory for observed fluctuations in atmospheric pressure arc plasma devices. A qualitative explanation for observed behavior on atmospheric pressure arc plasma fluctuations, reported in the literature, can be obtained from the theory. The potential of the theory is demonstrated through comparison of theoretical predictions with reported experimental observations

  16. Collective fluctuations in magnetized plasma: Transition probability approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.

    1997-01-01

    Statistical plasma electrodynamics is elaborated with special emphasis on the transition probability approach and quasi-particles, and on modern applications to magnetized plasmas. Fluctuation spectra in the magnetized plasma are calculated in the range of low frequencies (with respect to the cyclotron one), and the conditions for the transition from incoherent to collective fluctuations are established. The role of finite-Larmor-radius effects and particle polarization drift in such a transition is explained. The ion collective features in fluctuation spectra are studied. 63 refs., 30 figs

  17. Influence of Plasma Pressure Fluctuation on RF Wave Propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Zhiwei; Bao Weimin; Li Xiaoping; Liu Donglin; Zhou Hui

    2016-01-01

    Pressure fluctuations in the plasma sheath from spacecraft reentry affect radio-frequency (RF) wave propagation. The influence of these fluctuations on wave propagation and wave properties is studied using methods derived by synthesizing the compressible turbulent flow theory, plasma theory, and electromagnetic wave theory. We study these influences on wave propagation at GPS and Ka frequencies during typical reentry by adopting stratified modeling. We analyzed the variations in reflection and transmission properties induced by pressure fluctuations. Our results show that, at the GPS frequency, if the waves are not totally reflected then the pressure fluctuations can remarkably affect reflection, transmission, and absorption properties. In extreme situations, the fluctuations can even cause blackout. At the Ka frequency, the influences are obvious when the waves are not totally transmitted. The influences are more pronounced at the GPS frequency than at the Ka frequency. This suggests that the latter can mitigate blackout by reducing both the reflection and the absorption of waves, as well as the influences of plasma fluctuations on wave propagation. Given that communication links with the reentry vehicles are susceptible to plasma pressure fluctuations, the influences on link budgets should be taken into consideration. (paper)

  18. Transition in plasma fluctuation between attached and detached plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okazaki, Katsuya; Ohno, Noriyasu; Kajita, Shin; Tanaka, Hirohiko

    2012-01-01

    The static and dynamic behaviors of detached plasmas have received considerable attention because the use of a detached divertor is thought to provide a promising method for reducing the heat flux to plasma-facing components. In this study, fluctuations were measured with an electrostatic probe as the plasma was changed from attached to detached states by increasing the neutral gas pressure. The transition from an attached plasma to a detached plasma was found to change the phase relation between the density and the potential. (author)

  19. Study of the thermal and suprathermal electron density fluctuations of the plasma in the Focus experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jolas, A.

    1981-10-01

    An experiment on Thomson scattering of ruby laser light by the electrons of a plasma produced by an intense discharge between the electrodes of a coaxial gun in a gas at low pressure has been carried out. It is shown that the imploding plasma is made up of layers with different characteristics: a dense plasma layer where the density fluctuations are isotropic and have a thermal level, and a tenuous plasma layer where the fluctuations are anisotropic, and strongly suprathermal. The suprathermal fluctuations are attributed to microscopic instabilities generated by the electric current circulating in the transition zone where the magnetic field penetrates the plasma [fr

  20. Charge density fluctuation of low frequency in a dusty plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳; 吕保维; O.Havnes

    1997-01-01

    The charge density fluctuation of low frequency in a dusty plasma, which is derived from the longitudinal dielectric permittivity of the dusty plasma, has been studied by kinetic theory. The results show that the P value, which describes the relative charge density on the dust in the plasma, and the charging frequency of a dust particle Ωc, which describes the ratio of charge changing of the dust particles, determine the character of the charge density fluctuation of low frequency. For a dusty plasma of P<<1, when the charging frequency Ωc is much smaller than the dusty plasma frequency wd, there is a strong charge density fluctuation which is of character of dust acoustic eigen wave. For a dusty plasma of P>>1, when the frequency Ωc, is much larger than wd there are weaker fluctuations with a wide spectrum. The results have been applied to the ionosphere and the range of radius and density of dust particles is found, where a strong charge density fluctuation of low frequency should exist.

  1. Recent results of studies of plasma fluctuations in stellarators by microwave scattering technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsova, N.N.; Batanov, G.M.; Kolik, L.V.; Petrov, A.E.; Pshenichnikov, A.A.; Sarksyan, K.A.; Kharchev, N.K.; Khol'nov, Yu.V.; Kubo, S.; Sanchez, J.

    2005-01-01

    Microwave scattering diagnostics are described that allow direct measurements of the turbulent processes in a high-temperature plasma of magnetic confinement systems. Plasma density fluctuations in the heating region of the L-2M stellarator were measured from microwave scattering at the fundamental and the second harmonics of the heating gyrotron radiation. In the TJ-II stellarator, a separate 2-mm microwave source was used to produce a probing beam; the measurements were performed at the middle of the plasma radius. Plasma density fluctuations in the axial (heating) region of the LHD stellarator were measured from microwave scattering at the fundamental harmonic of the heating gyrotron radiation. Characteristic features of fluctuations, common for all three devices, are revealed with the methods of statistical and spectral analysis. These features are the wide frequency Fourier and wavelet spectra, autocorrelation functions with slowly decreasing tails, and non-Gaussian probability distributions of the magnitudes and the increments of the magnitude of fluctuations. The drift-dissipative instability and the instability driven by trapped electrons are examined as possible sources of turbulence in a high-temperature plasma. Observations showed the high level of coherence between turbulent fluctuations in the central region and at the edge of the plasma in L-2M. It is shown in L-2M that the relative intensity of the second harmonic of gyrotron radiation on the axis of a microwave beam after quasi-optical filtering in a four-mirror quasi-optical transmission line is about -50 dB of the total radiation intensity. Spatiotemporal structures in plasma density fluctuations were observed in the central region of the plasma column. The correlation time between the structures was found to be on the order of 1 ms. It is shown that, the spectrum of the signal from the second-harmonic scattering extends to higher frequencies in comparison with that from the fundamental

  2. Electrostatic fluctuations measured in low temperature helical plasmas with low collisionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeuchi, M.; Ikeda, R.; Ito, T.; Toi, K.; Suzuki, C.; Matsunaga, G.

    2004-01-01

    Electrostatic fluctuations have been measured by Langmuir probes from edge to core plasma region in low temperature helical plasmas which are produced by 2.45 GHz microwaves at very low field less than 0.1 T. The principal dimensionless parameters of the plasmas, that is, the normalized electron-ion collision frequency ν ei , and averaged plasma β φ and others are in the same range of them in high temperature plasmas, except the normalized gyro radius ρ s . The data on fluctuation characteristics from the dimensionally similar low temperature plasmas may give an important insight into the understanding of turbulent transport in high temperature plasmas. Dependences of fluctuation amplitudes on the radial electric field shear, ρ s and ν ei are investigated. Electrostatic fluctuations propagating in electron-diamagnetic drift direction have been observed in the plasma edge region and in ion-diamagnetic drift direction in the plasma core region. (authors)

  3. Correlation anlaysis of plasma fluctuation signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Baonian; Wang Zhaoshen

    1987-01-01

    The application of correlation analysis to identify waves and instabilities in plasma is presented. First, the principle of correlation analysis and its application to diagnose plasma fluctuation signals are given. Then, the data acqusition system, application program and calibration method are described. Finally, experimental results from a mirror device are given

  4. Core density fluctuations in reverse magnetic shear plasmas with internal transport barrier on JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazikian, R.; Shinohara, K.; Yoshino, R.; Fujita, T.; Shirai, H.; Kramer, G.T.

    1999-01-01

    First measurements of the radial correlation length of density fluctuations in JT-60U plasmas with internal transport barrier (ITB) is reported. The measurements are obtained using a newly installed correlation reflectometer operating in the upper X-mode. Before transport barrier formation in the low beam power current ramp-up phase of the discharge, reflectometer measurements indicate density fluctuation levels n-tilde/n∼0.1-0.2% and radial correlation lengths 2-3 cm (k r p i ≤0.5) in the central plasma region (r/a r p i ∼3. However, fluctuation levels are considerably higher than measured near the magnetic axis. Reflectometer measurements obtained at the foot of the ITB also indicate high fluctuation levels compared to measurements in the central region of the discharge. (author)

  5. Fluctuations in macroscopically agitated plasma:quasiparticles and effective temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Gresillon, D.

    1994-01-01

    Fluctuations in the plasma, in which macroscopic fluid-like motion is agitated due to large-scale and low-frequency electro-magnetic fields, are studied. Such fields can be produced by external factors or internally, for example due to turbulence. Fluctuation spectral distributions are calculated with regard to the renormalization of the transition probability for a test-particle and of the test-particle shielding. If the correlation length for the random fluid-like motion is large as compared to the fluctuation scale lengths, then the fluctuation spectral distributions can be explained in terms of quasiparticles originating from macroscopic plasma agitation and of an effective temperature

  6. Determination of plasma velocity from light fluctuations in a cutting torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prevosto, L.; Mancinelli, B.; Kelly, H.

    2009-01-01

    Measurements of plasma velocities in a 30 A high energy density cutting torch are reported. The velocity diagnostic is based on the analysis of the light fluctuations emitted by the arc which are assumed to propagate with the flow velocity. These light fluctuations originate from plasma temperature and plasma density fluctuations mainly due to hydrodynamic instabilities. Fast photodiodes are employed as the light sensors. The arc core velocity was obtained from spectrally filtered light fluctuations measurements using a band-pass filter to detect light emission fluctuations emitted only from the arc axis. Maximum plasma jet velocities of 5000 m s -1 close to the nozzle exit and about 2000 m s -1 close to the anode were found. The obtained velocity values are in good agreement with those values predicted by a numerical code for a similar torch to that employed in this work.

  7. Equilibrium fluctuation energy of gyrokinetic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Lee, W.W.; Oberman, C.

    1985-11-01

    The thermal equilibrium electric field fluctuation energy of the gyrokinetic model of magnetized plasma is computed, and found to be smaller than the well-known result (k)/8π = 1/2T/[1 + (klambda/sub D/) 2 ] valid for arbitrarily magnetized plasmas. It is shown that, in a certain sense, the equilibrium electric field energy is minimum in the gyrokinetic regime. 13 refs., 2 figs

  8. Localization of waves in a fluctuating plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escande, D.F.; Souillard, B.

    1984-01-01

    We present the first application of localization theory to plasma physics: Density fluctuations induce exponential localization of longitudinal and transverse electron plasma waves, i.e., the eigenmodes have an amplitude decreasing exponentially for large distances without any dissipative mechanism in the plasma. This introduces a new mechanism for converting a convective instability into an absolute one. Localization should be observable in clear-cut experiments

  9. Electrostatic fluctuation in Low-{beta} plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krane, B

    1997-11-01

    The thesis gives an overview, which by no means is complete, to two dimensional plasma flows. The plasma is taken to be strongly magnetized such that magnetic fields generated by internal currents are small compared to the background magnetic field. This requires that the magnetic pressure exerted by the ambient magnetic field is large compared to the pressure due to thermal fluctuations, i.e. low-{beta} plasma. The author also assume low frequency electrostatic fluctuations with {omega}<<{omega}{sub c}i where {omega}{sub c}i is the ion gyro frequency. A brief introduction to nonlinear phenomena in two dimensional plasma flows has been presented. Particular attention was given to simple models describing flute and drift modes. Although the derivations of the model equations are based on different assumptions regarding the plasma conditions, the resulting equations exhibit similar behavior in some respects. For instance, both the simple guiding center model and the Hasegawa-Mima model have stable dipolar structures. The inverse cascade was also found in both models. However, it is evident that there are significant differences, first of all the Hasegawa-Mima model assumes a background density gradient which makes it an inhomogeneous model. Secondly, in this model the electrons respond instantaneously to variations in the ion density by moving along the magnetic field, thereby introducing Debye shielding.

  10. Electrostatic fluctuation in Low-β plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krane, B

    1997-11-01

    The thesis gives an overview, which by no means is complete, to two dimensional plasma flows. The plasma is taken to be strongly magnetized such that magnetic fields generated by internal currents are small compared to the background magnetic field. This requires that the magnetic pressure exerted by the ambient magnetic field is large compared to the pressure due to thermal fluctuations, i.e. low-β plasma. The author also assume low frequency electrostatic fluctuations with ω c i where ω c i is the ion gyro frequency. A brief introduction to nonlinear phenomena in two dimensional plasma flows has been presented. Particular attention was given to simple models describing flute and drift modes. Although the derivations of the model equations are based on different assumptions regarding the plasma conditions, the resulting equations exhibit similar behavior in some respects. For instance, both the simple guiding center model and the Hasegawa-Mima model have stable dipolar structures. The inverse cascade was also found in both models. However, it is evident that there are significant differences, first of all the Hasegawa-Mima model assumes a background density gradient which makes it an inhomogeneous model. Secondly, in this model the electrons respond instantaneously to variations in the ion density by moving along the magnetic field, thereby introducing Debye shielding

  11. Experimental evidence of significant temperature fluctuations in the plasma edge region of the TJ-I Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.; Balbin, R.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Ochando, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    Density and temperature fluctuations have been measured in the plasma bulk side of the velocity shear location of the TJ-I tokamak using a foast swept Langmuir probe technique. Evidence of sustantial temperature fluctuations which are in phase close to opposition with the corresponding density fluctuations has been found. This result suggests the possible role of radiation in determining edge fluctuation levels and call into question the determination of the density and potential fluctuations from the Langmuir current-probe and floating potential fluctuations. (Author)

  12. Experimental evidence of significant temperature fluctuations in the plasma EDGE region of the TJ-I Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.; Balbin, R.; Pedrosa, M. A.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Ochando, M. A.

    1993-01-01

    Density and temperature fluctuations have been measured in the plasma bulk side of the velocity shear location of the TJ-I tokamak using a feast swept Langmuir probe technique. Evidence of substantial temperature fluctuations which are in phase close to opposition with the corresponding density fluctuations has been found. This result suggests the possible role of radiation in determining edge fluctuation levels and call into question the determination of the density and potential fluctuations from the Langmuir current-probe and floating potential fluctuations. (Author) 16 refs

  13. Experimental evidence of significant temperature fluctuations in the plasma EDGE region of the TJ-I Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, C; Balbin, R; Pedrosa, M A; Garcia-Cortes, I; Ochando, M A

    1993-07-01

    Density and temperature fluctuations have been measured in the plasma bulk side of the velocity shear location of the TJ-I tokamak using a feast swept Langmuir probe technique. Evidence of substantial temperature fluctuations which are in phase close to opposition with the corresponding density fluctuations has been found. This result suggests the possible role of radiation in determining edge fluctuation levels and call into question the determination of the density and potential fluctuations from the Langmuir current-probe and floating potential fluctuations. (Author) 16 refs.

  14. Stochastic modelling of intermittent fluctuations in the scrape-off layer: Correlations, distributions, level crossings, and moment estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, O. E., E-mail: odd.erik.garcia@uit.no; Kube, R.; Theodorsen, A. [Department of Physics and Technology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway); Pécseli, H. L. [Physics Department, University of Oslo, PO Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)

    2016-05-15

    A stochastic model is presented for intermittent fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of magnetically confined plasmas. The fluctuations in the plasma density are modeled by a super-position of uncorrelated pulses with fixed shape and duration, describing radial motion of blob-like structures. In the case of an exponential pulse shape and exponentially distributed pulse amplitudes, predictions are given for the lowest order moments, probability density function, auto-correlation function, level crossings, and average times for periods spent above and below a given threshold level. Also, the mean squared errors on estimators of sample mean and variance for realizations of the process by finite time series are obtained. These results are discussed in the context of single-point measurements of fluctuations in the scrape-off layer, broad density profiles, and implications for plasma–wall interactions due to the transient transport events in fusion grade plasmas. The results may also have wide applications for modelling fluctuations in other magnetized plasmas such as basic laboratory experiments and ionospheric irregularities.

  15. Edge plasma fluctuations in STOR-M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Hirose, A.; Zhang, L.; Xiao, C.; Conway, G.D.; Skarsgard, H.M.

    1993-01-01

    In the STOR-M tokamak, the coherence and propagation nature of the density (n e ) and magnetic (B r ) fluctuations are investigated both in the scrape-off layer (SOL, r/a > 1) and at the plasma edge (r/a -2 is of the order of the reverse electron skin depth kθ ≅ ω pe /c. In terms of the hybrid ion Larmor radius ρ s = c s /Ω i , it corresponds to k θρ s ≅ 0.1. These observations support the skin size electromagnetic drift mode which predicts that a low β tokamak discharge is unstable against the skin size electromagnetic instability with a phase velocity significantly smaller than the electron diamagnetic drift velocity. Edge fluctuations observed in STOR-M appear to propagate at the local E x B drift, and the phase velocity in the plasma from is υ theta ≅ 5 x 10 4 cm/sec, compared with the local electron diamagnetic drift, υ e ≅ 2.5 x 10 5 cm/sec. In the SOL region, the density fluctuations propagate in the ion diamagnetic drift, but still with the local E x B drift because E r changes its sign at r/a ≅ 1

  16. Thermal fluctuations and critical behavior in a magnetized, anisotropic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazeltine, R. D.; Mahajan, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Thermal fluctuations in a magnetized, anisotropic plasma are studied by applying standard methods, based on the Einstein rule, to the known thermodynamic potential of the system. It is found in particular that magnetic fluctuations become critical when the anisotropy p ∥ −p ⊥ changes sign. By examining the critical region, additional insight on the equations of state for near-critical anisotropic plasma is obtained

  17. Non-Markovian dynamics of dust charge fluctuations in dusty plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgari, H.; Muniandy, S. V.; Ghalee, Amir; Ghalee

    2014-06-01

    Dust charge fluctuates even in steady-state uniform plasma due to the discrete nature of the charge carriers and can be described using standard Langevin equation. In this work, two possible approaches in order to introduce the memory effect in dust charging dynamics are proposed. The first part of the paper provides the generalization form of the fluctuation-dissipation relation for non-Markovian systems based on generalized Langevin equations to determine the amplitudes of the dust charge fluctuations for two different kinds of colored noises under the assumption that the fluctuation-dissipation relation is valid. In the second part of the paper, aiming for dusty plasma system out of equilibrium, the fractionalized Langevin equation is used to derive the temporal two-point correlation function of grain charge fluctuations which is shown to be non-stationary due to the dependence on both times and not the time difference. The correlation function is used to derive the amplitude of fluctuations for early transient time.

  18. Role of stochastic fluctuations in the charge on macroscopic particles in dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaulina, O.S.; Nefedov, A.P.; Petrov, O.F.; Khrapak, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    The currents which charge a macroscopic particle placed in a plasma consist of discrete charges; hence, the charge can undergo random fluctuations about its equilibrium value. These random fluctuations can be described by a simple model which, if the mechanisms for charging of macroscopic particles are known, makes it possible to determine the dependence of the temporal and amplitude characteristics of the fluctuations on the plasma parameters. This model can be used to study the effect of charge fluctuations on the dynamics of the macroscopic particles. The case of so-called plasma-dust crystals (i.e., highly ordered structures which develop because of strong interactions among macroscopic particles) in laboratory gaseous discharge plasmas is considered as an example. The molecular dynamics method shows that, under certain conditions, random fluctuations in the charge can effectively heat a system of macroscopic particles, thereby impeding the ordering process

  19. Fluctuations of the charge on a dust grain in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cui, C.; Goree, J.

    1994-01-01

    A dust grain in a plasma acquires an electric charge by collecting electron and ion currents. These currents consist of discrete charges, causing the charge to fluctuate around an equilibrium value (Q). Electrons and ions are collected at random intervals and in a random sequence, with probabilities that depend on the grain's potential. The authors developed a model for these probabilities and implemented it in a numerical simulation of the collection of individual ions and electrons, yielding a time series Q(t) for the grain's charge. Electron emission from the grain is not included, although it could be added easily to the method. They obtained the power spectrum and the rms fluctuation level, as well as the distribution function of the charge. Most of the power in the spectrum lies at frequencies much lower than 1/τ, the inverse charging time. The rms fractional fluctuation level varies as 0.5 |left-angle N right-angle | -1/2 , where left-angle N right-angle = left-angle Q right-angle/e is the average number of electron charges on the grain. This inverse square-root scaling means that fluctuations are most important for small grains. They also show that very small grains can experience fluctuations to neutral and positive polarities, even in the absence of electron emission

  20. Magnetic fluctuations in the plasma of KT-5C tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Ronghua; Pan Gesheng; Wang Zhijiang; Wen Yizhi; Yu Changxuan; Wan Shude; Liu Wandong; Wang Jun; Xu Min; Xiao Delong; Yu Yi

    2004-01-01

    A newly developed moveable magnetic probe array was installed on KT-5C tokamak. The profiles of radial and poloidal magnetic fluctuations of the plasma have been measured for (0.5r/a1.1). The experimental results indicate that there is a radial gradient which is greater than relative electrostatic fluctuations and the magnetic fluctuations contribute a little to losses. A strong coherence between fluctuations of 4 mm nearby two points suggests that the magnetic fluctuations have quite a long correlation length

  1. Edge transport and fluctuation induced turbulence characteristics in early SST-1 plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakati, B., E-mail: bharat.kakati@ipr.res.in; Pradhan, S., E-mail: pradhan@ipr.res.in; Dhongde, J.; Semwal, P.; Yohan, K.; Banaudha, M.

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Anomalous particle transport during the high MHD activity at SST-1. • Electrostatic turbulence is modulated by MHD activity at SST-1 tokamak. • Edge floating potential fluctuations shows poloidal long-range cross correlation. - Abstract: Plasma edge transport characteristics are known to be heavily influenced by the edge fluctuation induced turbulences. These characteristics play a critical role towards the confinement of plasma column in a Tokamak. The edge magnetic fluctuations and its subsequent effect on electrostatic fluctuations have been experimentally investigated for the first time at the edge of the SST-1 plasma column. This paper reports the correlations that exist and is experimentally been observed between the edge densities and floating potential fluctuations with the magnetic fluctuations. The edge density and floating potential fluctuations have been measured with the help of poloidally separated Langmuir probes, whereas the magnetic fluctuations have been measured with poloidally spaced Mirnov coils. Increase in magnetic fluctuations associated with enhanced MHD activities has been found to increase the floating potential and ion saturation current. These observations indicate electrostatic turbulence getting influenced with the MHD activities and reveal the edge anomalous particle transport during SST-1 tokamak discharge. Large-scale coherent structures have been observed in the floating potential fluctuations, indicating long-distance cross correlation in the poloidal directions. From bispectral analysis, a strong nonlinear coupling among the floating potential fluctuations is observed in the low-frequency range about 0–15 kHz.

  2. Investigation of low-frequency fluctuations in the edge plasma of ASDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudyj, A; Carlson, A; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany, F.R.); Bengtson, R D; Ritz, Ch P [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (USA); Kraemer, M [Bochum Univ. (Germany, F.R.); Tsois, N [NRS Demokritos, Attiki (Greece)

    1989-01-01

    Density fluctuations in the edge plasma of tokamaks in the frequency range up to a few 100 kHz have been reported for many years. The fluctuations are easily observed with Langmuir probes and are also visible in the H/sub {alpha}/ emission at locations with sufficient neutral gas density. High speed cine films taken on ASDEX show fluctuating stripes aligned approximately parallel to the magnetic field. It has been shown that these fluctuations, which are electrostatic, cause a major part if not all of the particle transport at the plasma edge. The mechanism driving these instabilities is however not yet clear. Langmuir probe measurements and optical observations were performed on ASDEX and a comparison was made with magnetic fluctuation measurements in order to further clarify the mechanism responsible for the edge turbulence. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Investigation of low-frequency fluctuations in the edge plasma of ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudyj, A.; Carlson, A.; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H.; Bengtson, R.D.; Ritz, Ch.P.; Kraemer, M.; Tsois, N.

    1989-01-01

    Density fluctuations in the edge plasma of tokamaks in the frequency range up to a few 100 kHz have been reported for many years. The fluctuations are easily observed with Langmuir probes and are also visible in the H α emission at locations with sufficient neutral gas density. High speed cine films taken on ASDEX show fluctuating stripes aligned approximately parallel to the magnetic field. It has been shown that these fluctuations, which are electrostatic, cause a major part if not all of the particle transport at the plasma edge. The mechanism driving these instabilities is however not yet clear. Langmuir probe measurements and optical observations were performed on ASDEX and a comparison was made with magnetic fluctuation measurements in order to further clarify the mechanism responsible for the edge turbulence. 5 refs., 3 figs

  4. Anomalous cross-field current and fluctuating equilibrium of magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, K.; Garcia, O.E.; Paulsen, J.V.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown by simple physical arguments and fluid simulations that electrostatic flute-mode fluctuations can sustain a substantial cross-field current in addition to mass and energy transport. The simulations show that this current determines essential features of the fluctuating plasma...

  5. Derivation of stochastic differential equations for scrape-off layer plasma fluctuations from experimentally measured statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mekkaoui, Abdessamad [IEK-4 Forschungszentrum Juelich 52428 (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    A method to derive stochastic differential equations for intermittent plasma density dynamics in magnetic fusion edge plasma is presented. It uses a measured first four moments (mean, variance, Skewness and Kurtosis) and the correlation time of turbulence to write a Pearson equation for the probability distribution function of fluctuations. The Fokker-Planck equation is then used to derive a Langevin equation for the plasma density fluctuations. A theoretical expectations are used as a constraints to fix the nonlinearity structure of the stochastic differential equation. In particular when the quadratically nonlinear dynamics is assumed, then it is shown that the plasma density is driven by a multiplicative Wiener process and evolves on the turbulence correlation time scale, while the linear growth is quadratically damped by the fluctuation level. Strong criteria for statistical discrimination of experimental time series are proposed as an alternative to the Kurtosis-Skewness scaling. This scaling is broadly used in contemporary literature to characterize edge turbulence, but it is inappropriate because a large family of distributions could share this scaling. Strong criteria allow us to focus on the relevant candidate distribution and approach a nonlinear structure of edge turbulence model.

  6. New fluctuation phenomena in the H-mode regime of PDX tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slusher, R.E.; Surko, C.M.; Valley, J.F.; Crowley, T.; Mazzucato, E.; McGuire, K.

    1984-05-01

    A new kind of quasi-coherent fluctuation is observed near the edge of plasmas in the PDX tokamak during H-mode operation. (The H-mode occurs in neutral beam heated divertor plasmas and is characterized by improved energy containment as well as large density and temperature gradients near the plasma edge.) These fluctuations are evidenced as VUV and density fluctuation bursts at well-defined frequencies (Δω/ω less than or equal to 0.1) in the frequency range between 50 and 180 kHz. They affect the edge temperature-density product, and therefore they may be important for understanding the relationship between the large edge density and temperature gradients and the improved energy confinement

  7. Probability distribution functions for intermittent scrape-off layer plasma fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodorsen, A.; Garcia, O. E.

    2018-03-01

    A stochastic model for intermittent fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of magnetically confined plasmas has been constructed based on a super-position of uncorrelated pulses arriving according to a Poisson process. In the most common applications of the model, the pulse amplitudes are assumed exponentially distributed, supported by conditional averaging of large-amplitude fluctuations in experimental measurement data. This basic assumption has two potential limitations. First, statistical analysis of measurement data using conditional averaging only reveals the tail of the amplitude distribution to be exponentially distributed. Second, exponentially distributed amplitudes leads to a positive definite signal which cannot capture fluctuations in for example electric potential and radial velocity. Assuming pulse amplitudes which are not positive definite often make finding a closed form for the probability density function (PDF) difficult, even if the characteristic function remains relatively simple. Thus estimating model parameters requires an approach based on the characteristic function, not the PDF. In this contribution, the effect of changing the amplitude distribution on the moments, PDF and characteristic function of the process is investigated and a parameter estimation method using the empirical characteristic function is presented and tested on synthetically generated data. This proves valuable for describing intermittent fluctuations of all plasma parameters in the boundary region of magnetized plasmas.

  8. Study on the rhythmic variation of plasma cortisol levels in patients with essential hypertension (EH) and coronary heart disease (CHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mei; Wu Guo; Li Ying

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the rhythmic fluctuation of plasma cortisol levels in patients with EH and CHD. Methods: Plasma cortisol levels were determined with RIA at 8Am, 4Pm and midnight in 61 patients with EH, 46 patients with CHD and 36 controls. Results: The normal rhythmic fluctuation pattern of plasma cortisol levels was retained in the EH and CHD patients. However, the levels were all significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls, especially in the midnight specimens. Conclusion: Marked elevated plasma cortisol levels were observed in patients with EH and CHD, with the normal rhythmic fluctuation pattern retained. (authors)

  9. Bursty fluctuation characteristics in SOL/divertor plasmas of large helical device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, N.

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Fluctuation properties in the SOL plasmas were intensively studied to understand the crossfield plasma transport, which determines the SOL structure and heat/particle deposition onto the first wall. Recent studies in tokamaks showed that the SOL density fluctuation is highly intermittent. Convective cross-field transport associated with the intermittent events would have strong influence on recycling processes and impurity generation from the first wall. On the other hand, in helical devices, there are few systematic studies on the SOL fluctuation property focusing on the intermittent bursty fluctuations related to plasma blob transport. Recent theory predicts that the blobs propagate toward a low field side in tokamaks. On the other hand, in the Large Helical Device (LHD), the direction of the gradient in B is not uniform because the high-field and the low-field sides rotates poloidally along the torus in the helical system. Comparison between the intermittent bursty fluctuations in the edge plasma of tokamaks and helical devices makes it possible to understand the essential physics of the blob transport. Recently, fast camera observation showed the radial motion of filaments in the edge of the LHD, suggesting the convective cross-field transport. In this paper, bursty fluctuation properties in the edge of the LHD have been investigated by analyzing the ion saturation currents measured with a probe array embedded in an outboard divertor plate. Statistical analysis based on probability distribution function was employed to determine the intermittent evens in the density fluctuation. Large positive bursty events were often observed in the ion saturation current measured with a divertor probe near a divertor leg at which the magnetic line of force connected to the area of a low-field side with a short connection length. Condition averaging result of the positive bursty events indicates the intermittent feature with a rapid increase and a slow decay is

  10. Arc Voltage Fluctuation in DC Laminar and Turbulent Plasma Jets Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Wenxia; Meng Xian; Wu Chengkang

    2006-01-01

    Arc voltage fluctuations in a direct current (DC) non-transferred arc plasma generator are experimentally studied, in generating a jet in the laminar, transitional and turbulent regimes. The study is with a view toward elucidating the mechanism of the fluctuations and their relationship with the generating parameters, arc root movement and flow regimes. Results indicate that the existence of a 300 Hz alternating current (AC) component in the power supply ripples does not cause the transition of the laminar plasma jet into a turbulent state. There exists a high frequency fluctuation at 4 kHz in the turbulent jet regime. It may be related to the rapid movement of the anode attachment point of the arc

  11. Energy change of a heavy quark in a viscous quark–gluon plasma with fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Bing-feng; Hou, De-fu; Li, Jia-rong

    2016-01-01

    When a heavy quark travels through the quark–gluon plasma, the polarization and fluctuating chromoelectric fields will be produced simultaneously in the plasma. The drag force due to those fields exerting in return on the moving heavy quark will cause energy change to it. Based on the dielectric functions derived from the viscous chromohydrodynamics, we have studied the collisional energy change of a heavy quark traversing the viscous quark–gluon plasma including fluctuations of chromoelectric field. Numerical results indicate that the chromoelectric field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the moving heavy quark. Shear viscosity suppresses the fluctuation-induced energy gain and the viscous suppression effect for the charm quark is much more remarkable than that for the bottom quark. While, the fluctuation energy gain is much smaller than the polarization energy loss in magnitude and the net energy change for the heavy quark is at loss.

  12. CO2 laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K.

    2001-04-01

    A CO 2 laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  13. Large daily fluctuations in plasma tyrosine in treated patients with phenylketonuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanSpronsen, FJ; vanDijk, T; Smit, GPA; vanRijn, M; Reijngoud, DJ; Berger, Ruud; Heymans, HSA

    1996-01-01

    In patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), extra tyrosine supplementation is advocated in addition to tyrosine-enriched amino acid mixtures. PKU patients have low fasting plasma tyrosine concentrations, but little is known about tyrosine fluctuations during the day. Plasma tyrosine concentrations were

  14. Charge-fluctuation-induced heating of dust particles in a plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaulina, O S; Khrapak, S A; Nefedov, A P; Petrov, O F

    1999-11-01

    Random charge fluctuations are always present in dusty plasmas due to the discrete nature of currents charging the dust particle. These fluctuations can be a reason for the heating of the dust particle system. Such unexpected heating leading to the melting of the dust crystals was observed recently in several experiments. In this paper we show by analytical evaluations and numerical simulation that charge fluctuations provide an effective source of energy and can heat the dust particles up to several eV, in conditions close to experimental ones.

  15. Simultaneous Measurements of Electrostatic and Magnetic Fluctuations in ASDEX Upgrade Edge Plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ionita, Codrina; Vianello, Nicola; Müller, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    In ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in the edge plasma region were measured simultaneously during ELMy H-mode (high confinement) plasmas and L-mode (low confinement) plasmas and during a transition between the two modes. A special probe was used containing six Langmuir...

  16. Electromagnetic fluctuation spectra of collective oscillations in magnetized Maxwellian plasmas for parallel wave vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vafin, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Yoon, P. H.

    2016-05-01

    The general electromagnetic fluctuation theory for magnetized plasmas is used to calculate the steady-state wave number spectra and total electromagnetic field strength of low-frequency collective weakly damped eigenmodes with parallel wavevectors in a Maxwellian electron-proton plasma. These result from the equilibrium of spontaneous emission and collisionless damping, and they represent the minimum electromagnetic fluctuations guaranteed in quiet thermal space plasmas, including the interstellar and interplanetary medium. Depending on the plasma beta, the ratio of |δB |/B0 can be as high as 10-12 .

  17. Electromagnetic Fluctuations during Fast Reconnection in a Laboratory Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hantao Ji; Stephen Terry; Masaaki Yamada; Russell Kulsrud; Aleksey Kuritsyn; Yang Ren

    2003-01-01

    Clear evidence for a positive correlation is established between the magnitude of magnetic fluctuations in the lower-hybrid frequency range and enhancement of reconnection rates in a well-controlled laboratory plasma. The fluctuations belong to the right-hand polarized whistler wave branch, propagating obliquely to the reconnecting magnetic field, with a phase velocity comparable to the relative drift velocity between electrons and ions. The short coherence length and large variation along the propagation direction indicate their strongly nonlinear nature in three dimensions

  18. Identification of trapped electron modes in frequency fluctuation spectra of fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnichand, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    This thesis shows that the analysis of frequency fluctuation spectra can provide an additional experimental indication of the dominant mode. Depending on the plasma scenario, fluctuation spectra can display different frequency components: Broadband spectra (Δf ∼ hundreds of kHz) which are always observed. Their amplitude is maximum at the zero frequency and they are attributed to turbulence. Coherent modes (Δf ∼ 1 kHz) which oscillate at a very well defined frequency. They can for example be due to geodesic acoustic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes; Quasi-Coherent (QC) modes (Δf ∼ tens of kHz) which oscillate at a rather well defined frequency but which are reminiscent of broadband fluctuations. The fluctuation study performed in the plasma core region shows that the fluctuation spectra in TEM-dominated regimes can be noticeably different from the ones in ITG-dominated regimes, as only TEM can induce QC modes. Such a finding has been achieved by comparing fluctuations measurements with simulations Measurements are made with a reflectometry diagnostic, a radar-like technique able to provide local indications of the density fluctuations occurring in the vicinity of the reflection layer. Frequency fluctuation spectra are inferred from a Fourier analysis of the reflectometry signal. First, the main properties of QC modes are characterized experimentally. Their normalized scale is estimated to k(perpendicular)ρ i ≤1, their amplitude is ballooned on the low field side mid-plane and they can be observed at many different radii. These indications are in agreement with what could be expected for ITG/TEM instabilities. Then reflectometry measurements are analyzed in Ohmic plasmas. QC modes are observed in the Linear Ohmic Confinement (LOC) regime dominated by TEM whereas only broadband spectra are seen in the Saturated Ohmic Confinement (SOC) regime dominated by ITG. Frequency spectra from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations show that TEM induce a narrow

  19. CO{sub 2} laser diagnostics for measurements of the plasma density profile and plasma density fluctuations on LHD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vyacheslavov, L.N. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Tanaka, K.; Kawahata, K. [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-04-01

    A CO{sub 2} laser based diagnostics complimentary to the existing FIR interferometer is proposed. It combines interferometry for plasma density profile measurement under conditions of large density gradients, and both imaging and scattering techniques for observation of plasma fluctuations. Two-colour interferometer with a slablike probe beam and a single multichannel linear detector array provide observation of plasma density profile and density fluctuations at two locations along the probe beam. Basic characteristics of the diagnostics are considered as well as some effects that include dispersion and are critical for two colour imaging technique. The results of the bench-top experiments with the prototype of the interferometer are presented. (author)

  20. Long-time integrator for the study on plasma parameter fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalkind, V.M.; Tarasenko, V.P.

    1975-01-01

    A device measuring the absolute value (x) of a fluctuating quantity x(t) averaged over a large number of realizations is described. The specific features of the device are the use of the time selector (Δ t = 50 μs - 1 ms) and the large time integration constant (tau = 30 hrs). The device is meant for studying fluctuations of parameters of a pulse plasma with a small repetition frequency

  1. Dynamical interplay between fluctuations, electric fields and transport in fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidalgo, C.; Pedrosa, M.A.; Goncalves, B.

    2003-01-01

    A view of recent experimental results and progress in the characterization of the statistical properties of electrostatic turbulence in magnetically confined devices is given. An empirical similarity in the scaling properties of the probability distribution function (PDF) of turbulent transport has been observed in the plasma edge region in fusion plasmas. The investigation of the dynamical interplay between fluctuation in gradients, turbulent transport and radial electric fields has shows that these parameters are strongly coupled both in tokamak and stellarator plasmas. The bursty behaviour of turbulent transport is linked with a departure from the most probable radial gradient. The dynamical relation between fluctuations in gradients and transport is strongly affected by the presence of sheared poloidal flows which organized themselves near marginal stability. These results emphasize the importance of the statistical description of transport processes in fusion plasmas as an alternative approach to the traditional way to characterize transport based on the computation of effective transport coefficients. (author)

  2. Progranulin Levels in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Granulin Mutation Carriers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.H. Meeter (Lieke H.H.); Patzke, H. (Holger); Loewen, G. (Gordon); E.G.P. Dopper (Elise); Y. Pijnenburg (Yolande); A.S. Thornton (Andrew); J.C. van Swieten (John)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Pathogenic mutations in the granulin gene (GRN) are causative in 5-10% of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), mostly leading to reduced progranulin protein (PGRN) levels. Upcoming therapeutic trials focus on enhancing PGRN levels. Methods: Fluctuations in plasma PGRN

  3. The Role of Higher-Order Modes on the Electromagnetic Whistler-Cyclotron Wave Fluctuations of Thermal and Non-Thermal Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.; Moya, Pablo S.; Navarro, Roberto; Araneda, Jamie A.

    2014-01-01

    Two fundamental challenging problems of laboratory and astrophysical plasmas are the understanding of the relaxation of a collisionless plasmas with nearly isotropic velocity distribution functions and the resultant state of nearly equipartition energy density with electromagnetic plasma turbulence. Here, we present the results of a study which shows the role that higher-order-modes play in limiting the electromagnetic whistler-like fluctuations in a thermal and non-thermal plasma. Our main results show that for a thermal plasma the magnetic fluctuations are confined by regions that are bounded by the least-damped higher order modes. We further show that the zone where the whistler-cyclotron normal modes merges the electromagnetic fluctuations shifts to longer wavelengths as the beta(sub e) increases. This merging zone has been interpreted as the beginning of the region where the whistler-cyclotron waves losses their identity and become heavily damped while merging with the fluctuations. Our results further indicate that in the case of nonthermal plasmas, the higher-order modes do not confine the fluctuations due to the effective higher-temperature effects and the excess of suprathermal plasma particles. The analysis presented here considers the second-order theory of fluctuations and the dispersion relation of weakly transverse fluctuations, with wave vectors parallel to the uniform background magnetic field, in a finite temperature isotropic bi-Maxwellian and Tsallis-kappa-like magnetized electron-proton plasma. Our results indicate that the spontaneously emitted electromagnetic fluctuations are in fact enhanced over these quasi modes suggesting that such modes play an important role in the emission and absorption of electromagnetic fluctuations in thermal or quasi-thermal plasmas.

  4. Plasma structure change and intermittent fluctuation near magnetic island X-point under detached plasma condition in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, N.; Tsuji, Y.; Tanaka, H.; Masuzaki, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Akiyama, T.; Morisaki, T.; Motojima, G.; Narushima, Y.

    2014-10-01

    Plasma profiles and intermittent fluctuations near the helical divertor X-point and on a divertor plate were investigated using a fast scanning Langmuir probe and a probe array embedded on a divertor plate in detached divertor condition that was sustained by applying a resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) field in LHD. When the RMP induced magnetic island X-point (n/m = 1/1) is located near the helical divertor X-point, the reduction of particle flux accompanied by the plasma detachment occurred near the helical divertor X-point (n/m = 2/10), which leads to the reduction of the particle flux at the strike point on the divertor plate. We also found that when the divertor plasma turned to be the detached condition, the enhanced plasma fluctuations were confirmed between the helical divertor X-point and ergodic region, which exhibited a dynamic behavior having a large amount of positive-spike components with highly intermittent property. (author)

  5. On lower hybrid wave scattering by plasma density fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrzilka, V.

    1988-01-01

    The scattering of lower hybrid waves on plasma density fluctuations in a thin turbulent layer at the plasma periphery is studied numerically. The lower hybrid waves are supposed to be radiated by a four-waveguide grill used on the CASTOR tokamak. A great number of calculated scattered wave spectra show that the scattered spectrum shifts to larger values of the parallel-to-magnetic-field component of the wave vector (to slower waves) with increasing central plasma density and with the decreasing safety factor at the boundary. As known, this shift of the wave spectra results in a decrease in current drive efficiency. The current drive efficiency will hence decrease with growing plasma density and with decreasing safety factor. (J.U.). 2 figs., 4 refs

  6. Fluctuations from dissipation in a hot non-Abelian plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Litim, Daniel F; Litim, Daniel F.; Manuel, Cristina

    2000-01-01

    We consider a transport equation of the Boltzmann-Langevin type for non-Abelian plasmas close to equilibrium to derive the spectral functions of the underlying microscopic fluctuations from the entropy. The correlator of the stochastic source is obtained from the dissipative processes in the plasma. This approach, based on classical transport theory, exploits the well-known link between a linearized collision integral, the entropy and the spectral functions. Applied to the ultra-soft modes of a hot non-Abelian (classical or quantum) plasma, the resulting spectral functions agree with earlier findings obtained from the microscopic theory. As a by-product, it follows that theorem.

  7. Bistable intrinsic charge fluctuations of a dust grain subject to secondary electron emission in a plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotorban, B

    2015-10-01

    A master equation was formulated to study intrinsic charge fluctuations of a grain in a plasma as ions and primary electrons are attached to the grain through collisional collection, and secondary electrons are emitted from the grain. Two different plasmas with Maxwellian and non-Maxwellian distributions were considered. The fluctuations could be bistable in either plasma when the secondary electron emission is present, as two stable macrostates, associated with two stable roots of the charge net current, may exist. Metastablity of fluctuations, manifested by the passage of the grain charge between two macrostates, was shown to be possible.

  8. The effect of plasma fluctuations on parallel transport parameters in the SOL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havlíčková, E.; Fundamenski, W.; Naulin, Volker

    2011-01-01

    The effect of plasma fluctuations due to turbulence at the outboard midplane on parallel transport properties is investigated. Time-dependent fluctuating signals at different radial locations are used to study the effect of signal statistics. Further, a computational analysis of parallel transport...... to a comparison of steady-state and time-dependent modelling....

  9. Spectroscopic interpretation and velocimetry analysis of fluctuations in a cylindrical plasma recorded by a fast camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldenbürger, S.; Brandt, C.; Brochard, F.; Lemoine, N.; Bonhomme, G.

    2010-06-01

    Fast visible imaging is used on a cylindrical magnetized argon plasma produced by thermionic discharge in the Mirabelle device. To link the information collected with the camera to a physical quantity, fast camera movies of plasma structures are compared to Langmuir probe measurements. High correlation is found between light fluctuations and plasma density fluctuations. Contributions from neutral argon and ionized argon to the overall light intensity are separated by using interference filters and a light intensifier. Light emitting transitions are shown to involve a metastable neutral argon state that can be excited by thermal plasma electrons, thus explaining the good correlation between light and density fluctuations. The propagation velocity of plasma structures is calculated by adapting velocimetry methods to the fast camera movies. The resulting estimates of instantaneous propagation velocity are in agreement with former experiments. The computation of mean velocities is discussed.

  10. Spectroscopic interpretation and velocimetry analysis of fluctuations in a cylindrical plasma recorded by a fast camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldenbuerger, S.; Brandt, C.; Brochard, F.; Lemoine, N.; Bonhomme, G.

    2010-01-01

    Fast visible imaging is used on a cylindrical magnetized argon plasma produced by thermionic discharge in the Mirabelle device. To link the information collected with the camera to a physical quantity, fast camera movies of plasma structures are compared to Langmuir probe measurements. High correlation is found between light fluctuations and plasma density fluctuations. Contributions from neutral argon and ionized argon to the overall light intensity are separated by using interference filters and a light intensifier. Light emitting transitions are shown to involve a metastable neutral argon state that can be excited by thermal plasma electrons, thus explaining the good correlation between light and density fluctuations. The propagation velocity of plasma structures is calculated by adapting velocimetry methods to the fast camera movies. The resulting estimates of instantaneous propagation velocity are in agreement with former experiments. The computation of mean velocities is discussed.

  11. Magnetic evaluation of hydrogen pressures changes on MHD fluctuations in IR-T1 tokamak plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alipour, Ramin; Ghanbari, Mohamad R.

    2018-04-01

    Identification of tokamak plasma parameters and investigation on the effects of each parameter on the plasma characteristics is important for the better understanding of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activities in the tokamak plasma. The effect of different hydrogen pressures of 1.9, 2.5 and 2.9 Torr on MHD fluctuations of the IR-T1 tokamak plasma was investigated by using of 12 Mirnov coils, singular value decomposition and wavelet analysis. The parameters such as plasma current, loop voltage, power spectrum density, energy percent of poloidal modes, dominant spatial structures and temporal structures of poloidal modes at different plasma pressures are plotted. The results indicate that the MHD activities at the pressure of 2.5 Torr are less than them at other pressures. It also has been shown that in the stable area of plasma and at the pressure of 2.5 Torr, the magnetic force and the force of plasma pressure are in balance with each other and the MHD activities are at their lowest level.

  12. Plasma fluctuations and confinement of fusion reaction products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Pegoraro, F.

    1981-01-01

    The interaction between the fluctuations that can be excited in a magnetically confined plasma and the high-energy-particle population produced by fusion reactions is analyzed in view of its relevance to the process of thermonuclear ignition. The spectrum of the perturbations that, in the absence of fusion reaction products, would be described by the incompressible ideal magnetohydrodynamic approximation is studied considering finite value of the plasma pressure relative ot the magnetic pressure. The combined effects of the magnetic field curvature and shear are taken into account and the relevant spectrum is shown to consist of a continuous portion, that could be identified as a mixture of shear-Alfven and interchange oscillations, and a discrete unstable part corresponding to the so-called ballooning modes. The rate of diffusion of the fusion reaction products induced by oscillations in the continuous part of the spectrum, as estimated from the appropriate quasi-linear theory, is found to be significantly smaller than could be expected if normal modes (i.e., nonconvective solutions) were excited. However, a relatively wide intermediate region is identified where opalescent fluctuations, capable of achieving significant amplitudes and corresponding to a quasi-discrete spectrum, can be excited

  13. Electron temperature fluctuation in the HT-7 tokamak plasma observed by electron cyclotron emission imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao-Yuan, Xu; Jun, Wang; Yi, Yu; Yi-Zhi, Wen; Chang-Xuan, Yu; Wan-Dong, Liu; Bao-Nian, Wan; Xiang, Gao; Luhmann, N. C.; Domier, C. W.; Wang, Jian; Xia, Z. G.; Shen, Zuowei

    2009-01-01

    The fluctuation of the electron temperature has been measured by using the electron cyclotron emission imaging in the Hefei Tokamak-7 (HT-7) plasma. The electron temperature fluctuation with a broadband spectrum shows that it propagates in the electron diamagnetic drift direction, and the mean poloidal wave-number k-bar θ is calculated to be about 1.58 cm −1 , or k-bar θρ s thickapprox 0.34. It indicates that the fluctuation should come from the electron drift wave turbulence. The linear global scaling of the electron temperature fluctuation with the gradient of electron temperature is consistent with the mixing length scale qualitatively. Evolution of spectrum of the fluctuation during the sawtooth oscillation phases is investigated, and the fluctuation is found to increase with the gradient of electron temperature increasing during most phases of the sawtooth oscillation. The results indicate that the electron temperature gradient is probably the driver of the fluctuation enhancement. The steady heat flux driven by electron temperature fluctuation is estimated and compared with the results from power balance estimation. (fluids, plasmas and electric discharges)

  14. Scattering of electromagnetic waves by anomalous fluctuations of a magnetized plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlenko, V. N.; Panchenko, V. G.

    1990-04-01

    Fluctuations and scattering of transverse electromagnetic waves by density fluctuations in a magnetized plasma in the presence of parametric decay of the pump wave are investigated. The spectral density of electron-density fluctuations is calculated. It is shown that the differential scattering cross-section has sharp maxima at the ion-acoustic and lower-hybrid frequencies when parametric decay of the lower-hybrid pump wave occurs. We note that scattering at the ion-acoustic frequency is dominant. When the pump-wave amplitude tends to the threshold strength of the electric field the scattering cross-section increases anomalously, i.e. there is critical opalescence.

  15. Multiscale gyrokinetics for rotating tokamak plasmas: fluctuations, transport and energy flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, I G; Plunk, G G; Wang, E; Barnes, M; Cowley, S C; Dorland, W; Schekochihin, A A

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a complete theoretical framework for studying turbulence and transport in rapidly rotating tokamak plasmas. The fundamental scale separations present in plasma turbulence are codified as an asymptotic expansion in the ratio ε = ρi/α of the gyroradius to the equilibrium scale length. Proceeding order by order in this expansion, a set of coupled multiscale equations is developed. They describe an instantaneous equilibrium, the fluctuations driven by gradients in the equilibrium quantities, and the transport-timescale evolution of mean profiles of these quantities driven by the interplay between the equilibrium and the fluctuations. The equilibrium distribution functions are local Maxwellians with each flux surface rotating toroidally as a rigid body. The magnetic equilibrium is obtained from the generalized Grad-Shafranov equation for a rotating plasma, determining the magnetic flux function from the mean pressure and velocity profiles of the plasma. The slow (resistive-timescale) evolution of the magnetic field is given by an evolution equation for the safety factor q. Large-scale deviations of the distribution function from a Maxwellian are given by neoclassical theory. The fluctuations are determined by the 'high-flow' gyrokinetic equation, from which we derive the governing principle for gyrokinetic turbulence in tokamaks: the conservation and local (in space) cascade of the free energy of the fluctuations (i.e. there is no turbulence spreading). Transport equations for the evolution of the mean density, temperature and flow velocity profiles are derived. These transport equations show how the neoclassical and fluctuating corrections to the equilibrium Maxwellian act back upon the mean profiles through fluxes and heating. The energy and entropy conservation laws for the mean profiles are derived from the transport equations. Total energy, thermal, kinetic and magnetic, is conserved and there is no net turbulent heating. Entropy is produced

  16. Effect of Fluctuations of DC Current on Properties of Plasma Jet Generated in Plasma Spraying Torch with Gerdien Arc

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrabovský, Milan; Kopecký, Vladimír; Chumak, Oleksiy; Kavka, Tetyana; Mašláni, Alan; Sember, Viktor; Ctibor, Pavel

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2009), s. 229-240 ISSN 1093-3611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Plasma torch * dc arc * plasma jet * fluctuations * plasma spraying Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 0.333, year: 2009 http://www.begellhouse.com/journals/57d172397126f956,4e2a92412d8c6bb5.html

  17. Scattering effects of small-scale density fluctuations on reflectometric measurements in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, J.P.; Manso, M.E.; Serra, F.M.; Mendonca, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    When a wave propagates in a non homogeneous fluctuating plasma part of the incident energy is scattered out to the nonlinear interaction between the wave and the oscillating modes perturbing the plasma. The possibility of enhanced scattering at the cutoff layer, where reflection of the incident wave occurs, has been recently suggested as the basis of a reflectometric experiment to determine the spatial location of small scale fluctuations in a fusion plasma. Here we report on the development of a theoretical model to evaluate the flux of energy scattered by fluctuations, in order to give insight about the interpretation of measurements using a microwave reflectometry diagnostic in a tokamak. The scattered field is obtained through the resolution of a (non-homogeneous) wave propagation equation where the source term is related with the nonlinear current due to the interaction between the incident wave and local fluctuations. We use a slab model for the plasma, and an ordinary (0) wave propagation along the density gradient is considered. The amplitude of the scattered wave at the border of the plasma is estimated. In order to know the contributions to the energy scattered both from the propagation region and the reflecting layer, an approach was used where perturbations are modelled by spatial step functions at several layers. The main contribution to the scattered power comes from the cutoff region, where the electric field amplitude swells as compared with the incident value. Considering the reflectometric system recently installed on the ASDEX tokamak, and using typical density profiles, expected values of the 'swelling factor' have been numerically evaluated. The role of incoherent scattering due to drift wave activity is discussed as well as the coherent scattering due to fluctuations induced by lower hybrid (LH) waves. (author) 2 refs., 4 figs

  18. Lake level fluctuations boost toxic cyanobacterial "oligotrophic blooms".

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiana Callieri

    Full Text Available Global warming has been shown to strongly influence inland water systems, producing noticeable increases in water temperatures. Rising temperatures, especially when combined with widespread nutrient pollution, directly favour the growth of toxic cyanobacteria. Climate changes have also altered natural water level fluctuations increasing the probability of extreme events as dry periods followed by heavy rains. The massive appearance of Dolichospermum lemmermannii ( = planktonic Anabaena, a toxic species absent from the pelagic zone of the subalpine oligotrophic Lake Maggiore before 2005, could be a consequence of the unusual fluctuations of lake level in recent years. We hypothesized that these fluctuations may favour the cyanobacterium as result of nutrient pulses from the biofilms formed in the littoral zone when the lake level is high. To help verify this, we exposed artificial substrates in the lake, and evaluated their nutrient enrichment and release after desiccation, together with measurements of fluctuations in lake level, precipitation and D. lemmermannii population. The highest percentage of P release and the lowest C:P molar ratio of released nutrients coincided with the summer appearance of the D. lemmermannii bloom. The P pulse indicates that fluctuations in level counteract nutrient limitation in this lake and it is suggested that this may apply more widely to other oligotrophic lakes. In view of the predicted increase in water level fluctuations due to climate change, it is important to try to minimize such fluctuations in order to mitigate the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms.

  19. Intermittent fluctuations in the Alcator C-Mod scrape-off layer for ohmic and high confinement mode plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, O. E.; Kube, R.; Theodorsen, A.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L.

    2018-05-01

    Plasma fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of the Alcator C-Mod tokamak in ohmic and high confinement modes have been analyzed using gas puff imaging data. In all cases investigated, the time series of emission from a single spatially resolved view into the gas puff are dominated by large-amplitude bursts, attributed to blob-like filament structures moving radially outwards and poloidally. There is a remarkable similarity of the fluctuation statistics in ohmic plasmas and in edge localized mode-free and enhanced D-alpha high confinement mode plasmas. Conditionally averaged waveforms have a two-sided exponential shape with comparable temporal scales and asymmetry, while the burst amplitudes and the waiting times between them are exponentially distributed. The probability density functions and the frequency power spectral densities are similar for all these confinement modes. These results provide strong evidence in support of a stochastic model describing the plasma fluctuations in the scrape-off layer as a super-position of uncorrelated exponential pulses. Predictions of this model are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in both ohmic and high confinement mode plasmas. The stochastic model thus provides a valuable tool for predicting fluctuation-induced plasma-wall interactions in magnetically confined fusion plasmas.

  20. Plasma levels and symptom complaints in patients maintained on daily dosage of methadone hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horns, W H; Rado, M; Goldstein, A

    1975-06-01

    Plasma methadone levels, symptom complaints, and urine tests for illicit opiate use were followed weekly in 17 patients on a methadone maintenance program. There were very large differences between patients in the plasma level established at a given dosage, implying large differences in the rate of methadone metabolism. Despite virtually constant daily dosage, the plasma methadone levels fluctuated greatly from week to week and from day to day in individual patients. With rate exceptions there was no relationship between plasma methadone level and symptom complaints or between weekly chamges in plasma methadone level and changes in symptom complaints. Except possible to identify the ocassional patient with unusually low plasam methadone levels, the determination of methadone levels is not likely to be or practical value in methadone programs.

  1. Plasma parameters, fluctuations and kinetics in a magnetic field line reconnection experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, N.C. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The processes associated with reconnecting magnetic field lines have been studied in a large experimental laboratory plasma. Detailed time- and space-resolved probe measurements of the plasma density, temperature, potential and electric and magnetic fields are discussed. Plasma currents are seen to modify the vacuum magnetic field topology. A flat neutral sheet develops along the separatrix where magnetic flux is transferred from regions of private to common flux. Forced tearing and magnetic island formation are also observed. Rapid electron heating, density and temperature nonuniformities and plasma potential gradients are all observed. The pressure is found to peak at the two edges of the neutral sheet. The dissipation E.J is determined and analyzed in terms of particle heating and fluid acceleration. A consistent, detailed picture of the energy flow via Poynting's theorem is also described. Significant temporal fluctuations in the magnetic fields and electron velocity distribution are measured and seen to give rise to anomalously high values for the plasma resistivity, the ion viscosity and the cross-field thermal conductivity. Electron temperature fluctuations, double layers associated with partial current disruptions, and whistler wave magnetic turbulence have all been identified and studied during the course of the reconnection event

  2. Density, potential and temperature fluctuations in Wendelstein 7-AS and ASDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balbin, R; Hidalgo, C [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Carlson, A; Endler, M; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H; Rudyj, A; Theimer, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1993-12-31

    Measurements of density, potential and temperature fluctuations in Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator (W7-AS) and ASDEX tokamak have been carried out. The properties of plasma fluctuations in a tokamak and stellarator can then be compared. A reciprocating Langmuir probe with an array of 19 graphite tips has been used to measure the radial profiles of fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential in W7-AS and ASDEX. In both devices, a reversal in radial electric field and an associated velocity shear layer at the plasma boundary have been observed and in both cases the normalized ion saturation current fluctuation level decreases monotonically moving towards the plasma centre and through the shear layer. At the radial position where the phase velocity in the poloidal direction of the fluctuations goes to zero, the normalized ion saturation current fluctuation level of 0.25 are similar for edge plasma parameters of similar temperatures and densities. A spatial crosscorrelation between fluctuations in floating potential and ion saturation current has been observed in both machines. (author) 6 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Structure of density fluctuations in the edge plasma of ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudyj, A.; Carlson, A.; Endler, M.; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H.; Theimer, G.

    1990-01-01

    It is now generally believed that the anomalous particle and energy transport in tokamaks is caused by turbulent fluctuations. The physical nature of these fluctuations (mode type, the driving mechanism) have still to be identified experimentally before a self consistent transport theory can be developed. In contrast to the confinement region the plasma edge can be well diagnosed. H α -light, which is emitted at the edge, reacts to density and to some extend to temperature fluctuations. It delivers information about radially integrated spectra and correlations. Langmuir probes measure density and potential fluctuations with good spatial resolution. The edge transport governs the physics in the scrape-off layer and in the divertor which is extremely important for a reactor and therefore deserves a major experimental effort. In this paper we report on an attempt to gain detailed information about the spatial and temporal structure of the edge turbulence hoping to reduce the degrees of freedom for theoretical models to a manageable number. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs

  4. Analysis of water-level fluctuations in Wisconsin wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, G.L.; Zaporozec, A.

    1987-01-01

    More than 60 percent of the residents of Wisconsin use ground water as their primary water source. Water supplies presently are abundant, but ground-water levels continually fluctuate in response to natural factors and human-related stresses. A better understanding of the magnitude, duration, and frequency of past fluctuations, and the factors controlling these fluctuations may help anticipate future changes in ground-water levels.

  5. Progranulin Levels in Plasma and Cerebrospinal Fluid in Granulin Mutation Carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke H.H. Meeter

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pathogenic mutations in the granulin gene (GRN are causative in 5-10% of patients with frontotemporal dementia (FTD, mostly leading to reduced progranulin protein (PGRN levels. Upcoming therapeutic trials focus on enhancing PGRN levels. Methods: Fluctuations in plasma PGRN (n = 41 and its relationship with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF, n = 32 and specific single nucleotide polymorphisms were investigated in pre- and symptomatic GRN mutation carriers and controls. Results: Plasma PGRN levels were lower in carriers than in controls and showed a mean coefficient of variation of 5.3% in carriers over 1 week. Although plasma PGRN correlated with CSF PGRN in carriers (r = 0.54, p = 0.02, plasma only explained 29% of the variability in CSF PGRN. rs5848, rs646776 and rs1990622 genotypes only partly explained the variability of PGRN levels between subjects. Conclusions: Plasma PGRN is relatively stable over 1 week and therefore seems suitable for treatment monitoring of PGRN-enhancing agents. Since plasma PGRN only moderately correlated with CSF PGRN, CSF sampling will additionally be needed in therapeutic trials.

  6. Energy loss of ions by electric-field fluctuations in a magnetized plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nersisyan, Hrachya B; Deutsch, Claude

    2011-06-01

    The results of a theoretical investigation of the energy loss of charged particles in a magnetized classical plasma due to the electric-field fluctuations are reported. The energy loss for a test particle is calculated through the linear-response theory. At vanishing magnetic field, the electric-field fluctuations lead to an energy gain of the charged particle for all velocities. It has been shown that in the presence of strong magnetic field, this effect occurs only at low velocities. In the case of high velocities, the test particle systematically loses its energy due to the interaction with a stochastic electric field. The net effect of the fluctuations is the systematic reduction of the total energy loss (i.e., the sum of the polarization and stochastic energy losses) at vanishing magnetic field and reduction or enhancement at strong field, depending on the velocity of the particle. It is found that the energy loss of the slow heavy ion contains an anomalous term that depends logarithmically on the projectile mass. The physical origin of this anomalous term is the coupling between the cyclotron motion of the plasma electrons and the long-wavelength, low-frequency fluctuations produced by the projectile ion. This effect may strongly enhance the stochastic energy gain of the particle.

  7. Effects of dust grain charge fluctuation on obliquely propagating dust-acoustic potential in magnetized dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A.A.; Hassan, M.H.A.

    1999-05-01

    Effects of dust grain charge fluctuation, obliqueness and external magnetic field on finite amplitude dust-acoustic solitary potential in a magnetized dusty plasma, consisting of electrons, ions and charge fluctuating dust grains, have been investigated by the reductive perturbation method. It has been shown that such a magnetized dusty plasma system may support dust-acoustic solitary potential on a very slow time scale involving the motion of dust grains, whose charge is self-consistently determined by local electron and ion currents. The effects of dust grain charge fluctuation, external magnetic field and obliqueness are found to modify the properties of this dust-acoustic solitary potential significantly. The implications of these results to some space and astrophysical dusty plasma systems, especially to planetary ring-systems and cometary tails, are briefly mentioned. (author)

  8. Measurements of plasma density fluctuations and electric wave fields using spherical electrostatic probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, A.I.; Bostroem, R.

    1995-04-01

    Spherical electrostatic probes are in wide use for the measurements of electric fields and plasma density. This report concentrates on the measurements of fluctuations of these quantities rather than background values. Potential problems with the technique include the influence of density fluctuations on electric field measurements and vice versa, effects of varying satellite potential, and non-linear rectification in the probe and satellite sheaths. To study the actual importance of these and other possible effects, we simulate the response of the probe-satellite system to various wave phenomena in the plasma by applying approximate analytical as well as numerical methods. We use a set of non-linear probe equations, based on probe characteristics experimentally obtained in space, and therefore essentially independent of any specific probe theory. This approach is very useful since the probe theory for magnetized plasmas is incomplete. 47 refs

  9. On current fluctuations in near-earth space plasma with lower-hybrid-drift turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meister, C.V.

    1993-01-01

    Electron and ion current fluctuations caused by lower-hybrid-drift turbulence are estimated within nonlinear theory for the plasma of the ionospheric F-layer, as well as for the plasma mantle and the plasma sheet boundary layer of the tail of the earth's magnetosphere. They are found to be of the order of 10 -14 - 10 -11 A/m 2 and 10 -13 - 10 -9 A/m 2 , respectively. (orig.)

  10. Structure of density fluctuations in the edge plasma of ASDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudyj, A; Carlson, A; Endler, M; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H; Theimer, G [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)

    1990-01-01

    It is now generally believed that the anomalous particle and energy transport in tokamaks is caused by turbulent fluctuations. The physical nature of these fluctuations (mode type, the driving mechanism) have still to be identified experimentally before a self consistent transport theory can be developed. In contrast to the confinement region the plasma edge can be well diagnosed. H{sub {alpha}}-light, which is emitted at the edge, reacts to density and to some extend to temperature fluctuations. It delivers information about radially integrated spectra and correlations. Langmuir probes measure density and potential fluctuations with good spatial resolution. The edge transport governs the physics in the scrape-off layer and in the divertor which is extremely important for a reactor and therefore deserves a major experimental effort. In this paper we report on an attempt to gain detailed information about the spatial and temporal structure of the edge turbulence hoping to reduce the degrees of freedom for theoretical models to a manageable number. (author) 3 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Investigation of radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuations in the IR-T1 tokamak plasma edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shariatzadeh, R; Ghoranneviss, M; Salem, M K [Plasma Physics Research Center, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University (IAU), PO Box 14665-678, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Emami, M, E-mail: rezashariatzadeh@gmail.com [Laser and Optics Research School, NSTRI, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuation is considered extremely important for understanding cross-field anomalous transport. In this paper, two arrays of Langmuir probes are used to analyze electrostatic fluctuations in the edge of IR-T1 tokamak plasma in both the radial and the poloidal directions. The propagation characteristics of the floating potential fluctuations are analyzed by the two-point correlation technique. The wavenumber spectrum shows that there is a net radially outward propagation of turbulent fluctuations in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions. Hence, edge turbulence presumably originates from core fluctuations.

  12. Investigation of radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuations in the IR-T1 tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shariatzadeh, R; Ghoranneviss, M; Salem, M K; Emami, M

    2011-01-01

    The radial propagation of electrostatic fluctuation is considered extremely important for understanding cross-field anomalous transport. In this paper, two arrays of Langmuir probes are used to analyze electrostatic fluctuations in the edge of IR-T1 tokamak plasma in both the radial and the poloidal directions. The propagation characteristics of the floating potential fluctuations are analyzed by the two-point correlation technique. The wavenumber spectrum shows that there is a net radially outward propagation of turbulent fluctuations in the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions. Hence, edge turbulence presumably originates from core fluctuations.

  13. An experimental study of plasma fluctuations in the TCV and TEXTOR Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mejeire de, C. A.

    2013-01-01

    The main body of this thesis reports on the commissioning and first measurements with a novel tangential phase-contrast imaging (TPCI) diagnostic, which had previously been installed in the TCV tokamak. The instrument measures fluctuations in line-integrated electron density along 9 parallel chords within a 6 cm diameter CO 2 laser beam. TPCI measurements reveal the first evidence in TCV of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM), which is an oscillating zonal flow. Frequency, radial wavelength, radial extent and propagation are all in qualitative agreement with a gyro-kinetic simulation and recent theoretical work. The mode is found to have a modest, but measurable magnetic component, whose spatial structure is characterised for the first time in a toroidal plasma. For some experiments, clear evidence is found of the theoretically expected m/n = 2/0 mode structure, although in others the structure appears to be more complex. Electron energy confinement in X 2 heated TCV L-mode plasmas had previously been observed to increase on changing the triangularity (δ) of the poloidal plasma cross-section from δ = +0.4 to δ = −0.4. Measurements with the TPCI diagnostic reveal that this change coincides with a clear decrease in both the absolute level and the decorrelation time of broadband electron density fluctuations. This is in agreement with the conjecture that the increased confinement time is caused by a change in the turbulent state. The second part of the thesis reports on a fluctuation study in the TEXTOR tokamak. At sufficiently weak toroidal magnetic field, NBI heated, limited TEXTOR plasmas exhibit bursts of beam-ion driven ‘fishbone’ and Alfvén modes, which are characterised using the multi-antenna reflectometer and Mirnov coils. In H-mode the fishbone triggers ELMs and in L-mode it triggers previously unobserved bursts of particle recycling, resembling the ELMs. The reflectometer phase shows statistically significant bispectral coherence between the fishbone

  14. Magnetic Fluctuations during plasma current rise of divertor discharge in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushigusa, Kenkichi; Kikuchi, Mitsuru; Hosogane, Nobuyuki; Tsuji, Syunji; Hayashi, Kazuo.

    1986-03-01

    During a current rise phase in the JT-60 divertor discharge, a series of magnetic fluctuations which do not rotate poloidally (phase-locking) is observed. They cause a cooling of plasma periphery and an enhancement of H α emission in the divertor chamber. A significant increase in β P + 1 i /2 with minor disruptions during the phase-locked magnetic fluctuation suggests a relaxation of the current profile in the current rise phase of the divertor discharge. (author)

  15. Visualization of phosphatidic acid fluctuations in the plasma membrane of living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P Ferraz-Nogueira

    Full Text Available We developed genetically-encoded fluorescent sensors based on Förster Resonance Energy Transfer to monitor phosphatidic acid (PA fluctuations in the plasma membrane using Spo20 as PA-binding motif. Basal PA levels and phospholipase D activity varied in different cell types. In addition, stimuli that activate PA phosphatases, leading to lower PA levels, increased lamellipodia and filopodia formation. Lower PA levels were observed in the leading edge than in the trailing edge of migrating HeLa cells. In MSC80 and OLN93 cells, which are stable cell lines derived from Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes, respectively, a higher ratio of diacylglycerol to PA levels was demonstrated in the membrane processes involved in myelination, compared to the cell body. We propose that the PA sensors reported here are valuable tools to unveil the role of PA in a variety of intracellular signaling pathways.

  16. Water-level fluctuations influence sediment porewater ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reservoirs typically have elevated fish mercury (Hg) levels compared to natural lakes and rivers. A unique feature of reservoirs is water-level management which can result in sediment exposure to the air. The objective of this study is to identify how reservoir water-level fluctuations impact Hg cycling, particularly the formation of the more toxic and bioaccumulative methylmercury (MeHg). Total-Hg (THg), MeHg, stable isotope methylation rates and several ancillary parameters were measured in reservoir sediments (including some in porewater and overlying water) that are seasonally and permanently inundated. The results showed that sediment and porewater MeHg concentrations were over 3-times higher in areas experiencing water-level fluctuations compared to permanently inundated sediments. Analysis of the data suggest that the enhanced breakdown of organic matter in sediments experiencing water-level fluctuations has a two-fold effect on stimulating Hg methylation: 1) it increases the partitioning of inorganic Hg from the solid phase into the porewater phase (lower log Kd values) where it is more bioavailable for methylation; and 2) it increases dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the porewater which can stimulate the microbial community that can methylate Hg. Sulfate concentrations and cycling were enhanced in the seasonally inundated sediments and may have also contributed to increased MeHg production. Overall, our results suggest that reservoir management a

  17. Neutral Beam Source and Target Plasma for Development of a Local Electric Field Fluctuation Diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, M. R.; Burke, M. G.; Fonck, R. J.; Lewicki, B. T.; Rhodes, A. T.; Winz, G. R.

    2016-10-01

    A new diagnostic measuring local E-> (r , t) fluctuations is being developed for plasma turbulence studies in tokamaks. This is accomplished by measuring fluctuations in the separation of the π components in the Hα motional Stark spectrum. Fluctuations in this separation are expected to be Ẽ / ẼEMSE 10-3EMSE 10-3 . In addition to a high throughput, high speed spectrometer, the project requires a low divergence (Ω 0 .5°) , 80 keV, 2.5 A H0 beam and a target plasma test stand. The beam employs a washer-stack arc ion source to achieve a high species fraction at full energy. Laboratory tests of the ion source demonstrate repeatable plasmas with Te 10 eV and ne 1.6 ×1017 m-3, sufficient for the beam ion optics requirements. Te and ne scalings of the ion source plasma are presented with respect to operational parameters. A novel three-phase resonant converter power supply will provide 6 mA/cm2 of 80 keV H0 at the focal plane for pulse lengths up to 15 ms, with low ripple δV / 80 keV 0.05 % at 280 kHz. Diagnostic development and validation tests will be performed on a magnetized plasma test stand with 0.5 T field. The test chamber will utilize a washer-stack arc source to produce a target plasma comparable to edge tokamak plasmas. A bias-plate with programmable power supply will be used to impose Ẽ within the target plasma. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-89ER53296.

  18. Collective laser light scattering from electron density fluctuations in fusion research plasmas (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holzhauer, E.; Dodel, G.

    1990-01-01

    In magnetically confined plasmas density fluctuations of apparently turbulent nature with broad spectra in wave number and frequency space are observed which are thought to be the cause for anomalous energy and particle transport across the confining magnetic field. Collective laser light scattering has been used to study the nature of these fluctuations. Specific problems of scattering from fusion plasmas are addressed and illustrated with experimental results from the 119 μm far infrared laser scattering experiment operated on the ASDEX tokamak. Using the system in the heterodyne mode the direction of propagation with respect to the laboratory frame can be determined. Spatial resolution has bean improved by making use of the change in pitch of the total magnetic field across the minor plasma radius. Special emphasis is placed on the ohmic phase where a number of parameter variations including electron density, electron temperature, toroidal magnetic field, and filling gas were performed

  19. The theory of electromagnetic wave scattering by density fluctuations in nonequilibrium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavlenko, V.N.; Panchenko, V.G.

    1993-01-01

    Scattering of electromagnetic waves by density fluctuations in a magnetized plasma in the presence of the external pump field is investigated. The spectral density of electron density fluctuations is calculated. The pump wave is supposed to decay into a lower hybrid wave and low frequency oscillations (ion-acoustic wave, modified convective cell and ion-cyclotron wave with ion-temperature anisotropy). When the pump wave amplitude tends to the threshold strength of the electric field, the scattering cross section increases anomalously, i.e. there is the critical opalescence. The differential scattering cross section dependence on the pump amplitude and ion temperature anisotropy is obtained in the region above the parametric instability threshold. For characteristic parameters of fusion and space plasmas it is shown that the pump field terms considerably surmount the thermal noise contribution to the scattering cross section

  20. Parallel-beam correlation technique for measuring density fluctuations in plasmas with strong magnetic shear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, A.R.

    1981-04-01

    A laser diagnostic scheme is described which facilitates localization of density fluctuations along the line of sight. The method exploits both the generally observed anisotropy of density fluctuations in low-beta plasmas, as well as the twisting of the magnetic field which occurs across the minor diameter of reversed-field pinches, spheromaks, etc. Both interferometric and schlieren variations are discussed

  1. A Tutorial on Basic Principles of Microwave Reflectometry Applied to Fluctuation Measurements in Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazikian, R.; Kramer, G.J.; Valeo, E.

    2001-01-01

    Microwave reflectometry is now routinely used for probing the structure of magnetohydrodynamic and turbulent fluctuations in fusion plasmas. Conditions specific to the core of tokamak plasmas, such as small amplitude of density irregularities and the uniformity of the background plasma, have enabled progress in the quantitative interpretation of reflectometer signals. In particular, the extent of applicability of the 1-D [one-dimensional] geometric optics description of the reflected field is investigated by direct comparison to 1-D full wave analysis. Significant advances in laboratory experiments are discussed which are paving the way towards a thorough understanding of this important measurement technique. Data is presented from the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [R. Hawryluk, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion 33 (1991) 1509] identifying the validity of the geometric optics description of the scattered field and demonstrating the feasibility of imaging turbulent fluctuations in fusion scale devices

  2. The scattering of E. M. waves from density fluctuations in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagfors, T.

    1977-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic (EM) waves by a single electron is developed from first principles. The result is used to derive the relationship of the scattered power spectrum to the spacetime Fourier transform of the electron density fluctuations in a plasma. (Auth.)

  3. Fluctuations and transport in fusion plasmas. Annual progress report, October 1, 1983-September 30, 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gould, R.W.

    1984-01-01

    This grant supports an integrated program of experiment and theory in tokamak plasma physics. Emphasis is placed on microscopic fluctuations and anomalous transport. The primary objective is to characterize the properties of the microscopic fluctuations observed in tokamaks and to try to develop an understanding of the fluctuation-induced transport of particles and heat. Anomalous transport, which causes energy losses one to two orders of magnitude larger than predicted by neoclassical transport theory, occurs in all tokamaks and underlies empirical scaling laws

  4. Bispectral analysis applied to coherent floating potential fluctuations obtained in the edge plasmas on JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, Y; Itoh, K; Itoh, S-I; Fujisawa, A; Hoshino, K; Takase, Y; Yagi, M; Ejiri, A; Ida, K; Shinohara, K; Uehara, K; Kusama, Y

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents results of bispectral analysis applied to floating potential fluctuations in the edge region of ohmically heated plasmas in the JAERI Fusion Torus-2 Modified (JFT-2M) tokamak. Inside the outermost surface of plasmas, coherent mode fluctuations (CMs) in floating potential were observed around the frequency of the geodesic acoustic mode. The squared bicoherence shows significant nonlinear couplings between the CMs and background fluctuations. The biphase at the frequency of the CMs is localized around π, while that at frequencies of background fluctuations distributes in a wide range. The total bicoherence at the frequency of the CMs is proportional to the squared amplitude of the CMs. These observations are consistent with the theoretical prediction on the drift wave-zonal flow systems. Interpretation of the absolute value of the total bicoherence is also discussed

  5. Effects of density gradients and fluctuations at the plasma edge on ECEI measurements at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanovac, B.; Wolfrum, E.; Denk, S. S.; Mink, F.; Laggner, F. M.; Birkenmeier, G.; Willensdorfer, M.; Viezzer, E.; Hoelzl, M.; Freethy, S. J.; Dunne, M. G.; Lessig, A.; Luhmann, N. C., Jr.; the ASDEX Upgrade Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2018-04-01

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) provides measurements of electron temperature (T e ) and its fluctuations (δT e ). However, when measuring at the plasma edge, in the steep gradient region, radiation transport effects must be taken into account. It is shown that due to these effects, the scrape-off layer region is not accessible to the ECEI measurements in steady state conditions and that the signal is dominated by the shine-through emission. Transient effects, such as filaments, can change the radiation transport locally, but cannot be distinguished from the shine-through. Local density measurements are essential for the correct interpretation of the electron cyclotron emission, since the density fluctuations influence the temperature measurements at the plasma edge. As an example, a low frequency 8 kHz mode, which causes 10%-15% fluctuations in the signal level of the ECEI, is analysed. The same mode has been measured with the lithium beam emission spectroscopy density diagnostic, and is very well correlated in time with high frequency magnetic fluctuations. With radiation transport modelling of the electron cyclotron radiation in the ECEI geometry, it is shown that the density contributes significantly to the radiation temperature (T rad) and the experimental observations have shown the amplitude modulation in both density and temperature measurements. The poloidal velocity of the low frequency mode measured by the ECEI is 3 km s-1. The calculated velocity of the high frequency mode measured with the magnetic pick-up coils is about 25 km s-1. Velocities are compared with the E × B background flow velocity and possible explanations for the origin of the low frequency mode are discussed.

  6. Analysis of jitter due to call-level fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.R.H. Mandjes (Michel)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractIn communication networks used by constant bit rate applications, call-level dynamics (i.e., entering and leaving calls) lead to fluctuations in the load, and therefore also fluctuations in the delay (jitter). By intentionally delaying the packets at the destination, one can transform

  7. Lithium line radiation in turbulent edge plasmas: Effects of low and high frequency temperature fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato, J.; Capes, H.; Catoire, F.; Kadomtsev, M. B.; Levashova, M. G.; Lisitsa, V. S.; Marandet, Y.; Rosmej, F. B.; Stamm, R.

    2011-08-01

    In lithium-wall-conditioned tokamaks, the line radiation due to the intrinsic impurities (Li/Li+/Li++) plays a significant role on the power balance. Calculations of the radiation losses are usually performed using a stationary collisional-radiative model, assuming constant values for the plasma parameters (Ne, Te,…). Such an approach is not suitable for turbulent plasmas where the various parameters are time-dependent. This is critical especially for the edge region, where the fluctuation rates can reach several tens of percents [e.g. J.A. Boedo, J. Nucl. Mater. 390-391 (2009) 29-37]. In this work, the role of turbulence on the radiated power is investigated with a statistical formalism. A special emphasis is devoted to the role of temperature fluctuations, successively for low-frequency fluctuations and in the general case where the characteristic turbulence frequencies can be comparable to the collisional and radiative rates.

  8. Influence of the collisional recombination on the electrostatic fluctuation spectrum in an helium plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baravian, G.; Bretagne, J.; Godart, J.; Sultan, G.

    1975-01-01

    The collisional recombination, in the afterglow of a dense plasma, is regarded as a source process for an overpopulation of the high energy tail of the electron velocity distribution function. The perturbation of the distribution function leads to an important enhancement of the fluctuations of the electrostatic field in a narrow range near the plasma frequency ωsub(p). (orig.) [de

  9. Consideration of magnetic field fluctuation measurements in a torus plasma with heavy ion beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, A.; Fujisawa, A.; Ohshima, S.; Nakano, H.

    2004-03-01

    The article discusses feasibility of magnetic fluctuation measurement with a heavy ion beam probe (HIBP) in an axisymmetric torus configuration. In the measurements, path integral fluctuation along the probing beam orbit should be considered as is similar to the density fluctuation measurements with HIBP. A calculation, based on an analytic formula, is performed to estimate the path integral effects for fluctuation patterns that have difference in profile, the correlation length, the radial wavelength, and the poloidal mode number. In addition, the large distance between the plasma and the detector is considered to lessen the path integral effect. As a result, it is found that local fluctuation of magnetic field can be properly detected with a heavy ion beam probe. (author)

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers--plasma levels and thyroid status of workers at an electronic recycling facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julander, A; Karlsson, M; Hagström, K; Ohlson, C G; Engwall, M; Bryngelsson, I-L; Westberg, H; van Bavel, B

    2005-08-01

    Personnel working with electronic dismantling are exposed to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which in animal studies have been shown to alter thyroid homeostasis. The aim of this longitudinal study was to measure plasma level of PBDEs in workers at an electronic recycling facility and to relate these to the workers' thyroid status. PBDEs and three thyroid hormones: triiodothyronine (T(3)), thyroxin (T(4)) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) were repeatedly analysed in plasma from 11 workers during a period of 1.5 years. Plasma levels of PBDEs at start of employment were plasma levels of PBDEs fluctuated during the study period. Due to small changes in thyroid hormone levels it was concluded that no relevant changes were present in relation to PBDE exposure within the workers participating in this study.

  11. Asymptotic behavior of correlation functions for electric potential and field fluctuations in a classical one-component plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suttorp, L.G.

    1992-01-01

    The correlations of the electric potential fluctuations in a classical one-component plasma are studied for large distances between the observation points. The two-point correlation function for these fluctuations is known to decay slowly for large distances, even if exponential clustering holds for

  12. Lithium line radiation in turbulent edge plasmas: Effects of low and high frequency temperature fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosato, J., E-mail: joel.rosato@univ-provence.fr [PIIM, UMR 6633, Universite de Provence/CNRS, Centre de St.-Jerome, Case 232, F-13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Capes, H.; Catoire, F. [PIIM, UMR 6633, Universite de Provence/CNRS, Centre de St.-Jerome, Case 232, F-13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Kadomtsev, M.B.; Levashova, M.G.; Lisitsa, V.S. [ITP, Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Marandet, Y. [PIIM, UMR 6633, Universite de Provence/CNRS, Centre de St.-Jerome, Case 232, F-13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Rosmej, F.B. [LULI, UMR 7605, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie/CNRS, 4 Place Jussieu, Case 128, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Stamm, R. [PIIM, UMR 6633, Universite de Provence/CNRS, Centre de St.-Jerome, Case 232, F-13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)

    2011-08-01

    In lithium-wall-conditioned tokamaks, the line radiation due to the intrinsic impurities (Li/Li{sup +}/Li{sup ++}) plays a significant role on the power balance. Calculations of the radiation losses are usually performed using a stationary collisional-radiative model, assuming constant values for the plasma parameters (N{sub e}, T{sub e},...). Such an approach is not suitable for turbulent plasmas where the various parameters are time-dependent. This is critical especially for the edge region, where the fluctuation rates can reach several tens of percents [e.g. J.A. Boedo, J. Nucl. Mater. 390-391 (2009) 29-37]. In this work, the role of turbulence on the radiated power is investigated with a statistical formalism. A special emphasis is devoted to the role of temperature fluctuations, successively for low-frequency fluctuations and in the general case where the characteristic turbulence frequencies can be comparable to the collisional and radiative rates.

  13. Improved Frequency Fluctuation Model for Spectral Line Shape Calculations in Fusion Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferri, S.; Calisti, A.; Mosse, C.; Talin, B.; Lisitsa, V.

    2010-01-01

    A very fast method to calculate spectral line shapes emitted by plasmas accounting for charge particle dynamics and effects of an external magnetic field is proposed. This method relies on a new formulation of the Frequency Fluctuation Model (FFM), which yields to an expression of the dynamic line profile as a functional of the static distribution function of frequencies. This highly efficient formalism, not limited to hydrogen-like systems, allows to calculate pure Stark and Stark-Zeeman line shapes for a wide range of density, temperature and magnetic field values, which is of importance in plasma physics and astrophysics. Various applications of this method are presented for conditions related to fusion plasmas.

  14. Study of density fluctuation in L-mode and H-mode plasmas on JFT-2M by microwave reflectometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, Kouji

    1997-08-01

    We propose the model which can explain the runaway phase. The model takes account of the scattered wave which is caused by the density fluctuation near the cut-off layer. We should take a new approach instead of the conventional phase measurement in order to derive the information of the density fluctuation from the data with the runaway phase. The complex spectrum and the rotary spectrum analyses are useful tools to analyze such data. The density fluctuation in L-mode and H-mode plasmas is discussed by using this new approach. We have observed that the reduction of the density fluctuation is localized in the edge region where the sheared electric field is produced. The fluctuations in the range of frequency lower than 100 kHz are mainly reduced. Two interesting features have been observed. One is the detection of the coherent mode around 100 kHz in H-mode. This mode appears about 10 ms after L to H transition. The timing corresponds to the formation of a steep density and temperature gradient in the edge region. The other is the enhancement of the fluctuations with the frequency higher than 300 kHz in H-mode in contrast to the reduction of the fluctuations with the frequency lower than 100 kHz. The Doppler shift is observed in the complex auto-power spectrum of the reflected wave when the plasma is actively moved. We have confirmed that the movement of the plasma is appropriately measured by using the low pass filter. The reflectometer can be used to measure the density profile by using a low pass filter even when the runaway phase phenomenon occurs. (author). 150 refs

  15. Plasma density fluctuation measurements from coherent and incoherent microwave reflection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, G.D.; Schott, L.; Hirose, A.

    1996-01-01

    Using the spatial coherency present in a reflected microwave signal (Conway et al 1994 Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65 2920) it is possible to measure a coherent, Γ c , and an incoherent, Γ i , reflection coefficient (proportional to the radar cross section) from a turbulent plasma cutoff layer. Results acquired with a 17 GHz reflectometer from a STOR-M tokamak edge region (r/a ∼ 0.8) give significant Γ c and Γ i , which suggests two-dimensional structure in the reflection layer. Using a 'distorted-mirror' model for the plasma fluctuations, estimates of an effective radial width, σ, and poloidal correlation length, L p , can be derived from the reflection coefficients. STOR-M results typically give a σ of a few millimetres and an L p of a couple of centimetres. (author)

  16. Density fluctuations due to Raman forward scattering in quantum plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Punit, E-mail: punitkumar@hotmail.com; Singh, Shiv; Rathore, Nisha Singh, E-mail: nishasingh-rathore@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, University of Lucknow, Lucknow-226007 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Density fluctuations due Raman forward scattering (RFS) is analysed in the interaction of a high intensity laser pulse with high density quantum plasma. The interaction model is developed using the quantum hydrodynamic (QHD) model which consist of a set of equations describing the transport of charge, density, momentum and energy of a charged particle system interacting through a self-consistent electrostatic potential. The nonlinear source current has been obtained incorporating the effects of quantum Bohm potential, Fermi pressure and electron spin. The laser spectrum is strongly modulated by the interaction, showing sidebands at the plasma frequency. Furthermore, as the quiver velocity of the electrons in the high electric field of the laser beam is quit large, various quantum effects are observed which can be attributed to the variation of electron mass with laser intensity.

  17. Holocene sea-level fluctuation in the southern hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isla, Federico Ignacio

    If rising sea levels dominate in the northern hemisphere (NH), falling or fluctuating sea levels predominate in the southern hemisphere (SH). Endogenic processes (tectonics, isostasy or geoidal changes) could explain local or regional mean sea level (MSL) fluctuations but not an hemispherical one. Evidence from South America, Africa, Antarctica, Australia and the Pacific and Indian Oceans suggest that the Holocene transgression rose above the present MSL, in higher latitudes before the tropics. By plotting latitude against the age of MSL arrival at present coasts, good correlation is observed. Oceanic salinity mixing has been already proposed to explain this mid-Holocene sea-level fluctuation. Climate could be the only factor responsible for this hemisphere-wide behavior of MSL. It has been suggested previously that the climate of the SH precedes that of the NH by 3000 years. The climatic optimum, or maximum warmth, occurred predominantly about 6000 BP in the NH, but about 10-9000 BP in the SH. Short-term climatic effects on the sea level (monsoons, southern oscillation/El Niño phenomena) should have significant occurrences during the past in the windiest oceanic hemisphere. This latitudinal trend in former MSL should be considered when using shorelines as reference points for measuring vertical crustal movements.

  18. Relationship between fluctuations in glucose levels measured by continuous glucose monitoring and vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torimoto Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fluctuations in blood glucose level cause endothelial dysfunction and play a critical role in onset and/or progression of atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that fluctuation in blood glucose levels correlate with vascular endothelial dysfunction and that this relationship can be assessed using common bedside medical devices. Methods Fluctuations in blood glucose levels were measured over 24 hours by continuous glucose monitoring (CGM on admission day 2 in 57 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The reactive hyperemia index (RHI, an index of vascular endothelial function, was measured using peripheral arterial tonometry (EndoPAT on admission day 3. Results The natural logarithmic-scaled RHI (L_RHI correlated with SD (r=−0.504; PPP=0.001 and percentage of time ≥200 mg/dl (r=−0.292; P=0.028. In 12 patients with hypoglycemia, L_RHI also correlated with the percentage of time at hypoglycemia (r=−0.589; P=0.044. L_RHI did not correlate with HbA1c or fasting plasma glucose levels. Furthermore, L_RHI did not correlate with LDL cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels or with systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Finally, multivariate analysis identified MAGE as the only significant determinant of L_RHI. Conclusions Fluctuations in blood glucose levels play a significant role in vascular endothelial dysfunction in type 2 diabetes. Trial registration UMIN000007581

  19. Equilibrium fluctuations formulas for the quantum one-component plasma in a magnetic field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    John, P.; Suttorp, L.G.

    1993-01-01

    The authors derive a complete set of equilibrium fluctuation formulae for the charge density, the current density and the energy density of the quantum one-component plasma in a magnetic field. The derivation is based on the use of imaginary-time-dependent Green functions and their Kubo transforms.

  20. Level crossings, excess times, and transient plasma–wall interactions in fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorsen, A., E-mail: audun.theodorsen@uit.no; Garcia, O. E., E-mail: odd.erik.garcia@uit.no [Department of Physics and Technology, UiT The Arctic University of Norway, N-9037 Tromsø (Norway)

    2016-04-15

    Based on a stochastic model for intermittent fluctuations in the boundary region of magnetically confined plasmas, an expression for the level crossing rate is derived from the joint distribution of the process and its derivative. From this the average time spent by the process above a certain threshold level is obtained. This provides novel predictions of plasma–wall interactions due to transient transport events associated with a radial motion of blob-like structures in the scrape-off layer.

  1. FLUCTUATION OF POST-PRANDIAL PLASMA MINERAL LEVEL OF JUVENILE JAPANESE FLOUNDER, Paralichthys olivaceus FED DIETARY PHOSPHORUS AND PHYTASE SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asda Laining

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the phytic acid degradation in the gut of post juvenile Japanese flounder, indirect method was carried out by measuring the pre-prandial and postprandial plasma mineral and alkaline phosphatase (ALP level as well as liver phosphorus content. The experiment was designed into a Randomized Block in which experiment units were grouped according to sampling days at 10, 20 and 30 days of feeding time. Experimental diets contained three levels of dietary inorganic phosphorus at 0.0; 0.25 and 0.5% combined with two levels of dietary phytase at 0 and 2,000 FTU/kg diet. Juvenile Japanese flounder (IBW = 36.2 g were randomly distributed into 6 tanks of a 200 L capacity with density of 15 fish/tank. Blood sampling was carried out at 0 hour (before feeding or pre-prandial and at 1, 3, 6 and 12 hour post feeding (post-prandial time in three sampling days, respectively. Plasma was measured for mineral and ALP levels, while liver was analyzed for P content. The observation showed that fish fed without both dietary IP and phytase supplements had the lowest postprandial plasma IP, Mg and ALP levels during 12-h postprandial period. Plasma IP level at 6-h post-feeding in groups fed dietary 0.25 and 0.5% IP were significant higher when diet supplemented with phytase than those without phytase supplement. Peak level of plasma IP in fish fed 0.25% IP was similar to fish fed 0.5% with the presence of dietary phytase. At 1 and 3-h post-feeding, plasma Ca level increased in all groups, but significant difference was only observed between group fed diet without both dietary IP and phytase and other groups. Similar to plasma IP level, peak of plasma Mg and ALP concentration occurred in fish fed 0.25% IP together with phytase, and did not significantly differ from fish fed with 0.5% IP even when phytase was included in diet.

  2. Self-similarity of fluctuation particle fluxes in the plasma edge of the stellarator L-2M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saenko, V.V. [Ulyanovsk State University, Leo Tolstoy str., 42, Ulyanovsk (Russian Federation)

    2010-05-15

    Results are presented of statistical studies of probability density of fluctuations of plasma density, floating potential, and turbulent particle fluxes measured by a Langmuir probe in the edge plasma of the L-2M stellarator. Empirical probability densities differ from Gaussian distributions. The empirical probability density distributions have heavy tails decreasing as x{sup -{alpha}}{sup -1} and are leptokurtic. Fractional stable distributions were successfully applied to describing such distributions. It is shown that fractional stable distributions give good fit to the distri-butions of increments of fluctuation amplitudes of physical variables under study. The distribution parameters are statistically estimated from measured time sequences (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  3. Self-similarity of fluctuation particle fluxes in the plasma edge of the stellarator L-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saenko, V.V.

    2010-01-01

    Results are presented of statistical studies of probability density of fluctuations of plasma density, floating potential, and turbulent particle fluxes measured by a Langmuir probe in the edge plasma of the L-2M stellarator. Empirical probability densities differ from Gaussian distributions. The empirical probability density distributions have heavy tails decreasing as x -α-1 and are leptokurtic. Fractional stable distributions were successfully applied to describing such distributions. It is shown that fractional stable distributions give good fit to the distri-butions of increments of fluctuation amplitudes of physical variables under study. The distribution parameters are statistically estimated from measured time sequences (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  4. On generation of Alfvenic-like fluctuations by drift wave-zonal flow system in large plasma device experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.; Correa, C.; Chagelishvili, G. D.; Avsarkisov, V. S.; Lominadze, J. G.; Perez, J. C.; Kim, J.-H.; Carter, T. A.

    2009-01-01

    According to recent experiments, magnetically confined fusion plasmas with ''drift wave-zonal flow turbulence'' (DW-ZF) give rise to broadband electromagnetic waves. Sharapov et al. [Europhysics Conference Abstracts, 35th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics, Hersonissos, 2008, edited by P. Lalousis and S. Moustaizis (European Physical Society, Switzerland, 2008), Vol. 32D, p. 4.071] reported an abrupt change in the magnetic turbulence during L-H transitions in Joint European Torus [P. H. Rebut and B. E. Keen, Fusion Technol. 11, 13 (1987)] plasmas. A broad spectrum of Alfvenic-like (electromagnetic) fluctuations appears from ExB flow driven turbulence in experiments on the large plasma device (LAPD) [W. Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] facility at UCLA. Evidence of the existence of magnetic fluctuations in the shear flow region in the experiments is shown. We present one possible theoretical explanation of the generation of electromagnetic fluctuations in DW-ZF systems for an example of LAPD experiments. The method used is based on generalizing results on shear flow phenomena from the hydrodynamics community. In the 1990s, it was realized that fluctuation modes of spectrally stable nonuniform (sheared) flows are non-normal. That is, the linear operators of the flows modal analysis are non-normal and the corresponding eigenmodes are not orthogonal. The non-normality results in linear transient growth with bursts of the perturbations and the mode coupling, which causes the generation of electromagnetic waves from the drift wave-shear flow system. We consider shear flow that mimics tokamak zonal flow. We show that the transient growth substantially exceeds the growth of the classical dissipative trapped-particle instability of the system.

  5. Temporal scaling and spatial statistical analyses of groundwater level fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, H.; Yuan, L., Sr.; Zhang, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Natural dynamics such as groundwater level fluctuations can exhibit multifractionality and/or multifractality due likely to multi-scale aquifer heterogeneity and controlling factors, whose statistics requires efficient quantification methods. This study explores multifractionality and non-Gaussian properties in groundwater dynamics expressed by time series of daily level fluctuation at three wells located in the lower Mississippi valley, after removing the seasonal cycle in the temporal scaling and spatial statistical analysis. First, using the time-scale multifractional analysis, a systematic statistical method is developed to analyze groundwater level fluctuations quantified by the time-scale local Hurst exponent (TS-LHE). Results show that the TS-LHE does not remain constant, implying the fractal-scaling behavior changing with time and location. Hence, we can distinguish the potentially location-dependent scaling feature, which may characterize the hydrology dynamic system. Second, spatial statistical analysis shows that the increment of groundwater level fluctuations exhibits a heavy tailed, non-Gaussian distribution, which can be better quantified by a Lévy stable distribution. Monte Carlo simulations of the fluctuation process also show that the linear fractional stable motion model can well depict the transient dynamics (i.e., fractal non-Gaussian property) of groundwater level, while fractional Brownian motion is inadequate to describe natural processes with anomalous dynamics. Analysis of temporal scaling and spatial statistics therefore may provide useful information and quantification to understand further the nature of complex dynamics in hydrology.

  6. Kinetic evolution and correlation of fluctuations in an expanding quark gluon plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarwar, Golam; Alam, Jan-E.

    2018-03-01

    Evolution of spatially anisotropic perturbation created in the system formed after Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions has been studied. The microscopic evolution of the fluctuations has been examined within the ambit of Boltzmann Transport Equation (BTE) in a hydrodynamically expanding background. The expansion of the background composed of quark gluon plasma (QGP) is treated within the framework of relativistic hydrodynamics. Spatial anisotropic fluctuations with different geometries have been evolved through Boltzmann equation. It is observed that the trace of such fluctuation survives the evolution. Within the relaxation time approximation, analytical results have been obtained for the evolution of these anisotropies. Explicit relations between fluctuations and transport coefficients have been derived. The mixing of various Fourier (or k) modes of the perturbations during the evolution of the system has been explicitly demonstrated. This study is very useful in understanding the presumption that the measured anisotropies in the data from heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies imitate the initial state effects. The evolution of correlation function for the perturbation in pressure has been studied and shows that the initial correlation between two neighbouring points in real space evolves to a constant value at later time which gives rise to Dirac delta function for the correlation function in Fourier space. The power spectrum of the fluctuation in thermodynamic quantities (like temperature estimated in this work) can be connected to the fluctuation in transverse momentum of the thermal hadrons measured experimentally. The bulk viscous coefficient of the QGP has been estimated by using correlations of pressure fluctuation with the help of Green-Kubo relation. Angular power spectrum of the anisotropies has been estimated in the appendix.

  7. Kinetic instabilities in plasmas: from electromagnetic fluctuations to collisionless shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruyer, Charles

    2014-01-01

    Collisionless shocks play a major role in powerful astrophysical objects (e.g., gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants, pulsar winds, etc.), where they are thought to be responsible for non-thermal particle acceleration and radiation. Numerical simulations have shown that, in the absence of an external magnetic field, these self-organizing structures originate from electromagnetic instabilities triggered by high-velocity colliding flows. These Weibel-like instabilities are indeed capable of producing the magnetic turbulence required for both efficient scattering and Fermi-type acceleration. Along with rapid advances in their theoretical understanding, intense effort is now underway to generate collisionless shocks in the laboratory using energetic lasers. In a first part we study the (w,k)-resolved electromagnetic thermal spectrum sustained by a drifting relativistic plasma. In particular, we obtain analytical formulae for the fluctuation spectra, the latter serving as seeds for growing magnetic modes in counterstreaming plasmas. Distinguishing between sub-luminal and supra-luminal thermal fluctuations, we derived analytical formulae of their respective spectral contributions. Comparisons with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are made, showing close agreement in the sub-luminal regime along with some discrepancy in the supra-luminal regime. Our formulae are then used to estimate the saturation time of the Weibel instability of relativistic pair plasmas. Our predictions are shown to match 2-D particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations over a three-decade range in flow energy. We then develop a predictive kinetic model of the nonlinear phase of the Weibel instability induced by two counter-streaming, symmetric and non-relativistic ion beams. This self consistent, fully analytical model allows us to follow the evolution of the beams' properties up to a stage close to complete isotropization and thus to shock formation. Its predictions are supported by 2D and 3D particle

  8. Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-06-01

    The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile

  9. Plasma mass density, species mix and fluctuation diagnostics using fast Alfven wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikezi, H.; deGrassie, J.S.; Pinsker, R.I.; Snider, R.T.

    1996-06-01

    The authors propose to employ a fast Alfven wave interferometer and reflectometer as a tokamak diagnostic to measure the plasma mass density, D-T species mix profile, and density fluctuations. Utilize the property that the phase velocity of the fast wave propagating across the magnetic field is the Alfven speed with thermal correction, this fast wave interferometer on the DIII-D tokamak was successfully used to obtain the line integrated density. Since the position of the ion-ion hybrid cut-off in tokamaks is uniquely determined by the species mix ratio and the wave frequency, the reflectometer arrangement finds the species mix profile. The inversion method of reflectometry is discussed. The multiple chord interferometer also measures the mass density fluctuation profile.

  10. Collisionality dependent transport in TCV SOL plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Odd Erik; Pitts, R.A.; Horacek, J.

    2007-01-01

    Results are presented from probe measurements in the low field side scrape-off layer (SOL) region of TCV during plasma current scan experiments. It is shown that with decreasing plasma current the radial particle density profile becomes broader and the fluctuation levels and turbulence driven...... radial particle flux increase. In the far SOL the fluctuations exhibit a high degree of statistical similarity and the particle density and flux at the wall radius scale inversely with the plasma current. Together with previous TCV density scan experiments, this indicates that plasma fluctuations...

  11. Denitrifying Bioreactors Resist Disturbance from Fluctuating Water Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K. Hathaway

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate can be removed from wastewater streams, including subsurface agricultural drainage systems, using woodchip bioreactors to promote microbial denitrification. However, the variations in water flow in these systems could make reliable performance from this microbially-mediated process a challenge. In the current work, the effects of fluctuating water levels on nitrate removal, denitrifying activity, and microbial community composition in laboratory-scale bioreactors were investigated. The performance was sensitive to changing water level. An average of 31% nitrate was removed at high water level and 59% at low water level, despite flow adjustments to maintain a constant theoretical hydraulic retention time. The potential activity, as assessed through denitrifying enzyme assays, averaged 0.0008 mg N2O-N/h/dry g woodchip and did not show statistically significant differences between reactors, sampling depths, or operational conditions. In the denitrifying enzyme assays, nitrate removal consistently exceeded nitrous oxide production. The denitrifying bacterial communities were not significantly different from each other, regardless of water level, meaning that the denitrifying bacterial community did not change in response to disturbance. The overall bacterial communities, however, became more distinct between the two reactors when one reactor was operated with periodic disturbances of changing water height, and showed a stronger effect at the most severely disturbed location. The communities were not distinguishable, though, when comparing the same location under high and low water levels, indicating that the communities in the disturbed reactor were adapted to fluctuating conditions rather than to high or low water level. Overall, these results describe a biological treatment process and microbial community that is resistant to disturbance via water level fluctuations.

  12. Fluctuation characteristics of arc voltage and jet flow in a non-transferred dc plasma generated at reduced pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, W X; Guo, Z Y; Meng, X; Huang, H J; Wu, C K

    2009-01-01

    A torch with a set of inter-electrode inserts between the cathode and the anode/nozzle with a wide nozzle exit was designed to generate plasma jets at chamber pressures of 500-10 000 Pa. The variation of the arc voltage was examined with the change in working parameters such as gas flow rate and chamber pressure. The fluctuation in the arc voltage was recorded with an oscilloscope, and the plasma jet fluctuation near the torch exit was observed with a high-speed video camera and detected with a double-electrostatic probe. Results show that the 300 Hz wave originated from the tri-phase rectified power supply was always detected under all generating conditions. Helmholtz oscillations over 3000 Hz was detected superposed on the 300 Hz wave at gas flow rates higher than 8.8 slm with a peak to valley amplitude lower than 5% of the average voltage value. No appreciable voltage fluctuation caused by the irregular arc root movement is detected, and mechanisms for the arc voltage and jet flow fluctuations are discussed.

  13. Fluctuations of Lake Orta water levels: preliminary analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmi Saidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available While the effects of past industrial pollution on the chemistry and biology of Lake Orta have been well documented, annual and seasonal fluctuations of lake levels have not yet been studied. Considering their potential impacts on both the ecosystem and on human safety, fluctuations in lake levels are an important aspect of limnological research. In the enormous catchment of Lake Maggiore, there are many rivers and lakes, and the amount of annual precipitation is both high and concentrated in spring and autumn. This has produced major flood events, most recently in November 2014. Flood events are also frequent on Lake Orta, occurring roughly triennially since 1917. The 1926, 1951, 1976 and 2014 floods were severe, with lake levels raised from 2.30 m to 3.46 m above the hydrometric zero. The most important event occurred in 1976, with a maximum level equal to 292.31 m asl and a return period of 147 years. In 2014 the lake level reached 291.89 m asl and its return period was 54 years. In this study, we defined trends and temporal fluctuations in Lake Orta water levels from 1917 to 2014, focusing on extremes. We report both annual maximum and seasonal variations of the lake water levels over this period. Both Mann-Kendall trend tests and simple linear regression were utilized to detect monotonic trends in annual and seasonal extremes, and logistic regression was used to detect trends in the number of flood events. Lake level decreased during winter and summer seasons, and a small but statistically non-significant positive trend was found in the number of flood events over the period. We provide estimations of return period for lake levels, a metric which could be used in planning lake flood protection measures.

  14. Effect of magnetic and density fluctuations on the propagation of lower hybrid waves in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahala, George; Vahala, Linda; Bonoli, Paul T.

    1992-12-01

    Lower hybrid waves have been used extensively for plasma heating, current drive, and ramp-up as well as sawteeth stabilization. The wave kinetic equation for lower hybrid wave propagation is extended to include the effects of both magnetic and density fluctuations. This integral equation is then solved by Monte Carlo procedures for a toroidal plasma. It is shown that even for magnetic/density fluctuation levels on the order of 10-4, there are significant magnetic fluctuation effects on the wave power deposition into the plasma. This effect is quite pronounced if the magnetic fluctuation spectrum is peaked within the plasma. For Alcator-C-Mod [I. H. Hutchinson and the Alcator Group, Proceedings of the IEEE 13th Symposium on Fusion Engineering (IEEE, New York, 1990), Cat. No. 89CH 2820-9, p. 13] parameters, it seems possible to be able to infer information on internal magnetic fluctuations from hard x-ray data—especially since the effects of fluctuations on electron power density can explain the hard x-ray data from the JT-60 tokamak [H. Kishimoto and JT-60 Team, in Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1989), Vol. I, p. 67].

  15. The role of fluctuation-induced transport in a toroidal plasma with strong radial electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.; Krawczonek, W. M.; Powers, E. J.; Hong, J. Y.; Kim, Y. C.

    1981-01-01

    Previous work employing digitally implemented spectral analysis techniques is extended to demonstrate that radial fluctuation-induced transport is the dominant ion transport mechanism in an electric field dominated toroidal plasma. Such transport can be made to occur against a density gradient, and hence may have a very beneficial effect on confinement in toroidal plasmas of fusion interest. It is shown that Bohm or classical diffusion down a density gradient, the collisional Pedersen-current mechanism, and the collisionless electric field gradient mechanism described by Cole (1976) all played a minor role, if any, in the radial transport of this plasma.

  16. Communication Networks - Analysis of jitter due to call-level fluctuations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mandjes, M.R.H.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract In communication networks used by constant bit rate applications, call-level dynamics (i.e. entering and leaving calls) lead to fluctuations in the load, and therefore also fluctuations in the delay (jitter). By intentionally delaying the packets at the destination, one can transform the

  17. Density, potential and temperature fluctuations in Wendelstein 7-AS and ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balbin, R.; Hidalgo, C.; Carlson, A.; Endler, M.; Giannone, L.; Herre, G.; Niedermeyer, H.; Rudyj, A.; Theimer, G.

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of ion saturation current, floating potential and temperature fluctuations in Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator (W7-AS) and ASDEX tokamak have been carried out. A reciprocating Langmuir probe with an array of 19 graphite tips has been used to obtain the radial profiles of these fluctuations in W7-AS and ASDEX. In both devices, a reversal of the radial electric field and an associated velocity shear layer at the plasma boundary have been observed. At the radial position where the phase velocity the poloidal direction of the fluctuations goes to zero, the normalised ion saturation current fluctuation level of 0.2 is the same for edge plasma parameters of similar temperatures and densities. A spatial crosscorrelation between floating potential and ion saturation current fluctuations has been observed in both machines and this feature can be explained in terms of turbulent eddies. A comparison of fluctuations in a tokamak and stellarator therefore shows many features in common. (orig.)

  18. The effect of Gaussian white noise on the fractality of fluctuations in the plasma of a symmetrical discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stan, Cristina; Cristescu, Cristina Maria; Alexandroaei, D.; Cristescu, C.P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: •We study the white Gaussian noise effect on the fractality of plasma fluctuations. •Multifractality strength is increased by the noise, at all inter-anode voltages. •New positive influence of noise resulting in an increasing of the predictability. •Identifying the fluctuations nature: chaotic or stochastic by multifractal analysis. •Noise changes the position of the maximum in the singularity spectra. - Abstract: In this work we investigate the influence of white Gaussian noise on the fluctuations in the plasma of a symmetrical discharge using multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis. We observe that in the range of noise intensity used in our study, the multifractality strength is increased by the noise, at all values of the inter-anode voltage, both for original and filtered time-series. This is interpreted as a new positive influence of noise because this effect can be understood as an increasing in the predictability on the dynamics in a time-series. A constructive influence of noise can appear only for fluctuations with underlying chaotic dynamics. The shuffling analysis demonstrates that the multifractality is purely a consequence of the correlations of the fluctuations. The noise influence is also observed in the change of the position of the maximum in the singularity spectra. The multifractal detrended cross correlation between light intensity and current intensity demonstrates that the fluctuations in both parameters are generated by the same physical processes though they are very different in nature: one is a local parameter and the other is a global one

  19. Effects of rf power on electron density and temperature, neutral temperature, and Te fluctuations in an inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camparo, James; Fathi, Gilda

    2009-01-01

    Atomic clocks that fly on global-navigation satellites such as global positioning system (GPS) and Galileo employ light from low-temperature, inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs) for atomic signal generation and detection (i.e., alkali/noble-gas rf-discharge lamps). In this application, the performance of the atomic clock and the capabilities of the navigation system depend sensitively on the stability of the ICP's optical emission. In order to better understand the mechanisms that might lead to instability in these rf-discharge lamps, and hence the satellite atomic clocks, we studied the optical emission from a Rb/Xe ICP as a function of the rf power driving the plasma. Surprisingly, we found that the electron density in the plasma was essentially independent of increases in rf power above its nominal value (i.e., 'rf-power gain') and that the electron temperature was only a slowly varying function of rf-power gain. The primary effect of rf power was to increase the temperature of the neutrals in the plasma, which was manifested by an increase in Rb vapor density. Interestingly, we also found evidence for electron temperature fluctuations (i.e., fluctuations in the plasma's high-energy electron content). The variance of these fluctuations scaled inversely with the plasma's mean electron temperature and was consistent with a simple model that assumed that the total electron density in the discharge was independent of rf power. Taken as a whole, our results indicate that the electrons in alkali/noble-gas ICPs are little affected by slight changes in rf power and that the primary effect of such changes is to heat the plasma's neutral species.

  20. Size scaling effects on the particle density fluctuations in confined plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Federico; Markus, Ferenc

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, memory and nonlocal effects on fluctuating mass diffusion are addressed in the context of fusion plasmas. Nonlocal effects are included by considering a diffusivity coefficient depending on the size of the container in the transverse direction to the applied magnetic field. It is obtained by resorting to the general formulation of the extended version of irreversible thermodynamics in terms of the higher order dissipative fluxes. The developed model describes two different types of the particle density time correlation function. Both have been observed in tokamak and nontokamak devices. These two kinds of time correlation function characterize the wave and the diffusive transport mechanisms of particle density perturbations. A transition between them is found, which is controlled by the size of the container. A phase diagram in the (L,2π/k) space describes the relation between the dynamics of particle density fluctuations and the size L of the system together with the oscillating mode k of the correlation function.

  1. Bursty fluctuation characteristics in SOL/divertor plasmas of Large Helical Device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, N.; Masuzaki, S.; Morisaki, T.; Ohyabu, N.; Komori, A.; Budaev, V.P.; Miyoshi, H.; Takamura, S.

    2006-10-01

    Bursty electrostatic fluctuation in the scrape off layer (SOL) and the divertor region of the Large Helical Device (LHD) have been investigated by using a Langmuir probe array on a divertor plate and a reciprocating Langmuir probe. Large positive bursty events were often observed in the ion saturation current measured with a divertor probe near the divertor leg at which the magnetic line of force connected to the area of a low-field side with a short connection length. Condition averaging result of the positive bursty events indicates the intermittent feature with a rapid increase and a slow decay is similar to that of plasma blobs observed in tokamaks. On the other hand, at a striking point with a long connection length, negative spikes were observed. Statistical analysis based on probability distribution function (PDF) was employed to investigate the bursty fluctuation property. The observed scaling exponents disagree with the predictions for the self-organized criticality (SOC) paradigm. (author)

  2. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions. PMID:26735689

  3. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mo-Zhu; Liu, Zheng-Yuan; Luo, Fang-Li; Lei, Guang-Chun; Li, Hong-Li

    2016-01-01

    Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii) and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm) were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  4. Do Amplitudes of Water Level Fluctuations Affect the Growth and Community Structure of Submerged Macrophytes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mo-Zhu Wang

    Full Text Available Submerged macrophytes are subjected to potential mechanical stresses associated with fluctuating water levels in natural conditions. However, few experimental studies have been conducted to further understand the effects of water level fluctuating amplitude on submerged macrophyte species and their assemblages or communities. We designed a controlled experiment to investigate the responses of three submerged macrophyte species (Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratophyllum demersum and Elodea nuttallii and their combinations in communities to three amplitudes (static, ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm of water level fluctuations. Results showed that water level fluctuating amplitude had little effects on the community performance and the three tested species responded differently. H. verticillata exhibited more growth in static water and it was negatively affected by either of the water level fluctuations amplitude, however, growth parameters of H. verticillata in two fluctuating water level treatments (i.e., ± 30 cm, ± 60 cm were not significantly different. On the other hand, the growth of C. demersum was not significantly correlated with different amplitude treatments. However, it became more abundant when water levels fluctuated. E. nuttallii was inhibited by the two fluctuating water level treatments, and was less in growth parameters compared to the other species especially in water level fluctuating conditions. The inherent differences in the adaptive capabilities of the tested species indicate that C. demersum or other species with similar responses may be dominant species to restore submerged macrophyte communities with great fluctuating water levels. Otherwise, H. verticillata, E. nuttallii or other species with similar responses could be considered for constructing the community in static water conditions.

  5. Fluctuations and Photons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, Sourendu

    2007-01-01

    In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence

  6. Fluctuations and Photons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sourendu

    2007-02-01

    In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.

  7. Fluctuations and Photons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Sourendu [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India)

    2007-02-15

    In this talk I discuss measures of fluctuations, especially those leading to the proof that the quark gluon plasma indeed contains quarks. I discuss the quark mass dependence of the critical end point of QCD. Then I discuss probes of the QCD critical point. Non-gaussian behaviour of event-to-event fluctuations of conserved quantum numbers is one such probe. Another is due to the coupling of fluctuations in baryon number and electrical charge, giving rise to long range random fluctuations of local charge density which relax slowly. These fluctuations can scatter photons, giving rise to critical opalescence.

  8. Edge fluctuation studies in Heliotron J

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuuchi, T.; Chechkin, V.V.; Ohashi, K.; Sorokovoy, E.L.; Chechkin, A.V.; Gonchar, V.Yu.; Takahashi, K.; Kobayashi, S.; Nagasaki, K.; Okada, H.; Yamamoto, S.; Sano, F.; Kondo, K.; Nishino, N.; Kawazome, H.; Shidara, H.; Kaneko, S.; Fukagawa, Y.; Morita, Y.; Nakazawa, S.; Nishio, S.; Tsuboi, S.; Yamada, M.

    2005-01-01

    Low frequency and small-scale fluctuations of density and potential near the last closed flux surface are investigated by using Langmuir probes for the second harmonic ECH plasmas in a helical-axis heliotron device, Heliotron J. The existence of a plasma layer with a radial electric field shear was indicated near the last closed flux surface. Near this layer, the reversal of phase velocity and de-correlation of the fluctuations were observed. On the other hand, it is suggested that a considerable fraction of the fluctuation induced particle flux is carried off through the intermittent events. Preliminary analyses to classify the PDFs of the ion-saturation current fluctuation as stable Levy distributions demonstrate that the Levy index decreases from the inner to the outer region of edge plasma, suggesting that the PDFs near the boundary region of Heliotron J are nearly Gaussian, whereas at the outer regions of plasma they become strongly non-Gaussian

  9. Plasma Turbulence General Topics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kadomtsev, B. B. [Nuclear Energy Institute, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Moscow, USSR (Russian Federation)

    1965-06-15

    It is known that under experimental conditions plasma often shows chaotic motion. Such motion, when many degrees of freedom are excited to levels considerably above the thermal level, will be called turbulent. The properties of turbulent plasma in many respects differ from the properties of laminar plasma. It can be said that the appearance of various anomalies in plasma behaviour indicates the presence of turbulence in plasma. In order to verify directly the presence of turbulent motion in plasma we must, however, measure the fluctuation of some microscopic parameters in plasma.

  10. To the theory of fluctuations in a non-equilibrium plasma with taking into account the particle collisional interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchkov, V.A.

    1998-01-01

    A method for calculation of non-equilibrium fluctuations in a totally ionized stable plasma with taking into account the particle collisions is proposed. The spectrum of high-frequency fluctuations of the electric field is calculated by the developed method. The formula obtained for the spectrum takes into consideration both the Coulomb collisions and influence of collective effects on the collisions and is applicable for stable arbitrary distributions of electrons and ions

  11. Fluctuations measured by flush mounted versus proud divertor Langmuir probes - why are they different?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, O. E.; Kuang, A. Q.; Brunner, D.; Labombard, B.; Kube, R.

    2017-10-01

    A flush-mounted, toroidally-elongated, and field-aligned divertor `rail' Langmuir probe array was installed in Alcator C-Mod in 2015. This geometry is heat flux tolerant and effectively mitigates sheath expansion effects down to incident field line angles of 0.5 degree. Further complications have arisen that cannot be explained by sheath-expansion. In particular, the `rail' probe geometry measures significantly higher plasma fluctuation levels in the common flux region compared to traditional proud probes, whereas they are similar in the private flux zone. In some instances, the amplitudes of ion saturation current fluctuations normalized to the mean are a factor of 2 higher; probability distribution functions correspondingly record large amplitude events that are not seen by the proud probes. This discrepancy also appears to depend on divertor plasma regime. For example, fluctuations become similar near the strikepoint when the electron temperature is low. To ensure that these discrepancies were not due to perturbations caused by the voltage bias or currents collected by the probes, the two Langmuir probe systems were left to `float' and the fluctuation statistics analyzed. Yet, even in this non-perturbative situation, there exist clear differences in the fluctuation characteristics. The raises two questions: how does the probe geometry affect plasma fluctuations measurements and what are the true plasma fluctuations experienced by the divertor surface? Supported by USDoE awards DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  12. Fluctuations and stability in the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.H.; Charlton, L.A.; Bell, J.D.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carreras, B.A.; Colchin, R.J.; Crume, E.C.; Dominguez, N.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; England, A.C.; Glowienka, J.C.; Hillis, D.L.; Hiroe, S.; Horton, L.D.; Howe, H.C.; Isler, R.C.; Jernigan, T.C.; Leboeuf, J.N.; Lee, D.K.; Lynch, V.E.; Lyon, J.F.; Menon, M.M.; Murakami, M.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Uckan, T.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wing, W.R.; Bell, G.L.; Crocker, N.A.; Hanson, G.R.; Thomas, C.E.; Wade, M.R.; Ritz, C.P.

    1990-01-01

    We present the results of experimental and theoretical studies of fluctuations and instabilities in the ATF torsatron, a type of stellarator. Measurements of globally coherent magnetic fluctuations in high-β plasmas with narrow pressure profiles produced by a field error show evidence of self-stabilization ('second stability'); the trends are compatible with theoretical analysis of self-stabilization of resistive curvature-driven instabilities, but there are discrepancies between the absolute experimental and theoretical fluctuation amplitudes. Fluctuation measurements in plasma with broad pressure profiles reveal new phenomena--specifically, toroidally localized magnetic fluctuations, whose amplitudes increase with plasma pressure, and coherent density fluctuations with significant radial width

  13. Stability Dust-Ion-Acoustic Wave In Dusty Plasmas With Stream -Influence Of Charge Fluctuation Of Dust Grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atamaniuk, Barbara; Zuchowski, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    There is a quickly increasing wealth of experimental data on so-called dusty plasmas i. e. ionized gases or usual plasmas that contain micron sized charged particles. Interest in these structures is driven both by their importance in many astrophysical as well as commercial situations. Among them are linear and nonlinear wave phenomena. We consider the influence of dust charge fluctuations on stability of the ion-acoustic waves when the stream of particles is present. It is assumed that all grains of dust have equal masses but charges are not constant in time-they may fluctuate in time. The dust charges are not really independent of the variations of the plasma potentials. All modes will influence the charging mechanism, and feedback will lead to several new interesting and unexpected phenomena. The charging of the grains depends on local plasma characteristics. If the waves disturb these characteristic, then charging of the grains is affected and the grain charge is modified, with a resulting feedback on the wave mode. In case considering here, when temperature of electrons is much greater then the temperature of the ions and temperature of electrons is not great enough for further ionization of the ions, we show that stability of the acoustic wave depends only one phenomenological coefficient

  14. Effects of density gradients and fluctuations at the plasma edge on ECEI measurements at ASDEX Upgrade

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanovac, B.; Wolfrum, E.; Denk, S. S.; Mink, F.; Laggner, F. M.; Birkenmeier, G.; Willensdorfer, M.; Viezzer, E.; Hoelzl, M.; Freethy, S. J.; Dunne, M. G.; Lessig, A.; Luhmann, N. C.; ASDEX Upgrade team,; EUROfusion MST1 Team,

    2018-01-01

    Electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) provides measurements of electron temperature (T-e) and its fluctuations (delta T-e). However, when measuring at the plasma edge, in the steep gradient region, radiation transport effects must be taken into account. It is shown that due to these effects,

  15. A complex probe for tokamak plasma edge conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, R.M. de; Silva, R.P. da; Heller, M.V.A.P.; Caldas, I.L.; Nascimento, I.C.; Degasperi, F.T.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the physical processes that occur in the plasma edge of tokamak machines has recently grown due to the evidence that these processes influence those that occur in the center of the plasma column. Experimental studies show the existence of a strong level of fluctuations in the plasma edge. The results of these studies indicate that these fluctuations enhance particle and energy transport and degrade the confinement. In order to investigate these processes in the plasma edge of the TBR-1 Tokamak, a Langmuir probe array, a triple and a set of magnetic probes have been designed and constructed. With this set probes the mean and fluctuation values of the magnetic field were detected and correlated with the fluctuating parameters obtained with the electrostatic probes. (author). 7 refs., 5 figs

  16. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. III. Water level fluctuation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hildebrand, S.G. (ed.)

    1980-10-01

    Potential environmental impacts in reservoirs and downstream river reaches below dams that may be caused by the water level fluctuation resulting from development and operation of small scale (under 25MW) hydroelectric projects are identified. The impacts discussed will be of potential concern at only those small-scale hydroelectric projects that are operated in a store and release (peaking) mode. Potential impacts on physical and chemical characteristics in reservoirs resulting from water level fluctuation include resuspension and redistribution of bank and bed sediment; leaching of soluble organic matter from sediment in the littoral zone; and changes in water quality resulting from changes in sediment and nutrient trap efficiency. Potential impacts on reservoir biota as a result of water level fluctuation include habitat destruction and the resulting partial or total loss of aquatic species; changes in habitat quality, which result in reduced standing crop and production of aquatic biota; and possible shifts in species diversity. The potential physical effects of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams are streambed and bank erosion and water quality problems related to resuspension and redistribution of these materials. Potential biological impacts of water level fluctuation on downstream systems below dams result from changes in current velocity, habitat reduction, and alteration in food supply. These alterations, either singly or in combination, can adversely affect aquatic populations below dams. The nature and potential significance of adverse impacts resulting from water level fluctuation are discussed. Recommendations for site-specific evaluation of water level fluctuation at small-scale hydroelectric projects are presented.

  17. Does water-level fluctuation affect mercury methylation in wetland soils?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Branfireun, B.A.; Mitchell, C.P.J.; Iraci, J.M. [Toronto Univ., ON (Canada). Dept. of Geography; Krabbenhoft, D.P. [United States Geological Survey, Middleton, WI (United States); Fowle, D.A. [Kansas Univ., Lawrence, KS (United States). Dept. of Geology; Neudahl, L. [Minnesota Power, Duluth, MN (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish vary considerably in freshwater lakes and reservoirs. However, the variations are not generally consistent with physical factors such as basin characteristics, wetland cover or lake chemistry. Pronounced differences in Hg concentrations in fish have been noted in the reservoirs of the St. Louis River system near Duluth Minnesota. The differences were observed between headwater reservoir systems with seasonal flooding and drawdown, and a peaking reservoir with approximately daily water level fluctuations during seasonal lower flow periods. It was suggested that these differences could be attributed to water level fluctuations in the reservoir which influenced the actual production of methylmercury (MeHg) in the surrounding wetland soils. In response to this hypothesis, the authors investigated the role of water level fluctuation in the production and mobilization of MeHg in sediments from wetlands that lie adjacent to a headwater reservoir, a peaking reservoir, and a nearby natural flowage lake used as a control. Preliminary field surveys of the wetland soils revealed that although the average MeHg concentrations in the headwater and peaking reservoir wetlands were not considerably different, both were much higher than the natural lake. Each site demonstrated high variability, but maximum MeHg concentrations ranged from 29.2 ng/g for the peaking reservoir to 4.44 ng/g at the natural lake. A laboratory experiment was therefore performed in which sediments from each wetland were subjected to different water level regimes. The purpose was to assess Hg methylation potential. Stable Hg isotopes were used at the beginning and end of the experiment. In order to determine if water level fluctuation can significantly change the methylation potential of wetland soils on its own, the microbial consortia will also be assessed during the laboratory experiment.

  18. Fluctuations in sedation levels may contribute to delirium in ICU patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenningsen, Helle; Egerod, I; Videbech, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Delirium in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is a serious complication potentially increasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fluctuating sedation levels on the incidence of delirium in ICU.......Delirium in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) is a serious complication potentially increasing morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of fluctuating sedation levels on the incidence of delirium in ICU....

  19. Water-level fluctuation in wetlands as a function of landscape condition in the prairie pothole region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Euliss, Ned H.; Mushet, David M.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated water-level fluctuation (maximum water depth - minimum water depth/catchment size) in 12 temporary, 12 seasonal, and 12 semipermanent wetlands equally distributed among landscapes dominated by tilled agricultural lands and landscapes dominated by grassland. Water levels fluctuated an average of 14.14 cm in wetlands within tilled agricultural landscapes, while water levels in wetlands within grassland landscapes fluctuated an average of only 4.27 cm. Tillage reduces the natural capacity of catch meets to mitigate surface flow into wetland basins during precipitation events, resulting in greater water-level fluctuations in wetlands with tilled catchments. In addition, water levels in temporary and seasonal wetlands fluctuated an average of 13.74 cm and 11.82 cm, respectively, while water levels in semipermanent wetlands fluctuated only 2.77 cm. Semipermanent wetlands receive a larger proportion of their water as input from ground water than do either temporary or seasonal wetlands. This input of water from the ground has a stabilizing effect on water-levels of semipermanent wetlands. Increases in water-level fluctuation due to tillage or due to alteration of ground-water hydrology may ultimately affect the composition of a wetland's flora and fauna. In this paper, we also describe an inexpensive device for determining absolute maximum and minimum water levels in wetlands.

  20. Broadband magnetic and density fluctuations in the TCA tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenstein, Ch.; Keller, R.; Pochelon, A.; Ryter, F.; Sawley, M.L.; Simm, W.; Weisen, H.

    1987-01-01

    The results of comparative studies of broadband magnetic and density fluctuations during ohmic discharges in the TCA tokamak are described. Long coherence lengths are observed in poloidal and toroidal directions between magnetic probes in the scrape-off layer. A phase contrast diagnostic provides a newly accessible range of density fluctuations in the bulk plasma with very long wavelengths. Langmuir probes provide similar measurements in the scrape-off layer. Statistical dispersion relations for both density and magnetic fluctuations are deduced and are shown to be substantially different. Low mean poloidal wavenumbers (m ∼ 2 at 100 kHz) are obtained for the magnetic fluctuations, in contrast to the much higher values measured for density fluctuations. The difference between magnetic and density fluctuations is also reflected in different scalings with plasma parameters and with electron confinement time. The helicity of the coherent magnetic structures is analyzed to show that interior regions of the plasma, such as the q = 2 region contribute to the magnetic activity at the edge. This explains why the magnetic fluctuations measured at the edge are likely to reflect the confinement properties of the bulk plasma. The results of detailed probe rotation experiments and coherence measurements give indications of the physical nature and origin of magnetic fluctuations

  1. The plasma position control of ITER EDA plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senda, Ikuo; Nishio, Satoshi; Tsunematsu, Toshihide; Nishino, Toru; Fujieda, Hirobumi.

    1994-09-01

    The study on the plasma position control of ITER EDA performed by Japan Home Team during the sensitivity study in 1994 is summarized. The controllabilities of plasmas in the Outline Design and elongated version are compared. The model used to describe the motion of the plasma is a rigid model. The PD feedback control is applied with respect to the displacements of the plasma from the equilibrium. Three types of fluctuations, which initiate the motion of the plasma, are examined, namely a finite horizontal fluctuation field, a small horizontal fluctuation field such that the motion of the plasma is governed by the passive structures and an abrupt change of the poloidal beta β p and internal inductance l i . In the simulations of finite horizontal fluctuation fields, controls depend on the strength of the fluctuations, for instance, 3-5V is needed for 5-10G of fluctuation fields in the Outline Design. When the fluctuation field is small and the plasma displacement grows in a characteristic time of the passive structures, a few volt of the control voltage is enough to obtain good controllability. It is shown that the control when (β p , l i ) changes simultaneously is demanding and a large control voltage is required to maintain satisfactory control. Comparing the elongated version with the Outline Design, the control voltage which is larger than the Outline Design by a factor of 2-3 is required to obtain the same controllability in the elongated version. (author)

  2. Effective Ohm's law for magnetized plasmas with anisotropic inhomogeneities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamma, S.E.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Louis, J.F.

    1978-01-01

    Reduction formulae for the effective, or macroscopic, Ohm's law parameters are derived for inhomogeneous plasmas with anisotropic conductivity fluctuations having two general types of geometry: (a) elongated or shortened in the direction of the magnetic field and (b) two-dimensional, with the direction of constant properties lying in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. In each case, two approaches are used: (a) a small perturbation method and (b) an approximate method where each region in the plasma is considered separately, and consistency conditions are used to relate the results corresponding to each separate region to the effective properties of the whole plasma. Both methods are found to agree well when the fluctuations are weak, but differences appear at high fluctuation levels and, for nonuniformities very elongated along B, when the Hall parameter β is high. Comparison with available exact solutions valid at high β and strong fluctuation levels indicates that the self-consistency method gives accurate results even in these cases. The results of these analyses are used to evaluate the performance reduction in magnetohydrodynamic channels with plasma nonuniformities of several geometries, including axial streamers, perfectly isotropic fluctuations, and fluctuations elongated along B; the power density is reduced most strongly when β and the rms of the fluctuations are high, and also when the inhomogeneities are stretched along the magnetic field

  3. RADAR upper hybrid resonance scattering diagnostics of small-scale fluctuations and waves in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulyiginskiy, D.G.; Gurchenko, A.D.; Gusakov, E.Z.; Korkin, V.V.; Larionov, M.M.; Novik, K.M.; Petrov, Yu.V.; Popov, A.Yu.; Saveliev, A.N.; Selenin, V.L.; Stepanov, A.Yu.

    2001-01-01

    The upper hybrid resonance (UHR) scattering technique possessing such merits as one-dimensional probing geometry, enhancement of cross section, and fine localization of scattering region is modified in the new diagnostics under development to achieve wave number resolution. The fluctuation wave number is estimated in the new technique from the scattering signal time delay measurements. The feasibility of the scheme is checked in the proof of principal experiment in a tokamak. The time delay of the UHR scattering signal exceeding 10 ns is observed. The small scale low frequency density fluctuations are investigated in the UHR RADAR backscattering experiment. The UHR cross-polarization scattering signal related to small scale magnetic fluctuations is observed. The lower hybrid (LH) wave propagation and both linear and nonlinear wave conversion are investigated. The small wavelength (λ≤0.02 cm) high number ion Bernstein harmonics, resulting from the linear wave conversion of the LH wave are observed in a tokamak plasma for the first time

  4. Stable explicit coupling of the Yee scheme with a linear current model in fluctuating magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Filipe da; Pinto, Martin Campos; Després, Bruno; Heuraux, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    This work analyzes the stability of the Yee scheme for non-stationary Maxwell's equations coupled with a linear current model with density fluctuations. We show that the usual procedure may yield unstable scheme for physical situations that correspond to strongly magnetized plasmas in X-mode (TE) polarization. We propose to use first order clustered discretization of the vectorial product that gives back a stable coupling. We validate the schemes on some test cases representative of direct numerical simulations of X-mode in a magnetic fusion plasma including turbulence

  5. Development of a LiF-filter for measuring plasma fluctuations in the far ultraviolet radiation spectral range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schittenhelm, M.

    1991-06-01

    The investigations of fluctuations and anomalous transport lie at hart of the tokamak research program, especially in the shear zone close to and beyond the last closed flux surface. Until now fluctuation measurements using plasma radiation were only made on the edge of the plasma, since they rely on the H α emission. In order to measure electron density fluctuations with good spatial and temporal resolution in the shear zone, the OVI doublet (2s-2p) can be observed. These are very strong impurity emission lines in the VUV region (103.2 nm and 103.8 nm) emitted from a narrow layer close to the separatrix. To get an image of this layer and to achieve enough intensity for a good temporal resolution, it is necessary to develop a filter with high transmission. A possible candidate is lithium fluoride (LiF), which transmits light at shorter wavelength than other materials. By cooling LiF crystals from 300 K to 220 K the cutoff wavelength decreases from 105 nm to about 103 nm. This master thesis presents a detailed investigation of the transmission of LiF near the cutoff wavelength. Crystal sheets produced by different manufactures were tested and the temperature dependence of the cutoff edge was investigated. (orig./AH)

  6. Modification of boundary fluctuations by LHCD in the HT-7 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Mei; Wan Baonian; Xu Guosheng; Ling Bili

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of boundary fluctuations and fluctuation driven electron fluxes have been performed in ohmic and lower hybrid current drive enhanced confinement plasma using a graphite Langmuir probe array on HT-7 tokamak. The fluctuations are significantly suppressed and the turbulent fluxes are remarkably depressed in the enhanced plasma. We characterized the statistical properties of fluctuations and the particle flux and found a non-Gaussian character in the whole scrape-off layer with minimum deviations from Gaussian in the proximity of the velocity shear layer in ohmic plasma. In the enhanced plasma the deviations in the boundary region are all reduces obviously. The fluctuations and induced electron fluxes show sporadic bursts asymmetric in time and the asymmetry is remarkably weakened in the lower hybrid current driving (LHCD) phase. The results suggest a coupling between the statistical behaviour of fluctuations and the turbulent flow

  7. Current density fluctuations and ambipolarity of transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, W.; Dexter, R.N.; Prager, S.C.

    1991-10-01

    The fluctuation in the plasma current density is measured in the MIST reversed field pinch experiment. Such fluctuations, and the measured radial profile of the k spectrum of magnetic fluctuations, supports the view and that low frequency fluctuations (f r >) demonstrates that radial particle transport from particle motion parallel to a fluctuating magnetic field is ambipolar over the full frequency range

  8. Radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruno, R.; D'Amicis, R.; Telloni, D.; Primavera, L.; Sorriso-Valvo, L.; Carbone, V.; Malara, F.; Veltri, P.; Pietropaolo, E.

    2014-01-01

    We study the radial evolution of the intermittency of density fluctuations in the fast solar wind. The study is performed by analyzing the plasma density measurements provided by Helios 2 in the inner heliosphere between 0.3 and 0.9 AU. The analysis is carried out by means of a complete set of diagnostic tools, including the flatness factor at different timescales to estimate intermittency, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test to estimate the degree of intermittency, and the Fourier transform to estimate the power spectral densities of these fluctuations. Density fluctuations within the fast wind are rather intermittent and their level of intermittency, together with the amplitude of intermittent events, decreases with the distance from the Sun, at odds with the intermittency of both magnetic field and all other plasma parameters. Furthermore, the intermittent events are strongly correlated, exhibiting temporal clustering. This indicates that the mechanism underlying their generation departs from a time-varying Poisson process. A remarkable, qualitative similarity with the behavior of plasma density fluctuations obtained from a numerical study of the nonlinear evolution of parametric instability in the solar wind supports the idea that this mechanism has an important role in governing density fluctuations in the inner heliosphere.

  9. Deformation analysis and prediction of bank protection structure with river level fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Rui; Xing, Yixuan

    2017-04-01

    Bank structure is an important barrier to maintain the safety of the embankment. The deformation of bank protection structure is not only affected by soil pressure caused by the excavation of the riverway, but also by the water pressure caused river water level fluctuations. Thus, it is necessary to establish a coupled soil-water model to analyze the deformation of bank structure. Based on Druck-Prager failure criteria and groundwater seepage theory, a numerical model of bank protection structure with consideration of the pore water pressure of soil mass is established. According to the measured river level data with seasonal fluctuating, numerical analysis of the deformation of bank protection structure is implemented. The simulation results show that the river water level fluctuation has clear influence on the maximum lateral displacement of the pile. Meanwhile, the distribution of plastic zone is related to the depth of groundwater level. Finally, according to the river water level data of the recent ten years, we analyze the deformation of the bank structure under extreme river level. The result shows that, compared with the scenario of extreme high river level, the horizontal displacement of bank protection structure is larger (up to 65mm) under extreme low river level, which is a potential risk to the embankment. Reference Schweiger H F. On the use of drucker-prager failure criteria for earth pressure problems[J]. Computers and Geotechnics, 1994, 16(3): 223-246. DING Yong-chun,CHENG Ze-kun. Numerical study on performance of waterfront excavation[J]. Chinese Journal of Geotechnical Engineering,2013,35(2):515-521. Wu L M, Wang Z Q. Three gorges reservoir water level fluctuation influents on the stability of the slope[J]. Advanced Materials Research. Trans Tech Publications, 2013, 739: 283-286.

  10. Stochastic level-set variational implicit-solvent approach to solute-solvent interfacial fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Shenggao, E-mail: sgzhou@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bli@math.ucsd.edu [Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Center for Interdiscipline Research, Soochow University, 1 Shizi Street, Jiangsu, Suzhou 215006 (China); Sun, Hui; Cheng, Li-Tien [Department of Mathematics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); Dzubiella, Joachim [Soft Matter and Functional Materials, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, 14109 Berlin, Germany and Institut für Physik, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany); Li, Bo, E-mail: sgzhou@suda.edu.cn, E-mail: bli@math.ucsd.edu [Department of Mathematics and Quantitative Biology Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0112 (United States); McCammon, J. Andrew [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Department of Pharmacology, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093-0365 (United States)

    2016-08-07

    Recent years have seen the initial success of a variational implicit-solvent model (VISM), implemented with a robust level-set method, in capturing efficiently different hydration states and providing quantitatively good estimation of solvation free energies of biomolecules. The level-set minimization of the VISM solvation free-energy functional of all possible solute-solvent interfaces or dielectric boundaries predicts an equilibrium biomolecular conformation that is often close to an initial guess. In this work, we develop a theory in the form of Langevin geometrical flow to incorporate solute-solvent interfacial fluctuations into the VISM. Such fluctuations are crucial to biomolecular conformational changes and binding process. We also develop a stochastic level-set method to numerically implement such a theory. We describe the interfacial fluctuation through the “normal velocity” that is the solute-solvent interfacial force, derive the corresponding stochastic level-set equation in the sense of Stratonovich so that the surface representation is independent of the choice of implicit function, and develop numerical techniques for solving such an equation and processing the numerical data. We apply our computational method to study the dewetting transition in the system of two hydrophobic plates and a hydrophobic cavity of a synthetic host molecule cucurbit[7]uril. Numerical simulations demonstrate that our approach can describe an underlying system jumping out of a local minimum of the free-energy functional and can capture dewetting transitions of hydrophobic systems. In the case of two hydrophobic plates, we find that the wavelength of interfacial fluctuations has a strong influence to the dewetting transition. In addition, we find that the estimated energy barrier of the dewetting transition scales quadratically with the inter-plate distance, agreeing well with existing studies of molecular dynamics simulations. Our work is a first step toward the

  11. Magnetic fluctuation driven cross-field particle transport in the reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffel, J.; Liu, D.

    1997-01-01

    Electrostatic and electromagnetic fluctuations generally cause cross-field particle transport in confined plasmas. Thus core localized turbulence must be kept at low levels for sufficient energy confinement in magnetic fusion plasmas. Reversed-field pinch (RFP) equilibria can, theoretically, be completely stable to ideal and resistive (tearing) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes at zero beta. Unstable resistive interchange modes are, however, always present at experimentally relevant values of the poloidal beta β θ . An analytical quasilinear, ambipolar diffusion model is here used to model associated particle transport. The results indicate that core density fluctuations should not exceed a level of about 1% for plasmas of fusion interest. Parameters of experimentally relevant stationary states of the RFP were adjusted to minimize growth rates, using a fully resistive linearized MHD stability code. Density gradient effects are included through employing a parabolic density profile. The scaling of particle diffusion [D(r)∝λ 2 n 0.5 T/aB, where λ is the mode width] is such that the effects of particle transport are milder in present day RFP experiments than in future reactor-relevant plasmas. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  12. Decay of atomic metastable states in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiman, E.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of polarization plasma effects on the lifetime of metastable atomic levels. It is shown that plasma effects can also be important in the case when the distance between the metastable level and the closest emitting level exceeds the Langmuir frequency. The lifetime of the 2S level of a hydrogen atom in a rarefied plasma connected with the action of a longitudinal fluctuation field on the atom is estimated. It is found that this mechanism can determine the lifetime of the 2S level in a rarefied cosmic plasma

  13. Role of rational surfaces on fluctuations and transport in the plasma edge of the TJ-II stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrosa, M.A.; Hidalgo, C.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.

    2000-01-01

    It has been shown that transport barriers in toroidal magnetically confined plasmas tend to be linked to regions of unique magnetic topology such as the location of a minimum in the safety factor, rational surfaces or the boundary between closed and open flux surfaces. In the absence of E x B sheared flows, fluctuations are expected to show maximum amplitude near rational surfaces, and plasma confinement might tend to deteriorate. On the other hand, if the generation of E x B sheared flows were linked to low order rational surfaces, these would be beneficial to confinement. Experimental evidence of E x B sheared flows linked to rational surfaces has been obtained in the plasma edge region of the TJ-II stellarator. (author)

  14. Fluctuation reduction and enhanced confinement in the MST reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapman, B.E.

    1997-10-01

    Plasmas with a factor of ≥3 improvement in energy confinement have been achieved in the MST reversed-field pinch (RFP). These plasmas occur spontaneously, following sawtooth crashes, subject to constraints on, eg, toroidal magnetic field reversal and wall conditioning. Possible contributors to the improved confinement include a reduction of core-resonant, global magnetic fluctuations and a reduction of electrostatic fluctuations over the entire plasma edge. One feature of these plasmas is a region of strong ExB flow shear in the edge. Never before observed in conjunction with enhanced confinement in the RFP, such shear is common in enhanced confinement discharges in tokamaks and stellarators. Another feature of these plasmas is a new type of discrete dynamo event. Like sawtooth crashes, a common form of discrete dynamo, these events correspond to bursts of edge parallel current. The reduction of electrostatic fluctuations in these plasmas occurs within and beyond the region of strong ExB flow shear, similar to what is observed in tokamaks and stellarators. However, the reductions in the MST include fluctuations whose correlation lengths are larger than the width of the shear region. The reduction of the global magnetic fluctuations is most likely due to flattening of the μ=μ 0 rvec J· rvec B/B 2 profile. Flattening can occur, eg, due to the new type of discrete dynamo event and reduced edge resistivity. Enhanced confinement plasmas are also achieved in the MST when auxiliary current is applied to flatten the μ profile and reduce magnetic fluctuations. Unexpectedly, these plasmas also exhibit a region (broader than in the case above) of strong ExB flow shear in the edge, an edge-wide reduction of electrostatic fluctuations, and the new type of discrete dynamo event. Auxiliary current drive has historically been viewed as the principal route to fusion reactor viability for the RFP

  15. Measurement of current density fluctuations and ambipolar particle flux due to magnetic fluctuations in MST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, Weimin.

    1992-08-01

    Studies of magnetic fluctuation induced particle transport on Reversed Field Pinch plasmas were done on the Madison Symmetric Torus. Plasma current density and current density fluctuations were measured using a multi-coil magnetic probes. The low frequency (f parallel B r >. The result of zero net charged particle loss was obtained, meaning the flux is ambipolar. The ambipolarity of low frequency global tearing modes is satisfied through the phase relations determined by tearing instabilities. The ambipolarity of high frequency localized modes could be partially explained by the simple model of Waltz based on the radial average of small scale turbulence

  16. PLASMA HEATING INSIDE INTERPLANETARY CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS BY ALFVÉNIC FLUCTUATIONS DISSIPATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hui; Wang, Chi; Zhang, Lingqian [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, National Space Science Center, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); He, Jiansen [School of Earth and Space Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100871 (China); Richardson, John D.; Belcher, John W. [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tu, Cui, E-mail: hli@spaceweather.ac.cn [Laboratory of Near Space Environment, National Space Science Center, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China)

    2016-11-10

    Nonlinear cascade of low-frequency Alfvénic fluctuations (AFs) is regarded as one of the candidate energy sources that heat plasma during the non-adiabatic expansion of interplanetary coronal mass ejections (ICMEs). However, AFs inside ICMEs were seldom reported in the literature. In this study, we investigate AFs inside ICMEs using observations from Voyager 2 between 1 and 6 au. It has been found that AFs with a high degree of Alfvénicity frequently occurred inside ICMEs for almost all of the identified ICMEs (30 out of 33 ICMEs) and for 12.6% of the ICME time interval. As ICMEs expand and move outward, the percentage of AF duration decays linearly in general. The occurrence rate of AFs inside ICMEs is much less than that in ambient solar wind, especially within 4.75 au. AFs inside ICMEs are more frequently presented in the center and at the boundaries of ICMEs. In addition, the proton temperature inside ICME has a similar “W”-shaped distribution. These findings suggest significant contribution of AFs on local plasma heating inside ICMEs.

  17. Interannual water-level fluctuations and the vegetation of prairie potholes: Potential impacts of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Valk, Arnold; Mushet, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Mean water depth and range of interannual water-level fluctuations over wet-dry cycles in precipitation are major drivers of vegetation zone formation in North American prairie potholes. We used harmonic hydrological models, which require only mean interannual water depth and amplitude of water-level fluctuations over a wet–dry cycle, to examine how the vegetation zones in a pothole would respond to small changes in water depth and/or amplitude of water-level fluctuations. Field data from wetlands in Saskatchewan, North Dakota, and South Dakota were used to parameterize harmonic models for four pothole classes. Six scenarios in which small negative or positive changes in either mean water depth, amplitude of interannual fluctuations, or both, were modeled to predict if they would affect the number of zones in each wetland class. The results indicated that, in some cases, even small changes in mean water depth when coupled with a small change in amplitude of water-level fluctuations can shift a prairie pothole wetland from one class to another. Our results suggest that climate change could alter the relative proportion of different wetland classes in the prairie pothole region.

  18. Correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic and improved calculation of turbulent temperature fluctuation levels on ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creely, A. J.; Freethy, S. J.; Burke, W. M.; Conway, G. D.; Leccacorvi, R.; Parkin, W. C.; Terry, D. R.; White, A. E.

    2018-05-01

    A newly upgraded correlation electron cyclotron emission (CECE) diagnostic has been installed on the ASDEX Upgrade tokamak and has begun to perform experimental measurements of electron temperature fluctuations. CECE diagnostics measure small amplitude electron temperature fluctuations by correlating closely spaced heterodyne radiometer channels. This upgrade expanded the system from six channels to thirty, allowing simultaneous measurement of fluctuation level radial profiles without repeat discharges, as well as opening up the possibility of measuring radial turbulent correlation lengths. Newly refined statistical techniques have been developed in order to accurately analyze the fluctuation data collected from the CECE system. This paper presents the hardware upgrades for this system and the analysis techniques used to interpret the raw data, as well as measurements of fluctuation spectra and fluctuation level radial profiles.

  19. Higher-order fluctuation-dissipation relations in plasma physics: Binary Coulomb systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Kenneth I.

    2018-05-01

    A recent approach that led to compact frequency domain formulations of the cubic and quartic fluctuation-dissipation theorems (FDTs) for the classical one-component plasma (OCP) [Golden and Heath, J. Stat. Phys. 162, 199 (2016), 10.1007/s10955-015-1395-6] is generalized to accommodate binary ionic mixtures. Paralleling the procedure followed for the OCP, the basic premise underlying the present approach is that a (k ,ω ) 4-vector rotational symmetry, known to be a pivotal feature in the frequency domain architectures of the linear and quadratic fluctuation-dissipation relations for a variety of Coulomb plasmas [Golden et al., J. Stat. Phys. 6, 87 (1972), 10.1007/BF01023681; J. Stat. Phys. 29, 281 (1982), 10.1007/BF01020787; Golden, Phys. Rev. E 59, 228 (1999), 10.1103/PhysRevE.59.228], is expected to be a pivotal feature of the frequency domain architectures of the higher-order members of the FDT hierarchy. On this premise, each member, in its most tractable form, connects a single (p +1 )-point dynamical structure function to a linear combination of (p +1 )-order p density response functions; by definition, such a combination must also remain invariant under rotation of their (k1,ω1) ,(k2,ω2) ,...,(kp,ωp) , (k1+k2+⋯+kp,ω1+ω2+⋯+ωp) 4-vector arguments. Assigned to each 4-vector is a species index that corotates in lock step. Consistency is assured by matching the static limits of the resulting frequency domain cubic and quartic FDTs to their exact static counterparts independently derived in the present work via a conventional time-independent perturbation expansion of the Liouville distribution function in its macrocanonical form. The proposed procedure entirely circumvents the daunting issues of entangled Liouville space paths and nested Poisson brackets that one would encounter if one attempted to use the conventional time-dependent perturbation-theoretic Kubo approach to establish the frequency domain FDTs beyond quadratic order.

  20. Impacts of water level fluctuation on mesotrophic rich fens: acidification versus eutrophication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cusell, C.; Lamers, L.P.M.; van Wirdum, G.; Kooijman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Water levels in areas with intensive agriculture have often been strictly controlled for decades. Recently, more natural fluctuating water levels have been propagated to improve the ecological quality of wetlands in these areas. This study investigated the effects of water levels on protected

  1. Universality in level spacing fluctuations of a chaotic optical billiard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laprise, J.F.; Hosseinizadeh, A.; Lamy-Poirier, J. [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada); Zomorrodi, R. [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)] [Centre de Recherche Universite Laval Robert Giffard, Quebec, Quebec G1J 2G3 (Canada); Kroeger, J. [Physics Department and Center for Physics of Materials, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada)] [Department of Physiology, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec H3G 1Y6 (Canada); Kroeger, H., E-mail: hkroger@phy.ulaval.c [Departement de Physique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)] [Functional Neurobiology, University of Utrecht, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2010-04-19

    We study chaotic behavior of a classical optical stadium billiard model. We construct a matrix of time-of-travel along trajectories corresponding to a set of boundary points. We carry out a level spacing fluctuation analysis and compute the Dyson-Mehta spectral rigidity. The distribution of time-of-travel is approximately described by a Gaussian. The results for level spacing distribution and spectral rigidity show universal behavior.

  2. Effects of dust-charge fluctuations on the potential of an array of projectiles in a partially ionized dusty plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Nasim, M.H.; Murtaza, G.

    2003-01-01

    The expressions for the Debye and the wake potential are derived by incorporating dust-charge fluctuations of a single projectile, as well as of an array of dust grain projectiles, propagating through a partially ionized dusty plasma with a constant velocity. Numerically, the effects of the dust-charge fluctuations and the dust-neutral collisions on the electrostatic potential for a single, three, six and ten projectiles are examined. The dust-charge relaxation rate modifies the shape of the Debye as well as the wake potential. For smaller values of the relaxation rates a potential well is formed instead of Debye potential

  3. Analysis of density fluctuations in the Tore Supra tokamak. Up-down asymmetries and limiter effect on plasma turbulence; Etude des fluctuations de density dans les plasmas du tokamak Tore Supra. Asymetries haut-bas et effet du limiteur sur la turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenzi, Ch

    1999-10-29

    In magnetic fusion devices, the optimisation of the power deposition profile on plasma facing components crucially depends on the heat diffusivity across the magnetic field fines, which is determined by the plasma edge turbulence. In this regard, spatial asymmetries of plasma edge turbulence are of great interest. In this work, we interest in up-down asymmetries of density fluctuations which are usually observed in Tore Supra, using a coherent light scattering experiment. It is shown that these asymmetries are correlated to the plasma edge geometrical configuration (plasma facing components, limiters). In fact, the plasma-limiter interaction induces locally in the plasma edge and the SOL (r/a > 0.9) an additional turbulence with short correlation length along the magnetic field fines, which spreads in the plasma core (0.9 {>=} r/a {>=} 0.5). The resultant up-down asymmetry weakly depends on density, increases with the edge safety factor, and inverts when the plasma current direction is reversed. Such up-down asymmetry observations bring strong impact on edge turbulence and transport models, which usually predict a ballooning of the turbulence in the high-field side but not an up-down asymmetry. A possible model is proposed here, based on the Kelvin Helmholtz instability. (author)

  4. Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gutynska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath.

    We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.

  5. Correlation length of magnetosheath fluctuations: Cluster statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gutynska

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Magnetosheath parameters are usually described by gasdynamic or magnetohydrodynamic (MHD models but these models cannot account for one of the most important sources of magnetosheath fluctuations – the foreshock. Earlier statistical processing of a large amount of magnetosheath observations has shown that the magnetosheath magnetic field and plasma flow fluctuations downstream of the quasiparallel shock are much larger than those at the opposite flank. These studies were based on the observations of a single spacecraft and thus they could not provide full information on propagation of the fluctuations through the magnetosheath. We present the results of a statistical survey of the magnetosheath magnetic field fluctuations using two years of Cluster observations. We discuss the dependence of the cross-correlation coefficients between different spacecraft pairs on the orientation of the separation vector with respect to the average magnetic field and plasma flow vectors and other parameters. We have found that the correlation length does not exceed ~1 RE in the analyzed frequency range (0.001–0.125 Hz and does not depend significantly on the magnetic field or plasma flow direction. A close connection of cross-correlation coefficients computed in the magnetosheath with the cross-correlation coefficients between a solar wind monitor and a magnetosheath spacecraft suggests that solar wind structures persist on the background of magnetosheath fluctuations.

  6. Fluoride absorption: independence from plasma fluoride levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitford, G.M.; Williams, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The concept that there are physiologic mechanisms to homeostatically regulate plasma fluoride concentrations has been supported by results in the literature suggesting an inverse relationship between plasma fluoride levels and the absorption of the ion from the gastrointestinal tract of the rat. The validity of the relationship was questioned because of possible problems in the experimental design. The present work used four different methods to evaluate the effect of plasma fluoride levels on the absorption of the ion in rats: (i) the percentage of the daily fluoride intake that was excreted in the urine; (ii) the concentration of fluoride in femur epiphyses; (iii) the net areas under the time-plasma fluoride concentration curves after intragastric fluoride doses; and (iv) the residual amounts or fluoride in the gastrointestinal tracts after the intragastric fluoride doses. None of these methods indicated that plasma fluoride levels influence the rate or the degree or fluoride absorption. It was concluded that, unless extremely high plasma fluoride levels are involved (pharmacologic or toxic doses), the absorption of the ion is independent of plasma levels. The results provide further evidence that plasma fluoride concentrations are not homeostatically regulated

  7. Time-resolved Evolution of Low Frequency Electrostatic Fluctuations during Slow L-H Transition at the Boundary Plasma of HL-2A Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, J.; Zhao, K. J.; Li, Y. G.; Song, X. M.; Yang, Q. W.; Ding, X. T.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Y., E-mail: chengj@swip.ac.cn [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu (China); Huang, Z. H.; Yan, L. W.; Dong, J. Q.; Hong, W. Y.; Kong, D. F.; Lan, T.; Liu, A. D. [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Hefei (China); Xu, M. [CMTFO and CER and MAE Department, UCSD, La Jolla (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: A quasi-period electrostatic oscillation with 2 - 3 kHz is observed using Langmuir probe array during slow L-H transition in edge plasma of HL-2A Tokomak. This low frequency oscillation radially propagates inwards with 0.3 - 0.6 km/s inside the separatrix about 3 - 8 mm, and it appears on potential, density, electron pressure and Reynolds stress gradients. The dP{sub e}/dr fluctuation amplitude can reach 30 - 40%. The dR{sub s}/dr is prior to E{sub r} fluctuation about {pi}/2, indicating the existence of nonlinear interaction between them. In near SOL, this low frequency oscillation also appears in potentials, E{sub r} and density fluctuation, suggesting a significant correlation among them at edge and near SOL plasma. This quasi-period oscillation might be correlated with mean flow or low frequency zonal flow, and the latter might set a condition for the former developing, implying a competitive process between them. The competition characterized by a quasi-period oscillation seems to determine the L-H transition. (author)

  8. Complexity of low-frequency blood oxygen level-dependent fluctuations covaries with local connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Jeffrey S; Zielinski, Brandon A; Nielsen, Jared A; Ferguson, Michael A

    2014-04-01

    Very low-frequency blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) fluctuations have emerged as a valuable tool for describing brain anatomy, neuropathology, and development. Such fluctuations exhibit power law frequency dynamics, with largest amplitude at lowest frequencies. The biophysical mechanisms generating such fluctuations are poorly understood. Using publicly available data from 1,019 subjects of age 7-30, we show that BOLD fluctuations exhibit temporal complexity that is linearly related to local connectivity (regional homogeneity), consistently and significantly covarying across subjects and across gray matter regions. This relationship persisted independently of covariance with gray matter density or standard deviation of BOLD signal. During late neurodevelopment, BOLD fluctuations were unchanged with age in association cortex while becoming more random throughout the rest of the brain. These data suggest that local interconnectivity may play a key role in establishing the complexity of low-frequency BOLD fluctuations underlying functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity. Stable low-frequency power dynamics may emerge through segmentation and integration of connectivity during development of distributed large-scale brain networks. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Interaction of charged reaction products with opalescent fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppi, B.; Pegoraro, F.

    1981-01-01

    In a D-T plasma close to ignition, if the contribution of the 3.5 MeV fusion-produced α-particles to the total plasma pressure is neglected, the interaction of these particles with the magnetic fluctuations which are supported by the bulk of the plasma can be described by retaining the contribution arising from the wave-particle resonant interaction only. Then, following a perturbation approach, we can start by examining the time evolution, in the absence of α-particles, of magnetic fluctuations of the shear-Alfven type in a sheared magnetic configuration where the presence of magnetic curvature causes a mixing between these waves and interchange instabilities. In the description of these fluctuations, we shall adopt an equation, derived from the theory of ballooning modes that can be proved to be valid in the neighborhood of the magnetic axis

  10. Effect of magnetic configuration on density fluctuation and particle transport in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.; Michael, C.; Yamagishi, O.; Ida, K.; Yamada, H.; Yoshinuma, M.; Yokoyama, M.; Miyazawa, J.; Morita, S.; Kawahata, K.; Tokzawa, T.; Shoji, M.; Vyacheslavov, L.N.; Sanin, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    The study of fluctuations and particle transport is important issue in heliotron and stellarator devices as well as in tokamaks. A two dimensional phase contrast interferometer (2D PCI) was developed to investigate fluctuation characteristics, which play role in confinement. The current 2D PCI can detect fluctuations for which -1 0.3 -1 and 5< f<500kHz. With the use of magnetic shear and the 2D detector, the spatial resolution around 20% of averaged minor radius is possible presently. The strongest fluctuations are localized in the plasma edge, where density gradients are negative, but fluctuations also exist in the positive density gradient region of the hollow density profile. The phase velocity of fluctuations in the positive gradient region is close to plasma ErxBt rotation. On the other hand, fluctuations in the negative density gradient region propagate in the ion diamagnetic direction in the plasma frame and do not follow ErxBt rotation. This suggests there is a different nature of the fluctuations in the positive and negative density gradient regions. A particle transport was studied by means of density modulation experiments. The systematic study was done at Rax=3.6m, which is so-called standard configuration. The density profiles vary from peaked to hollow with increasing heating power. It was also found that particle diffusion and convection are functions of electron temperature and its gradient respectively. The magnetic configuration is another parameter, which characterizes particle confinement. At more outward shifted configurations, helical ripple becomes larger and the ergodic region becomes thicker, then neoclassical transport becomes larger. However estimated diffusion coefficients are still around one order of magnitude larger than neoclassical values in edge region, where ρ = 0.7 ∼ 1.0 and they are larger at more outward configurations. At the same time the convection velocity is found to be comparable with neoclassical prediction at Rax=3

  11. Plasma homocysteine levels in multiple sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramsaransing, G S M; Fokkema, M R; Teelken, A; Arutjunyan, A V; Koch, M; De Keyser, J

    Background: There is evidence that homocysteine contributes to various neurodegenerative disorders, and elevated plasma homocysteine levels have been observed in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Objective: To investigate if and why plasma homocysteine levels are increased in MS, and whether

  12. Decrease in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels at puberty in boys with delayed adolescence: correlation with plasma testosterone levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkland, R.T.; Keenan, B.S.; Probstfield, J.L.; Patsch, W.; Lin, T.L.; Clayton, G.W.; Insull, W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    A three-phase study tested the hypothesis that the decrease in the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level observed in boys at puberty is related to an increase in the plasma testosterone concentration. In phase I, 57 boys aged 10 to 17 years were categorized into four pubertal stages based on clinical parameters and plasma testosterone levels. These four groups showed increasing plasma testosterone values and decreasing HDL-C levels. In phase II, 14 boys with delayed adolescence were treated with testosterone enanthate. Plasma testosterone levels during therapy were in the adult male range. Levels of HDL-C decreased by a mean of 7.4 mg/dL (0.20 mmol/L) and 13.7 mg/dL (0.35 mmol/L), respectively, after the first two doses. In phase III, 13 boys with delayed adolescence demonstrated increasing plasma testosterone levels and decreasing HDL-C levels during spontaneous puberty. Levels of HDL-C and apolipoprotein A-1 were correlated during induced and spontaneous puberty. Testosterone should be considered a significant determinant of plasma HDL-C levels during pubertal development

  13. Fluctuation of zonulin levels in blood vs stability of antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vojdani, Aristo; Vojdani, Elroy; Kharrazian, Datis

    2017-08-21

    To evaluate the measurement of zonulin level and antibodies of zonulin and other tight junction proteins in the blood of controls and celiac disease patients. This study was conducted to assess the variability or stability of zonulin levels vs IgA and IgG antibodies against zonulin in blood samples from 18 controls at 0, 6, 24 and 30 h after blood draw. We also measured zonulin level as well as zonulin, occludin, vinculin, aquaporin 4 and glial fibrillary acidic protein antibodies in the sera of 30 patients with celiac disease and 30 controls using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methodology. The serum zonulin level in 6 out of 18 subjects was low or zonulin levels of > 2.8 ng/mL and showed significant fluctuation from sample to sample. Comparatively, zonulin antibody measured in all samples was highly stable and reproducible from sample to sample. Celiac disease patients showed zonulin levels with a mean of 8.5 ng/mL compared to 3.7 ng/mL in controls ( P zonulin level at 2SD above the mean was demonstrated in 37% of celiac disease patients, while antibodies against zonulin, occludin and other tight junction proteins was detected in up to 86% of patients with celiac disease. Due to its fluctuation, a single measurement of zonulin level is not recommended for assessment of intestinal barrier integrity. Measurement of IgG and IgA antibodies against zonulin, occludin, and other tight junction proteins is proposed for the evaluation of the loss of intestinal barrier integrity.

  14. Computer experiments on dynamical cloud and space time fluctuations in one-dimensional meta-equilibrium plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rouet, J.L.; Feix, M.R.

    1996-01-01

    The test particle picture is a central theory of weakly correlated plasma. While experiments and computer experiments have confirmed the validity of this theory at thermal equilibrium, the extension to meta-equilibrium distributions presents interesting and intriguing points connected to the under or over-population of the tail of these distributions (high velocity) which have not yet been tested. Moreover, the general dynamical Debye cloud (which is a generalization of the static Debye cloud supposing a plasma at thermal equilibrium and a test particle of zero velocity) for any test particle velocity and three typical velocity distributions (equilibrium plus two meta-equilibriums) are presented. The simulations deal with a one-dimensional two-component plasma and, moreover, the relevance of the check for real three-dimensional plasma is outlined. Two kinds of results are presented: the dynamical cloud itself and the more usual density (or energy) fluctuation spectrums. Special attention is paid to the behavior of long wavelengths which needs long systems with very small graininess effects and, consequently, sizable computation efforts. Finally, the divergence or absence of energy in the small wave numbers connected to the excess or lack of fast particles of the two above mentioned meta-equilibrium is exhibited. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  15. Assessment of impacts from water level fluctuations on fish in the Hanford Reach, Columbia River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, C.D.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Montgomery, J.C.

    1981-05-01

    Observations on the effects of water level fluctuations in the Hanford Reach of the Columbia River, Washington, were made in 1976 and 1977. The two years provided contrasting flow regimes: high water and fluctuations of greater magnitude prevailed in 1976; low water and higher temperatures prevailed in 1977. Situations where fish and other aquatic organisms were destroyed by changing water levels were observed and evaluated each year in three study areas: Hanford, F-Area, and White Bluffs sloughs. Losses primarily were due to stranding, entrapment (with or without complete dewatering), and predation. Juvenile fish were more susceptible to entrapment and stranding than were adult fish. Estimates of actual losses were biased and conservative because relatively few fish could be found after each decline of water level and dewatering. The most valued species of fish affected by water level fluctuations at Hanford were the anadromus fall chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and the resident smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui). Crucial periods for chinook salmon occurred during winter when incubating eggs were in the gravel of the main channel, and before and during seaward migration in the spring when fry were abundant in shoreline zones. The crucial period for smallmouth bass was during spring and early summer when adults were spawning in warmed sloughs and shoreline zones. Chinook salmon and smallmouth bass fry were vulnerable to stranding and entrapment, and smallmouth bass nests were susceptible to exposure and temperature changes resulting from repeated water level fluctuations. Thus, flow manipulation may be crucial to their survival. The extent to which other species of riverine fish were affected by water level fluctuations depended upon their use of shoreline zones for spawning and rearing young.

  16. Excitation of short-scale fluctuations by parametric decay of helicon waves into ion-sound and Trivelpiece-Gould waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenz, B; Kraemer, M; Selenin, V L; Aliev, Yu M

    2005-01-01

    The helicon wave field and the excitation of short-scale electrostatic fluctuations in a helicon-produced plasma are closely related as both the helicon wave damping and the fluctuation level are shown to increase with the launched rf power. Correlation methods using electrostatic probes as well as microwave back-scattering at the upper-hybrid resonance are applied to obtain the dispersion relations of the fluctuations in the low-frequency and high-frequency ranges. The frequency and wavenumber spectra measured for all components of the wave vector allow us to identify the fluctuations as ion-sound and Trivelpiece-Gould waves that originate from parametric decay of the helicon pump wave. The growth rates and thresholds inferred from the evolution of the fluctuations in a wide range of helicon plasma parameters are in good agreement with predictions for the parametric decay instability that takes into account realistic damping rates for the decay waves as well as non-vanishing parallel wavenumber of the helicon pump

  17. Transport and fluctuations in high temperature spheromak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLean, H.S.; Wood, R.D.; Cohen, B.I.; Hooper, E.B.; Hill, D.N.; Moller, J.M.; Romero-Talamas, C.; Woodruff, S.

    2006-01-01

    Higher electron temperature (T e >350 eV) and reduced electron thermal diffusivity (χ e 2 /s) is achieved in the Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) by increasing the discharge current=I gun and gun bias flux=ψ gun in a prescribed manner. The internal current and q=safety factor profile derived from equilibrium reconstruction as well as the measured magnetic fluctuation amplitude can be controlled by programming the ratio λ gun =μ 0 I gun /ψ gun . Varying λ gun above and below the minimum energy eigenvalue=λ FC of the flux conserver (∇xB-vector=λ FC B-vector) varies the q profile and produces the m/n=poloidal/toroidal magnetic fluctuation mode spectrum expected from mode-rational surfaces with q=m/n. The highest T e is measured when the gun is driven with λ gun slightly less than λ FC , producing low fluctuation amplitudes ( e as T e increases, differing from Bohm or open field line transport models where χ e increases with T e . Detailed resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations with the NIMROD code support the analysis of energy confinement in terms of the causal link with the q profile, magnetic fluctuations associated with low-order mode-rational surfaces, and the quality of magnetic surfaces

  18. Interacting two-level defects as sources of fluctuating high-frequency noise in superconducting circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Clemens [ARC Centre of Excellence for Engineered Quantum Systems, The University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Lisenfeld, Juergen [Physikalisches Institut, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); Shnirman, Alexander [Institut fuer Theory der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Karlsruhe (Germany); LD Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Poletto, Stefano [IBM TJ Watson Research Centre, Yorktown Heights (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Since the very first experiments, superconducting circuits have suffered from strong coupling to environmental noise, destroying quantum coherence and degrading performance. In state-of-the-art experiments, it is found that the relaxation time of superconducting qubits fluctuates as a function of time. We present measurements of such fluctuations in a 3D-transmon circuit and develop a qualitative model based on interactions within a bath of background two-level systems (TLS) which emerge from defects in the device material. In our model, the time-dependent noise density acting on the qubit emerges from its near-resonant coupling to high-frequency TLS which experience energy fluctuations due to their interaction with thermally fluctuating TLS at low frequencies. We support the model by providing experimental evidence of such energy fluctuations observed in a single TLS in a phase qubit circuit.

  19. Development of ion-acoustic double layers through ion-acoustic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekar, A.N.; Saxena, Y.C.

    1985-01-01

    Experimental results on the formation of ion acoustic double layers resembling asymmetric ion-holes are presented. In a double plasma device, modified suitably to inject electron beam into the target plasma, modulation of the beam through step potential leads to excitation of ion-acoustic fluctuation. The ion-acoustic fluctuation, growing away from the grids separating source and target plasmas, developed into weak asymmetric ion-acoustic double layer. The observations are in qualitative agreement with theoretical models and computer simulations. (author)

  20. Fluctuations and confinement in ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isler, R.C.; Harris, J.H.; Murakami, M.

    1993-01-01

    In the period immediately prior to the suspension of ATF operation in November, 1991, a great deal of emphasis was palced on investigations of the fundamental mechanisms controlling confinement in this device. At that time, measurements of the density fluctuations throughout the plasma volume indicated the existence of theoretically predicted dissipative trapped electron and resistive interchange instabilities. These identifications were supported by results of dynamic configuration scans of the magnetic fields during which the extent of the magnetic well, shear, and fraction of confined trapped particles were changed continuously. Interpretation of the data from these experiments has been an ongoing exercise. Most recently, analysis of discharges employing strong gas puffing to change density gradients and fluctuation levels have strengthened the view that dissipative trapped electron modes may be present but do not play a significant direct role in energy transport. The present paper summarizes the current understanding concerning the identification of instabilities and their relationship to confinement in ATF

  1. Event by event fluctuations in heavy ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, Volker

    2001-01-01

    The authors discuss the physics underlying event-by-event fluctuations in relativistic heavy ion collisions. We will argue that the fluctuations of the ratio of positively over negatively charged particles may serve as a unique signature for the Quark Gluon Plasma.

  2. Fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels in Tokyo caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawamura, Akira; Ishihara, Shigeyuki; Amaguchi, Hideo; Takasaki, Tadakatsu

    2016-04-01

    The hourly groundwater levels have been observed at 42 sites in Tokyo Metropolis since 1952. The Great East Japan Earthquake occurred at 14:46 JST on March 11, 2011. It was the strongest earthquake on record with a magnitude of 9.0 (Mw) and large fluctuations of unconfined and confined groundwater levels were observed at 102 observation wells in Tokyo, around 400 km away from the epicenter. Abrupt rises and sharp drawdowns of groundwater levels were observed right after the earthquake for most of the wells, although some did not show a change. In this study, taking full advantage of the unique rare case data from the dense groundwater monitoring network in Tokyo, we investigate the fluctuation patterns of unconfined and confined groundwater levels caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake. The groundwater level data used in this study consist of one month time series in March 2011 with one-hour interval. The fluctuation patterns of groundwater levels caused by the earthquake were identified using Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The SOM, developed by Kohonen, can project high-dimensional, complex target data onto a two-dimensional regularly arranged map in proportion to the degree of properties. In general, the objective of the SOM application is to obtain useful and informative reference vectors. These vectors can be acquired after iterative updates through the training of the SOM. Design of the SOM structure, selection of a proper initialization method, and data transformation methods were carried out in the SOM application process. The reference vectors obtained from the SOM application were fine-tuned using cluster analysis methods. The optimal number of clusters was selected by the Davies-Bouldin index (DBI) using the k-means algorithm. Using the optimal number of cluster, a final fine-tuning cluster analysis was carried out by Ward's method. As a result, the fluctuation patterns of the confined and unconfined groundwater level were classified into eight clusters

  3. Plasma generation using the hollow cathod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, K.J.

    1983-01-01

    A hollow cathode of tungsten was adapted to an University of California, Berkely, LBL bucket ion source to investigate ion density fluctuations at the extractior grid. Fluctuations in plasma ion density are observed to range between 100kHz to 2 MHz. The observed fluctuation frequencies of plasma ion density are found to be inversely proportional to the square root of ion masses. It is guessed that the plasma fluctuation are also correlated with the hollow cathode length. (Author)

  4. Chronology of Fluctuating Sea Levels since the Triassic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Bilal U.; Hardenbol, Jan; Vail, Peter R.

    1987-03-01

    Advances in sequence stratigraphy and the development of depositional models have helped explain the origin of genetically related sedimentary packages during sea level cycles. These concepts have provided the basis for the recognition of sea level events in subsurface data and in outcrops of marine sediments around the world. Knowledge of these events has led to a new generation of Mesozoic and Cenozoic global cycle charts that chronicle the history of sea level fluctuations during the past 250 million years in greater detail than was possible from seismic-stratigraphic data alone. An effort has been made to develop a realistic and accurate time scale and widely applicable chronostratigraphy and to integrate depositional sequences documented in public domain outcrop sections from various basins with this chronostratigraphic frame-work. A description of this approach and an account of the results, illustrated by sea level cycle charts of the Cenozoic, Cretaceous, Jurassic, and Triassic intervals, are presented.

  5. Nonstationary stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle in plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotorban, B

    2011-06-01

    Stochastic charge fluctuations of a dust particle that are due to discreteness of electrons and ions in plasmas can be described by a one-step process master equation [T. Matsoukas and M. Russell, J. Appl. Phys. 77, 4285 (1995)] with no exact solution. In the present work, using the system size expansion method of Van Kampen along with the linear noise approximation, a Fokker-Planck equation with an exact Gaussian solution is developed by expanding the master equation. The Gaussian solution has time-dependent mean and variance governed by two ordinary differential equations modeling the nonstationary process of dust particle charging. The model is tested via the comparison of its results to the results obtained by solving the master equation numerically. The electron and ion currents are calculated through the orbital motion limited theory. At various times of the nonstationary process of charging, the model results are in a very good agreement with the master equation results. The deviation is more significant when the standard deviation of the charge is comparable to the mean charge in magnitude.

  6. Water level fluctuations due to earth tides in a well pumping from slightly fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1975-01-01

    J At the Savannah River plant of the Atomic Energy Commission near Aiken, South Carolina, there are three distinct groundwater systems: the coastal plain sediments, the crystalline metamorphic rocks, and a buried Triassic basin. The coastal plain sediments include several Cretaceous and Tertiary granular aquifers and aquicludes, the total thickness being about 305 m. Below these sediments, water occurs in small fractures in crystalline metamorphic rock (hornblende schist and gneiss with lesser amounts of quartzite). Water level fluctuations due to earth tides are recorded in the crystalline metamorphic rock system and in the coastal plain sediments. No water level fluctuations due to earth tides have been observed in wells in the Triassic rock because of the very low permeability. The water level fluctuations due to earth tides in the crystalline rock are about 10 cm, and those in the sediments are about 1.8 cm. The use of water level fluctuations due to earth tides to calculate porosity appears to present practical difficulties both in the crystalline metamorphic rock system and in the coastal plain sediments. In a 1-yr pumping test on a well in the crystalline metamorphic rock the flow was controlled to within 0.1 percent of the total discharge, which was 0.94 1/s. The water level fluctuations due to earth tides in the pumping well were 10 cm, the same as when this well was not being pumped. (U.S.)

  7. Water-level fluctuations due to Earth tides in a well pumping from slightly fractured crystalline rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine, I.W.

    1975-01-01

    At the Savannah River plant of the Atomic Energy Commission near Aiken, South Carolina, there are three distinct groundwater systems: the coastal plain sediments, the crystalline metamorphic rocks, and a buried Triassic basin. The coastal plain sediments include several Cretaceous and Tertiary granular aquifers and aquicludes, the total thickness being about 305 m. Below these sediments, water occurs in small fractures in crystalline metamorphic rock (hornblende schist and gneiss with lesser amounts of quartzite). Water level fluctuations due to earth tides are recorded in the crystalline metamorphic rock system and in the coastal plain sediments. No water level fluctuations due to earth tides have been observed in wells in the Triassic rock because of the very low permeability. The water level fluctuations due to earth tides in the crystalline rock are about 10 cm, and those in the sediments are about 1.8 cm. The use of water level fluctuations due to earth tides to calculate porosity appears to present practical difficulties both in the crystalline metamorphic rock system and in the coastal plain sediments. In a 1-yr pumping test on a well in the crystalline metamorphic rock the flow was controlled to within 0.1 per cent of the total discharge, which was 0.94 l/s. The water level fluctuations due to earth tides in the pumping well were 10 cm, the same as when this well was not being pumped. (U.S.)

  8. Diurnal lamotrigine plasma level fluctuations: clinical significance and indication of shorter half-life with chronic administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K.A.; Dahl, M.; Tommerup, E.

    2008-01-01

    -daily regimens without pharmacokinetic interactions exhibited C(min)/C(max) ratios between 0.62 and 0.69. Fluctuations were smaller in those co-medicated with valproate, and reached a ratio of 0.55 in those co-medicated with phenobarbital. The C(max) was as much as 58% above the MTL. Therefore, verification...

  9. Characterization of the up-down asymmetry of density fluctuations induced by a lower modular limiter in Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenzi, C.; Devynck, P.; Garbet, X.; Antar, G.; Capes, H.; Laviron, C.; Truc, A.; Gervais, F.; Hennequin, P.; Quemeneur, A.

    1999-01-01

    In magnetic fusion devices, the effect of plasma facing components on plasma turbulence is a key issue for several reasons. Firstly, the edge turbulence controls the power deposition on plasma facing components. Secondly, the possible influence of the edge parameters on the core fluctuations is a central question, since the core turbulent transport is responsible for the confinement degradation. It is in practice difficult to determine whether the plasma core influences the edge, or the opposite. We show here that spatial edge asymmetries of density fluctuations, and particularly up-down asymmetries, provide a powerful tool to investigate this problem. In TORE SUPRA, previous scaling analyses with various plasma parameters have emphasized that a very clear effect on the asymmetry level appears when the plasma leans on the lower modular limiter located close to the measurement chord. We present here recent measurement results concerning that specific case. They tend to show that the limiter configuration has some effect on the core turbulence. (authors)

  10. Stochastic heating of a single Brownian particle by charge fluctuations in a radio-frequency produced plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Christian; Piel, Alexander

    2015-10-01

    The Brownian motion of a single particle in the plasma sheath is studied to separate the effect of stochastic heating by charge fluctuations from heating by collective effects. By measuring the particle velocities in the ballistic regime and by carefully determining the particle mass from the Epstein drag it is shown that for a pressure of 10 Pa, which is typical of many experiments, the proper kinetic temperature of the Brownian particle remains close to the gas temperature and rises only slightly with particle size. This weak effect is confirmed by a detailed model for charging and charge fluctuations in the sheath. A substantial temperature rise is found for decreasing pressure, which approximately shows the expected scaling with p-2. The system under study is an example for non-equilibrium Brownian motion under the influence of white noise without corresponding dissipation.

  11. Electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium with a progressive sinusoidal fluctuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Ito, Akinari

    1984-01-01

    Study was made on the rigorous solutions for electromagnetic waves transmitted and reflected by a medium of finite length with time-space periodic fluctuation, loaded in a rectangular waveguide. When an electromagnetic wave is incident upon the medium modulated in a travelling wave fashion by a pump wave, the reflected and transmitted waves are shifted in frequency by +nω 1 (where n is an integer, ω 1 is the angular frequency of fluctuation). The harmonic level of the reflected waves is much increased as the frequency of the incident wave approaches the cutoff-frequency of TE 10 mode of the rectangular waveguide. Measurement of the spectrum of the reflected waves can be utilized as a diagnosis of even a very slightly fluctuating medium. The theoretical results have been verified on examining experimentally the harmonic level of the microwave reflected by a plasma, weakly modulated (about 10 -4 ) by RF signal and loaded in the WRJ-10 waveguide. (author)

  12. Prostate cancer detection rate in patients with fluctuating prostate-specific antigen levels on the repeat prostate biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hyun Park

    2014-03-01

    Conclusions: The current study shows that the risk of prostate cancer at repeat TRUS-Bx was higher in men with a fluctuating PSA level and PSAV=1.0 ng/mL/yr than in those with a fluctuating PSA level and PSAV<1.0 ng/mL/yr.

  13. [Fluctuations and transport in fusion plasma]: Progress report, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    In the study of plasma collection by obstacles in a tokamak edge plasma, the effect of anomalous transport have been examined using an extension of the 2D fluid code developed here previously (Appendices A and B). The origin of the anomalous transport is assumed to be a randomly fluctuating electric field such as would be caused by drift waves. As before, the magnetic field is assumed to be uniform and perpendicular to the obstacle, which is taken to be an infinite strip. In the absence of ambient plasma flow, the numerical results indicate that ion viscous heating is important near the tip of the obstacle, where there is a large velocity gradient in the flow. For typical plasma parameters, the maximum ion temperature near the tip is up to 85% higher than the ambient ion temperature. When there is a subsonic plasma flow past the obstacle, the numerical results indicate that, near the tip of the obstacle, the ions on the downstream side are hotter than those on the upstream side. Furthermore, the ion density is higher on the upstream side. A detailed report of this work has been prepared and will be submitted as part of the Annual Progress Report. Recently, the 2D parallel electrostatic plasma particle-in-cell (PIC) code described in reference (9) (Appendix B) has been upgraded to a 2D fully electromagnetic PIC code. This code has been successfully tested on the JPL/Caltech Mark III Hypercube concurrent computers and can be used to simulate interactions of electromagnetic waves with a magnetized plasma. It is currently applied to investigate the decay of large amplitude Alfven waves, such as those observed in the solar wind. Large amplitude Alfven waves, propagating parallel to the magnetic field, are predicted to decay into obliquely propagating daughter waves and standing magnetosonic waves. Results from the simulations will be compared with theoretical predictions

  14. ATF edge plasma turbulence studies using a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Hidalgo, C.; Bell, J.D.; Harris, J.H.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Wilgen, J.B.; Ritz, C.P.; Wootton, A.J.; Rhodes, T.L.; Carter, K.

    1991-01-01

    Electrostatic turbulence on the edge of the Advanced Toroidal Facility (ATF) torsatron is investigated experimentally with a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe (FRLP) array. Initial measurements of plasma electron density n e and temperature T e and fluctuations in density (n e ) and plasma floating potential (φ f ) are made in electron cyclotron heated plasmas at 1 T. At the last closed flux surface (LCFS, r√a ∼ 1), T e ∼ 20--40 eV and n e ∼ 10 12 cm -3 for a line-averaged electron density bar n e = (3--6) x 10 12 cm -3 . Relative fluctuation levels, as the FRLP is moved into core plasma where T e > 20 eV, are n e /n e ∼ 5% and eφ f /T e ∼ 2n e /n e about 2 cm inside the LCFS. The observed fluctuation spectra are broadband (40--300 kHz) with bar kρ s ≤ 0.1, where bar k is the wavenumber of the fluctuations and ρ s is the ion Larmor radius at the sound speed. The propagation direction of the fluctuations reverses to the electron diamagnetic direction around r√a ph ∼ v de ). The fluctuation-induced particle flux is comparable to fluxes estimated from the particle balance using the H α spectroscopic measurements. Many of the features seen in these experiments resemble the features of ohmically heated plasmas in the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). 18 refs., 10 figs

  15. Preliminary assessment of the impact of fluctuating water levels on northern pike in Reindeer Lake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, M.

    1993-03-01

    Reindeer Lake in north eastern Saskatchewan regulates water levels for the Island Falls hydroelectric power plant. Since inception of the Whitesand Dam on the lake, there have been concerns that fluctuating water levels could be adversely impacting the habitat and population of northern pike in the lake. The extent of water level fluctuations during the pike spawning period of Reindeer Lake and its effect on spawning success was investigated. Since construction of the Whitesand Dam in 1942 Reindeer Lake water levels have averaged ca 1.71 m higher than had the dam not existed, creating ca 430 km 2 of new surface area. Much of this area is shallow water and prone to growth of aquatic vegetation, which is suitable spawning and nursery habitat for northern pike. Annual and periodic water level fluctuations of Reindeer Lake have been higher than under natural conditions. During northern pike spawning and nursing periods, water levels in the lake have generally increased, in 60 out of 64 y. It is concluded that operation of the dam has not caused any direct negative impacts on the northern pike habitat in the lake. 2 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Observation of Ion Acoustic Waves Excited by Drift Waves in a Weakly Magnetized Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukabayashi, Isao; Sato, Sugiya; Nakamura, Yoshiharu

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous fluctuations excited by drift waves are investigated experimentally in magnetic multi-pole plasma. The magnetic multi-pole has been widely used in DP devices and so on. It was observed that the high level of density fluctuations was generated by the drift instability near a magnetic multi-pole or a dipole magnet. The waves propagate to the middle plasma region forming the envelope train waves

  17. Mercury and water level fluctuations in lakes of northern Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James H.; Maki, Ryan P; Christensen, Victoria G.; Sandheinrich, Mark B.; LeDuc, Jaime F.; Kissane, Claire; Knights, Brent C.

    2017-01-01

    Large lake ecosystems support a variety of ecosystem services in surrounding communities, including recreational and commercial fishing. However, many northern temperate fisheries are contaminated by mercury. Annual variation in mercury accumulation in fish has previously been linked to water level (WL) fluctuations, opening the possibility of regulating water levels in a manner that minimizes or reduces mercury contamination in fisheries. Here, we compiled a long-term dataset (1997-2015) of mercury content in young-of-year Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) from six lakes on the border between the U.S. and Canada and examined whether mercury content appeared to be related to several metrics of WL fluctuation (e.g., spring WL rise, annual maximum WL, and year-to-year change in maximum WL). Using simple correlation analysis, several WL metrics appear to be strongly correlated to Yellow Perch mercury content, although the strength of these correlations varies by lake. We also used many WL metrics, water quality measurements, temperature and annual deposition data to build predictive models using partial least squared regression (PLSR) analysis for each lake. These PLSR models showed some variation among lakes, but also supported strong associations between WL fluctuations and annual variation in Yellow Perch mercury content. The study lakes underwent a modest change in WL management in 2000, when winter WL minimums were increased by about 1 m in five of the six study lakes. Using the PLSR models, we estimated how this change in WL management would have affected Yellow Perch mercury content. For four of the study lakes, the change in WL management that occurred in 2000 likely reduced Yellow Perch mercury content, relative to the previous WL management regime.

  18. High-frequency coherent edge fluctuations in a high-pedestal-pressure quiescent H-mode plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Z; McKee, G R; Groebner, R J; Snyder, P B; Osborne, T H; Burrell, K H

    2011-07-29

    A set of high frequency coherent (HFC) modes (f=80-250 kHz) is observed with beam emission spectroscopy measurements of density fluctuations in the pedestal of a strongly shaped quiescent H-mode plasma on DIII-D, with characteristics predicted for kinetic ballooning modes (KBM): propagation in the ion-diamagnetic drift direction; a frequency near 0.2-0.3 times the ion-diamagnetic frequency; inferred toroidal mode numbers of n∼10-25; poloidal wave numbers of k(θ)∼0.17-0.4 cm(-1); and high measured decorrelation rates (τ(c)(-1)∼ω(s)∼0.5×10(6) s(-1)). Their appearance correlates with saturation of the pedestal pressure. © 2011 American Physical Society

  19. Instabilities, turbulence and transport in a magnetized plasma; Instabilites, turbulence et transport dans un plasma magnetise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbet, X

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce the main processes that occur in a magnetized plasma. During the last 2 decades, the understanding of turbulence has made great progress but analytical formulas and simulations are far to produce reliable predictions. The values of transport coefficients in a tokamak plasma exceed by far those predicted by the theory of collisional transport. This phenomenon is called abnormal transport and might be due to plasma fluctuations. An estimation of turbulent fluxes derived from the levels of fluctuations, is proposed. A flow description of plasma allows the understanding of most micro-instabilities. The ballooning representation deals with instabilities in a toric geometry. 3 factors play an important role to stabilize plasmas: density pinch, magnetic shear and speed shear. The flow model of plasma gives an erroneous value for the stability threshold, this is due to a bad description of the resonant interaction between wave and particle. As for dynamics, flow models can be improved by adding dissipative terms so that the linear response nears the kinetic response. The kinetic approach is more accurate but is complex because of the great number of dimensions involved. (A.C.)

  20. Scrape-off layer-induced beam density fluctuations and their effect on beam emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulton, D.; Marandet, Y.; Tamain, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.

    2015-07-01

    A statistical model is presented to calculate the magnitude of beam density fluctuations generated by a turbulent scrape-off layer (SOL). It is shown that the SOL can induce neutral beam density fluctuations of a similar magnitude to the plasma density fluctuations in the core, potentially corrupting beam emission spectroscopy measurements. The degree of corruption is quantified by combining simulations of beam and plasma density fluctuations inside a simulated measurement window. A change in pitch angle from the separatrix to the measurement window is found to reduce the effect of beam fluctuations, whose largest effect is to significantly reduce the measured correlation time.

  1. Density fluctuation measurement at edge and internal transport barriers in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, N; Bruskin, L G; Takenaga, H; Shinohara, K; Isayama, A; Ide, S; Sakamoto, Y; Suzuki, T; Fujita, T; Kamada, Y; Miura, Y

    2004-01-01

    A new analytical method using a combination of the O-mode reflectometer and a time-dependent two-dimensional full-wave simulation code has been developed for the quantitative evaluation of density fluctuations in JT-60U. Two statistical parameters of the reflectometer signals, fluctuation index (F) and elongation factor (χ), are introduced as measures of the fluctuation amplitude (γ) and the width of the poloidal wave number spectrum (k θ0 ). This method is applied to the edge transport barrier (ETB) and internal transport barrier (ITB). At the transition to the ELM free H-mode phase, analysis suggests that the density fluctuation level reduced from 1.9-3.2% to 0.29-0.44%, while the value of k θ0 changed from 1.6-2.0 to 0.77-0.81 cm -1 in the ETB region. On the other hand, the amplitude of the density fluctuation was evaluated as 1.0-2.0% at the ITB region, even after the formation of the box type ITB. Instead, when a pellet was injected into the plasma with a box type ITB as an external perturbation, a remarkable change in the frequency spectrum was observed. Analysis suggests a reduction in the density fluctuation level to 0.4-0.6% after the pellet injection

  2. Earthquake-induced water-level fluctuations at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, G.M.

    1993-01-01

    This report presents earthquake-induced water-level and fluid-pressure data for wells in the Yucca Mountain area, Nevada, during June 1992. Three earthquakes occurred which caused significant water-level and fluid-pressure responses in wells. Wells USW H-5 and USW H-6 are continuously monitored to detect short-term responses caused by earthquakes. Two wells, monitored hourly, had significant, longer-term responses in water level following the earthquakes. On June 28, 1992, a 7.5-magnitude earthquake occurred near Landers, California causing an estimated maximum water-level change of 90 centimeters in well USW H-5. Three hours later a 6.6-magnitude earthquake occurred near Big Bear Lake, California; the maximum water-level fluctuation was 20 centimeters in well USW H-5. A 5.6-magnitude earthquake occurred at Little Skull Mountain, Nevada, on June 29, approximately 23 kilometers from Yucca Mountain. The maximum estimated short-term water-level fluctuation from the Little Skull Mountain earthquake was 40 centimeters in well USW H-5. The water level in well UE-25p number-sign 1, monitored hourly, decreased approximately 50 centimeters over 3 days following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The water level in UE-25p number-sign 1 returned to pre-earthquake levels in approximately 6 months. The water level in the lower interval of well USW H-3 increased 28 centimeters following the Little Skull Mountain earthquake. The Landers and Little Skull Mountain earthquakes caused responses in 17 intervals of 14 hourly monitored wells, however, most responses were small and of short duration. For several days following the major earthquakes, many smaller magnitude aftershocks occurred causing measurable responses in the continuously monitored wells

  3. Measurements and modelling of electrostatic fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of ASDEX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endler, M; Niedermeyer, H; Giannone, L.; Holzhauer, E; Rudyj, A; Theimer, G; Tsois, N [Association Euratom-Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); ASDEX Team

    1995-11-01

    In the edge plasma of the ASDEX tokamak, electrostatic fluctuations were observed with Langmuir probes and in H{sub {alpha}} light with high poloidal and temporal resolution. These fluctuations contribute a significant fraction to the `anomalous` radial particle transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL). The basic properties and the dependence of the fluctuations parameters on the discharge conditions are documented. A model for an instability mechanism specific to the SOL is introduced and the experimentally observed fluctuation parameters are compared with the predictions of the linearized version of this model. For plasma temperatures above {approx} 10eV in the SOL the observed parameter dependences of the fluctuations are well reproduced by the model. By mixing length arguments the radial transport and the resulting density and pressure gradients in the SOL are estimated from the model. Their dependence on plasma temperature and density qualitatively agrees with the behaviour observed in ohmic discharges on ASDEX. (author). 54 refs, 25 figs.

  4. Measurements and modelling of electrostatic fluctuations in the scrape-off layer of ASDEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endler, M.; Niedermeyer, H.; Giannone, L.; Holzhauer, E.; Rudyj, A.; Theimer, G.; Tsois, N.

    1995-01-01

    In the edge plasma of the ASDEX tokamak, electrostatic fluctuations were observed with Langmuir probes and in H α light with high poloidal and temporal resolution. These fluctuations contribute a significant fraction to the 'anomalous' radial particle transport in the scrape-off layer (SOL). The basic properties and the dependence of the fluctuations parameters on the discharge conditions are documented. A model for an instability mechanism specific to the SOL is introduced and the experimentally observed fluctuation parameters are compared with the predictions of the linearized version of this model. For plasma temperatures above ∼ 10eV in the SOL the observed parameter dependences of the fluctuations are well reproduced by the model. By mixing length arguments the radial transport and the resulting density and pressure gradients in the SOL are estimated from the model. Their dependence on plasma temperature and density qualitatively agrees with the behaviour observed in ohmic discharges on ASDEX. (author). 54 refs, 25 figs

  5. Plasma turbulence in tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldas, Ibere L.; Heller, M.V.A.P.; Brasilio, Z.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica

    1997-12-31

    Full text. In this work we summarize the results from experiments on electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in tokamak plasmas. Spectral analyses show that these fluctuations are turbulent, having a broad spectrum of wavectors and a broad spectrum of frequencies at each wavector. The electrostatic turbulence induces unexpected anomalous particle transport that deteriorates the plasma confinement. The relationship of these fluctuations to the current state of plasma theory is still unclear. Furthermore, we describe also attempts to control this plasma turbulence with external magnetic perturbations that create chaotic magnetic configurations. Accordingly, the magnetic field lines may become chaotic and then induce a Lagrangian diffusion. Moreover, to discuss nonlinear coupling and intermittency, we present results obtained by using numerical techniques as bi spectral and wavelet analyses. (author)

  6. Active probing of plasma edge turbulence and feedback studies on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Carreras, B.A.; Richards, B.; Bengtson, R.D.; Crockett, D.B.; Gentle, K.W.; Li, G.X.; Hurwitz, P.D.; Rowan, W.L.; Tsui, H.Y.W.; Wootton, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    The edge fluctuations play a critical role in the overall tokamak confinement. Experiments on TEXT show that electrostatic fluctuations in the edge plasma are the dominant mechanism for energy and particle transport. The basic mechanisms responsible for the edge turbulence are the subject of ongoing research in fusion devices. To understand the driving forces responsible for edge fluctuations, a novel experiment is underway on TEXT to actively modify the turbulence at the plasma edge by launching waves using electrostatic probes in the shadow of the limiter. This technique permits active probing of the spectral properties of the edge turbulence. This new approach to the study of edge fluctuations can provide more insight into the basic dynamics of the turbulence and may, in turn, enable detailed comparison with the theory. These experiments, which rely on the use of oscillating electric fields at the plasma edge, complement edge fluctuation control studies that are presently limited to the use of applied dc biasing to influence the edge electric field profile. These experiments have been extended to control of the edge plasma fluctuation level, using feedback to explore its effects on the edge turbulence characteristics as well as on confinement

  7. Low plasma progranulin levels in children with autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mostafa Gehan A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Autoimmunity to brain may play a pathogenic role in autism. In autoimmune disorders, the formation of antigen-antibody complexes triggers an inflammatory response by inducing the infiltration of neutrophils. Local administration of recombinant progranulin, which is an anti-inflammatory neurotrophic factor, potently inhibit neutrophilic inflammation in vivo, demonstrating that progranulin represents a crucial inflammation-suppressing mediator. We are the first to measure plasma progranulin levels in autism. Methods Plasma levels of progranulin were measured, by ELISA, in 40 autistic patients, aged between 3 and 12 years, and 40 healthy-matched children. Results Autistic children had significantly lower plasma progranulin levels, P = 0.001. Reduced plasma progranulin levels were found in 65% (26/40 of autistic children. On the other hand, there was a non significant difference between plasma progranulin levels of children with mild to moderate autism and patients with severe autism, P = 0.11. Conclusions Plasma progranulin levels were reduced in a subgroup of patients with autism. Progranulin insufficiency in some patients with autism may result in many years of reduced neutrotrophic support together with cumulative damage in association with dysregulated inflammation that may have a role in autism. However, these data should be treated with caution until further investigations are performed, with a larger subject population, to determine whether the decrease of plasma progranulin levels is a mere consequence of autism or has a pathogenic role in the disease. The role of progranulin therapy should also be studied in autism.

  8. Low plasma progranulin levels in children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ayadhi, Laila Y; Mostafa, Gehan A

    2011-09-05

    Autoimmunity to brain may play a pathogenic role in autism. In autoimmune disorders, the formation of antigen-antibody complexes triggers an inflammatory response by inducing the infiltration of neutrophils. Local administration of recombinant progranulin, which is an anti-inflammatory neurotrophic factor, potently inhibit neutrophilic inflammation in vivo, demonstrating that progranulin represents a crucial inflammation-suppressing mediator. We are the first to measure plasma progranulin levels in autism. Plasma levels of progranulin were measured, by ELISA, in 40 autistic patients, aged between 3 and 12 years, and 40 healthy-matched children. Autistic children had significantly lower plasma progranulin levels, P = 0.001. Reduced plasma progranulin levels were found in 65% (26/40) of autistic children.On the other hand, there was a non significant difference between plasma progranulin levels of children with mild to moderate autism and patients with severe autism, P = 0.11. Plasma progranulin levels were reduced in a subgroup of patients with autism. Progranulin insufficiency in some patients with autism may result in many years of reduced neutrotrophic support together with cumulative damage in association with dysregulated inflammation that may have a role in autism. However, these data should be treated with caution until further investigations are performed, with a larger subject population, to determine whether the decrease of plasma progranulin levels is a mere consequence of autism or has a pathogenic role in the disease. The role of progranulin therapy should also be studied in autism.

  9. Fluctuation properties of nuclear energy levels and widths: comparison of theory with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohigas, O.; Haq, R.U.; Pandey, A.

    1982-09-01

    We analyze the fluctuation properties of nuclear energy levels and widths with new spectrally averaged measures. A remarkably close agreement between the predictions of random-matrix theories and experiment is found

  10. Asymmetry in the convective energy fluxes due to electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smolyakov, A.I.; Hirose, A.

    1993-01-01

    The structure of the energy balance equation for a magnetically confined plasma in the presence of electromagnetic fluctuations is investigated by using the drift kinetic equation. The convective energy fluxes, one caused by E x B electrostatic turbulence and the other by shear-Alfven type magnetic turbulence, are asymmetric: For low frequency electrostatic turbulence, the convective energy flux has a unique numerical factor 3/2, while the convective energy flux induced by magnetic turbulence has a numerical factor 5/2. As expected, in the drift approximation, turbulent heating by the longitudinal electric field is the only anomalous source term in the total energy balance equation. (Author)

  11. Electron Temperature Fluctuation Measurements and Transport Model Validation at Alcator C-Mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Anne [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-06-22

    The tokamak is a type of toroidal device used to confine a fusion plasma using large magnetic fields. Tokamaks and stellarators the leading devices for confining plasmas for fusion, and the capability to predict performance in these magnetically confined plasmas is essential for developing a sustainable fusion energy source. The magnetic configuration of tokamaks and stellarators does not exist in Nature, yet, the fundamental processes governing transport in fusion plasmas are universal – turbulence and instabilities, driven by inhomogeneity and asymmetry in the plasma, conspire to transport heat and particles across magnetic field lines and can play critical roles in impurity confinement and generation of intrinsic rotation. Turbulence exists in all plasmas, and in neutral fluids as well. The study of turbulence is essential to developing a fundamental understanding of the nature of the fourth state of matter, plasmas. Experimental studies of turbulence in tokamaks date back to early scattering observations from the late 1970s. Since that time, great advances in turbulence diagnostics have been made, all of which have significantly enhanced our knowledge and understanding of turbulence in tokamaks. Through comparisons with advanced gyrokinetic theory and turbulent-transport models a great deal of evidence exists to implicate turbulent-driven transport as an important mechanism determining transport in all channels: heat, particle and momentum However, prediction and control of turbulent-driven transport remains elusive. Key to development of predictive transport models for magnetically confined fusion plasmas is validation of the nonlinear gyrokinetic transport model, which describes transport due to turbulence. Validation of gyrokinetic codes must include detailed and quantitative comparisons with measured turbulence characteristics, in addition to comparisons with inferred transport levels and equilibrium profiles. For this reason, advanced plasma diagnostics

  12. Measurement of magnetic fluctuations on ZT-40(M)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.

    1990-01-01

    The mathematical basis for experimental measurement of magnetic fluctuations in a Reversed Field Pinch is reviewed. A quasi-static drift model is introduced as the frame-work for analysis of the five-fixed-probe technique. The extrapolation of edge-measured rvec B r fluctuations into the plasma is discussed. Correlations between magnetic and other fluctuations expected from a quasi-static model are derived and transport-relevant correlations are discussed. Data from ZT-40(M) are presented

  13. Plasma Fluctuation Studies in the TCV Tokamak: Modeling of Shaping Effects and Advanced Diagnostic Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinoni, A.

    2009-10-01

    One of the most important issues for magnetic-confinement fusion research is the so-called anomalous transport across magnetic field lines, i.e. transport that is in excess of that caused by collisional processes. The need to reduce anomalous transport in order to increase the efficiency of a prospective fusion reactor must be addressed through an investigation of its fundamental underlying causes. This thesis is divided into two distinct components: one experimental and instrumental, and the other theoretical and based on numerical modeling. The experimental part consists of the design and installation of a new diagnostic for core turbulence fluctuations in the TCV tokamak. An extensive conceptual investigation of a number of possible solutions, including Beam Emission Spectroscopy, Reflectometry, Cross Polarization, Collective Scattering and different Imaging techniques, was carried out at first. A number of criteria, such as difficulties in data interpretation, costs, variety of physics issues that could be addressed and expected performance, were used to compare the different techniques for specific application to the TCV tokamak. The expected signal to noise ratio and the required sampling frequency for TCV were estimated on the basis of a large number of linear, local gyrokinetic simulations of plasma fluctuations. This work led to the choice of a Zernike phase contrast imaging system in a tangential launching configuration. The diagnostic was specifically designed to provide information on turbulence features up to now unknown. In particular, it is characterized by an outstanding spatial resolution and by the capability to measure a very broad range of fluctuations, from ion to electron Larmor radius scales, thus covering the major part of the instabilities expected to be at play in TCV. The spectrum accessible covers the wavenumber region from 0.9 cm -1 to 60 cm -1 at 24 radial positions with 3 MHz bandwidth. The diagnostic is an imaging technique and is

  14. Niacin treatment increases plasma homocyst(e)ine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, R; Malinow, M; Pettinger, M; Upson, B; Hunninghake, D

    1999-12-01

    Studies have reported high levels of plasma homocyst(e)ine as an independent risk factor for arterial occlusive disease. The Cholesterol Lowering Atherosclerosis Study reported an increase in plasma homocyst(e)ine levels in patients receiving both colestipol and niacin compared with placebo. Thus the objective of this study was to examine the effect of niacin treatment on plasma homocyst(e)ine levels. The Arterial Disease Multiple Intervention Trial, a multicenter randomized, placebo-controlled trial, examined the effect of niacin compared with placebo on homocyst(e)ine in a subset of 52 participants with peripheral arterial disease. During the screening phase, titration of niacin dose from 100 mg to 1000 mg daily resulted in a 17% increase in mean plasma homocyst(e)ine level from 13.1 +/- 4.4 micromol/L to 15.3 +/- 5.6 micromol/L (P ine levels in the niacin group and a 7% decrease in the placebo group (P =.0001). This difference remained statistically significant at the end of follow-up at 48 weeks. Niacin substantially increased plasma homocyst(e)ine levels, which could potentially reduce the expected benefits of niacin associated with lipoprotein modification. However, plasma homocyst(e)ine levels can be decreased by folic acid supplementation. Thus further studies are needed to determine whether B vitamin supplementation to patients undergoing long-term niacin treatment would be beneficial.

  15. Evaluation of CART peptide level in rat plasma and CSF: Possible role as a biomarker in opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtazad, Atefeh; Vousooghi, Nasim; Garmabi, Behzad; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza

    2016-10-01

    It has been shown previously that cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide has a modulatory role and homeostatic regulatory effect in motivation to and reward of the drugs of abuse specially psychostimulants. Recent data also showed that in addition to psychostimulants, CART is critically involved in the different stages of opioid addiction. Here we have evaluated the fluctuations in the level of CART peptide in plasma and CSF in different phases of opioid addiction to find out whether CART can serve as a suitable marker in opioid addiction studies. Male rats were randomly distributed in groups of control, acute low-dose (10mg/kg) morphine, acute high-dose morphine (80mg/kg), chronic escalating doses of morphine, withdrawal syndrome precipitated by administration of naloxone (1mg/kg), and abstinent after long-term drug-free maintenance of addicted animals. The level of CART peptide in CSF and plasma samples was measured by enzyme immunoassay. CART peptide concentration in the CSF and plasma was significantly elevated in acute high-dose morphine and withdrawal state animals and down-regulated in addicted rats. In abstinent group, CART peptide level was up-regulated in plasma but not in CSF samples. As the observed results are in agreement with data regarding the CART mRNA and protein expression in the brain reward pathway in opioid addiction phases, it may be suggested that evaluation of CART peptide level in CSF or plasma could be a suitable marker which reflects the rises and falls of the peptide concentration in brain in the development of opioid addiction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A simple procedure to model water level fluctuations in partially inundated wetlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spieksma, JFM; Schouwenaars, JM

    When modelling groundwater behaviour in wetlands, there are specific problems related to the presence of open water in small-sized mosaic patterns. A simple quasi two-dimensional model to predict water level fluctuations in partially inundated wetlands is presented. In this model, the ratio between

  17. Reconstruction of a Broadband Spectrum of Alfvenic Fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinas, Adolfo F.; Fuentes, Pablo S. M.; Araneda, Jaime A.; Maneva, Yana G.

    2014-01-01

    Alfvenic fluctuations in the solar wind exhibit a high degree of velocities and magnetic field correlations consistent with Alfven waves propagating away and toward the Sun. Two remarkable properties of these fluctuations are the tendencies to have either positive or negative magnetic helicity (-1 less than or equal to sigma(sub m) less than or equal to +1) associated with either left- or right- topological handedness of the fluctuations and to have a constant magnetic field magnitude. This paper provides, for the first time, a theoretical framework for reconstructing both the magnetic and velocity field fluctuations with a divergence-free magnetic field, with any specified power spectral index and normalized magnetic- and cross-helicity spectrum field fluctuations for any plasma species. The spectrum is constructed in the Fourier domain by imposing two conditions-a divergence-free magnetic field and the preservation of the sense of magnetic helicity in both spaces-as well as using Parseval's theorem for the conservation of energy between configuration and Fourier spaces. Applications to the one-dimensional spatial Alfvenic propagation are presented. The theoretical construction is in agreement with typical time series and power spectra properties observed in the solar wind. The theoretical ideas presented in this spectral reconstruction provide a foundation for more realistic simulations of plasma waves, solar wind turbulence, and the propagation of energetic particles in such fluctuating fields.

  18. Holocene Lake-Level Fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, Christa; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, Julio L.

    2001-09-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17° 22‧S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (<350 yr). Diatomites associated with highstands several meters above the modern lake level indicate wet episodes. Maximum Holocene lake level was attained before 6100 14C yr B.P. and ended ∼2700 14C yr B.P. Moderately high lake levels occurred at 1700 and 1300 14C yr B.P. The highstand at Lake Aricota during the middle Holocene is coeval with a major lowstand at Lake Titicaca (16°S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes.

  19. Altered levels of acetylcholinesterase in Alzheimer plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Salud García-Ayllón

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have been conducted in an extensive effort to identify alterations in blood cholinesterase levels as a consequence of disease, including the analysis of acetylcholinesterase (AChE in plasma. Conventional assays using selective cholinesterase inhibitors have not been particularly successful as excess amounts of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE pose a major problem. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we have estimated the levels of AChE activity in human plasma by first immunoprecipitating BuChE and measuring AChE activity in the immunodepleted plasma. Human plasma AChE activity levels were approximately 20 nmol/min/mL, about 160 times lower than BuChE. The majority of AChE species are the light G(1+G(2 forms and not G(4 tetramers. The levels and pattern of the molecular forms are similar to that observed in individuals with silent BuChE. We have also compared plasma AChE with the enzyme pattern obtained from human liver, red blood cells, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and brain, by sedimentation analysis, Western blotting and lectin-binding analysis. Finally, a selective increase of AChE activity was detected in plasma from Alzheimer's disease (AD patients compared to age and gender-matched controls. This increase correlates with an increase in the G(1+G(2 forms, the subset of AChE species which are increased in Alzheimer's brain. Western blot analysis demonstrated that a 78 kDa immunoreactive AChE protein band was also increased in Alzheimer's plasma, attributed in part to AChE-T subunits common in brain and CSF. CONCLUSION: Plasma AChE might have potential as an indicator of disease progress and prognosis in AD and warrants further investigation.

  20. Duality and reciprocity of fluctuation-dissipation relations in conductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reggiani, Lino; Alfinito, Eleonora; Kuhn, Tilmann

    2016-09-01

    By analogy with linear response, we formulate the duality and reciprocity properties of current and voltage fluctuations expressed by Nyquist relations, including the intrinsic bandwidths of the respective fluctuations. For this purpose, we individuate total-number and drift-velocity fluctuations of carriers inside a conductor as the microscopic sources of noise. The spectral densities at low frequency of the current and voltage fluctuations and the respective conductance and resistance are related in a mutually exclusive way to the corresponding noise source. The macroscopic variances of current and voltage fluctuations are found to display a dual property via a plasma conductance that admits a reciprocal plasma resistance. Analogously, the microscopic noise sources are found to obey a dual property and a reciprocity relation. The formulation is carried out in the frame of the grand canonical (for current noise) and canonical (for voltage noise) ensembles, and results are derived that are valid for classical as well as degenerate statistics, including fractional exclusion statistics. The unifying theory so developed sheds new light on the microscopic interpretation of dissipation and fluctuation phenomena in conductors. In particular, it is proven that for fermions, as a consequence of the Pauli principle, nonvanishing single-carrier velocity fluctuations at zero temperature are responsible for diffusion but not for current noise, which vanishes in this limit.

  1. Interplay between edge and outer core fluctuations in the tokamak Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenzi, C.; Garbet, X.; Capes, H.; Devynck, P.; Laviron, C.; Truc, A.; Gervais, F.; Hennequin, P.; Quemeneur, A.

    2000-01-01

    In the tokamak Tore Supra, when a poloidally and toroidally localized limiter, called a modular limiter, is introduced into the lower part of the scrape-off layer, density fluctuations located in the vicinity of this limiter present a specific feature with the appearance of a new spectral pattern in the associated frequency spectrum. This leads to a strong up-down asymmetry observed in both the plasma edge and the plasma outer core, with a maximum level of turbulence at the bottom of the plasma. The observed asymmetry characteristics show that magnetic connection lengths play a critical role here and that the limiter configuration has some effect on the outer core turbulence. (author)

  2. Multi-Accuracy-Level Burning Plasma Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Huynh, P.; Huysmans, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Johner, J.; Scheider, M.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a reactor grade tokamak is based on a hierarchy of tools. We present here three codes that are presently used for the simulations of burning plasmas. At the first level there is a 0-dimensional code that allows to choose a reasonable range of global parameters; in our case the HELIOS code was used for this task. For the second level we have developed a mixed 0-D / 1-D code called METIS that allows to study the main properties of a burning plasma, including profiles and all heat and current sources, but always under the constraint of energy and other empirical scaling laws. METIS is a fast code that permits to perform a large number of runs (a run takes about one minute) and design the main features of a scenario, or validate the results of the 0-D code on a full time evolution. At the top level, we used the full 1D1/2 suite of codes CRONOS that gives access to a detailed study of the plasma profiles evolution. CRONOS can use a variety of modules for source terms and transport coefficients computation with different level of complexity and accuracy: from simple estimators to highly sophisticated physics calculations. Thus it is possible to vary the accuracy of burning plasma simulations, as a trade-off with computation time. A wide range of scenario studies can thus be made with CRONOS and then validated with post-processing tools like MHD stability analysis. We will present in this paper results of this multi-level analysis applied to the ITER hybrid scenario. This specific example will illustrate the importance of having several tools for the study of burning plasma scenarios, especially in a domain that present devices cannot access experimentally. (Author)

  3. The roles of shear and cross-correlations on the fluctuation levels in simple stochastic models. Revision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Highly simplified models of random flows interacting with background microturbulence are analyzed. In the limit of very rapid velocity fluctuations, it is shown rigorously that the fluctuation level of a passively advected scalar is not controlled by the rms shear. In a model with random velocities dependent only on time, the level of cross-correlations between the flows and the background turbulence regulates the saturation level. This effect is illustrated by considering a simple stochastic-oscillator model, both exactly and with analysis and numerical solutions of the direct-interaction approximation. Implications for the understanding of self-consistent turbulence are discussed briefly

  4. Controlled fusion and plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The contributions presented in the 17th European Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Heating were focused on Tore Supra investigations. The following subjects were presented: ohmic discharges, lower hybrid experiments, runaway electrons, Thomson scattering, plasma density measurements, magnetic fluctuations, polarization scattering, plasma currents, plasma fluctuation measurements, evaporation of hydrogen pellets in presence of fast electrons, ripple induced stochastic diffusion of trapped particles, tearing mode stabilization, edge effects on turbulence behavior, electron cyclotron heating, micro-tearing modes, divertors, limiters

  5. Microwave Imaging Reflectometry for the Measurement of Turbulent Fluctuations in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a numerical study of microwave reflectometry for the measurement of turbulent fluctuations in tokamak-like plasmas with a cylindrical geometry. Similarly to what was found previously in plane-stratified plasmas, the results indicate that the characteristics of density fluctuations cannot be uniquely determined from the reflected waves if the latter are allowed to propagate freely to the point of detection, as in standard reflectometry. Again, we find that if the amplitude of fluctuations is below a threshold that is set by the spectrum of poloidal wave numbers, the local characteristics of density fluctuations can be obtained from the phase of reflected waves when these are collected with a wide aperture antenna, and an image of the cutoff is formed onto an array of phase-sensitive detectors

  6. Impact of magnetic shear modification on confinement and turbulent fluctuations in LHD plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, T.; Tamura, N.; Ida, K.

    2008-10-01

    For the comprehensive understandings of transport phenomena in toroidal confinement systems and improvement of the predictive capability of burning plasmas in ITER, the impact of magnetic shear has been extensively investigated in the Large Helical Device (LHD) for comparison with tokamaks. Consequently, it was heuristically documented that the pronounced effect of magnetic shear, which has been hitherto considered to be ubiquitous and strongly impacts the core transport in the tokamak experiments, is not quite obvious. Namely, the kinetic profiles respond little under extensive modification of the magnetic shear in the core, although the local transport analysis indicates the sign of improvement in confinement transiently when the magnetic shear is reduced. It was thereby concluded that the magnetic shear in the core strongly influences the MHD activity, but it may only be one of the necessary conditions for the transport reduction, and some other crucial knobs, such as the density gradient or T e /T i ratio, would have to be simultaneously controlled. The low wavenumber turbulence seems to be suppressed under the weak shear, and the turbulent fluctuation intensity behaves in a consistent manner as a whole, following the conventional paradigm accumulated in the negative shear experiments in tokamaks. However, vigorous dynamics of turbulent fluctuations have occasionally been observed under the magnetic shear modification, which respond in much faster time scale than the characteristic time scale for either the magnetic diffusion or the profile evolution. (author)

  7. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krolová M.

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Lakes and reservoirs that are used for water supply and/or flow regulations have usually poorly developed littoral macrophyte communities, which impairs ecological potential in terms of the EU Water Framework Directive. The aim of our study was to reveal controlling factors for the growth of littoral macrophytes in a storage reservoir with fluctuating water level (Lipno Reservoir, Czech Republic. Macrophytes occurred in this reservoir only in the eulittoral zone i.e., the shoreline region between the highest and the lowest seasonal water levels. Three eulittoral sub-zones could be distinguished: the upper eulittoral with a stable community of perennial species with high cover, the middle eulittoral with relatively high richness of emergent and amphibious species present at low cover values, and the lower eulittoral devoid of permanent vegetation. Cover and species composition in particular sub-zones were primarily influenced by the duration and timing of flooding, followed by nutrient limitation and strongly reducing conditions in the flooded organic sediment. Our results stress the ecological importance of eulittoral zone in reservoirs with fluctuating water levels where macrophyte growth can be supported by targeted management of water level, thus helping reservoir managers in improving the ecological potential of this type of water bodies.

  8. A Hydro-Economic Model for Water Level Fluctuations: Combining Limnology with Economics for Sustainable Development of Hydropower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands. PMID:25526619

  9. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Philipp Emanuel; Schillinger, Sebastian; Weigt, Hannes; Burkhardt-Holm, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity). Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  10. A hydro-economic model for water level fluctuations: combining limnology with economics for sustainable development of hydropower.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Emanuel Hirsch

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in lakes lead to shoreline displacement. The seasonality of flooding or beaching of the littoral area affects nutrient cycling, redox gradients in sediments, and life cycles of aquatic organisms. Despite the ecological importance of water level fluctuations, we still lack a method that assesses water levels in the context of hydropower operations. Water levels in reservoirs are influenced by the operator of a hydropower plant, who discharges water through the turbines or stores water in the reservoir, in a fashion that maximizes profit. This rationale governs the seasonal operation scheme and hence determines the water levels within the boundaries of the reservoir's water balance. For progress towards a sustainable development of hydropower, the benefits of this form of electricity generation have to be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of the anthropogenic water level fluctuations. We developed a hydro-economic model that combines an economic optimization function with hydrological estimators of the water balance of a reservoir. Applying this model allowed us to accurately predict water level fluctuations in a reservoir. The hydro-economic model also allowed for scenario calculation of how water levels change with climate change scenarios and with a change in operating scheme of the reservoir (increase in turbine capacity. Further model development will enable the consideration of a variety of additional parameters, such as water withdrawal for irrigation, drinking water supply, or altered energy policies. This advances our ability to sustainably manage water resources that must meet both economic and environmental demands.

  11. Study of fluctuation and turbulance of JFT-2M

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Hiroshi; Hanada, Kazuaki; Yamagishi, Kenichi [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)] [and others

    1998-01-01

    In many improved containment modes, it is said that E x B shear flow formed by shear of radial electric field acts as a mechanism of fluctuation control. In order to understand the mechanism of these improved containment modes, it is necessary to investigate a cause and result relation between controls of fluctuation on formation of sheared flow and fluctuating magnetic wave by using geometrical optics approximation. In this study, the following articles were conducted: (1) to improve a reflectometer with fixed 1-ch frequency using at last fiscal year to one with 2-ch variable frequency to test density fluctuation ranging 0.98 to 3.1 x 10(exp 19)m(sup-3) in density, (2) to examine a relationship between runaway phase and scattering, to propose and application of complex spectrum for usable analytical method even to runaway phase, (3) to study density fluctuation at L-H transition by using this analytical method, and (4) to research cause and result relation of the L-H transition by measuring various plasma parameters by inserting a triple probe array into main plasma. (G.K.)

  12. Study of fluctuation and turbulance of JFT-2M

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Hiroshi; Hanada, Kazuaki; Yamagishi, Kenichi

    1998-01-01

    In many improved containment modes, it is said that E x B shear flow formed by shear of radial electric field acts as a mechanism of fluctuation control. In order to understand the mechanism of these improved containment modes, it is necessary to investigate a cause and result relation between controls of fluctuation on formation of sheared flow and fluctuating magnetic wave by using geometrical optics approximation. In this study, the following articles were conducted: 1) to improve a reflectometer with fixed 1-ch frequency using at last fiscal year to one with 2-ch variable frequency to test density fluctuation ranging 0.98 to 3.1 x 10(exp 19)m(sup-3) in density, 2) to examine a relationship between runaway phase and scattering, to propose and application of complex spectrum for usable analytical method even to runaway phase, 3) to study density fluctuation at L-H transition by using this analytical method, and 4) to research cause and result relation of the L-H transition by measuring various plasma parameters by inserting a triple probe array into main plasma. (G.K.)

  13. Measurement of core velocity fluctuations and the dynamo in a reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Craig, D.; Fiksel, G.; Fontana, P.W.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.; Chapman, J.T.

    1998-01-01

    Plasma flow velocity fluctuations have been directly measured in the high temperature magnetically confined plasma in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). These measurements show that the flow velocity fluctuations are correlated with magnetic field fluctuations. This initial measurement is subject to limitations of spatial localization and other uncertainties, but is evidence for sustainment of the RFP magnetic field configuration by the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo. Both the flow velocity and magnetic field fluctuations are the result of global resistive MHD modes of helicity m = 1, n = 5--10 in the core of MST. Chord-averaged flow velocity fluctuations are measured in the core of MST by recording the Doppler shift of impurity line emission with a specialized high resolution and throughput grating spectrometer. Magnetic field fluctuations are recorded with a large array of small edge pickup coils, which allows spectral decomposition into discrete modes and subsequent correlation with the velocity fluctuation data

  14. Creation of Magnetic Fields by Electrostatic and Thermal Fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saleem, Hamid

    2009-01-01

    It is pointed out that the electrostatic and thermal fluctuations are the main source of magnetic fields in unmagnetized inhomogeneous plasmas. The unmagnetized inhomogeneous plasmas can support a low frequency electromagnetic ion wave as a normal mode like Alfven wave of magnetized plasmas. But this is a coupled mode produced by the mixing of longitudinal and transverse components of perturbed electric field due to density inhomogeneity. The ion acoustic wave does not remain electrostatic in non-uniform plasmas. On the other hand, a low frequency electrostatic wave can also exist in the pure electron plasmas and it couples with ion acoustic wave when ions are dynamic. These waves can become unstable when density and temperature gradients are parallel to each other as can be the case of laser plasmas and is the common situation in stellar cores. The main instability condition for the electrostatic and electromagnetic modes is the same (2/3)κ n T (where κ n and κ T are inverse of the scale lengths of gradients of density and electron temperature, respectively). This indicates that the electrostatic and magnetic field fluctuations are strongly coupled in unmagnetized nonuniform plasmas.

  15. Active probing of plasma edge turbulence and feedback studies on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Richards, B.; Bengtson, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    The edge fluctuations play a critical role in the overall tokamak confinement. Experiments on TEXT show that electrostatic fluctuations in the edge plasma are the dominant mechanism for energy and particle transport. The basic mechanisms responsible for the edge turbulence are the subject of ongoing research in fusion devices. To understand the driving forces responsible for edge fluctuations, a novel experiment is underway on TEXT to actively modify the turbulence at the plasma edge by launching waves using electrostatic probes in the shadow of the limiter. This technique permits active probing of the spectral properties of the edge turbulence. This new approach to the study of edge fluctuations can provide more insight into the basic dynamics of the turbulence and may, in turn, enable detailed comparison with the theory. These experiments, which rely on the use of oscillating electric fields at the plasma edge, complement edge fluctuation control studies that are presently limited to the use of applied dc biasing to influence the edge electric field profile. These experiments have been extended to control of the edge plasma fluctuation level, using feedback to explore its effects on the edge turbulence characteristics as well as on confinement. (author) 8 refs., 7 figs

  16. ATF [Advanced Toroidal Facility] edge plasma turbulence studies using a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Hidalgo, C.; Bell, J.D.; Harris, J.H.; Dunlap, J.L.; Dyer, G.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Wilgen, J.B.; Ritz, C.P.; Wootton, A.J.; Rhodes, T.L.; Carter, K.

    1990-01-01

    Electrostatic turbulence on the edge of the Advanced Torodial Facility (ATF) torsatron is investigated experimentally with a fast reciprocating Langmuir probe (FRLP) array. Initial measurements of plasma electron density n e and temperature T e and fluctuations in density (n e ) and plasma floating potential (φ f ) are made in ECH plasmas at 1 T. At the last closed flux surface (LCFS, r/bar a ∼1), T e ∼ 20--40 eV and n e ∼ 10 12 cm -3 for a line-averaged electron density bar n e = (3--6) x 10 12 cm -3 . Relative fluctuation levels, as the FRLP is moved into core plasma where T e > 20 eV, are n e /n e ∼ 5%, and e φ f /T e ∼ 2n e /n e about 2 cm inside the LCFS. The observed fluctuation spectra are broadband (40--300 kHz) with bar kρ s ≤ 0.1, where bar k is the wavenumber of the fluctuations and ρ s is the ion Larmor radius at the sound speed. The propagation direction of the fluctuations reverses to the electron diamagnetic direction around r/bar a ph ∼ v de ). The fluctuation-induced particle flux is comparable to fluxes estimated from the particle balance using the H α spectroscopic measurements. Many of the features seen in these experiments resemble the features of ohmically heated plasmas in the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT). 17 refs., 10 figs

  17. Sheared Rotation Effects on Kinetic Stability in Enhanced Confinement Tokamak Plasmas, and Nonlinear Dynamics of Fluctuations and Flows in Axisymmetric Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, M.A.; Chance, M.S.; Hahm, T.S.; Lin, Z.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W.M.

    1997-01-01

    Sheared rotation dynamics are widely believed to have signficant influence on experimentally observed confinement transitions in advanced operating modes in major tokamak experiments, such as the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [D.J. Grove and D.M. Meade, Nuclear Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)], with reversed magnetic shear regions in the plasma interior. The high-n toroidal drift modes destabilized by the combined effects of ion temperature gradients and trapped particles in toroidal geometry can be strongly affected by radially sheared toroidal and poloidal plasma rotation. In previous work with the FULL linear microinstability code, a simplified rotation model including only toroidal rotation was employed, and results were obtained. Here, a more complete rotation model, that includes contributions from toroidal and poloidal rotation and the ion pressure gradient to the total radial electric field, is used for a proper self-consistent treatment of this key problem. Relevant advanced operating mode cases for TFTR are presented. In addition, the complementary problem of the dynamics of fluctuation-driven E x B flow is investigated by an integrated program of gyrokinetic simulation in annulus geometry and gyrofluid simulation in flux tube geometry

  18. Holocene lake-level fluctuations of Lake Aricota, Southern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placzek, C.; Quade, Jay; Betancourt, J.L.

    2001-01-01

    Lacustrine deposits exposed around Lake Aricota, Peru (17?? 22???S), a 7.5-km2 lake dammed by debris flows, provide a middle to late Holocene record of lake-level fluctuations. Chronological context for shoreline deposits was obtained from radiocarbon dating of vascular plant remains and other datable material with minimal 14C reservoir effects (Titicaca (16?? S), which is only 130 km to the northeast and shares a similar climatology. Comparisons with other marine and terrestrial records highlight emerging contradictions over the nature of mid-Holocene climate in the central Andes. ?? 2001 University of Washington.

  19. Increased plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Goktalay, Gokhan; Kayir, Hakan; Eker, Salih S; Sarandol, Asli; Oral, Sema; Buyukuysal, Levent; Ulusoy, Gokhan; Kirli, Selcuk

    2013-08-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous substance, synthesized from l-arginine, and it is proposed to be a new neurotransmitter. Preclinical studies indicated that agmatine may have an important role in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. This study was organized to investigate plasma agmatine in patients with schizophrenia and in healthy controls. Eighteen patients with schizophrenia and 19 healthy individuals constituted the subjects. Agmatine levels in the plasma were measured using the HPLC method. The S100B protein level, which is a peripheral biomarker for brain damage, was also measured using the ELISA method. While plasma levels of agmatine in patients with schizophrenia were significantly increased (p agmatine levels as a clinical diagnostic test would significantly differentiate between patients with schizophrenia and those in the control group (predictive value: 0.969; p  0.05). A multiple regression analysis revealed that the age of the patient and the severity of the illness, as indicated by the PANSS score, significantly contributed the plasma agmatine levels in patients with schizophrenia. These results support the hypothesis that an excess agmatine release is important in the development of schizophrenia. The findings also imply that the plasma agmatine level may be a potential biomarker of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Zinc and copper levels in the plasma of Nubian goat as affected by the physiological status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid, Tag-Eldin Mohamed [Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum (Sudan)

    1997-11-01

    This study is undertaken directed to determine the blood concentration of micro (trace) minerals, particularly zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in dairy goats as affected by the different physiological status. Animals selected were the Nubian goats as an important dairy breed in sudan. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: Young animals (4-6 month old), adult animals (9-12 month old), up to 50 days after first kidding, up to 50 days after second kidding, up to 50 days after third kidding, low yielder, high yielder. Each of the above groups consisted of 5 animals. The analysis was carried by using the spectrophotometer technique and the results revealed that, plasma Zn concentration decreased with increase of age while that of Cu increased with the increase of age. The plasma Zn level showed continuous increase through first pregnancy, after first kidding, after second kidding and after third kidding. It increased in the lactating animals. The plasma Cu concentration fluctuated throughout the groups with different physiological status, it showed the same levels in the pregnant group, up to 50 days after second kidding, and up to 50 days after third kidding groups, while it showed a marked decrease in the group of up to 50 days after first kidding. No significant differences were observed between the low lactating and the high lactating groups. (Author) 68 refs. , 3 tabs. , 2 figs.

  1. Zinc and copper levels in the plasma of Nubian goat as affected by the physiological status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Tag-Eldin Mohamed

    1997-11-01

    This study is undertaken directed to determine the blood concentration of micro (trace) minerals, particularly zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu), in dairy goats as affected by the different physiological status. Animals selected were the Nubian goats as an important dairy breed in sudan. The animals were divided into eight groups as follows: Young animals (4-6 month old), adult animals (9-12 month old), up to 50 days after first kidding, up to 50 days after second kidding, up to 50 days after third kidding, low yielder, high yielder. Each of the above groups consisted of 5 animals. The analysis was carried by using the spectrophotometer technique and the results revealed that, plasma Zn concentration decreased with increase of age while that of Cu increased with the increase of age. The plasma Zn level showed continuous increase through first pregnancy, after first kidding, after second kidding and after third kidding. It increased in the lactating animals. The plasma Cu concentration fluctuated throughout the groups with different physiological status, it showed the same levels in the pregnant group, up to 50 days after second kidding, and up to 50 days after third kidding groups, while it showed a marked decrease in the group of up to 50 days after first kidding. No significant differences were observed between the low lactating and the high lactating groups. (Author)

  2. Electrostatic fluctuation and fluctuation-induced particle flux during formation of the edge transport barrier in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, T.; Hamada, Y.; Nagashima, Y.; Nishizawa, A.; Kawasumi, Y.; Miura, Y.; Hoshino, K.; Ogawa, H.; Shinohara, K.; Kamiya, K.; Kusama, Y.

    2005-01-01

    The electrostatic fluctuation with Geodesic-Acoustic-Mode (GAM) frequency is observed in L-mode plasmas. The fluctuation has the poloidal wave number (k θ ) of (-2 ± 24) x 10 -3 (cm -1 ), that corresponds to the poloidal mode number of 1.5 or less, and the radial wave number (k r ) of 0.94 ± 0.05 (cm -1 ), that is corresponds to k r ρ i = 0.26 < 1. The amplitude of the fluctuation changes in the radial direction; it is small near the separatrix and it has maximum at 3 cm inside the separatrix. The relation between the amplitude of potential fluctuation and that of density fluctuation is the same as that of the predicted GAM. The fluctuation is probably GAM. The envelope of ambient density fluctuation and the potential fluctuation have a significant coherence at the GAM frequency. Thus, it is clearly verified that the fluctuation with the GAM frequency correlates with the ambient density fluctuation. The fluctuation with the GAM frequency affects the particle transport through the modulation of the ambient fluctuation. But the effect is not large, and it is not a sufficient condition to form the edge transport barrier and to drive the intermittent particle flux. (author)

  3. Electrostatic fluctuation and fluctuation-induced particle flux during formation of the edge transport barrier in the JFT-2M tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, T.; Miura, K.; Hoshino, K.

    2005-01-01

    The electrostatic fluctuation with Geodesic-Acoustic-Mode (GAM) frequency is observed in L-mode plasmas. The fluctuation has the poloidal wave number (k θ ) of (-2 ± 24) x 10 -3 (cm -1 ), that corresponds to the poloidal mode number of 1.5 or less, and the radial wave number (k γ ) of 0.94±0.05 (cm -1 ), that is corresponds to k γ ρ i =0.26 < 1. The amplitude of the fluctuation changes in the radial direction; it is small near the separatrix and it has maximum at 3 cm inside the separatrix. The relation between the amplitude of potential fluctuation and that of density fluctuation is the same as that of the predicted GAM. The fluctuation is probably GAM. The envelope of ambient density fluctuation and the potential fluctuation have a significant coherence at the GAM frequency. Thus, it is clearly verified that the fluctuation with the GAM frequency correlates with the ambient density fluctuation. The fluctuation with the GAM frequency affects the particle transport through the modulation of the ambient fluctuation. But the effect is not large, and it is not a sufficient condition to form the edge transport barrier and to drive the intermittent particle flux. (author)

  4. Some remarks on stochastic collective oscillations in ECRIS plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovanivsky, K.S.

    1993-08-01

    It is proposed that the thermal fluctuations in plasmas in general and in ECRIS plasmas in particular create rather strong stochastic electrical fields affecting both confinement and heating of an ECRIS plasma. The amplitude, range and characteristic frequency of the stochastic fields as well as the perpendicular diffusion coefficient and the upper density limit for the mirror confinement are determined on the level of the approximate evaluations. Some aspects of the ECRIS plasma's peculiarities due to the stochastic electrical fields are discussed. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs

  5. Plasma kisspeptin levels in male cases with hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotani, Masato; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hirai, Tsuyoshi; Kagawa, Jiro

    2014-01-01

    The hypothalamic hormone kisspeptin (metastin) regulates human reproduction by modulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. Kisspeptin is detected in peripheral blood, although GnRH is not. In this study, we measured plasma kisspeptin levels in four male cases with hypogonadism and seven normal male controls using enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to elucidate the clinical implications of kisspeptin levels in male hypogonadism. The results showed a variety of plasma kisspeptin levels: 6.0 fmol/mL in a male with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH), 43.2 fmol/mL in a male with Kallmann's syndrome, 40.7 fmol/mL in a male with azoospermia, 323.2 fmol/mL in a male with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism, and 12.3 ± 2.5 fmol/mL (mean ± SD) in seven normal controls. Except for the case with IHH, the plasma kisspetin levels were elevated in the three cases with Kallmann's syndrome, azoospermia, and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism. The reason why the three cases had high values was their lesions were downstream of the kisspeptin neuron in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, suggesting that elevated kisspeptin levels were implicated in hypothalamic kisspeptin secretion under decreased negative feedback of gonadal steroids. The result that the plasma kisspeptin levels were decreased by gonadotropin therapy in the case with Kallmann's syndrome supported this hypothesis. In conclusion, to measure plasma kisspeptin levels could be useful for better understanding of male hypogonadism.

  6. Correlation measurements for fusion plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazsit, I.

    1995-01-01

    A list of a few methods for plasma diagnostics via fluctuations (noise) analysis of random (both temporally and spatially) system parameters is reviewed. Analogy is drawn with certain noise analysis methods, used in the diagnostics of fission reactors. These methods have been applied also to fusion measurements to some extent. However, the treatment of fusion plasma fluctuations is dominated by an approach that allows for temporal randomness, but assumes periodicity in space. This approach suits well a large class of phenomena such as magnetic fluctuations (MHD effects), but is much less suited to treat localised effects such as turbulence and density fluctuations. This paper discusses the potentials of the former approach, i.e. ordinary noise analysis methods of non-periodic variables in fusion plasma diagnostics. A new recommendation is to use the crossed beam correlation analysis of soft X-ray signals for determining the local short-range correlations in the plasma and to perform a systematic exploration of the plasma spatial correlation structure with that and other methods. 16 refs, 7 figs

  7. Consideration of fluctuation in secondary beam intensity of heavy ion beam probe measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujisawa, A.; Iguchi, H.; Lee, S.; Hamada, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Heavy ion beam probes have capability to detect local electron density fluctuation in the interior of plasmas through the detected beam intensity fluctuation. However, the intensity fluctuation should suffer a certain degree of distortion from electron density and temperature fluctuations on the beam orbits, and as a result the signal can be quite different from the local density fluctuation. This paper will present a condition that the intensity fluctuation can be regarded as being purely local electron density fluctuation, together with discussion about the contamination of the fluctuation along the beam orbits to the beam intensity fluctuation. (author)

  8. Fusion Plasma Theory: Task 1, Magnetic confinement Fusion Plasma Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The research performed under this grant during the current year has concentrated on few tokamak plasma confinement issues: applications of our new Chapman-Enskog-like approach for developing hybrid fluid/kinetic descriptions of tokamak plasmas; multi-faceted studies as part of our development of a new interacting island paradigm for the tokamak equilibrium'' and transport; investigations of the resolution power of BES and ECE diagnostics for measuring core plasma fluctuations; and studies of net transport in the presence of fluctuating surfaces. Recent progress and publications in these areas, and in the management of the NERSC node and the fusion theory workstations are summarized briefly in this report

  9. Counting statistics in low level radioactivity measurements fluctuating counting efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pazdur, M.F.

    1976-01-01

    A divergence between the probability distribution of the number of nuclear disintegrations and the number of observed counts, caused by counting efficiency fluctuation, is discussed. The negative binominal distribution is proposed to describe the probability distribution of the number of counts, instead of Poisson distribution, which is assumed to hold for the number of nuclear disintegrations only. From actual measurements the r.m.s. amplitude of counting efficiency fluctuation is estimated. Some consequences of counting efficiency fluctuation are investigated and the corresponding formulae are derived: (1) for detection limit as a function of the number of partial measurements and the relative amplitude of counting efficiency fluctuation, and (2) for optimum allocation of the number of partial measurements between sample and background. (author)

  10. Instabilities, turbulence and transport in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbet, X.

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this work is to introduce the main processes that occur in a magnetized plasma. During the last 2 decades, the understanding of turbulence has made great progress but analytical formulas and simulations are far to produce reliable predictions. The values of transport coefficients in a tokamak plasma exceed by far those predicted by the theory of collisional transport. This phenomenon is called abnormal transport and might be due to plasma fluctuations. An estimation of turbulent fluxes derived from the levels of fluctuations, is proposed. A flow description of plasma allows the understanding of most micro-instabilities. The ballooning representation deals with instabilities in a toric geometry. 3 factors play an important role to stabilize plasmas: density pinch, magnetic shear and speed shear. The flow model of plasma gives an erroneous value for the stability threshold, this is due to a bad description of the resonant interaction between wave and particle. As for dynamics, flow models can be improved by adding dissipative terms so that the linear response nears the kinetic response. The kinetic approach is more accurate but is complex because of the great number of dimensions involved. (A.C.)

  11. Effects of fueling profiles on plasma transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, W.A.; Mense, A.T.; Attenberger, S.E.; Milora, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    The effects of cold particle fueling profiles on particle and energy transport in an ignition sized tokamak plasma are investigated in this study with a one-dimensional, multifluid transport model. A density gradient driven trapped particle microinstability model for plasma transport is used to demonstrate potential effects of fueling profiles on ignition requirements. Important criteria for the development of improved transport models under the conditions of shallow particle fueling profiles are outlined. A discrete pellet fueling model indicates that large fluctuations in density and temperature may occur in the outer regions of the plasma with large, shallowly penetrating pellets, but fluctuations in the pressure profile are small. The hot central core of the plasma remains unaffected by the large fluctuations near the plasma edge

  12. Simulation of Water Level Fluctuations in a Hydraulic System Using a Coupled Liquid-Gas Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A model for simulating vertical water level fluctuations with coupled liquid and gas phases is presented. The Preissmann implicit scheme is used to linearize the governing equations for one-dimensional transient flow for both liquid and gas phases, and the linear system is solved using the chasing method. Some classical cases for single liquid and gas phase transients in pipelines and networks are studied to verify that the proposed methods are accurate and reliable. The implicit scheme is extended using a dynamic mesh to simulate the water level fluctuations in a U-tube and an open surge tank without consideration of the gas phase. Methods of coupling liquid and gas phases are presented and used for studying the transient process and interaction between the phases, for gas phase limited in a chamber and gas phase transported in a pipeline. In particular, two other simplified models, one neglecting the effect of the gas phase on the liquid phase and the other one coupling the liquid and gas phases asynchronously, are proposed. The numerical results indicate that the asynchronous model performs better, and are finally applied to a hydropower station with surge tanks and air shafts to simulate the water level fluctuations and air speed.

  13. Evidence of exceptional oyster-reef resilience to fluctuations in sea level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridge, Justin T; Rodriguez, Antonio B; Fodrie, F Joel

    2017-12-01

    Ecosystems at the land-sea interface are vulnerable to rising sea level. Intertidal habitats must maintain their surface elevations with respect to sea level to persist via vertical growth or landward retreat, but projected rates of sea-level rise may exceed the accretion rates of many biogenic habitats. While considerable attention is focused on climate change over centennial timescales, relative sea level also fluctuates dramatically (10-30 cm) over month-to-year timescales due to interacting oceanic and atmospheric processes. To assess the response of oyster-reef ( Crassostrea virginica ) growth to interannual variations in mean sea level (MSL) and improve long-term forecasts of reef response to rising seas, we monitored the morphology of constructed and natural intertidal reefs over 5 years using terrestrial lidar. Timing of reef scans created distinct periods of high and low relative water level for decade-old reefs ( n  = 3) constructed in 1997 and 2000, young reefs ( n  = 11) constructed in 2011 and one natural reef (approximately 100 years old). Changes in surface elevation were related to MSL trends. Decade-old reefs achieved 2 cm/year growth, which occurred along higher elevations when MSL increased. Young reefs experienced peak growth (6.7 cm/year) at a lower elevation that coincided with a drop in MSL. The natural reef exhibited considerable loss during the low MSL of the first time step but grew substantially during higher MSL through the second time step, with growth peaking (4.3 cm/year) at MSL, reoccupying the elevations previously lost. Oyster reefs appear to be in dynamic equilibrium with short-term (month-to-year) fluctuations in sea level, evidencing notable resilience to future changes to sea level that surpasses other coastal biogenic habitat types. These growth patterns support the presence of a previously defined optimal growth zone that shifts correspondingly with changes in MSL, which can help guide oyster-reef conservation and

  14. Kinetic equations and fluctuations in μspace of one-component dilute plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuyama, Michio; Mori, Hazime

    1977-01-01

    Kinetic equations for a spatially coarse-grained electron density in μ phase space A(p, r; t) with a length cutoff b and for its fluctuations are studied by a scaling method and a time-convolutionless approach developed by the present authors. An electron gas with a small plasma parameter epsilon=1/c (lambda sub(D)) 3 has three characteristic lengths; the Landau cutoff r sub(L)=epsilon lambda sub(D), the Debye length lambda sub(D)=√k sub(B)T/4πe 2 c and the mean free path l sub(f)=lambda sub(D)/epsilon, e and c being electronic charge and mean electron density, respectively. It is shown that there are two characteristic regions of the length cutoff b. One is a coherent region where r sub(L)<< b<< lambda sub(D). Its characteristic scaling is c→0, b→infinity, t→infinity with b√c and t√c being kept constant. The Vlasov equation is derived in this limit. The other is a kinetic region where lambda sub(D)<< b<< l sub(f). Its characteristic scaling is c→0, b→infinity, t→infinity with bc and tc being kept constant. The Vlasov term disappears and the Balescu-Lenard-Boltzmann-Landau equation, which is free of divergence for both close and distant collisions, is derived in this limit. It is shown that the fluctuations of A(p, r; t) obey a Markov process with scaling exponents α=0, β=1/2 in the coherent region near thermal equilibrium, while they obey a Gaussian Markov process with α=0, β=1 in the kinetic region. The present theory does not need the factorization ansatz and Bogoliubov's functional ansatz. (auth.)

  15. Observation of fluctuations responsible for stochastic ion heating in a turbulent plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amagishi, Y.; Iguchi, H.; Ito, Y.; Kawabe, T.

    1977-10-01

    Experiments are described in which the correlation time and fluctuation level of ion acoustic waves are measured under the condition of turbulent heating using twin capacitive probes. At the anomalously resistive time, the correlation time becomes shorter, typically several periods of ion waves, and the energy density of the waves is of the order of 10 -2 n sub(e)T sub(e). The ion heating rate previously reported is well explained by these results to be due to stochastic mechanism. (auth.)

  16. Prandtl number of toroidal plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Itoh, S.; Fukuyama, A.; Yagi, M.; Azumi, M.

    1993-06-01

    Theory of the L-mode confinement in toroidal plasmas is developed. The Prandtl number, the ratio between the ion viscosity and the thermal conductivity is obtained for the anomalous transport process which is caused by the self-sustained turbulence in the toroidal plasma. It is found that the Prandtl number is of order unity both for the ballooning mode turbulence in tokamaks and for the interchange mode turbulence in helical system. The influence on the anomalous transport and fluctuation level is evaluated. Hartmann number and magnetic Prandtl number are also discussed. (author)

  17. Quantitative comparison of electron temperature fluctuations to nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations in C-Mod Ohmic L-mode discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sung, C., E-mail: csung@physics.ucla.edu [University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); White, A. E.; Greenwald, M.; Howard, N. T. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Mikkelsen, D. R.; Churchill, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Holland, C. [University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States); Theiler, C. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, SPC, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)

    2016-04-15

    Long wavelength turbulent electron temperature fluctuations (k{sub y}ρ{sub s} < 0.3) are measured in the outer core region (r/a > 0.8) of Ohmic L-mode plasmas at Alcator C-Mod [E. S. Marmar et al., Nucl. Fusion 49, 104014 (2009)] with a correlation electron cyclotron emission diagnostic. The relative amplitude and frequency spectrum of the fluctuations are compared quantitatively with nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations using the GYRO code [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)] in two different confinement regimes: linear Ohmic confinement (LOC) regime and saturated Ohmic confinement (SOC) regime. When comparing experiment with nonlinear simulations, it is found that local, electrostatic ion-scale simulations (k{sub y}ρ{sub s} ≲ 1.7) performed at r/a ∼ 0.85 reproduce the experimental ion heat flux levels, electron temperature fluctuation levels, and frequency spectra within experimental error bars. In contrast, the electron heat flux is robustly under-predicted and cannot be recovered by using scans of the simulation inputs within error bars or by using global simulations. If both the ion heat flux and the measured temperature fluctuations are attributed predominantly to long-wavelength turbulence, then under-prediction of electron heat flux strongly suggests that electron scale turbulence is important for transport in C-Mod Ohmic L-mode discharges. In addition, no evidence is found from linear or nonlinear simulations for a clear transition from trapped electron mode to ion temperature gradient turbulence across the LOC/SOC transition, and also there is no evidence in these Ohmic L-mode plasmas of the “Transport Shortfall” [C. Holland et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 052301 (2009)].

  18. Plasma levels of acylated ghrelin in patients with functional dyspepsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yeon Soo; Lee, Joon Seong; Lee, Tae Hee; Cho, Joo Young; Kim, Jin Oh; Kim, Wan Jung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Jeon, Seong Ran; Jeong, Hoe Su

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the relationship between plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the pathophysiology of functional dyspepsia. METHODS: Twenty-two female patients with functional dyspepsia and twelve healthy volunteers were recruited for the study. The functional dyspepsia patients were each diagnosed based on the Rome III criteria. Eligible patients completed a questionnaire concerning the severity of 10 symptoms. Plasma acylated ghrelin levels before and after a meal were determined in the study participants using a commercial human acylated enzyme immunoassay kit; electrogastrograms were performed for 50 min before and after a standardized 10-min meal containing 265 kcal. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in plasma acylated ghrelin levels between healthy volunteers and patients with functional dyspepsia. However, in patients with functional dyspepsia, there was a negative correlation between fasting plasma acylated ghrelin levels and the sum score of epigastric pain (r = -0.427, P = 0.047) and a positive correlation between the postprandial/fasting plasma acylated ghrelin ratio and the sum score of early satiety (r = 0.428, P =0.047). Additionally, there was a negative correlation between fasting acylated ghrelin plasma levels and fasting normogastria (%) (r = -0.522, P = 0.013). Interestingly, two functional dyspepsia patients showed paradoxically elevated plasma acylated ghrelin levels after the meal. CONCLUSION: Abnormal plasma acylated ghrelin levels before or after a meal may be related to several of the dyspeptic symptoms seen in patients with functional dyspepsia. PMID:22611317

  19. Modifications of plasma edge electric field and confinement properties by limiter biasing on the KT-5C tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui Gao; Kan Zhai; Yizhi Wen; Shude Wan; Guiding Wang; Changxun Yu

    1995-01-01

    Experiments using a biased multiblock limiter in the KT-5C tokamak show that positive biasing is more effective than negative biasing in modifying the edge electric field, suppressing fluctuations and improving plasma confinement. The biasing effect varies with the limiter area, the toroidal magnetic field and the biasing voltage. By positive biasing, the edge profiles of the plasma potential, the electron temperature and the density become steeper, resulting in a reduced edge particle flux, an increased global particle confinement time and lower fluctuation levels of the edge plasma. (author)

  20. Investigation of free level fluctuations in a simulated model of a sodium cooled Fast Breeder Reactor using pulsating conductance monitoring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggarwal, P.K.; Pandey, G.K.; Malathi, N.; Arun, A.D.; Ananthanarayanan, R.; Banerjee, I.; Sahoo, P.; Padmakumar, G.; Murali, N.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► An innovative approach for measurement of water level fluctuation is presented. ► Measurement was conducted with a PC based pulsating type level sensor. ► Deployed the technique in monitoring level fluctuation in PFBR simulated facility. ► The technique helped in validation of hot pool design of PFBR, India. - Abstract: A high resolution measurement technique for rapid and accurate monitoring of water level using an in-house built pulsating conductance monitoring device is presented. The technique has the capability of online monitoring of any sudden shift in water level in a reservoir which is subjected to rapid fluctuations due to any external factor. We have deployed this novel technique for real time monitoring of water level fluctuations in a specially designed ¼ scale model of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) at Kalpakkam, India. The water level measurements in various locations of the simulated test facility were carried out in different experimental campaigns with and without inclusion of thermal baffles to it in specific operating conditions as required by the reactor designers. The amplitudes and the frequencies of fluctuations with required statistical parameters in hot water pool of the simulated model were evaluated from the online time versus water level plot in more convenient way using system software package. From experimental results it is computed that the maximum free level fluctuation in the hot pool of PFBR with baffle plates provided on the inner vessel is 30 mm which is considerably less than the value (∼82 mm) obtained without having any baffle plates. The present work provided useful information for assessment of appropriate design which would be adopted in the PFBR for safe operation of the reactor.

  1. Nonlocality of plasma fluctuations and transport in magnetically confined plasmas nonlocal plasma transport and radial structural formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toi, Kazuo

    2002-01-01

    Experimental evidence and underlying physical processes of nonlocal characters and structural formation in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas are reviewed. Radial profiles of the plasmas exhibit characteristic structures, depending on the various confinement regimes. Profile stiffness subjected to some global constraint and rapid plasma responses to applied plasma perturbation result from nonlocal transport. Once the plasma is free from the constraint, the plasma state can be changed to a new state exhibiting various types of prominent structural formation such as an internal transport barrier. (author)

  2. Theoretical studies on rapid fluctuations in solar flares

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.

    1986-01-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the emission of solar bursts may have many different origins, e.g., the acceleration process can have a pulsating structure, the propagation of energetic electrons and ions can be interrupted from plasma instabilities and finally the electromagnetic radiation produced by the interaction of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves may have a pulsating behavior in time. In two separate studies the conditions for rapid fluctuations in solar flare driven emission were analyzed

  3. Theoretical studies on rapid fluctuations in solar flares

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahos, Loukas

    1986-01-01

    Rapid fluctuations in the emission of solar bursts may have many different origins e.g., the acceleration process can have a pulsating structure, the propagation of energetic electrons and ions can be interrupted from plasma instabilities and finally the electromagnetic radiation produced by the interaction of electrostatic and electromagnetic waves may have a pulsating behavior in time. In two separate studies the conditions for rapid fluctuations in solar flare driven emission were analyzed.

  4. Time and space-correlated plasma potential measurements in the near field of a coaxial Hall plasma discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, A. W.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2009-01-01

    Space- and time-correlated measurements of floating and plasma potential are made in the near field, external flow cathode region of a coaxial Hall plasma discharge using an emissive probe synchronized to quasicoherent fluctuations in discharge current. The luminous axial feature frequently observed in the near field of operating plasma accelerators is found to be concomitant with a spike in the plasma potential (and electron temperature). The structure of the plasma potential allows for multiple avenues for back-streaming ions to accelerate toward the discharge front pole and may pull some classes of ions toward the central axis. The fluctuations in plasma properties exhibit a complex structure at frequencies on the order of the so-called 'breathing mode' ionization instability often seen in these types of discharges. Most notably, the plasma potential appears to fluctuate in a helical fashion, resembling tilted drift waves rotating about the central axis. A simple analysis of these waves draws attention to the possible role that they may play in driving anomalous cross-field electron transport in the near field region.

  5. Measurement of plasma 11-deoxycorticosterone levels by radioimmunoassay in man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuchi, Soitsu; Nakajima, Katsuo; Takenouchi, Takahiko; Nishisato, Koji

    1974-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay procedure has been developed to measure 11-deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in human peripheral plasma. DOC-oxime was coupled with porcine gamma globulin and antibodies produced in rabbits. One to 3 ml of plasma, with 1, 2 3 H-DOC added for recovery, was extracted with dichloromethane and purification achieved by a silica gel column and by one paper chromatograph. After overnight incubation of the antibody-steroid mixture at 4 0 C, bound and free fractions were separated using ammonium sulfate. The mean recovery of 3 H-DOC, after extraction and chromatography, was 84.6 +- 7.4%. The method showed adequate specificity, precision and accuracy. Normal plasma DOC levels were found to be 4.4 +- 2.5 ng/100 ml (n=8). Plasma DOC levels were almost normal (0.3 - 26.8 ng/100 ml) in fifteen patients with benign essential hypertension. The mean level of 8.1 +- 8.2 ng/100 ml obtained in hypertensive patients with suppressed plasma renin activity, was not significantly different from normal. Plasma DOC showed a high level, 3.0 - 30.5 (11.4 +- 7.5) ng/100 ml, in 9 patients with primary aldosteronism. Four out of 8 patients with Cushing's syndrome were found to have elevated plasma DOC levels. Higher levels of 21.2 +- 15.8 ng/100 ml were found in 5 patients with adrenal hyperplasia than those of 12.3 +- 8.0 ng/100 ml in 3 with adrenal adenoma. Plasma DOC levels were high, 113 - 176 ng/100 ml, in 2 patients with 17α-hydroxylase deficiency. ACTH administered to 5 subjects produced a mean increase in plasma DOC from 4.8 to 25.8 ng/100 ml. Angiotensin II infused at a rate of 10 ng/kg/min for 30 min into 4 subjects did not increase mean plasma DOC. Similarly, dietary sodium restriction or postural change did not increase plasma DOC. (auth.)

  6. Statistical properties of turbulent transport and fluctuations in tokamak and stellarator devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, C; Pedrosa, M A; Milligen, B Van; Sanchez, E; Balbin, R; Garcia-Cortes, I [Euratom-CIEMAT Association, Madrid (Spain); Bleuel, J; Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H [Euratom-IPP Association, Garching (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    The statistical properties of fluctuations and turbulent transport have been studied in the plasma boundary region of stellarator (TJ-IU, W7-AS) and tokamak (TJ-I) devices. The local flux probability distribution function shows the bursty character of the flux and presents a systematic change as a function of the radial location. There exist large amplitude transport bursts that account for a significant part of the total flux. There is a strong similarity between the statistical properties of the turbulent fluxes in different devices. The value of the radial coherence associated with fluctuations and turbulent transport is strongly intermittent. This result emphasizes the importance of measurements with time resolution in understanding the interplay between the edge and the core regions in the plasma. For measurements in the plasma edge region of the TJ-IU torsatron, the turbulent flux does not, in general, show a larger radial coherence than the one associated with the fluctuations. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs.

  7. Simulation of density fluctuations before the L-H transition for Hydrogen and Deuterium plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak using the BOUT++ code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y. M.; Xu, X. Q.; Yan, Z.; Mckee, G. R.; Grierson, B. A.; Xia, T. Y.; Gao, X.

    2018-02-01

    A six-field two-fluid model has been used to simulate density fluctuations. The equilibrium is generated by experimental measurements for both Deuterium (D) and Hydrogen (H) plasmas at the lowest densities of DIII-D low to high confinement (L-H) transition experiments. In linear simulations, the unstable modes are found to be resistive ballooning modes with the most unstable mode number n  =  30 or k_θρ_i˜0.12 . The ion diamagnetic drift and E× B convection flow are balanced when the radial electric field (E r ) is calculated from the pressure profile without net flow. The curvature drift plays an important role in this stage. Two poloidally counter propagating modes are found in the nonlinear simulation of the D plasma at electron density n_e˜1.5×1019 m-3 near the separatrix while a single ion mode is found in the H plasma at the similar lower density, which are consistent with the experimental results measured by the beam emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak. The frequency of the electron modes and the ion modes are about 40 kHz and 10 kHz respectively. The poloidal wave number k_θ is about 0.2 cm -1 (k_θρ_i˜0.05 ) for both ion and electron modes. The particle flux, ion and electron heat fluxes are  ˜3.5-6 times larger for the H plasma than the D plasma, which makes it harder to achieve H-mode for the same heating power. The change of the atomic mass number A from 2 to 1 using D plasma equilibrium make little difference on the flux. Increase the electric field will suppress the density fluctuation. The electric field scan and ion mass scan results show that the dual-mode results primarily from differences in the profiles rather than the ion mass.

  8. Crossover from bound to free states in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankin, Alexander V; Norman, Genri E

    2009-01-01

    A self-consistent joint description of free and weakly bound electron states in strongly coupled plasmas is presented. The existence of two problems is emphasized. The first one is a well-known restriction of the number of atomic excited states. Another one is a description of the smooth crossover from bound pair electron-ion excited states to collective excitations of free electrons. The fluctuation approach is developed to study the spectrum domain intermediate between low-lying excited atoms and free electron continuous energy levels. The molecular dynamics method is applied to study the plasma model since the method is able to distinguish all kinds of fluctuations. The electron-ion interaction is described by the temperature-independent cut-off Coulomb potential. The diagnostics of pair electron-ion fluctuations is developed. The concept of pair fluctuations elucidates the smooth vanishing of atomic states near the ionization limit. The approach suggested removes the artificial break of the electron state density at the ionization limit: atomic state density divergent at the negative energy side and free electron state density starting from zero density at the positive energy side

  9. Current carrying properties of double layers and low frequency auroral fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, N.; Schunk, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Numerical simulations showed recurring interruption and recovery of electron and ion currents through double layers. The time period tau of the recurring phenomena is governed by the ion dynamics; for ions with a drift V/sub i/ entering the simulation plasma such that V/sub i/ V/sub ti/ ion-acoustic modes also appear in the electron- and ion-current fluctuations. The electron current fluctuations are governed by the ion current through the Langmuir criterion. It is suggested that some low frequency auroral fluctuations could possibly be explained by current fluctuations through double layers

  10. Particle transport due to magnetic fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneking, M.R.; Hokin, S.A.; Prager, S.C.; Fiksel, G.; Ji, H.; Den Hartog, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Electron current fluctuations are measured with an electrostatic energy analyzer at the edge of the MST reversed-field pinch plasma. The radial flux of fast electrons (E>T e ) due to parallel streaming along a fluctuating magnetic field is determined locally by measuring the correlated product e B r >. Particle transport is small just inside the last closed flux surface (Γ e,mag e,total ), but can account for all observed particle losses inside r/a=0.8. Electron diffusion is found to increase with parallel velocity, as expected for diffusion in a region of field stochasticity

  11. Job strain variations in relation to plasma testosterone fluctuations in working men--a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theorell, T; Karasek, R A; Eneroth, P

    1990-01-01

    Job strain, a high level of psychological demands combined with a low level of decision latitude, has been hypothesized to induce mobilization of energy and inhibition of anabolism. In the present project this hypothesis was tested using four repeated observations every third month in a group of 44 men working in six widely different occupations. On each occasion scores of self-reported demands and decision latitude were calculated for every participant. An earlier report has shown that systolic blood pressure during work hours--an indicator of mobilization of energy--increased with increasing job strain (ratio between demands and decision latitude). Blood samples were drawn in the morning at the work site. For each man the plasma testosterone levels--representing the general level of anabolic activity--on the two occasions with the worst strain (ratio between demands and decision latitude) were compared with the plasma testosterone levels on the two occasions with the least strain. The results indicated that total plasma testosterone (but not free testosterone) levels increased when strain diminished in sedentary but not in physically demanding work. Subjects with a family history of hypertension showed a greater decrease in testosterone levels than others when job strain increased.

  12. Inverse scattering problem in turbulent magnetic fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Treumann

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We apply a particular form of the inverse scattering theory to turbulent magnetic fluctuations in a plasma. In the present note we develop the theory, formulate the magnetic fluctuation problem in terms of its electrodynamic turbulent response function, and reduce it to the solution of a special form of the famous Gelfand–Levitan–Marchenko equation of quantum mechanical scattering theory. The last of these applies to transmission and reflection in an active medium. The theory of turbulent magnetic fluctuations does not refer to such quantities. It requires a somewhat different formulation. We reduce the theory to the measurement of the low-frequency electromagnetic fluctuation spectrum, which is not the turbulent spectral energy density. The inverse theory in this form enables obtaining information about the turbulent response function of the medium. The dynamic causes of the electromagnetic fluctuations are implicit to it. Thus, it is of vital interest in low-frequency magnetic turbulence. The theory is developed until presentation of the equations in applicable form to observations of turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations as input from measurements. Solution of the final integral equation should be done by standard numerical methods based on iteration. We point to the possibility of treating power law fluctuation spectra as an example. Formulation of the problem to include observations of spectral power densities in turbulence is not attempted. This leads to severe mathematical problems and requires a reformulation of inverse scattering theory. One particular aspect of the present inverse theory of turbulent fluctuations is that its structure naturally leads to spatial information which is obtained from the temporal information that is inherent to the observation of time series. The Taylor assumption is not needed here. This is a consequence of Maxwell's equations, which couple space and time evolution. The inversion procedure takes

  13. Association of plasma manganese levels with chronic renal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-González, Cristina; López-Chaves, Carlos; Gómez-Aracena, Jorge; Galindo, Pilar; Aranda, Pilar; Llopis, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element involved in the formation of bone and in amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. Mn excess may be neurotoxic to humans, affecting specific areas of the central nervous system. However, relatively little is known about its physiological and/or toxicological effects, and very few data are available concerning the role of Mn in chronic renal failure (CRF). This paper describes a 12-month study of the evolution of plasma Mn levels in predialysis patients with CRF and the relationship with energy and macronutrient intake. The participants in this trial were 64 patients with CRF in predialysis and 62 healthy controls. Plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid, total protein and Mn were measured. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was calculated using the Cockcroft-Gault index. The CRF patients had higher plasma levels of creatinine, urea, uric acid and Mn and a lower GFR than the controls. Plasma Mn was positively correlated with creatinine, plasma urea and plasma uric acid and was negatively correlated with the GFR and the intake of energy and macronutrients. In conclusion, CRF in predialysis patients is associated with increases in circulating levels of Mn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Nonlinear correlations in phase-space resolved fluctuations at drift wave frequencies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiff, F [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 52242 (United States); Uzun, I [Institute for Plasma Research, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Diallo, A [Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasams EPF, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2007-12-15

    In an effort to better understand plasma transport, we measure fluctuations associated with drift instabilities resolved in the ion phase-space. Primary attention is given to fluctuations near the electron drift frequency where there are two general components to the observed fluctuations. From two (spatial) point measurements of the ion distribution function with a variable separation along the magnetic field, a number of statistical measures of the fluctuations are calculated including cross-correlation and cross-bicoherence. Both fluid ({omega}/k >> v{sub ti}) and kinetic ({omega}/k {approx} v{sub ti}) components are observed in the fluctuations. The nonlinear interactions are found to depend strongly on the ion particle velocity.

  15. Decomposition of groundwater level fluctuations using transfer modelling in an area with shallow to deep unsaturated zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, J. C.; van Geer, F. C.; de Vries, J. J.

    1994-05-01

    Time series analysis of the fluctuations in shallow groundwater levels in the Netherlands lowlands have revealed a large-scale decline in head during recent decades as a result of an increase in land drainage and groundwater withdrawal. The situation is more ambiguous in large groundwater bodies located in the eastern part of the country, where the unsaturated zone increases from near zero along the edges to about 40 m in the centre of the area. As depth of the unsaturated zone increases, groundwater level reacts with an increasing delay to fluctuations in climate and influences of human activities. The aim of the present paper is to model groundwater level fluctuations in these areas using a linear stochastic transfer function model, relating groundwater levels to estimated precipitation excess, and to separate artificial components from the natural groundwater regime. In this way, the impact of groundwater withdrawal and the reclamation of a 1000 km 2 polder area on the groundwater levels in the adjoining higher ground could be assessed. It became evident that the linearity assumption of the transfer functions becomes a serious drawback in areas with the deepest groundwater levels, because of non-linear processes in the deep unsaturated zone and the non-synchronous arrival of recharge in the saturated zone. Comparison of the results from modelling the influence of reclamation with an analytical solution showed that the lowering of groundwater level is partly compensated by reduced discharge and therefore is less than expected.

  16. Predicting groundwater level fluctuations with meteorological effect implications—A comparative study among soft computing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiri, Jalal; Kisi, Ozgur; Yoon, Heesung; Lee, Kang-Kun; Hossein Nazemi, Amir

    2013-07-01

    The knowledge of groundwater table fluctuations is important in agricultural lands as well as in the studies related to groundwater utilization and management levels. This paper investigates the abilities of Gene Expression Programming (GEP), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) techniques for groundwater level forecasting in following day up to 7-day prediction intervals. Several input combinations comprising water table level, rainfall and evapotranspiration values from Hongcheon Well station (South Korea), covering a period of eight years (2001-2008) were used to develop and test the applied models. The data from the first six years were used for developing (training) the applied models and the last two years data were reserved for testing. A comparison was also made between the forecasts provided by these models and the Auto-Regressive Moving Average (ARMA) technique. Based on the comparisons, it was found that the GEP models could be employed successfully in forecasting water table level fluctuations up to 7 days beyond data records.

  17. Fluctuations in Echo Level Associated with Changes in Target Aspect and Target Frequency Response (abstract only)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zampolli, M.; Ainslie, M.A.; Zon, T. van

    2011-01-01

    Ping-to-ping variations in echo level can be caused by time variations in sonar parameters (source level, orientation), target aspect, relative and absolute motion of sonar and target, and time varying environment (e.g. surface waves). Quantifying and understanding such fluctuations are important,

  18. Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coda S.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Density fluctuations near the edge of tokamak plasmas can affect the propagation of electron cyclotron (EC waves. In the present paper, the EC wave propagation in a fluctuating equilibrium is determined using the ray-tracing code C3PO. The evolution of the electron distribution function is calculated self-consistently with the EC wave damping using the 3-D Fokker-Planck solver LUKE. The cumulative effect of fluctuations results in a significant broadening of the current profile combined with a fluctuating power deposition profile. This mechanism improves the simulation of fully non-inductive EC discharges in the TCV tokamaks. Predictive simulations for ITER show that density fluctuations could make the stabilization of NTMs in ITER more challenging.

  19. Plasma lactoferrin levels in pregnancy and cystic fibrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, J.A.C.; Thomas, M.J.; Goldie, D.J.; Turner, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    Plasma lactoferrin levels have been determined by radioimmunoassay for the different weeks of normal pregnancy, in normal healthy adults and in children with and without cystic fibrosis. The lactoferrin levels were higher in pregnancy than in both male and female normal adults and showed a slight progressive increase up to week 29 and thereafter remained high. Five out of seven children with cystic fibrosis had markedly raised plasma lactoferrin levels from six to 16 times higher than the mean of a control group of children. (Auth.)

  20. Comparing simulation of plasma turbulence with experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, David W.; Bravenec, Ronald V.; Dorland, William; Beer, Michael A.; Hammett, G. W.; McKee, George R.; Fonck, Raymond J.; Murakami, Masanori; Burrell, Keith H.; Jackson, Gary L.; Staebler, Gary M.

    2002-01-01

    The direct quantitative correspondence between theoretical predictions and the measured plasma fluctuations and transport is tested by performing nonlinear gyro-Landau-fluid simulations with the GRYFFIN (or ITG) code [W. Dorland and G. W. Hammett, Phys. Fluids B 5, 812 (1993); M. A. Beer and G. W. Hammett, Phys. Plasmas 3, 4046 (1996)]. In an L-mode reference discharge in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)], which has relatively large fluctuations and transport, the turbulence is dominated by ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes. Trapped electron modes and impurity drift waves also play a role. Density fluctuations are measured by beam emission spectroscopy [R. J. Fonck, P. A. Duperrex, and S. F. Paul, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 3487 (1990)]. Experimental fluxes and corresponding diffusivities are analyzed by the TRANSP code [R. J. Hawryluk, in Physics of Plasmas Close to Thermonuclear Conditions, edited by B. Coppi, G. G. Leotta, D. Pfirsch, R. Pozzoli, and E. Sindoni (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980), Vol. 1, p. 19]. The shape of the simulated wave number spectrum is close to the measured one. The simulated ion thermal transport, corrected for ExB low shear, exceeds the experimental value by a factor of 1.5 to 2.0. The simulation overestimates the density fluctuation level by an even larger factor. On the other hand, the simulation underestimates the electron thermal transport, which may be accounted for by modes that are not accessible to the simulation or to the BES measurement

  1. Pavlovian autoshaping procedures increase plasma corticosterone levels in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomie, Arthur; Silberman, Yuval; Williams, Kayon; Pohorecky, Larissa A

    2002-06-01

    Pavlovian autoshaping conditioned responses (CRs) are complex sequences of conditioned stimulus (CS)-directed skeletal-motor responses that are elicited by CS objects predictive of food unconditioned stimulus (US). Autoshaping CRs are observed under conditions known to be conducive to elevations in plasma corticosterone levels, as, for example, in response to the eating of food as well as in response to signals predictive of food. Two experiments investigated the relationships between Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, the performance of Pavlovian autoshaping CRs, and plasma corticosterone levels in male Long-Evans rats. In Experiment 1, rats in the CS-US paired group (n=30) were given 20 daily sessions of Pavlovian autoshaping training wherein the insertion of a retractable lever CS was followed by the response-independent presentation of the food US. Tail blood samples obtained after the 20th autoshaping session revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group than in the CS-US random control group (n=10). In Experiment 2, rats (n=35) were assessed for basal plasma corticosterone levels 2 weeks prior to autoshaping training. Plasma samples obtained immediately following the first autoshaping session, and prior to the acquisition of lever-press autoshaping CR performance, revealed higher plasma corticosterone levels in the CS-US paired group (n=24) relative to basal levels. This effect was not observed in the CS-US random control group (n=11). Data suggest that corticosterone release is a physiological endocrine Pavlovian CR induced by lever CS-food US pairings during Pavlovian autoshaping procedures, rather than a by-product of autoshaping CR performance. Implications of the link between autoshaping procedures and corticosterone release are discussed.

  2. Experimental and theoretical research in applied plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses research in the following areas: fusion theory and computations; theory of thermonuclear plasmas; user service center; high poloidal beta studies on PBX-M; fast ECE fluctuation diagnostic for balloning mode studies; x-ray imaging diagnostic; millimeter/submillimeter-wave fusion ion diagnostics; small scale turbulence and nonlinear dynamics in plasmas; plasma turbulence and transport; phase contrast interferometer diagnostic for long wavelength fluctuations in DIII-D; and charged and neutral fusion production for fusio plasmas

  3. Anomalous high-frequency resistivity of a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruer, W.L.; Dawson, J.M.

    1971-06-01

    In one- and two-dimensional computer simulations we investigate anomalous high-frequency resistivity in a plasma driven by a large electric field oscillating near the electron plasma frequency. The large field excites the oscillating two-stream and the ion-acoustic decay instabilities in agreement with the linear theory. When the ion and electron fluctuations saturate, a strong anomalous heating of the plasma sets in. This strong heating is due to an efficient coupling of the externally imposed large electric field to the plasma by ion fluctuations. We determine the anomalous collision frequency and the saturation fluctuation amplitudes as a function of the external field amplitude and frequency, and the electron-ion mass ratio. A simple nonlinear theory gives results in reasonable agreement with simulations. 24 refs., 10 figs

  4. Effects of Barometric Fluctuations on Well Water-Level Measurements and Aquifer Test Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    FA Spane, Jr.

    1999-12-16

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, as part of the Hanford Groundwater Monitoring Project, examines the potential for offsite migration of contamination within underlying aquifer systems. Well water-level elevation measurements from selected wells within these aquifer systems commonly form the basis for delineating groundwater-flow patterns (i.e., flow direction and hydraulic gradient). In addition, the analysis of water-level responses obtained in wells during hydrologic tests provides estimates of hydraulic properties that are important for evaluating groundwater-flow velocity and transport characteristics. Barometric pressure fluctuations, however, can have a discernible impact on well water-level measurements. These barometric effects may lead to erroneous indications of hydraulic head within the aquifer. Total hydraulic head (i.e., sum of the water-table elevation and the atmospheric pressure at the water-table surface) within the aquifer, not well water-level elevation, is the hydrologic parameter for determining groundwater-flow direction and hydraulic gradient conditions. Temporal variations in barometric pressure may also adversely affect well water-level responses obtained during hydrologic tests. If significant, adjustments or removal of these barometric effects from the test-response record may be required for quantitative hydraulic property determination. This report examines the effects of barometric fluctuations on well water-level measurements and evaluates adjustment and removal methods for determining areal aquifer head conditions and aquifer test analysis. Two examples of Hanford Site unconfined aquifer tests are examined that demonstrate barometric response analysis and illustrate the predictive/removal capabilities of various methods for well water-level and aquifer total head values. Good predictive/removal characteristics were demonstrated with best corrective results provided by multiple-regression deconvolution methods.

  5. Effects of the amplitude and frequency of salinity fluctuations on antioxidant responses in juvenile tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khairnar, S.A.; Tian, X.; Dong, S.; Fang, Z.; Solanki, B.V.; Shanthanagouda, H.A.

    2016-11-01

    To understand the tolerance of tongue sole, Cynoglossus semilaevis, to varying salinities, the effects of the amplitude (2, 4, 6 and 8 g/L) and frequency (2, 4 and 8 days) of salinity fluctuations on the activities of antioxidant responses, including acidic phosphatase (ACP), alkaline phosphatase (AKP), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) from antioxidant system in liver, muscle, gills and kidney were investigated in this study. The results showed that the antioxidant responses of tongue sole were highly tissue-specific during the varying salinity fluctuations. In all tissues, ACP and AKP activity was found to be highest at moderate salinity fluctuations compared to the control, low and high salinity treatments (p<0.05). SOD and CAT activities had significant effect due to salinity fluctuations in all tissues (p<0.05), except in hepatic and renal tissues. Variations in branchial SOD activity proved that salinity fluctuations had greater impact on tongue sole at moderate and high fluctuating salinities compared to the control and low fluctuating salinities, whereas the branchial CAT activities showed contrasting trend. Further, cortisol levels were significantly affected in lower and higher salinity fluctuations. However, plasma cortisol levels remained low in moderate salinity fluctuations and control (p<0.05). Taken together, the results indicated that salinity fluctuations could effectively stimulate and enhance the antioxidant enzyme activity in the liver, kidney, gills and muscle of the juvenile tongue sole, thus effectively eliminating the excessive reactive oxygen species and minimizing the body damage in tongue sole or could be for any other euryhaline teleosts. (Author)

  6. The observation on plasma endothelin levels in patients with graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hao Xiaojun; Liu Changshan; Yang Lianrong; Zhang Qiliang; Wang Honggang; Liu Xudong

    2002-01-01

    Observing the plasma endothelin levels in patients with Graves' disease to probe its clinical significance, plasma endothelin levels were measured in 55 cases of Graves' disease before and after treatment respectively, and these were compared with that of 23 health subjects. Results: plasma endothelin levels in patients with Graves' disease significantly increase, compared with heath subjects (150.4 +- 29.31 ng/L vs 42.80 +- 7.58 ng/L, P < 0.01); post-treatment endothelin levels apparently decrease (97.61 +- 15.99 ng/L vs 150.4 +- 29.31 ng/L, P < 0.01). Plasma endothelin levels in patients with Graves' disease significantly increase, and after treatment the endothelin levels decrease following decreasing of thyroid hormone level and high hemodynamics

  7. Association of plasma fatty acid composition with plasma irisin levels in normal weight and overweight/obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viitasalo, A; Ågren, J; Venäläinen, T; Pihlajamäki, J; Jääskeläinen, J; Korkmaz, A; Atalay, M; Lakka, T A

    2016-08-01

    Irisin has been suggested to protect against overweight. There are no previous data on the association of plasma fatty acid (FA) composition with plasma irisin. We studied the association of FA composition with plasma irisin in normal weight and overweight/obese children. This cross-sectional study included pre-pubertal children (388 normal weight children and 55 overweight/obese children); 6-9 years of age, taking part in the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children Study. After an overnight fast, we measured plasma FA composition by gas chromatography and plasma irisin levels by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Higher proportion of total monounsaturated fatty acids in plasma cholesteryl esters (CEs) (β = 0.139, P = 0.003) and phospholipids (PLs) (β = 0.147, P = 0.002) and lower proportion of total polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma CE (β = -0.130, P = 0.006) and PL (β = -0.165, P overweight/obese children compared to normal weight children. Higher proportion of γ-linolenic acid (β = 0.324, P = 0.017) and lower proportion of linoleic acid (β = -0.397, P = 0.005) in plasma CE were related to higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children, indicating the direct association of estimated D6D activity in plasma CE (β = 0.343, P = 0.011) with plasma irisin. Furthermore, higher proportion of oleic acid in plasma CE (β = 0.345, P = 0.012) and PL (β = 0.292, P = 0.033) and higher proportion of adrenic acid (β = 0.366, P = 0.008) and docosapentaenoic acid (β = 0.351, P = 0.010) in plasma PL were associated with higher plasma irisin level among overweight/obese children. Metabolically unfavourable plasma FA profile was associated with higher plasma irisin level especially in overweight/obese children, suggesting that excess body fat might modulate these relationships. © 2015 World Obesity.

  8. Fluctuations of the electron temperature measured by intensity interferometry on the W7-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattler, S.

    1993-12-01

    Fluctuations of the electron temperature can cause a significant amount of the anomalous electron heat conductivity observed on fusion plasmas, even with relative amplitudes below one per cent. None of the standard diagnostics utilized for measuring the electron temperature in the confinement region of fusion plasmas is provided with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution and the sensitivity for small fluctuation amplitudes. In this work a new diagnostic for the measurement of electron temperature fluctuations in the confinement region of fusion plasmas was developed, built up, tested and successfully applied on the W7-AS Stellarator. Transport relevant fluctuations of the electron temperature can in principle be measured by radiometry of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE), but they might be buried completely in natural fluctuations of the ECE due to the thermal nature of this radiation. Fluctuations with relative amplitudes below one per cent can be measured with a temporal resolution in the μs-range and a spatial resolution of a few cm only with the help of correlation techniques. The intensity interferometry method, developed for radio astronomy, was applied here: two independent but identical radiometers are viewing the same emitting volume along crossed lines of sight. If the angle between the sightlines is chosen above a limiting value, which is determined by the spatial coherence properties of thermal radiation, the thermal noise is uncorrelated while the temperature fluctuations remain correlated. With the help of this technique relative amplitudes below 0.1% are accessible to measurement. (orig.)

  9. Increased Plasma Levels of Heme Oxygenase-1 in Human Brucellosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhe; Zhang, Yu-Xue; Fu, Dong-Wei; Gao, Qing-Feng; Ge, Feng-Xia; Liu, Wei-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Brucellosis is associated with inflammation and the oxidative stress response. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective stress-responsive enzyme that has anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects. Nevertheless, the role of HO-1 in human brucellosis has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to examine the plasma levels of HO-1 in patients with brucellosis and to evaluate the ability of plasma HO-1 levels as an auxiliary diagnosis, a severity predictor, and a monitor for brucellosis treatments. A total of 75 patients with brucellosis were divided into the acute, subacute, chronic active, and chronic stable groups. An additional 20 volunteers were included as the healthy control group. The plasma HO-1 levels and other laboratory parameters were measured in all groups. Furthermore, the plasma levels of HO-1 in the acute group were compared before and after treatment. The plasma HO-1 levels were considerably increased in the acute (4.97 ± 3.55), subacute (4.98 ± 3.23), and chronic active groups (4.43 ± 3.00) with brucellosis compared to the healthy control group (1.03 ± 0.63) (p brucellosis (r = 0.707, p brucellosis status and may be used as a supplementary plasma marker for diagnosing brucellosis and monitoring its treatment.

  10. Fields and plasmas in the outer solar system. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, E J [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (USA); Wolfe, J H [National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Moffett Field, CA (USA). Ames Research Center

    1979-04-01

    The most significant information about fields and plasmas in the outer solar system, based on observations by Pioneer 10 and 11 investigations, is reviewed. The characteristic evolution of solar wind streams beyond 1 AU has been observed. The region within which the velocity increases continuously near 1 AU is replaced at larger distances by a thick interaction region with abrupt jumps in the solar wind speed at the leading and trailing edges. These abrupt increases, accompanied by corresponding jumps in the field magnitude and in the solar wind density and temperature, consist typically of a forward and a reverse shock. The existance of two distinct corotating regions, separated by sharp boundaries, is a characteristic feature of the interplanetary medium in the outer solar system. Within the interaction regions, compression effects are dominant and the field strength, plasma density, plasma temperature and the level of fluctuations are enhanced. Within the intervening quiet regions, rarefaction effects dominante and the field magnitude, solar wind density and fluctuation level are very low. These changes in the structure of interplanetary space have significant consequences for the many energetic particles propagating through the medium.

  11. Concentrations in plasma clozapine levels in schizophrenic and schizoaffective patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias García, Celso; Iglesias Alonso, Ana; Bobes, Julio

    There is great variability in plasma levels of clozapine. The objective of this study is to know the characteristics of patients treated with clozapine and the relationship between them and the variability of plasma levels. Descriptive, cross-sectional study of all patients currently treated with clozapine in a Psychiatric Service with a diagnosis of schizophrenic psychosis or schizoaffective disorder. The present study assessed physical situation, psychopathology and functionality of the patients and explored the associations and correlations between clinical variables and plasma levels. We studied 39 patients, predominantly men, with negative and depressive symptoms and cardiovascular risk factors (metabolic syndrome and smoking). Significant variability in dose and even greater in clozapine levels were observed. The levels of clozapine at equal doses/kg of body weight were higher in non-smokers, they had positive correlation with BMI and negative correlation with systolic BP, disruptive behaviors and number of cigarettes consumed. Plasma level monitoring clozapine is an important tool to avoid clozapine plasma levels monitoring and minimize undesirable clinical situations (metabolic syndrome, sedation, negative symptoms and functional impairment). It is also important to control the effects of a smoking habit for optimum drug bioavailability. Copyright © 2017 SEP y SEPB. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. System for simulating fluctuation diagnostics for application to turbulence computations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bravenec, R.V.; Nevins, W.M.

    2006-01-01

    Present-day nonlinear microstability codes are able to compute the saturated fluctuations of a turbulent fluid versus space and time, whether the fluid be liquid, gas, or plasma. They are therefore able to determine turbulence-induced fluid (or particle) and energy fluxes. These codes, however, must be tested against experimental data not only with respect to transport but also characteristics of the fluctuations. The latter is challenging because of limitations in the diagnostics (e.g., finite spatial resolution) and the fact that the diagnostics typically do not measure exactly the quantities that the codes compute. In this work, we present a system based on IDL registered analysis and visualization software in which user-supplied 'diagnostic filters' are applied to the code outputs to generate simulated diagnostic signals. The same analysis techniques as applied to the measurements, e.g., digital time-series analysis, may then be applied to the synthesized signals. Their statistical properties, such as rms fluctuation level, mean wave numbers, phase and group velocities, correlation lengths and times, and in some cases full S(k,ω) spectra, can then be compared directly to those of the measurements

  13. Multiplicity fluctuations in a hadron gas with exact conservation laws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becattini, Francesco; Keraenen, Antti; Ferroni, Lorenzo; Gabbriellini, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    The study of fluctuations of particle multiplicities in relativistic heavy-ion reactions has drawn much attention in recent years, because they have been proposed as a probe for underlying dynamics and possible formation of quark-gluon plasma. Thus it is of uttermost importance to describe the baseline of statistical fluctuations in the hadron gas phase in a correct way. We performed a comprehensive study of multiplicity distributions in the full ideal hadron-resonance gas in different ensembles, namely grand canonical, canonical, and microcanonical, by using two different methods: Asymptotic expansions and full Monte Carlo simulations. The method based on asymptotic expansion allows a quick numerical calculation of dispersions in the hadron gas with three conserved charges at the primary hadron level, while the Monte Carlo simulation is suitable for studying the effect of resonance decays. Even though mean multiplicities converge to the same values, major differences in fluctuations for these ensembles persist in the thermodynamic limit, as pointed out in recent studies. We observe that this difference is ultimately related to the nonadditivity of the variances in the ensembles with exact conservation of extensive quantities

  14. Nonequilibrium Gyrokinetic Fluctuation Theory and Sampling Noise in Gyrokinetic Particle-in-cell Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The present state of the theory of fluctuations in gyrokinetic (GK) plasmas and especially its application to sampling noise in GK particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations is reviewed. Topics addressed include the Δf method, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for both classical and GK many-body plasmas, the Klimontovich formalism, sampling noise in PIC simulations, statistical closure for partial differential equations, the theoretical foundations of spectral balance in the presence of arbitrary noise sources, and the derivation of Kadomtsev-type equations from the general formalism

  15. Nonequilibrium Gyrokinetic Fluctuation Theory and Sampling Noise in Gyrokinetic Particle-in-cell Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John A. Krommes

    2007-10-09

    The present state of the theory of fluctuations in gyrokinetic GK plasmas and especially its application to sampling noise in GK particle-in-cell PIC simulations is reviewed. Topics addressed include the Δf method, the fluctuation-dissipation theorem for both classical and GK many-body plasmas, the Klimontovich formalism, sampling noise in PIC simulations, statistical closure for partial differential equations, the theoretical foundations of spectral balance in the presence of arbitrary noise sources, and the derivation of Kadomtsev-type equations from the general formalism.

  16. Enhanced nuclear level decay in hot dense plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, G.; Morel, P.

    2004-01-01

    A model of nuclear level decay in a plasma environment is described. Nuclear excitation and decay by photon processes, nuclear excitation by electron capture, and decay by internal conversion are taken into account. The electrons in the plasma are described by a relativistic average atom model for the bound electrons and by a relativistic Thomas-Fermi-Dirac model for the free electrons. Nuclear decay of isomeric level may be enhanced through an intermediate level lying above the isomer. An enhanced nuclear decay rate may occur for temperatures far below the excitation energy of the transition to the intermediate level. In most cases, the enhancement factor may reach several decades

  17. Core fluctuations and current profile dynamics in the MST reversed-field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brower, D.L.; Ding, W.X.; Lei, J.

    2003-01-01

    First measurements of the current density profile, magnetic field fluctuations and electrostatic (e.s.) particle flux in the core of a high-temperature reversed-field pinch (RFP) are presented. We report three new results: (1) The current density peaks during the slow ramp phase of the sawtooth cycle and flattens promptly at the crash. Profile flattening can be linked to magnetic relaxation and the dynamo which is predicted to drive anti-parallel current in the core. Measured core magnetic fluctuations are observed to increases four-fold at the crash. Between sawtooth crashes, measurements indicate the particle flux driven by e.s. fluctuations is too small to account for the total radial particle flux. (2) Core magnetic fluctuations are observed to decrease at least twofold in plasmas where energy confinement time improves ten-fold. In this case, the radial particle flux is also reduced, suggesting core e.s. fluctuation-induced transport may play role in confinement. (3) The parallel current density increases in the outer region of the plasma during high confinement, as expected, due to the applied edge parallel electric field. However, the core current density also increases due to dynamo reduction and the emergence of runaway electrons. (author)

  18. Plasma total antioxidant capacity is associated with dietary intake and plasma level of antioxidants in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Yang, Meng; Lee, Sang-Gil; Davis, Catherine G; Kenny, Anne; Koo, Sung I; Chun, Ock K

    2012-12-01

    Increased plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has been associated with a high consumption of fruits and vegetables. However, limited information is available on whether plasma TAC reflects the dietary intake of antioxidants and the levels of individual antioxidants in plasma. By using three different assays, the study aimed to determine if plasma TAC can effectively predict dietary intake of antioxidants and plasma antioxidant status. Forty overweight and apparently healthy postmenopausal women were recruited. Seven-day food records and 12-h fasting blood samples were collected for dietary and plasma antioxidant assessments. Plasma TAC was determined by vitamin C equivalent antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assays. TAC values determined by VCEAC were highly correlated with FRAP (r=0.79, Pantioxidants and represents more closely the plasma antioxidant levels than ORAC and FRAP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The association between estimated average glucose levels and fasting plasma glucose levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giray Bozkaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The level of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, also known as glycated hemoglobin, determines how well a patient's blood glucose level has been controlled over the previous 8-12 weeks. HbA1c levels help patients and doctors understand whether a particular diabetes treatment is working and whether adjustments need to be made to the treatment. Because the HbA1c level is a marker of blood glucose for the previous 120 days, average blood glucose levels can be estimated using HbA1c levels. Our aim in the present study was to investigate the relationship between estimated average glucose levels, as calculated by HbA1c levels, and fasting plasma glucose levels. METHODS: The fasting plasma glucose levels of 3891 diabetic patient samples (1497 male, 2394 female were obtained from the laboratory information system used for HbA1c testing by the Department of Internal Medicine at the Izmir Bozyaka Training and Research Hospital in Turkey. These samples were selected from patient samples that had hemoglobin levels between 12 and 16 g/dL. The estimated glucose levels were calculated using the following formula: 28.7 x HbA1c - 46.7. Glucose and HbA1c levels were determined using hexokinase and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC methods, respectively. RESULTS: A strong positive correlation between fasting plasma glucose levels and estimated average blood glucose levels (r=0.757, p<0.05 was observed. The difference was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Reporting the estimated average glucose level together with the HbA1c level is believed to assist patients and doctors determine the effectiveness of blood glucose control measures.

  20. Effect of electric fields and fluctuations on confinement in a bumpy torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroe, S.; Glowienka, J.C.; Hillis, D.L.

    1986-06-01

    In order to understand the relationships between confinement and space potential (electric field) and between confinement and density fluctuations, plasma parameters in the ELMO Bumpy Torus Scale (EBT-S) have been measured systematically for a wide range of operating conditions. Present EBT plasma parameters do not show a strong dependence on the potential profile, but rather exhibit a correlation with the fluctuations. The plasma pressure profile is found to be consistent with the profile anticipated on the basis of the flute stability criterion for a marginally stable plasma. For a heating power of 100 kW, the stored energy density is found to be restricted to the range between 4.5 x 10 13 eV-cm -3 and 7 x 10 13 eV-cm -3 . The lower limit remains constant regardless of heating power and pertains to plasmas lacking an equilibrium and/or stability. The upper limit increases with heating power and is found to result from the onset of instabilities. In between the two limits is a plasma that is in an equilibrium state and is marginally stable. Operational trajectories exist that take the EBT plasma from one limit to the other

  1. Magnetic fluctuations can contribute to plasma transport, ''self-consistency constraints'' notwithstanding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krommes, J.A.; Kim, Chang-Bae.

    1987-09-01

    The recent conclusion that in a turbulent, collisionless plasma ''magnetic transport including quasilinear magnetic flutter transport ... does not contribute to the relaxation of (f), and thus is not responsible for electron energy or momentum transport'' is shown to be incorrect for a variety of situations of physical interest, including saturation by quasilinear plateau formation, induced scattering, and, most importantly, conventional mode coupling. The well-established theory of the mean infinitesimal response function and the spectral balance equation provides a unifying framework for understanding the above conclusion. In particular, the cancellations which lead to their conclusion are special cases of well-known relationships between the response function, particle propagator, and dielectric function. A more general, concise, and manifestly gauge-invariant algebraic derivation of the cancellations is given. Though the cancellations occur in a certain limit, these conclusions do not follow in general: The picture of steady-state turbulence as consisting of small-scale ''incoherent'' ballistic ''clumps'' shielded by long-wavelength ''coherent'' dielectric response is physically misleading and mathematically incomplete, as it ignores or mistreates the often dominant process of renormalized n-wave coupling. Thus, when ion nonlinearities are considered, formulas for the magnetic contribution to transport emerge which are quite similar to the quasilinear one. Furthermore, limits are possible in which all or part of the noise can be negligible, yet in which the total fluctuation spectrum remains finite. 56 refs

  2. Edge electron density profiles and fluctuations measured by two-dimensional beam emission spectroscopy in the KSTAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Y. U., E-mail: yunam@nfri.re.kr; Wi, H. M. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Zoletnik, S.; Lampert, M. [Wigner RCP Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Budapest (Hungary); Kovácsik, Ákos [Institute of Nuclear Techniques, Budapest Technical University, Budapest (Hungary)

    2014-11-15

    Beam emission spectroscopy (BES) system in Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) has recently been upgraded. The background intensity was reduced from 30% to 2% by suppressing the stray lights. This allows acquisition of the relative electron density profiles on the plasma edge without background subtraction from the beam power modulation signals. The KSTAR BES system has its spatial resolution of 1 cm, the temporal resolution of 2 MHz, and a total 32 channel (8 radial × 4 poloidal) avalanche photo diode array. Most measurements were done on the plasma edge, r/a ∼ 0.9, with 8 cm radial measurement width that covers the pedestal range. High speed density profile measurements reveal temporal behaviors of fast transient events, such as the precursors of edge localized modes and the transitions between confinement modes. Low background level also allows analysis of the edge density fluctuation patterns with reduced background fluctuations. Propagation of the density structures can be investigated by comparing the phase delays between the spatially distributed channels.

  3. Protecting quantum coherence of two-level atoms from vacuum fluctuations of electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Xiaobao; Tian, Zehua; Wang, Jieci; Jing, Jiliang

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of open quantum systems, we study the dynamics of a static polarizable two-level atom interacting with a bath of fluctuating vacuum electromagnetic field and explore under which conditions the coherence of the open quantum system is unaffected by the environment. For both a single-qubit and two-qubit systems, we find that the quantum coherence cannot be protected from noise when the atom interacts with a non-boundary electromagnetic field. However, with the presence of a boundary, the dynamical conditions for the insusceptible of quantum coherence are fulfilled only when the atom is close to the boundary and is transversely polarizable. Otherwise, the quantum coherence can only be protected in some degree in other polarizable direction. -- Highlights: •We study the dynamics of a two-level atom interacting with a bath of fluctuating vacuum electromagnetic field. •For both a single and two-qubit systems, the quantum coherence cannot be protected from noise without a boundary. •The insusceptible of the quantum coherence can be fulfilled only when the atom is close to the boundary and is transversely polarizable. •Otherwise, the quantum coherence can only be protected in some degree in other polarizable direction.

  4. Plasma oxalic acid and calcium levels in oxalate poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarembski, P. M.; Hodgkinson, A.

    1967-01-01

    Observations are reported on five cases of suicide or attempted suicide by poisoning with oxalic acid or ethylene glycol. Elevated oxalic acid levels were observed in the plasma, stomach contents, and a number of tissues. Raised oxalic acid levels in plasma were associated with reduced total and ultrafilterable calcium levels. It is suggested that the reduction in plasma total calcium level is due mainly to the deposition of calcium oxalate in the soft tissues, but inhibition of the parathyroid glands may be a contributory factor. Microscopic examination of various tissues indicated that oxalic acid is deposited in the tissues in two forms: (1) crystalline calcium oxalate dihydrate in the kidney and (2) a non-crystalline complex of calcium oxalate and lipid in liver and other tissues. PMID:5602563

  5. Effective Ohm's law for a magnetohydrodynamic plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kayukawa, Naoyuki; Oikawa, Shunichi; Aoki, Yoshiyuki

    1991-01-01

    Considering that the electrical conductivity of a thermally equilibrium MHD plasma is a strong non-linear function of the gas temperature, the authors first pointed out that the statistically averaged conductivity should be evaluated by the mean temperature as =(1+G)σ( ), where G is given by the third order Taylor expansion with respect to the temperature fluctuation T- and is always positive. Next, in order to obtain a statistically averaged Ohm's law for a turbulent plasma, the correlation (σ'E'> between the conductivity and the electric field fluctuations has been numerically investigated for a plasma with a 1/7th-power average temperature distribution and layered one-dimensional fluctuation between parallel electrodes. It was shown that the correlation is always negative and the averaged current density as well as the plasma resistance is to be corrected appreciably from the values based on the mean temperature. Finally, it was shown that the correction factor / can be evaluated approximately by a 4th-order polynomial of the relative rms temperature fluctuation √ 2 >/ and the relationship is practically insensitive to the variation of the electrode temperature, the boundary-layer thickness and also to the spatial distribution of the fluctuation amplitudes. (author)

  6. Review of electric discharge microplasmas generated in highly fluctuating fluids: Characteristics and application to nanomaterials synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stauss, Sven; Terashima, Kazuo; Muneoka, Hitoshi; Urabe, Keiichiro

    2015-01-01

    Plasma-based fabrication of novel nanomaterials and nanostructures is indispensible for the development of next-generation electronic devices and for green energy applications. In particular, controlling the interactions between plasmas and materials interfaces, and the plasma fluctuations, is crucial for further development of plasma-based processes and bottom-up growth of nanomaterials. Electric discharge microplasmas generated in supercritical fluids represent a special class of high-pressure plasmas, where fluctuations on the molecular scale influence the discharge properties and the possible bottom-up growth of nanomaterials. This review discusses an anomaly observed for direct current microplasmas generated near the critical point, a local decrease in the breakdown voltage. This anomalous behavior is suggested to be caused by the concomitant decrease of the ionization potential due to the formation of clusters near the critical point, and the formation of extended electron mean free paths caused by the high-density fluctuation near the critical point. It is also shown that in the case of dielectric barrier microdischarges generated close to the critical point, the high-density fluctuation of the supercritical fluid persists. The final part of the review discusses the application of discharges generated in supercritical fluids to synthesis of nanomaterials, in particular, molecular diamond—so-called diamondoids—by microplasmas generated inside conventional batch-type and continuous flow microreactors

  7. The origin of fluctuations and cross-field transport in idealized magnetic confinement systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riviere, A.C.; Ashby, D.E.T.F.; Cordey, J.G.; Edlington, T.; Rusbridge, M.G.

    1981-01-01

    The study of plasma fluctuations and confinement in idealized systems such as octupoles and levitrons has contributed to the understanding of cross-field transport processes. The linear theory of plasma instabilities that cause fluctuations can predict growth rates and wavelengths around lines of force. However, the theoretical prediction of cross-field transport coefficient is restricted to quasilinear estimates which usually far exceed the measured values. A general view of the results from octupole and levitron experiments shows that under collisional conditions the diffusion coefficient scales in the same way as classical collisional diffusion. Agreement is closely approached in many cases, sometimes even in the presence of fluctuations. Under collisionless conditions, Bohm diffusion scaling is found in the few cases where the scaling law has been determined. There is also experimental and theoretical evidence that long-wavelength low-frequency electric fields (convection cells) can be generated nonlinearly from high-frequency fluctuations and can contribute to cross-field transport. (author)

  8. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, M; Mortensen, S P; Hellsten, Y

    2013-03-01

    Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study 2, young (23 ± 1 years, n = 8), older lifelong sedentary (66 ± 2 years, n = 8) and older lifelong endurance-trained (62 ± 2 years, n = 8) subjects were studied in a cross-sectional design. Skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels were increased with age and plasma endothelin-1 levels were higher in hypertensive than normotensive individuals. Eight weeks of exercise training normalized plasma endothelin-1 levels in the hypertensive subjects and increased the protein expression of the ET(A) receptor in skeletal muscle of normotensive subjects. Similarly, individuals that had performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension. This effect may explain some of the beneficial effects of training on the cardiovascular system in older and hypertensive subjects. © 2012 The Authors Acta Physiologica © 2012 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  9. Reducing and measuring fluctuations in the MST RFP: Enhancement of energy confinement and measurement of the MHD dynamo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Den Hartog, D.J.; Almagri, A.F.

    1996-09-01

    A three- to five-fold enhancement of the energy confinement time in a reversed-field pinch (RFP) has been achieved in the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) by reducing the amplitude of tearing mode fluctuations responsible for anomalous transport in the core of the RFP. By applying a transient poloidal inductive electric field to flatten the current density profile, the fluctuation amplitude b/B decreases from 1.5% to 0.8%, the electron temperature T e0 increases from 250 eV to 370 eV, the ohmic input power decreases from 4.5 MW to approximately 1.5 MW, the poloidal beta β 0 increases from 6% to 9%, and the energy confinement time τ E increases from 1 ms to ∼5 ms in I φ = 340 kA plasmas with density n = 1 x 10 19 m -3 . Current profile control methods are being developed for the RFP in a program to eliminate transport associated with these current-gradient-driven fluctuations. In addition to controlling the amplitude of the tearing modes, we are vigorously pursuing an understanding of the physics of these fluctuations. In particular, plasma flow, both equilibrium and fluctuating, plays a critical role in a diversity of physical phenomena in MST. The key results: 1) Edge probe measurements show that the MHD dynamo is active in low collisionality plasmas, while at high collisionality a new mechanism, the 'electron diamagnetic dynamo,' is observed. 2) Core spectroscopic measurements show that the toroidal velocity fluctuations of the plasma are coherent with the large-scale magnetic tearing modes; the scalar product of these two fluctuating quantities is similar to that expected for the MHD dynamo electromotive force. 3) Toroidal plasma flow in MST exhibits large radial shear and can be actively controlled, including unlocking locked discharges, by modifying E r with a robust biased probe. 24 refs

  10. Active probing of plasma edge turbulence and feedback studies on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, T.; Richards, B.; Bengtson, R.D.

    1993-08-01

    A novel experiment is under way on the Texas Experimental Tokamak (TEXT) to actively modify the turbulence at the plasma edge by launching waves using electrostatic probes in the shadow of the limiter. The experiments are carried out with a wave launching system consisting of two Langmuir probes, which are about 1.8 cm apart in the poloidal direction, with respect to the magnetic field. These probes are operated in the electron side of the (I,V) characteristic. The probe tips are fed separately by independent ac power supplies. Measurements indicate that the wave, launched with a typical frequency image of 15--50 kHz from the edge of the machine top, is received by sensing probes located halfway around the torus. The detected signal strength depends on the frequency of the wave, the plasma current, and the phasing of the applied ac signal between the launching probes. Modifications to the spectra of the density and potential fluctuations are observed. These experiments have been extended to control of the edge plasma fluctuation level using feedback to explore its effects on confinement. When the launcher is driven by the floating potential of the fluctuating plasma at the location of the launching probes, then the fluctuations are suppressed or excited, depending on the phasing between the probe tips, both locally and at the downstream sensing probes. The fluctuation-induced particle flux also varies with the feedback phasing

  11. Measurement of plasma neuropeptide Y levels with RIA in diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Guanghua; Zhang Xinlu; Yang Jun

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical significance of the levels of plasma neuropeptide Y(NPY) in NIDDM patients with the occurrence of vascular complications. Methods: The plasma NPY levels were measured in 67 cases with DM (Group A: no Vascular complication, n = 38, Group B: with renal and retinal Vascular Changes, n = 29) and 37 normal subjects by radioimmunoassay. Results: NPY levels were higher in diabetic patients than those in normal subjects (p < 0.001). Also the plasma NPY levels were higher (p < 0.001) in diabetic patients with angiopathy (29 cases) than in those without it (38 cases). Conclusion: These data suggested that the changes of plasma NPY levels might be closely related to the occurrence and development of complications in DM patients

  12. Simultaneous Microwave Imaging System for Density and Temperature Fluctuation Measurements on TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.; Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Domier, C.W.; Johnson, M.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Wang, J.; Xia, Z.; Classen, I.G.J.; Donne, A.J.H.; Pol, M.J. van de

    2004-01-01

    Diagnostic systems for fluctuation measurements in plasmas have, of necessity, evolved from simple 1-D systems to multi-dimensional systems due to the complexity of the MHD and turbulence physics of plasmas illustrated by advanced numerical simulations. Using the recent significant advancements in millimeter wave imaging technology, Microwave Imaging Reflectometry (MIR) and Electron Cyclotron Emission Imaging (ECEI), simultaneously measuring density and temperature fluctuations, are developed for TEXTOR. The MIR system was installed on TEXTOR and the first experiment was performed in September, 2003. Subsequent MIR campaigns have yielded poloidally resolved spectra and assessments of poloidal velocity. The new 2-D ECE Imaging system (with a total of 128 channels), installed on TEXTOR in December, 2003, successfully captured a true 2-D images of Te fluctuations of m=1 oscillation (''sawteeth'') near the q ∼ 1 surface for the first time

  13. A reduced model for ion temperature gradient turbulent transport in helical plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunami, M.; Watanabe, T.-H.; Sugama, H.

    2013-07-01

    A novel reduced model for ion temperature gradient (ITG) turbulent transport in helical plasmas is presented. The model enables one to predict nonlinear gyrokinetic simulation results from linear gyrokinetic analyses. It is shown from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of the ITG turbulence in helical plasmas that the transport coefficient can be expressed as a function of the turbulent fluctuation level and the averaged zonal flow amplitude. Then, the reduced model for the turbulent ion heat diffusivity is derived by representing the nonlinear turbulent fluctuations and zonal flow amplitude in terms of the linear growth rate of the ITG instability and the linear response of the zonal flow potentials. It is confirmed that the reduced transport model results are in good agreement with those from nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations for high ion temperature plasmas in the Large Helical Device. (author)

  14. Universal mesoscopic conductance fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelou, S.N.

    1992-01-01

    The theory of conductance fluctuations in disordered metallic systems with size large compared to the mean free path of the electron but small compared to localization length is considered. It is demonstrates that fluctuations have an universal character and are due to repulsion between levels and spectral rigidity. The basic fluctuation measures for the energy spectrum in the mesoscopic regime of disordered systems are consistent with the Gaussian random matrix ensemble predictions. Although our disordered electron random matrix ensemble does not belong to the Gaussian ensemble the two ensembles turn out to be essentially similar. The level repulsion and the spectral rigidity found in nuclear spectra should also be observed in the metallic regime of Anderson localization. 7 refs. (orig.)

  15. On the distribution of energy versus Alfvénic correlation for polar wind fluctuations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bavassano

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous analyses have shown that polar wind fluctuations at MHD scales appear as a mixture of Alfvénic fluctuations and variations with an energy imbalance in favour of the magnetic term. In the present study, by separately examining the behaviour of kinetic and magnetic energies versus the Alfvénic correlation level, we unambiguously confirm that the second population is essentially related to a large increase of the magnetic energy with respect to that of the Alfvénic population. The relevant new result is that this magnetic population, though of secondary importance in terms of occurrence frequency, corresponds to a primary peak in the distribution of total energy. The fact that this holds in the case of polar wind, which is the least structured type of interplanetary plasma flow and with the slowest evolving Alfvénic turbulence, strongly suggests the general conclusion that magnetic structures cannot be neglected when modeling fluctuations for all kinds of wind regime.

  16. Response of littoral macrophytes to water level fluctuations in a storage reservoir

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krolová, Monika; Čížková, Hana; Hejzlar, Josef; Poláková, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 408, May (2013), 07p1-07p21 ISSN 1961-9502 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/09/1764; GA MŠk(CZ) 7E11059 Grant - others:EC ENV(CZ) FP7 244121 Program:FP7 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60170517 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : littoral macrophytes * eulittoral * water level fluctuation * European Water Framework Directive * ecophases Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology Impact factor: 0.622, year: 2013

  17. Recent results on event-by-event fluctuations in ALICE at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2083375

    2015-01-01

    Non-statistical event-by-event fluctuations in relativistic heavy-ion collisions have been proposed as a probe of the phase transition of hadronic matter to a deconfined phase of quarks and gluons, the so-called Quark-Gluon Plasma. In a thermodynamical picture of the strongly interacting system formed in heavy-ion collisions, the dynamical fluctuations of net-charge, fluctuations of the mean transverse momentum, mean multiplicity and balance functions are related to the fundamental properties of the system, hence they may reveal information about the QCD phase transition. In this article, recent results on event-by-event measurements of net-charge fluctuations, the measurement of the balance function and mean transverse momentum fluctuations are discussed.

  18. Comparison of beam emission spectroscopy and gas puff imaging edge fluctuation measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Smith, D. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, the close physical proximity of the Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) is leveraged to directly compare fluctuation measurements, and to study the local effects of the GPI neutral deuterium puff during H-mode plasmas without large Edge Localized Modes. The GPI and BES views on NSTX provide partially overlapping coverage of the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions above the outboard midplane. The separation in the toroidal direction is 16°, and field lines passing through diagnostic views are separated by ∼20 cm in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Strong cross-correlation is observed, and strong cross-coherence is seen for frequencies between 5 and 15 kHz. Also, probability distribution functions of fluctuations measured ∼3 cm inside the separatrix exhibit only minor deviations from a normal distribution for both diagnostics, and good agreement between correlation length estimates, decorrelation times, and structure velocities is found at the ±40% level. While the two instruments agree closely in many respects, some discrepancies are observed. Most notably, GPI normalized fluctuation levels exceed BES fluctuations by a factor of ∼9. BES mean intensity is found to be sensitive to the GPI neutral gas puff, and BES normalized fluctuation levels for frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz are observed to increase during the GPI puff.

  19. Comparison of beam emission spectroscopy and gas puff imaging edge fluctuation measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T.; Smith, D.; Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the close physical proximity of the Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) is leveraged to directly compare fluctuation measurements, and to study the local effects of the GPI neutral deuterium puff during H-mode plasmas without large Edge Localized Modes. The GPI and BES views on NSTX provide partially overlapping coverage of the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions above the outboard midplane. The separation in the toroidal direction is 16°, and field lines passing through diagnostic views are separated by ∼20 cm in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Strong cross-correlation is observed, and strong cross-coherence is seen for frequencies between 5 and 15 kHz. Also, probability distribution functions of fluctuations measured ∼3 cm inside the separatrix exhibit only minor deviations from a normal distribution for both diagnostics, and good agreement between correlation length estimates, decorrelation times, and structure velocities is found at the ±40% level. While the two instruments agree closely in many respects, some discrepancies are observed. Most notably, GPI normalized fluctuation levels exceed BES fluctuations by a factor of ∼9. BES mean intensity is found to be sensitive to the GPI neutral gas puff, and BES normalized fluctuation levels for frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz are observed to increase during the GPI puff

  20. Multiscale fluctuations in nuclear response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacroix, D.; Chomaz, Ph.

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear collective response is investigated in the framework of a doorway picture in which the spreading width of the collective emotion is described as a coupling to more and more complex configurations. It is shown that this coupling induces fluctuations of the observed strength. In the case of a hierarchy of overlapping decay channels, Ericson fluctuations are observed at different scales. Methods for extracting these scales and the related lifetimes are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the coupling of different states at one level of complexity to some common decay channels at the next level, may produce interference-like patterns in the nuclear response. This quantum effect leads to anew type of fluctuations with a typical width related to the level spacing. (author)

  1. Multiscale fluctuations in nuclear response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacroix, D.; Chomaz, Ph

    1999-01-01

    The nuclear collective response is investigated in the framework of a doorway picture in which the spreading width of the collective emotion is described as a coupling to more and more complex configurations. It is shown that this coupling induces fluctuations of the observed strength. In the case of a hierarchy of overlapping decay channels, Ericson fluctuations are observed at different scales. Methods for extracting these scales and the related lifetimes are discussed. Finally, it is shown that the coupling of different states at one level of complexity to some common decay channels at the next level, may produce interference-like patterns in the nuclear response. This quantum effect leads to anew type of fluctuations with a typical width related to the level spacing. (author) 25 refs.

  2. Field experiments and laboratory study of plasma turbulence and effects on EM wave propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, M.C.; Kuo, S.P.

    1990-01-01

    Both active experiments in space and laboratory experiments with plasma chambers have been planned to investigate plasma turbulence and effects on electromagnetic wave propagation. Plasma turbulence can be generated by intense waves or occur inherently with the production of plasmas. The turbulence effects to be singled out for investigation include nonlinear mode conversion process and turbulence scattering of electromagnetic waves by plasma density fluctuations. The authors have shown theoretically that plasma density fluctuations can render the nonlinear mode conversion of electromagnetic waves into lower hybrid waves, leading to anomalous absorption of waves in magnetoplasmas. The observed spectral broadening of VLF waves is the evidence of the occurrence of this process. Since the density fluctuations may have a broad range of scale lengths, this process is effective in weakening the electromagnetic waves in a wideband. In addition, plasma density fluctuations can scatter waves and diversify the electromagnetic energy. Schemes of generating plasma turbulence and the diagnoses of plasma effects are discussed

  3. Plasma taurine levels are not affected by vigabatrin in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spelbrink, Emily M; Mabud, Tarub S; Reimer, Richard; Porter, Brenda E

    2016-08-01

    Vigabatrin is a highly effective antiseizure medication, but its use is limited due to concerns about retinal toxicity. One proposed mechanism for this toxicity is vigabatrin-mediated reduction of taurine. Herein we assess plasma taurine levels in a retrospective cohort of children with epilepsy, including a subset receiving vigabatrin. All children who underwent a plasma amino acid analysis as part of their clinical evaluation between 2006 and 2015 at Stanford Children's Health were included in the analysis. There were no significant differences in plasma taurine levels between children taking vigabatrin (n = 16), children taking other anti-seizure medications, and children not taking any anti-seizure medication (n = 556) (analysis of variance [ANOVA] p = 0.841). There were, however, age-dependent decreases in plasma taurine levels. Multiple linear regression revealed no significant association between vigabatrin use and plasma taurine level (p = 0.87) when controlling for age. These results suggest that children taking vigabatrin maintain normal plasma taurine levels, although they leave unanswered whether taurine supplementation is necessary or sufficient to prevent vigabatrin-associated visual field loss. They also indicate that age should be taken into consideration when evaluating taurine levels in young children. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 International League Against Epilepsy.

  4. Effect of beam-attenuation modulation on fluctuation measurements by heavy-ion beam probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, D.W.; Sloan, M.L.; Wootton, A.J.

    1991-03-01

    Beam-attenuation modulation arising from density fluctuations along the orbit of the heavy-ion beam probe can distort the local amplitude, coherence, and phase derived from one- and two-point correlation measurements. Path-integral expressions for these effects are derived and applications to TEXT data are discussed. The effects depend critically on the ratio of the average fluctuation amplitude, n e , along the beam path to the local n e at the sample volume. Because the fluctuation amplitude is small in the core and rises sharply toward the plasma edge, the contamination effect is negligible in a radial zone near the edge but rises sharply to the interior of a critical radius. With increasing average plasma density, bar n e , the interior contamination increases strongly and the critical radius moves outward. 16 refs., 12 figs

  5. Transport barriers with and without shear flows in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinell, Julio J.

    2014-01-01

    Different ways of producing a transport barrier in a toroidal magnetized plasma are discussed and the properties of the barriers are analyzed. The first mechanism is associated with the presence of a sheared plasma flow that is present in a limited region of the plasma, which creates a zonal flow. In contrast to the usual paradigm stating that the sheared flow reduces the turbulence correlation length and leads to suppression of the fluctuation driven transport in the region of highest shear, it is shown that from the perspective of chaotic transport of plasma particles in the fluctuation fields, the transport barrier is formed in the region of zero shear and it can be destroyed when the fluctuation level is high enough. It is also shown that finite gyroradius effects modify the dynamics and introduces new conditions for barrier formation. The second mechanism considers a method in which radio-frequency waves injected into the plasma can stabilize the drift waves and therefore the anomalous transport is reduced, creating a barrier. This process does not involve the presence of sheared flows and depends only on the effect of the RF wave field on the drift waves. The stabilizing effect in this case is due to the nonlinear ponderomotive force which acts in a way that offsets the pressure gradient destabilization. Finally, a mechanism based on the ponderomotive force of RF waves is described which produces poloidal plasma rotation around the resonant surface due to the asymmetry of induced transport; it creates a transport barrier by shear flow stabilization of turbulence

  6. Relationship between respiratory failure and plasma noradrenaline levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, A; Koike, Y; Takahashi, A; Hirayama, M; Murakami, N; Sobue, G

    1997-08-01

    We evaluated plasma noradrenaline (NA) levels at test and during head-up tilt test in 20 patients with sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Their fasting plasma NA levels ranged from 195 to 4227 pg/ml. The average plasma NA level was 483 pg/ml in five ambulatory patients, 341 in two wheelchair-bound patients, 1264 in 11 bedridden patients, and 208 in two respirator-dependent patients whose disability grading was the worst among the four groups. Arterial carbon dioxide (PCO2) was evaluated as a measure of respiratory function. The coefficient of correlation between PCO2 and plasma NA was r = 0.654 (p respiratory failure or lower motor neuron dysfunction may relate to the elevation of plasma NA levels. In the two bedridden patients, plasma NA levels and heart rate at rest increased significantly as the disease progressed. Cardiovascular responses to head-up tilting were normal. These data suggest that the elevation of plasma NA levels may be related to progression of respiratory failure and lower motor neuron dysfunction. In conclusion, sympathetic hyperactivity in ALS is considered to be not primary, but secondary to somatic motor disabilities and respiratory failure.

  7. Study of plasma adrenomedullin level in normal pregnancy and preclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Azza Abo; Zedan, Magda; el-Salam, Gamal E Abd; el-Mashad, Ashraf I

    2008-02-06

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether maternal circulating adrenomedullin (AM) values in patients with preeclampsia are different from those in normotensive pregnant women at different gestational ages. In a prospective clinical study, 90 women aged 17 to 40 years old, were divided into 4 main groups: group I (45 women): Normotensive pregnant women at first trimester (15 women), second trimester (15 women), and third trimester (15 women) of pregnancies. Group II (15 women): Pregnant women with preeclampsia at 25 to 38 weeks of gestation. Group III (15 women): Normotensive healthy nonpregnant women. Group IV (15 women): Hypertensive nonpregnant women. The plasma AM concentration was measured in all women by using enzyme immunoassay kits. Plasma AM levels in pregnant women with normal blood pressure at different gestational ages (first, second, and third trimesters) were statistically significantly higher than those detected in nonpregnant normotensive women and significantly increased with increasing gestational age (P < .001). Moreover, there was significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and increasing gestational age (r = 0.915, P < .001). Preeclamptic patients had the highest mean plasma AM levels compared with all other groups, which is statistically significant (P < .001) and there was a significant positive correlation between plasma AM levels and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, severity of preeclampsia, and proteinuria in pregnant patients with preeclampsia. Maternal plasma AM concentration increases throughout pregnancy and increases as gestational age progresses. AM production starts very early in gestation, suggesting that it may have an important role in human reproduction, from implantation to delivery. Maternal plasma AM level in preeclampsia appears to be higher than that in normal pregnancy.

  8. Measurements of fluctuations in the flux of runaway electrons to the PLT limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, C.W.; Strachan, J.D.

    1982-07-01

    Fluctuations in the flux of runaway electrons to the limiter have been measured during many PLT discharges. Oscillations at 60, 120, and 720 Hz are driven by variations in the vertical magnetic field which moves the plasma major radius. Fluctuations are seen in the range of 2 → 20 kHz due to MHD magnetic islands which extend to the plasma surface. A continuous spectrum of fluctuations is observed up to 200 kHz which correlates with drift-wave turbulence. The magnitude of the driven fluctuations can be used to measure transport properties of the runaway electrons. The amplitude of electron motion due to the MHD and drift-wave oscillations, and hence a measure of the radial size of the instability, can be determined as a function of frequency. The slope of the frequency power spectrum of the drift-wave-induced fluctuations steepens with increasing runaway electron drift orbit displacement during the current drop at the end of the discharge, and as the power in the MHD oscillations increases. A magnetic probe was used to confirm the presence of oscillating magnetic fields capable of perturbing the electron orbits

  9. Magnetic fluctuations due to thermally excited Alfven waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agim, Y.Z.; Prager, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetic fluctuations due to the thermally excited MHD waves are investigated using fluid and kinetic models to describe a stable, uniform, compressible plasma in the range above the drift wave frequency and below the ion cyclotron frequency. It is shown that the fluid model with resistivity yields spectral densities which are roughly Lorentzian, exhibit equipartition with no apparent cutoff in wavenumber space and a Bohm-type diffusion coefficient. Under certain conditions, the ensuing transport may be comparable to classical values. For a phenomenological cutoff imposed on the spectrum, the typical fluctuating-to-equilibrium magnetic field ratio is found to be of the order of 10 -10 . Physical mechanisms to obtain decay profiles of the spectra with increasing wavenumber due to dispersion and/or different forms of damping are investigated analytically in a cold fluid approximation and numerically, with a kinetic model. The mode dispersion due to the finite ion-gyrofrequency is identified as the leading effect determining the spectral profile shapes. It is found that the amplitude of fluctuations may be within a factor of the value suggested by the cold plasma model. The results from both models are presented and compared in low- and high-β regimes. 21 refs., 6 figs

  10. In vivo detection of fluctuating brain steroid levels SHORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Maaya; Rensel, Michelle A.; Schlinger, Barney A.; Remage-Healey, Luke

    2015-01-01

    This protocol describes a method for in vivo measurement of steroid hormones in brain circuits of the zebra finch. In vivo microdialysis has been used successfully to detect fluctuating neurosteroids in the auditory forebrain (Remage-Healey et al., 2008; 2012; Ikeda et al., 2012) and in the hippocampus (Rensel et al., 2012; 2013) of behaving adult zebra finches. In some cases, the steroids measured are derived locally (e.g., ‘neurosteroids’ like estrogens in males) whereas in other cases the steroids measured reflect systemic circulating levels and/or central conversion (e.g., the primary androgen testosterone and the primary glucocorticoid corticosterone). We also describe the method of reverse-microdialysis (‘retrodialysis’) of compounds that can influence local steroid neurochemistry as well as behavior. In vivo microdialysis can now be used to study steroid signaling in the brain for a variety of experimental purposes. Furthermore, similar methods have been developed to examine changing levels of catecholamines in behaving zebra finches (e.g., Sasaki et al., 2006). Thus, the combined study of neurochemistry and behavior in a vocal learning species now has a new set of powerful tools. PMID:25342066

  11. Decline of plasma 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) levels upon testosterone administration to elderly men with subnormal plasma testosterone and high DHT levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooren, L J; Saad, F; Haide, A; Yassin, A

    2008-10-01

    The study was performed to measure the impact of testosterone (T) administration on circulating levels of 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Group 1 (32 men; mean age 61 years; mean T 6.9 +/- 1.9 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 15 months with long-acting T undecanoate. Group 2 (23 men, mean age 60 years, mean T 7.6 +/- 2.0 nmol l(-1)) were treated for 9 months with T gel. Plasma T and DHT were measured before and after 9 months T administration. In the men treated with T undecanoate plasma T and DHT were also measured after 12 and 15 months. Before T administration, plasma DHT ranged from 0.39 to 1.76 nmol l(-1) (0.30-1.90 nmol l(-1)). Mean DHT declined upon T administration from 0.95 +/- 0.50 to 0.55 +/- 0.30 nmol l(-1) (P DHT > 0.60 nmol l(-1) had fallen from 1.29 +/- 0.50 to 0.70 +/- 0.60 nmol l(-1) (P DHT levels declined upon T administration when they were in the higher range of normal (>0.6 nmol l(-1)), with a profound shift of DHT/T ratios presumed to be an indicator of a reduced 5alpha-reductase activity. Below plasma DHT levels of 0.6 nmol l(-1), responses of plasma DHT to T administration varied.

  12. Edge transport and mode structure of a QCM-like fluctuation driven by the Shoelace antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golfinopoulos, T.; LaBombard, B.; Brunner, D.; Terry, J. L.; Baek, S. G.; Ennever, P.; Edlund, E.; Han, W.; Burke, W. M.; Wolfe, S. M.; Irby, J. H.; Hughes, J. W.; Fitzgerald, E. W.; Granetz, R. S.; Greenwald, M. J.; Leccacorvi, R.; Marmar, E. S.; Pierson, S. Z.; Porkolab, M.; Vieira, R. F.; Wukitch, S. J.; The Alcator C-Mod Team

    2018-05-01

    The Shoelace antenna was built to drive edge fluctuations in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak, matching the wavenumber (k\\perp≈1.5 cm‑1) and frequency (30≲ f ≲ 200 kHz) of the quasi-coherent mode (QCM), which is responsible for regulating transport across the plasma boundary in the steady-state, ELM-free Enhanced D α (EDA) H-mode. Initial experiments in 2012 demonstrated that the antenna drove a resonant response in the edge plasma in steady-state EDA and transient, non-ELMy H-modes, but transport measurements were unavailable. In 2016, the Shoelace antenna was relocated to enable direct measurements of driven transport by a reciprocating Mirror Langmuir Probe, while also making available gas puff imaging and reflectometer data to provide additional radial localization of the driven fluctuation. This new data suggests a  ∼4 mm-wide mode layer centered on or just outside the separatrix. Fluctuations coherent with the antenna produced a radial electron flux with {Γ_e}/{n_e}∼4 m s‑1 in EDA H-mode, smaller than but comparable to the QCM level. But in transient ELM-free H-mode, {Γ_e}/{n_e} was an order of magnitude smaller, and driven fluctuations reduced by a factor of ≳ 3. The driven mode is quantitatively similar to the intrinsic QCM across measured spectral quantities, except that it is more coherent and weaker. This work informs the prospect of achieving control of edge transport by direct coupling to edge modes, as well as the use of such active coupling for diagnostic purposes.

  13. Electromagnetic radiation from beam-plasma instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, P. L.; Dawson, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    A computer simulation is developed for the generation of electromagnetic radiation in an electron beam-plasma interaction. The plasma is treated as a two-dimensional finite system, and effects of a continuous nonrelativistic beam input are accounted for. Three momentum and three field components are included in the simulation, and an external magnetic field is excluded. EM radiation generation is possible through interaction among Langmuir oscillations, ion-acoustic waves, and the electromagnetic wave, producing radiation perpendicular to the beam. The radiation is located near the plasma frequency, and polarized with the E component parallel to the beam. The scattering of Langmuir waves caused by ion-acoustic fluctuations generates the radiation. Comparison with laboratory data for the three-wave interactions shows good agreement in terms of the radiation levels produced, which are small relative to the plasma thermal energy.

  14. Deep bore well water level fluctuations in the Koyna region, India: the presence of a low order dynamical system in a seismically active environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Ramana

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Water level fluctuations in deep bore wells in the vicinity of seismically active Koyna region in western India provides an opportunity to understand the causative mechanism underlying reservoir-triggered earthquakes. As the crustal porous rocks behave nonlinearly, their characteristics can be obtained by analysing water level fluctuations, which reflect an integrated response of the medium. A Fractal dimension is one such measure of nonlinear characteristics of porous rock as observed in water level data from the Koyna region. It is inferred in our study that a low nonlinear dynamical system with three variables can predict the water level fluctuations in bore wells.

  15. Analysis of the relationship between water level fluctuation and seismicity in the Three Gorges Reservoir (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifen Zhang

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Three Gorges Reservoir is a good site for the further researches on reservoir induced seismicity due to decades' seismic monitoring. After the first water impounding in 2003, seismic activity becomes more frequent than that before water impoundment. In order to quantitatively study, the relationship between the water level fluctuation and earthquakes in TGR, we introduced statistical methods to attain the goal. First of all, we relocated the earthquakes in TGR region with double difference method and divided the earthquakes into 5 clusters with clustering analysis method. Secondly, to examine the impacts of water level fluctuation in different water filling stages on the seismic activity in the 5 clusters, a series of statistical analyses are applied. Pearson correlation results show that only the 175 m water level fluctuation has significantly positive impacts on the seismic activity in clusters Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅴ with correlation coefficients of 0.44, 0.38, 0.66 and 0.63. Cross-correlation analysis demonstrates that 0, 1, 0 and 0 month time delay separately for the clusters Ⅰ, Ⅱ, Ⅲ and Ⅴ exists. It illustrated the influences of the water loading and pore pressure diffusion on induced earthquakes. Cointegration tests and impulse response analysis denoted that the 175 m water level only had long term and significant effects just on the seismic events in the intersection region of the Fairy Mount Fault and Nine-brook Fault. One standard deviation shock to 175 m water level increased the seismic activity in cluster Ⅴ for the first 3 months, and then the negative influence was shown. After 7 months, the negative impulse response becomes stable. The long-term effect of the 175 m water impoundment also proved the important role of pore pressure diffusion in RIS with time.

  16. Effect of carvedilol treatment on plasma neuropeptides levels in patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qian; Cheng Guanghua; Yang Jian

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of plasma neuropeptide Y(NPY) and neurotension (NT) levels in patients with essential hypertension after treatment with carvedilol. Methods: Blood pressure and plasma NPY and NT concentrations (with RIA) were measured in 56 patients with essential hypertension both before and after carvedilol therapy (5-10 mg bid) for 3 months as well as 30 controls. Results: Before treatment plasma NPY levels were significantly higher in hypertensive patients than those in controls (P<0.01), but plasma NT levels were significantly lower (P also <0.01). After carvedilol treatment, blood pressure and plasma NPY levels were reduced significantly and plasma NT levels were increased significantly. Conclusion: Treatment with carvedilol results in the correction of plasma concentrations of NPY and NT in patients with essential hypertension, the effect may be related to blood pressure decrease. (authors)

  17. Spatial, spectral and statistical properties of the electrostatic fluctuations and measurements of the scattering of the beam in a strongly turbulent plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Michael Duane

    The purpose of this investigation is to measure the spatial, spectral and statistical properties of the high (/omega/ ~/ ω pe) and low (/omega/ ~/ ωpi) frequency electrostatic fluctuations in an unmagnetized, statistically stable, beam-driven, strongly turbulent plasma and compare the results to theoretical predictions. In addition the scattering of the electron beam in both angle and energy is measured and compared to theory. This study is motivated by the recent advances in statistical theories of strong Langmuir turbulence and the glaring lack of confirmatory experimental data. With the advent of modern computers and electronics, enormous data sets are now routinely digitize and subjected to sophisticated statistical and spectral analysis. These methods, along with traditional procedures and an innovative technique known as a 'conditional trigger', are used to extract ensemble averages from the turbulent system for comparison with the theoretical models. It is found that the high-frequency fluctuations consist of low-level wave activity /langle W/rangle/ ~/ 10-2 - 103 punctuated by semi-periodic, intense, spiky field events /langle W/rangle/ ~/ 1, where /langle W/rangle is the normalized intensity. The low- level wave activity has a spectral spread Δ k/k/ ~/ /Delta/omega//omega/ ~ 30%, dispersion relation v beam/ ~/ /omega/k, and correlation length lc/ /approx/ 3λES, where λES is the electrostatic wavelength, and shows evidence of low-intensity parametric decay products. The intense field events, on the other hand, show little correlation for l/ >/ λES, have a full-width-at-half-maximum of 1 f/ /n2/ /propto/ β where β ~/ 1.3 for the experiment and is predicted to be β ~/ 1.98 by the model. The scattering of the electron beam in angle for a typical wave intensity level /langle W/rangle/ ~/ 0.04 is Θ ~/ 3o, and in energy is Δ U/ ~/ 25 eV for a 400 eV beam. The scattering of the beam in both angle and energy is found to agree well with theory.

  18. A technique for plasma velocity-space cross-correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, Sean; Skiff, Fred

    2018-05-01

    An advance in experimental plasma diagnostics is presented and used to make the first measurement of a plasma velocity-space cross-correlation matrix. The velocity space correlation function can detect collective fluctuations of plasmas through a localized measurement. An empirical decomposition, singular value decomposition, is applied to this Hermitian matrix in order to obtain the plasma fluctuation eigenmode structure on the ion distribution function. A basic theory is introduced and compared to the modes obtained by the experiment. A full characterization of these modes is left for future work, but an outline of this endeavor is provided. Finally, the requirements for this experimental technique in other plasma regimes are discussed.

  19. Cluster regression model and level fluctuation features of Van Lake, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Şen

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Lake water levels change under the influences of natural and/or anthropogenic environmental conditions. Among these influences are the climate change, greenhouse effects and ozone layer depletions which are reflected in the hydrological cycle features over the lake drainage basins. Lake levels are among the most significant hydrological variables that are influenced by different atmospheric and environmental conditions. Consequently, lake level time series in many parts of the world include nonstationarity components such as shifts in the mean value, apparent or hidden periodicities. On the other hand, many lake level modeling techniques have a stationarity assumption. The main purpose of this work is to develop a cluster regression model for dealing with nonstationarity especially in the form of shifting means. The basis of this model is the combination of transition probability and classical regression technique. Both parts of the model are applied to monthly level fluctuations of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. It is observed that the cluster regression procedure does preserve the statistical properties and the transitional probabilities that are indistinguishable from the original data.Key words. Hydrology (hydrologic budget; stochastic processes · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (ocean-atmosphere interactions

  20. Cluster regression model and level fluctuation features of Van Lake, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Şen

    Full Text Available Lake water levels change under the influences of natural and/or anthropogenic environmental conditions. Among these influences are the climate change, greenhouse effects and ozone layer depletions which are reflected in the hydrological cycle features over the lake drainage basins. Lake levels are among the most significant hydrological variables that are influenced by different atmospheric and environmental conditions. Consequently, lake level time series in many parts of the world include nonstationarity components such as shifts in the mean value, apparent or hidden periodicities. On the other hand, many lake level modeling techniques have a stationarity assumption. The main purpose of this work is to develop a cluster regression model for dealing with nonstationarity especially in the form of shifting means. The basis of this model is the combination of transition probability and classical regression technique. Both parts of the model are applied to monthly level fluctuations of Lake Van in eastern Turkey. It is observed that the cluster regression procedure does preserve the statistical properties and the transitional probabilities that are indistinguishable from the original data.

    Key words. Hydrology (hydrologic budget; stochastic processes · Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (ocean-atmosphere interactions

  1. Intermittent electron density and temperature fluctuations and associated fluxes in the Alcator C-Mod scrape-off layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kube, R.; Garcia, O. E.; Theodorsen, A.; Brunner, D.; Kuang, A. Q.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L.

    2018-06-01

    The Alcator C-Mod mirror Langmuir probe system has been used to sample data time series of fluctuating plasma parameters in the outboard mid-plane far scrape-off layer. We present a statistical analysis of one second long time series of electron density, temperature, radial electric drift velocity and the corresponding particle and electron heat fluxes. These are sampled during stationary plasma conditions in an ohmically heated, lower single null diverted discharge. The electron density and temperature are strongly correlated and feature fluctuation statistics similar to the ion saturation current. Both electron density and temperature time series are dominated by intermittent, large-amplitude burst with an exponential distribution of both burst amplitudes and waiting times between them. The characteristic time scale of the large-amplitude bursts is approximately 15 μ {{s}}. Large-amplitude velocity fluctuations feature a slightly faster characteristic time scale and appear at a faster rate than electron density and temperature fluctuations. Describing these time series as a superposition of uncorrelated exponential pulses, we find that probability distribution functions, power spectral densities as well as auto-correlation functions of the data time series agree well with predictions from the stochastic model. The electron particle and heat fluxes present large-amplitude fluctuations. For this low-density plasma, the radial electron heat flux is dominated by convection, that is, correlations of fluctuations in the electron density and radial velocity. Hot and dense blobs contribute only a minute fraction of the total fluctuation driven heat flux.

  2. Plasma oscillations and sound waves in collision-dominated two-component plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, J.P.; Sjoegren, L.

    1982-01-01

    Charge, mass, and electron density fluctuation spectra of strongly correlated, fully ionized two-component plasmas within the framework of the Mori--Zwanzig memory function formalism are analyzed. All dynamical correlation functions are expressed in terms of the memory functions of the ion and electron velocity autocorrelation functions by a generalized effective field approximation which preserves the exact initial values (i.e., static correlations). The theory reduces correctly to the mean field (or collisionless Vlasov) results in the weak coupling limit, and yields charge density fluctuation spectra in good agreement with available computer simulation data, as well as reasonable estimates of the transport coefficients. The collisional damping and frequency shift of the plasma oscillation mode are sizeable, even in the long wavelength limit. The theory also predicts the propagation of well-defined sound waves in dense plasmas in thermal equilibrium

  3. Changes in plasma TIMP-1 levels after resection for primary colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, C.; Lomholt, A.F.; Davis, G.J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Increased plasma levels of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) are associated with poor outcome in colorectal cancer (CRC), however postoperative changes in plasma TIMP-1 levels after resections for CRC have not been thoroughly evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Plasma samp...

  4. Ion acoustic waves and double-layers in electronegative expanding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plihon, Nicolas; Chabert, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Ion acoustic waves and double-layers are observed in expanding plasmas in electronegative gases, i.e., plasmas containing an appreciable fraction of negative ions. The reported experiments are performed in argon gas with a variable amount of SF 6 . When varying the amount of SF 6 , the negative ion fraction increases and three main regimes were identified previously: (i) the plasma smoothly expands at low negative ion fraction, (ii) a static double-layer (associated with an abrupt potential drop and ion acceleration) forms at intermediate negative ion fraction, (iii) double-layers periodically form and propagate (in the plasma expansion direction) at high negative ion fraction. In this paper, we show that transition phases exist in between these regimes, where fluctuations are observed. These fluctuations are unstable slow ion acoustic waves, propagating in the direction opposite to the plasma expansion. These fluctuations are excited by the most unstable eigenmodes and display turbulent features. It is suggested that the static double layer forms when the ion acoustic fluctuations become non-linearly unstable: the double layer regime being a bifurcated state of the smoothly expanding regime. For the highest negative ion fraction, a coexistence of (upstream propagating) slow ion acoustic fluctuations and (downstream) propagating double layers was observed.

  5. Explanation of L→H mode transition based on gradient stabilization of edge thermal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    1996-01-01

    A linear analysis of thermal fluctuations, using a fluid model which treats the large radial gradient related phenomena in the plasma edge, leads to a constraint on the temperature and density gradients for stabilization of edge temperature fluctuations. A temperature gradient, or conductive edge heat flux, threshold is identified. It is proposed that the L→H transition takes place when the conductive heat flux to the edge produces a sufficiently large edge temperature gradient to stabilize the edge thermal fluctuations. The consequences following from this mechanism for the L→H transition are in accord with observed phenomena associated with the L→H transition and with the observed parameter dependences of the power threshold. First, a constraint is established on the edge temperature and density gradients that are sufficient for the stability of edge temperature fluctuations. A slab approximation for the thin plasma edge and a fluid model connected to account for the large radial gradients present in the plasma edge are used. Equilibrium solutions are characterized by the value of the density and of its gradient L n -1 double-bond - n -1 , etc. Temperature fluctuations expanded about the equilibrium value are then used in the energy balance equation summed over plasma ions, electrons and impurities to obtain, after linearization, an expression for the growth rate ω of edge localized thermal fluctuations. Thermal stability of the equilibrium solution requires ω ≤ 0, which establishes a constraint that must be satisfied by L n -1 and L T -1 . The limiting value of the constraint (ω = 0) leads to an expression for the minimum value of that is sufficient for thermal stability, for a given value of L T -1. It is found that there is a minimum value of the temperature gradient, (L T -1 ) min that is necessary for a stable solution to exist for any value of L n -1

  6. Seminal Plasma HIV-1 RNA Concentration Is Strongly Associated with Altered Levels of Seminal Plasma Interferon-γ, Interleukin-17, and Interleukin-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Jennifer C.; Anton, Peter A.; Baldwin, Gayle Cocita; Elliott, Julie; Anisman-Posner, Deborah; Tanner, Karen; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Sugar, Catherine; Yang, Otto O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level is an important determinant of the risk of HIV-1 sexual transmission. We investigated potential associations between seminal plasma cytokine levels and viral concentration in the seminal plasma of HIV-1-infected men. This was a prospective, observational study of paired blood and semen samples from 18 HIV-1 chronically infected men off antiretroviral therapy. HIV-1 RNA levels and cytokine levels in seminal plasma and blood plasma were measured and analyzed using simple linear regressions to screen for associations between cytokines and seminal plasma HIV-1 levels. Forward stepwise regression was performed to construct the final multivariate model. The median HIV-1 RNA concentrations were 4.42 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2.98, 4.70) and 2.96 log10 copies/ml (IQR 2, 4.18) in blood and seminal plasma, respectively. In stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis, blood HIV-1 RNA level (pplasma HIV-1 RNA level. After controlling for blood HIV-1 RNA level, seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA level was positively associated with interferon (IFN)-γ (p=0.03) and interleukin (IL)-17 (p=0.03) and negatively associated with IL-5 (p=0.0007) in seminal plasma. In addition to blood HIV-1 RNA level, cytokine profiles in the male genital tract are associated with HIV-1 RNA levels in semen. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines IFN-γ and IL-17 are associated with increased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA, while the Th2 cytokine IL-5 is associated with decreased seminal plasma HIV-1 RNA. These results support the importance of genital tract immunomodulation in HIV-1 transmission. PMID:25209674

  7. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  8. Hydrodynamic fluctuations from a weakly coupled scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, G.; Laine, M.

    2018-04-01

    Studies of non-equilibrium dynamics of first-order cosmological phase transitions may involve a scalar field interacting weakly with the energy-momentum tensor of a thermal plasma. At late times, when the scalar field is approaching equilibrium, it experiences both damping and thermal fluctuations. We show that thermal fluctuations induce a shear viscosity and a gravitational wave production rate, and propose that including this tunable contribution may help in calibrating the measurement of the gravitational wave production rate in hydrodynamic simulations. Furthermore it may enrich their physical scope, permitting in particular for a study of the instability of growing bubbles.

  9. Salinity effects on plasma ion levels, cortisol, and osmolality in Chinook salmon following lethal sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Heather A; Noakes, David L G; Cogliati, Karen M; Peterson, James T; Iversen, Martin H; Schreck, Carl B

    2016-02-01

    Studies on hydromineral balance in fishes frequently employ measurements of electrolytes following euthanasia. We tested the effects of fresh- or salt-water euthanasia baths of tricaine mesylate (MS-222) on plasma magnesium (Mg(2+)) and sodium (Na(+)) ions, cortisol and osmolality in fish exposed to saltwater challenges, and the ion and steroid hormone fluctuations over time following euthanasia in juvenile spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha). Salinity of the euthanasia bath affected plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) concentrations as well as osmolality, with higher concentrations in fish euthanized in saltwater. Time spent in the bath positively affected plasma Mg(2+) and osmolality, negatively affected cortisol, and had no effect on Na(+) concentrations. The difference of temporal trends in plasma Mg(2+) and Na(+) suggests that Mg(2+) may be more sensitive to physiological changes and responds more rapidly than Na(+). When electrolytes and cortisol are measured as endpoints after euthanasia, care needs to be taken relative to time after death and the salinity of the euthanasia bath. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alfvénic fluctuations in "newborn"' polar solar wind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bavassano

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The 3-D structure of the solar wind is strongly dependent upon the Sun's activity cycle. At low solar activity a bimodal structure is dominant, with a fast and uniform flow at the high latitudes, and slow and variable flows at low latitudes. Around solar maximum, in sharp contrast, variable flows are observed at all latitudes. This last kind of pattern, however, is a relatively short-lived feature, and quite soon after solar maximum the polar wind tends to regain its role. The plasma parameter distributions for these newborn polar flows appear very similar to those typically observed in polar wind at low solar activity. The point addressed here is about polar wind fluctuations. As is well known, the low-solar-activity polar wind is characterized by a strong flow of Alfvénic fluctuations. Does this hold for the new polar flows too? An answer to this question is given here through a comparative statistical analysis on parameters such as total energy, cross helicity, and residual energy, that are of general use to describe the Alfvénic character of fluctuations. Our results indicate that the main features of the Alfvénic fluctuations observed in low-solar-activity polar wind have been quickly recovered in the new polar flows developed shortly after solar maximum. Keywords. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence; Sources of the solar wind – Space plasma physics (Turbulence

  11. Mathematical Model of Plasma Space for Electronic Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    N.N. Chernyshov; K.T. Umyarov; D.V. Pisarenko

    2014-01-01

    The paper is devoted to studying the plasma used in technologies of the electronic industry. It gives the characteristic of plasma space on the basis of a system of Maxwell-Boltzmann equa-tions. Solving these equations is represented in the form of Fourier transformation and Green functions. Fluctuation-dissipative theorem and method of Longevin sources for calculating electric filed fluctua-tions are used.

  12. Stochastic growth of localized plasma waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.A.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2001-01-01

    Localized bursty plasma waves are detected by spacecraft in many space plasmas. The large spatiotemporal scales involved imply that beam and other instabilities relax to marginal stability and that mean wave energies are low. Stochastic wave growth occurs when ambient fluctuations perturb the system, causing fluctuations about marginal stability. This yields regions where growth is enhanced and others where damping is increased; bursts are associated with enhanced growth and can occur even when the mean growth rate is negative. In stochastic growth, energy loss from the source is suppressed relative to secular growth, preserving it far longer than otherwise possible. Linear stochastic growth can operate at wave levels below thresholds of nonlinear wave-clumping mechanisms such as strong-turbulence modulational instability and is not subject to their coherence and wavelength limits. These mechanisms can be distinguished by statistics of the fields, whose strengths are lognormally distributed if stochastically growing and power-law distributed in strong turbulence. Recent applications of stochastic growth theory (SGT) are described, involving bursty plasma waves and unstable particle distributions in type III solar radio sources, the Earth's foreshock, magnetosheath, and polar cap regions. It is shown that when combined with wave-wave processes, SGT also accounts for associated radio emissions

  13. Measurement of operative plasma endotoxin levels in jaundiced and non-jaundiced patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pain, J A; Bailey, M E

    1987-01-01

    A study of portal plasma endotoxin levels was performed using a chromogenic limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. The assay proved sensitive and reproducible. In only 1 of 25 healthy subjects was the systemic plasma endotoxin level above 100 pg/ml (equivalent Escherichia coli 0111B4). In 30 non-jaundiced patients undergoing surgery the mean (+SEM) portal plasma endotoxin level (60 + 9 pg/ml) was significantly higher (p less than 0.05) than the mean level in the systemic blood (46 + 6 pg/ml), supporting the concept of endotoxin absorption from the intestine into the portal blood. In 20 patients with obstructive jaundice undergoing surgery 42% of portal, 45% of inferior mesenteric and 35% of systemic venous plasma endotoxin levels were above 100 pg/ml. There were significantly higher levels in the portal (p less than 0.05) and inferior mesenteric (p less than 0.05) compared with the systemic blood. Neither the presence of malignancy nor the duration of surgery appeared to influence endotoxin absorption. The significance of raised plasma endotoxin levels in obstructive jaundice is discussed.

  14. A tangential CO{sub 2} laser collective scattering system for measuring short-scale turbulent fluctuations in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, G.M., E-mail: gmcao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Y.D. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China); Li, Q. [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhang, X.D.; Sun, P.J.; Wu, G.J.; Hu, L.Q. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, PO Box 1126, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • A tangential CO{sub 2} laser collective scattering system was first installed on EAST. • It can measure the short-scale fluctuations in different regions simultaneously. • It can study the broadband fluctuations, QC fluctuations, MHD phenomenon, etc. - Abstract: A tangential CO{sub 2} laser collective scattering system has been first installed on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) to measure short-scale turbulent fluctuations in EAST plasmas. The system can measure fluctuations with up to four distinct wavenumbers simultaneously ranging from 10 cm{sup −1} to 26 cm{sup −1}, and correspondingly k{sub ⊥}ρ{sub s}∼1.5−4.3. The system is designed based on the oblique propagation of the probe beam with respect to the magnetic field, and thus the enhanced spatial localization can be achieved by taking full advantage of turbulence anisotropy and magnetic field inhomogeneity. The simultaneous measurements of turbulent fluctuations in different regions can be taken by special optical setup. Initial measurements indicate rich short-scale turbulent dynamics in both core and outer regions of EAST plasmas. The system will be a powerful tool for investigating the features of short-scale turbulent fluctuations in EAST plasmas.

  15. Immunoglobulin G levels during collection of large volume plasma for fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhardt, Thomas; Rothe, Remo; Moog, Rainer

    2017-06-01

    There is a need of comprehensive work dealing with the quality of plasma for fractionation with respect to the IgG content as today most plasma derivates are used to treat patients with immunodeficiencies and autoimmune disorders. Therefore, a prospective study was carried out to analyse IgG levels before plasmapheresis and every 200ml collected plasma. Fifty-four experienced plasmapheresis donors were recruited for subsequent 850ml plasmapheresis using the Aurora Plasmapheresis System. Donorś peripheral blood counts were analysed before and after plasmapheresis using an electronic counter. Total protein, IgG and citrate were measured turbidometrically before, during and after apheresis as well as in the plasma product. Furthermore, platelets, red and white blood cells were analysed as parameters of product quality. An average of 2751±247ml blood was processed in 47±6min. The collected plasma volume was 850±1mL and citrate consumption was 177±15mL. A continuous drop of donors' IgG level was observed during plasmapheresis. The drop was 13% of the IgG baseline value at 800mL collected plasma. Total protein, IgG and cell counts of the plasma product met current guidelines of plasma for fractionation. Donors' IgG levels during apheresis showed a steady decrease without compromising the quality of plasma product. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Middle-Holocene sea-level fluctuations interrupted the developing Hemudu culture in the lower Yangtze River, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Keyang; Lu, Houyuan; Zheng, Yunfei; Zhang, Jianping; Xu, Deke; Huan, Xiujia; Wang, Jiehua; Lei, Shao

    2018-05-01

    The eastern coastal zone of China is densely populated and widely recognized as a center of rice domestication, which has undergone dramatic sea-level fluctuation during the Holocene epoch. Hemudu culture is distributed mainly in the eastern coastal area and was once presumed as a mature agricultural economy based on rice, making it an ideal case for examining the remarkable human-environment interaction in the Lower Yangtze River. Though numerous studies have been conducted on the cultural evolution, ecological environment, and rice domestication of Hemudu culture, the impact of sea-level fluctuation on human settlement and food production remains controversial. In this study, we report high-resolution pollen, phytolith, and diatom records, and accurately measured elevation from the Yushan site, which is the closest site of Hemudu culture to the modern coastline. Based on the data gathered, we suggest that the Hemudu culture and subsequent Liangzhu culture developed in the context of regression and were interrupted by two transgressions that occurred during 6300-5600 BP and 5000-4500 BP. The regional ecological environment of the Yushan site alternated between intertidal mudflat and freshwater wetlands induced by sea-level fluctuations in the mid-late Holocene. Though rice was cultivated in the wetland as early as 6700 BP, this cultivation was subsequently discontinued due to the transgression; thus, full domestication of rice did not occur until 5600 BP in this region. Comprehensive analysis of multiple proxies in this study promote the understanding of the relationship between environmental evolution, cultural interruption, and rice domestication.

  17. Impact of neutral density fluctuations on gas puff imaging diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wersal, C.; Ricci, P.

    2017-11-01

    A three-dimensional turbulence simulation of the SOL and edge regions of a toroidally limited tokamak is carried out. The simulation couples self-consistently the drift-reduced two-fluid Braginskii equations to a kinetic equation for neutral atoms. A diagnostic neutral gas puff on the low-field side midplane is included and the impact of neutral density fluctuations on D_α light emission investigated. We find that neutral density fluctuations affect the D_α emission. In particular, at a radial distance from the gas puff smaller than the neutral mean free path, neutral density fluctuations are anti-correlated with plasma density, electron temperature, and D_α fluctuations. It follows that the neutral fluctuations reduce the D_α emission in most of the observed region and, therefore, have to be taken into account when interpreting the amplitude of the D_α emission. On the other hand, higher order statistical moments (skewness, kurtosis) and turbulence characteristics (such as correlation length, or the autocorrelation time) are not significantly affected by the neutral fluctuations. At distances from the gas puff larger than the neutral mean free path, a non-local shadowing effect influences the neutral density fluctuations. There, the D_α fluctuations are correlated with the neutral density fluctuations, and the high-order statistical moments and measurements of other turbulence properties are strongly affected by the neutral density fluctuations.

  18. Generalized Cauchy model of sea level fluctuations with long-range dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Li, Jia-Yue

    2017-10-01

    This article suggests the contributions with two highlights. One is to propose a novel model of sea level fluctuations (sea level for short), which is called the generalized Cauchy (GC) process. It provides a new outlook for the description of local and global behaviors of sea level from a view of fractal in that the fractal dimension D that measures the local behavior of sea level and the Hurst parameter H which characterizes the global behavior of sea level are independent of each other. The other is to show that sea level appears multi-fractal in both spatial and time. Such a meaning of multi-fractal is new in the sense that a pair of fractal parameters (D, H) of sea level is varying with measurement sites and time. This research exhibits that the ranges of D and H of sea level, in general, are 1 ≤ D sea level, we shall show that H > 0 . 96 for all data records at all measurement sites, implying that strong LRD may be a general phenomenon of sea level. On the other side, regarding with the local behavior, we will reveal that there appears D = 1 or D ≈ 1 for data records at a few stations and at some time, but D > 0 . 96 at most stations and at most time, meaning that sea level may appear highly local irregularity more frequently than weak local one.

  19. Decreased plasma levels of the endothelial protective sphingosine-1-phosphate are associated with dengue-induced plasma leakage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michels, M.; Japtok, L.; Alisjahbana, B.; Wisaksana, R.; Sumardi, U.; Puspita, M.; Kleuser, B.; Mast, Q. de; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A transient endothelial hyperpermeability is a hallmark of severe dengue infections. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) maintains vascular integrity and protects against plasma leakage. We related plasma S1P levels to dengue-induced plasma leakage and studied mechanisms that may underlie the

  20. Plasma klotho levels decrease in both anorexia nervosa and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitani, Marie; Asakawa, Akihiro; Amitani, Haruka; Kaimoto, Kaori; Sameshima, Nanami; Koyama, Ken Ichiro; Haruta, Izumi; Tsai, Minglun; Nakahara, Toshihiro; Ushikai, Miharu; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Hamada, Satoshi; Inui, Akio

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the associations of klotho with body mass index (BMI) in patients with restricting-type anorexia nervosa (r-AN) and obesity. We examined plasma klotho as well as adiponectin and its isoform levels in comparison in 11 obese patients, 12 r-AN patients, and 11 control participants. Plasma klotho levels were markedly lower in the obesity and r-AN groups than in the control group. Moreover, plasma klotho levels increased significantly after the recovery of BMI in r-AN patients. Total and high-molecular-weight adiponectin levels were significantly decreased only in obesity. There was no relationship between klotho and total adiponectin levels or klotho and respective adiponectin isoform levels in the entire study population. These results suggest that klotho may reflect normal nutritional state, and that the decrease of klotho in r-AN and obesity may underlie the deteriorating processes of these disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Plasma levels of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides in patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hegbrant, J.; Thysell, H.; Ekmann, R.

    1991-01-01

    The fasting plasma levels of nine gastrointestinal regulatory peptides were measured by radioimmunoassay in 13 stable patients with chronic renal failure, receiving hemodialysis treatment regularly and compared with those of ten healthy controls. The plasma concentrations of gastrin-releasing peptide, motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, somatostatin, substance P, and vasoactive intestinal peptide were increased. The plasma level of gastrin was not statistically different from that of the control (p=0.077). It is concluded that patients with chronic renal failure, receiving hemodialysis treatment regularly, have increased concentrations of eight of nine measured gastrointestinal regulatory peptides. The elevated levels of gastrointestinal peptides in patients with chronic renal failure may contribute to uremic gastrointestinal symptoms and dysfunctions. It is necessary to make a renal function evaluation before interpreting measured plasma levels of gastrointestinal regulatory peptides. 62 refs., 2 tabs

  2. Clinical value of plasma endothelin levels in children with cardiovascular diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Nianfa; Duan Yongqiang

    2009-01-01

    To explore the clinical value of plasma endothelin (ET-1) levels in children with cardiovascular diseases, 77 children with heart failure, obesity, hyperlipemia, fatty liver and hypertension were divided into 5 experimental groups and 21 health children with same age and gender as control group. The plasma levels of ET-1 in these children were tested by RIA. The results showed that plasma levels of ET-1 in 5 experimental groups were 112.8 ± 34.1ng/L, 57.8 ± 19.1ng/L,64.5 ± 25.3ng/L, 74.9 ± 28.4ng/L and 60.7 ± 21.6ng/L, respectively. The ET-1 levels in 5 groups were significantly higher than that in control group (P<0.01). The results indicate the higher plasma ET-1 levels in children are related with cardiovascular diseases, and it is useful in the diagnosis of children cardiovascular diseases. (authors)

  3. Propagation of the lower hybrid wave in a density fluctuating scrape-off layer (SOL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madi, M; Peysson, Y; Decker, J; Kabalan, K Y

    2015-01-01

    The perturbation of the lower hybrid wave (LH) power spectrum by fluctuations of the plasma in the vicinity of the antenna is investigated by solving the full wave equation in a slab geometry using COMSOL Multiphysics®. The numerical model whose generality allows to study the effect of various types of fluctuations, including those with short characteristic wavelengths is validated against a coupling code in quiescent regimes. When electron density fluctuations along the toroidal direction are incorporated in the dielectric tensor over a thin perturbed layer in front of the grill, the power spectrum may be strongly modified from the antenna mouth to the plasma separatrix as the LH wave propagates. The diffraction effect by density fluctuations leads to the appearance of multiple satellite lobes with randomly varying positions and the averaged perturbation is found to be maximum for the Fourier components of the fluctuating spectrum in the vicinity of the launched LH wavelength. This highlights that fast toroidal inhomogeneities with short characteristics length scales in front of the grill may change significantly the initial LH power spectrum used in coupled ray-tracing and Fokker–Planck calculations. (paper)

  4. Reflectometry observations of density fluctuations in Wendelstein VII-AS stellarator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, J.; Hartfuss, H.J.; Anabitarte, E.; Navarro, A.P.

    1991-01-01

    In the almost shearless stellarator Wendelstein VII-AS strong correlation between the confinement properties and the rotational transform iota has been found. Reduced confinement was observed for the low order rational values 1/2 and 1/3. In their vicinity best confinement is observed. In general optimum confinement is obtained in the low shear configuration if the 'resonant' iota values can be excluded from the plasma column. The iota profile inside the plasma is affected by toroidal currents and beta effects. Although the global net current can be kept at zero level using a small OH induced current opposed to the gradient driven bootstrap current, the different currents flow at different radial positions affecting the iota profile. Tools for configuration control inside the plasma are besides OH current vertical fields and the currents driven by the NBI and most promising the ECH heating systems. In this context experimental information on the iota profile is highly needed. The localization of rational surfaces by reflectometry seems possible. Radially resolved density fluctuation measurements have been carried out by means of a simple microwave reflectometry system. The method is based on the reflection of microwave radiation in the millimeter range at the plasma cutoff layer. (orig./AH)

  5. Predicting the Water Level Fluctuation in an Alpine Lake Using Physically Based, Artificial Neural Network, and Time Series Forecasting Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chieh Young

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accurate prediction of water level fluctuation is important in lake management due to its significant impacts in various aspects. This study utilizes four model approaches to predict water levels in the Yuan-Yang Lake (YYL in Taiwan: a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model, an artificial neural network (ANN model (back propagation neural network, BPNN, a time series forecasting (autoregressive moving average with exogenous inputs, ARMAX model, and a combined hydrodynamic and ANN model. Particularly, the black-box ANN model and physically based hydrodynamic model are coupled to more accurately predict water level fluctuation. Hourly water level data (a total of 7296 observations was collected for model calibration (training and validation. Three statistical indicators (mean absolute error, root mean square error, and coefficient of correlation were adopted to evaluate model performances. Overall, the results demonstrate that the hydrodynamic model can satisfactorily predict hourly water level changes during the calibration stage but not for the validation stage. The ANN and ARMAX models better predict the water level than the hydrodynamic model does. Meanwhile, the results from an ANN model are superior to those by the ARMAX model in both training and validation phases. The novel proposed concept using a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model in conjunction with an ANN model has clearly shown the improved prediction accuracy for the water level fluctuation.

  6. Plasma progesterone levels in progesterone treated cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosskopf, J.F.W.; Van Niekerk, C.H.; Morgenthal, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for the radioimmunoassay of progesterone in plasma is described. In one trial the oestrous cycles of four cycling cows and in another trial of one non-cycling cow and two cycling heifers were synchronized by the administration of progesterone. Each female received either 50 mg or 0,1 mg/kg of progesterone intramuscularly on alternate days in two courses of four and six injections respectively. Blood samples of the animals were collected either daily or two-daily before, over the entire period of treatment and for eight days after the last progesterone injection. The results of the progesterone assays are represented graphically for each individual cow or heifer. The plasma progesterone levels during treatment were maintained reasonably well at levels corresponding to those normally encountered during the luteal phase of the cycle. The progesterone levels, however, did not drop as rapidly as desired after the last injection but might have been influenced by a residual corpus luteum from a previous ovulation

  7. Statistical theory and transition in multiple-scale-lengths turbulence in plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, Sanae-I. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    The statistical theory of strong turbulence in inhomogeneous plasmas is developed for the cases where fluctuations with different scale-lengths coexist. Nonlinear interactions in the same kind of fluctuations as well as nonlinear interplay between different classes of fluctuations are kept in the analysis. Nonlinear interactions are modelled as turbulent drag, nonlinear noise and nonlinear drive, and a set of Langevin equations is formulated. With the help of an Ansatz of a large number of degrees of freedom with positive Lyapunov number, Langevin equations are solved and the fluctuation dissipation theorem in the presence of strong plasma turbulence has been derived. A case where two driving mechanisms (one for micro mode and the other for semi-micro mode) coexist is investigated. It is found that there are several states of fluctuations: in one state, the micro mode is excited and the semi-micro mode is quenched; in the other state, the semi-micro mode is excited, and the micro mode remains at finite but suppressed level. New type of turbulence transition is obtained, and a cusp type catastrophe is revealed. A phase diagram is drawn for turbulence which is composed of multiple classes of fluctuations. Influence of the inhomogeneous global radial electric field is discussed. A new insight is given for the physics of internal transport barrier. Finally, the nonlocal heat transport due to the long-wave-length fluctuations, which are noise-pumped by shorter-wave-length ones, is analyzed and the impact on transient transport problems is discussed. (author)

  8. Plasma transport in the Scrape-off-Layer of magnetically confined plasma and the plasma exhaust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jens Juul; Naulin, Volker; Nielsen, Anders Henry

    An overview of the plasma dynamics in the Scrape-off-Layer (SOL) of magnetically confined plasma is presented. The SOL is the exhaust channel of the warm plasma from the core, and the understanding of the SOL plasma dynamics is one of the key issues in contemporary fusion research. It is essential...... for operation of fusion experiments and ultimately fusion power plants. Recent results clearly demonstrate that the plasma transport through the SOL is dominated by turbulent intermittent fluctuations organized into filamentary structures convecting particles, energy, and momentum through the SOL region. Thus......, the transport cannot be described and parametrized by simple diffusive type models. The transport leads to strong localized power loads on the first wall and the plasma facing components, which have serious lasting influence....

  9. Measurement of magnetic fluctuations at small spatial scales in the Tokapole II tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haines, E.J.

    1991-08-01

    This thesis is a presentation of the measurements of short-wavelength, high-frequency radial magnetic fluctuations performed on the Tokapole 2 tokamak at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Theories of electron temperature gradient (η e ) driven turbulence predict the existence of increased magnetic fluctuation power at small spatial scales near the collisionless skin depth c/ω pe and over a wide range of frequencies near and below the electron diamagnetic drift frequency ω* ne . Small magnetic probes of sizes down to 1 m m have been constructed and used to resolve short poloidal and radial wavelength magnetic fluctuations. These probes have been used with larger probes to make comparisons of fluctuation spectra measured in various ranges of wavelength and over the range of frequencies from 10 kHz to 6 MHz in Tokapole 2 plasmas. A calculation of the short-wavelength, high-frequency response of an electrostatically shielded model B r probe has been performed to guide the interpretation of the power comparison measurements. Comparisons of magnetic fluctuation spectra at various positions within the plasma, and for discharges with edge safety factor 1, 2, and 3 are presented. The linear and nonlinear theories and numerical simulations of η e turbulence are reviewed and compared, where possible with the experimental parameters and results

  10. Analysis of the flow structure of a turbulent thermal plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spores, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The goal of this research project is to attain a better understanding of the fluid mechanics associated with the high temperature jet of a thermal plasma torch. The analysis of a plasma, which has the ability to vaporize anything placed inside it without proper cooling, presents a unique research challenge. Several types of non-intrusive diagnostic techniques has been used to examine the jet from different perspectives. To actually map out the mean gas velocities and turbulence intensities throughout the jet, laser Doppler anemometry has been employed. The plasma gas and entrained air him been seeded separately in order to conditionally sample the two fluids and attain information about the gas mixing process. Both radial and axial turbulence levels have been measured in order to analyze the non-isotropic nature of the jet. A parabolic numerical code has been modified and compared with the obtained experimental results. A new diagnostic technique for plasma torches, which involves the spectral analysis of voltage, optical (temperature), and acoustical (pressure) fluctuations, has been implemented. The acoustical spectrum can provide information about the existence of coherent structures in the flow while the cross correlation of the acoustical signal with the voltage fluctuations can tell one to what extent perturbations of the internal arc affect the external flow. Since temperature is a scalar that is dependent on the flow field, observing temperature fluctuations can likewise help one to understand the mechanics of the flow. Flow visualization of the plasma jet using a high speed video camera has also been undertaken in order to better understand the entrainment process

  11. Validation study of a drift-wave turbulence model for CSDX linear plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezi, P.; Holland, C.; Thakur, S. C.; Tynan, G. R.

    2017-09-01

    A validation study of self-regulating drift-wave turbulence/zonal flow dynamics in the Controlled Shear Decorrelation Experiment linear plasma device using Langmuir probe synthetic diagnostics is presented in this paper. We use a set of nonlocal 3D equations, which evolve density, vorticity, and electron temperature fluctuations, and include proper sheath boundary conditions. Nonlinear simulations of these equations are carried out using BOUndary Turbulence (BOUT++) framework. To identify the dominant parametric dependencies of the model, a linear growth rate sensitivity analysis is performed using input parameter uncertainties, which are taken from the experimental measurements. For the direct comparison of nonlinear simulation results to experiment, we use synthetic Langmuir probe diagnostics to generate a set of synthetic ion saturation current and floating potential fluctuations. In addition, comparisons of azimuthal velocities determined via time-delay estimation, and nonlinear energy transfer are shown. We observe a significant improvement of model-experiment agreement relative to the previous 2D simulations. An essential component of this improved agreement is found to be the effect of electron temperature fluctuations on floating potential measurements, which introduces clear amplitude and phase shifts relative to the plasma potential fluctuations in synthetically measured quantities, where the simulations capture the experimental measurements in the core of plasma. However, the simulations overpredict the fluctuation levels at larger radii. Moreover, systematic simulation scans show that the self-generated E × B zonal flows profile is very sensitive to the steepening of density equilibrium profile. This suggests that evolving both fluctuations and equilibrium profiles, along with the inclusion of modest axial variation of radial profiles in the model are needed for further improvement of simulation results against the experimental measurements.

  12. Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Leclert, G.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal. (authors)

  13. Plasma turbulence measured by fast sweep reflectometry on Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clairet, F.; Vermare, L.; Heuraux, S.; Leclert, G.

    2004-01-01

    Traditionally devoted to electron density profile measurement we show that fast frequency sweeping reflectometry technique can bring valuable and innovative measurements onto plasma turbulence. While fast frequency sweeping technique is traditionally devoted to electron density radial profile measurements we show in this paper how we can handle the fluctuations of the reflected signal to recover plasma density fluctuation measurements with a high spatial and temporal resolution. Large size turbulence related to magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) activity and the associated magnetic islands can be detected. The radial profile of the micro-turbulence, which is responsible for plasma anomalous transport processes, is experimentally determined through the fluctuation of the reflected phase signal

  14. Universal Probability Distribution Function for Bursty Transport in Plasma Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandberg, I.; Benkadda, S.; Garbet, X.; Ropokis, G.; Hizanidis, K.; Castillo-Negrete, D. del

    2009-01-01

    Bursty transport phenomena associated with convective motion present universal statistical characteristics among different physical systems. In this Letter, a stochastic univariate model and the associated probability distribution function for the description of bursty transport in plasma turbulence is presented. The proposed stochastic process recovers the universal distribution of density fluctuations observed in plasma edge of several magnetic confinement devices and the remarkable scaling between their skewness S and kurtosis K. Similar statistical characteristics of variabilities have been also observed in other physical systems that are characterized by convection such as the x-ray fluctuations emitted by the Cygnus X-1 accretion disc plasmas and the sea surface temperature fluctuations.

  15. Plasma Folate and Vitamin B12 Levels in Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lian-Hua Cui

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Folate and vitamin B12 involved in the one-carbon metabolism may play a key role in carcinogenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC through influencing DNA integrity. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the association of plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels with HCC in a case-control study on 312 HCC patients and 325 cancer-free controls. Plasma concentrations of folate and vitamin B12 in all the subjects were measured by electrochemiluminescence immunoassay. Meanwhile, the information of HCC patients’ clinical characteristics including tumor-node-metastasis (TNM stage, tumor size and tumor markers were collected. The patients of HCC had significantly lower folate levels than those of controls; there was no significant difference in the mean of plasma vitamin B12 levels. We also observed an inverse association between the levels of plasma folate and HCC: the adjusted odds ratios (OR (95% confidence intervals (CI of HCC from the highest to lowest quartile of folate were 0.30 (0.15–0.60, 0.33 (0.17–0.65, and 0.19 (0.09–0.38. Compared to the subjects in the lowest quartile of plasma vitamin B12, only the subjects in the highest quartile of vitamin B12 exhibited a significant positive relationship with HCC, the adjusted OR was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.02–3.98. HCC patients with Stage III and IV or bigger tumor size had lower folate and higher vitamin B12 levels. There was no significant difference in the mean plasma folate levels of the HCC cases in tumor markers status (AFP, CEA and CA19-9 levels, whereas patients with higher CEA or CA19-9 levels retained significantly more plasma vitamin B12 than those with normal-CEA or CA19-9 level. In conclusion, plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels could be associated with HCC, and might be used as predictors of clinical characteristics of HCC patients. However, further prospective studies are essential to confirm the observed results.

  16. Collective scattering of electromagnetic waves from a relativistic magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Quankang

    1998-01-01

    Recently, laser and microwave scattering has become one of the important diagnostic means for plasma. Laser and microwave correlative scattering spectrum is determined by particle-density fluctuations in a weak turbulent plasma. In a relativistic plasma, on the basis of complete electromagnetic-interaction between particles, a general expression for particle density fluctuations and spectrums of laser and microwave scattering from a magnetized plasma are derived. The laser and microwave scattering spectrums provide informations on electron density and temperature, ion temperature, resonance and nonresonance effects. (author)

  17. Enhanced confinement with plasma biasing in the MST reversed field pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, D.; Almagri, A.F.; Anderson, J.K.

    1997-06-01

    We report an increase in particle confinement with plasma biasing in a reversed field pinch. Miniature plasma sources are used as electrodes to negatively bias the plasma at the edge (r/a ∼ 0.9). Particle content increases and H α radiation decreases upon application of bias and global particle confinement roughly doubles as a result. Measurements of plasma potential, impurity flow, and floating potential fluctuations indicate that strong flows are produced and that electrostatic fluctuations are reduced

  18. Experimental study of turbulence on Tore Supra by plasma micro-waves interaction; Etude experimentale de la turbulence sur Tore Supra par interaction plasma micro-ondes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colas, L

    1996-09-23

    Internal small-scale magnetic turbulence is a serious candidate to explain the anomalous heat transport in tokamaks. This turbulence is badly known in the gradient region of large machines. In this work internal magnetic fluctuations are measured on Tore Supra with an original diagnostic : Cross Polarization Scattering (CPS). This experimental tool relies on the Eigenmode change of a probing polarised microwave beam scattered by magnetic fluctuations, close to a cut-off layer for the incident wave. In this work, the diagnostic is first qualified to assess its sensitivity to magnetic fluctuations, and the spatial localisation for its measurements. The magnetic fluctuation behaviour is then analysed over a wide range of plasma current, density and additional power, and interpreted with a simple 1-D scattering model. A scan of the plasma density or magnetic field is used to move the CPS measurement location from r/a = 0.3 to r/a = 0.75. A fluctuation radial profile is obtained by two means. In L-mode discharges, the relation between magnetic fluctuations, temperature profiles and local heat diffusivities is investigated. With all measurements, it is also possible to look for a local parameter correlated to the turbulence in a large domain of plasma conditions. The fluctuation-induced local heat diffusivity expected from the measured fluctuations is estimated using the non-collisional quasi-linear formula: X{sup mag}{sub e} = {pi}qRV{sub te}({delta}B / B){sup 2}. Both the absolute values and the parametric dependence of calculated X{sup mag}{sub e} are close to the electron thermal diffusivities Xe determined by transport analysis. In particular, a threshold is evidenced in the dependence of fluctuation-induced heat fluxes on local {nabla}T{sub e}, which is analogous to the critical gradient for measured heat fluxes. The experimental setup is also sensitive to the Thomson scattering of the probing wave by density fluctuations. Its measurements are analysed as the

  19. Development of an integrated data acquisition and handling system based on digital time series analysis for the measurement of plasma fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghayspoor, R.; Roth, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    The nonlinear characteristics of data obtained by many plasma diagnostic systems requires the power of modern computers for on-line data processing and reduction. The objective of this work is to develop an integrated data acquisition and handling system based on digital time series analysis techniques. These techniques make it possible to investigate the nature of plasma fluctuations and the physical processes which give rise to them. The approach is to digitize the data, and to generate various spectra by means of Fast Fourier Transforms (FFT). Of particular interest is the computer generated auto-power spectrum, cross-power spectrum, phase spectrum, and squared coherency spectrum. Software programs based on those developed by Jae. Y. Hong at the University of Texas are utilized for these spectra. The LeCroy 3500-SA signal analyzer and VAX 11/780 are used as the data handling and reduction system in this work. In this report, the software required to link these two systems are described

  20. Interaction of heavy ion beams with a hydrogen plasma: plasma lens effect and stopping power enhancement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gardes, D.; Bimbot, R.; Della-Negra, S.; Dumail, M.; Kubica, B.; Richard, A.; Rivet, M.F.; Servajean, A.; Deutsch, C.; Maynard, G.

    1988-01-01

    By coupling a hydrogen plasma to a Tandem accelerator, transmission and energy losses of 2 MeV/u carbon and sulfur beams passing through a plasma target have been investigated. Fluctuations in beam transmission have been observed and attributed to a plasma lens effect. Moreover, energy loss measurements indicate an enhanced stopping power of the plasma relative to its cold matter equivalent

  1. ON THE NATURE OF X-RAY SURFACE BRIGHTNESS FLUCTUATIONS IN M87

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arévalo, P. [Instituto de Física y Astronomía, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Valparaíso, Gran Bretana N 1111, Playa Ancha, Valparaíso (Chile); Churazov, E. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Zhuravleva, I. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Forman, W. R.; Jones, C. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    X-ray images of galaxy clusters and gas-rich elliptical galaxies show a wealth of small-scale features that reflect fluctuations in density and/or temperature of the intracluster medium. In this paper we study these fluctuations in M87/Virgo to establish whether sound waves/shocks, bubbles, or uplifted cold gas dominate the structure. We exploit the strong dependence of the emissivity on density and temperature in different energy bands to distinguish between these processes. Using simulations we demonstrate that our analysis recovers the leading type of fluctuation even in the presence of projection effects and temperature gradients. We confirm the isobaric nature of cool filaments of gas entrained by buoyantly rising bubbles, extending to 7′ to the east and southwest, and the adiabatic nature of the weak shocks at 40″ and 3′ from the center. For features of ∼5–10 kpc, we show that the central 4′ × 4′ region is dominated by cool structures in pressure equilibrium with the ambient hotter gas while up to 30% of the variance in this region can be ascribed to adiabatic fluctuations. The remaining part of the central 14′ × 14′ region, excluding the arms and shocks described above, is dominated by apparently isothermal fluctuations (bubbles) with a possible admixture (at the level of ∼30%) of adiabatic (sound waves) and by isobaric structures. Larger features, of about 30 kpc, show a stronger contribution from isobaric fluctuations. The results broadly agree with a model based on feedback from an active galactic nucleus mediated by bubbles of relativistic plasma.

  2. Plasma Orexin-A Levels in COPD Patients with Hypercapnic Respiratory Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Yun Zhu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Orexins have previously been shown to promote wakefulness, regulate lipid metabolism and participate in energy homeostasis. The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between plasma orexin-A and body composition in COPD in-patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure. 40 patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure and 22 healthy individuals were enrolled prospectively in this study. Plasma orexin-A levels, BMI, SaO2, PaCO2 and PaO2 were noted for all the patients. Plasma orexin-A levels were higher in the underweight (UW group, normal weight (NW group and overweight (OW group of COPD patients as compared with UW, NW and OW group of the control group (P<.05. Plasma orexin-A in COPD patients were higher in the OW group than in the NW group and the UW group. Plasma orexin-A levels showed significant correlation with body mass index (BMI, independent of PaO2 (r=0.576; P<.05 and %fat (r=0.367; P<.05; a negative correlation was noted between plasma orexin-A levels and PaO2 (r=−0.738; P<.05 and SaO2 (r=−0.616; P<.05. Our results suggest that orexin-A levels are high in COPD patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure, and vary according to BMI and body composition. Orexin-A may be associated with the severity of hypoxemia in COPD patients with hypercapnic respiratory failure.

  3. Temperature, density and potential fluctuations by a swept Langmuir probe in Wendelstein 7-AS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giannone, L.; Niedermeyer, H; Endler, M; Theimer, G; Rudyj, A; Verplancke, Ph [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany); Balbin, R; Hidalgo, C [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain)

    1994-12-31

    Numerous experiments using a Langmuir probe to investigate the magnitude of temperature fluctuations and their contribution to heat transport in the edge region of tokamak plasmas have been carried out. Sweeping the voltage applied to a tip fast enough to ensure that the ion saturation current, floating potential and electron temperature may be assumed to be constant during the sweep is experimentally more difficult than alternative schemes but this disadvantage is compensated by the ability to measure all three of these quantities at one spatial location. Sweep frequencies up to 600 kHz have been employed to obtain the current-voltage characteristic. A radial scan in the vicinity of the velocity shear layer on W7-AS stellarator was performed. Inside and outside the shear layer the normalised magnitude of the temperature fluctuations was found to be approximately 30% larger than the magnitude of the electron density fluctuations, approaching a value of 0.12 and 0.09 respectively at a radial position 1 cm inside the shear layer. An increase in the coherency of the temperature, floating potential and density fluctuations between tips with a poloidal separation of 2 mm was also measured as the shear layer was crossed. Heat conduction produced by correlated temperature and poloidal electric field fluctuations is therefore possible. An increasing coherence of temperature and floating potential fluctuations leads to an increase in the coherence of temperature and plasma potential fluctuations as the shear layer was crossed. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs.

  4. L-carnitine plasma levels in dogs and cats. A diagnostic parameter?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.

    1993-04-01

    The relation between levels of carnitine in plasma and lesions of organs should be demonstrated. 52 dogs and 58 cats examined in veterinary clinics for several reasons and routinely screened for blood chemistry also were analysed for free plasma carnitine by a radiocarbon method. Increased carnitine levels were observed in both species in case of heart, liver and kidney disorders. Additionally the influence of food intake on carnitine levels in dogs was studied. Postprandial changes were insignificant. Because of lack of information about carnitine levels in cats and changes with age plasma carnitine was determined in cats and kittens. The range of normal values was 8.2 to 24.2 μmol/l without any significance of age

  5. Normal fasting plasma glucose levels and type 2 diabetes in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirosh, Amir; Shai, Iris; Tekes-Manova, Dorit; Israeli, Eran; Pereg, David; Shochat, Tzippora; Kochba, Ilan; Rudich, Assaf

    2005-10-06

    The normal fasting plasma glucose level was recently defined as less than 100 mg per deciliter (5.55 mmol per liter). Whether higher fasting plasma glucose levels within this range independently predict type 2 diabetes in young adults is unclear. We obtained blood measurements, data from physical examinations, and medical and lifestyle information from men in the Israel Defense Forces who were 26 to 45 years of age. A total of 208 incident cases of type 2 diabetes occurred during 74,309 person-years of follow-up (from 1992 through 2004) among 13,163 subjects who had baseline fasting plasma glucose levels of less than 100 mg per deciliter. A multivariate model, adjusted for age, family history of diabetes, body-mass index, physical-activity level, smoking status, and serum triglyceride levels, revealed a progressively increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men with fasting plasma glucose levels of 87 mg per deciliter (4.83 mmol per liter) or more, as compared with those whose levels were in the bottom quintile (less than 81 mg per deciliter [4.5 mmol per liter], P for trend <0.001). In multivariate models, men with serum triglyceride levels of 150 mg per deciliter (1.69 mmol per liter) or more, combined with fasting plasma glucose levels of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter (5.05 to 5.50 mmol per liter), had a hazard ratio of 8.23 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.6 to 19.0) for diabetes, as compared with men with a combined triglyceride level of less than 150 mg per deciliter and fasting glucose levels of less than 86 mg per deciliter (4.77 mmol per liter). The joint effect of a body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) of 30 or more and a fasting plasma glucose level of 91 to 99 mg per deciliter resulted in a hazard ratio of 8.29 (95 percent confidence interval, 3.8 to 17.8), as compared with a body-mass index of less than 25 and a fasting plasma glucose level of less than 86 mg per deciliter. Higher fasting plasma glucose

  6. Characterizing electrostatic turbulence in tokamak plasmas with high MHD activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes-Filho, Z O; Santos Lima, G Z dos; Caldas, I L; Nascimento, I C; Kuznetsov, Yu K [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66316, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R L, E-mail: viana@fisica.ufpr.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-09-01

    One of the challenges in obtaining long lasting magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas in tokamaks is to control electrostatic turbulence near the vessel wall. A necessary step towards achieving this goal is to characterize the turbulence level and so as to quantify its effect on the transport of energy and particles of the plasma. In this paper we present experimental results on the characterization of electrostatic turbulence in Tokamak Chauffage Alfven Bresilien (TCABR), operating in the Institute of Physics of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. In particular, we investigate the effect of certain magnetic field fluctuations, due to magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) instabilities activity, on the spectral properties of electrostatic turbulence at plasma edge. In some TCABR discharges we observe that this MHD activity may increase spontaneously, following changes in the edge safety factor, or after changes in the radial electric field achieved by electrode biasing. During the high MHD activity, the magnetic oscillations and the plasma edge electrostatic turbulence present several common linear spectral features with a noticeable dominant peak in the same frequency. In this article, dynamical analyses were applied to find other alterations on turbulence characteristics due to the MHD activity and turbulence enhancement. A recurrence quantification analysis shows that the turbulence determinism radial profile is substantially changed, becoming more radially uniform, during the high MHD activity. Moreover, the bicoherence spectra of these two kinds of fluctuations are similar and present high bicoherence levels associated with the MHD frequency. In contrast with the bicoherence spectral changes, that are radially localized at the plasma edge, the turbulence recurrence is broadly altered at the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer.

  7. Plasma Total Homocysteine (tHcy) Levels in Healthy Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Establishment and stratification of reference values for a laboratory area of practice enhances the test result interpretation and sensitivity. Plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) is a metabolite of methionine which is dependent on vitamin B6, B12 and folate as co-factors. Plasma level (Hyperhomocysteinemia) is influenced by ...

  8. Plasma oxalate levels in prevalent hemodialysis patients and potential implications for ascorbic acid supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuguan; Weisberg, Lawrence S; Langman, Craig B; Logan, Amanda; Hunter, Krystal; Prasad, Deepali; Avila, Jose; Venkatchalam, Thaliga; Berns, Jeffrey S; Handelman, Garry J; Sirover, William D

    2016-10-01

    Ascorbic acid (AA) supplementation may increase hemoglobin levels and decrease erythropoiesis-stimulating agent dose requirement in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). While plasma AA levels >100μM may be supratherapeutic, levels of at least 30μM may be needed to improve wound healing and levels may need to reach 70μM to optimize erythropoiesis. Of concern, oxalate (Ox), an AA metabolite, can accumulate in ESRD. Historically, if plasma Ox levels remain ≥30μM, oxalosis was of concern. Contemporary hemodialysis (HD) efficiencies may decrease the risk of oxalosis by maintaining pre-HD Ox levels HD patients. A prospective, observational study of 197 HD patients with pre-HD AA levels and pre-HD and post-HD Ox levels. Mean plasma Ox levels decreased 71% during the intradialytic period (22.3±11.1μM to 6.4±3.2μM, PHD plasma AA levels ≤100μM were not associated with a pre-HD plasma Ox level≥30μM, even if ferritin levels were increased. Pre-HD plasma Ox levels ≥20 or ≥30μM were not associated with lower cumulative 4-year survival. Pre-HD plasma AA levels up to 100μM in HD patients do not appear to be associated with an increased risk of developing secondary oxalosis, as the corresponding pre-HD plasma Ox level appears to be maintained at tolerable levels. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Low-frequency fluctuations in a pure toroidal magnetized plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A magnetized, low- plasma in pure toroidal configuration is formed and extensively studied with ion mass as control parameter. Xenon, krypton and argon plasmas are formed at a fixed toroidal magnetic field of 0.024 T, with a peak density of ∼ 1011 cm-3, ∼ 4 × 1010 cm-3 and ∼ 2 × 1010 cm−3 respectively.

  10. Effects of Rakkyofructan on Postprandial Glucose Level in Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    谷, 政八; 池田, 涼子; 谷, 洋子; 小林, 恭一; Tani, Masahachi; Ikeda, Ryouko; Tani, Hiroko; Kobayashi, Kyoichi

    2010-01-01

    The effect of Rakkyofructan on the glucose level in plasma after intake of high carbohydrate diet was investigated.The six healthy female volunteers consumed 50 g of carbohydrate meal (the glucose, the cooked white rice, the bread, or the cooked sweet potato) with or without Rakkyofructan.Blood specimen was collected of before and 30, 45, 60, 90, 120 and 150 min after intake, and the glucose level in plasma was measured.The peak value (Cmax) and the area under curve (AUC) of blood glucose lev...

  11. Clinical significance of measurement of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels in patients with hepatic cirrhosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiaming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the correlationship between the plasma homocysteine (Hcy) levels and development of hepatic cirrhosis as well as the diagnostic value of plasma Hcy determination. Method: Plasma Hcy levels were measured with ELISA in: (1) 64 patients with post-hepatitis cirrhosis (2) 42 patients with various types of hepatitis but no cirrhosis and (3) 60 controls. Results: The plasma levels of Hcy in patients with cirrhosis were significantly higher than those in the other two groups (P<0.01). The plasma Hcy levels in cirrhotic patients were well correlated with the levels of other hepatic fibrosis markers such as hyaluronic acid and laminin (r=0.87 and r=0.88 respectively, P<0.01), but were not correlated with cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL levels. Conclusion: Plasma Hcy levels was markedly elevated in cirrhotic patients and might be taken as a diagnostic marker. (authors)

  12. The ecological effects of water level fluctuation and phosphate enrichment in mesotrophic peatlands are strongly mediated by soil chemistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mettrop, I.S.; Rutte, M.D.; Kooijman, A.M.; Lamers, L.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Since the re-establishment of a more natural water regime is considered by water management in wetlands with artificially stable water levels, the biogeochemical and ecological effects of water level fluctuation with different nutrient loads should be investigated. This is particularly important for

  13. Dynamic behaviour of dc double anode plasma torch at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tu, X; Cheron, B G; Yan, J H; Cen, K F

    2007-01-01

    An original dc double anode plasma torch which provides a long-time and highly stable atmospheric plasma jet has been devised for the purpose of hazardous waste treatment. The arc fluctuations and dynamic behaviour of the argon and argon-nitrogen plasma jets under different operating conditions have been investigated by means of classical tools, such as the statistic method, fast Fourier transform (FFT) and correlation analysis. In our experiments, the takeover mode is identified as the fluctuation characteristic of the argon plasma jet while the restrike mode is typical in the argon-nitrogen plasma dynamic behaviour. In the case of pure argon, the FFT and correlation calculation results of electrical signals exhibit the only characteristic frequency of 150 Hz, which originates from the torch power and is independent of any change in the operating conditions. It indicates that the nature of fluctuations in an argon plasma jet is mainly induced by the undulation of the tri-phase rectified power supply. In contrast, besides the same low frequency bulk fluctuation, the dynamic behaviour of the argon-nitrogen plasma jet at high frequency (4.1 kHz) is ascribed to the rapid motion of both arc roots on the anode surface. In addition, it is found that each arc root attachment is rather diffused than located at a fixed position on the anode wall in the argon plasma jet, while constricted arc roots occur when nitrogen is added into argon as the plasma working gas

  14. STATISTICALLY DETERMINED DISPERSION RELATIONS OF MAGNETIC FIELD FLUCTUATIONS IN THE TERRESTRIAL FORESHOCK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hnat, B.; O’Connell, D.; Nakariakov, V. M.; Sundberg, T.

    2016-01-01

    We obtain dispersion relations of magnetic field fluctuations for two crossings of the terrestrial foreshock by Cluster spacecraft. These crossings cover plasma conditions that differ significantly in their plasma β and in the density of the reflected ion beam, but not in the properties of the encountered ion population, both showing shell-like distribution function. Dispersion relations are reconstructed using two-point instantaneous wave number estimations from pairs of Cluster spacecraft. The accessible range of wave vectors, limited by the available spacecraft separations, extends to ≈2 × 10 4 km. Results show multiple branches of dispersion relations, associated with different powers of magnetic field fluctuations. We find that sunward propagating fast magnetosonic waves and beam resonant modes are dominant for the high plasma β interval with a dense beam, while the dispersions of the interval with low beam density include Alfvén and fast magnetosonic modes propagating sunward and anti-sunward.

  15. STATISTICALLY DETERMINED DISPERSION RELATIONS OF MAGNETIC FIELD FLUCTUATIONS IN THE TERRESTRIAL FORESHOCK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hnat, B.; O’Connell, D.; Nakariakov, V. M. [Centre for Fusion, Space and Astrophysics, University of Warwick (United Kingdom); Sundberg, T., E-mail: B.Hnat@warwick.ac.uk [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University of London (United Kingdom)

    2016-08-20

    We obtain dispersion relations of magnetic field fluctuations for two crossings of the terrestrial foreshock by Cluster spacecraft. These crossings cover plasma conditions that differ significantly in their plasma β and in the density of the reflected ion beam, but not in the properties of the encountered ion population, both showing shell-like distribution function. Dispersion relations are reconstructed using two-point instantaneous wave number estimations from pairs of Cluster spacecraft. The accessible range of wave vectors, limited by the available spacecraft separations, extends to ≈2 × 10{sup 4} km. Results show multiple branches of dispersion relations, associated with different powers of magnetic field fluctuations. We find that sunward propagating fast magnetosonic waves and beam resonant modes are dominant for the high plasma β interval with a dense beam, while the dispersions of the interval with low beam density include Alfvén and fast magnetosonic modes propagating sunward and anti-sunward.

  16. The antimicrobial propeptide hCAP-18 plasma levels in neutropenia of various aetiologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ye, Ying; Carlsson, Göran; Karlsson-Sjöberg, Jenny M T

    2015-01-01

    The underlying cause of neutropenia may be difficult to determine due to similar clinical presentation in many neutropenic conditions. The neutrophil protein hCAP-18 (pro-LL-37) is a major component of neutrophil secondary granules and in this prospective study we assessed the use of hCAP-18 levels...... in blood plasma for differential diagnosis of neutropenic patients (n = 133) of various aetiologies. Plasma levels of hCAP-18 were determined using immunoblot and ELISA. Patients with severe congenital neutropenia (n = 23) presented with the lowest levels of plasma hCAP-18 and differential diagnostic...... diagnostic value in differential diagnosis of chronic neutropenia. Neutropenic patients with Shwachman-Diamond syndrome, Barth syndrome, Cohen syndrome, acute myeloid leukaemia and specific granule deficiency presented with reduced plasma hCAP-18 levels as well. The blood plasma level of hCAP-18 was thus low...

  17. Boundary effects on the MHD dynamo in laboratory plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, Y.L.; Prager, S.C.

    1989-07-01

    In recent laboratory experiments, a dynamo-like mechanism has been demonstrated in which a portion of the axisymmetric component of the magnetic field is believed to be sustained by 3D spatial fluctuations in the field and flow. With a conducting shell at the plasma surface, past MHD computation shows that sustainment arises from fluctuations which cause magnetic reconnection. If the conducting wall is retracted from the plasma surface, the fluctuations are amplified and the dynamo sustainment is still active for the times studied, but an increased energy input to the plasma is required through the applied electric field. The retraction of the conducting wall enhances the helicity dissipation rate by the intersection of the fields with the resistive surface which bounds the plasma. This enhanced helicity dissipation is balanced by the helicity injection that accompanies the increased applied electric field. 17 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  18. Effects of in vivo irradiation on plasma levels of carotenoids and vitamin A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, W.S.; Roe, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The aims of this investigation were to determine whether ultraviolet irradiation induces alterations in plasma carotenoid and vitamin A levels in human subjects. Twelve Caucasian women participated in an 8-week crossover trial. UV exposures were given to the anterior and posterior sides of the body on 11 days of a 2-week period. Mean cumulative UVA (320-400 nm) doses of 17.9 +/- 2.6 J/cm 2 and 24.1 +/- 1.5 J/cm 2 were delivered to the anterior and posterior sides, respectively. UVB (280-320 nm) doses were equivalent to 10% of the UVA doses given. Intake of carotenoids and preformed vitamin A was held constant. Plasma samples were collected weekly for spectrophotometric analysis of total carotenoids and vitamin A. A significant reduction (p < 0.003) in plasma carotenoid levels was observed following repeated irradiation. Although a significant treatment response could not be demonstrated for plasma vitamin A (p=0.11), a significant test for carryover (p < 0.02) suggested a delayed or continuing increase in plasma levels following irradiation. It is concluded that UV irradiation can reduce plasma carotenoid levels in vivo and may also affect plasma vitamin A levels in an adaptive response

  19. Electron density fluctuation measurements in the TORTUR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remkes, G.J.J.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis deals with measurements of electron-density fluctuations in the TORTUR tokamak. These measurements are carried out by making use of collective scattering of electromagnetic beams. The choice of the wavelength of the probing beam used in collective scattering experiments has important consequences. in this thesis it is argued that the best choice for a wavelength lies in the region 0.1 - 1 mm. Because sources in this region were not disposable a 2 mm collective scattering apparatus has been used as a fair compromise. The scattering theory, somewhat adapted to the specific TORTUR situation, is discussed in Ch. 2. Large scattering angles are admitted in scattering experiments with 2 mm probing beams. This had consequences for the spatial response functions. Special attention has been paid to the wave number resolution. Expressions for the minimum source power have been determined for two detection techniques. The design and implementation of the scattering apparatus has been described in Ch. 3. The available location of the scattering volume and values of the scattering angle have been determined. The effect of beam deflection due to refraction effects is evaluated. The electronic system is introduced. Ch. 4 presents the results of measurements of density fluctuations in the TORTUR tokamak in the frequency range 1 kHz to 100 MHz end the wave number region 400 - 4000 m -1 in different regions of the plasma. Correlation between density and magnetic fluctuations has been found in a number of cases. During the current decay at the termination of several plasma discharges minor disruptions occurred. The fluctuations during these disruptions have been monitored. Measurements have been performed in hydrogen as well as deuterium. A possible dependence of the wave number on the ion gyroradius has been investigated. The isotropy of the fluctuations in the poloidal plane was investigated. A theoretical discussion of the measured results is given in ch. 5. ( H.W.). 63

  20. Plasma neuropeptide Y levels differ in distinct diabetic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Aysegül; Rasul, Sazan; Dimitrov, Alexander; Handisurya, Ammon; Gartner, Wolfgang; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Wagner, Ludwig; Kautzky-Willer, Alexandra; Base, Wolfgang

    2010-12-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is an important hormone in appetite regulation. Although the contribution of NPY to metabolic disease has been previously demonstrated, there are only a few reports addressing NPY plasma levels under distinct diabetic conditions. In this study we evaluated NPY plasma levels in diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) patients with (n=34) and without (n=34) diabetic polyneuropathy (PNP) and compared these with age and gender matched healthy controls (n=34). We also analyzed NPY plasma levels in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) patients with age and pregnancy-week matched controls with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). NPY concentration was determined using a commercially available radioimmunoassay kit. In addition, metabolic parameters of DM2 and GDM patients were recorded. One-way ANOVA tests with appropriate post hoc corrections showed elevated levels of NPY in DM2 patients with and without PNP when compared with those of healthy controls (122.32±40.86 and 117.33±29.92 vs. 84.65±52.17 pmol/L; pwomen with NGT (74.87±14.36 vs. 84.82±51.13 pmol/L, respectively). Notably, the NPY concentration correlated positively with insulin levels in DM2 patients (R=0.35, pDM2 pathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Fusion plasma physics

    CERN Document Server

    Stacey, Weston M

    2012-01-01

    This revised and enlarged second edition of the popular textbook and reference contains comprehensive treatments of both the established foundations of magnetic fusion plasma physics and of the newly developing areas of active research. It concludes with a look ahead to fusion power reactors of the future. The well-established topics of fusion plasma physics -- basic plasma phenomena, Coulomb scattering, drifts of charged particles in magnetic and electric fields, plasma confinement by magnetic fields, kinetic and fluid collective plasma theories, plasma equilibria and flux surface geometry, plasma waves and instabilities, classical and neoclassical transport, plasma-materials interactions, radiation, etc. -- are fully developed from first principles through to the computational models employed in modern plasma physics. The new and emerging topics of fusion plasma physics research -- fluctuation-driven plasma transport and gyrokinetic/gyrofluid computational methodology, the physics of the divertor, neutral ...

  2. Forecasting monthly groundwater level fluctuations in coastal aquifers using hybrid Wavelet packet–Support vector regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Sujay Raghavendra

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This research demonstrates the state-of-the-art capability of Wavelet packet analysis in improving the forecasting efficiency of Support vector regression (SVR through the development of a novel hybrid Wavelet packet–Support vector regression (WP–SVR model for forecasting monthly groundwater level fluctuations observed in three shallow unconfined coastal aquifers. The Sequential Minimal Optimization Algorithm-based SVR model is also employed for comparative study with WP–SVR model. The input variables used for modeling were monthly time series of total rainfall, average temperature, mean tide level, and past groundwater level observations recorded during the period 1996–2006 at three observation wells located near Mangalore, India. The Radial Basis function is employed as a kernel function during SVR modeling. Model parameters are calibrated using the first seven years of data, and the remaining three years data are used for model validation using various input combinations. The performance of both the SVR and WP–SVR models is assessed using different statistical indices. From the comparative result analysis of the developed models, it can be seen that WP–SVR model outperforms the classic SVR model in predicting groundwater levels at all the three well locations (e.g. NRMSE(WP–SVR = 7.14, NRMSE(SVR = 12.27; NSE(WP–SVR = 0.91, NSE(SVR = 0.8 during the test phase with respect to well location at Surathkal. Therefore, using the WP–SVR model is highly acceptable for modeling and forecasting of groundwater level fluctuations.

  3. Density fluctuation measurements via reflectometry on DIII-D during L- and H-mode operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Lehecka, T.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.; Philipona, R.

    1990-01-01

    The unique ability of reflectometers to provide radial density fluctuation measurements with high spatial resolution (of the order of ≤ centimeters, is ideally suited to the study of the edge plasma modifications associated with H-mode operation. Consequently, attention has been focused on the study of these phenomena since an improved understanding of the physics of H-mode plasmas is essential if a predictive capability for machine performance is to be developed. In addition, DIII-D is ideally suited for such studies since it is a major device noted for its robust H-mode operation and excellent basic plasma profile diagnostic information. The reflectometer system normally used for fluctuation studies is an O-mode, homodyne, system utilizing 7 discrete channels spanning 15-75 GHz, with corresponding critical densities of 2.8x10 18 to 7x10 19 m -3 . The Gunn diode sources in this system are only narrowly tunable in frequency, so the critical densities are essentially fixed. An X-mode system, utilizing a frequency tunable BWO source, has also been used to obtain fluctuation data, and in particular, to 'fill in the gaps' between the discrete O-mode channels. (author) 12 refs., 5 figs

  4. Event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions in ALICE

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Maitreyee

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations of various observables in heavy-ion collisions at ultra-relativistic energies have been extensively studied as they provide important signals regarding the formation of a Quark-Gluon Plasma (QGP). Because of the large number of produced particles in each event, a detailed study of event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations has been proposed as one of the signatures of the phase transition. In addition, the understanding of multiplicity fluctuations is essential for other event-by-event measurements. In the present work, we have calculated the scaled variance ($\\omega_{\\rm ch}=\\sigma^{\\rm 2} / \\mu$) of the charged-particle multiplicity distributions as a function of centrality in Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies. Here, $\\mu$ and $\\sigma$ denote the mean and the width of the multiplicity distributions, respectively. The trend of scaled variances as a function of centrality is presented and discussed. Volume fluctuations play an important role while measuring the multiplicity fluctuations, which are a...

  5. Effect of experimental quinine administration on plasma levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six hours after the last dose administration, blood samples were withdrawn for the determination of plasma levels of hemoglobin and methemoglobin. Plasma hemoglobin concentration increased from 11.55 +0.32 g/100ml to a critical value of 14.30 g/100ml from the control to 0.08 g/kg dose administration. A further increase ...

  6. Clinical significance of changes of plasma CGRP and VIP levels in infants with bronchiolitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Chun; Gu Ling; Zhang Yanjun; Xin Haiyan

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) levels in infants (2-24months) with bronchiolitis. Methods: Plasma levels of CGRP and VIP were determined with RIA in 31 infants with bronchiolitis both during acute infection and convalescence as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma CGRP levels in patients during acute infection were significantly higher than those in patients during convalescence and in controls (P<0.05). Levels of CGRP dropped during convalescence, but still remained significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). The reverse was true for the plasma VIP levels. The plasma VIP levels in patients during acute infection were significantly lower than those in patients during convalescence and in controls (P<0.05). During convalescence, the plasma VIP levels rose but remained significantly lower than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: There were dynamic changes of plasma CGRP and VIP levels in the course of infant bronchiolitis and the two peptides played opposite roles. (authors)

  7. Statoil`s exposure to oil price fluctuations: An analysis on investment level and stock price

    OpenAIRE

    Nåmdal, Synne Meling; Meling, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    Master's thesis in Finance In this thesis an econometric analysis of Statoil’s investment level and stock return has been performed, with purpose of examine the affect that fluctuations in the price of crude oil has on these variables. The results revealed that crude oil prices have a significant impact on Statoil´s stock returns, due to the direct impact the crude oil price has on Statoil’s cash flows. The investment level does not seem to be affected by either of the variables in the ana...

  8. Statoil`s exposure to oil price fluctuations: An analysis on investment level and stock price

    OpenAIRE

    Nåmdal, Synne Meling; Meling, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    In this thesis an econometric analysis of Statoil’s investment level and stock return has been performed, with purpose of examine the affect that fluctuations in the price of crude oil has on these variables. The results revealed that crude oil prices have a significant impact on Statoil´s stock returns, due to the direct impact the crude oil price has on Statoil’s cash flows. The investment level does not seem to be affected by either of the variables in the analysis, and this could indicate...

  9. Trend Estimation of Blood Glucose Level Fluctuations Based on Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Yamaguchi

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available We have fabricated calorie-calculating software that calculates and records the total calorific food intake by choosing a meal menu selected using a computer mouse. The purpose of this software was to simplify data collection throughout a person's normal life, even if they were inexperienced computer operators. Three portable commercial devices have also been prepared a blood glucose monitor, a metabolic rate monitor and a mobile-computer, and linked into the calorie-calculating software. Time-course changes of the blood glucose level, metabolic rate and food intake were measured using these devices during a 3 month period. Based on the data collected in this study we could predict blood glucose levels of the next morning (FBG by modeling using data mining. Although a large error rate was found for predicting the absolute value, conditions could be found that improved the accuracy of the predicting trends in blood glucose level fluctuations by up to 90 %. However, in order to further improve the accuracy of estimation it was necessary to obtain further details about the patients' life style or to optimise the input variables that were dependent on each patient rather than collecting data over longer periods.

  10. Final Scientific/Technical Report: Correlations and Fluctuations in Weakly Collisional Plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiff, Frederick [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Plasma is a state of matter that exhibits a very rich range of phenomena. To begin with, plasma is both electrical and mechanical - bringing together theories of particle motion and the electromagnetic field. Furthermore, and especially important for this project, a weakly-collisional plasma, such as is found in high-temperature (fusion energy) experiments on earth and the majority of contexts in space and astrophysics, has many moving parts. For example, sitting in earth’s atmosphere we are immersed in a mechanical wave field (sound), a possibly turbulent fluid motion (wind), and an electromagnetic vector wave field with two polarizations (light). This is already enough to produce a rich range of possibilities. In plasma, the electromagnetic field is coupled to the mechanical motion of the medium because it is ionized. Furthermore, a weakly-collisional plasma supports an infinite number of mechanically independent fluids. Thus, plasmas support an infinite number of independent electromechanical waves. Much has been done to describe plasmas with "reduced models" of various kinds. The goal of this project was to both explore the validity of reduced plasma models that are in use, and to propose and validate new models of plasma motion. The primary means to his end was laboratory experiments employing both electrical probes and laser spectroscopy. Laser spectroscopy enables many techniques which can separate the spectrum of independent fluid motions in the ion phase-space. The choice was to focus on low frequency electrostatic waves because the electron motion is relatively simple, the experiments can be on a spatial scale of a few meters, and all the relevant parameters can be measured with a few lasers systems. No study of this kind had previously been undertaken for the study of plasmas. The validation of theories required that the experimental descriptions be compared with theory and simulation in detail. It was found that even multi-fluid theories leave out a

  11. Measuring vascular reactivity with resting-state blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal fluctuations: A potential alternative to the breath-holding challenge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanian, Hesamoddin; Christen, Thomas; Moseley, Michael E; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Wright, Clinton B; Tamura, Manjula K; Zaharchuk, Greg

    2017-07-01

    Measurement of the ability of blood vessels to dilate and constrict, known as vascular reactivity, is often performed with breath-holding tasks that transiently raise arterial blood carbon dioxide (P a CO 2 ) levels. However, following the proper commands for a breath-holding experiment may be difficult or impossible for many patients. In this study, we evaluated two approaches for obtaining vascular reactivity information using blood oxygenation level-dependent signal fluctuations obtained from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data: physiological fluctuation regression and coefficient of variation of the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal. We studied a cohort of 28 older adults (69 ± 7 years) and found that six of them (21%) could not perform the breath-holding protocol, based on an objective comparison with an idealized respiratory waveform. In the subjects that could comply, we found a strong linear correlation between data extracted from spontaneous resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging signal fluctuations and the blood oxygenation level-dependent percentage signal change during breath-holding challenge ( R 2  = 0.57 and 0.61 for resting-state physiological fluctuation regression and resting-state coefficient of variation methods, respectively). This technique may eliminate the need for subject cooperation, thus allowing the evaluation of vascular reactivity in a wider range of clinical and research conditions in which it may otherwise be impractical.

  12. Plasma Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Normotensive and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plasma Triglyceride and Cholesterol Levels in Normotensive and Hypertensive Pregnant and Parturient Nigerian Women. Kashope D. Thomas, Oyebola G. Adeosun, Norah O. Akinola, Uche Onwudiegwu, Alexander T. Owolabi ...

  13. The effect of longitudinal fluctuations in (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pang, Long-Gang; Karpenko, Yuri [FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Petersen, Hannah [FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); ITP, Goethe University, Frankfurt (Germany); GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Huovinen, Pasi [ITP, University of Wroclaw (Poland); Wang, Xin-Nian [CCNU, Wuhan (China); LBNL, Berkeley (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The energy density fluctuations of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) in the transverse plane are studied in detail and found to be important to explain the high order harmonic flow v{sub n} at RHIC and LHC. However, the energy density fluctuations along longitudinal direction (space-time rapidity η{sub s}) have not been fully investigated yet, even though they should exist as well. Previous studies show that the longitudinal fluctuations strongly depend on the initial entropy deposition mechanisms. In this work AMPT initial conditions are used where HIJING introduces longitudinal fluctuations originating from the asymmetry between forward and backward going participants, string length fluctuations and finite number of partons at different collision energies. The longitudinal fluctuations have been found to be responsible for the de-correlation of anisotropic flow and twist of event planes along rapidity. We study the effect of longitudinal fluctuations on the QGP expansion in both transverse and longitudinal direction within CLVisc, a (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamic code parallelized on GPU using OpenCL, to check whether the anisotropic flow is affected by longitudinal fluctuations and to determine appropriate shear viscosity over entropy density coefficients η/s in comparison with experiments at RHIC and LHC.

  14. Radioimmunoassay of Human Thyrotropin - Part 1. Plasma TSH levels in various thyroid functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, Chang Soon; Lee, Hong Kyu; Ro, Heung Kyu; Lee, Mun Ho

    1972-01-01

    The radioimmunoassay of human thyrotropin was performed in various thyroid states, utilizing the anti-h-T.S.H. antibody and purified human thyrotropin supplied from National Institute of Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, Bethesda, Ma., U.S.A., and human thyrotropin standard-A obtained from National Institute for Biologic Standards, Mill Hill, London, England. 131 I labelled h-TSH was prepared after the Chloramine-T method of Greenwood et al. This double antibody system had a assay sensitivity of about l. 0 μU/ml of plasma HTS-A and could detect the plasma h-TSH level in the euthyroid patients. Plasma h-TSH level of the normal 26 Korean was l.1±0. 83 μU/ml, and that of the 8 hypothyroidisms were 8.3 to 67.5 μU/ml. In hyperthyroidisms, no cases showed the plasma h-TSH levels over l. 0 μU/ ml. Between the hypothyroidism and euthyroidism, no overlap is noticed on plasma h-TSH levels. A case of transient hypothyroid state identified by determination of plasma h-TSH level is presented. These results revealed that the radioimmunoassay of h-TSH in plasma could be a sensitive method to diagnose the hypothyroidism, if not caused by a pituitary disease.

  15. Plasma Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37 Level Is Inversely Associated with HDL Cholesterol Level in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu Meguro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Relation between atherosclerosis and innate immunity has attracted attention. As the antimicrobial peptide, LL-37, could have an important role in atherosclerosis, we supposed that there could be a meaningful association of plasma LL-37 level with risk factors for cardiovascular disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods. We evaluated plasma LL-37 level and other clinical markers in Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n=133, 115 men and 18 women; age 64.7±11.5 years; HbA1c 8.1±1.6%. Plasma level of LL-37 was measured by ELISA. Results. Mean plasma LL-37 level was 71.2±22.3 ng/mL. Plasma LL-37 level showed significant correlations with HDL cholesterol (r=−0.450, P<0.01, triglyceride (r=0.445, P<0.01, and high sensitive C-reactive protein (r=0.316, P<0.01 but no significant correlation with age, body mass index, HbA1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, or vitamin D binding protein. Multiple linear regression analysis showed significant correlations of plasma LL-37 level with HDL cholesterol (β=−0.411, P<0.01 and high sensitive C-reactive protein (β=0.193, P<0.05. Conclusion. Plasma LL-37 level was positively correlated with inflammatory markers and negatively correlated with HDL cholesterol in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Impairment of memory and plasma flunitrazepam levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bareggi, [No Value; Ferini-Strambi, L; Pirola, R; Smirne, S

    Flunitrazepam was administered to volunteers in three different oral doses. The effects on psychomotor sedation, attention, working memory and explicit memory were then assessed at various intervals after dosing and compared with levels of the drug in the plasma. Three groups of 12 healthy males

  17. Impairment of memory and plasma flunitrazepam levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bareggi, [No Value; Ferini-Strambi, L; Pirola, R; Smirne, S

    1998-01-01

    Flunitrazepam was administered to volunteers in three different oral doses. The effects on psychomotor sedation, attention, working memory and explicit memory were then assessed at various intervals after dosing and compared with levels of the drug in the plasma. Three groups of 12 healthy males

  18. Relationship between Plasma Leptin Level and Chronic Kidney Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anoop Shankar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Leptin is an adipose tissue-derived hormone shown to be related to several metabolic, inflammatory, and hemostatic factors related to chronic kidney disease. Recent animal studies have reported that infusion of recombinant leptin into normal rats for 3 weeks fosters the development of glomerulosclerosis. However, few studies have examined the association between leptin and CKD in humans. Therefore, we examined the association between plasma leptin levels and CKD in a representative sample of US adults. Methods. We examined the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey participants >20 years of age (n=5820, 53.6% women. Plasma leptin levels were categorized into quartiles (≤4.3 Fg/L, 4.4–8.7 Fg/L, 8.8–16.9 Fg/L, >16.9 Fg/L. CKD was defined as a glomerular filtration rate of <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 estimated from serum creatinine. Results. Higher plasma leptin levels were associated with CKD after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index (BMI, diabetes, hypertension, and serum cholesterol. Compared to quartile 1 of leptin (referent, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval of CKD associated with quartile 4 was 3.31 (1.41 to 7.78; P-trend = 0.0135. Subgroup analyses examining the relation between leptin and CKD by gender, BMI categories, diabetes, and hypertension status also showed a consistent positive association. Conclusion. Higher plasma leptin levels are associated with CKD in a representative sample of US adults.

  19. PROBABILISTIC MODEL OF BEAM–PLASMA INTERACTION IN RANDOMLY INHOMOGENEOUS PLASMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voshchepynets, A.; Krasnoselskikh, V.; Artemyev, A.; Volokitin, A.

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new model that describes beam–plasma interaction in the presence of random density fluctuations with a known probability distribution. We use the property that, for the given frequency, the probability distribution of the density fluctuations uniquely determines the probability distribution of the phase velocity of waves. We present the system as discrete and consisting of small, equal spatial intervals with a linear density profile. This approach allows one to estimate variations in wave energy density and particle velocity, depending on the density gradient on any small spatial interval. Because the characteristic time for the evolution of the electron distribution function and the wave energy is much longer than the time required for a single wave–particle resonant interaction over a small interval, we determine the description for the relaxation process in terms of averaged quantities. We derive a system of equations, similar to the quasi-linear approximation, with the conventional velocity diffusion coefficient D and the wave growth rate γ replaced by the average in phase space, by making use of the probability distribution for phase velocities and by assuming that the interaction in each interval is independent of previous interactions. Functions D and γ are completely determined by the distribution function for the amplitudes of the fluctuations. For the Gaussian distribution of the density fluctuations, we show that the relaxation process is determined by the ratio of beam velocity to plasma thermal velocity, the dispersion of the fluctuations, and the width of the beam in the velocity space

  20. Inhibition of crossed-beam energy transfer induced by expansion-velocity fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuville, C.; Glize, K.; Loiseau, P.; Masson-Laborde, P.-E.; Debayle, A.; Casanova, M.; Baccou, C.; Labaune, C.; Depierreux, S.

    2018-04-01

    Crossed-beam energy transfer between three laser beams has been experimentally investigated in a flowing plasma. Time-evolution measurements of the amplification of a first beam by a second beam highlighted the inhibition of energy transfer by hydrodynamic modifications of the plasma in the crossing volume due to the propagation of a third beam. According to 3D simulations and an analytical model, it appears that the long-wavelength expansion-velocity fluctuations produced by the propagation of the third beam in the crossing volume are responsible for this mitigation of energy transfer. This effect could be a cause of the over-estimation of the amount of the transferred energy in indirect-drive inertial confinement fusion experiments. Besides, tuning such long-wavelength fluctuations could be a way to completely inhibit CBET at the laser entrance holes of hohlraums.

  1. RSA fluctuation in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rottenberg, Jonathan; Clift, April; Bolden, Sarah; Salomon, Kristen

    2007-05-01

    Cardiac vagal control, as measured by indices of respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), has been investigated as a marker of impaired self-regulation in mental disorders, including depression. Past work in depressed samples has focused on deficits in resting RSA levels, with mixed results. This study tested the hypothesis that depression involves abnormal RSA fluctuation. RSA was measured in depressed and healthy control participants during rest and during two reactivity tasks, each followed by a recovery period. Relative to controls, depressed persons exhibited lower resting RSA levels as well as less RSA fluctuation, primarily evidenced by a lack of task-related vagal suppression. Group differences in RSA fluctuation were not accounted for by differences in physical health or respiration, whereas group differences in resting RSA level did not survive covariate analyses. Depression may involve multiple deficits in cardiac vagal control.

  2. Diagnosing collisionless energy transfer using field-particle correlations: Vlasov-Poisson plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Gregory G.; Klein, Kristopher G.; Li, Tak Chu

    2017-02-01

    Turbulence plays a key role in the conversion of the energy of large-scale fields and flows to plasma heat, impacting the macroscopic evolution of the heliosphere and other astrophysical plasma systems. Although we have long been able to make direct spacecraft measurements of all aspects of the electromagnetic field and plasma fluctuations in near-Earth space, our understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the damping of the turbulent fluctuations in heliospheric plasmas remains incomplete. Here we propose an innovative field-particle correlation technique that can be used to measure directly the secular energy transfer from fields to particles associated with collisionless damping of the turbulent fluctuations. Furthermore, this novel procedure yields information about the collisionless energy transfer as a function of particle velocity, providing vital new information that can help to identify the dominant collisionless mechanism governing the damping of the turbulent fluctuations. Kinetic plasma theory is used to devise the appropriate correlation to diagnose Landau damping, and the field-particle correlation technique is thoroughly illustrated using the simplified case of the Landau damping of Langmuir waves in a 1D-1V (one dimension in physical space and one dimension in velocity space) Vlasov-Poisson plasma. Generalizations necessary to apply the field-particle correlation technique to diagnose the collisionless damping of turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind are discussed, highlighting several caveats. This novel field-particle correlation technique is intended to be used as a primary analysis tool for measurements from current, upcoming and proposed spacecraft missions that are focused on the kinetic microphysics of weakly collisional heliospheric plasmas, including the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), Solar Probe Plus, Solar Orbiter and Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) missions.

  3. [Transfer characteristic and source identification of soil heavy metals from water-level-fluctuating zone along Xiangxi River, three-Gorges Reservoir area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Wang, Fei; Guo, Qiang; Nie, Xiao-Qian; Huang, Ying-Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Transfer characteristics of heavy metals and their evaluation of potential risk were studied based on determining concentration of heavy metal in soils from water-level-fluctuating zone (altitude:145-175 m) and bank (altitude: 175-185 m) along Xiangxi River, Three Gorges Reservoir area. Factor analysis-multiple linear regression (FA-MLR) was employed for heavy metal source identification and source apportionment. Results demonstrate that, during exposing season, the concentration of soil heavy metals in water-level-fluctuation zone and bank showed the variation, and the concentration of soil heavy metals reduced in shallow soil, but increased in deep soil at water-level-fluctuation zone. However, the concentration of soil heavy metals reduced in both shallow and deep soil at bank during the same period. According to the geoaccumulation index,the pollution extent of heavy metals followed the order: Cd > Pb > Cu > Cr, Cd is the primary pollutant. FA and FA-MLR reveal that in soils from water-level-fluctuation zone, 75.60% of Pb originates from traffic, 62.03% of Cd is from agriculture, 64.71% of Cu and 75.36% of Cr are from natural rock. In soils from bank, 82.26% of Pb originates from traffic, 68.63% of Cd is from agriculture, 65.72% of Cu and 69.33% of Cr are from natural rock. In conclusion, FA-MLR can successfully identify source of heavy metal and compute source apportionment of heavy metals, meanwhile the transfer characteristic is revealed. All these information can be a reference for heavy metal pollution control.

  4. Fluctuating Asymmetry of Human Populations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John H. Graham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fluctuating asymmetry, the random deviation from perfect symmetry, is a widely used population-level index of developmental instability, developmental noise, and robustness. It reflects a population’s state of adaptation and genomic coadaptation. Here, we review the literature on fluctuating asymmetry of human populations. The most widely used bilateral traits include skeletal, dental, and facial dimensions; dermatoglyphic patterns and ridge counts; and facial shape. Each trait has its advantages and disadvantages, but results are most robust when multiple traits are combined into a composite index of fluctuating asymmetry (CFA. Both environmental (diet, climate, toxins and genetic (aneuploidy, heterozygosity, inbreeding stressors have been linked to population-level variation in fluctuating asymmetry. In general, these stressors increase average fluctuating asymmetry. Nevertheless, there have been many conflicting results, in part because (1 fluctuating asymmetry is a weak signal in a sea of noise; and (2 studies of human fluctuating asymmetry have not always followed best practices. The most serious concerns are insensitive asymmetry indices (correlation coefficient and coefficient of indetermination, inappropriate size scaling, unrecognized mixture distributions, inappropriate corrections for directional asymmetry, failure to use composite indices, and inattention to measurement error. Consequently, it is often difficult (or impossible to compare results across traits, and across studies.

  5. The simultaneous measurements of core and outer core density fluctuations in L-H transition using CO2 laser collective scattering diagnostic in the EAST superconducting tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, G.M.; Li, Y.D.; Zhang, X.D.; Sun, P.J.; Hu, L.Q.; Li, J.G.; Wu, G.J.

    2013-01-01

    The H-mode is the projected basic operation scenario for the ITER tokamak. The turbulence de-correlation by the synergistic effect of zonal flow and equilibrium ExB flow shear is believed to be the reason for L-H transition, however, the detailed physical mechanism has not been identified so far. Tangential multi-channel CO 2 laser collective scattering diagnostic system (mainly k r measurement) was first installed to investigate electron density fluctuations on EAST tokamak. The measurements in a spontaneous dithering L-H transition show that in core plasma (0 < r/a < 0.5) the low-frequency fluctuations strengthen greatly before L-H transition; meanwhile in outer core plasma (0.2 < r/a < 1) the low-frequency fluctuations strengthen slightly. Bispectral analysis reveals that the coupling strength between low- and high-frequency fluctuations in both core and outer core plasma strengthens greatly before the transition, but the latter is greater than the former. The results indicate that the low-frequency fluctuations of the core and outer core plasma play active, but different, roles in the spontaneous L-H transition. (author)

  6. Study of the statistical physics bases on superstatistics from the β-fluctuated to the T-fluctuated form

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargolzaeipor, S.; Hassanabadi, H.; Chung, W. S.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we study the T -fluctuated form of superstatistics. In this form, some thermodynamic quantities such as the Helmholtz energy, the entropy and the internal energy, are expressed in terms of the T -fluctuated form for a canonical ensemble. In addition, the partition functions in the formalism for 2-level and 3-level distributions are derived. Then we make use of the T -fluctuated superstatistics for a quantum harmonic oscillator problem and the thermal properties of the system for three statistics of the Bose-Einstein, Maxwell-Boltzmann and Fermi-Dirac statistics are calculated. The effect of the deformation parameter on these properties is examined. All the results recover the well-known results by removing the deformation parameter.

  7. Net-Charge Fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}= 2.76$ TeV

    CERN Document Server

    Abelev, Betty; Adamova, Dagmar; Adare, Andrew Marshall; Aggarwal, Madan; Aglieri Rinella, Gianluca; Agocs, Andras Gabor; Agostinelli, Andrea; Aguilar Salazar, Saul; Ahammed, Zubayer; Ahmad, Arshad; Ahmad, Nazeer; Ahn, Sang Un; Akindinov, Alexander; Aleksandrov, Dmitry; Alessandro, Bruno; Alfaro Molina, Jose Ruben; Alici, Andrea; Alkin, Anton; Almaraz Avina, Erick Jonathan; Alme, Johan; Alt, Torsten; Altini, Valerio; Altinpinar, Sedat; Altsybeev, Igor; Andrei, Cristian; Andronic, Anton; Anguelov, Venelin; Anielski, Jonas; Anticic, Tome; Antinori, Federico; Antonioli, Pietro; Aphecetche, Laurent Bernard; Appelshauser, Harald; Arbor, Nicolas; Arcelli, Silvia; Armesto, Nestor; Arnaldi, Roberta; Aronsson, Tomas Robert; Arsene, Ionut Cristian; Arslandok, Mesut; Augustinus, Andre; Averbeck, Ralf Peter; Awes, Terry; Aysto, Juha Heikki; Azmi, Mohd Danish; Bach, Matthias Jakob; Badala, Angela; Baek, Yong Wook; Bailhache, Raphaelle Marie; Bala, Renu; Baldini Ferroli, Rinaldo; Baldisseri, Alberto; Baldit, Alain; Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, Fernando; Ban, Jaroslav; Baral, Rama Chandra; Barbera, Roberto; Barile, Francesco; Barnafoldi, Gergely Gabor; Barnby, Lee Stuart; Barret, Valerie; Bartke, Jerzy Gustaw; Basile, Maurizio; Bastid, Nicole; Basu, Sumit; Bathen, Bastian; Batigne, Guillaume; Batyunya, Boris; Baumann, Christoph Heinrich; Bearden, Ian Gardner; Beck, Hans; Behera, Nirbhay Kumar; Belikov, Iouri; Bellini, Francesca; Bellwied, Rene; Belmont-Moreno, Ernesto; Bencedi, Gyula; Beole, Stefania; Berceanu, Ionela; Bercuci, Alexandru; Berdnikov, Yaroslav; Berenyi, Daniel; Bergognon, Anais Annick Erica; Berzano, Dario; Betev, Latchezar; Bhasin, Anju; Bhati, Ashok Kumar; Bhom, Jihyun; Bianchi, Livio; Bianchi, Nicola; Bianchin, Chiara; Bielcik, Jaroslav; Bielcikova, Jana; Bilandzic, Ante; Bjelogrlic, Sandro; Blanco, F; Blanco, Francesco; Blau, Dmitry; Blume, Christoph; Bock, Nicolas; Boettger, Stefan; Bogdanov, Alexey; Boggild, Hans; Bogolyubsky, Mikhail; Boldizsar, Laszlo; Bombara, Marek; Book, Julian; Borel, Herve; Borissov, Alexander; Bose, Suvendu Nath; Bossu, Francesco; Botje, Michiel; Boyer, Bruno Alexandre; Braidot, Ermes; Braun-Munzinger, Peter; Bregant, Marco; Breitner, Timo Gunther; Browning, Tyler Allen; Broz, Michal; Brun, Rene; Bruna, Elena; Bruno, Giuseppe Eugenio; Budnikov, Dmitry; Buesching, Henner; Bufalino, Stefania; Busch, Oliver; Buthelezi, Edith Zinhle; Caffarri, Davide; Cai, Xu; Caines, Helen Louise; Calvo Villar, Ernesto; Camerini, Paolo; Canoa Roman, Veronica; Cara Romeo, Giovanni; Carena, Francesco; Carena, Wisla; Carminati, Federico; Casanova Diaz, Amaya Ofelia; Castillo Castellanos, Javier Ernesto; Casula, Ester Anna Rita; Catanescu, Vasile; Cavicchioli, Costanza; Ceballos Sanchez, Cesar; Cepila, Jan; Cerello, Piergiorgio; Chang, Beomsu; Chapeland, Sylvain; Charvet, Jean-Luc Fernand; Chattopadhyay, Sukalyan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Chawla, Isha; Cherney, Michael Gerard; Cheshkov, Cvetan; Cheynis, Brigitte; Chiavassa, Emilio; Chibante Barroso, Vasco Miguel; Chinellato, David; Chochula, Peter; Chojnacki, Marek; Choudhury, Subikash; Christakoglou, Panagiotis; Christensen, Christian Holm; Christiansen, Peter; Chujo, Tatsuya; Chung, Suh-Urk; Cicalo, Corrado; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, Federico; Cleymans, Jean Willy Andre; Coccetti, Fabrizio; Colamaria, Fabio; Colella, Domenico; Conesa Balbastre, Gustavo; Conesa del Valle, Zaida; Constantin, Paul; Contin, Giacomo; Contreras, Jesus Guillermo; Cormier, Thomas Michael; Corrales Morales, Yasser; Cortes Maldonado, Ismael; Cortese, Pietro; Cosentino, Mauro Rogerio; Costa, Filippo; Cotallo, Manuel Enrique; Crochet, Philippe; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Cuautle, Eleazar; Cunqueiro, Leticia; D'Erasmo, Ginevra; Dainese, Andrea; Dalsgaard, Hans Hjersing; Danu, Andrea; Das, Debasish; Das, Indranil; Das, Kushal; Dash, Ajay Kumar; Dash, Sadhana; De, Sudipan; de Barros, Gabriel; De Caro, Annalisa; de Cataldo, Giacinto; de Cuveland, Jan; De Falco, Alessandro; De Gruttola, Daniele; De Marco, Nora; De Pasquale, Salvatore; de Rooij, Raoul Stefan; Delagrange, Hugues; Deloff, Andrzej; Demanov, Vyacheslav; Denes, Ervin; Deppman, Airton; Di Bari, Domenico; Di Giglio, Carmelo; Di Liberto, Sergio; Di Mauro, Antonio; Di Nezza, Pasquale; Diaz Corchero, Miguel Angel; Dietel, Thomas; Divia, Roberto; Djuvsland, Oeystein; Dobrin, Alexandru Florin; Dobrowolski, Tadeusz Antoni; Dominguez, Isabel; Donigus, Benjamin; Dordic, Olja; Driga, Olga; Dubey, Anand Kumar; Dubla, Andrea; Ducroux, Laurent; Dupieux, Pascal; Dutta Majumdar, AK; Dutta Majumdar, Mihir Ranjan; Elia, Domenico; Emschermann, David Philip; Engel, Heiko; Erazmus, Barbara; Erdal, Hege Austrheim; Espagnon, Bruno; Estienne, Magali Danielle; Esumi, Shinichi; Evans, David; Eyyubova, Gyulnara; Fabris, Daniela; Faivre, Julien; Falchieri, Davide; Fantoni, Alessandra; Fasel, Markus; Fedunov, Anatoly; Fehlker, Dominik; Feldkamp, Linus; Felea, Daniel; Fenton-Olsen, Bo; Feofilov, Grigory; Fernandez Tellez, Arturo; Ferretti, Alessandro; Ferretti, Roberta; Festanti, Andrea; Figiel, Jan; Figueredo, Marcel; Filchagin, Sergey; Finogeev, Dmitry; Fionda, Fiorella; Fiore, Enrichetta Maria; Floris, Michele; Foertsch, Siegfried Valentin; Foka, Panagiota; Fokin, Sergey; Fragiacomo, Enrico; Francescon, Andrea; Frankenfeld, Ulrich Michael; Fuchs, Ulrich; Furget, Christophe; Fusco Girard, Mario; Gaardhoje, Jens Joergen; Gagliardi, Martino; Gago, Alberto; Gallio, Mauro; Gangadharan, Dhevan Raja; Ganoti, Paraskevi; Garabatos, Jose; Garcia-Solis, Edmundo; Garishvili, Irakli; Gerhard, Jochen; Germain, Marie; Geuna, Claudio; Gheata, Andrei George; Gheata, Mihaela; Ghidini, Bruno; Ghosh, Premomoy; Gianotti, Paola; Girard, Martin Robert; Giubellino, Paolo; Gladysz-Dziadus, Ewa; Glassel, Peter; Gomez, Ramon; Gonzalez Ferreiro, Elena; Gonzalez-Trueba, Laura Helena; Gonzalez-Zamora, Pedro; Gorbunov, Sergey; Goswami, Ankita; Gotovac, Sven; Grabski, Varlen; Graczykowski, Lukasz Kamil; Grajcarek, Robert; Grelli, Alessandro; Grigoras, Alina Gabriela; Grigoras, Costin; Grigoriev, Vladislav; Grigoryan, Ara; Grigoryan, Smbat; Grinyov, Boris; Grion, Nevio; Grosse-Oetringhaus, Jan Fiete; Grossiord, Jean-Yves; Grosso, Raffaele; Guber, Fedor; Guernane, Rachid; Guerra Gutierrez, Cesar; Guerzoni, Barbara; Guilbaud, Maxime Rene Joseph; Gulbrandsen, Kristjan Herlache; Gunji, Taku; Gupta, Anik; Gupta, Ramni; Gutbrod, Hans; Haaland, Oystein Senneset; Hadjidakis, Cynthia Marie; Haiduc, Maria; Hamagaki, Hideki; Hamar, Gergoe; Hanratty, Luke David; Hansen, Alexander; Harmanova, Zuzana; Harris, John William; Hartig, Matthias; Hasegan, Dumitru; Hatzifotiadou, Despoina; Hayrapetyan, Arsen; Heckel, Stefan Thomas; Heide, Markus Ansgar; Helstrup, Haavard; Herghelegiu, Andrei Ionut; Herrera Corral, Gerardo Antonio; Herrmann, Norbert; Hess, Benjamin Andreas; Hetland, Kristin Fanebust; Hicks, Bernard; Hille, Per Thomas; Hippolyte, Boris; Horaguchi, Takuma; Hori, Yasuto; Hristov, Peter Zahariev; Hrivnacova, Ivana; Huang, Meidana; Humanic, Thomas; Hwang, Dae Sung; Ichou, Raphaelle; Ilkaev, Radiy; Ilkiv, Iryna; Inaba, Motoi; Incani, Elisa; Innocenti, Gian Michele; Ippolitov, Mikhail; Irfan, Muhammad; Ivan, Cristian George; Ivanov, Andrey; Ivanov, Marian; Ivanov, Vladimir; Ivanytskyi, Oleksii; Jacobs, Peter; Janik, Malgorzata Anna; Janik, Rudolf; Jayarathna, Sandun; Jena, Satyajit; Jha, Deeptanshu Manu; Jimenez Bustamante, Raul Tonatiuh; Jirden, Lennart; Jones, Peter Graham; Jung, Hyung Taik; Jusko, Anton; Kakoyan, Vanik; Kalcher, Sebastian; Kalinak, Peter; Kalliokoski, Tuomo Esa Aukusti; Kalweit, Alexander Philipp; Kang, Ju Hwan; Kaplin, Vladimir; Karasu Uysal, Ayben; Karavichev, Oleg; Karavicheva, Tatiana; Karpechev, Evgeny; Kazantsev, Andrey; Kebschull, Udo Wolfgang; Keidel, Ralf; Khan, Mohisin Mohammed; Khan, Palash; Khan, Shuaib Ahmad; Khanzadeev, Alexei; Kharlov, Yury; Kileng, Bjarte; Kim, Beomkyu; Kim, Dong Jo; Kim, Do Won; Kim, Jonghyun; Kim, Jin Sook; Kim, Minwoo; Kim, Mimae; Kim, Se Yong; Kim, Seon Hee; Kim, Taesoo; Kirsch, Stefan; Kisel, Ivan; Kiselev, Sergey; Kisiel, Adam Ryszard; Klay, Jennifer Lynn; Klein, Jochen; Klein-Bosing, Christian; Kluge, Alexander; Knichel, Michael Linus; Knospe, Anders Garritt; Koch, Kathrin; Kohler, Markus; Kollegger, Thorsten; Kolojvari, Anatoly; Kondratiev, Valery; Kondratyeva, Natalia; Konevskih, Artem; Korneev, Andrey; Kour, Ravjeet; Kowalski, Marek; Kox, Serge; Koyithatta Meethaleveedu, Greeshma; Kral, Jiri; Kralik, Ivan; Kramer, Frederick; Kraus, Ingrid Christine; Krawutschke, Tobias; Krelina, Michal; Kretz, Matthias; Krivda, Marian; Krizek, Filip; Krus, Miroslav; Kryshen, Evgeny; Krzewicki, Mikolaj; Kucheriaev, Yury; Kugathasan, Thanushan; Kuhn, Christian Claude; Kuijer, Paul; Kulakov, Igor; Kumar, Jitendra; Kurashvili, Podist; Kurepin, A; Kurepin, AB; Kuryakin, Alexey; Kushpil, Svetlana; Kushpil, Vasily; Kweon, Min Jung; Kwon, Youngil; La Pointe, Sarah Louise; La Rocca, Paola; Ladron de Guevara, Pedro; Lakomov, Igor; Langoy, Rune; Lara, Camilo Ernesto; Lardeux, Antoine Xavier; Lazzeroni, Cristina; Le Bornec, Yves; Lea, Ramona; Lechman, Mateusz; Lee, Graham Richard; Lee, Ki Sang; Lee, Sung Chul; Lefevre, Frederic; Lehnert, Joerg Walter; Leistam, Lars; Lemmon, Roy Crawford; Lenti, Vito; Leon Monzon, Ildefonso; Leon Vargas, Hermes; Leoncino, Marco; Levai, Peter; Lien, Jorgen; Lietava, Roman; Lindal, Svein; Lindenstruth, Volker; Lippmann, Christian; Lisa, Michael Annan; Liu, Lijiao; Loggins, Vera; Loginov, Vitaly; Lohn, Stefan Bernhard; Lohner, Daniel; Loizides, Constantinos; Loo, Kai Krister; Lopez, Xavier Bernard; Lopez Torres, Ernesto; Lovhoiden, Gunnar; Lu, Xianguo; Luettig, Philipp; Lunardon, Marcello; Luo, Jiebin; Luparello, Grazia; Luquin, Lionel; Luzzi, Cinzia; Ma, Rongrong; Maevskaya, Alla; Mager, Magnus; Mahapatra, Durga Prasad; Maire, Antonin; Mal'Kevich, Dmitry; Malaev, Mikhail; Maldonado Cervantes, Ivonne Alicia; Malinina, Ludmila; Malzacher, Peter; Mamonov, Alexander; Manceau, Loic Henri Antoine; Manko, Vladislav; Manso, Franck; Manzari, Vito; Mao, Yaxian; Marchisone, Massimiliano; Mares, Jiri; Margagliotti, Giacomo Vito; Margotti, Anselmo; Marin, Ana Maria; Marin Tobon, Cesar Augusto; Markert, Christina; Martashvili, Irakli; Martinengo, Paolo; Martinez, Mario Ivan; Martinez Davalos, Arnulfo; Martinez Garcia, Gines; Martynov, Yevgen; Mas, Alexis Jean-Michel; Masciocchi, Silvia; Masera, Massimo; Masoni, Alberto; Mastroserio, Annalisa; Matthews, Zoe Louise; Matyja, Adam Tomasz; Mayer, Christoph; Mazer, Joel; Mazzoni, Alessandra Maria; Meddi, Franco; Menchaca-Rocha, Arturo Alejandro; Mercado Perez, Jorge; Meres, Michal; Miake, Yasuo; Milano, Leonardo; Milosevic, Jovan; Mischke, Andre; Mishra, Aditya Nath; Miskowiec, Dariusz; Mitu, Ciprian Mihai; Mlynarz, Jocelyn; Mohanty, Bedangadas; Molnar, Levente; Montano Zetina, Luis Manuel; Monteno, Marco; Montes, Esther; Moon, Taebong; Morando, Maurizio; Moreira De Godoy, Denise Aparecida; Moretto, Sandra; Morsch, Andreas; Muccifora, Valeria; Mudnic, Eugen; Muhuri, Sanjib; Mukherjee, Maitreyee; Muller, Hans; Munhoz, Marcelo; Musa, Luciano; Musso, Alfredo; Nandi, Basanta Kumar; Nania, Rosario; Nappi, Eugenio; Nattrass, Christine; Naumov, Nikolay; Navin, Sparsh; Nayak, Tapan Kumar; Nazarenko, Sergey; Nazarov, Gleb; Nedosekin, Alexander; Nicassio, Maria; Niculescu, Mihai; Nielsen, Borge Svane; Niida, Takafumi; Nikolaev, Sergey; Nikolic, Vedran; Nikulin, Sergey; Nikulin, Vladimir; Nilsen, Bjorn Steven; Nilsson, Mads Stormo; Noferini, Francesco; Nomokonov, Petr; Nooren, Gerardus; Novitzky, Norbert; Nyanin, Alexandre; Nyatha, Anitha; Nygaard, Casper; Nystrand, Joakim Ingemar; Oeschler, Helmut Oskar; Oh, Saehanseul; Oh, Sun Kun; Oleniacz, Janusz; Oppedisano, Chiara; Ortona, Giacomo; Oskarsson, Anders Nils Erik; Otwinowski, Jacek Tomasz; Oyama, Ken; Pachmayer, Yvonne Chiara; Pachr, Milos; Padilla, Fatima; Pagano, Paola; Paic, Guy; Painke, Florian; Pajares, Carlos; Pal, Susanta Kumar; Palaha, Arvinder Singh; Palmeri, Armando; Papikyan, Vardanush; Pappalardo, Giuseppe; Park, Woo Jin; Passfeld, Annika; Patalakha, Dmitri Ivanovich; Paticchio, Vincenzo; Pavlinov, Alexei; Pawlak, Tomasz Jan; Peitzmann, Thomas; Pereira Da Costa, Hugo Denis Antonio; Pereira De Oliveira Filho, Elienos; Peresunko, Dmitri; Perez Lara, Carlos Eugenio; Perez Lezama, Edgar; Perini, Diego; Perrino, Davide; Peryt, Wiktor Stanislaw; Pesci, Alessandro; Peskov, Vladimir; Pestov, Yury; Petracek, Vojtech; Petran, Michal; Petris, Mariana; Petrov, Plamen Rumenov; Petrovici, Mihai; Petta, Catia; Piano, Stefano; Piccotti, Anna; Pikna, Miroslav; Pillot, Philippe; Pinazza, Ombretta; Pinsky, Lawrence; Pitz, Nora; Piuz, Francois; Piyarathna, Danthasinghe; Ploskon, Mateusz Andrzej; Pluta, Jan Marian; Pochybova, Sona; Podesta Lerma, Pedro Luis Manuel; Poghosyan, Martin; Polichtchouk, Boris; Pop, Amalia; Porteboeuf-Houssais, Sarah; Pospisil, Vladimir; Potukuchi, Baba; Prasad, Sidharth Kumar; Preghenella, Roberto; Prino, Francesco; Pruneau, Claude Andre; Pshenichnov, Igor; Puchagin, Sergey; Puddu, Giovanna; Pujahari, Prabhat Ranjan; Pulvirenti, Alberto; Punin, Valery; Putis, Marian; Putschke, Jorn Henning; Quercigh, Emanuele; Qvigstad, Henrik; Rachevski, Alexandre; Rademakers, Alphonse; Raiha, Tomi Samuli; Rak, Jan; Rakotozafindrabe, Andry Malala; Ramello, Luciano; Ramirez Reyes, Abdiel; Raniwala, Rashmi; Raniwala, Sudhir; Rasanen, Sami Sakari; Rascanu, Bogdan Theodor; Rathee, Deepika; Read, Kenneth Francis; Real, Jean-Sebastien; Redlich, Krzysztof; Rehman, Attiq Ur; Reichelt, Patrick; Reicher, Martijn; Renfordt, Rainer Arno Ernst; Reolon, Anna Rita; Reshetin, Andrey; Rettig, Felix Vincenz; Revol, Jean-Pierre; Reygers, Klaus Johannes; Riccati, Lodovico; Ricci, Renato Angelo; Richert, Tuva; Richter, Matthias Rudolph; Riedler, Petra; Riegler, Werner; Riggi, Francesco; Rodrigues Fernandes Rabacal, Bartolomeu; Rodriguez Cahuantzi, Mario; Rodriguez Manso, Alis; Roed, Ketil; Rohr, David; Rohrich, Dieter; Romita, Rosa; Ronchetti, Federico; Rosnet, Philippe; Rossegger, Stefan; Rossi, Andrea; Roy, Christelle Sophie; Roy, Pradip Kumar; Rubio Montero, Antonio Juan; Rui, Rinaldo; Russo, Riccardo; Ryabinkin, Evgeny; Rybicki, Andrzej; Sadovsky, Sergey; Safarik, Karel; Sahoo, Raghunath; Sahu, Pradip Kumar; Saini, Jogender; Sakaguchi, Hiroaki; Sakai, Shingo; Sakata, Dosatsu; Salgado, Carlos Albert; Salzwedel, Jai; Sambyal, Sanjeev Singh; Samsonov, Vladimir; Sanchez Castro, Xitzel; Sandor, Ladislav; Sandoval, Andres; Sano, Masato; Sano, Satoshi; Santo, Rainer; Santoro, Romualdo; Sarkamo, Juho Jaako; Scapparone, Eugenio; Scarlassara, Fernando; Scharenberg, Rolf Paul; Schiaua, Claudiu Cornel; Schicker, Rainer Martin; Schmidt, Christian Joachim; Schmidt, Hans Rudolf; Schreiner, Steffen; Schuchmann, Simone; Schukraft, Jurgen; Schutz, Yves Roland; Schwarz, Kilian Eberhard; Schweda, Kai Oliver; Scioli, Gilda; Scomparin, Enrico; Scott, Patrick Aaron; Scott, Rebecca; Segato, Gianfranco; Selyuzhenkov, Ilya; Senyukov, Serhiy; Seo, Jeewon; Serci, Sergio; Serradilla, Eulogio; Sevcenco, Adrian; Shabetai, Alexandre; Shabratova, Galina; Shahoyan, Ruben; Sharma, Natasha; Sharma, Satish; Shigaki, Kenta; Shimomura, Maya; Shtejer, Katherin; Sibiriak, Yury; Siciliano, Melinda; Sicking, Eva; Siddhanta, Sabyasachi; Siemiarczuk, Teodor; Silvermyr, David Olle Rickard; Silvestre, Catherine; Simatovic, Goran; Simonetti, Giuseppe; Singaraju, Rama Narayana; Singh, Ranbir; Singha, Subhash; Singhal, Vikas; Sinha, Bikash; Sinha, Tinku; Sitar, Branislav; Sitta, Mario; Skaali, Bernhard; Skjerdal, Kyrre; Smakal, Radek; Smirnov, Nikolai; Snellings, Raimond; Sogaard, Carsten; Soltz, Ron Ariel; Son, Hyungsuk; Song, Jihye; Song, Myunggeun; Soos, Csaba; Soramel, Francesca; Sputowska, Iwona; Spyropoulou-Stassinaki, Martha; Srivastava, Brijesh Kumar; Stachel, Johanna; Stan, Ionel; Stefanek, Grzegorz; Stefanini, Giorgio; Steinpreis, Matthew; Stenlund, Evert Anders; Steyn, Gideon Francois; Stiller, Johannes Hendrik; Stocco, Diego; Stolpovskiy, Mikhail; Strabykin, Kirill; Strmen, Peter; Suaide, Alexandre Alarcon do Passo; Subieta Vasquez, Martin Alfonso; Sugitate, Toru; Suire, Christophe Pierre; Sukhorukov, Mikhail; Sultanov, Rishat; Sumbera, Michal; Susa, Tatjana; Szanto de Toledo, Alejandro; Szarka, Imrich; Szczepankiewicz, Adam; Szostak, Artur Krzysztof; Szymanski, Maciej; Takahashi, Jun; Tapia Takaki, Daniel Jesus; Tarazona Martinez, Alfonso; Tauro, Arturo; Tejeda Munoz, Guillermo; Telesca, Adriana; Terrevoli, Cristina; Thader, Jochen Mathias; Thomas, Deepa; Tieulent, Raphael Noel; Timmins, Anthony; Toia, Alberica; Torii, Hisayuki; Tosello, Flavio; Trubnikov, Victor; Trzaska, Wladyslaw Henryk; Tsuji, Tomoya; Tumkin, Alexandr; Turrisi, Rosario; Tveter, Trine Spedstad; Ulery, Jason Glyndwr; Ullaland, Kjetil; Ulrich, Jochen; Uras, Antonio; Urban, Jozef; Urciuoli, Guido Marie; Usai, Gianluca; Vajzer, Michal; Vala, Martin; Valencia Palomo, Lizardo; Vallero, Sara; van der Kolk, Naomi; van Leeuwen, Marco; Vande Vyvre, Pierre; Vannucci, Luigi; Vargas, Aurora Diozcora; Varma, Raghava; Vasileiou, Maria; Vasiliev, Andrey; Vechernin, Vladimir; Veldhoen, Misha; Venaruzzo, Massimo; Vercellin, Ermanno; Vergara, Sergio; Vernet, Renaud; Verweij, Marta; Vickovic, Linda; Viesti, Giuseppe; Vikhlyantsev, Oleg; Vilakazi, Zabulon; Villalobos Baillie, Orlando; Vinogradov, Alexander; Vinogradov, Leonid; Vinogradov, Yury; Virgili, Tiziano; Viyogi, Yogendra; Vodopianov, Alexander; Voloshin, Kirill; Voloshin, Sergey; Volpe, Giacomo; von Haller, Barthelemy; Vranic, Danilo; Øvrebekk, Gaute; Vrlakova, Janka; Vulpescu, Bogdan; Vyushin, Alexey; Wagner, Boris; Wagner, Vladimir; Wan, Renzhuo; Wang, Dong; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Yifei; Wang, Yaping; Watanabe, Kengo; Weber, Michael; Wessels, Johannes; Westerhoff, Uwe; Wiechula, Jens; Wikne, Jon; Wilde, Martin Rudolf; Wilk, Alexander; Wilk, Grzegorz Andrzej; Williams, Crispin; Windelband, Bernd Stefan; Xaplanteris Karampatsos, Leonidas; Yaldo, Chris G; Yamaguchi, Yorito; Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Shiming; Yasnopolsky, Stanislav; Yi, JunGyu; Yin, Zhongbao; Yoo, In-Kwon; Yoon, Jongik; Yu, Weilin; Yuan, Xianbao; Yushmanov, Igor; Zach, Cenek; Zampolli, Chiara; Zaporozhets, Sergey; Zarochentsev, Andrey; Zavada, Petr; Zaviyalov, Nikolai; Zbroszczyk, Hanna Paulina; Zelnicek, Pierre; Zgura, Sorin Ion; Zhalov, Mikhail; Zhang, Haitao; Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhou, Daicui; Zhou, Fengchu; Zhou, You; Zhu, Jianhui; Zhu, Xiangrong; Zichichi, Antonino; Zimmermann, Alice; Zinovjev, Gennady; Zoccarato, Yannick Denis; Zynovyev, Mykhaylo; Zyzak, Maksym

    2013-04-10

    We report the first measurement of the net-charge fluctuations in Pb-Pb collisions at $\\sqrt{s_{NN}}$ = 2.76 TeV, measured with the ALICE detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider. The dynamical fluctuations per unit entropy are observed to decrease when going from peripheral to central collisions. An additional reduction in the amount of fluctuations is seen in comparison to the results from lower energies. We examine the dependence of fluctuations on the pseudo-rapidity interval, which may account for the dilution of fluctuations during the evolution of the system. We find that the ALICE data points are between the theoretically predicted values for a hadron gas and a Quark-Gluon Plasma.

  8. Physical activity opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes plasma endothelin-1 levels in individuals with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    performed lifelong physical activity had similar plasma and muscle endothelin-1 levels as the young controls and had higher ET(A) receptor levels. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that aerobic exercise training opposes the age-related increase in skeletal muscle and plasma endothelin-1 levels and normalizes......AIMS: Endothelin-1 has potent constrictor and proliferative activity in vascular smooth muscle, and essential hypertension and aging are associated with increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of physical activity, hypertension...... and age on endothelin-1 levels in plasma and skeletal muscle and endothelin receptors in skeletal muscle in human subjects. METHODS: In study 1, normotensive (46 ± 1 years, n = 11) and hypertensive (47 ± 1 years, n = 10) subjects were studied before and after 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training. In study...

  9. One possible method of mathematical modeling of turbulent transport processes in plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvortsova, Nina N.; Batanov, German M.; Petrov, Alexander E.; Pshenichnikov, Anton A.; Sarksyan, Karen A.; Kharchev, Nikolay K.; Bening, Vladimir E.; Korolev, Victor Yu.

    2003-01-01

    It is proposed to use the mathematical modeling of the increments of fluctuating plasma variables to analyzing the probability characteristics of turbulent transport processes in plasma. It is shown that, in plasma of the L-2M stellarator and the TAU-1 linear device, the increments of the process of local fluctuating particle flux are stochastic in nature and their distribution is a scale mixture of Gaussians. (author)

  10. Modulation of plasma fibrinogen levels by ciprofibrate and gemfibrozil in primary hyperlipidaemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Maat, M. P.; Knipscheer, H. C.; Kastelein, J. J.; Kluft, C.

    1997-01-01

    An elevated plasma fibrinogen level is increasingly accepted as an independent risk indicator of cardiovascular disease. This has enhanced the interest in identifying agents that can normalize elevated plasma fibrinogen levels. One group of agents with this capacity are the fibric acid derivatives,

  11. Design of the electromagnetic fluctuations diagnostic for MFTF-B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    House, P.A.; Goerz, D.A.; Martin, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Fluctuations (EMF) diagnostic will be used to monitor ion fluctuations which could be unstable in MFTF-B. Each probe assembly includes a high impedance electrostatic probe to measure potential fluctuations, and a group of nested, single turn loops to measure magnetic fluctuations in three directions. Eventually, more probes and loops will be added to each probe assembly for making more detailed measurements. The sensors must lie physically close to the plasma edge and are radially positionable. Also, probes at separate axial locations can be positioned to connect along the same magnetic field line. These probes are similar in concept to the rf probes used on TMX, but the high thermal load for 30-second shots on MFTF-B requires a water-cooled design along with temperature monitors. Each signal channel has a bandwidth of .001 to 150 MHz and is monitored by up to four different data channels which obtain amplitude and frequency information. This paper describes the EMF diagnostic and presents the detailed mechanical and electrical designs

  12. A Taiwanese food frequency questionnaire correlates with plasma docosahexaenoic acid but not with plasma eicosapentaenoic acid levels: questionnaires and plasma biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Kuo-Liong; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Tsai, Yi-Tsen; Chen, Pey-Rong; Lin, Hung-Ju; Hsu, Hsiu-Ching; Lee, Yuan-The; Chen, Ming-Fong

    2013-02-16

    Little evidence is available for the validity of dietary fish and polyunsaturated fatty acid intake derived from interviewer-administered questionnaires and plasma docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) concentration. We estimated the correlation of DHA and EPA intake from both questionnaires and biochemical measurements. Ethnic Chinese adults with a mean (± SD) age of 59.8 (±12.8) years (n = 297) (47% women) who completed a 38-item semi-quantitative food-frequency questionnaire and provided a plasma sample were enrolled. Plasma fatty acids were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography. The Spearmen rank correlation coefficients between the intake of various types of fish and marine n-3 fatty acids as well as plasma DHA were significant, ranging from 0.20 to 0.33 (P food frequency questionnaire, were correlated with the percentages of these fatty acids in plasma, and in particular with plasma DHA. Plasma DHA levels were correlated to dietary intake of long-chain n-3 fatty acids.

  13. Optical fluctuation measurements of turbulence using a diagnostic beam on Phaedrus-T

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evensen, H.; Brouchous, D.; Diebold, D.; Doczy, M.; Fonck, R.J.; Nolan, D.

    1992-01-01

    Plasma density turbulence has been measured with the beam emission spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic system, using a low-power neutral beam with He 0 and H 0 as beam species. In general, He 0 (588 nm) provided the best signal-to-noise ratio due to its lower edge plasma background interference. Simultaneous measurements of edge density fluctuations have been made with BES and Langmuir probes; the spectra are seen to be essentially identical, and the fluctuation amplitudes from both diagnostics are in close agreement. A poloidal coherence length of about 2--4 cm was observed. Radial propagation of modes was not seen, but a lab-frame poloidal phase velocity at r/a=0.77 of about 7x10 5 cm/s in the electron diamagnetic direction was observed, corresponding to m=8--75 kHz

  14. Plasma levels of cortisol and opioid peptide beta-endorphin during spontaneous vaginal delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Ljubica

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Labor pain is very frequent in clinical practice, but the underlying mechanisms as well as numerous neuroendocrine responses activated by such pain have not been fully explained yet. OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to determine the influence of labor pain on plasma levels of cortisol and opioid peptide ß-endorphin. METHOD Cortisol and ß-endorphin levels were measured in blood plasma of: health, non-pregnant women (group 1, n=8, health pregnant women (group 2, n=8 and in parturitions, through fourth ages (group 3, n=8, Plasma level of cortisol was measured by radioimmunoassay, and ß-endorphin by enzyme immunoassay. Data were expressed as mean ± standard error of mean and were analyzed by Student's t test and Mann Whitney test. RESULTS Plasma level of cortisol in group 2 was significantly increased compared to the group 1. During labor progression, plasma level of cortisol was rising till the third labor age. Plasma level of cortisol in fourth labor age was not significantly different from the ag.e one and group 1. Plasma level of ß-endorphin was (n.g/L: in group 1:64±20, group 2:70±22, group 3:the first labor age: 75±15, the second labor age: 193±54, the third labor age: 346+97 and the fourth labor age: 114±31. CONCLUSION These results indicate that both ß-endorphin and cortisol are involved in regulation and modulation of labor pain and stress.

  15. Coherent structures in two-dimensional plasma turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huld, T.; Nielsen, A.H.; Pécseli, H.L.

    1991-01-01

    -band turbulent fluctuations is demonstrated by a conditional sampling technique. Depending on plasma parameters, the dominant structures can appear as monopole or multipole vortices, dipole vortices in particular. The importance of large structures for the turbulent plasma diffusion is discussed. A statistical...... analysis of the randomly varying plasma flux is presented....

  16. Interaction of Peat Soil and Sulphidic Material Substratum: Role of Peat Layer and Groundwater Level Fluctuations on Phosphorus Concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benito Heru Purwanto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorus (P often becomes limiting factor for plants growth. Phosphorus geochemistry in peatland soil is associated with the presence of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations. The research was conducted to study the role of peat layer and groundwater level fluctuations on P concentration in peatland. The research was conducted on deep, moderate and shallow peat with sulphidic material as substratum, peaty acid sulphate soil, and potential acid sulphate soil. While P concentration was observed in wet season, in transition from wet to dry season, and in dry season. Soil samples were collected by using peat borer according to interlayer and soil horizon. The results showed that peat layer might act as the main source of P in peatland with sulphidic material substratum. The upper peat layer on sulphidic material caused by groundwater level fluctuations had no directly effect on P concentration in the peat layers. Increased of P concentration in the lowest sulphidic layer might relate to redox reaction of iron in the sulphidic layer and precipitation process. Phosphorus concentration in peatland with sulphidic material as substratum was not influenced by peat thickness. However, depletion or disappearance of peat layer decreased P concentration in soil solution. Disappearance of peat layer means loss of a natural source of P for peatland with sulphidic material as substratum, therefore peat layer must be kept in order to maintain of peatlands.

  17. Topics in high-intensity laser plasma interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leemans, W.P.

    1991-01-01

    The interaction of high intensity laser pulses with pre-formed and laser-produced plasmas is studied. Through experiments and simulations we have investigated stimulated Compton scattering in preformed plasmas and the plasma physics aspects of tunnel-ionized gases. A theoretical study is presented on the nonlinear dynamics of relativistic plasma waves driven by colinear optical mixing. The electron density-fluctuation spectra induced by stimulated Compton scattering have been directly observed for the first time. A CO2 laser was focused into pre-formed plasmas with densities n(e) varied from 0.4-6 x 10(exp 16) cu cm. The fluctuations corresponding to backscatter were probed using Thomson scattering. At low n(e), the scattered spectra peak at a frequency shift Delta omega is approximately kv e and appears to be in a linear regime. At the highest n(e), a nonlinear saturation of the SCS instability is observed due to a self-induced perturbation of the electron distribution function. Tunnel-ionized plasmas have been studied through experiments and particle simulations. Experimentally, qualitative evidence for plasma temperature control by varying the laser polarization was obtained by the measurement of stimulated Compton scattering fluctuation spectra and x-ray emission from such plasmas. A higher parallel temperature than expected from the single-particle tunneling model was observed. Simulations indicate that stochastic heating and the Weibel instability play an important role in plasma heating in all directions and isotropization. The non-linear dynamics associated with beatwave (Delta omega, Delta k) excited long wavelength plasma waves in the presence of strong, short wavelength density ripple have been examined, using the relativistic Lagrangian oscillator model. This model shows period doubling that roughly follows Feigenbaum scaling, and a transition to chaos

  18. Plasma. beta. -endorphin and stress hormone levels during adaptation and stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lishmanov, Yu.B.; Trifonova, Zh.V.; Tsibin, A.N.; Maslova, L.V.; Dement' eva, L.A.

    1987-09-01

    This paper describes a comparative study of ..beta..-endorphin and stress hormone levels in the blood plasma of rats during stress and adaptation. Immunoreactive ..beta..-endorphin in the blood plasma was assayed by means of a kit after preliminary isolation of the ..beta..-endorphin fraction by affinity chromatography on sepharose; ACTH was assayed with a kit and cortisol, insulin, thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine by means of kits from Izotop. Determination of plasma levels of ..beta..-endorphin and other opioids could evidently be an important method of assessing the state of resistance of the organism to stress.

  19. Dipole plasma in molecular crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotel'nikov, Yu.E.; Kochelaev, B.I.

    1976-01-01

    Collective oscillations in a system of electric dipoles of molecular crystals are investigated. It has been proved in the exciton approximation that in an elementary cell of a molecular crystal with one molecule there may exist energy fluctuations of the ''dipole'' plasma, analogous to plasma oscillations in the charged Fermi liquid

  20. Reduced energy conservation law for magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sosenko, P.P.; Decyk, V.K.

    1994-01-01

    A global energy conservation law for a magnetized plasma is studied within the context of a quasiparticle description. A reduced energy conservation law is derived for low-frequency, as compared to the gyromagnetic frequency, plasma motions with regard to both non-uniform mean flows and fluctuations in the plasma. The mean value of plasma energy is calculated and sufficient stability conditions for non-equilibrium plasmas are derived. (orig.)

  1. Localized Measurement of Turbulent Fluctuations in Tokamaks with Coherent Scattering of Electromagnetic Waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2002-01-01

    Localized measurements of short-scale turbulent fluctuations in tokamaks are still an outstanding problem. In this paper, the method of coherent scattering of electromagnetic waves for the detection of density fluctuations is revisited. Results indicate that the proper choice of frequency, size and launching of the probing wave can transform this method into an excellent technique for high-resolution measurements of those fluctuations that plasma theory indicates as the potential cause of anomalous transport in tokamaks. The best spatial resolution can be achieved when the range of scattering angles corresponding to the spectrum of fluctuations under investigation is small. This favors the use of high frequency probing waves, such as those of far infrared lasers. The application to existing large tokamaks is discussed

  2. Coarse Grained Transport Model for Neutrals in Turbulent SOL Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marandet, Y.; Mekkaoui, A.; Genesio, P.; Rosato, J.; Capes, H.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Koubiti, M.; Stamm, R., E-mail: yannick.marandet@univ-amu.fr [PIIM, CNRS/Aix-Marseille University, Marseille (France); Reiter, D.; Boerner, P. [IEK4, FZJ, Juelich (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: Edge plasmas of magnetic fusion devices exhibit strong intermittent turbulence, which governs perpendicular transport of particles and heat. Turbulent fluxes result from the coarse graining procedure used to derive the transport equation, which entails time averaging of the underlying equations governing the turbulent evolution of the electron and ion fluids. In previous works, we have pointed out that this averaging is not carried out on the Boltzmann equation that describes the transport of neutral particles (atoms, molecules) in current edge code suites (such as SOLPS). Since fluctuations in the far SOL are of order unity, calculating the transport of neutral particles, hence the source terms in plasma fluid equations, in the average plasma background might lead to misleading results. In particular, retaining the effects of fluctuations could affect the estimation of the importance of main chamber recycling, hence first wall sputtering by charge exchange atoms, as well as main chamber impurity contamination and transport. In this contribution, we obtain an exact coarse-grained equation for the average neutral density, assuming that density fluctuations are described by multivariate Gamma statistics. This equation is a scattering free Boltzmann equation, where the ionization rate has been renormalized to account for fluctuations. The coarse grained transport model for neutrals has been implemented in the EIRENE code, and applications in 2D geometry with ITER relevant plasma parameters are presented. Our results open the way for the implementation of the effects of turbulent fluctuations on the transport of neutral particles in coupled plasma/neutral edge codes like B2-EIRENE. (author)

  3. Assessments of plasma ghrelin levels in the early stages of parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ning; Wang, Weiwei; Jia, Fengjv; Du, Xixun; Xie, Anmu; He, Qing; Shen, Xiaoli; Zhang, Jing; Rogers, Jack T; Xie, Junxia; Jiang, Hong

    2017-10-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms are early events in Parkinson's disease (PD). The gastrointestinal hormone ghrelin was neuroprotective in the nigrostriatal dopamine system. The objective of this study was to assess ghrelin levels in the early stages of PD. Plasma was collected in the fasting state in 291 PD patients in stages 1-3 and 303 age- and sex-matched healthy controls. Additional samples were taken in the glucose response test to assess nutrition-related ghrelin levels in 20 PD patients and 20 healthy controls. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure total and active plasma ghrelin levels. We reported that total and active plasma ghrelin levels were decreased in PD, although there was no difference across progressive PD stages. Postprandial ghrelin suppression and preprandial peak responses were both attenuated in PD. Plasma ghrelin levels were decreased in PD; however, this event might be irrelevant to PD progression. Ghrelin responses to meals were also impaired in PD. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  4. Fluctuations in three Los Alamos experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, B.L.

    1983-01-01

    We review results from three magnetic fusion experiments at Los Alamos: the ZT-40M, a reversed-field toroidal pinch; the CTX, a spheromak produced by a magnetized coaxial source; and the FRX-C, a field-reversed configuration generated by theta-pinch techniques. These experiments share the common feature that a major fraction of the confining magnetic field is associated with currents carried by the plasma. We emphasize here the important role that fluctuations play in the maintenance and evolution of these configurations

  5. Thermalization vs. isotropization and azimuthal fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mrowczynski, Stanislaw

    2005-01-01

    Hydrodynamic description requires a local thermodynamic equilibrium of the system under study but an approximate hydrodynamic behaviour is already manifested when a momentum distribution of liquid components is not of equilibrium form but merely isotropic. While the process of equilibration is relatively slow, the parton system becomes isotropic rather fast due to the plasma instabilities. Azimuthal fluctuations observed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions are argued to distinguish between a fully equilibrated and only isotropic parton system produced in the collision early stage

  6. Sphalerons, small fluctuations, and baryon-number violation in electroweak theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, P.; McLerran, L.

    1987-01-01

    We study the formalism of the sphaleron approximation to baryon-number violation in the standard model at temperatures near 1 TeV. We investigate small fluctuations of the sphaleron, the competition of large-scale sphalerons with thermal fluctuations, and the damping of the transition rate in the plasma. We find a suppression of the rate due to Landau damping and due to factors arising from zero modes. Our approximations are valid in the regime 2M/sub W/(T) 2 . We find that the rate of baryon-number violation is still significantly larger than the expansion rate of the Universe

  7. Imaging of turbulent structures and tomographic reconstruction of TORPEX plasma emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iraji, D.; Furno, I.; Fasoli, A.; Theiler, C.

    2010-01-01

    In the TORPEX [A. Fasoli et al., Phys. Plasmas 13, 055902 (2006)], a simple magnetized plasma device, low frequency electrostatic fluctuations associated with interchange waves, are routinely measured by means of extensive sets of Langmuir probes. To complement the electrostatic probe measurements of plasma turbulence and study of plasma structures smaller than the spatial resolution of probes array, a nonperturbative direct imaging system has been developed on TORPEX, including a fast framing Photron-APX-RS camera and an image intensifier unit. From the line-integrated camera images, we compute the poloidal emissivity profile of the plasma by applying a tomographic reconstruction technique using a pixel method and solving an overdetermined set of equations by singular value decomposition. This allows comparing statistical, spectral, and spatial properties of visible light radiation with electrostatic fluctuations. The shape and position of the time-averaged reconstructed plasma emissivity are observed to be similar to those of the ion saturation current profile. In the core plasma, excluding the electron cyclotron and upper hybrid resonant layers, the mean value of the plasma emissivity is observed to vary with (T e ) α (n e ) β , in which α=0.25-0.7 and β=0.8-1.4, in agreement with collisional radiative model. The tomographic reconstruction is applied to the fast camera movie acquired with 50 kframes/s rate and 2 μs of exposure time to obtain the temporal evolutions of the emissivity fluctuations. Conditional average sampling is also applied to visualize and measure sizes of structures associated with the interchange mode. The ω-time and the two-dimensional k-space Fourier analysis of the reconstructed emissivity fluctuations show the same interchange mode that is detected in the ω and k spectra of the ion saturation current fluctuations measured by probes. Small scale turbulent plasma structures can be detected and tracked in the reconstructed emissivity

  8. Identification of pumping influences in long-term water level fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harp, Dylan R; Vesselinov, Velimir V

    2011-01-01

    Identification of the pumping influences at monitoring wells caused by spatially and temporally variable water supply pumping can be a challenging, yet an important hydrogeological task. The information that can be obtained can be critical for conceptualization of the hydrogeological conditions and indications of the zone of influence of the individual pumping wells. However, the pumping influences are often intermittent and small in magnitude with variable production rates from multiple pumping wells. While these difficulties may support an inclination to abandon the existing dataset and conduct a dedicated cross-hole pumping test, that option can be challenging and expensive to coordinate and execute. This paper presents a method that utilizes a simple analytical modeling approach for analysis of a long-term water level record utilizing an inverse modeling approach. The methodology allows the identification of pumping wells influencing the water level fluctuations. Thus, the analysis provides an efficient and cost-effective alternative to designed and coordinated cross-hole pumping tests. We apply this method on a dataset from the Los Alamos National Laboratory site. Our analysis also provides (1) an evaluation of the information content of the transient water level data; (2) indications of potential structures of the aquifer heterogeneity inhibiting or promoting pressure propagation; and (3) guidance for the development of more complicated models requiring detailed specification of the aquifer heterogeneity. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  9. Experimental scaling of fluctuations and confinement with Lundquist number in the RFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoneking, M.R.; Chapman, J.T.; Prager, S.C.; Sarff, J.S.

    1997-09-01

    The scaling of the magnetic and velocity fluctuations with Lundquist number (S) is examined experimentally over a range of values from 7 x 10 4 to 10 6 in a reversed field pinch (RFP) plasma. Magnetic fluctuations do not scale uniquely with the Lundquist number. At high (relative) density, fluctuations scale as b∝S -0.18 , and fluctuations are almost independent of S at low relative density, b∝S -0.07 ; however both exponents fall in the range of theoretical and numerical predictions. At high relative density, the scaling of the energy confinement time follows expectations for transport in a stochastic magnetic field. A confinement scaling law (nτ E ∝β 4/5 T -7/10 A -3/5 I φ 2 ) is derived assuming the persistent dominance of stochastic magnetic diffusion in the RFP and on the measured scaling of magnetic fluctuations. The peak velocity fluctuations during a sawtooth cycle scale marginally stronger than magnetic fluctuations but weaker than a simple Ohm's law prediction. The sawtooth period is determined by a resistive-Alfvenic hybrid time (T saw ∝√(τ R τ Alf )) rather than a purely resistive time

  10. Tomographic Measurements of Temperature Fluctuations in an Air Plasma Cutting Torch

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hlína, Jan; Šonský, Jiří; Gruber, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2017), s. 689-699 ISSN 0272-4324 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : cutting arc * air plasma * tomography Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.355, year: 2016 http://link.springer.com/ article /10.1007%2Fs11090-017-9794-x

  11. The roles of turbulence on plasma heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Takaichi; Kawabe, Takaya.

    1976-06-01

    In this paper, the characteristic features of the turbulent heating are reviewed, which is considered to be one of the strong candidates of the further heating method in fusion reactor systems, referring to the works in the Institute of Plasma Physics, Nagoya University. The roles of turbulence in plasma heating including toroidal plasma heating are discussed from several points of view. The relation between the heating rate of plasma particles and the thermalization (randomization) frequency is theoretically investigated and the role of plasma turbulence in the fast thermalization is shown. The experimental results on fluctuation and heating of electrons and ions in turbulently heated plasmas are presented. The influence of turbulence, which is responsible for the particle heating, on the diffusion across the confinement magnetic field is considered for the application in the toroidal plasmas. It is pointed out that the turbulent fields in the fast turbulent heating give only a minor effect to the loss of particles across the magnetic field. It can be said that the enhanced fluctuation in turbulent plasma gives its field energy to the plasma particles while it can play the role of the fast thermalization of the ordered motion of particles that is produced in the plasma by some acceleration process. (Kato, T.)

  12. Turbulence simulations of blob formation and radial propagation in toroidally magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, O.E.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A.H.

    2006-01-01

    the presence of long- range correlations in the particle density fluctuations. Finally, conditional statistics of the particle flux demonstrates the intermittency of the turbulent plasma transport and the quasi-periodic apparency of blob structures due to bursting in the global turbulence level....... of particles and heat, which is coupled to a scrape-off layer with linear damping terms for all dependent variables corresponding to transport along open magnetic field lines. The formation of blob structures is related to profile variations caused by bursting in the global turbulence level, which is due...... to a dynamical regulation by self- sustained differential rotation of the plasma layer. Radial propagation of the blob structures follows from a vertical charge polarization due to magnetic guiding centre drifts in the toroidally magnetized plasma. Statistical analysis of the particle density, radial electric...

  13. High levels of circulating triiodothyronine induce plasma cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Flavia Fonseca; Oliveira, Felipe Leite de; Nobrega, Alberto Félix; Vasconcellos, Rita; Cordeiro, Aline; Paiva, Luciana Souza de; Taub, Dennis D; Borojevic, Radovan; Pazos-Moura, Carmen Cabanelas; Mello-Coelho, Valéria de

    2014-03-01

    The effects of hyperthyroidism on B-cell physiology are still poorly known. In this study, we evaluated the influence of high-circulating levels of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) on bone marrow, blood, and spleen B-cell subsets, more specifically on B-cell differentiation into plasma cells, in C57BL/6 mice receiving daily injections of T3 for 14 days. As analyzed by flow cytometry, T3-treated mice exhibited increased frequencies of pre-B and immature B-cells and decreased percentages of mature B-cells in the bone marrow, accompanied by an increased frequency of blood B-cells, splenic newly formed B-cells, and total CD19(+)B-cells. T3 administration also promoted an increase in the size and cellularity of the spleen as well as in the white pulp areas of the organ, as evidenced by histological analyses. In addition, a decreased frequency of splenic B220(+) cells correlating with an increased percentage of CD138(+) plasma cells was observed in the spleen and bone marrow of T3-treated mice. Using enzyme-linked immunospot assay, an increased number of splenic immunoglobulin-secreting B-cells from T3-treated mice was detected ex vivo. Similar results were observed in mice immunized with hen egg lysozyme and aluminum adjuvant alone or together with treatment with T3. In conclusion, we provide evidence that high-circulating levels of T3 stimulate plasma cytogenesis favoring an increase in plasma cells in the bone marrow, a long-lived plasma cell survival niche. These findings indicate that a stimulatory effect on plasma cell differentiation could occur in untreated patients with Graves' disease.

  14. Hunger games: fluctuations in blood glucose levels influence support for social welfare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarøe, Lene; Petersen, Michael Bang

    2013-12-01

    Social-welfare policies are a modern instantiation of a phenomenon that has pervaded human evolutionary history: resource sharing. Ancestrally, food was a key shared resource in situations of temporary hunger. If evolved human psychology continues to shape how individuals think about current, evolutionarily novel conditions, this invites the prediction that attitudes regarding welfare politics are influenced by short-term fluctuations in hunger. Using blood glucose levels as a physiological indicator of hunger, we tested this prediction in a study in which participants were randomly assigned to conditions in which they consumed soft drinks containing either carbohydrates or an artificial sweetener. Analyses showed that participants with experimentally induced low blood glucose levels expressed stronger support for social welfare. Using an incentivized measure of actual sharing behavior (the dictator game), we further demonstrated that this increased support for social welfare does not translate into genuinely increased sharing motivations. Rather, we suggest that it is "cheap talk" aimed at increasing the sharing efforts of other individuals.

  15. Plasma intact fibroblast growth factor 23 levels in women with anorexia nervosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otani Makoto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fibroblast growth factor (FGF23 is a novel phosphaturic factor associated with inorganic phosphate homeostasis. Previous human studies have shown that serum FGF23 levels increase in response to a high phosphate diet. For anorexia nervosa (AN patients, inorganic phosphate homeostasis is important in the clinical course, such as in refeeding syndrome. The purpose of this study was to determine plasma levels of intact FGF23 (iFGF23 in restricting-type AN (AN-R patients, binge-eating/purging-type AN (AN-BP patients, and healthy controls. Methods The subjects consisted of 6 female AN-R patients, 6 female AN-BP patients, and 11 healthy female controls; both inpatients and outpatients were included. Plasma iFGF23, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25-(OH2D, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD levels were measured. Data are presented as the median and the range. A two-tailed Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni correction was used to assess differences among the three groups, and a value of p Results There were no differences between AN-R patients and controls in the iFGF23 and 1,25-(OH2D levels. In AN-BP patients, the iFGF23 level (41.3 pg/ml; range, 6.1–155.5 pg/ml was significantly higher than in controls (3.8 pg/ml; range, not detected-21.3 pg/ml; p = 0.001, and the 1,25-(OH2D was significantly lower in AN-BP patients (7.0 pg/ml; range, 4.2–33.7 pg/ml than in controls (39.7 pg/ml; range, 6.3–58.5 pg/ml; p = 0.015. No differences in plasma 25-OHD levels were observed among the groups. Conclusion This preliminary study is the first to show that plasma iFGF23 levels are increased in AN-BP patients, and that these elevated plasma FGF23 levels might be related to the decrease in plasma 1,25-(OH2D levels.

  16. Arterial and venous plasma levels of bupivacaine following peripheral nerve blocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, D C; Mather, L E; Bridenbaugh, L D; Balfour, R I; Lysons, D F; Horton, W G

    1976-01-01

    Mean arterial plasma (MAP) and peripheral mean venous plasma (MVP) levels of bupivacaine were ascertained in 3 groups of 10 patients each for: (1) intercostal nerve block, 400 mg; (2) block of the sciatic, femoral, and lateral femoral cutaneous nerves, with or without block of the obturator nerve, 400 mg; and (3) supraclavicular brachial plexus block, 300 mg. MAP levels were consistently higher than simultaneously sampled MVP levels, the highest levels occurring from bilateral intercostal nerve block. No evidence of systemic toxicity was observed. The results suggest that bupivacaine has a much wider margin of safety in humans than is now stated.

  17. [Is plasma selenium correlated to transthyretin levels in critically ill patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renata G B O N; Nogueira, Roberto Jose Negrão; Cozzolino, Silvia Maria Franciscato; Vasques, Ana Carolina Junqueira; Ferreira, Matthew Thomas; Hessel, Gabriel

    2017-06-05

    Selenium is an essential trace element, but critically ill patients using total parenteral nutrition (PN) do not receive selenium because this mineral is not commonly offered. Threfore, the eval uation of plasma selenium levels is very important for treating or preventing this deficiency. Recent studies have shown that transthyretin may reflect the selenium intake and could be considered a biomarker. However, this issue is still little explored in the literature. This study aims to investigate the correlation of transthyretin with the plasma selenium of critically ill patients receiving PN. This was a prospective cohort study with 44 patients using PN without selenium. Blood samples were carried out in 3 stages: initial, 7th and 14th day of PN. In order to evaluate the clinical condition and the inflammatory process, albumin, C-reactive protein (CRP), transthyretin, creatinine and HDL cholesterol levels were observed. To assess the selenium status, plasma selenium and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in whole blood were measured. Descriptive analyses were performed and the ANOVA, Mann-Whitney and Spearman's coefficient tests were conducted; we assumed a significance level of 5%. A positive correlation of selenium with the GPx levels (r = 0.46; p = 0.03) was identified. During two weeks, there was a positive correlation of transthyretin with plasma selenium (r = 0.71; p = 0.05) regardless of the CRP values. Transthyretin may have reflected plasma selenium, mainly because the correlation was verified after the acute phase.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of plasma progesterone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, L; Veleminsky, J [Institute of Clinical Endocrinology, Lubochna (Czechoslovakia); Hampl, R; Starka, L [Vyzkumny Ustav Endokrinologicky, Prague (Czechoslovakia); Holan, J [Comenius Univ., School of Medicine, Martin (Czechoslovakia). Dept. of Physics and Nuclear Medicine

    1978-06-30

    A simple modification of plasma progesterone radioimmunoassay is described. 11..cap alpha..-Hydroxyprogesterone hemisuccinate - BSA conjugate was used as an immunogen. (1,2,6,7-H-3) Progesterone specific radioactivity 82 Ci.mmol/sup -1/ was purchased from Radiochemical Centre Amersham (England). The method has been applied for the analysis of more than 2000 plasma samples. The typical fluctuation of progesterone in plasma during the menstrual cycle, using data obtained with this method is illustrated. The reliability criteria of the method are given.

  19. Higher Plasma Myostatin Levels in Cor Pulmonale Secondary to Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Rong Ju

    Full Text Available To analyze plasma myostatin levels and investigate their relationship with right ventricular (RV function in patients with cor pulmonale secondary to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD.The study recruited 81 patients with advanced COPD and 40 age-matched controls. The patients were divided into two groups: those with cor pulmonale and those without. Echocardiography was used to evaluate RV function and morphology, and the value of tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE less than 16 mm was considered RV dysfunction. Plasma myostatin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels were analyzed as a comparison of myostatin.The data detected cor pulmonale in 39/81 patients, with the mean value of TAPSE of 14.3 mm. Plasma myostatin levels (ng/mL were significantly higher in patients with cor pulmonale (16.68 ± 2.95 than in those without (13.56 ± 3.09, and much higher than in controls (8.79±2.79, with each p<0.01. Significant differences were also found in plasma BNP levels among the three groups (p<0.05. Multivariate regression analysis suggested that myostatin levels were significantly correlated with the values of TAPSE and RV myocardium performance index among the COPD patients, and that BNP levels were significantly correlated only with systolic pulmonary arterial pressure, with each p<0.05.Plasma myostatin levels are increased in COPD patients who have cor pulmonale. Stronger correlations of plasma myostatin levels with echocardiographic indexes of the right heart suggest that myostatin might be superior to BNP in the early diagnosis of cor pulmonale in COPD.

  20. Effects of acute doses of prosocial drugs methamphetamine and alcohol on plasma oxytocin levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bershad, Anya K; Kirkpatrick, Matthew G; Seiden, Jacob A; de Wit, Harriet

    2015-06-01

    Many drugs, including alcohol and stimulants, demonstrably increase sociability and verbal interaction and are recreationally consumed in social settings. One drug, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy), seems to produce its prosocial effects by increasing plasma oxytocin levels, and the oxytocin system has been implicated in responses to several other drugs of abuse. Here, we sought to investigate the effects of 2 other "social" drugs on plasma oxytocin levels--methamphetamine and alcohol. Based on their shared capacity to enhance sociability, we hypothesized that both methamphetamine and alcohol would increase plasma oxytocin levels. In study 1, 11 healthy adult volunteers attended 3 sessions during which they received methamphetamine (10 mg or 20 mg) or placebo under double-blind conditions. Subjective drug effects, cardiovascular effects, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals throughout the sessions. In study 2, 8 healthy adult volunteers attended a single session during which they received 1 beverage containing placebo, and then a beverage containing alcohol (0.8 g/kg). Subjective effects, breath alcohol levels, and plasma oxytocin levels were measured at regular intervals. Both methamphetamine and alcohol produced their expected physiological and subjective effects, but neither of these drugs increased plasma oxytocin levels. The neurobiological mechanisms mediating the prosocial effects of drugs such as alcohol and methamphetamine remain to be identified.

  1. Study of short wavelength turbulence in dense plasmas. Final technical report, September 8, 1981-August 7, 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, F.F.; Joshi, C.

    1983-10-01

    The work includes studies of four topics: (1) Thomson scattering from short wavelength density fluctuations from laser excited plasmas from solid targets; (2) studies of SBS driven ion acoustic waves and it's harmonics in underdense plasmas; (3) studies of optical mixing excitation of electron plasma waves (high frequency density fluctuations) in theta pinch plasma; and (4) computational studies of high frequency wave excitation by intense laser beams in plasmas

  2. Unraveling atomic-level self-organization at the plasma-material interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, J. P.; Shetty, A.

    2017-07-01

    The intrinsic dynamic interactions at the plasma-material interface and critical role of irradiation-driven mechanisms at the atomic scale during exposure to energetic particles require a priori the use of in situ surface characterization techniques. Characterization of ‘active’ surfaces during modification at atomic-scale levels is becoming more important as advances in processing modalities are limited by an understanding of the behavior of these surfaces under realistic environmental conditions. Self-organization from exposure to non-equilibrium and thermalized plasmas enable dramatic control of surface morphology, topography, composition, chemistry and structure yielding the ability to tune material properties with an unprecedented level of control. Deciphering self-organization mechanisms of nanoscale morphology (e.g. nanodots, ripples) and composition on a variety of materials including: compound semiconductors, semiconductors, ceramics, polymers and polycrystalline metals via low-energy ion-beam assisted plasma irradiation are critical to manipulate functionality in nanostructured systems. By operating at ultra-low energies near the damage threshold, irradiation-driven defect engineering can be optimized and surface-driven mechanisms controlled. Tunability of optical, electronic, magnetic and bioactive properties is realized by reaching metastable phases controlled by atomic-scale irradiation-driven mechanisms elucidated by novel in situ diagnosis coupled to atomistic-level computational tools. Emphasis will be made on tailored surface modification from plasma-enhanced environments on particle-surface interactions and their subsequent modification of hard and soft matter interfaces. In this review, we examine current trends towards in situ and in operando surface and sub-surface characterization to unravel atomic-scale mechanisms at the plasma-material interface. This work will emphasize on recent advances in the field of plasma and ion

  3. Observation of trapped-electron-mode microturbulence in reversed field pinch plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, J. R.; Williams, Z. R.; Brower, D. L.; Chapman, B. E.; Ding, W. X.; Pueschel, M. J.; Sarff, J. S.; Terry, P. W.

    2018-01-01

    Density fluctuations in the large-density-gradient region of improved confinement Madison Symmetric Torus reversed field pinch (RFP) plasmas exhibit multiple features that are characteristic of the trapped-electron mode (TEM). Core transport in conventional RFP plasmas is governed by magnetic stochasticity stemming from multiple long-wavelength tearing modes. Using inductive current profile control, these tearing modes are reduced, and global confinement is increased to that expected for comparable tokamak plasmas. Under these conditions, new short-wavelength fluctuations distinct from global tearing modes appear in the spectrum at a frequency of f ˜ 50 kHz, which have normalized perpendicular wavenumbers k⊥ρs≲ 0.2 and propagate in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. They exhibit a critical-gradient threshold, and the fluctuation amplitude increases with the local electron density gradient. These characteristics are consistent with predictions from gyrokinetic analysis using the Gene code, including increased TEM turbulence and transport from the interaction of remnant tearing magnetic fluctuations and zonal flow.